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Sample records for acidic waste plumes

  1. Method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2011-03-15

    Acidic uranium (U) groundwater plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/year) show that desorption of U and HA were nondetectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH ≤ 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results indicate that HA-treatment is a promising in situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost-effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface. PMID:21319737

  2. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  3. Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U

  4. Segregation of acid plume pixels from background water pixels, signatures of background water and dispersed acid plumes, and implications for calculation of iron concentration in dense plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Two files of data, obtained with a modular multiband scanner, for an acid waste dump into ocean water, were analyzed intensively. Signatures were derived for background water at different levels of effective sunlight intensity, and for different iron concentrations in the dispersed plume from the dump. The effect of increased sunlight intensity on the calculated iron concentration was found to be relatively important at low iron concentrations and relatively unimportant at high values of iron concentration in dispersed plumes. It was concluded that the basic equation for iron concentration is not applicable to dense plumes, particularly because lower values are indicated at the very core of the plume, than in the surrounding sheath, whereas radiances increase consistently from background water to dispersed plume to inner sheath to innermost core. It was likewise concluded that in the dense plume the iron concentration would probably best be measured by the higher wave length radiances, although the suitable relationship remains unknown.

  5. Colloid Formation at Waste Plume Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Saiz, Eduardo; Larsen, Joern T.; Zheng, Zuoping; Couture, Rex A.

    2004-05-22

    Highly saline and caustic tank waste solutions containing radionuclides and toxic metals have leaked into sediments at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities such as the Hanford Site (Washington State). Colloid transport is frequently invoked to explain migration of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface. To understand colloid formation during interactions between highly reactive fluids and sediments and its impact on contaminant transport, we simulated tank waste solution (TWS) leakage processes in laboratory columns at ambient and elevated (70 C) temperatures. We found that maximum formation of mobile colloids occurred at the plume fronts (hundreds to thousands times higher than within the plume bodies or during later leaching). Concentrations of suspended solids were as high as 3 mass%, and their particle-sizes ranged from tens of nm to a few {micro}m. Colloid chemical composition and mineralogy depended on temperature. During infiltration of the leaked high Na{sup +} waste solution, rapid and completed Na{sup +} replacement of exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} from the sediment caused accumulation of these divalent cations at the moving plume front. Precipitation of supersaturated Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}-bearing minerals caused dramatic pH reduction at the plume front. In turn, the reduced pH caused precipitation of other minerals. This understanding can help predict the behavior of contaminant trace elements carried by the tank waste solutions, and could not have been obtained through conventional batch studies.

  6. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  7. Turbulent acidic jets and plumes injected into an alkaline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulpre, Hendrik

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of a strong acidic turbulent jet or plume injected into an alkaline environment comprising of a weak/strong base are examined theoretically and experimentally. A chemistry model is developed to understand how the pH of a fluid parcel of monoprotic acid changes as it is diluted and reacts with the ambient fluid. A standard fluid model, based on a top-hat model for acid concentration and velocity is used to express how the dilution of acid varies with distance from the point of discharge. These models are applied to estimate the point of neutralisation and the travel time with distance within the jet/plume. An experimental study was undertaken to test the theoretical results. These experiments involved injecting jets or vertical plumes of dilute nitric acid into a large tank containing a variety of base salts dissolved in water. The injected fluid contained litmus indicator dye which showed a change in colour from red to blue close to the point of neutralisation. In order to obtain a range of neutralisation distances, additional basic salts were added to the water to increase its pH buffering capacity. The results are applied to discuss the environmental implications of an acidic jet/plume injected into the sea off the South East coast of Great Britain.

  8. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  9. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  10. Remotely sensed and laboratory spectral signatures of an ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Collins, V. G.

    1977-01-01

    An ocean-dumped acid waste plume was studied by using a rapid scanning spectrometer to remotely measure ocean radiance from a helicopter. The results of these studies are presented and compared with results from sea truth samples and laboratory experiments. An ocean spectral reflectance signature and a laboratory spectral transmission signature were established for the iron-acid waste pollutant. The spectrally and chemically significant component of the acid waste pollutant was determined to be ferric iron.

  11. CZCS view of an oceanic acid waste dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Jane A.

    1988-01-01

    Plumes from the acid waste dump in the New York Bight were visible in all nine cloud-free Coastal Zone Color Scanner images from April and May 1981. The CZCS subsurface radiance channels displayed consistent spectral characteristics, which consisted of a strong increase in the 550 nm channel and a moderate increase in the 520 nm channel relative to the surrounding coastal waters. The 443 nm channel showed no change or a slight decrease in radiance within the plumes. These anomalous radiances preclude the calculation of pigment in the dump plumes using existing algorithms. However, the high radiances of the 550 nm channel can be used to examine the flow patterns of surface water in the vicinity of the dump.

  12. Geochemical evolution of highly alkaline and saline tank waste plumes during seepage through vadose zone sediments 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Serne, R. Jeff

    2004-02-01

    Leakage of highly saline and alkaline radioactive waste from storage tanks into underlying sediments is a serious environmental problem at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This study focuses on geochemical evolution of tank waste plumes resulting from interactions between the waste solution and sediment. A synthetic tank waste solution was infused into unsaturated Hanford sediment columns (0.2, 0.6, and 2 m) maintained at 70°C to simulate the field contamination process. Spatially and temporally resolved geochemical profiles of the waste plume were obtained. Thorough OH - neutralization (from an initial pH 14 down to 6.3) was observed. Three broad zones of pore solutions were identified to categorize the dominant geochemical reactions: the silicate dissolution zone (pH > 10), pH-neutralized zone (pH 10 to 6.5), and displaced native sediment pore water (pH 6.5 to 8). Elevated concentrations of Si, Fe, and K in plume fluids and their depleted concentrations in plume sediments reflected dissolution of primary minerals within the silicate dissolution zone. The very high Na concentrations in the waste solution resulted in rapid and complete cation exchange, reflected in high concentrations of Ca and Mg at the plume front. The plume-sediment profiles also showed deposition of hydrated solids and carbonates. Fair correspondence was obtained between these results and analyses of field borehole samples from a waste plume at the Hanford Site. Results of this study provide a well-defined framework for understanding waste plumes in the more complex field setting and for understanding geochemical factors controlling transport of contaminant species carried in waste solutions that leaked from single-shell storage tanks in the past.

  13. Tritium Plume Dynamics in the Shallow Unsaturated Zone Adjacent to an Arid Waste Disposal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Michel, R. L.; Pohll, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented two plumes of tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Wastes were disposed on-site from 1962-92. Tritium has moved long distances (> 400 m) through a shallow (1-2-m depth) dry gravelly layer—orders of magnitude further than anticipated by standard transport models. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses and tritium flux calculations were applied to assess shallow plume dynamics. A grid-based plant-water sampling method was utilized to infer detailed, field-scale 3HHOg concentrations at 5-yr intervals during 2001-11. Results indicate that gravel-layer 3HHOg mass diminished faster than would be expected from radioactive decay (~70% in 10 yr). Both plumes exhibited center-of-mass stability, suggesting that bulk-plume movement is minimal during the period of study. Nonetheless, evidence of localized lateral advancement along some margins, combined with increases in the spatial covariance of concentration distribution, indicates intra-plume mass redistribution is ongoing. Previous studies have recognized that vertical movement of tritiated water from sub-root-zone gravel into the root-zone contributes to atmospheric release via evapotranspiration. Estimates of lateral and vertical tritium fluxes during the study period indicate (1) vertical tritiated water fluxes were dominated by diffusive-vapor fluxes (> 90%), and (2) vertical diffusive-vapor fluxes were roughly an order of magnitude greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes. This behavior highlights the importance of the atmosphere as a tritium sink. Estimates of cumulative vertical diffusive-vapor flux and radioactive decay with time were comparable to observed declines in total shallow plume mass with time. This suggests observed changes in plume mass may (1) be attributed, in considerable part, to these removal

  14. Sulfuric acid measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for the sulfuric acid formation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2002-04-01

    Sulfuric acid concentrations were measured in the exhaust plume of a B737-300 aircraft in flight. The measurements were made onboard of the German research aircraft Falcon using the Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer (VACA). The VACA measures total H2SO4, which is the sum of gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol H2SO4. Measurements took place at distances of 25-200 m behind the B737 corresponding to plume ages of about 0.1-1 seconds. The fuel sulfur content (FSC) of the fuel burned by the B737 engines was alternatively 2.6 and 56 mg sulfur per kilogram fuel (ppmm). H2SO4 concentrations measured in the plume for the 56 ppmm sulfur case were up to ~600 pptv. The average concentration of H2SO4 measured in the ambient atmosphere outside the aircraft plume was 88 pptv, the maximum ambient atmospheric H2SO4 was ~300 pptv. Average efficiencies ɛΔCO2 = 3.3 +/- 1.8% and ɛΔT = 2.9 +/- 1.6% for fuel sulfur conversion to sulfuric acid were inferred when relating the H2SO4 data to measurements of the plume tracers ΔCO2 and ΔT.

  15. Characterizing the Chemical Composition of the Columbia River Plume: the use of Silicic Acid, Nitrate, Manganese and Salinity as Tracers of Sources of Waters Contributing to the Plume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, K. W.; Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Lohan, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    The RISE program is examining the influence of the Columbia River plume on the coastal waters off Washington and Oregon. It is important to define the macro and micro nutrient chemistry of the plume as it enters these coastal waters. Low salinity waters of the Columbia River are encountered just a short distance inside the mouth of the Columbia River estuary. These low salinity waters (salinities of 1 to 5) are low in nitrate (3 to 10 μ M), high in silicic acid (140 to 160 μ M), high in dissolved manganese and relatively high in dissolved iron. Within a remarkably short distance of exiting the mouth of the estuary into the coastal waters, the plume has attained salinities of roughly 13 to 22. The source of seawater that is entrained together with the river water in this near-field mixing regime to form the Columbia River plume can be defined using silicic acid, nitrate, manganese and salinity as tracers. During June and July of 2004, it appears that the seawater being initially entrained with the plume is subsurface, high salinity (>33), nutrient rich (nitrate 25 μ M and silicic acid 35 μ M) water. This is particularly important for the macronutrient nitrate, as this adds a substantial amount of additional nitrate to the plume. The plume water then advects and mixes further away from the source. The combination of these same tracers is useful in identifying the far-field mixing as well. We will present examples of these processes and tracers using data from the 2004 RISE cruises.

  16. Establishing the propensity for dioxin formation using a plume temperature model for medical waste incinerator emissions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brent, Alan C; Rogers, David E C

    2002-07-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are not compulsory for medical waste incinerators (MWIs) in developing countries. In South Africa, combustion gases are usually vented directly to the atmosphere at temperatures greater than the formation temperature of dioxin. The possibility of dioxin formation outside the incinerator stack has been hypothesized. A plume model has been developed and tested in the wind tunnel with a scale model of an incinerator stack. The plume temperature and trajectory predictions of the plume model were verified within a +/- 3% experimental accuracy. Using South African data, the plume model predicts that the residence time of gases in the temperature range of 150-450 degrees C in a plume is 1.3 sec on average for 5% of a year (18 days) at meteorological conditions resulting in wind speeds of less than 1 m/sec. Two published dioxin formation models were used to assess the probability of dioxin formation in the plume. The formation models predict that the average polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) formed in the plume will exceed the stack emission regulations in South Africa of 0.2 ng/Nm3 toxic equivalent quotient (TEQ) by between 2 and 40 times. The calculated concentrations do not include additional gaseous PCDD/F compounds that may be formed at high-temperature post-combustion zones through pyrosynthesis mechanisms. PMID:12139346

  17. Waste Management Plan for the Expedited Response Action for 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Plume & the 200-ZP-1 & 200-PW-1 Operable Units

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES, M.E.

    2003-05-01

    The 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume expedited response action (ERA) involves both passive and active vapor extraction, and this document includes the requirements for management and disposal of waste generated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit.

  18. Waste Management Plan for the Drilling Within the Chromium Plume West of 100-D/DR Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Peterson

    1997-12-31

    This waste management plan provides guidance for managing drilling spoils generated during the installation of groundwater wells in the 100-D/DR Area, which is part of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The wells are being installed to meet two objectives: (1) better define the nature and extent of a previously identified chromium plume in the area, and (2) act as groundwater extraction wells if the contamination warrants

  19. No evidence for acid-catalyzed secondary organic aerosol formation in power plant plumes over metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, R. E.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Wollny, A. G.; Holloway, J. S.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    2007-03-01

    Aircraft-based measurements of the water-soluble fraction of fine PM organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic salt composition in the Atlanta, GA region were conducted in the summer of 2004. Five notable plumes of SO2, apparently from coal-fired power plants, were intercepted, and had NH4 +/SO4 2- molar ratios ranging from approximately 0.8 to 1.4 compared to molar ratios near 2 outside of the plumes. Sulfate aerosol concentrations increased from a regional background of 5-8 μg m-3 to as high as 19.5 μg m-3 within these plumes. No increase in WSOC concentrations was observed in plumes compared to out-of-plumes within a WSOC measurement uncertainty of 8%. These measurements suggest that secondary organic aerosol formation via heterogeneous acid-catalyzed reactions within power plant plumes are not likely a significant contributor to the ambient aerosol mass loading in Atlanta and the surrounding region. Because this region is rich in both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC), the results may be widely applicable.

  20. Relation of laboratory and remotely sensed spectral signatures of ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of laboratory transmission and remotely sensed ocean upwelled spectral signatures of acid waste ocean water solutions are presented. The studies were performed to establish ocean-dumped acid waste spectral signatures and to relate them to chemical and physical interactions occurring in the dump plume. The remotely sensed field measurements and the laboratory measurements were made using the same rapid-scanning spectrometer viewing a dump plume and with actual acid waste and ocean water samples, respectively. Laboratory studies showed that the signatures were produced by soluble ferric iron being precipitated in situ as ferric hydroxide upon dilution with ocean water. Sea-truth water samples were taken and analyzed for pertinent major components of the acid waste. Relationships were developed between the field and laboratory data both for spectral signatures and color changes with concentration. The relationships allow for the estimation of concentration of the indicator iron from remotely sensed spectral data and the laboratory transmission concentration data without sea-truth samples.

  1. Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

  2. Isotopic Systematics (U, nitrate and Sr) of the F-Area Acidic Contamination Plume at the Savannah River Site: Clues to Contaminant History and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. N.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Denham, M.; Wan, J.; Rakshit, S.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Spycher, N.

    2010-12-01

    Seepage basins in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site were used from 1955 to 1989 for the disposal of low-level radioactive acidic (ave. pH ˜2.9) waste solutions from site operations involving irradiated uranium billets and other materials used in the production of radionuclides. These disposal activities resulted in a persistent acidic groundwater plume (pH as low as 3.2) beneath the F-Area including contaminants such as tritium, nitrate, 90Sr, 129I and uranium and that has impinged on surface water (Four Mile Branch) about 600 m from the basins. After cessation of disposal in 1989, the basins were capped in 1991. Since that time, remediation has consisted of a pump-and-treat system that has recently been replaced with in situ treatment using a funnel-and-gate system with injection of alkaline solutions in the gates to neutralize pH. In order to delineate the history of contamination and the current mobility and fate of contaminants in F-Area groundwater, we have undertaken a study of variations in the isotopic compositions of U (234U/238U, 235U/238U, 236U/238U), Sr (87Sr/86Sr) and nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) within the contaminant plume. This data can be used to trace U transport within the plume, evaluate chemical changes of nitrate, and potentially track plume/sediment chemical interaction and trace the migration of 90Sr. We have analyzed a suite of groundwater samples from monitoring wells, as well as pore-water samples extracted from aquifer sediment cores to map out the isotopic variation within the plume. The isotopic compositions of U from well samples and porewater samples are all consistent with the variable burn-up of depleted U. The variation in U isotopic composition requires at least three different endmembers, without any significant influence of background natural U. The δ15N and δ18O of nitrate from F-Area plume groundwater are distinct both from natural and unaltered synthetic nitrate, and likely represents fractionation due to waste volume

  3. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Bea, Sergio A; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S; Denham, Miles E

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H(+) adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates

  4. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, Sergio A.; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S.; Denham, Miles E.

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H+ adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates and

  5. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired.

  6. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant. PMID:26950639

  7. Amino acid cycling in the Mississippi River Plume and effects from the passage of Hurricanes Isadore and Lili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Grace, Bryan L.; Carman, Kevin R.; Maulana, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    We present data on the effects of Hurricanes Isadore and Lili on the spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of amino acids, and other bulk dissolved and particulate constituents in surface waters of the Mississippi River Plume (MRP) collected during 3 survey cruises (March 2002, October 2002, and April 2004). Abiotic factors (e.g., particle sorption and sediment resuspension) had the largest contribution in describing DAA and PAA dynamics in the MRP. The range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (88.61 to 699.90 μM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) (0.08 to 32.72 μM) values was slightly higher than the range observed for a broader region of the Louisiana shelf, but in general agreed with peak values at the mid-salinity range of the plume. The positive and negative correlations between acidic (e.g., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and basic (e.g., histidine and arginine) DAA and salinity, respectively, in the MRP, were largely controlled by differential partitioning of amino acids with suspended sediments. Concentrations of β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and δ-aminovaleric acid were significantly higher during October 2002 compared to spring sampling events, due to resuspension of shelf sediments caused by the recent passage of Hurricane Isadore and the approach of Hurricane Lili, as it entered the Gulf of Mexico during our sampling.

  8. Quantitative mapping of suspended solids in wastewater sludge plumes in the New York Bight apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Duedall, I. W.; Glasgow, R. M.; Proni, J. R.; Nelsen, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply the previously reported methodology to remotely sensed data that were collected over wastewater sludge plumes in the New York Bight apex on September 22, 1975. Spectral signatures were also determined during this study. These signatures may be useful in the specific identification of sludge plumes, as opposed to other plumes such as those created by the disposal of industrial acid wastes.

  9. An application of geoelectrical methods for contamination plume recognition in Urbanowice waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mycka, Mateusz; Mendecki, Maciej Jan

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to detect groundwater pollution and to identify the conditions of soil and groundwater near the Urbanowice landfill site using geoelectrical measurements. Presented measurements are preliminary results from tested site and are beginning of continuous monitoring. Contamination outflows detected by resistivity and IP technique show a good correlation with available hydrological data. Contamination plume were found in Eastern part of survey profil.

  10. Northwest Plume Groundwater System Green-sand Media Removal and Waste Packaging Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Troutman, M.T.; Richards, C.J.; Tarantino, J.J.

    2006-07-01

    The Northwest Plume Groundwater System (NWPGS) was temporarily shut down due to high differential pressures across the green-sand filters. Increased levels of suspended solids were introduced into the system from monitoring well development water, equipment decontamination water, and secondary containment water. These waters were treated for suspended solids through a groundwater pretreatment system but were suspected of causing the high differential pressures in the green-sand filters. Prior to the system being shutdown, the NWPGS had been experiencing increasingly shorter run times between filter backwashes indicating that the normal backwash cycle was not adequately removing the fines. This condition led to the removal and replacement of green-sand media from two filter vessels. Discussions include problems with the removal process, waste packaging specifications, requirements for the disposition of green-sand media, and lessons learned. (authors)

  11. Leachate plume delineation and lithologic profiling using surface resistivity in an open municipal solid waste dumpsite, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, Hasintha Rangana; De Silva, Sunethra Nalin; Wijesundara, Dharani Thanuja De Silva; Basnayake, Bendict Francis Antony; Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of direct current resistivity techniques (DCRT) for investigation and characterization of leachate-contaminated subsurface environment of an open solid waste dumpsite at Kandy, Sri Lanka. The particular dumpsite has no liner and hence the leachate flows directly to the nearby river via subsurface and surface channels. For the identification of possible subsurface flow paths and the direction of the leachate, DCRT (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and vertical electrical sounding) have been applied. In addition, the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) of leachate collected from different points of the solid waste dumping area and leachate drainage channel were analysed. Resistivity data confirmed that the leachate flow is confined to the near surface and no separate plume is observed in the downstream area, which may be due to the contamination distribution in the shallow overburden thickness. The stratigraphy with leachate pockets and leachate plume movements was well demarcated inside the dumpsite via low resistivity zones (1-3 Ωm). The recorded EC, alkalinity, hardness and chloride contents in leachate were averaged as 14.13 mS cm⁻¹, 3236, 2241 and 320 mg L⁻¹, respectively, which confirmed the possible causes for low resistivity values. This study confirms that DCRT can be effectively utilized to assess the subsurface characteristics of the open dumpsites to decide on corridor placement and depth of permeable reactive barriers to reduce the groundwater contamination. PMID:25209886

  12. Diffusion and reaction of pollutants in stratus clouds: application to nocturnal acid formation in plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Seigneur, C.; Saxena, P.; Mirabella, V.A.

    1985-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the transport, turbulent diffusion, and chemical reactions of air pollutants in stratus clouds. The chemical kinetic mechanism treats 97 gaseous, heterogeneous, and aqueous reactions between 54 species. The dispersion and night-time chemistry of a power plant plume in a stratus cloud is simulated. The contributions of various chemical pathways to the formation of sulfate and nitrate, the differences between plume and background concentrations, and the effect of reduced primary emissions on secondary pollutants are discussed. Calculated sulfate and nitrate concentrations are commensurate with measured atmospheric concentrations.

  13. Geochemical Characteristics of the Contaminant Waste Plume in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site: From Kilometer to Micrometer Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Denham, M.; Seaman, J. C.; Rakshit, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was a major DOE facility for plutonium production during the Cold War. Low-level radioactivity acidic waste solutions were discharged to a series of unlined seepage basins in the F-Area of the SRS from 1955-1989. Although the site has gone through many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic with pH values as low as 3.2, and the concentrations of U and other radionuclides are still up to ten times higher than their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In order to understand the current and predict the future contaminant behavior, a comprehensive investigation is being conducted, funded jointly by the DOE’s offices of Biological and Environmental Resources (BER) and Environmental Management (EM). Five boreholes were drilled outside and within the plume along the groundwater flow path. Samples were collected from varied depths of each borehole, sediment pore-waters were extracted by ultracentrifugation, and the solid phase and pore-water were characterized. We identified the sediment mineralogy as being composed predominantly fine quartz sand with 2 to 12% clay. Kaolinite and goethite are the major minerals of the clay-sized fraction, residing primarily as coatings of varied thicknesses on quartz sand grains, providing reactive surfaces for contaminant adsorption. The measured U “field” distribution coefficients (Kd) and U concentrations in the pore waters are strongly pH dependent. These results are consistent with laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies, where U adsorption onto SRS sediments increases sharply from pH 3 to 5, and reaches ≈100% at pH 6-7. The variability in U adsorption capacity in these sediments is mainly caused by differences in goethite/clay content and effective reactive specific surface area. Measured “field” Kd values are smaller than those obtained from laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies with the same contaminated sediments. The equilibrium pH-dependent U adsorption

  14. Migration of a groundwater contaminant plume by stratabound flow in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    The discovery of radiologically contaminated groundwater in core hole CH-8 in the western portion of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prompted a detailed investigation to identify the contaminant plume. Utilizing a working hypothesis of stratabound groundwater flow and contaminant transport, investigators analyzed existing subsurface geologic data to predict the contaminant plume discharge location in first Creek and locations of contaminated groundwater seepage into storm drains. The hypothesis states that differential lithologic/fracture conditions lead to the development of preferred flow and transport pathways, of discrete vertical extent, which may not be coincident with the hydraulic gradient. Leakage out of the stratabound pathway is a minor component of the overall plume configuration.

  15. Migration of a groundwater contaminant plume by stratabound flow in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    The discovery of radiologically contaminated groundwater in core hole CH-8 in the western portion of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prompted a detailed investigation to identify the contaminant plume. Utilizing a working hypothesis of stratabound groundwater flow and contaminant transport, investigators analyzed existing subsurface geologic data to predict the contaminant plume discharge location in first Creek and locations of contaminated groundwater seepage into storm drains. The hypothesis states that differential lithologic/fracture conditions lead to the development of preferred flow and transport pathways, of discrete vertical extent, which may not be coincident with the hydraulic gradient. Leakage out of the stratabound pathway is a minor component of the overall plume configuration.

  16. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for immobilizing radioactive boric acid waste solutions comprising: neutralizing a boric acid waste solution containing radionuclides with calcium hydroxide and forming a precipitate, evaporating the precipitate to near dryness, and firing the dry precipitate to form a calcium borate glass product containing the radionuclides.

  17. No evidence for acid-catalyzed secondary organic aerosol formation in power plant plumes over metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia - article no. L06801

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.E.; Sullivan, A.P.; Weber, R.J.; Wollny, A.G.; Holloway, J.S.; Brock, C.A.; de Gouw, J.A.; Atlas, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    Aircraft-based measurements of the water-soluble fraction of fine PM organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic salt composition in the Atlanta, GA region were conducted in the summer of 2004. Five notable plumes of SO{sub 2}, apparently from coal-fired power plants, were intercepted, and had NH{sub 4}{sup +}/SO4{sup 2-} molar ratios ranging from approximately 0.8 to 1.4 compared to molar ratios near 2 outside of the plumes. Sulfate aerosol concentrations increased from a regional background of 5 - 8 {mu} g m{sup -3} to as high as 19.5 {mu} g m{sup -3} within these plumes. No increase in WSOC concentrations was observed in plumes compared to out-of-plumes within a WSOC measurement uncertainty of 8%. These measurements suggest that secondary organic aerosol formation via heterogeneous acid-catalyzed reactions within power plant plumes are not likely a significant contributor to the ambient aerosol mass loading in Atlanta and the surrounding region. Because this region is rich in both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC), the results may be widely applicable.

  18. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  19. Groundwater modeling of source terms and contaminant plumes for DOE low-level waste performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Wilson, J.E.

    1994-06-01

    Under US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, all sites within the DOE complex must analyze the performance of planned radioactive waste disposal facilities before disposal takes place through the radiological performance assessment process. These assessments consider both exposures to the public from radionuclides potentially released from disposal facilities and protection of groundwater resources. Compliance with requirements for groundwater protection is often the most difficult to demonstrate as these requirements are generally more restrictive than those for other pathways. Modeling of subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow and transport was conducted for two such assessments for the Savannah River site. The computer code PORFLOW was used to evaluate release and transport of radionuclides from different types of disposal unit configurations: vault disposal and trench disposal. The effectiveness of engineered barriers was evaluated in terms of compliance with groundwater protection requirements. The findings suggest that, due to the limited lifetime of engineered barriers, overdesign of facilities for long-lived radionuclides is likely to occur if compliance must be realized for thousands of years.

  20. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  1. Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of palaeosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity; yet there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPAM correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity-dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in a small number (n = 8) of samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1, while there is no correlation if all samples are taken into account. These findings are mirrored by alkenone-based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with low alkenone concentrations. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to low salinity and light limitation, for instance, under strong riverine discharge.

  2. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  3. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  4. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  5. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  6. NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

  7. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  8. Plume radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirscherl, R.

    1993-06-01

    The electromagnetic radiation originating from the exhaust plume of tactical missile motors is of outstanding importance for military system designers. Both missile- and countermeasure engineer rely on the knowledge of plume radiation properties, be it for guidance/interference control or for passive detection of adversary missiles. To allow access to plume radiation properties, they are characterized with respect to the radiation producing mechanisms like afterburning, its chemical constituents, and reactions as well as particle radiation. A classification of plume spectral emissivity regions is given due to the constraints imposed by available sensor technology and atmospheric propagation windows. Additionally assessment methods are presented that allow a common and general grouping of rocket motor properties into various categories. These methods describe state of the art experimental evaluation techniques as well as calculation codes that are most commonly used by developers of NATO countries. Dominant aspects influencing plume radiation are discussed and a standardized test technique is proposed for the assessment of plume radiation properties that include prediction procedures. These recommendations on terminology and assessment methods should be common to all employers of plume radiation. Special emphasis is put on the omnipresent need for self-protection by the passive detection of plume radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectral band.

  9. Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Smuin, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both {sup 99}Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators.

  10. Recovery of boric acid from nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, E.J.

    1985-09-10

    Disclosed is a process for separating and recovering boric acid from water containing solids which include boric acid and radionuclides. In the first step, the water is separated from the solids by evaporation of the water at a temperature under 130/sup 0/F In the second step, an alcohol selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, and mixtures thereof is added to the remaining solids in the amount of at least 1.4 times that stoichiometrically required to react with the boric acid to form boron alkoxide and water to about 100 mole % in excess of stoichiometric. In the third step, the boron alkoxide is separated from the remaining solids by evaporation of the boron alkoxide. In the fourth step, water is added to the volatilized boron alkoxide to form boric acid and an alcohol. And finally, the alcohol is separated from the boric acid by evaporating the alcohol.

  11. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  12. LANDSAT observations of ocean dump plume movement and dispersion. [Cape Henlopen, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G. R.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Eighteen LANDSAT images were analyzed to study the dispersion and movement of ocean dump plumes thirty-eight miles southeast of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, at the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant producing titanium dioxide. Long visual persistence was explained by the formation of a suspended ferric floc. Spectrometric measurements indicate that upon combining with sea water the acid waste develops a strong reflectance peak in the band 0.55 to 0.60 micron region, resulting in a stronger contrast in the MSS band 4 than the other bands. Predominant direction of movement of the waste plumes was to the southeast. Average drift velocity for surface drogues and the waste plumes was about 0.5 knots. The water at the test site was highly stratified and stable in the summer and nearly homogenous in the winter.

  13. Drift and dispersion studies of ocean-dumped waste using Landsat imagery and current drogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Philpot, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drift and dispersion of industrial acid wastes dumped 64 km off the Delaware coast were investigated using 16 Landsat images. Waste plume drift velocities and spread rates were obtained, and principal component analysis was performed to discriminate the acid waste from other pollutants. Waste plumes averaged drifting rates from 0.59 km/hr to 3.39 km/hr into the southwest quadrant, and remained above the thermocline, which formed at depths ranging from 13 m to 24 m. Rapid waste movement toward shore occurred primarily during storms, although plumes were rapidly dispersed and diluted at spread rates in excess of 4 cm/sec. Landsat data analysis also indicates plume width increase of about 1.5 cm/sec during calm sea conditions, which is also in agreement with Falk's (1974) estimates of plume dilution.

  14. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  15. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion. PMID:25149459

  16. Method for distinctive estimation of stored acidity forms in acid mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Fan, Rong; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Smart, Roger St C

    2014-10-01

    Jarosites and schwertmannite can be formed in the unsaturated oxidation zone of sulfide-containing mine waste rock and tailings together with ferrihydrite and goethite. They are also widely found in process wastes from electrometallurgical smelting and metal bioleaching and within drained coastal lowland soils (acid-sulfate soils). These secondary minerals can temporarily store acidity and metals or remove and immobilize contaminants through adsorption, coprecipitation, or structural incorporation, but release both acidity and toxic metals at pH above about 4. Therefore, they have significant relevance to environmental mineralogy through their role in controlling pollutant concentrations and dynamics in contaminated aqueous environments. Most importantly, they have widely different acid release rates at different pHs and strongly affect drainage water acidity dynamics. A procedure for estimation of the amounts of these different forms of nonsulfide stored acidity in mining wastes is required in order to predict acid release rates at any pH. A four-step extraction procedure to quantify jarosite and schwertmannite separately with various soluble sulfate salts has been developed and validated. Corrections to acid potentials and estimation of acid release rates can be reliably based on this method. PMID:25178979

  17. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutralmore » conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and processes that have a significant effect and/or control U mobility.« less

  18. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutral conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and

  19. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  20. Large-scale redox plume in glaciofluvial deposits due to sugar-factory wastes and wastewater at Aarberg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wersin, P.; Abrecht, J.; Höhener, P.

    2001-06-01

    The sugar factory at Aarberg, Switzerland, has processed about 18×106 metric tons of sugar beets in the last 100 years. This has been accompanied by releases of dissolved organic carbon to the groundwater, induced both by direct wastewater disposal until 1964 and by ongoing leakage from solid-waste deposits. Downgradient in the groundwater of the glaciofluvial aquifer, depletion of oxygen concentrations accompanied by low nitrate, high ammonium, dissolved Mn(II) and Fe(II) concentrations are observed. This study was aimed at developing a quantitative comprehension of theimpact of the leaking waste deposits on biogeochemical processes in the aquifer and on groundwater quality. The study includes a review of historical information, a survey of the hydrogeochemistry in the aquifer, the characterisation of river-water infiltration rates with the radon method, establishment of a mass-balance model based on a numerical flow and transport model, and application of a stable-carbon-isotope method to show biodegradation of sugar-waste deposits in the aquifer. The investigations demonstrate that present emissions from waste deposits would not lead to the consumption of all the O2 in the aquifer. The present occurrence of anoxic groundwater conditions is explained as a result of the long history of waste loading.

  1. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  2. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  3. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  4. Airborne remote sensing of coal waste and acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.E.; Lee, T.S.

    1996-07-01

    High resolution airborne remote sensing data, spatial resolution of 2m X 2m, were used to study the stream quality degradation due to the coal mines in Taebaek city, one of the major coalfields in Korea. In order to circumvent the severe topographic effect and small scale of the water stream, principal components with the least variances were utilized. They showed the subtle details in the image that were obscured by higher contrast due to the topographic effect. Through maximum likelihood classification of those components, yellowboy and mine waste could be effectively identified. Areas affected by acid mine drainage and mine waste could be also located by identifying areas of dead or dying vegetation using vegetation index map.

  5. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  6. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished. PMID:24078235

  7. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P < 0.05) of water and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and increases (P < 0.005) in protein and fiber. Anaerobic fermentation of FWM with or without LAB seemed effective in both 10- and 30-day-storage. The addition of LAB inoculants to FWM showed a linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increase in the number of total and lactic acid bacteria and toward the nutritional improvement with WSC increased and fiber decreased. Long-term (30 days) storage resulted in consistent reduction (P < 0.05) in numbers of total and lactic acid bacteria and pH and showed little change in chemical components, compared with short-term (10 days) storage. On the basis of these results, LAB inoculation improved fermentative characteristics of FWM. Among anaerobic treatments, further WSC increase and NDF reduction did not occur (P > 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%. PMID:16257200

  8. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  9. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Ramsey, W.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1999-09-28

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140 C to about 210 C for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  10. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  11. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  12. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement. [Masonry cement-boric acid waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH/sub 2/) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  14. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  15. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  16. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  17. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  18. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  19. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. PMID:22444067

  20. Embedding of laboratory wastes in clay or concrete blocks, with special reference to baking osmic acid and cacodylic acid wastes with clay.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Murakami, T; Yamana, S

    1998-12-01

    Liquid laboratory waste containing osmic acid and cacodylic acid was mixed with potter's clay or hydraulic cement. The clay-waste product was kneaded into blocks and baked in a klin (1,200-1,400 degrees C). The cement-waste product was allowed to harden into concrete blocks. Some of the baked clay blocks and concrete blocks were ground, and immersed in 1 N NaOH or 10% HCI solutions for 3-6 months. X-ray microanalysis of the dried samples of these solutions showed that no leakage of osmium and arsenic occurred in the baked clay embedding, and that some leakage of these agents occurred in the concrete embedding. The present study indicates that the baked clay embedding method is useful for safe storage of dangerous laboratory wastes. Additional experiments suggested that glass embedding is also useful for safe storage of laboratory wastes or harmful metals. PMID:9876766

  1. Dust Plumes off Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Two-toned dust plumes blew northward off the coast of Libya on October 26, 2007, as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite took this picture. While plumes in the west are beige, reminiscent of the Sahara's sands, the plumes in the east are distinctly darker. The differences in color can be traced to the plumes's varied origins.

  2. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production. PMID:25488499

  3. Highly buoyant bent-over plumes in a boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohidi, Ali; Kaye, Nigel B.

    2016-04-01

    Highly buoyant plumes, such as wildfire plumes, in low to moderate wind speeds have initial trajectories that are steeper than many industrial waste plumes. They will rise further into the atmosphere before bending significantly. In such cases the plume's trajectory will be influenced by the vertical variation in horizontal velocity of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper examined the behavior of a plume in an unstratified environment with a power-law ambient velocity profile. Examination of previously published experimental measurements of plume trajectory show that inclusion of the boundary layer velocity profile in the plume model often provides better predictions of the plume trajectory compared to algebraic expressions developed for uniform flow plumes. However, there are many cases in which uniform velocity profile algebraic expressions are as good as boundary layer models. It is shown that it is only important to model the role of the atmospheric boundary layer velocity profile in cases where either the momentum length (square root of source momentum flux divided by the reference wind speed) or buoyancy length (buoyancy flux divided by the reference wind speed cubed) is significantly greater than the plume release height within the boundary layer. This criteria is rarely met with industrial waste plumes, but it is important in modeling wildfire plumes.

  4. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  5. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW). PMID:27058878

  6. Separation of boric acid from PWR waste by volatilization during evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, A.; Braet, J.; Smaers, F.; De Regge, P.

    1997-01-01

    SCK{circ}CEN has developed a process to separate boric acid during and/or after evaporation of the liquid waste from pressurized light-water reactors. The key goal is to achieve higher waste volume reduction factors, while maintaining low activity discharge limits. An additional goal is to obtain purified boric acid for recycling. The process is based on the volatility of boric acid in steam. The liquid waste is treated in a semicontinuous evaporator, which operates preferentially at a higher temperature than the present evaporators. The stream loaded with boric acid is fed to a column for fractional condensation with partial reflux. In this way, one obtains a highly concentrated waste that contains all the radioactive and chemical impurities and little boron, a concentrated boric acid solution which can be reused, as well as a highly decontaminated effluent without boron. In case replacement or adaptation of existing evaporators is less practical, one can adapt the process for the treatment of evaporator concentrates. After having been intensively tested at SCK{circ}CEN, the process has recently been demonstrated in a small pilot installation and with realistic liquid waste, at the nuclear power station in Doel, Belgium. The results corresponded to the theoretical predictions. After a transitional period, the boron concentration in the evaporator no longer increased and consequently did not limit the achievable waste volume reduction factor. The boric acid was recovered from the steam and during a supplementary treatment additional boric acid from the waste concentrate was recovered.

  7. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. PMID:26941209

  8. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  9. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  10. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  11. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m(2) g(-1), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g(-1) of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  12. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g-1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g-1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  13. Quantitative mapping by remote sensing of an ocean acid-waste dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results from quantitative analysis show that airplane remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid-waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. These same data, however, could not be used to map the dump in terms of total suspended solids, organic suspended solids, or inorganic suspended solids concentrations. A single-variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440 to 490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540 to 580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the iron concentration in the acid-waste dump. The acid waste that was mapped varied in age from freshly dumped to 31/2 hr. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/l at a depth of 0.46 m. A classification technique was developed to identify pixels in the data set affected by sun glitter.

  14. HIGH TEMPERATURE DILUTE ACID HYDROLYSIS OF WASTE CELLULOSE: BATCH AND CONTINUOUS PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 5-year investigation on the dilute acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose to glucose has emphasized the crucial step of continuously converting cellulose to glucose. Initial batch studies emphasized pretreatments to improve accessibility of the cellulose, and established suitable...

  15. Volcanic Plume Chemistry: Models, Observations and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tjarda; Martin, Robert; Oppenheimer, Clive; Griffiths, Paul; Braban, Christine; Cox, Tony; Jones, Rod; Durant, Adam; Kelly, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic plumes are highly chemically reactive; both in the hot, near-vent plume, and also at ambient temperatures in the downwind plume, as the volcanic gases and aerosol disperse into the background atmosphere. In particular, DOAS (Differential Optical Absortpion Spectroscopy) observations have identified BrO (Bromine Monoxide) in several volcanic plumes degassing into the troposphere. These observations are explained by rapid in-plume autocatalytic BrO-chemistry that occurs whilst the plume disperses, enabling oxidants such as ozone from background air to mix with the acid gases and aerosol. Computer modelling tools have recently been developed to interpret the observed BrO and predict that substantial ozone depletion occurs downwind. Alongside these modelling developments, advances in in-situ and remote sensing techniques have also improved our observational understanding of volcanic plumes. We present simulations using the model, PlumeChem, that predict the spatial distribution of gases in volcanic plumes, including formation of reactive halogens BrO, ClO and OClO that are enhanced nearer the plume edges, and depletion of ozone within the plume core. The simulations also show that in-plume chemistry rapidly converts NOx into nitric acid, providing a mechanism to explain observed elevated in-plume HNO3. This highlights the importance of coupled BrO-NOx chemistry, both for BrO-formation and as a production mechanism for HNO3 in BrO-influenced regions of the atmosphere. Studies of coupled halogen-H2S-chemistry are consistent with in-situ Alphasense electrochemical sensor observations of H2S at a range of volcanoes, and only predict H2S-depletion if Cl is additionally elevated. Initial studies regarding the transformations of mercury within volcanic plumes suggest that significant in-plume conversion of Hg0 to Hg2+ can occur in the downwind plume. Such Hg2+ may impact downwind ecology through enhanced Hg-deposition, and causing enhanced biological uptake of

  16. ACID-BASE BEHAVIOR IN HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost of High Level Waste (HLW) disposal can be lowered, substantially by reducing the volume requiring vitrification and long term storage. For the Hanford Tank Wastes, chromium and radioactive compounds can be oxidized to produce soluble forms that can be separated from othe...

  17. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  18. Vertical transport processes of an acid-iron waste in a MERL stratified mesocosm

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.F.; Kester, D.R.; Hunt, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical transport of the Fe particles formed after an acid-Fe waste mixes with seawater and the impact of the waste on the trace metal composition of seawater were examined in a stratified tank (2 m diameter and 5 m deep) at the MERL facility of the University of Rhode Island. Two acid-Fe waste additions were made to one of the stratified tanks at concentrations comparable to those observed after the initial dispersion of the waste in the ocean (10/sup 5/ dilution); a second stratified tank was maintained as a control. The removal of the Fe waste from the water column was due to settling of the Fe particles through the pycnocline; biological transport of the Fe particles was not an important removal mechanism. The kinetic behavior of the Fe particles was different after the two waste additions; gravitational settling was the rate-limiting step after the first addition, whereas flocculation was the rate-limiting step after the second waste addition. The first acid-Fe waste addition apparently altered the properties of the seawater, possibly stripping organic substances from the water column. This alteration in the characteristics of seawater changed the distribution of Pb and V between the dissolved and particulate forms. Both Pb and V showed a strong correlation with Fe, suggesting scavenging of these metals by the Fe particles. Cu and Cd show remarkable independence from the behavior of Fe. 18 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Turbulent Plumes in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This review describes a range of natural processes leading to the formation of turbulent buoyant plumes, largely relating to volcanic processes, in which there are localized, intense releases of energy. Phenomena include volcanic eruption columns, bubble plumes in lakes, hydrothermal plumes, and plumes beneath the ice in polar oceans. We assess how the dynamics is affected by heat transfer, particle fallout and recycling, and Earth's rotation, as well as explore some of the mixing of the ambient fluid produced by plumes in a confined geometry.

  20. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO/sub 3/ etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO/sub 3/ strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup /minus// to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  2. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  3. Modeling Europa's dust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B. S.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Jupiter's moon Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we simulate possible Europa plume configurations, analyze particle number density and surface deposition results, and estimate the expected flux of ice grains on a spacecraft. Due to Europa's high escape speed, observing an active plume will require low-altitude flybys, preferably at altitudes of 5-100 km. At higher altitudes a plume may escape detection. Our simulations provide an extensive library documenting the possible structure of Europa dust plumes, which can be quickly refined as more data on Europa dust plumes are collected.

  4. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  5. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits for existing sources....

  9. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  15. Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fenghua; Chen, Yang; Zhai, Fengying; Li, Jing; Wang, Jianghua; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shengtian; Zhu, Weimin

    2008-09-01

    Transesterification of waste cooking oil with high acid value and high water contents using heteropolyacid H3PW12O40 x 6H2O (PW12) as catalyst was investigated. The hexahydrate form of PW(12) was found to be the most promising catalyst which exhibited highest ester yield 87% for transesterification of waste cooking oil and ester yield 97% for esterification of long-chain palmitic acid, respectively. The PW12 acid catalyst shows higher activity under the optimized reaction conditions compared with conventional homogeneous catalyst sulfuric acid, and can easily be separated from the products by distillation of the excess methanol and can be reused more times. The most important feature of this catalyst is that the catalytic activity is not affected by the content of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the content of water in the waste cooking oil and the transesterification can occur at a lower temperature (65 degrees C), a lower methanol oil ratio (70:1) and be finished within a shorter time. The results illustrate that PW12 acid is an excellent water-tolerant and environmentally benign acid catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. PMID:18646228

  16. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  17. Effect of aeration rate and waste load on evolution of volatile fatty acids and waste stabilization during thermophilic aerobic digestion of a model high strength agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J Obeta; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    2005-04-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) is a relatively new, dynamic and versatile low technology for the economic processing of high strength waste slurries. Waste so treated may be safely disposed of or reused. In this work a model high strength agricultural waste, potato peel, was subjected to TAD to study the effects of oxygen supply at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 vvm (volume air per volume slurry per minute) under batch conditions at 55 degrees C for 156 h on the process. Process pH was controlled at 7.0 or left unregulated. Effects of waste load, as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), on TAD were studied at 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 and 16.0 gl(-1) (soluble COD) at pH 7.0, 0.5 vvm and 55 degrees C. Efficiency of treatment, as degradation of total solids, total suspended solids and soluble solid, as well as soluble COD significantly increased with aeration rate, while acetate production increased as the aeration rate decreased or waste load increased, signifying deterioration in treatment. Negligible acetate, and no other acids were produced at 1.0 vvm. Production of propionate and other acids increased after acetate concentration had started to decrease and, during unregulated reactions coincided with the drop in the pH of the slurry. Acetate production was more closely associated with periods of oxygen limitation than were other acids. Reduction in oxygen availability led to deterioration in treatment efficiency as did increase in waste load. These variables may be manipulated to control treated waste quality. PMID:15588774

  18. Production of L-lactic Acid from Biomass Wastes Using Scallop Crude Enzymes and Novel Lactic Acid Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kanami; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    In the present study, biomass waste raw materials including paper mill sludge, bamboo, sea lettuce, and shochu residue (from a distiller) and crude enzymes derived from inedible and discarded scallop parts were used to produce L-lactic acid for the raw material of biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. The activities of cellulase and amylase in the crude enzymes were 22 and 170units/L, respectively, and L-lactic acid was produced from every of the above mentioned biomass wastes, by the method of liquid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) . The L-lactic acid concentrations produced from sea lettuce and shochu residue, which contain high concentration of starch were 3.6 and 9.3g/L, respectively, and corresponded to greater than 25% of the conversion of glucans contained in these biomass wastes. Furthermore, using the solid state SSF method, concentrations as high as 13g/L of L-lactic acid were obtained from sea lettuce and 26g/L were obtained from shochu residue.

  19. Conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol. Phase 2: Reaction kinetics with phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, M. B.; Isbell, R. E.

    1982-05-01

    Waste cellulosic material can be hydrolyzed in dilute acid solution to produce fermentable sugars which can then be converted into ethanol. A laboratory investigation was made of the feasibility of using phosphoric acid as the hydrolysis catalyst. The hydrolysis reaction with phosphoric acid solutions was compared with the reaction employing the more conventional dilute sulfuric acid catalyst. The purpose of this research was to examine the hydrolysis step in a proposed process for the conversion of cellulose (from wood, newspapers, municipal solid waste, or other sources) into ethanol - by which a potentially valuable co-product, DICAL (dicalcium phosphate), might be made and sold with or without the lignin content as a fertilizer. The pertinent reaction kinetics for the acid catalyzed production of glucose from cellulose consists of consecutive, pseudo-first order reactions.

  20. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  1. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  2. Wine wastes as carbon source for biological treatment of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Santos, E S; Barros, R J; Pires, C; Martins, M

    2009-05-01

    Possible use of wine wastes containing ethanol as carbon and energy source for sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and activity in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) is studied for the first time. The experiments were performed using anaerobic down-flow packed bed reactors in semi-continuous systems. The performance of two bioreactors fed with wine wastes or ethanol as carbon sources is compared in terms of sulphate reduction, metals removal and neutralization. The results show that efficient neutralization and high sulphate removal (>90%) were attained with the use of wine wastes as substrate allowing the production of effluents with concentrations below the required local legislation for irrigation waters. This is only possible provided that the AMD and wine wastes are contacted with calcite tailing, a waste material that neutralizes and provides buffer capacity to the medium. The removal of metals using wine wastes as carbon source was 61-91% for Fe and 97% for both Zn and Cu. The lower removal of iron, when wine waste is used instead of ethanol, may be due to the presence of iron-chelating compounds in the waste, which prevent the formation of iron sulphide, and partial unavailability of sulphide because of re-oxidation to elemental sulphur. However, that did not affect significantly the quality of the effluent for irrigation. This work demonstrates that wine wastes are a potential alternative to traditional SRB substrates. This finding has direct implication to sustainable operation of SRB bioreactors for AMD treatment. PMID:19201010

  3. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides from Mo-99 Acidic Liquid Waste - 13027

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Pen, Ben-Li

    2013-07-01

    About 200 liters highly radioactive acidic liquid waste originating from Mo-99 production was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research). A study regarding the treatment of the radioactive acidic liquid waste was conducted to solve storage-related issues and allow discharge of the waste while avoiding environmental pollution. Before discharging the liquid waste, the acidity, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Hg ions in high concentrations, and radionuclides must comply with environmental regulations. Therefore, the treatment plan was to neutralize the acidic liquid waste, remove key radionuclides to reduce the dose rate, and then remove the nitrate and mercury ions. Bench tests revealed that NaOH is the preferred solution to neutralize the high acidic waste solution and the pH of solution must be adjusted to 9∼11 prior to the removal of nuclides. Significant precipitation was produced when the pH of solution reached 9. NaNO{sub 3} was the major content in the precipitate and part of NaNO{sub 3} was too fine to be completely collected by filter paper with a pore size of approximately 3 μm. The residual fine particles remaining in solution therefore blocked the adsorption column during operation. Two kinds of adsorbents were employed for Cs-137 and a third for Sr-90 removal to minimize cost. For personnel radiation protection, significant lead shielding was required at a number of points in the process. The final process design and treatment facilities successfully treated the waste solutions and allowed for environmentally compliant discharge. (authors)

  4. Modeling Europa's Dust Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa plume. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of plumes on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two plume locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust plumes with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, plume location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa plume will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa plume will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the plume on Enceladus, (ii) plume particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the plume location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active plume will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50

  5. Evaluation of Warm Acid Strike Treatment for Silicon Analysis in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pennebaker, F.M.

    2003-03-20

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed a simpler, faster and more accurate method of analysis for the measurement of silicon in High Level Waste (HLW) supernate samples prior to evaporation. The warm acid strike method compared favorably to the current filtration method in the measurement of five samples from three different waste tanks. The technical enhancement of the warm acid strike method is that it will help dissolve small solid particles of silicon-bearing materials that contribute to the scatter in measurements. The method is not intended to measure silicon in samples that have significant quantities of entrained waste tank sludge or DWPF frit particles. Since the method is simple, multiple waste tank samples can be prepared and analyzed at the same time. This improvement should significantly reduce turnaround time for Evaporator Qualification samples at SRTC. Enhanced QC and blind standards have been incorporated into the method for better traceability and overall accuracy. ADS recommends that High Level Waste switch to the Acid Strike Methodology using 3 M acid and 4 hours of heating for Evaporator Qualification samples as soon as possible. Extra work is necessary before transfer of the method to C-Lab for routine measurements.

  6. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  7. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  8. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area. PMID:26873283

  9. REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

    2009-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese

  10. COOLING TOWER PLUME MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of recently reported cooling tower plume models yields none that is universally accepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms and the effect of moisture on the plume trajectory are phenomena which are treated differently by various investigators. In order to better under...

  11. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    PubMed

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  12. Stealth Plumes on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Matson, Dennis L.; Blaney, Diana L.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Davies, Ashley

    1995-01-01

    We suggest that Io's eruptive activity may include a class of previously undetected SO2 geysers. The thermodynamic models for the eruptive plumes discovered by Voyager 'involve low to moderate entropy SO2 eruptions. The resulting plumes are a mixture of solid and gas which emerge from the vent and follow essentially ballistic trajectories. We show that intrusion of silicate magma into buried SO2 deposits can create the required conditions for high entropy eruptions which proceed entirely in the vapor phase. These purely gaseous plumes would have been invisible to Voyager's instruments. Hence, we call them "stealth" plumes. Such eruptions could explain the "patchy" SO2 atmosphere inferred from recent UV and micro-wave spectral observations. The magma intrusion rate required to support the required gas production for these plumes is a negligible fraction of estimated global magma intrusion rates.

  13. FATE OF OCEAN DUMPED ACID-IRON WASTE IN A MERL (MARINE ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH LABORATORY) STRATIFIED MICROCOSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies have provided information on the short-term effects of acid-iron waste disposal at a deep water dumpsite off the coast of New Jersey. To assess the long-term effects of the acid-iron waste, an experiment was conducted at the MERL facility (Marine Ecosystems Research...

  14. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). PMID:26159043

  15. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  16. The effect of humic acids on the element release from high level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Van Iseghem, P.

    1997-12-31

    Eu and Am doped glasses were interacted with synthetic interstitial clay water (SiC) and corresponding reference leachant, humic acids free interstitial solution (IS) to investigate the influence of humic acids on the leaching behavior of the waste glass. Static leach tests were carried out at 40 C and 90 C. The release of the lanthanide Eu and the actinide Am from the glass was obviously enhanced by the presence of humic acids. The leaching of transition elements, Fe and Ti strongly depends on the humic acids concentration. The leaching of glass matrix components, Al and B was also influenced by the concentrations of humic acids. However, humic acids have little effect on the leaching of glass matrix element Si.

  17. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal by acid modified waste activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pranab Kumar

    2009-11-15

    Fresh activated carbon (AC) and waste activated carbon (WAC) were pretreated by heating with mineral acids (sulfuric acid and nitric acid) at high temperature to prepare several grades of adsorbents to evaluate their performance on Cr(VI) removal from aqueous phase. Effects of temperature, agitation speed and pH were tested, and optimum conditions were evaluated. Kinetic study was performed under optimum conditions with several grades of modified adsorbents to know the rates of adsorption. Batch adsorption equilibrium data followed both, Freuindlich and Langmuir isotherms. Maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) of the selected adsorbents treated with sulfuric acid (MWAC 1) and nitric acid (MWAC 2), calculated from Langmuir isotherm are 7.485 and 10.929 mg/g, respectively. Nitric acid treated adsorbent (MWAC 2) was used for column study to determine the constants of bed depth service time (BDST) model for adsorption column design. PMID:19553008

  18. Waste acid/metal solution reduction and recovery by vacuum distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.O.; Wilcox, W.A.; Johnson, N.T.; Bowdish, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    Processes involving distillation under reduced pressure were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory several years ago to recover spent acid solutions generated during the manufacture of nuclear fuel for the N-Reactor at the Hanford site. Following construction and testing of a pilot-plant, the technology was licensed to Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc. for commercialization. The technology developed included specialized distillation and rectification of volatile acids, removal of water and/or volatile acid from sulfuric acid, and precipitation of salts. A key feature of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) technology is the development and use of advanced thermoplastic and fluoropolymer materials of construction in all critical process equipment. The technology was then expanded to include crystallization to recover metal salts for possible reuse. Economic and environmental advantages of the procedures include recovery of acids for reuse, simplification or elimination of the disposal of waste solutions, and possible recovery of metals. Industries expected to benefit from such applications include galvanizing, electroplating, sand leaching and any where metals are cleaned in acid solutions. Currently a modular system has been assembled for recovery of several different spent acid solutions.

  19. Decontamination and inspection plan for phase 2 closure of the 300-Area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-02-06

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 2 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 2, the second phase of three proposed phases of closure for WATS, provides for closure of all WATS portions of the 334-A Building and some, but not all, WATS portions of the 333 and 303-F Buildings. Closure of the entire unit will not occur until all three closure phases have been completed. The DIP also describes the designation and management-process for waste and debris generated during Phase 2 closure activities. Information regarding the decontamination and verification methods for Phase 1 closure can be found in Decontamination and Inspection Plan, for Phase 1 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System, 21 WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001. Information regarding Phase 3 closure will be provided in later documents.

  20. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  1. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  2. A closed loop for municipal organic solid waste by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Walde, Janette; Pümpel, Thomas; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Insam, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of producing lactic acid from municipal organic solid waste different pH values (4-7) and temperatures (37°C and 55°C) were tested. For the evaluation of fermentation conditions the chemical, physical, and microbial characters were monitored over a period of 7days. Quantitative real time PCR, PCR-DGGE, and next generation sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene library were applied to identify the key players of the lactic acid production and their association. Lactobacillus acidophilus and its closest relatives were found to be efficient lactic acid producers (>300mM) under most suitable fermentation conditions tested in this study: 37°C with either uncontrolled pH or at a pH of 5. These data provide the first step in the realization of the idea "reuse, reduce, and recycle" of municipal organic solid waste. PMID:25459815

  3. Prometheus: Io's wandering plume.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, S W; Lopes-Gautier, R; McEwen, A; Smythe, W; Keszthelyi, L; Carlson, R

    2000-05-19

    Unlike any volcanic behavior ever observed on Earth, the plume from Prometheus on Io has wandered 75 to 95 kilometers west over the last 20 years since it was first discovered by Voyager and more recently observed by Galileo. Despite the source motion, the geometric and optical properties of the plume have remained constant. We propose that this can be explained by vaporization of a sulfur dioxide and/or sulfur "snowfield" over which a lava flow is moving. Eruption of a boundary-layer slurry through a rootless conduit with sonic conditions at the intake of the melted snow can account for the constancy of plume properties. PMID:10817989

  4. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  5. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  6. Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Pengtao; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-20

    The principal goal of this work was to reuse the carbohydrates and recycle sulfuric acid in the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Therefore, in this work, the optimizations of further hydrolysis of waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC and catalytic conversion of L4 to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were studied. Sulfuric acid was separated by spiral wound diffusion dialysis (SWDD). The results revealed that cellulose can be hydrolyze to glucose absolutely under the condition of temperature 35 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 62 wt%. And 78.3% sulfuric acid was recovered by SWDD. The yield of 5-HMF was highest in aqueous solution under the optimal condition was as follows, temperature 160 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 12 wt%. Then the effect of biphasic solvent systems catalytic conversion and inorganic salt as additives were still examined. The results showed that both of them contributed to prepare 5-HMF. The yield and selectivity of 5-HMF was up to 21.0% and 31.4%, respectively. PMID:26917388

  7. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  8. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. PMID:25750056

  9. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50°C, respectively, after 24h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  10. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation. PMID:24754448

  11. A solid acid esterification catalyst which reduces waste and increases yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    Recent research on polymeric catalysts has led to the development of a new solid acid esterification catalyst which is highly active for the esterification of fatty acids and maleic anhydride at elevated temperatures. The use of this catalyst eliminates the need for a final neutralization step which is required when using traditional homogenous acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HCl) catalysts. This neutralization step generates large amounts of waste salts and hurts efficiency since unconsumed organic acid reactants are also neutralized. In the high temperature esterification reactions studied here, the production of dialkyl ether by-products from the acid catalyzed self-condensation of alcohol is also greatly reduced allowing for both high activity and selectivity.

  12. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. PMID:26856447

  13. Neutralisation of an acidic pit lake by alkaline waste products.

    PubMed

    Allard, Bert; Bäckström, Mattias; Karlsson, Stefan; Grawunder, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A former open pit where black shale (alum shale) was excavated during 1942-1965 has been water filled since 1966. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium and sulphate and had a pH of 3.2-3.4 until 1997-1998, when pH was gradually increasing. This was due to the intrusion of leachates from alkaline cement waste deposited close to the lake. A stable pH of around 7.5 was obtained after 6-7 years. The chemistry of the pit lake has changed due to the neutralisation. Concentrations of some dissolved metals, notably zinc and nickel, have gone down, as a result of adsorption/co-precipitation on solid phases (most likely iron and aluminium hydroxides), while other metals, notably uranium and molybdenum, are present at elevated levels. Uranium concentration is reaching a minimum of around pH 6.5 and is increasing at higher pH, which may indicate a formation of neutral and anionic uranyl carbonate species at high pH (and total carbonate levels around 1 mM). Weathering of the water-exposed shale is still in progress. PMID:23913161

  14. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  15. Methane Plumes on Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spectrometer instruments attached to several telescopes detect plumes of methane emitted from Mars during its summer and spring seasons. High levels of methane are indicated by warmer colors. The m...

  16. Sulfur plumes off Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur plumes rising up from the bottom of the ocean floor produce colorful swirls in the waters off the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. The plumes come from the breakdown of marine plant matter by anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen to live. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on April 24, 2002 Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Electrification of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.

    2006-07-01

    Volcanic lightning, perhaps the most spectacular consequence of the electrification of volcanic plumes, has been implicated in the origin of life on Earth, and may also exist in other planetary atmospheres. Recent years have seen volcanic lightning detection used as part of a portfolio of developing techniques to monitor volcanic eruptions. Remote sensing measurement techniques have been used to monitor volcanic lightning, but surface observations of the atmospheric electric Potential Gradient (PG) and the charge carried on volcanic ash also show that many volcanic plumes, whilst not sufficiently electrified to produce lightning, have detectable electrification exceeding that of their surrounding environment. Electrification has only been observed associated with ash-rich explosive plumes, but there is little evidence that the composition of the ash is critical to its occurrence. Different conceptual theories for charge generation and separation in volcanic plumes have been developed to explain the disparate observations obtained, but the ash fragmentation mechanism appears to be a key parameter. It is unclear which mechanisms or combinations of electrification mechanisms dominate in different circumstances. Electrostatic forces play an important role in modulating the dry fall-out of ash from a volcanic plume. Beyond the local electrification of plumes, the higher stratospheric particle concentrations following a large explosive eruption may affect the global atmospheric electrical circuit. It is possible that this might present another, if minor, way by which large volcanic eruptions affect global climate. The direct hazard of volcanic lightning to communities is generally low compared to other aspects of volcanic activity.

  18. Single-Cell Protein Production by the Acid-Tolerant Fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from Acid Hydrolysates of Waste Paper †

    PubMed Central

    Ivarson, K. C.; Morita, H.

    1982-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH <1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H2SO4 at 4°C was diluted with water to a pH of <0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. PMID:16345970

  19. Single-cell protein production by the acid-tolerant fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from acid hydrolysates of waste paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ivarson, K.C.; Morita, H.

    1982-03-01

    The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH less than 1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 4 degrees C was diluted with water to a pH of less than 0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. (Refs. 30).

  20. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27266630

  1. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. PMID:26639411

  2. NITROGEN OXIDES REACTIONS WITHIN URBAN PLUMES TRANSPORTED OVER THE OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an airborne measurements program in the downwind urban plume of Boston. The variables measured included ozone, nitric oxide, oxides of nitrogen, nitric acid, peroxyacetylnitrate, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbon, freon-11, C1-C5 hydrocarbons, condensat...

  3. Electrification of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.

    We present a review of our current understanding of the electrification of volcanic plumes on Earth and discuss the possible implications both in terms of the volcanic monitoring, early Earth evolution and planetary exploration. Volcanic lightning is perhaps the most spectacular consequence of the electrification of volcanic plumes. Recent years have seen volcanic lightning detection used as part of a portfolio of developing techniques to monitor volcanic eruptions. Remote sensing measurement techniques have been used to monitor volcanic lightning, but surface observations of the atmospheric electric Potential Gradient (PG) and the charge carried on volcanic ash also show that many volcanic plumes, whilst not sufficiently electrified to produce lightning, have detectable electrification exceeding that of their surrounding environment. Electrification has only been observed associated with ash-rich explosive plumes, but there is little evidence that the composition of the ash is critical to its occurrence. Different conceptual theories for charge generation and separation in volcanic plumes have been developed to explain the disparate observations obtained, but the ash fragmentation mechanism appears to be a key parameter. It is unclear which mechanisms or combinations of electrification mechanisms dominate in different circumstances. Electrostatic forces play an important role in modulating the dry fall-out of ash from a volcanic plume. Beyond the local electrification of plumes, the higher stratospheric particle concentrations following a large explosive eruption may affect the global atmospheric electrical circuit. It is possible that this might present another, if minor, way by which large volcanic eruptions affect global climate. Volcanic lightning has been implicated in a number of ways in the origin of life on Earth, and may also exist in other planetary atmospheres where measurements of its occurrence might give clues about the nature of volcanism on other

  4. Formic acid requirement for the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility melter feed preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) will vitrify the high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform using a slurry-fed, joule-heated melter. Formic acid is used to treat the sludge slurry for melter feed preparation. Both a minimum formate requirement and a maximum allowable formate level need to be established to adequately prepare the sludge for melter feed. The data from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Scale Glass Melter (SGM), Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), and research mini-melter runs were used for this purpose. The stoichiometry for major reactions during formic acid treatment was revised to reflect the more predominant chemical reactions and their yields. A minimum formic acid requirement was established according to this revised stoichiometry. Methods for determining the minimum level of formic acid were specified. An operating envelope that includes the maximum total formate level and the minimum nitrate levels, was also proposed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Resource recovery from waste LCD panel by hydrothermal transformation of polarizer into organic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Bai, Lan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen

    2015-12-15

    Based on the significant advantages of hydrothermal technology, it was applied to treat polarizer from the waste LCD panel with the aim of transforming it into organic acids (mainly acetic acid and lactic acid). Investigation was done to evaluate the effects of different factors on yields of organic acids, including the reaction temperature, reaction time and H2O2 supply, and the degradation process of polarizer was analyzed. Liquid samples were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, and solid-phase products were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Results showed that at the condition of temperature 300 °C and reaction time 5 min, the organic materials reached its highest conversion rate of 71.47% by adding 0.2 mL H2O2 and acetic acid was dominant in the products of organic acids with the yield of 6.78%. When not adding H2O2 to the system, the yields of lactic and acetic acid were respectively 4.24% and 3.80% at a nearly equal degree, they are suitable for esterification to form ethyl lactate instead of separating them for this case. In the hydrothermal process, polarizer was first decomposed to monosaccharides, alkane, etc., and then furfural and acids are produced with further decomposition. PMID:26094243

  6. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs. PMID:25869844

  7. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production. PMID:27038264

  8. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition. PMID:25682230

  9. A Brilliant Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons captured another dramatic picture of Jupiter's moon Io and its volcanic plumes, 19 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter on Feb. 28, 2007. LORRI took this 75 millisecond exposure at 0035 Universal Time on March 1, 2007, when Io was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.

    Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

    The shadow of Io, cast by the Sun, slices across the plume. The plume is quite asymmetrical and has a complicated wispy texture, for reasons that are still mysterious. At the heart of the eruption incandescent lava, seen here as a brilliant point of light, is reminding scientists of the fire fountains spotted by the Galileo Jupiter orbiter at Tvashtar in 1999.

    The sunlit plume faintly illuminates the surface underneath. 'New Horizons and Io continue to astonish us with these unprecedented views of the solar system's most geologically active body' says John Spencer, deputy leader of the New Horizons Jupiter Encounter Science Team and an Io expert from Southwest Research Institute.

    Because this image shows the side of Io that faces away from Jupiter, the large planet does not illuminate the moon's night side except for an extremely thin crescent outlining the edge of the disk at lower right. Another plume, likely from the volcano Masubi, is illuminated by Jupiter just above this lower right edge. A third and much fainter plume, barely visible at the 2 o'clock position, could be the first plume seen from the volcano Zal Patera.

    As in other New Horizons images of Io, mountains catch the setting Sun just beyond the terminator (the line dividing day and night

  10. Long-term geochemical evolution of acidic mine wastes under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenzhou; Lin, Chuxia; Ma, Yingqun

    2013-08-01

    A nearly 5-year anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted to observe the geochemical evolution of an acidic mine waste. Long-term storage of the mine waste under strict anaerobic conditions caused marked increase in aqueous sulfur, while aqueous iron showed no remarkable change. Co-existing oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur appeared to play a central role in controlling the evolutionary trends of aqueous sulfur and iron. Addition of organic matter increased the aqueous Fe concentration, possibly due to enhanced iron mobilization by microbial iron reduction and increased iron solubility by forming organically complexed Fe species. Further addition of CaCO3 resulted in immobilization of aqueous iron and sulfur due to elevated pH and gypsum formation. The chemical behaviors of environmentally significant metals were markedly affected by the added organic matter; Al, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn tended to be immobilized probably due to elevated pH and complexation with insoluble organic molecules, while As and Pb tended to be mobilized. Jarosite exhibited high stability after nearly 5 years of anaerobic incubation and even under circumneutral pH conditions. Long-term weathering of aluminosilicate through acid attack raised pH, while continuous reaction between the added CaCO3 and mine waste-borne stored acid decreased pH. PMID:23529626

  11. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. PMID:27053375

  12. Enhancement of propionic acid fraction in volatile fatty acids produced from sludge fermentation by the use of food waste and Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Dongbo

    2013-02-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) can be used as the additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR), and the increase of propionic acid percentage in VFA has been reported to facilitate the performance of BNR. In this study a new method for significantly improving the propionic acid fraction in VFA derived from waste activated sludge was reported, which included (1) mixing food waste with sludge and pre-fermenting the mixture (first stage), and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the pre-fermentation liquid and fermenting it after inoculating Propionibacterium acidipropionici (second stage). By optimizing the first stage with response surface methodology, a propionic acid content of 68.4% with propionic acid concentration of 7.13 g COD/L could be reached in the second stage, which was much higher than that reported previously. Lactic acid was found to be the most abundant product of the first stage and it served as the substrate for propionic acid production in the second stage. Further investigation showed that during the first stage the addition of food waste to the pre-fermentation system of sludge significantly increased the generation of lactic acid due to the synergistic effect, which resulted in the improvement of propionic acid production in the second stage. Finally, the use of propionic acid-enriched VFA as a superior carbon source of BNR was tested, and its performance was observed to be much better than using acetic acid-enriched VFA derived from sludge by the previously documented method. PMID:23219005

  13. Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls by Aurantiochytrium.

    PubMed

    Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Aki, Tsunehiro; Adachi, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kenshi; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    In the food industry, syrups containing a high concentration of sugar used for fruit preservation is abundantly discharged as a food processing waste and disposed by incineration, resulting in the rise of the manufacturing cost and environmental pollution. This study demonstrates how waste syrup can be utilized as carbon source for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and astaxanthin by the thraustochytrid strain, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. The strain could grow in culture medium containing 3-50% waste syrup, and the maximum yields of DHA and astaxanthin were 207.6 mg/L (at 50%) and 1.1 mg/L (at 25%), respectively. After the optimization of culture medium composition by response surface method, DHA and astaxanthin yields increased by 2.1 and 1.5 fold, respectively. When the waste syrup was treated with activated charcoal, citrate concentration in the syrup was reduced and the astaxanthin yield increased by 2.3 fold. This study shows that the waste syrup can be effectively used for the functional lipid production by the thraustochytrid. PMID:24005017

  14. Theoretical Study on Free Fatty Acid Elimination Mechanism for Waste Cooking Oils to Biodiesel over Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaochao; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Caimei; Han, Peide

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical investigation on the esterification mechanism of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste cooking oils (WCOs) has been carried out using DMol(3) module based on the density functional theory (DFT). Three potential pathways of FFA esterification reaction are designed to achieve the formation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and calculated results show that the energy barrier can be efficiently reduced from 88.597kcal/mol to 15.318kcal/mol by acid catalyst. The molar enthalpy changes (ΔrHm°) of designed pathways are negative, indicating that FFA esterification reaction is an exothermic process. The obtained favorable energy pathway is: H(+) firstly activates FFA, then the intermediate combines with methanol to form a tetrahedral structure, and finally, producing FAME after removing a water molecule. The rate-determining step is the combination of the activated FFA with methanol, and the activation energy is about 11.513kcal/mol at 298.15K. Our results should provide basic and reliable theoretical data for further understanding the elimination mechanism of FFA over acid catalyst in the conversion of WCOs to biodiesel products. PMID:27023919

  15. Collapse in Thermal Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pears, M. I.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dobson, D. P.; Davies, R.

    2013-12-01

    Collapsing thermal plumes have been investigated through experimental and numerical simulations. Collapsing plumes are an uncommon fluid dynamical phenomenon, usually seen when the buoyancy source is turned off. A series of fluid dynamical experiments were conducted on thermal plumes at a variety of temperature and viscosity contrasts, in a 26.5 cm^3 cubic tank heated by a constant temperature heater 2 cm in diameter and no-slip bottom and top surfaces. Working fluids included Lyle's Golden Syrup and ADM's Liquidose 436 syrup, which have strongly-temperature dependent viscosity and high Pr number (10^3-10^7 at experimental conditions). Visualisation included white light shadowgraphs and PIV of the central plane. Temperature contrasts ranged from 3-60°C, and two differing forms of collapse were identified. At very low temperature differences 'no rise' collapse was discovered, where the plumes stagnate in the lower third of the tank before collapsing. At temperature differences between 10-23°C normal evolution occurred until 'lens shape' collapse developed between midway and two-thirds of the distance from the base. The lens shape originated in the top of the conduit and was present throughout collapse. At temperatures above ΔT=23°C the plumes follow the expected growth and shape and flatten out at the top of the tank. Thermal collapse remains difficult to explain given experimental conditions (continuous heating). Instead it is possible that small density differences arising from crystallization at ambient temperatures changes plume buoyancy-inducing collapse. We show results on the evolution of the refractive index of the syrup through time to ascertain this possibility. Preliminary numerical results using Fluidity will be presented to explore a greater parameter range of viscosity contrasts and tank aspect ratios.

  16. Io Pele plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this narrow-angle camera image on 5 March 1979 from a distance of 450,000 kilometers. At this geometry, the camera looks straight down through a volcanic plume at one of Io's most active volcanos, Pele. The large heart-shaped feature is the region where Pele's plume falls to the surface. At the center of the 'heart' is the small dark fissure that is the source of the eruption. The Voyager Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  17. Evidence for mantle plumes?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Don L; Natland, James H

    2007-11-22

    Geophysical hotspots have been attributed to partially molten asthenosphere, fertile blobs, small-scale convection and upwellings driven by core heat. Most are short-lived or too close together to be deeply seated, and do not have anomalous heat flow or temperature; many are related to tectonic features. Bourdon et al. investigate the dynamics of mantle plumes from uranium-series geochemistry and interpret their results as evidence for thermal plumes. Here we show why alternative mechanisms of upwelling and melting should be considered. PMID:18033248

  18. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications. PMID:24681591

  19. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  20. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  1. Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil plume models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as plume centerline trajectory and plume radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant plume on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant plumes. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant plume, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant plume becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant plumes.

  2. LAMP Observes the LCROSS Plume

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows LAMP’s view of the LCROSS plume. The first half of the animation shows the LAMP viewport scanning across the horizon, passing through the plume, and moving on. The second half of...

  3. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  4. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  5. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Szecsody, Jim E; Truex, Mike J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Wellman, Dawn M; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH2) resulted in a rapid (<10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al(3+), and K(+), likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH13) resulted in a rapid (<10h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity. PMID:23851265

  6. [Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil with ultrasonic assistant].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Huang, Qing-De; Huang, Feng-Hong; Wang, Jiang-Wei; Huang, Qin-Jie

    2007-11-01

    Biodiesel fuel produced with the enzyme-catalyzed esterification and transesterification of high acid value waste oil through ultrasonic assistant was explored. Propyl oleate, biodiesel, converted from high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal catalyzed with immobilized lipases from Candida antarctica and Aspergillus oryzae in conditions of ultrasonic assistant. Commercial immobilized lipase Novozym 435 from C. antarctica was used as biocatalyst catalyzing high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal esterification and transesterification to propyl oleate under the ultrasonic assistant conditions and different conditions such as lipases amounts, initiatory molar ratio of propanol to oil, frequency of ultrasonic and power of ultrasonic were investigated and optimized. It is revealed that the enzymatic activity of Novozym435 is enhanced and, in particular, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification activity is enhanced obviously under the ultrasonic assistant conditions. Low frequency and mild energy ultrasonic is a key factor for enhancing enzymatic activity, emulsifying oil-propanol system and accelerating the speed of produce diffusing in the system. Under the optimal ultrasonic assistant reaction conditions, such as Novozym435 amounts 8% by oil quantity, initiatory molar ratio of propanol to oil 3:1, frequency of ultrasonic 28 KHz, power of ultrasonic 100 W and temperature of water batch 40-45 degrees C, the conversion ratio to propyl oleate reached to 94.86% in 50 mins in comparison with the highest conversion ratio to propyl oleate 84.43% under the conventional mechanical agitation conditions. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that various short chain linear and branched alcohols (C1-C5) show high conversion ratio to fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) under the optimal ultrasonic assistant reaction conditions. On the other hand, ultrasonic energy is propitious to reduce the adsorption of product propyl oleate, by-product glycerol and other emplastics in system on the

  7. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  8. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. PMID:26996259

  9. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The 13C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid–liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe3+ during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe3+ addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe3+ (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe3+ also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l−1, an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn2+ showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. PMID:23489617

  10. Evaluation of Visible Plumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Thomas

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline discusses plumes with contaminants that are visible to the naked eye. Information covers: (1) history of air pollution control regulations, (2) need for methods of evaluating…

  11. COLD WEATHER PLUME STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While many studies of power plant plume transport and transformation have been performed during the summer, few studies of these processes during the winter have been carried out. Accordingly, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Electric Power Research Institute join...

  12. Improving operational plume forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Forecasting how plumes of particles, such as radioactive particles from a nuclear disaster, will be transported and dispersed in the atmosphere is an important but computationally challenging task. During the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, operational plume forecasts were produced each day, but as the emissions continued, previous emissions were not included in the simulations used for forecasts because it became impractical to rerun the simulations each day from the beginning of the accident. Draxler and Rolph examine whether it is possible to improve plume simulation speed and flexibility as conditions and input data change. The authors use a method known as a transfer coefficient matrix approach that allows them to simulate many radionuclides using only a few generic species for the computation. Their simulations work faster by dividing the computation into separate independent segments in such a way that the most computationally time consuming pieces of the calculation need to be done only once. This makes it possible to provide real-time operational plume forecasts by continuously updating the previous simulations as new data become available. They tested their method using data from the Fukushima incident to show that it performed well. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD017205, 2012)

  13. PLUME and research sotware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudin, Veronique; Gomez-Diaz, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The PLUME open platform (https://www.projet-plume.org) has as first goal to share competences and to value the knowledge of software experts within the French higher education and research communities. The project proposes in its platform the access to more than 380 index cards describing useful and economic software for this community, with open access to everybody. The second goal of PLUME focuses on to improve the visibility of software produced by research laboratories within the higher education and research communities. The "development-ESR" index cards briefly describe the main features of the software, including references to research publications associated to it. The platform counts more than 300 cards describing research software, where 89 cards have an English version. In this talk we describe the theme classification and the taxonomy of the index cards and the evolution with new themes added to the project. We will also focus on the organisation of PLUME as an open project and its interests in the promotion of free/open source software from and for research, contributing to the creation of a community of shared knowledge.

  14. Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

  15. Buoyant plume calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.

  16. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  18. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  19. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  20. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  1. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  3. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  5. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  6. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  9. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  10. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  11. Analysis of free amino acids in fermented shrimp waste by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Cervantes, J; Sánchez-Machado, D I; Rosas-Rodríguez, J A

    2006-02-10

    This work presents an HPLC method for the quantification of free amino acids in lyophilized protein fraction from shrimp waste hydrolysate which is obtained by acid lactic fermentation and analyzed using pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate. The amino acids were separated in a Hypersil ODS 5 microm column (250 mm x 4.6 mm) at 38 degrees C. The mobile phase was a mixture of phase A: 30 mM ammonium phosphate (pH 6.5) in 15:85 (v/v) methanol/water; phase B: 15:85 (v/v) methanol/water; and phase C: 90:10 (v/v) acetonitrile/water, with flow rate 1.2 ml/min. Fluorescence detection was used at an excitation wavelength of 270 nm and an emission wavelength of 316 nm. Method precisions for the different amino acids were between 4.4 and 7.1% (relative standard deviation, RSD); detection limits were between 23 and 72 ng/ml; and the recoveries were between 89.0 and 95.0%. The amino acid present at the highest concentration was tyrosine. PMID:16439254

  12. Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Recovery of sterols as fatty acid steryl esters from waste material after purification of tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Hirota, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yomi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Kitano, Motohiro; Shimada, Yuji

    2004-08-01

    Tocopherols are purified industrially from soybean oil deodorizer distillate by a process comprising distillation and ethanol fractionation. The waste material after ethanol fractionation (TC waste) contains 75% sterols, but a purification process has not yet been developed. We thus attempted to purify sterols by a process including a lipase-catalyzed reaction. Candida rugosa lipase efficiently esterified sterols in TC waste with oleic acid (OA). After studying several factors affecting esterification, the reaction conditions were determined as follows: ratio of TC waste/OA, 1:2 (wt/wt); water content, 30%; amount of lipase, 120 U/g-reaction mixture; temperature, 40 degrees C. Under these conditions, the degree of esterification reached 82.7% after 24 h. FA steryl esters (steryl esters) in the oil layer were purified successfully by short-path distillation (purity, 94.9%; recovery, 73.1%). When sterols in TC waste were esterified with FFA originating from olive, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, and linseed oils, the FA compositions of the steryl esters differed somewhat from those of the original oils: The content of saturated FA was lower and that of unsaturated FA was higher. The m.p. of the steryl esters synthesized (21.7-36.5 degrees C) were remarkably low compared with those of the steryl esters purified from high-b.p. soybean oil deodorizer distillate substances (56.5 degrees C; JAOCS 80, 341-346, 2003). The low-m.p. steryl esters were soluble in rapeseed oil even at a final concentration of 10%. PMID:15638248

  14. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws. PMID:18556190

  15. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca Veglio, Francesco

    2009-01-15

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  16. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  17. Process Coupling Between Mineral Transformation and U Speciation in Acid Waste Weathered Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, N.; Kanematsu, M.; Wang, G.; Um, W.; O'Day, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2013-12-01

    The need for better prediction of contaminant transport motivates multi-faceted lines of inquiry to build a strong bridge between molecular- and field-scale information. At Hanford (WA), millions of liters of U-containing acidic wastes have been discharged to the soil. In order to predict reactive contaminant migration in the soil, it is necessary to determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and uranium speciation in these acid-uranium waste weathered sediments. Furthermore, we seek to establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. Unweathered Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium bearing waste solutions in batch experiments. The presence and absence of phosphate in the waste as a control on uranium speciation was also investigated. At dedicated reaction times (7, 14, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days) solid and solution chemistry were analyzed to determine weathering trajectories and contaminant speciation. As observed by XRD and U-EXAFS, when present, PO4 exerted a strong controls over uranium speciation at all pH with the rapid precipitation of meta-ankoleite [K(UO2PO4).3H2O] and near complete immobilization of U. Over prolonged reaction time, however, small fractions of boltwoodite [K(UO2)(HSiO4).3H2O] increased in PO4-high U systems. When PO4 was excluded from the reaction systems, U speciation was indirectly controlled by the pH of the reactant solution and its effect on primary mineral weathering. In this case, U immobilization remained limited with 25 to 50% of the uranium precipitated as becquerelite ([Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6.3H2O] or the K equivalent - compreignacite) and suspected boltwoodite. Differences between the systems are attributed to process coupling between acid chemistry and U geochemistry. Carbonate weathering contributed to rapidly buffer the pH to pH 7-8 in the absence of PO4 and to 6-7 in its presence

  18. Biological short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production from waste-activated sludge affected by surfactant.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Su; Chen, Yinguang; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Guowei

    2007-07-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the preferred carbon sources for biological nutrient removal, are the important intermediate products in sludge anaerobic fermentation. Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is a widespread used surfactant, which can be easily found in waste-activated sludge (WAS). In this investigation, the effect of SDBS on SCFAs production from WAS was investigated, and the potential of using fermentative SCFAs to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was tested. Results showed that the total SCFAs production increased significantly in the presence of SDBS at room temperature. At fermentation time of 6 days, the maximum SCFAs was 2599.1mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L in the presence of SDBS 0.02g/g, whereas it was only 339.1mg (COD)/L in the absence of SDBS. The SCFAs produced in the case of SDBS 0.02g/g and fermentation time 6 days consisted of acetic acid (27.1%), propionic acid (22.8%), iso-valeric acid (20.1%), iso-butyric acid (11.9%), n-butyric acid (10.4%) and n-valeric acid (7.7%). It was found that during sludge anaerobic fermentation, the solubilization of sludge particulate organic-carbon and hydrolysis of solubilized substrate as well as acidification of hydrolyzed products were all increased in the presence of SDBS, while the methane formation was decreased, the SCFAs production was therefore remarkably improved. Further investigation showed that the production of SCFAs enhanced by SDBS was caused mainly by biological effects, rather than by chemical effects and SDBS decomposition. With the fermentative SCFAs as the main carbon source, the EBPR maintained high phosphorus removal efficiency ( approximately 97%). PMID:17499838

  19. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  20. Effect of temperature on chitin and astaxanthin recoveries from shrimp waste using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Neith; Garnica-González, Mónica; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Y; Flores-Albino, Belem; Gimeno, Miquel; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2009-06-01

    The chitin and astaxanthin recoveries by lactic acid fermentation of shrimp wastes (Litopenaeus sp) were conducted in bed-column reactors at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 degrees C. The response surface methodology showed that the fermentations carried out in the 27-36 degrees C temperature range with lactic acid above 0.319 mmol/g resulted in the highest demineralization. The maximal deproteinizations were attained from 30 to 40 degrees C. The extraction of free-astaxanthin did not present significant differences between 20 and 35 degrees C and the proportion of cis-stereoisomer forms increased with temperature. The growth rates of Lactobacillus plantarum were estimated in the 15-45 degrees C range and analyzed by Arrhenius and square root models. The cardinal values were 3.94 and 51.7 degrees C for minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively, with activation energy of 43.38 Jmol(-1). PMID:19230657

  1. Encapsulation of acid generating mine waste using a sloped terrain at Weedon, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, M.; Bedard, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Weedon mine site was remediated by the Government of Quebec in the summer of 1993. Erosion produced a large quantity of oxydized and acid generating tailings spread over more than 13 hectares of wooded land. Vast areas were exposed to leaching and precipitation of metals and sulphur, contaminating the surface waters. A site clean-up was undertaken and the dispersed tailings were excavated and confined in a capsule using a high-density polyethylene geomembrane cover. An innovative concept was developed to encapsulate the tailings on a sloping terrain, using acid generating wasterock for internal and perimeter containment. The cost of containing and covering the contaminated waste was 240 000 $ CAN/hectare.

  2. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys to acid fluoride wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Mackey, D.B.; Pool, K.H. ); Schwenk, E.B. )

    1992-04-01

    TRUEX processing of Hanford Site waste will utilize potentially corrosive acid fluoride processing solutions. Appropriate construction materials for such a processing facility need to be identified. Toward this objective, candidate stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated acid fluoride process solutions at 333K. The high Ni-Cr alloys exhibited corrosion rates as low as 0.14 mm/y in a solution with an HF activity of about 1.2 M, much lower than the 19 to 94 mm/y observed for austenitic stainless steels. At a lower HF activity (about 0.008 M), stainless steels display delayed passivation while high Ni-Cr alloys display essentially no reaction.

  3. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. PMID:25983222

  4. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

    2000-12-01

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water.

  5. Ferric sulphate catalysed esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Ooi, Chun Weng; Motala, Nafisa Osman; Ismail, Mohd Anas Farhan

    2010-10-01

    In this work, the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in waste cooking oil catalysed by ferric sulphate was studied as a pre-treatment step for biodiesel production. The effects of reaction time, methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and temperature on the conversion of FFA were investigated on a laboratory scale. The results showed that the conversion of FFA reached equilibrium after an hour, and was positively dependent on the methanol to oil molar ratio and temperature. An optimum catalyst concentration of 2 wt.% gave maximum FFA conversion of 59.2%. For catalyst loadings of 2 wt.% and below, this catalysed esterification was proposed to follow a pseudo-homogeneous pathway akin to mineral acid-catalysed esterification, driven by the H(+) ions produced through the hydrolysis of metal complex [Fe(H(2)O)(6)](3+) (aq). PMID:20435468

  6. Chemical plume source localization.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shuo; Farrell, Jay A

    2006-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the dispersion of the chemical is dominated by turbulence, resulting in an intermittent chemical signal. The vehicle is capable of detecting above-threshold chemical concentration and sensing the fluid flow velocity at the vehicle location. This paper reviews instances of biological plume tracing and reviews previous strategies for a vehicle-based plume tracing. The main contribution is a new source-likelihood mapping approach based on Bayesian inference methods. Using this Bayesian methodology, the source-likelihood map is propagated through time and updated in response to both detection and nondetection events. Examples are included that use data from in-water testing to compare the mapping approach derived herein with the map derived using a previously existing technique. PMID:17036813

  7. Site characterization and containment/remediation of acid mine drainage at an abandoned mine waste dump

    SciTech Connect

    Djahanguiri, F.; Snodgrass, J.; Koerth, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the preliminary results of laboratory tests to evaluate a new suspension grout consisting of a mixture of a naturally occurring lignite coal based wax {open_quotes}montan wax{close_quotes}, sodium bentonite {open_quotes}pure gold grout{close_quotes}, and water. The test program assesses the suitability of the grout for creating subsurface containment barriers in coal waste dump sites for acid mine seepage control to surface and ground waters. The laboratory activities evaluated the reduction in permeability that could be achieved in a coal waste dump site under optimum conditions and the compatibility of the grout with representative waste from the test site. Information on geological, geochemical and geophysical about the test site is presented. Laboratory formulation of the grout is complete and simulation of field condition is in progress. Pregrout geophysical surveys for determination of hydrogeologic conditions at the site are also completed. Based on geophysical surveys, a grout curtain is proposed which will consist of two rows of grout placement holes in an array across the seepage area toward Belt Creek in Montana, Post-grout geophysical survey will be carried out immediately after grouting work. Performance of the grout curtain will be monitored by collection of water samples from monitoring wells in the Belt Creek and seepage area.

  8. Removal of humic acid from composted hog waste by the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junying; Song, Yunmeng; Ruan, Roger; Liu, Yuhuan

    2015-01-01

    The potential hazards of humic acid (HA) associated with hog waste effluent, coupled with increasing awareness of environmental problems, have prompted many countries to control disposal of effluents into water bodies and to maximize removal of HA. Here we employed the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, to degrade the HA in composted hog waste effluent, evaluated by the response surface method. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that pH, temperature and quantity of inoculum are significant variables determining success of the fungus. In total, 13 experiments were conducted with three variables designated as A (pH), B (temperature) and C (inoculum amount). The optimal conditions for reduction of HA by P. chrysosporium are pH 6, 31.5°C and an inoculum quantity of 5.86 g. Predicted and experimental results exhibit strong agreement, indicating efficiency in the model obtained by response surface method. Therefore, P. chrysosporium is an effective micro-organism for removal of HA from composted hog waste effluent. PMID:26114276

  9. Microbial conversion of synthetic and food waste-derived volatile fatty acids to lipids.

    PubMed

    Vajpeyi, Shashwat; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus albidus was evaluated using mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as substrates. In general, batch growth under nitrogen limitation led to higher lipid accumulation using synthetic VFA. During batch growth, an initial COD:N ratio of 25:1mg COD:mg N led to maximum intracellular lipid accumulation (28.3 ± 0.7% g/g dry cell weight), which is the maximum reported for C. albidus using VFA as the carbon source, without compromising growth kinetics. At this feed COD:N ratio, chemostat cultures fed with synthetic VFA yielded statistically similar intracellular lipid content as batch cultures (29.9 ± 1.9%, g/g). However, batch cultures fed with VFA produced from the fermentation of food waste, yielded a lower lipid content (14.9 ± 0.1%, g/g). The lipid composition obtained with synthetic and food-waste-derived VFA was similar to commercial biodiesel feedstock. We therefore demonstrate the feasibility of linking biochemical waste treatment and biofuel production using VFA as key intermediates. PMID:25697838

  10. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-09-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, a VFA recovery efficiency of 98.3%, H2 of 18.4 mL and alkali production presented as pH of 12.64 were obtained using synthetic fermentation broth. The applied voltage, initial VFA concentrations and composition were affecting the VFA recovery. The energy balance revealed that net energy (5.20-6.86 kWh/kg-VFA recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). The coexistence of other anionic species had no negative effect on VFA transportation. The VFA concentration was increased 2.96 times after three consecutive batches. Furthermore, the applicability of MBEDC was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst. PMID:26057718

  11. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    SciTech Connect

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  12. Effect of humic acids with different characteristics on fermentative short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Chen, Yinguang; Xiao, Naidong; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Mu

    2015-04-21

    Recently, the use of waste activated sludge to bioproduce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) has attracted much attention as the sludge-derived SCFA can be used as a preferred carbon source to drive biological nutrient removal or biopolymer (polyhydroxyalkanoates) synthesis. Although large number of humic acid (HA) has been reported in sludge, the influence of HA on SCFA production has never been documented. This study investigated the effects on sludge-derived SCFA production of two commercially available humic acids (referred to as SHHA and SAHA purchased respectively from Shanghai Reagent Company and Sigma-Aldrich) that differ in chemical structure, hydrophobicity, surfactant properties, and degree of aromaticity. It was found that SHHA remarkably enhanced SCFA production (1.7-3.5 folds), while SAHA had no obvious effect. Mechanisms study revealed that all four steps (solubilization, hydrolysis, acidification, and methanogenesis) involved in sludge fermentation were unaffected by SAHA. However, SHHA remarkably improved the solubilization of sludge protein and carbohydrate and the activity of hydrolysis enzymes (protease and α-glucosidase) owing to its greater hydrophobicity and protection of enzyme activity. SHHA also enhanced the acidification step by accelerating the bioreactions of glyceradehyde-3P → d-glycerate 1,3-diphosphate, and pyruvate → acetyl-CoA due to its abundant quinone groups which served as electron acceptor. Further investigation showed that SHHA negatively influenced the activity of acetoclastic methanogens for its competition for electrons and inhibition on the reaction of acetyl-CoA → 5-methyl-THMPT, which caused less SCFA being consumed. All these observations were in correspondence with SHHA significantly enhancing the production of sludge derived SCFA. PMID:25825920

  13. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO/sub 3/ from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  15. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity. PMID:22980909

  16. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. PMID:23489617

  17. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  18. Corrosion studies of carbon steel under impinging jets of simulated slurries of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for the disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes presently stored in double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site call for retrieval and processing of the waste to create forms suitable for permanent disposal. Waste will be retrieved from a tank using a submerged slurry pump in conjunction with one or more rotating slurry jet mixer pumps. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted tests using simulated waste slurries to assess the effects of a impinging slurry jet on the corrosion rate of the tank wall and floor, an action that could potentially compromise the tank's structural integrity. Corrosion processes were investigated on a laboratory scale with a simulated neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) slurry and in a subsequent test with simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) slurry. The test slurries simulated the actual NCRW and NCAW both chemically and physically. The tests simulated those conditions expected to exist in the respective double-shell tanks during waste retrieval operations. Results of both tests indicate that, because of the action of the mixer pump slurry jets, the waste retrieval operations proposed for NCAW and NCRW will moderately accelerate corrosion of the tank wall and floor. Based on the corrosion of initially unoxidized test specimens, and the removal of corrosion products from those specimens, the maximum time-averaged corrosion rates of carbon steel in both waste simulants for the length of the test was {approximately}4 mil/yr. The protective oxide layer that exists in each storage tank is expected to inhibit corrosion of the carbon steel.

  19. Corrosion studies of carbon steel under impinging jets of simulated slurries of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for the disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes presently stored in double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site call for retrieval and processing of the waste to create forms suitable for permanent disposal. Waste will be retrieved from a tank using a submerged slurry pump in conjunction with one or more rotating slurry jet mixer pumps. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted tests using simulated waste slurries to assess the effects of a impinging slurry jet on the corrosion rate of the tank wall and floor, an action that could potentially compromise the tank`s structural integrity. Corrosion processes were investigated on a laboratory scale with a simulated neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) slurry and in a subsequent test with simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) slurry. The test slurries simulated the actual NCRW and NCAW both chemically and physically. The tests simulated those conditions expected to exist in the respective double-shell tanks during waste retrieval operations. Results of both tests indicate that, because of the action of the mixer pump slurry jets, the waste retrieval operations proposed for NCAW and NCRW will moderately accelerate corrosion of the tank wall and floor. Based on the corrosion of initially unoxidized test specimens, and the removal of corrosion products from those specimens, the maximum time-averaged corrosion rates of carbon steel in both waste simulants for the length of the test was {approximately}4 mil/yr. The protective oxide layer that exists in each storage tank is expected to inhibit corrosion of the carbon steel.

  20. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage. PMID:25979297

  1. Organic acids associated with saccharification of cellulosic wastes during solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; El-Hersh, Mohammed Saad

    2011-02-01

    Saccharification of five cellulosic wastes, i.e. rice husks, wheat bran, corn cobs, wheat straw and rice straw by three cellulytic fungi, i.e. Aspergillus glaums MN1, Aspergillus oryzae MN2 and Penicillium purpurogenum MN3, during solid-state fermentation (SSF) was laboratory studied. Rice husks, wheat bran, and corn cobs were selected as inducers of glucose production in the tested fungi. An incubation interval of 10 days was optimal for glucose production. Maximal activities of the cellulases FP-ase, CMC-ase, and p-glucosidase were detected during SSF of rice husks by P. purpurogenum; however, a-amylase activity (7.2 U/g) was comparatively reduced. Meanwhile, the productivities of FP-ase, CMC-ase, and β-glucosidase were high during SSF of rice husks by A glaucus; however, they decreased during SSF of corn cobs by P. purpurogenum. Addition of rock phosphate (RP) (75 mg P(2)O(5)) decreased the pH of SSF media. (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was found to be less inducer of cellulytic enzymes, during SSF of rice husks by A. glaucus or A. oryzae; it also induced phytase production and solubilization of RP. The organic acids associated with saccharification of the wastes studied have also been investigated. The highest concentration of levulinic acid was detected (46.15 mg/g) during SSF of corn cobs by P. purpurogenum. Likewise, oxalic acid concentration was 43.20 mg/g during SSF of rice husks by P. purpurogenum. PMID:21369980

  2. Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Fu; Toräng, Lars; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2007-08-10

    Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240 microm i.d., 30 microm wall thickness, 0.05 microm pore size, 30 cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic solution in the lumen as acceptor and finally placed into the sample (donor). Complete extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides including 2,4-D, MCPA, dichlorprop, and mecoprop from an acidified sample (4 mL, adjusted to pH 1.5 with HCl) into basic acceptor (10 microL of 0.2M NaOH) was achieved after 4 h of shaking (100 rpm) resulting in an enrichment factor of 400 times. The acceptor was then neutralized by addition of HCl and injected into a HPLC system for the determination of the phenoxy acid herbicides. Environmentally relevant salinity (0-3.5% NaCl) and dissolved organic matter (0-25 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction. The method provided extraction efficiencies of more than 91%, detection limits of 0.3-0.6 microg/L, and combined extraction and clean up in one single step. This procedure was applied to determine aqueous concentrations of phenoxy acid herbicides in groundwater samples collected from an old dumping site (Cheminova, Denmark) with detected concentrations up to 5800 microg/L. Although the samples were very dirty with large amounts of suspended particles, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and dissolved organic matters, good spike recoveries (80-126%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 samples. PMID:17449052

  3. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  4. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. PMID:26761593

  5. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. PMID:24661813

  6. Low altitude plume impingement handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon D.

    1991-01-01

    Plume Impingement modeling is required whenever an object immersed in a rocket exhaust plume must survive or remain undamaged within specified limits, due to thermal and pressure environments induced by the plume. At high altitudes inviscid plume models, Monte Carlo techniques along with the Plume Impingement Program can be used to predict reasonably accurate environments since there are usually no strong flowfield/body interactions or atmospheric effects. However, at low altitudes there is plume-atmospheric mixing and potential large flowfield perturbations due to plume-structure interaction. If the impinged surface is large relative to the flowfield and the flowfield is supersonic, the shock near the surface can stand off the surface several exit radii. This results in an effective total pressure that is higher than that which exists in the free plume at the surface. Additionally, in two phase plumes, there can be strong particle-gas interaction in the flowfield immediately ahead of the surface. To date there have been three levels of sophistication that have been used for low altitude plume induced environment predictions. Level 1 calculations rely on empirical characterizations of the flowfield and relatively simple impingement modeling. An example of this technique is described by Piesik. A Level 2 approach consists of characterizing the viscous plume using the SPF/2 code or RAMP2/LAMP and using the Plume Impingement Program to predict the environments. A Level 3 analysis would consist of using a Navier-Stokes code such as the FDNS code to model the flowfield and structure during a single calculation. To date, Level 1 and Level 2 type analyses have been primarily used to perform environment calculations. The recent advances in CFD modeling and computer resources allow Level 2 type analysis to be used for final design studies. Following some background on low altitude impingement, Level 1, 2, and 3 type analysis will be described.

  7. Seismic Imaging of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude

    The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed thirty years ago by Jason Morgan to explain hotspot volcanoes such as Hawaii. A thermal diapir (or plume) rises from the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and produces a chain of volcanoes as a plate moves on top of it. The idea is very attractive, but direct evidence for actual plumes is weak, and many questions remain unanswered. With the great improvement of seismic imagery in the past ten years, new prospects have arisen. Mantle plumes are expected to be rather narrow, and their detection by seismic techniques requires specific developments as well as dedicated field experiments. Regional travel-time tomography has provided good evidence for plumes in the upper mantle beneath a few hotspots (Yellowstone, Massif Central, Iceland). Beneath Hawaii and Iceland, the plume can be detected in the transition zone because it deflects the seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depths. In the lower mantle, plumes are very difficult to detect, so specific methods have been worked out for this purpose. There are hints of a plume beneath the weak Bowie hotspot, as well as intriguing observations for Hawaii. Beneath Iceland, high-resolution tomography has just revealed a wide and meandering plume-like structure extending from the core-mantle boundary up to the surface. Among the many phenomena that seem to take place in the lowermost mantle (or D''), there are also signs there of the presence of plumes. In this article I review the main results obtained so far from these studies and discuss their implications for plume dynamics. Seismic imaging of mantle plumes is still in its infancy but should soon become a turbulent teenager.

  8. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O.; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  9. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods. PMID:25135440

  10. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste. PMID:27376833

  11. Updated Conceptual Model for the 300 Area Uranium Groundwater Plume

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Last, George V.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2012-11-01

    The 300 Area uranium groundwater plume in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit is residual from past discharge of nuclear fuel fabrication wastes to a number of liquid (and solid) disposal sites. The source zones in the disposal sites were remediated by excavation and backfilled to grade, but sorbed uranium remains in deeper, unexcavated vadose zone sediments. In spite of source term removal, the groundwater plume has shown remarkable persistence, with concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard over an area of approximately 1 km2. The plume resides within a coupled vadose zone, groundwater, river zone system of immense complexity and scale. Interactions between geologic structure, the hydrologic system driven by the Columbia River, groundwater-river exchange points, and the geochemistry of uranium contribute to persistence of the plume. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to document characterization of the 300 Area uranium plume and plan for beginning to implement proposed remedial actions. As part of the RI/FS document, a conceptual model was developed that integrates knowledge of the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the 300 Area and controlling processes to yield an understanding of how the system behaves and the variables that control it. Recent results from the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge site and the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Scientific Focus Area Project funded by the DOE Office of Science were used to update the conceptual model and provide an assessment of key factors controlling plume persistence.

  12. An Approach to In-Situ Observations of Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W. D.; Lopes, M. C.; Pieri, D. C.; Hall, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Volcanoes have long been recognized as playing a dominant role in the birth, and possibly the death, of biological populations. They are possible sources of primordial gases, provide conditions sufficient for creating amino acids, strongly affect the heat balance in the atmosphere, and have been shown to sustain life (in oceanic vents.) Eruptions can have profound effects on local flora and fauna, and for very large eruptions, may alter global weather patterns and cause entire species to fail. Measurements of particulates, gases, and dynamics within a volcanic plume are critical to understanding both how volcanoes work and how plumes affect populations, environment, and aviation. Volcanic plumes and associated eruption columns are a miasma of toxic gases, corrosive condensates, and abrasive particulates that makes them hazardous to nearby populations and poses a significant risk to all forms of aviation. Plumes also provide a mechanism for sampling the volcanic interior, which, for hydrothermal environments, may host unique biological populations.

  13. El Chichon - Composition of plume gases and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotra, J. P.; Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft measurements were made of trace gases, atmospheric particles, and condensed acid volatiles in the plume of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, in November 1982. Hydrogen sulfide was the primary gaseous sulfur species in the plume at the time of collection. Concentrations of 28 elements were determined by neutron activation analysis of particulate material from the plume. The volatile elements sulfur, chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, antimony, iodine, tungsten, and mercury were enriched relative to bulk pyroclastic material by factors of 60 to 20,000. Arsenic, antimony, and selenium were associated predominantly with small (not greater than 3 micrometer) particles. Calcium and sodium were present almost exclusively on larger particles and aluminum and manganese were bimodally distributed. Ashladen particulate material injected into the stratosphere during the early violent eruptions was enriched by factors of 10 to 30 relative to ash in some of the same elements observed in the quiescent plume.

  14. Small particles in plumes of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. I.; Chuan, R. L.; Woods, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Particles in the size range 0.1-25 microns were sampled by aircraft carrying a quartz crystal microcascade in the Mount St. Helens plume on three dates in August and September 1980. Two of the sampling dates represented 'typical' emissions of the volcano between plinian eruptions. One sampling flight was made 1-4 hours before the small plinian eruption of August 7, 1980 when the plume had become discontinuous and visibly darker. The plume sampled on August 7, before the eruption, contained mainly approximately 2-micron diameter silicic glass particles, fragments of the Mount St. Helens magma. The typical plumes sampled on September 22 and August 6 had much smaller concentrations of particles, trimodal size distributions with peaks at 10, 0.4, and 0.1 microns. The particles were largely nonsilicate and apparently represented Cu-Zn oxide (10 micron peak), Al sulfate, chloride, and oxide, and sulfuric acid (smallest size peak).

  15. The Milan photooxidant plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PréVôT, André S. H.; Staehelin, Johannes; Kok, Gregory L.; Schillawski, Richard D.; Neininger, Bruno; Staffelbach, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; Wernli, Heini; Dommen, Josef

    1997-10-01

    In Switzerland, measurement campaigns including aircraft measurements were carried out in the summers of 1992 and 1993 as part of the Pollution and Meteorology (POLLUMET) study. Ozone (O3) concentrations, up to 185 ppb, with a large spatial variability were found south of the Alps in the afternoon. Comparison to measurements north of the Alps shows that these concentration levels are extraordinarily high for central Europe. Backward trajectories reveal that the highest O3 levels were found 4-5 hours downwind of Milan, Italy. The measurements suggest a reactive organic gas (ROG) sensitive O3 production regime 1-3 hours downwind in the plume, and a NOx (sum of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) limitation in air masses not affected by the Milan plume. Air masses originating north of Milan are probably close to the transition zone between the two photochemical regimes. This was found by using measurements of total odd nitrogen (NOy,), NO, NO2, formaldehyde (HCHO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) yielding indicators for ROG and NOx sensitive O3 production. The slope of ozone versus NOz (=NOy-NOx: photochemical products of NOx) were markedly higher in NOx limited conditions (ΔO3/ΔNOz=13.6) than in air masses close to the transition zone (ΔO3/ΔNOz=4.2).

  16. Nuclear rocket plume studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Daniel

    1993-05-01

    A description and detailed computational analysis of a vortex cleaning system designed to remove radioactive material from the plumes of nuclear rockets is included. The proposed system is designed to remove both particulates and radioactive gaseous material from the plume. A two part computational model is used to examine the system's ability to remove particulates, and the results indicate that under some conditions, the system can remove over 99% of the particles in the flow. Two critical parameters which govern the effectiveness of the system are identified and the information necessary to estimate cleaning efficiencies for particles of known sizes and densities is provided. A simple steady analytical solution is also developed to examine the system's ability to remove gaseous radioactive material. This analysis, while inconclusive, suggests that the swirl rates necessary to achieve useful efficiencies are too high to be achieved in any practical manner. Therefore, this system is probably not suitable for use, with gaseous radioactive material. It was concluded that the system can cause negligible specific impulse losses, though there may be a substantial mass penalty associated with its use.

  17. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1993-01-01

    Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

  18. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production. PMID:27003793

  19. Bioproduction of volatile fatty acid from the fermentation of waste activated sludge for in situ denitritation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation integrated with denitritation (the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen gas) at different pHs was investigated in batch-mode reactors over a 24-day period. The results showed that in comparison with controlled pHs, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) bioproduction for in situ denitritation was significantly improved at uncontrolled pH. VFA fermented from WAS was quickly consumed by denitritation at uncontrolled pH, which accelerated sludge degradation. On the other hand, sludge digestion was benefited from the alkalinity produced from denitritation, while methanogenesis was prohibited by alkalinity and nitrite. The integrated sludge fermentation and denitritation can be cost-effectively applied to wastewater treatment plants, so that organic substrates (e.g., VFAs) are produced for denitritation via simultaneous sludge fermentation, which enables WAS reutilization and enhances nitrogen removal efficiency without the need of external carbon sources. PMID:26475401

  20. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  1. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  2. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of HNO3 which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion.

  3. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation.

  4. Selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards by a novel non-acid process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-08-30

    An environmental benign, non-acid process was successfully developed for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the process, palladium was firstly enriched during copper recovery procedure and dissolved in a special solution made of CuSO4 and NaCl. The dissolved palladium was then extracted by diisoamyl sulfide (S201). It was found that 99.4% of Pd(II) could be extracted from the solution under the optimum conditions (10% S201, A/O ratio 5 and 2min extraction). In the whole extraction process, the influence of base metals was negligible due to the relatively weak nucleophilic substitution of S201 with base metal irons and the strong steric hindrance of S201 molecular. Around 99.5% of the extracted Pd(II) could be stripped from S201/dodecane with 0.1mol/L NH3 after a two-stage stripping at A/O ratio of 1. The total recovery percentage of palladium was 96.9% during the dissolution-extraction-stripping process. Therefore, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards. PMID:25037000

  5. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, M. Madalena; Pereira, M. Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z.; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The position of high‐rate anaerobic technology (HR‐AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR‐AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment. PMID:21255287

  6. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  7. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  8. Separation of boric acid in liquid waste with anion exchange membrane contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Lee, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to separate boric acid in liquid waste, some possible technologies were investigated and the membrane contactor without dispersion and density differences was selected. The separation experiments on a Celgard 3401{reg_sign} hydrophilic microporous membrane contactor were first performed to obtain the basic data and to determine the properties of the contactor. The experimental conditions were as follows: boric acid concentrations up to 2.0 M, pH 7.0, temperatures of 25 and 55 C, and flow rates of 100, 300, 500, and 800 cm{sup 3}/min. Secondly, an AFN{reg_sign} anion exchange membrane contactor was tested at temperatures of 40 and 55 C and flow rate 400 cm{sup 3}/min. Boric acid solutions were prepared by the same method as that for Celgard 3401{reg_sign} but contained 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}4} M cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}). To simulate membrane contractors, parameters such as the differential diffusion coefficients of boric acid and the mass transfer coefficients in the AFN membrane were measured, and regression models estimating the diffusion coefficient at several conditions were developed. The Celgard 3401{reg_sign} membrane contactor was simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results agreed with the experimental data well when a proper correction factor was utilized. The correction factor was independent of the solution temperature and was 8.75 at the flow rates of 300--800 cm{sup 3}/min. This correction factor was also applied to simulate the AFN{reg_sign} resulted in a good agreement with experiment at 40 C, but not 55 C. The retention on cobalt was also better at 40 c than 55 C. The simulating computer program was also applied to a life size contactor designed conceptually.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted dilute acid hydrolysis of tea processing waste for production of fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Germec, Mustafa; Tarhan, Kübra; Yatmaz, Ercan; Tetik, Nedim; Karhan, Mustafa; Demirci, Ali; Turhan, Irfan

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials that are the most abundant plant biomass in the world have the potential to become sustainable sources of the produced value added products. Tea processing waste (TPW) is a good lignocellulosic source to produce the value added products from fermentable sugars (FSs). Therefore, the present study is undertaken to produce FSs by using ultrasound-assisted dilute acid (UADA) and dilute acid (DA) hydrolysis of TPW followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. UADA hydrolysis of TPW was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) at maximum power (900 W) for 2 h. The optimum conditions were determined as 50°C, 1:6 (w/v) solid:liquid ratio, and 1% (w/v) DA concentration, which yielded 20.34 g/L FS concentration. Furthermore, its DA hydrolysis was also optimized by using RSM for comparison and the optimized conditions were found as 120°C, 1:8 solid:liquid ratio, and 1% acid concentration, which produced 25.3 g/L FS yield. Even though the produced sugars with UADA hydrolysis are slightly less, but it can provide significant cost saving due to the lower temperature requirement and less liquid consumption. Besides, enzymatic hydrolysis applied after pretreatments of TPW were very more economic than the conventional enzymatic hydrolysis in the literature due to shorter time requiring. In conclusion, ultrasound-assisted is a promising technology that can be successfully applied for hydrolysis of biomass and can be an alternative to the other hydrolysis procedures and also TPW can be considered as suitable carbon source for the production of value-added products like biofuels, organic acids, and polysaccharides. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:393-403, 2016. PMID:26749037

  10. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

  11. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  12. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  13. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis. PMID:20368458

  14. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes

    PubMed Central

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis. PMID:20368458

  15. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  16. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  17. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals". PMID:25915068

  18. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, 2.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  19. Formation, Dynamics, and Impact of Plasmaspheric Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Jerry; Borovsky, Joseph; Foster, John; Carpenter, Donald

    2007-06-01

    Workshop on Plasmaspheric Drainage Plumes, Taos, New Mexico, 9-13 October 2006 Plasmaspheric plumes result from erosion of the plasmasphere. The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) Workshop on Plasmaspheric Drainage Plumes was convened in Taos, N. M., on 9-13 October 2006 to examine outstanding questions about the formation and dynamics of plumes, and the impact of plumes on the near-Earth space environment (geospace). A second workshop on plasmaspheric drainage plumes is planned for late 2007.

  20. Recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum and utilization for remediation of acid mine drainage from coal mines.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Radebe, V

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum (a waste product of the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process) was tested using sodium carbonate. Batch recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum slurries by reacting with sodium carbonate under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of CaCO(3) recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effect of key process parameters, such as the slurry concentration (%) and the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum were considered. It was observed that batch waste gypsum conversion significantly increased with decrease in the slurry concentration or increase in the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench-scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22828309

  1. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles. PMID:23240206

  2. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. PMID:25708409

  3. Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2014-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. PMID:25127412

  4. ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

  5. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  6. Efficient conversion of polyamides to ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids: a new method for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Ikeda, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shuzo; Kato, Kazunari; Akinari, Yugo; Sugimoto, Tsunemi; Kashiwagi, Kohichi; Kaiso, Kouji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    An efficient transformation of polyamides to ω-hydroxy alkanoic acids was achieved. Treatment of nylon-12 with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid gave methyl ω-hydroxydodecanoate in 85% yield and the alcohol/alkene selectivity in the product was enhanced to up to 9.5:1. The use of (18)O-enriched acetic acid for the reaction successfully introduced an (18)O atom at the alcoholic OH group in the product. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for the chemical recycling of waste plastics. PMID:25044218

  7. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  8. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed. PMID:26913642

  9. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  10. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. PMID:26898679

  11. Increase of Unsaturated Fatty Acids (Low Melting Point) of Broiler Fatty Waste Obtained Through Staphylococcus xylosus Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger V; Duval, Eduarda H; Corrêa, Luciara B; Corrêa, Érico K

    2015-11-01

    The increasing rise in the production of meat around the world causes a significant generation of agro-industrial waste--most of it with a low value added. Fatty wastes have the potential of being converted into biodiesel, given the overcome of technological and economical barriers, as well as its presentation in solid form. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of Staphylococcus xylosus strains to modify the chemical structure of chicken fatty wastes intending to reduce the melting points of the wastes to mild temperatures, thereby breaking new ground in the production of biodiesel from these sources in an economically attractive and sustainable manner. The effects in time of fermentation and concentration of the fat in the medium were investigated, assessing the melting point and profile of fatty acids. The melting temperature showed a decrease of approximately 22 °C in the best operational conditions, due to reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids (high melting point) and increase of unsaturated fatty acids (low melting point). PMID:26289722

  12. Acidic minespoil reclamation with AFBC by-product and yard-waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.C. [OARDC Dick, W.A.; Lal, R.

    1996-12-31

    Economic and environmental incentives to reduce solid waste volumes have spurred interest in the development of beneficial uses for urban and industrial by-products. This project investigated the reclamation efficacy and impacts on soil and water quality of two such materials: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) by-product and yard-waste compost. Six 1-acre watersheds were constructed on acidic abandoned mined land spoil (pH range 3.5 to 4.5) Two watersheds each were then reclaimed with 8 in of borrow soil, 125 tons/acre of AFBC, or 125 tons/acre of AFBC and 50 tons/acre of compost, and planted with a grass-legume seed mix. Watersheds were instrumented to record hydrographs of storm-water runoff events, measure erosion, and collect samples of surface- and percolate-water flow. One year after reclamation the AFBC and AFBC+ compost treatments compared favorably with the traditional resoil reclamation practice. Spoil pH in the 0 to 4 in depth was increased to the range 6 to 8 which was similar to the resoil pH, and complete vegetative cover was successfully established on all watersheds. However, plant biomass production was approximately 2 times larger on the resoiled watersheds than on the amended spoil. Consequently, erosion was smallest on the resoiled watersheds. All three reclamation treatments increased runoff water pH to >7 and decreased soluble Al. Concentrations of Ca and S were larger in runoff- and percolate-water samples from AFBC-treated watersheds than from the resoiled watersheds. Trace element concentrations in all water samples remained very low and showed almost no treatment effects.

  13. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) plume and plume effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to characterize the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) propulsion and attitude control system engine exhaust plumes and predict the resultant plume impingement pressure, heat loads, forces, and moments. Detailed description is provided of the OMV gaseous nitrogen (GN2) thruster exhaust plume flow field characteristics calculated with the RAMP2 snd SFPGEN computer codes. Brief descriptions are included of the two models, GN2 thruster characteristics and RAMP2 input data files. The RAMP2 flow field could be recalculated by other organizations using the information presented. The GN2 flow field can be readily used by other organizations who are interested in GN2 plume induced environments which require local flow field properties which can be supplied using the SFPGEN GN2 model.

  14. Bioremediation of Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD) through organic carbon amendment by municipal sewage and green waste.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Pit lakes (abandoned flooded mine pits) represent a potentially valuable water resource in hot arid regions. However, pit lake water is often characterised by low pH with high dissolved metal concentrations resulting from Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD). Addition of organic matter to pit lakes to enhance microbial sulphate reduction is a potential cost effective remediation strategy. However, cost and availability of suitable organic substrates are often limiting. Nevertheless, large quantities of sewage and green waste (organic garden waste) are often available at mine sites from nearby service towns. We treated AMD pit lake water (pH 2.4) from tropical, North Queensland, Australia, with primary-treated sewage sludge, green waste, and a mixture of sewage and green waste (1:1) in a controlled microcosm experiment (4.5 L). Treatments were assessed at two different rates of organic loading of 16:1 and 32:1 pit water:organic matter by mass. Combined green waste and sewage treatment was the optimal treatment with water pH increased to 5.5 in only 145 days with decreases of dissolved metal concentrations. Results indicated that green waste was a key component in the pH increase and concomitant heavy metal removal. Water quality remediation was primarily due to microbially-mediated sulphate reduction. The net result of this process was removal of sulphate and metal solutes to sediment mainly as monosulfides. During the treatment process NH(3) and H(2)S gases were produced, albeit at below concentrations of concern. Total coliforms were abundant in all green waste-treatments, however, faecal coliforms were absent from all treatments. This study demonstrates addition of low-grade organic materials has promise for bioremediation of acidic waters and warrants further experimental investigation into feasibility at higher scales of application such as pit lakes. PMID:21616580

  15. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles. PMID:11993889

  16. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor. PMID:27040090

  17. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid. PMID:27431730

  18. Effect of phosphoric acid as a catalyst on the hydrothermal pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Kun; Yin, Jun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Xiaoqin

    2016-05-01

    The hydrothermal method was applied to food waste (FW) pretreatment with phosphoric acid as a catalyst. The content of soluble substances such as protein and carbohydrate in the FW increased after the hydrothermal pretreatment with phosphoric acid addition (⩽5%). The SCOD approached approximately 29.0g/L in 5% phosphoric acid group, which is almost 65% more than the original FW. The hydrothermal condition was 160°C for 10min, which means that at least 40% of energy and 60% of reaction time were saved to achieve the expected pretreatment effect. Subsequent fermentation tests showed that the optimal dosage of phosphoric acid was 3% with a VFA yield of 0.763g/gVSremoval, but the increase in salinity caused by phosphoric acid could adversely affect the acidogenesis. With an increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid, among the VFAs, the percentage of propionic acid decreased and that of butyric acid increased. The PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the microbial diversity could decrease with excessive phosphoric acid, which resulted in a low VFA yield. PMID:26965213

  19. COMPARING AND LINKING PLUMES ACROSS MODELING APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    River plumes carry many pollutants, including microorganisms, into lakes and the coastal ocean. The physical scales of many stream and river plumes often lie between the scales for mixing zone plume models, such as the EPA Visual Plumes model, and larger-sized grid scales for re...

  20. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes: synthesis, characterization and application

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J G; Baumann, T F; Nelson, A J; Fox, G A

    2000-07-21

    Removal of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg{sup 2+} extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl-1,4,8,11,14-pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg{sup 2+} was determined to be 95% at a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg{sup 2+}, even in the presence of high concentrations of competing ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The bound Hg{sup 2+} ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity. The binding of Hg{sup 2+} to the polymer has been examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The thiacrown appears unaffected by incorporation into the polymer and the Hg{sup 2+} appears to be bound to the polymer complex in a similar manner as Hg{sup 2+} is bound in monomeric thiacrowns containing five sulfur atoms.

  1. Waste nitrogen excretion via amino acid acylation: benzoate and phenylacetate in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Simell, O; Sipilä, I; Rajantie, J; Valle, D L; Brusilow, S W

    1986-11-01

    Benzoate and phenylacetate improve prognosis in inherited urea cycle enzyme deficiencies by increasing waste nitrogen excretion as amino acid acylation products. We studied metabolic changes caused by these substances and their pharmacokinetics in a biochemically different urea cycle disorder, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), under strictly standardized induction of hyperammonemia. Five patients with LPI received an intravenous infusion of 6.6 mmol/kg L-alanine alone and separately with 2.0 mmol/kg of benzoate or phenylacetate in 90 min. Blood for ammonia, serum urea and creatinine, plasma benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, and amino acids was obtained at 0, 120, 180, and 270 min. Urine was collected in four consecutive 6-h periods. Alanine caused hyperammonemia: maximum increase 107, 28-411 microM (geometric mean, 95% confidence interval); ammonia increments were nearly identical after alanine + benzoate (60, 17-213 microM) and alanine + phenylacetate (79, 13-467 microM) (NS). Mean plasma benzoate was 6.0 mM when extrapolated to the end of alanine + benzoate infusions; phenylacetate was 4.9 mM at the end of alanine + phenylacetate. Transient toxicity (dizziness, nausea, vomiting) occurred in four patients at the end of combined infusions, and we suggest upper therapeutic plasma concentrations of 4.5 mM for benzoate and 3.5 mM for phenylacetate. Benzoate and phenylacetate then decreased following first-order kinetics with t1/2S of 273 and 254 min, respectively. Maximal plasma hippurate (0.24, 0.14-0.40 mM) was lower than maximal phenylacetylglutamine (0.48, 0.22-1.06 mM, p = 0.008).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3099249

  2. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. PMID:25218204

  3. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  4. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production of waste activated sludge under salinity conditions: Performance and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are essential for removing biological nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether and how the addition of NaCl could improve the production of VFAs from waste activated sludge (WAS). Sludge solubilization was efficiently improved by the addition of NaCl. Both protein and carbohydrate in the fermentation liquid increased with the dosage of NaCl, and it provided a larger amount of organic compounds for the production of the VFAs. NaCl had inhibitory effects on the production of methane and a high dosage of NaCl could severely suppress the growth of methanogens, which decreased the consumption of the VFAs. Consequently, the production of VFAs was significantly enhanced by the addition of NaCl. The maximum production of VFAs was achieved with the highest dosage of NaCl (3316 mg (COD)/L at the NaCl dosage 0.5 mol/L; 783 mg (COD)/L without the addition of NaCl). Therefore, this study indicates that using NaCl could be an efficient method for improving the production of VFAs from WAS. PMID:26320405

  5. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  6. Removal of acid blue 062 on aqueous solution using calcinated colemanite ore waste.

    PubMed

    Atar, Necip; Olgun, Asim

    2007-07-19

    Colemanite ore waste (CW) has been employed as adsorbent for the removal of acid blue 062 anionic dye (AB 062) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of AB 062 onto CW was examined with respect to contact time, calcination temperature, particle size, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The physical and chemical properties of the CW, such as particle sizes and calcinations temperature, play important roles in dye adsorption. The dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 1. Three simplified kinetics models, namely, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion models were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms. The kinetic adsorption of AB 062 on CW follows a pseudo-second order equation. The adsorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results indicate that the Langmuir model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Isotherms have also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the adsorption of dye onto CW. PMID:17197077

  7. Biosorption of clofibric acid and carbamazepine in aqueous solution by agricultural waste rice straw.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanguang; Zhou, Xuefei; Chen, Xiaohua; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Yalei

    2013-12-01

    Due to their widespread use, clofibric acid (CA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have been frequently detected simultaneously at relatively high concentrations in aquatic environments. In this study, agricultural waste rice straw was employed as a potentially low-cost, effective and easy-to-operate biosorbent (RSB) to remove CA and CBZ. The adsorption of both pharmaceuticals followed pseudo second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion was an important rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherms of both drugs were fit well with Freundlich model. The adsorption of CA onto RSB was exothermic and was more likely to be dominated by physical processes, while the adsorption of CBZ was endothermic. Solution pH was determined to be the most important factor for CA adsorption, such that the adsorption capacity of CA onto RSB increased with the decline of solution pH. In the lower range of solution pH below 3.1, the CA removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of biosorbent dosage. The CBZ removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of RSB dosage without pH control. The maximum adsorption capacities were 126.3 mg/g for CA and 40.0 mg/g for CBZ. PMID:24649668

  8. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  9. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

  10. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching - A response surface modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Swagat S.; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P.S.; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Mishra, B.K.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sentences/phrases were modified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necessary discussions for different figures were included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More discussion have been included on the flue gas analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Queries to both the reviewers have been given. - Abstract: The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  11. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. PMID:23465722

  12. Evaluation of combustion processes for destruction of liquid organic wastes in a sulfuric-acid regeneration furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchida, P.

    1985-11-01

    The test mechanism, efforts, and results associated with incineration of liquid organic wastes in a sulfuric-acid regeneration furnace are described in the report. Industrial wastes representing those to be ultimately processed, if the system is acceptable, were not available or could not be clearly characterized as to chemical nature. A synthetic, or surrogate, mix was therefore burned with the alkylation acid to allow an analysis of potential emissions to be made. The tests conducted were broken down into three categories based on furnace operating conditions: base line (spent alkylation acid, only, being fed into the furnace under typical operating conditions); normal (spent alkylation acid spiked with the synthetic mix fed into the furnace under typical operating conditions) and; low O/sub 2/ (spent alkylation acid spiked with the synthetic mix fed into the furnace operating at nonstandard, or failure mode, conditions of low O/sub 2/ and low temperature). These test conditions helped established an operating envelope within which efficient combustion could be assured.

  13. Active Volcanic Plumes on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This color image, acquired during Galileo's ninth orbit around Jupiter, shows two volcanic plumes on Io. One plume was captured on the bright limb or edge of the moon (see inset at upper right), erupting over a caldera (volcanic depression) named Pillan Patera after a South American god of thunder, fire and volcanoes. The plume seen by Galileo is 140 kilometers (86 miles) high and was also detected by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Galileo spacecraft will pass almost directly over Pillan Patera in 1999 at a range of only 600 kilometers (373 miles).

    The second plume, seen near the terminator (boundary between day and night), is called Prometheus after the Greek fire god (see inset at lower right). The shadow of the 75-kilometer (45- mile) high airborne plume can be seen extending to the right of the eruption vent. The vent is near the center of the bright and dark rings. Plumes on Io have a blue color, so the plume shadow is reddish. The Prometheus plume can be seen in every Galileo image with the appropriate geometry, as well as every such Voyager image acquired in 1979. It is possible that this plume has been continuously active for more than 18 years. In contrast, a plume has never been seen at Pillan Patera prior to the recent Galileo and Hubble Space Telescope images.

    North is toward the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) per picture element. This composite uses images taken with the green, violet and near infrared filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The images were obtained on June 28, 1997, at a range of more than 600,000 kilometers (372,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page

  14. Biocatalytic properties of a peroxidase-active cell-free extract from onion solid wastes: caffeic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Ayman; Abbeddou, Souheila; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2009-04-01

    The exploitation of food residual sources consists of a major factor in reducing the polluting load of food industry wastes and developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bio-organic molecules with potential phytotoxicity, including hydrolases, peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained interest in studies pertaining to bioremediation applications, plant enzymes have been given less attention or even disregarded. In this view, this study aimed at the investigating the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from onion solid by-products for oxidising caffeic acid, a widespread o-diphenol, whose various derivatives may occur in food industry wastes, such as olive mill waste waters. Increased enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 5, but considerable activity was also retained for pH up to 7. Favourable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated caffeic acid solution revealed the existence of a tetramer as major oxidation product. Based on the data generated, a putative pathway for the formation of the peroxidase-mediated caffeic acid tetramer was proposed. PMID:18670892

  15. THE STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF SOLAR PLUMES: NETWORK PLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, A.; Tison, E.; Bely-Dubau, F.; Wilhelm, K.

    2009-07-20

    This study is based upon plumes seen close to the solar limb within coronal holes in the emission from ions formed in the temperature region of 1 MK, in particular, the band of Fe IX 171 A from EIT on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. It is shown, using geometric arguments, that two distinct classes of structure contribute to apparently similar plume observations. Quasi-cylindrical structures are anchored in discrete regions of the solar surface (beam plumes), and faint extended structures require integration along the line of sight (LOS) in order to reproduce the observed brightness. This second category, sometimes called 'curtains', are ubiquitous within the polar holes and are usually more abundant than the beam plumes, which depend more on the enhanced magnetic structures detected at their footpoints. It is here proposed that both phenomena are based on plasma structures in which emerging magnetic loops interact with ambient monopolar fields, involving reconnection. The important difference is in terms of physical scale. It is proposed that curtains are composed of a large number of microplumes, distributed along the LOS. The supergranule network provides the required spatial structure. It is shown by modeling that the observations can be reproduced if microplumes are concentrated within some 5 Mm of the cell boundaries. For this reason, we propose to call this second population 'network plumes'. The processes involved could represent a major contribution to the heating mechanism of the solar corona.

  16. OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN TWO LANDFILL LEACHATE PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in leachate plumes of two sanitary landfills was established by using multilevel sampling devices. The majority of the compounds originated from decomposing plant material and included aliphatic and aromatic acids, phenols, and ...

  17. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH<2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 μg/L), Pb and Zn (20 μg/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1-5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5% w/w) which were more basic (pH>9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation. PMID:23740301

  18. Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 2. Mass balance and biodegradation indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.; Devlin, John F.; Butler, Barbara J.

    1999-10-01

    A source of coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. A mass balance indicated that ongoing transformation occurred for seven study compounds. Phenol migrated as a discrete slug plume and almost completely disappeared after 2 years, after being completely leached from the source early in the study. The m-xylene plume migrated outward to a maximum distance at approximately 2 years, and then receded back towards the source as the rate of mass flux out of the source decreased to below the overall rate of plume transformation. Carbazole showed similar behaviour, although the reversal in plume development occurred more slowly. The dibenzofuran plume remained relatively constant in extent and mass over the last 2 years of monitoring, despite constant source input over this period, providing evidence that the dibenzofuran plume was at steady state. Meanwhile, the naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene plumes continued to advance and increase in mass over the observation period, although at a decreasing rate. The phenanthrene plume was also subject to transformation, although measurement of the rate was less conclusive due to the higher proportion of sorbed mass for this compound. Three lines of evidence are presented to evaluate whether the observed plume mass loss was due to microbial biodegradation. Measurement of redox-sensitive parameters in the vicinity of the plume showed the types of changes that would be expected to occur due to plume biodegradation: dissolved oxygen and SO 42- decreased in groundwater within the plume while significant increases were noted for Fe 2+, Mn 2+ and methane. Further evidence that plume mass loss was microbially-mediated was provided by the accumulation of aromatic acids within the plume. Measurements of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in aquifer material indicated that microbial biomass and turnover rate were greater within the plume

  19. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  20. Isolation and characterization of potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from freshwater fish processing wastes for application in fermentative utilisation of fish processing waste.

    PubMed

    R, Jini; Hc, Swapna; Rai, Amit Kumar; R, Vrinda; Pm, Halami; Nm, Sachindra; N, Bhaskar

    2011-10-01

    Proteolytic and/or lipolytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from visceral wastes of different fresh water fishes. LAB count was found to be highest in case of visceral wastes of Mrigal (5.88 log cfu/g) and lowest in that of tilapia (4.22 log cfu/g). Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the selected LAB isolates were carried out. Two isolates FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM5368) showed both proteolytic and lipolytic properties. All the six native isolates selected for characterization showed antagonistic properties against several human pathogens. All the native isolates were sensitive to antibiotics cephalothin and clindamycin; and, resistant to cotrimoxazole and vancomycin. Considering individually, P. acidilactici FM37, P. acidilactici MW2 and E. faecalis FD3 were sensitive to erythromycin. The two strains FJ1 (E. faecalis NCIM 5367) and LP3 (P. acidilactici NCIM 5368) that had both proteolytic and lipolytic properties have the potential for application in fermentative recovery of lipids and proteins from fish processing wastes. PMID:24031786

  1. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  2. Remediation of acid mine drainage within strip mine spoil by sulfate reduction using waste organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.; Rose, A.W.; Michaud, L.H.

    1996-12-31

    Many treatment options for AMD, like wetlands and anoxic limestone drains, are limited by acidity, metal loadings, flow rate or areal requirements so as to be inapplicable at many sites. In-situ bacterial sulfate reduction is proposed as a solution for certain settings. Requirements for successful in-situ bacterial sulfate reduction include dissolved sulfate, an organic substrate, permanent anaerobic conditions, a mixed culture of bacteria, appropriate nutrients, and a sufficient AMD contact time. These requirements can be provided within mine spoil by injection of waste organic matter into an extensive zone of saturated spoil. Laboratory experiments on cheese whey, lactate, non-degraded sawdust, partially degraded sawdust, pulped newspaper and mushroom compost have all yielded sulfate reduction, increased alkalinity and iron sulfide precipitate in AMD with pH < 4.0. The addition of a small amount of dolomite to the organic matter creates alkaline microenvironments that facilitate the initiation of sulfate reduction. The rates of sulfate reduction using cellulose materials are slow but the rate for milk products is much more rapid. A field test utilizing partially degraded sawdust is underway. A total of 11.3 tons of sawdust mixed with 5% dolomite, 5% sewage sludge and a mixed bacterial culture was successfully injected into 4 drill holes in mine spoil as 13% w/v suspension, The spoil had enough coarse porosity for injection into the saturated subsurface at about 300 L/min, Data on in-situ SO{sub 4} reduction rates and water quality are being collected in preparation for a full remediation program at the site, which has an extensive zone of saturated spoil 10-20 m thick.

  3. Tomographic reconstruction of polar plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchère, F.; Guennou, C.; Barbey, N.

    2012-06-01

    We present a tomographic reconstruction of polar plumes as observed in the Extreme Ultraviolet in January 2010. Plumes are elusive structures visible in polar coronal holes that may play an important role in the acceleration of the solar wind. However, despite numerous observations, little is irrefutably known about them. Because of line of sight effects, even their geometry is subject to debate. Are they genuine cylindrical features of the corona or are they only chance alignments along the line of sight? Tomography provides a means to reconstruct the volume of an optically thin object from a set of observations taken from different vantage points. In the case of the Sun, these are typically obtained by using a solar rotation worth of images, which limits the ability to reconstruct short lived structures. We present here a tomographic inversion of the solar corona obtained using only 6 days of data. This is achieved by using simultaneously three space telescopes (EUVI/STEREO and SWAP/PROBA2) in a very specific orbital configuration. The result is the shortest possible tomographic snapshot of polar plumes. The 3D reconstruction shows both quasi-cylindrical plumes and a network pattern that can mimic them by line of sight superimpositions. This suggests that the controversy on plume geometry is due to the coexistence of both types of structures.

  4. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  5. Imaging Nuclear Waste Plumes at the Hanford Site using Large Domain 3D High Resolution Resistivity Methods and the New Parallel-Processing EarthImager3DCL Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, J.; Rucker, D.; Levitt, M.; Yang, X.; Lagmanson, M.

    2007-12-01

    High Resolution Resistivity data is currently used by hydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc to detect and characterize the distribution of suspected contaminant plumes beneath leaking tanks and disposal sites within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, in Eastern Washington State. The success of the characterization effort has led to resistivity data acquisition in extremely large survey areas exceeding 0.6 km2 and containing over 6,000 electrodes. Optimal data processing results are achieved by utilizing 105 data points within a single finite difference or finite element model domain. The large number of measurements and electrodes and high resolution of the modeling domain requires a model mesh of over 106 nodes. Existing commercially available resistivity inversion software could not support the domain size due to software and hardware limitations. hydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc teamed with Advanced Geosciences, Inc to advance the existing EarthImager3D inversion software to allow for parallel-processing and large memory support under a 64 bit operating system. The basis for the selection of EarthImager3D is demonstrated with a series of verification tests and benchmark comparisons using synthetic test models, field scale experiments and 6 months of intensive modeling using an array of multi-processor servers. The results of benchmark testing show equivalence to other industry standard inversion codes that perform the same function on significantly smaller domain models. hydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc included the use of 214 steel-cased monitoring wells as "long electrodes", 6000 surface electrodes and 8 buried point source electrodes. Advanced Geosciences, Inc. implemented a long electrode modeling function to support the Hanford Site well casing data. This utility is unique to commercial resistivity inversion software, and was evaluated through a series of laboratory and field scale tests using engineered subsurface plumes. The Hanford site is an ideal proving ground for these methods due

  6. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  7. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  8. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  9. Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

    2007-08-20

    In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology

  10. Simulation of Europa's water plume .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Cremonese, G.; Schneider, N. M.; Plainaki, C.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Plumes on Europa would be extremely interesting science and mission targets, particularly due to the unique opportunity to obtain direct information on the subsurface composition, thereby addressing Europa's potential habitability. The existence of water plume on the Jupiter's moon Europa has been long speculated until the recent discover. HST imaged surpluses of hydrogen Lyman alpha and oxygen emissions above the southern hemisphere in December 2012 that are consistent with two 200 km high plumes of water vapor (Roth et al. 2013). In previous works ballistic cryovolcanism has been considered and modeled as a possible mechanism for the formation of low-albedo features on Europa's surface (Fagents et al. 2000). Our simulation agrees with the model of Fagents et al. (2000) and consists of icy particles that follow ballistic trajectories. The goal of such an analysis is to define the height, the distribution and the extension of the icy particles falling on the moon's surface as well as the thickness of the deposited layer. We expect to observe high albedo regions in contrast with the background albedo of Europa surface since we consider that material falling after a cryovolcanic plume consists of snow. In order to understand if this phenomenon is detectable we convert the particles deposit in a pixel image of albedo data. We consider also the limb view of the plume because, even if this detection requires optimal viewing geometry, it is easier detectable in principle against sky. Furthermore, we are studying the loss rates due to impact electron dissociation and ionization to understand how these reactions decrease the intensity of the phenomenon. We expect to obtain constraints on imaging requirements necessary to detect potential plumes that could be useful for ESA's JUICE mission, and in particular for the JANUS camera (Palumbo et al. 2014).

  11. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds. PMID:26498818

  12. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  13. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  14. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  15. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  16. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Hsu, John; Barber, L. B.

    2001-10-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community.

  17. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected. PMID:22717063

  18. Ash iron mobilization in volcanic eruption plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~150 and ~50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (>95% of HCl, 3-20% of SO2 and 12-62% of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1 to 33% of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

  19. Dynamics of laser ablated colliding plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shyam L.; Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-01-15

    We report the dynamics of single and two collinearly colliding laser ablated plumes of ZnO studied using fast imaging and the spectroscopic measurements. Two dimensional imaging of expanding plume and temporal evolution of various species in interacting zones of plumes are used to calculate plume front velocity, electron temperature, and density of plasma. The two expanding plumes interact with each other at early stage of expansion ({approx}20 ns) resulting in an interaction zone that propagates further leading to the formation of stagnation layer at later times (>150 ns) at the lateral collision front of two plumes. Colliding plumes have larger concentration of higher ionic species, higher temperature, and increased electron density in the stagnation region. A one-to-one correlation between the imaging and optical emission spectroscopic observations in interaction zone of the colliding plumes is reported.

  20. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  1. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-03-11

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume.

  2. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  3. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis. PMID:25697695

  4. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product. PMID:18930006

  5. Kinetic modeling, production and characterization of an acidic lipase produced by Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 from fish waste.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 (ED-27), capable of producing an intracellular acid stable lipase, was isolated from fish processing waste. Its growth and subsequent lipase production was optimized by Box Behneken design (optimized conditions: 5 % v/v fish waste oil (FWO), 0.10 mg/ml fish waste protein hydrolysates (FWPH) at 48 h of fermentation time). Under optimized conditions, ED-27 showed a 3.0 fold increase (207.6 U/ml to 612.53 U/ml) in lipase production, as compared to un-optimized conditions. Cell growth and lipase production was modeled using Logistic and Luedeking-Piret model, respectively; and lipase production by ED-27 was found to be growth-associated. Lipase produced by ED-27 showed stability at low pH ranges from 2 to 5 with its optimal activity at 30 °C , pH 4.6; showed metal ion dependent activity wherein its catalytic activity was activated by barium, sodium, lithium and potassium (10 mM); reduced by calcium and magnesium (10 mM). However, iron and mercury (5 mM) completely inactivated the enzyme. In addition, modifying agents like SDS, DTT, β-ME (1%v/v) increased activity of lipase of ED-27; while, PMSF, DEPC and ascorbic acid resulted in a marked decrease. ED-27 had maximum cell growth of 9.90309 log CFU/ml under optimized conditions as compared to 13 log CFU/ml in MRS. The lipase produced has potential application in poultry and slaughterhouse waste management. PMID:25745201

  6. Smoke Plume Over Eastern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In late May, a massive smoke plume hundreds of kilometers across blew eastward over New Brunswick toward the Atlantic Ocean. On May 26, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image at 11:40 a.m. local time. By the time MODIS took this picture, the smoke appeared to have completely detached itself from the source, a large fire burning in southwestern Quebec, beyond the western edge of this image. In this image, the smoke appears as a gray-beige opaque mass with fuzzy, translucent edges. The plume is thickest in the southwest and diminishes toward the northeast. Just southwest of the plume is a red outline indicating a hotspot an area where MODIS detected anomalously warm surface temperatures, such as those resulting from fires. This hotspot, however, is not the source for this smoke plume. According to a bulletin from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the southwestern Quebec fire was the source. According to reports from the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre on May 29, that fire was estimated at 63,211 hectares (156,197 acres), and it was classified as 'being held.' At the same time, more than 20 wildfires burned in Quebec, news sources reported, and firefighters from other Canadian provinces and the United States had been brought in to provide reinforcements for the area's firefighters.

  7. ASRM plume deflector analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Michael C.; Douglas, Freddie, III; Orlin, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents analytical conclusions resulting from subscale solid rocket motor tests and flowfield modeling for a plume deflector. Loads, flow characteristics, and corresponding material behavior were predicted or observed and will be used in final design of the deflector. The efforts resulted in quantifiable size reductions and lower cost material selections, which will significantly reduce the deflector cost while meeting performance requirements.

  8. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments

  9. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, J.H.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

  10. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  11. Downwelling wind, tides, and estuarine plume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Huang, Mingfen; Chen, Changsheng; Chen, Yong; Xie, Congbin; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2016-06-01

    The estuarine plume dynamics under a downwelling-favorable wind condition were examined in the windy dry season of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using the PRE primitive-equation Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The wind and tide-driven estuarine circulation had a significant influence on the plume dynamics on both local and remote scales. Specifically, the local effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was similar to the theoretical descriptions of coastal plumes, narrowing the plume width, and setting up a vertically uniform downstream current at the plume edge. Tides tended to reduce these plume responses through local turbulent mixing and advection from upstream regions, resulting in an adjustment of the isohalines in the plume and a weakening of the vertically uniform downstream current. The remote effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was due to the wind-induced estuarine sea surface height (SSH), which strengthened the estuarine circulation and enhanced the plume transport accordingly. Associated with these processes, tide-induced mixing tended to weaken the SSH gradient and thus the estuarine circulation over a remote influence scale. Overall, the typical features of downwelling-favorable wind-driven estuarine plumes revealed in this study enhanced our understanding of the estuarine plume dynamics under downwelling-favorable wind conditions.

  12. Types of thermal plumes in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, T.; Madding, R.; Scarpace, F.

    1977-01-01

    A large number of thermal images of the surface temperatures of the thermal plumes associated with the once-through cooling of electric power plants show that four kinds of plume occur sufficiently often to be classified as distinct plume types. Each type has implications for both numerical models and measurement strategies.

  13. Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-15

    The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26μgL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7μgL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health. PMID:24686145

  14. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  15. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes. PMID:26246275

  16. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  17. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  18. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-05-01

    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition. PMID:20096564

  19. Detection of Metallic Compounds in Rocket Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Chris; Dunn, Dr. Robert

    1998-04-01

    Recent experiments using metal mixed in hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) fuel grains in small hybrid rocket indicates ion detectors may be effective in detection of metallic compounds in rocket plumes. We wanted to ascertain the extent to which the presence of metallic compounds in rocket plumes could be detected using ion probes and Gaussian rings. Charges that collide with or pass near the intruding probe are detected. Gaussian rings, short insulated cylindrical Gaussian surfaces, enclose the plume without intruding into the plume. Charges in the plume are detected by currents they induce in the cylinder.

  20. Liquid Booster Module (LBM) plume flowfield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    A complete definition of the LBM plume is important for many Shuttle design criteria. The exhaust plume shape has a significant effect on the vehicle base pressure. The LBM definition is also important to the Shuttle base heating, aerodynamics and the influence of the exhaust plume on the launch stand and environment. For these reasons a knowledge of the LBM plume characteristics is necessary. A definition of the sea level LBM plume as well as at several points along the Shuttle trajectory to LBM, burnout is presented.

  1. Transition Flow Effects On Plume Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgin, James B.

    1983-07-01

    A calculational comparison of a free molecular plume code (HAPAIR: High Altitude Plume-Atmosphere Interaction Radiation) and a Monte-Carlo Plume Code (TRAMP: Transitional and Rarefied Axisymmetric Monte-carlo Plume) is made for a selected sequence of cases going from a free molecular (Kn = 15) to a highl transitional (Kn = 0.07) flow regime. Results are presented which document the breakdown of free molecular flow assumptions in the transition regime and show the effect on the critical physical processes responsible for plume emission.

  2. Compositional differentiation of Enceladus' plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, N.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on board the Cassini spacecraft sampled Enceladus' plume ice particles emanated directly from Enceladus' fractured south polar terrain (SPT), the so-called "Tiger Stripes", during two consecutive flybys (E17 and E18) in 2012. The spacecraft passed through the dense plume with a moderate velocity of ~7.5km/s, horizontally to the SPT with a closest approach (CA) at an altitude of ~75km almost directly over the south pole. In both flybys, spectra were recorded during a time interval of ~ ±3 minutes with respect to the closest approach achieving an average sampling rate of about 0.6 sec-1. We assume that the spacecraft passed through the plume during an interval of about ±60(sec) from the CA. Particles encountered before and after this period are predominately from the E-ring background in which Enceladus is embedded. Most CDA TOF-mass spectra are identified as one of three compositional types: (i) almost pure water (ii) organic rich and (iii) salt rich [2]. A Boxcar Analysis (BCA) is performed from a count database for compositional mapping of the plume along the space-craft trajectory. In BCA, counts of each spectrum type are integrated for a certain interval of time (box size). The integral of counts represents frequencies of compositional types in absolute abundances, which are converted later into proportions. This technique has been proven to be a suitable for inferring the compositional profiles from an earlier flyby (E5) [1]. The inferred compositional profiles show similar trends on E17 and E18. The abundances of different compositional types in the plume clearly differ from the Ering background and imply a compositional differentiation inside the plume. Following up the work of Schmidt et al, 2008 and Postberg et al, 2011 we can link different compositional types to different origins. The E17/E18 results are compared with the E5 flyby in 2008, which yielded the currently best compositional profile [2] but was executed at much

  3. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  5. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite. PMID:20156676

  6. Lead recovery and glass microspheres synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Mingfei, Xing; Yaping, Wang; Jun, Li; Hua, Xu

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a novel process for detoxification and reutilization of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass was developed by carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of glass microspheres. Carbon powder was used as an isolation agent and a reducing agent. Under the isolation of the carbon powder, the funnel glass powder was sintered into glass microspheres. In thermal reduction, PbO in the funnel glass was first reduced to elemental Pb by carbon monoxide and then located on the surface of glass microspheres which can be removed easily by acid leaching. Experimental results showed that temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time were the major parameters that controlled lead removal rate. The maximum lead removal rate was 94.80% and glass microspheres that measured 0.73-14.74μm were obtained successfully by setting the temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time at 1200°C, 10% and 30min, respectively. The prepared glass microspheres may be used as fillers in polymer materials and abrasive materials, among others. Accordingly, this study proposed a practical and economical process for detoxification and recycling of waste lead-containing glass. PMID:26642446

  7. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production. PMID:26744803

  8. Infrared recordings for characterizing an aircraft plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retief, S. J. P.; Dreyer, M. M.; Brink, C.

    2014-06-01

    Some key electro-optical measurements required to characterize an aircraft plume for automated recognition are shown, as well as some aspects of the processing and use of these measurements. Plume measurements with Short Wavelength Infrared (1.1 - 2.5 um), Mid-Wavelength Infrared (2.5 - 7 um) and Long Wavelength Infrared (7 - 15 um) cameras are presented, as well as spectroradiometer measurements covering the whole Mid-Wavelength, Long Wavelength and upper part of the Short Wavelength Infrared bands. The two limiting factors for the detection of the plume, i.e. the atmospheric transmission bands and the plume emission bands, are discussed, and it is shown how a micro turbine engine can assist in aircraft plume studies. One such a study, regarding the differentiation between an aircraft plume and a blackbody emitter using subbands in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared, is presented. The factors influencing aircraft plume emission are discussed, and the measurements required to characterize an aircraft plume for the purpose of constructing a mathematical plume model are indicated. Since the required measurements are prescribed by the plume model requirements, a brief overview of the plume model, that can be used to simulate the results of the plume's emission under different conditions and observation configurations, is given. Such a model can be used to test the robustness of algorithms, like the mentioned subband method, for identifying aircraft plumes. Such a model furthermore enables the simulation of measurements that would be obtained by an electro-optical system, like an infrared seekerhead of a missile, of a plume for the purpose of algorithm training under various simulated environmental conditions.

  9. MERCURY-NITRITE-RHODIUM-RUTHENIUM INTERACTIONS IN NOBLE METAL CATALYZED HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM FORMIC ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136C

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Chemical pre-treatment of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is performed to prepare the waste for vitrification into a stable waste glass form. During pre-treatment, compounds in the waste become catalytically active. Mercury, rhodium, and palladium become active for nitrite destruction by formic acid, while rhodium and ruthenium become active for catalytic conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Nitrite ion is present during the maximum activity of rhodium, but is consumed prior to the activation of ruthenium. Catalytic hydrogen generation during pre-treatment can exceed radiolytic hydrogen generation by several orders of magnitude. Palladium and mercury impact the maximum catalytic hydrogen generation rates of rhodium and ruthenium by altering the kinetics of nitrite ion decomposition. New data are presented that illustrate the interactions of these various species.

  10. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  11. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. PMID:22239909

  12. Valproic acid attenuates skeletal muscle wasting by inhibiting C/EBPβ-regulated atrogin1 expression in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rulin; Zhang, Santao; Hu, Wenjun; Lu, Xing; Lou, Ning; Yang, Zhende; Chen, Shaoyong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yang, Hongmei

    2016-07-01

    Muscle wasting is the hallmark of cancer cachexia and is associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has important biological effects in the treatment of muscular dystrophy. To verify whether VPA could ameliorate muscle wasting induced by cancer cachexia, we explored the role of VPA in two cancer cachectic mouse models [induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)] and atrophied C2C12 myotubes [induced by C26 cell conditioned medium (CCM) or LLC cell conditioned medium (LCM)]. Our data demonstrated that treatment with VPA increased the mass and cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, treatment with VPA also increased the diameter of myotubes cultured in conditioned medium. The skeletal muscles in cachectic mice or atrophied myotubes treated with VPA exhibited reduced levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), resulting in atrogin1 downregulation and the eventual alleviation of muscle wasting and myotube atrophy. Moreover, atrogin1 promoter activity in myotubes was stimulated by CCM via activating the C/EBPβ-responsive cis-element and subsequently inhibited by VPA. In contrast to the effect of VPA on the levels of C/EBPβ, the levels of inactivating forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a) were unaffected. In summary, VPA attenuated muscle wasting and myotube atrophy and reduced C/EBPβ binding to atrogin1 promoter locus in the myotubes. Our discoveries indicate that HDAC inhibition by VPA might be a promising new approach for the preservation of skeletal muscle in cancer cachexia. PMID:27122162

  13. El chichon: composition of plume gases and particles.

    PubMed

    Kotra, J P; Finnegan, D L; Zoller, W H; Hart, M A; Moyers, J L

    1983-12-01

    Aircraft measurements were made of trace gases, atmospheric particles, and condensed acid volatiles in the plume of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, in November 1982. Hydrogen sulfide was the primary gaseous sulfur species in the plume at the time of collection. Concentrations of 28 elements were determined by neutron activation analysis of particulate material from the plume. Rates of trace element emission to the atmosphere for each species were estimated by normlization to the simultaneously determined total sulfur emission rate. The volatile elements sulfur, chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, antimony, iodine, tungsten, and mercury were enriched relative to bulk pyroclastic material by factors of 60 to 20,000. Arsenic, antimony, and selenium were associated predominantly with small (>/= 3 micrometer) particles. Calcium and sodium were present almost exclusively on larger particles and aluminum and manganese were bimodally distributed. Ashladen particulate material injected into the stratosphere during the early violent eruptions was enriched by factors of 10 to 30 relative to ash in some of the same elements observed in the quiescent plume. PMID:17776246

  14. The ice plumes of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William

    2014-10-01

    It is of extreme interest to NASA and the scientific community that evidence has been found for plumes of water ice venting from the polar regions of Europa (Roth et al 2014) - spectroscopic detection of off-limb line emission from the dissociation products of water. We were awarded Cycle 21 time to seek direct images of the Europa exosphere, including Enceladus-like plumes if present, basing our study on FUV images of Europa as it transits the smooth face of Jupiter. We also obtained a necessary FUV image of Europa out of transit. These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of ice plumes on Europa. Here, we propose to augment our previous imaging work and to seek an initial, efficient characterization of off-limb emission as Europa orbits Jupiter. Such images provide sensitive flux and column density limits, with exceptional spatial resolution. In transit, our strategy can place firm limits on, or measurements of, absorbing columns, their distribution with altitude above the surface of Europa, and constrain their wavelength dependence and hence composition. Out of transit, geometrical and surface brightness considerations can help us distinguish between continuum FUV emission from forward- or back-scattering, from line emission, or, though we might prefer otherwise, from more subtle instrumental artifacts than hitherto understood. If the ice fountains of Europa arise from the deep ocean, we have gained access to probably the most astrobiologically interesting location in the Solar System.

  15. Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon; Park, Jeung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recovery of metal values from GaN, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) waste of GaN based power device and LED industry is investigated by acidic leaching. Leaching kinetics of gallium rich MOCVD waste is studied and the process is optimized. The gallium rich waste MOCVD dust is characterized by XRD and ICP-AES analysis followed by aqua regia digestion. Different mineral acids are used to find out the best lixiviant for selective leaching of the gallium and indium. Concentrated HCl is relatively better lixiviant having reasonably faster kinetic and better leaching efficiency. Various leaching process parameters like effect of acidity, pulp density, temperature and concentration of catalyst on the leaching efficiency of gallium and indium are investigated. Reasonably, 4 M HCl, a pulp density of 50 g/L, 100 °C and stirring rate of 400 rpm are the effective optimum condition for quantitative leaching of gallium and indium.

  16. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic organic compounds in a landfill leachate plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baun, Anders; Reitzel, Lotte A.; Ledin, Anna; Christensen, Thomas H.; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2003-09-01

    Demonstration of natural attenuation of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in landfill leachate plumes is a difficult task and still an emerging discipline within groundwater remediation. One of the early studies was made at the Vejen Landfill in Denmark in the late 1980s, which suggested that natural attenuation of XOCs took place under strongly anaerobic conditions within the first 150 m of the leachate plume. This paper reports on a revisit to the same plume 10 years later. Within the strongly anaerobic part of the plume, 49 groundwater samples were characterized with respect to redox-sensitive species and XOCs. The analytical procedures have been developed further and more compounds and lower detection limits were observed this time. In addition, the samples were screened for degradation intermediates and for toxicity. The plume showed fairly stationary features over the 10-year period except that the XOC level as well as the level of chloride and nonvolatile organic carbon (NVOC) in the plume had decreased somewhat. Most of the compounds studied were subject to degradation in addition to dilution. Exceptions were benzene, the herbicide Mecoprop (MCPP), and NVOC. In the early study, NVOC seemed to degrade in the first part of the plume, but this was no longer the case. Benzyl succinic acid (BSA) was for the first time identified in a leachate plume as a direct indicator, and as the only intermediate of toluene degradation. Toxicity measurements on solid phase-extracted (SPE) samples revealed that toxic compounds not analytically identified were still present in the plume, suggesting that toxicity measurements could be helpful in assessing natural attenuation in leachate plumes.

  17. Mantle plumes on Venus revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    1992-01-01

    The Equatorial Highlands of Venus consist of a series of quasicircular regions of high topography, rising up to about 5 km above the mean planetary radius. These highlands are strongly correlated with positive geoid anomalies, with a peak amplitude of 120 m at Atla Regio. Shield volcanism is observed at Beta, Eistla, Bell, and Atla Regiones and in the Hathor Mons-Innini Mons-Ushas Mons region of the southern hemisphere. Volcanos have also been mapped in Phoebe Regio and flood volcanism is observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in many of these regions. It is now widely accepted that at least Beta, Atla, Eistla, and Bell Regiones are the surface expressions of hot, rising mantel plumes. Upwelling plumes are consistent with both the volcanism and the extensional tectonism observed in these regions. The geoid anomalies and topography of these four regions show considerable variation. Peak geoid anomalies exceed 90 m at Beta and Atla, but are only 40 m at Eistla and 24 m at Bell. Similarly, the peak topography is greater at Beta and Atla than at Eistla and Bell. Such a range of values is not surprising because terrestrial hotspot swells also have a side range of geoid anomalies and topographic uplifts. Kiefer and Hager used cylindrical axisymmetric, steady-state convection calculations to show that mantle plumes can quantitatively account for both the amplitude and the shape of the long-wavelength geoid and topography at Beta and Atla. In these models, most of the topography of these highlands is due to uplift by the vertical normal stress associated with the rising plume. Additional topography may also be present due to crustal thickening by volcanism and crustal thinning by rifting. Smrekar and Phillips have also considered the geoid and topography of plumes on Venus, but they restricted themselves to considering only the geoid-topography ratio and did not

  18. Seismically imaging the Afar plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plume related flood basalt volcanism in Ethiopia has long been cited to have instigated continental breakup in northeast Africa. However, to date seismic images of the mantle beneath the region have not produced conclusive evidence of a plume-like structure. As a result the nature and even existence of a plume in the region and its role in rift initiation and continental rupture are debated. Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie northeast Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 6 other regional experiments and global network stations across Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S- wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that the top 100km is dominated by focussed low velocity zones, likely associated with melt in the lithosphere/uppermost asthenosphere. Below these depths a broad SW-NE oriented sheet like upwelling extends down to the top of the transition zone. Within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. The nature of the transition zone anomalies suggests that small upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. Our images of secondary upwellings

  19. Valorisation of mixed bakery waste in non-sterilized fermentation for L-lactic acid production by an evolved Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Muzi; Huang, Xiongliang; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Wang, Jufang; Li, Shuang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an advanced biorefinery technology that uses mixed bakery waste has been developed to produce l-lactic acid using an adaptively evolved Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense LA1002-G40 in a non-sterilized system. Under these conditions, mixed bakery waste was directly hydrolysed by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae, resulting in a nutrient-rich hydrolysate containing 83.6g/L glucose, 9.5 g/L fructose and 612 mg/L free amino nitrogen. T. aotearoense LA1002-G40 was evaluated and then adaptively evolved to grow in this nutrient-rich hydrolysate. Using a 5-L fermenter, the overall lactic acid production from mixed bakery waste was 0.18 g/g with a titer, productivity and yield of 78.5 g/L, 1.63 g/L/h and 0.85 g/g, respectively. This is an innovative procedure involving a complete bioconversion process for l-lactic acid produced from mixed bakery waste under non-sterilized conditions. The proposed process could be potentially applied to turn food waste into l-lactic acid in an economically feasible way. PMID:26363501

  20. Bifurcation of volcanic plumes in a crosswind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Davis, John P.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    1994-08-01

    Bent-over buoyant jets distorted by a crosscurrent develop a vortex pair structure and can bifurcate to produce two distinct lobes which diverge from one another downwind. The region downwind of the source between the lobes has relatively low proportions of discharged fluid. Factors invoked by previous workers to cause or enhance bifurcation include buoyancy, release of latent heat at the plume edge by evaporating water droplets, geometry and orientation of the source, and the encounter with a density interface on the rising path of the plume. We suggest that the pressure distribution around the vortex pair of a rising plume may initially trigger bifurcation. We also report new experimental observations confirming that bifurcation becomes stronger for stronger bent-over plumes, identifying that bifurcation can also occur for straight-edged plumes but gradually disappears for stronger plumes which form a gravity current at their final level and spread for a significant distance against the current. Observations from satellites and the ground are reviewed and confirm that volcanic plumes can show bifurcation and a large range of bifurcation angles. Many of the bifurcating plumes spread out at the tropopause level and suggest the tropopause may act on the plumes as a density interface enhancing bifurcation. Even for quite moderate bifurcation angles, the two plume lobes become rapidly separated downwind by distances of tens of kilometers. Such bifurcating plumes drifting apart can only result in bilobate tephra fall deposits. The tephra fall deposit from the 16 km elevation, SE spreading, bifurcating volcanic plume erupted on 15 May 1981 from Mt Pagan was sampled by previous workers and clearly displayed bilobate characteristics. Examples of bilobate tephra fall deposits are reviewed and their origin briefly discussed. Bilobate deposits are common and may result from many causes. Plume bifurcation should be considered one of the possible mechanisms which can account

  1. Simulation of two- and three-dimensional dense solute plume behavior with the the METROPOL-3 code

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, M.; Roberson, K.R.; Leijnse, A.

    1994-07-01

    Contaminant plumes emanating from waste disposal facilities are often denser than the ambient groundwater. These so-called dense plumes sink deeper into phreatic aquifers and may, under certain conditions, become unstable. The behavior of variable density, aqueous-phase contaminant plumes in saturated, homogeneous 2-D and 3-D intermediate-scale aquifer models was investigated with the finite element code METROPOL-3. The numerical results compare, in a quantitative sense, to previously reported laboratory-scale transport experiments. The simulations show that dense plumes are more likely to penetrate deeper into aquifers and eventually become unstable with increasing density differences between the leachate solution and the ambient groundwater, and other important parameters as the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the porous medium, leakage-rate of the contaminant solution, and source width. The significance of unstable behavior decreases with increasing dispersivity values. It was observed that 3-D flow patterns have a stable effect on sense contaminant plume behavior.

  2. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  3. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation. PMID:26363316

  4. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

  5. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  6. Efficient decolorization and deproteinization using uniform polymer microspheres in the succinic acid biorefinery from bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Lei, Jiandu; Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Juan; Xing, Jianmin; Gao, Fei; Gong, Fangling; Yan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dan; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2013-05-01

    Bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks were converted into succinic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. After 54 h SSF at 40 °C and pH 7.0, the production of succinic acid was 63 g/L, with 1.17 g/L/h productivity and 64% conversion yield. After SSF, a simple method for the decolorization and deproteinization of crude SSF broth was developed through adsorption tests of polystyrene (PSt) microspheres. Under optimized conditions (5% PSt loading (w/v), pH 4.0, 60 °C and adsorption time of 40 min), the ratios of decolorization, deproteinization and succinic acid loss ratios were 96.6, 84.5 and 4.1%, respectively. The method developed will provide a potential approach for large-scale production of succinic acid from the biomass waste. PMID:22985822

  7. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  8. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  9. Constraining the source of mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagney, N.; Crameri, F.; Newsome, W. H.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Cotel, A.; Hart, S. R.; Whitehead, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    In order to link the geochemical signature of hot spot basalts to Earth's deep interior, it is first necessary to understand how plumes sample different regions of the mantle. Here, we investigate the relative amounts of deep and shallow mantle material that are entrained by an ascending plume and constrain its source region. The plumes are generated in a viscous syrup using an isolated heater for a range of Rayleigh numbers. The velocity fields are measured using stereoscopic Particle-Image Velocimetry, and the concept of the 'vortex ring bubble' is used to provide an objective definition of the plume geometry. Using this plume geometry, the plume composition can be analysed in terms of the proportion of material that has been entrained from different depths. We show that the plume composition can be well described using a simple empirical relationship, which depends only on a single parameter, the sampling coefficient, sc. High-sc plumes are composed of material which originated from very deep in the fluid domain, while low-sc plumes contain material entrained from a range of depths. The analysis is also used to show that the geometry of the plume can be described using a similarity solution, in agreement with previous studies. Finally, numerical simulations are used to vary both the Rayleigh number and viscosity contrast independently. The simulations allow us to predict the value of the sampling coefficient for mantle plumes; we find that as a plume reaches the lithosphere, 90% of its composition has been derived from the lowermost 260-750 km in the mantle, and negligible amounts are derived from the shallow half of the lower mantle. This result implies that isotope geochemistry cannot provide direct information about this unsampled region, and that the various known geochemical reservoirs must lie in the deepest few hundred kilometres of the mantle.

  10. Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

  11. Aggregate particles in the plumes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peter; Kopparla, Pushkar; Zhang, Xi; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492-506), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of mostly spheres. The high particulate mass plumes have total particulate masses of (166 ± 42) × 103 kg, consistent with the results of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492-506). The low particulate mass plumes have masses of (25 ± 4) × 103 kg, leading to a solid to vapor mass ratio of 0.07 ± 0.01 for the plume. If indeed the plumes are made of such aggregates, then a vapor-based origin for the plume particles cannot be ruled out. Finally, we show that the residence time of the monomers inside the plume vents is sufficiently long for Brownian coagulation to form the aggregates before they are ejected to space.

  12. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  13. Redox conditions for mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    The vanadium to scandium ratio (V/Sc) for basalts from mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and arc environments has been proposed as a proxy for fO2 conditions during partial melting (e.g. [1] and [2]). Contrary to barometric measurements of the fO2 of primitive lavas, the V/Sc ratio of the upper mantle at mid-ocean ridges and arcs is similar, leading previous authors to propose that the upper mantle has uniform redox potential and is well-buffered. We have attempted to broaden the applicability of the V/Sc parameter to plume-influenced localities (both oceanic and continental), where mantle heterogeneities associated with recycled sediments, mafic crust, and metasomatized mantle, whether of shallow or deep origin, exist. We find that primitive basalts from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), Hawaii (both the Loa and Kea trends), Deccan, Columbia River, and Siberian Traps show a range of V/Sc ratios that are generally higher (average ~9) than those for MOR (average ~ 6.7) or arc (average ~7) lavas. Based on forward polybaric decompression modeling, we attribute these differences to polybaric melting and melt segregation within the garnet stability field rather than the presence of a more oxidized mantle in plume-influenced settings. Like MORB, the V/Sc ratios for plume-influenced basalts can be accounted for by an oxidation state approximately one log unit below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO-1). Our analysis suggests that source heterogeneities have little, if any, resolvable influence on mantle redox conditions, although they have significant influence on the trace element and isotopic composition of mantle-derived melts. We suggest that variations in the redox of erupted lavas is largely a function of shallow lithospheric processes rather than intrinsic to the mantle source, regardless of tectonic setting. [1] Li and Lee (2004) EPSL, [2] Lee et al. (2005) J. of Petrology

  14. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  15. Relationship between plume and plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, V. N.

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between plate- and plume-tectonics is considered in view of the growth and breakdown of supercontinents, active rifting, the formation of passive volcanic-type continental margins, and the origin of time-progressive volcanic chains on oceanic and continental plates. The mantle wind phenomenon is described, as well as its effect on plume morphology and anisotropy of the ambient mantle. The interaction of plumes and mid-ocean ridges is discussed. The principles and problems of plume activity analysis in subduction- and collision-related foldbelts are considered and illustrated with examples.

  16. Vertical cloud structure of Jupiter's equatorial plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Hord, C.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple-scattering radiative transfer calculations were used to deduce the vertical cloud structure (VCS) of Jupiter's equatorial region. The VCS model of the equatorial plumes is obtained through an analysis of Voyager images of the 6190-A methane band and the 6000-A continuum, and ground-based 8900-A methane band images. The VCS of the equatorial plumes is found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the plumes are caused by upwelling at the ammonia condensation level produced by buoyancy due to latent heat release from the condensation of water clouds nearly three scale heights below the plumes.

  17. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards. PMID:26362462

  18. ASRM subscale plume deflector testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Freddie, III; Dawson, Michael C.; Orlin, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the scale model (1/22) testing of candidate refractory materials to be used as surface coatings for a solid rocket motor plume deflector structure. Five ROM tests were conducted to acquire data to support the selection, thickness determination, and placement of the materials. All data acquisition was achieved through nonintrusive methods. The tests demonstrated that little or no reductions in performance of the full-scale deflector would be experienced if the most economical materials were selected for construction.

  19. Optimization and effect of dairy industrial waste as media components in the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Naresh; Balakrishnan, Rengesh; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2016-08-17

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) production using a dairy industrial waste is a more cost-efficient strategy than using an expensive synthetic medium. In this study, we investigated the production of HA using Streptococcus thermophilus under shake flask conditions using dairy industrial waste as nutritional supplements, namely whey permeate (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Preliminary screening using Plackett-Burman design exhibited WP, WPH, initial pH, and inoculum size as significant factors influencing HA titer. Response surface methodology design of four factors was formulated at three levels for enhanced production of HA. Shake flask HA fermentation by S. thermophilus was performed under global optimized process conditions and the optimal HA titer (342.93 mg L(-1)) corroborates with Box-Behnken design prediction. The molecular weight of HA was elucidated as 9.22-9.46 kDa. The ultralow-molecular weight HA reported in this study has a potential role in drug and gene delivery applications. PMID:26681350

  20. Development of a chemical process using nitric acid-cerium(IV) for decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.

    1988-06-01

    A simple and effective method was developed for contamination of high-level waste containers. This method of chemical decontamination is applicable to a wide variety of contaminated equipment found in the nuclear industry. The process employs a oxidant system (Ce(IV)) in nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/) solution to chemically mill a thin layer from the canister surface. Contaminated canisters are simply immersed in the solution at a controlled temperature and Ce(IV) concentration level. The spent solution is discarded to the high-level waste stream and added to subsequent glass batches. The Ce(IV)/HNO/sub 3/ solution has been shown to be effective in chemically milling the surface of stainless steel, similar to the electropolishing process, but without the need for an applied electrical current. West Valley (WV) staff had previously evaluated several canister decontamination methods, including electropolishing, liquid abrasive blast, high-pressure water wash, and ultrasonic cleaning, before the Ce(IV)/HNO/sub 3/ redox solution on treatment was selected. The initial concept involved continuous electrochemical regeneration of the ceric ion. Extensive in-cell pumping and close-coupled heat transfer and electrochemical equipment were required. The objective of this study, was to simplify the original concept. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Chlorpyrifos-methyl solubilisation by humic acids used as bio-surfactants extracted from lignocelluloses and kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Baglieri, Andrea; Tambone, Fulvia; Gennari, Mara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide that can accumulate in soil and become toxic to humans. CLP-m can be removed from soil by its solubilisation using synthetic surfactants. However, synthetic surfactants can accumulate in soil causing contamination phenomena themselves. Bio-surfactants can be used as an alternative to synthetic ones, reducing costs and environmental issues. In this work, humic acid (HA) extracted from raw biomasses, i.e. lignocelluloses (HAL) and lignocelluloses plus kitchen food waste (HALF), corresponding composts (C) (HALC and HALFC) and leonardite (HAc), were tested in comparison with commercial surfactants, i.e. SDS, Tween 20 and DHAB, to solubilize CLP-m. Results obtained indicated that only biomass-derived HA, composted biomass-derived HA, and SDS solubilized CLP-m: SDS = 0.006; HAL = 0.007; HALC = 0.009 g; HALF = 0.025; HALFC = 0.024) (g CLP-m g(-1) surfactant). Lignocelluloses HAs (HAL, HALF) solubilized CLP-m just as well as SDS while lignocellulosic plus kitchen food waste HA (HALF, HALFC) showed a three times higher CLP-m solubilisation capability. This difference was attributed to the higher concentration of alkyl-Carbon that creates strong links with CLP-m in the hydrophobic micelle-core of the surfactants. PMID:27289207

  2. Adsorptive removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) antiscalant from membrane concentrates by iron-coated waste filtration sand.

    PubMed

    Boels, L; Tervahauta, T; Witkamp, G J

    2010-10-15

    Iron-coated waste filtration sand was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from membrane concentrates. The adsorption of this phosphonate-based antiscalant on this material was measured and compared with two commercially available anion exchange resins and activated carbon. Comprehensive adsorption experiments were conducted in several synthetic concentrate solutions and in a concentrate collected from a full scale nano-filtration brackish water desalination plant. The effect of pH, ionic strength and the presence of competitive anions on the equilibrium adsorption were investigated. The results showed that, in contrast to the anion exchange resins, the adsorption on coated filtration sand is not suppressed at increasing ionic strength and is much less affected by the competitive anions carbonate and sulphate. The adsorption decreased slightly when the pH was raised from 7.0 to 8.0. The adsorption isotherms in the real nano-filtration concentrate, measured in the concentration interval of 5-50 mg dm(-1) NTMP, showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of coated filtration sand was 4.06 mg g(-1). The adsorption capacity per unit mass of the adsorbents at low NTMP concentration (12.5 mg dm(-3)) followed the decreasing order Amberlite IRA-410>coated filtration sand>Amberlite IRA-900>Norit SAE Super. This demonstrates that the use of iron-coated waste filtration sand offers a promising means for the removal of NTMP from membrane concentrates. PMID:20667427

  3. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Changjun; Zhao, Pinwen; Shi, Lihong; Huang, Shaobing; Luo, Pingya

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 °C and reaction time of 180 min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production. PMID:23972395

  4. Production of high optical purity l-lactic acid from waste activated sludge by supplementing carbohydrate: effect of temperature and pretreatment time.

    PubMed

    Jian, Qiwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan; Pan, Yin

    2016-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that the most environmentally beneficial way to treat waste activated sludge (WAS), the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment plant, is to recover the valuable organic acid. However, the bio-conversion of lactic acid, one of the high added-value chemical, is seldom reported from WAS fermentation. In this paper, l-lactic acid was observed dominant in the WAS fermentation liquid with carbohydrate addition at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid production was fully discussed: two isomers were rapidly produced and consumed up in one day at mesophilic condition; and almost optically pure l-lactic acid was generated at thermophilic condition, yet time-consuming with yield of l-lactic acid enhancing by 52.9% compared to that at ambient temperature. The study mechanism showed that mesophilic condition was optimal for both production and consumption of l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, while consumption of l-lactic acid and production of d-lactic acid were severely inhibited at thermophilic condition. Therefore, by maintaining thermophilic for 4 h in advance and subsequently fermenting mesophilic for 34 h, the concentration of l-lactic acid with optical activity of 98.3% was improved to 16.6 ± 0.5 g COD/L at a high specific efficiency of 0.6097/d. PMID:26878176

  5. Injection of acidic industrial waste into the Floridan Aquifer near Belle Glade, Florida: upward migration and geochemical interactions, 1973-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    In 1966, a furfural plant at Belle Glade, Florida, began injecting hot, acidic liquid waste into the saline, water-filled lower part of the Floridan aquifer, between the depths of 1 ,495-1,939 feet. The beds above and below the injection zone were subjected to attack by the acid waste. By 1969, effects of the waste were detected in the water of the well monitoring the upper part of the Floridan aquifer at 1,400 feet. The disposal well was deepened late in 1971 to 2,242 feet in an attempt to stop the upward migration of waste. The results of research investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1966-73 indicated that the waste continued to move upward and laterally. This investigated, continued by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973-1975, shows that the remedial actions of repairing the disposal well liner and injecting periodically into the deep monitor well at 2,060 feet failed to contain the wastes within the lower part of the Floridan aquifer. The data collected by the Survey are supported by the owner 's chemical-oxygen-demand and pH determinations. A hydraulic connection between the injection zone and the overlying monitoring zone is implied. Plans call for injecting into deepter strata. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  7. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1994-10-01

    The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94.

  8. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

    2015-01-01

    An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

  9. Radiation Chemistry of Potential Europa Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudipati, M. S.; Henderson, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent detection of atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen and their correlation to potential water plumes on Europa [Roth, Saur et al. 2014] invoked significant interest in further understanding of these potential/putative plumes on Europa. Unlike on Enceladus, Europa receives significant amount of electron and particle radiation. If the plumes come from trailing hemisphere and in the high radiation flux regions, then it is expected that the plume molecules be subjected to radiation processing. Our interest is to understand to what extent such radiation alterations occur and how they can be correlated to the plume original composition, whether organic or inorganic in nature. We will present laboratory studies [Henderson and Gudipati 2014] involving pulsed infrared laser ablation of ice that generates plumes similar to those observed on Enceladus [Hansen, Esposito et al. 2006; Hansen, Shemansky et al. 2011] and expected to be similar on Europa as a starting point; demonstrating the applicability of laser ablation to simulate plumes of Europa and Enceladus. We will present results from electron irradiation of these plumes to determine how organic and inorganic composition is altered due to radiation. Acknowledgments:This research was enabled through partial funding from NASA funding through Planetary Atmospheres, and the Europa Clipper Pre-Project. B.L.H. acknowledges funding from the NASA Postdoctoral Program for an NPP fellowship. Hansen, C. J., L. Esposito, et al. (2006). "Enceladus' water vapor plume." Science 311(5766): 1422-1425. Hansen, C. J., D. E. Shemansky, et al. (2011). "The composition and structure of the Enceladus plume." Geophysical Research Letters 38. Henderson, B. L. and M. S. Gudipati (2014). "Plume Composition and Evolution in Multicomponent Ices Using Resonant Two-Step Laser Ablation and Ionization Mass Spectrometry." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118(29): 5454-5463. Roth, L., J. Saur, et al. (2014). "Transient Water Vapor at Europa's South

  10. Melanin and humic acid-like polymer complex from olive mill waste waters. Part I. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Khemakhem, Maissa; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Arbez-Gindre, Cécile; Bouzouita, Nabiha; Sotiroudis, Theodore G

    2016-07-15

    A water soluble humic acid and melanin-like polymer complex (OMWW-ASP) was isolated from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) by ammonium sulfate fractionation to be used as natural additive in food preparations. The dark polymer complex was further characterized by a variety of biochemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. OMWW-ASP is composed mainly of proteins associated with polyphenols and carbohydrates and the distribution of its relative molecular size was determined between about 5 and 190 kDa. SDS-PAGE shows the presence of a well separated protein band of 21.3 kDa and a low molecular weight peptide. The OMWW-ASP complex exhibits a monotonically increasing UV-Vis absorption spectrum and it contains stable radicals. Antioxidant activity measurements reveal the ability of the OMWW protein fraction to scavenge both the cationic 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical, as well as the stable nitroxide free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL). PMID:26948649

  11. Tritium plume dynamics in the shallow unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maples, S.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Pohll, G.; Michel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of a tritium plume in the shallow unsaturated zone and the mechanisms controlling its transport were evaluated during a 10-yr study. Plume movement was minimal and its mass declined by 68%. Upward-directed diffusive-vapor tritium fluxes and radioactive decay accounted for most of the observed plume-mass declines. Effective isolation of tritium (3H) and other contaminants at waste-burial facilities requires improved understanding of transport processes and pathways. Previous studies documented an anomalously widespread (i.e., theoretically unexpected) distribution of 3H (>400 m from burial trenches) in a dry, sub-root-zone gravelly layer (1–2-m depth) adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, that closed in 1992. The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize long-term, spatiotemporal variability of 3H plumes; and (ii) quantify the processes controlling 3H behavior in the sub-root-zone gravelly layer beneath native vegetation adjacent to the facility. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses, and mass flux calculations were applied to a spatiotemporally comprehensive, 10-yr data set (2001–2011). Results showed minimal bulk-plume advancement during the study period and limited Fickian spreading of mass. Observed spreading rates were generally consistent with theoretical vapor-phase dispersion. The plume mass diminished more rapidly than would be expected from radioactive decay alone, indicating net efflux from the plume. Estimates of upward 3H efflux via diffusive-vapor movement were >10× greater than by dispersive-vapor or total-liquid movement. Total vertical fluxes were >20× greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes, highlighting the importance of upward migration toward the land surface. Mass-balance calculations showed that radioactive decay and upward diffusive-vapor fluxes contributed the majority of plume loss. Results indicate that plume losses

  12. Bioconversion of wastes from the olive oil and confectionary industries: spectroscopic study of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Hachicha, S; Chtourou, M; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2007-11-01

    Structural changes in humic acids extracted from composted mixtures of sesame bark with the paste of olive mill wastewater or exhausted olive cake, were investigated using FTIR spectroscopy and solid state 13C CP/MAS techniques. The C/N ratio and organic matter degradation decreased significantly after 6 months of composting. The FTIR spectra of humic acids content showed an increase in the aromatic compounds content and a degradation of aliphatic chains. During composting, nuclear magnetic resonance 13C spectral analyses confirmed that aromatic groups exhibited a slight increase while the aliphatic groups decreased and disappeared at the end of the composting process. These results showed that during composting, aliphatic chains were preferentially oxidized, while aromatic macromolecules were bio converted into highly functionalized compounds. PMID:18290538

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has a history of developing plume models and providing technical assistance. The Visual Plumes model (VP) is a recent addition to the public-domain models available on the EPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) web page. The Wind...

  15. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  16. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave.

    PubMed

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g(-1)) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am(2) kg(-1)]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g(-1)) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am(2) kg(-1)), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls. PMID:26648414

  17. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g-1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg-1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g-1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg-1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls.

  18. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  19. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g−1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg−1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g−1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg−1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls. PMID:26648414

  20. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  1. Experiments on a turbulent plume: shape analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, S.; Sumita, I.

    2009-12-01

    Turbulent plume which is characterized by a large Reynolds number (Re >> 1) and buoyancy, is ubiquitous in nature, an example of which is a volcanic plume. As the turbulent plume rises, it entrains the ambient fluid and grows in size. There have been many laboratory experiments on turbulent plumes, but only few attempts were made to characterize the shape of the evolving plume as a function of source parameters (initial velocity and buoyancy). Here we report the results of laboratory experiments on a turbulent plume, a simplified model of a volcanic plume, to study how the shape of the plume changes as a function of time. Water and aqueous solutions of condensed milk, NaCl and CsCl, colored with a fluorescent dye are injected downward through an orifice (ID 1 mm) into a water contained in an acrylic tank with a cross-section of 30cm ¥times 30cm and a height of 50cm. Plumes with a density difference of 0.00 < ¥Delta ¥rho < 8.00 ¥times 10^ 2 (¥mbox{kg m}^ {-3}) and Re in the range and 210 < Re < 2850, are generated. These experimental parameters (initial Re, buoyancy) were chosen so that they cover the range from inertia-driven to buoyancy-driven regime. We find that the plume shape changes with time as instability and entrainment proceeds. In the beginning it is finger-like, but with time, plume head and vortices develop, and finally it transforms into a cone-like self-similar shape. After transforming a "cone-like" shape, sometimes a "head" appears again. We devise new methods to quantitatively characterize these changes of shape. Here we use (1) the height of the centroid of the plume shape and (2) the deviation from the self-similar triangular shape. Using these methods, we defined 4 regimes as a function of time. We find that the onset times of the 4 regimes have a negative power-law relations on initial Re, which scale better than using onset heights. Importantly, we find that the buoyancy causes the regime transitions to become earlier. Our experiments

  2. Numerical Simulations of Europa Hydrothermal Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. C.; Lenferink, E.

    2009-12-01

    The liquid water interiors of Europa and other icy moons of the outer solar system are likely to be driven by geothermal heating from the sea floor, leading to the development of buoyant hydrothermal plumes. These plumes potentially control icy surface geomorphology, and are of interest to astrobiologists. We have performed a series of simulations of these plumes using the MITGCM. We assume in this experiment that Europa's ocean is deep (of order 100 km) and unstratified, and that plume buoyancy is controlled by temperature, not composition. A series of experiments was performed to explore a limited region of parameter space, with ocean depth H ranging from 50 to 100 km deep, source heat flux Q between 1 and 10 GW, and values of the Coriolis parameter f between 30% and 90% of the Europa average value. As predicted by earlier work, the plumes in our simulations form narrow cylindrical chimneys (a few km across) under the influence of the Coriolis effect. These plumes broaden over time until they become baroclinically unstable, breaking up into cone-shaped eddies when they become 20-35 km in diameter; the shed eddies are of a similar size. Large-scale currents in the region of the plume range between 1.5 and 5 cm/s; temperature anomalies in the plume far from the seafloor are tiny, varying between 30 and 160 microkelvin. Variations in plume size, shape, speed, and temperature are in excellent agreement with previous laboratory tank experiments, and in rough agreement with theoretical predictions. Plume dynamics and geometry are controlled by a "natural Rossby number" which depends strongly on depth H and Coriolis parameter f, but only weakly on source heat flux Q. However, some specific theoretical predictions are not borne out by these simulations. The time elapsed between startup of the source and the beginning of eddy-shedding is much less variable than predicted; also, the plume temperature varies with ocean depth H when our theory says it should not. Both of

  3. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash. PMID:27072618

  4. Plume detachment from a magnetic nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Christopher A.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Tushentsov, Mikhail R.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Chavers, D. Greg; Dobson, Chris C.; Schuettpelz, Branwen M.

    2009-03-15

    High-powered electric propulsion thrusters utilizing a magnetized plasma require that plasma exhaust detach from the applied magnetic field in order to produce thrust. This paper presents experimental results demonstrating that a sufficiently energetic and flowing plasma can indeed detach from a magnetic nozzle. Microwave interferometer and probe measurements provide plume density, electron temperature, and ion flux measurements in the nozzle region. Measurements of ion flux show a low-beta plasma plume which follows applied magnetic field lines until the plasma kinetic pressure reaches the magnetic pressure and a high-beta plume expanding ballistically afterward. Several magnetic configurations were tested including a reversed field nozzle configuration. Despite the dramatic change in magnetic field profile, the reversed field configuration yielded little measurable change in plume trajectory, demonstrating the plume is detached. Numerical simulations yield density profiles in agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Mount Everest snow plume: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W. K.

    2004-11-01

    A plume of snow blowing from the summit of Mount Everest is one of the most iconic images of the world's highest mountain. Its presence provides evidence of the strong jet stream winds that can buffet the mountain. In January 2004, astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) observed a 15 to 20 km long snow plume emanating from the summit of Mount Everest. Remarkably little is known about these plumes and the role that they play in the redistribution of snow in the high Himalaya. In this paper we use a variety of meteorological datasets to show that the observed plume was the combination of high winds associated with the East Asian Jet Stream (EAJS) and a heavy snowfall that had occurred over the Himalaya during the preceding week. A simple model of a blown snow plume is shown to be consistent with the observations made from the ISS.

  6. Low-buoyancy thermochemical plumes resolve controversy of classical mantle plume concept.

    PubMed

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan V

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models predict large plume heads that cause kilometre-scale surface uplift, and narrow (100 km radius) plume tails that remain in the mantle after the plume head spreads below the lithosphere. However, in many cases, such uplifts and narrow plume tails are not observed. Here using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes contain up to 15-20% of recycled oceanic crust in a form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth dependent. We demonstrate that, despite their low buoyancy, large enough thermochemical plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Their tails are bulky (>200 km radius) and remain in the upper mantle for 100 millions of years. PMID:25907970

  7. Low-buoyancy thermochemical plumes resolve controversy of classical mantle plume concept

    PubMed Central

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models predict large plume heads that cause kilometre-scale surface uplift, and narrow (100 km radius) plume tails that remain in the mantle after the plume head spreads below the lithosphere. However, in many cases, such uplifts and narrow plume tails are not observed. Here using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes contain up to 15–20% of recycled oceanic crust in a form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth dependent. We demonstrate that, despite their low buoyancy, large enough thermochemical plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Their tails are bulky (>200 km radius) and remain in the upper mantle for 100 millions of years. PMID:25907970

  8. MISR Observations of Etna Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollo, S.; Kahn, R. A.; Nelson, D. L.; Coltelli, M.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    In the last twelve years, Mt. Etna, located in eastern Sicily, has produced a great number of explosive eruptions. Volcanic plumes have risen to several km above sea level and created problems for aviation and the communities living near the volcano. A reduction of hazards may be accomplished using remote sensing techniques to evaluate important features of volcanic plumes. Since 2000, the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on board NASA s Terra spacecraft has been extensively used to study aerosol dispersal and to extract the three-dimensional structure of plumes coming from anthropogenic or natural sources, including volcanoes. In the present work, MISR data from several explosive events occurring at Etna are analyzed using a program named MINX (MISR INteractive eXplorer). MINX uses stereo matching techniques to evaluate the height of the volcanic aerosol with a precision of a few hundred meters, and extracts aerosol properties from the MISR Standard products. We analyzed twenty volcanic plumes produced during the 2000, 2001, 2002-03, 2006 and 2008 Etna eruptions, finding that volcanic aerosol dispersal and column height obtained by this analysis is in good agreement with ground-based observations. MISR aerosol type retrievals: (1) clearly distinguish volcanic plumes that are sulphate and/or water vapor dominated from ash-dominated ones; (2) detect even low concentrations of volcanic ash in the atmosphere; (3) demonstrate that sulphate and/or water vapor dominated plumes consist of smaller-sized particles compared to ash plumes. This work highlights the potential of MISR to detect important volcanic plume characteristics that can be used to constrain the eruption source parameters in volcanic ash dispersion models. Further, the possibility of discriminating sulphate and/or water vapor dominated plumes from ash-dominated ones is important to better understand the atmospheric impact of these plumes.

  9. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, P. E.; McMillan, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO 2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained "ash" particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 10 6 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous "snowflakes" as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  10. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.E.; McMillan, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained “ash” particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 106 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous “snowflakes” as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  11. In situ calcite formation in limestone-saturated water leaching of acid rock waste.

    PubMed

    Smart, Roger St C; Miller, Stuart D; Stewart, Warwick S; Rusdinar, Yuni; Schumann, Russell E; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun

    2010-07-15

    The result of leaching of a 75% acid rock/25% limestone column with limestone-saturated solution has shown that the pH of the effluent recovered from 2.5, after apparent loss of acid neutralizing capacity after 4 years with water leaching, to pH 7 in less than 3 years. Bulk assay results, XRD and SEM/EDS analyses of samples from the column at 384 weeks (pH 3.6) and 522 weeks (pH 6.9) during this recovery have suggested that this is due to formation in situ of fine calcite. Calcite, initially blended to the column material at 25 wt.% was not found in the XRD of the 384 week sample but is clearly found in the 522 week XRD. This increased calcite content appears to be derived from the limestone-saturated water as finely divided solid precipitated in the drying cycles in the column. This result is confirmed by assessment of the 522 week sample as non-acid forming. Loss of some reactive aluminosilicate minerals, formation of secondary, precipitated, surface-attached gypsum and loss of fine secondary jarosite occurs across this pH range but fine, surface-attached jarosite is still found in the 522 week sample implying relatively slow dissolution kinetics. In comparison with the 384 week sample, armouring of highly reacted pyrite particles by surface layers of iron oxyhydroxides and aluminosilicates has become more extensive at 522 weeks after return of the pH to neutral values. This is consistent with results from Freeport field samples from limestone blended test pads where pyrite armouring was also substantially increased at higher pH. The results suggest that it may be possible to effectively maintain neutral pH and passivate pyrite, reducing oxidation rates by more than an order of magnitude, using limestone-saturated solution dump feed rather than bulk limestone blending or covers. PMID:20452647

  12. Upcycling potato peel waste - Data of the pre-screening of the acid-catalyzed liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Patrícia; Bordado, João Carlos Moura; Mateus, Maria Margarida; Galhano Dos Santos, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary and exploratory experiments conducted with potato peel as a biomass source for the direct thermochemical liquefaction is disclosed. The procedure was carried out in a 2-ethylhexanol/DEG solvent mixture at 160 °C in the presence of p-Toluenesulfonic acid. The adopted procedure afforded a bio-oil in high yield (up to 93%) after only 30 min. For longer reaction times, higher amounts of solid residues were obtained leading, consequently, to lower yields. PMID:27182538

  13. Geophysical Characterization and Reactive Transport Modeling to Quantify Plume Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Wainwright, H.; Bea, S. A.; Spycher, N.; Li, L.; Sassen, D.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of subsurface contaminant plume mobility and remediation often fail due to the inability to tractably characterize heterogeneous flow-and-transport properties and monitor critical geochemical transitions over plume-relevant scales. This study presents two recently developed strategies to quantify and predict states and processes across scales that govern plume behavior. Development of both strategies takes advantage of multi-scale and disparate datasets and has involved the use of reactive transport models, geophysical methods, and stochastic integration approaches. The first approach, called reactive facies, exploits coupled physiochemical heterogeneity to characterize subsurface flow and transport properties that impact plume sorption and thus mobility. We develop and test the reactive facies concept within uranium contaminated Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments that underlie the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, F-Area, South Carolina. Through analysis of field data (core samples, geophysical well logs, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar and seismic datasets) coupled with laboratory sorption studies, we have identified two reactive facies that have unique distributions of mineralogy, texture, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and geophysical attributes. We develop and use facies-based relationships with geophysical data in a Bayesian framework to spatially distribute reactive facies and their associated transport properties and uncertainties along local and plume-scale geophysical transects. To illustrate the value of reactive facies, we used the geophysically-obtained reactive facies properties to parameterize reactive transport models and simulate the migration of an acidic-U(VI) plume through the 2D domains. Modeling results suggest that each identified reactive facies exerts control on plume evolution, highlighting the usefulness of the reactive facies concept and approach for spatially distributing properties that control flow and

  14. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.

    1999-01-01

    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg N.kg-1.d-1 and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) N.kg-1.d-1 for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  15. Calcium silicate sorbent from secondary waste ash: heavy metals-removal from acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, N J; Brassington, D S; Raza, A; Lee, W E

    2006-10-01

    The layer lattice, ion-exchange material, Al-substituted 11 A tobermorite, has been synthesised via an alkaline hydrothermal route from a secondary waste ash arising from newsprint recycling. The hydrogarnet, katoite (Ca3Al2SiO12H8), was also formed. Batch sorption analyses have confirmed that the Al-substituted 11 A tobermorite-bearing product is an effective sorbent for Co2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions from acidified aqueous media. Kinetic sorption data were analysed in accordance with the pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models and steady state data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models provided the most appropriate descriptions of the sorption processes. The maximum uptake capacities for Co2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ at 20 degrees C were found to be 10.47, 2.92 and 3.09 mg g(-1), respectively, and the respective apparent pseudo-second-order rate constants were estimated to be 5.08 x 10(-3), 1.10 x 10(-3) and 1.13 x 10(-3) g mg(-1) min(-1). PMID:17144258

  16. Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Dynamics and Deposits of Coignimbrite Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engwell, Samantha; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Neri, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Fine ash in the atmosphere poses a significant hazard, with potentially disastrous consequences for aviation and, on deposition, health and infrastructure. Fine-grained particles form a large proportion of ejecta in Plinian volcanic clouds. However, another common, but poorly studied phenomena exists whereby large amounts of fine ash are injected into the atmosphere. Coignimbrite plumes form as material is elutriated from the top of pyroclastic density currents. The ash in these plumes is considerably finer grained than that in Plinian plumes and can be distributed over thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere. Despite their significance, very little is known regarding coignimbrite plume formation and dispersion, predominantly due to the poor preservation of resultant deposits. As a result, consequences of coignimbrite plume formation are usually overlooked when conducting hazard and risk analysis. In this study, deposit characteristics and numerical models of plumes are combined to investigate the conditions required for coignimbrite plume formation. Coignimbrite deposits from the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Magnitude 7.7, 39 ka) are well sorted and very fine, with a mode of between 30 and 50 microns, and a significant component of respirable ash (less than 10 microns). Analogous distributions are found for coignimbrite deposits from Tungurahua 2006 and Volcan de Colima (2004-2006), amongst others, regardless of magnitude, type or chemistry of eruption. These results indicate that elutriation processes are the dominant control on coignimbrite grainsize distribution. To further investigate elutriation and coignimbrite plume dynamics, the numerical plume model of Bursik (2001) is applied. Model sensitivity analysis demonstrates that neutral buoyancy conditions (required for the formation of the plume) are controlled by a balance between temperature and gas mass flux in the upper most parts of the pyroclastic density current. In addition, results emphasize the

  18. Plumes on Enceladus: Lessons for Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.

    2014-12-01

    The possible detection of a water vapour plume on Europa [1] suggests resemblances to Enceladus, a cryovolcanically active satellite [2]. How does this activity work, and what lesson does Enceladus have for plumes on Europa? The inferred vapour column densities of the Europa [1] and Enceladus [3] plumes are similar, but the inferred velocity and mass flux of the former are higher. At Enceladus, the inferred plume strength is modulated by its orbital position [4,5], suggesting that tides opening and closing cracks control the eruption behaviour [6,7]. An additional source of stress potentially driving eruptions is the effect of slow freezing of the ice shell above[7,8]. The original detection of the Europa plume was close to apocentre, when polar fractures are expected to be in tension [1]. Follow-up observations at the same orbital phase did not detect a plume [9], although the Galileo E12 magnetometer data may provide evidence for an earlier plume [Khurana, pers. comm.]. One possible explanation for the plume's disappearance is that longer-period tidal effects are playing a role; there are hints of similar secular changes in the Enceladus data [4,5]. Another is that detectability of the Europa plumein the aurora observations also depends on variations in electron density (which affects the UV emission flux) [9]. Or it may simply be that eruptive activity on Europa is highly time-variable, as on Io. At Enceladus, the plume scale height is independent of orbital position and plume brightness [5]. This suggests that the vapour velocity does not depend on crack width, consistent with supersonic flow through a near-surface throat. The large scale height inferred for the Europa plume likewise suggests supersonic behaviour. Continuous fallback of solid plume material at Enceladus affects both the colour [10] and surface texture [2] of near-polar regions. Less frequent plume activity would produce subtler effects; whether the sparse available imagery at Europa [11

  19. Detecting Traces of Life in the Plume of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolikowski, Daniel M.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus presents one of the most promising bodies in the solar system on which to detect (at least traces of) extraterrestrial life. We present a study of biomarkers in the plume. A variety of potential biomarkers were considered and their applicability to the plume was assessed. Our study focused primarily on the relative abundances of hydrocarbons to methane, and amino acids. Concentrations of these biomarkers were estimated by combining data from studies of methanogenic and hydrothermal communities with a plume density model. We studied mass spectrometry as a possible means to detect these indicators of life. We performed a parameterized study by considering mass spectrometers with a sensitivity of 10, 100, and 1000 times that of Cassini's mass spectrometer. Promisingly, the concentration of biogenic hydrocarbons is around an order of magnitude higher than the detection threshold of the most sensitive mass spectrometer we considered. Therefore, analysis of such hydrocarbons on a future mission is a promising approach to detecting biochemical processes within Enceladus.

  20. Correlation of plume opacity with particles and sulfates from boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, J.C.; Lee, M.; Chen, K.S.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of emission concentrations of particulate matters and sulfates on plume opacity are investigated by in situ measurements. The studies are conducted for three processes of two coal-fired plants and one oil-fired that are all equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Flue-gas sampling and analysis include the concentrations of particles and total water soluble sulfates, particle size distribution, and flue-gas composition; while in-stack and out-of-stack opacities are determined by a transmissometer and certified smoke inspectors, respectively. Experimental results show that plume opacity outside the stack linearly correlates well with the in-stack opacity. The mixing of hot flue gas with cold ambient air would result in the condensation of hygroscopic sulfuric acid aerosols and an increase about 1.6% out of typical 15--25% measured opacity. An empirical equation similar to the Beer-Lambert-Bouger form is derived for predicting the plume opacity in terms of the stack diameter and the concentrations of particles and total water soluble sulfates. Good comparisons are achieved between predictions by the empirical equation and other available field data.

  1. Reclamation of acidic mine residues by creation of technosoils with the addition of biochar and marble waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raul

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the short-term effect of biochar and marble waste addition for the reclamation of acidic mine residues. A lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1. Bochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control soil was used without application of amendments. The evolution of different physical, chemical and biochemical properties and availability of heavy metals was periodically monitored. Results showed that original pH (2.8) was increased with all amendments, those samples containing MW being the ones with the highest pH (~8.0). The electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 6.6 to 3.0-4.5 mS cm-1 in all the treatments receiving MW. Soil organic C (SOC) increased in all samples receiving biochar up to 18-20 g kg-1, with no shifts during the 90 d incubation, indicating the high stability of the C supplied. Recalcitrant organic C accounted for ~90-98% of the SOC. No significant effect of amendment addition was observed for carbohydrates, soluble C, microbial biomass C and β-glucosidase activity. However, arylesterase activity increased with amendments, highly related to pH. The availability of heavy metals decreased up to 90-95% owing to the addition of amendments, mainly in samples containing MW. The MW provided conditions to increase pH and decrease EC and metals mobility. Biochar was an effective strategy to increase SOC, recalcitrant C and AS, essential to create soil structure. However, a labile source of organic matter should be added together with the proposed amendments to promote the activation of microbial communities. Acknowledgement : This work has been funded by Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) by the project 18920/JLI/13

  2. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  3. An effective utilization of the slag from acid leaching of coal-waste: preparation of water glass with a low-temperature co-melting reaction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Duan, Xiaofang; Chen, Rongming; Cheng, Fangqin

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an effective utilization of slag from acid leaching of coal-waste with a novel approach, namely low-temperature co-melting method, for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock. It is very interesting that the co-melting reaction temperature of the mixture of Na2CO3 and the feedstock (50-100 microm) was as low as 850 degrees C, which was significantly lower than the temperature used in traditional sodium silicate production (1400 degrees C). The optimum SiO2/Na2O ratio was identified as 7:3 according to the results of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), ICP-AES, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. In this condition, the main product was sodium disilicate (Na2O x 2SiO2), with water solubility of 85.0%. More importantly, the impurities such as aluminum in the feedstock, which had adverse effect on subsequent treatment, were concentrated almost completely in the filter residue as insoluble sodium alumunosilicates, i.e., Na(Si2Al)O6 x H2O. The lower co-melting temperature of this process demonstrates a significant energy-saving opportunity and thus a promising approach for highly effective utilization of coal-waste. Implications: Recently, alumina extraction from coal-waste has been extensively investigated and industrial applied in China. However, the slag-containing silica generated from the acid leaching process of coal-waste led to a secondary pollution, which hindered large-scale production. The proposed low-temperature co-melting method for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock indicated that it is an efficient approach for the recovery of silica from the acid-leached slag of coal-waste with minimal environmental impact. PMID:25185391

  4. Recombinant D. radiodurans cells for bioremediation of heavy metals from acidic/neutral aqueous wastes.

    PubMed

    Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Appukuttan, Deepti; Kantamreddi, Venkata Siva Satyanarayana; Rao, Amara S; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The stability and superior metal bioremediation ability of genetically engineered Deinococcus radiodurans cells, expressing a non-specific acid phosphatase, PhoN in high radiation environment has already been established. The lyophilized recombinant DrPhoN cells retained PhoN activity and uranium precipitation ability. Such cells also displayed an extended shelf life of 6 months during storage at room temperature and showed surface associated precipitation of uranium as well as other metals like cadmium. Lyophilized cells, immobilized in polyacrylamide gels could be used for uranium bioprecipitation in a flow through system resulting in 70% removal from 1mM input uranium solution and a loading of 1 g uranium/g dry weight cells. Compared with a batch process which achieved a loading of 5.7 g uranium/g biomass, the efficiency of the column process was low due to clogging of the column by the precipitate. PMID:22179144

  5. Dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay outflow plume: Realistic plume simulation and its seasonal and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Xia, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional unstructured-grid Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was implemented for Chesapeake Bay and its adjacent coastal ocean to delineate the realistic Chesapeake Bay outflow plume (CBOP) as well as its seasonal and interannual variability. Applying the appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution, the model exhibited relatively high skill in matching the observational water level, temperature, and salinity from 2003 to 2012. The simulated surface plume structure was verified by comparing output to the HF radar current measurements, earlier field observations, and the MODIS and AVHRR satellite imagery. According to the orientation, shape, and size of the CBOP from both model snapshots and satellite images, five types of real-time plume behavior were detected, which implied strong regulation by wind and river discharge. In addition to the episodic plume modulation, horizontal and vertical structure of the CBOP exhibited variations on seasonal and interannual temporal scales. Seasonally, river discharge with a 1 month lag was primarily responsible for the surface plume area variation, while the plume thickness was mainly correlated to wind magnitude. On the interannual scale, river discharge was the predominant source of variability in both surface plume area and depth; however, the southerly winds also influenced the offshore plume depth. In addition, large-scale climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, could potentially affect the plume signature in the long term by altering wind and upwelling dynamics, underlining the need to understand the impacts of climate change on buoyant plumes, such as the CBOP.

  6. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  7. Klebsiella sp. strain C2A isolated from olive oil mill waste is able to tolerate and degrade tannic acid in very high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Milva; Cappelli, Serena; Hachicho, Nancy; Perra, Guido; Renzi, Monia; Tarabelli, Alessandro; Altieri, Roberto; Esposito, Alessandro; Focardi, Silvano E; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2013-06-01

    Four bacterial strains capable of growing in the presence of tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated from olive mill waste mixtures. 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned them to the genus Klebsiella. The most efficient strain, Klebsiella sp. strain C2A, was able to degrade 3.5 g L(-1) tannic acid within 35 h with synthesizing gallic acid as main product. The capability of Klebsiella sp. strain C2A to produce tannase was evidenced at high concentrations of tannic acid up to 50 g L(-1) . The bacteria adapted to the toxicity of tannic acids by an increase in the membrane lipid fatty acids degree of saturation, especially in the presence of concentrations higher than 20 g L(-1) . The highly tolerant and adaptable bacterial strain characterized in this study could be used in bioremediation processes of wastes rich in polyphenols such as those derived from olive mills, winery or tanneries. PMID:23521025

  8. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J.; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A set of techniques was used to characterize humic acids content of vermicomposts. • The properties of the humic acids produced from different waste mixtures were similar. • This set of techniques allowed distinguishing the humic acids of each vermicomposts. • Increasing humic acid contents in initial mixtures would produce richer vermicomposts. - Abstract: A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV–visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  9. No Ocean Source for the Enceladus Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Schneider, N. M.; Johnson, R. E.; Kargel, J. S.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    One surprising discovery of the Cassini mission to Saturn has been the presence of geyser-like plumes at the south pole of the icy moon Enceladus ejecting >300; kg/s of water into Saturn's magnetosphere. In situ and remote observations (Waite et al. 2006; Hansen et al. 2006) have shown that the primary plume constituent is H2O, and thermal measurements indicate intense heating in cracks believed to be plume vents on the surface (Spencer et al. 2006). These observations have led to speculation that the plumes are fed from a liquid water reservoir beneath Enceladus' surface. We present results from an extremely sensitive, high-resolution spectroscopic search using the Keck and Anglo-Australian Telescopes which place a stringent upper limit on sodium emission in the Enceladus plumes. Large amounts of sodium would be expected if Enceladus' plume material were derived directly from a subsurface liquid reservoir in contact with rocky material. Chemical models predict that sodium would dissolve into such an ocean at mixing ratios relative to water of 10-4 to 10-1 (Zolotov et al., 2007). Our numerical plume models show that such high sodium concentrations would form a detectable torus encircling Saturn. Our detection upper limits fall orders of magnitude below these models, leading us to conclude that the Enceladus plumes do not originate in an ocean or sea. These observations support the alternative theories that the plumes are generated by shear heating of the icy crust resulting in sublimation or melting, or the decomposition of clathrates. This work has been supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program and the NSF's Planetary Astronomy Program. References: Hansen et al., Science, 311, 1422, 2006. Spencer et al., Science, 311, 1401, 2006. Waite et al., Science, 311, 1419, 2006. Zolotov et al., Presented to the "Enceladus Focus Group Workshop," Boulder, CO, 2007.

  10. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  11. Digital filtering of plume emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transformation and digital filtering techniques were used to separate the superpositioned spectral phenomena observed in the exhaust plumes of liquid propellant rocket engines. Space shuttle main engine (SSME) spectral data were used to show that extraction of spectral lines in the spatial frequency domain does not introduce error, and extraction of the background continuum introduces only minimal error. Error introduced during band extraction could not be quantified due to poor spectrometer resolution. Based on the atomic and molecular species found in the SSME plume, it was determined that spectrometer resolution must be 0.03 nm for SSME plume spectral monitoring.

  12. RAPID REMOVAL OF A GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefkoff, L. Jeff; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwater management model is used to design an aquifer restoration system that removes a contaminant plume from a hypothetical aquifer in four years. The design model utilizes groundwater flow simulation and mathematical optimization. Optimal pumping and injection strategies achieve rapid restoration for a minimum total pumping cost. Rapid restoration is accomplished by maintaining specified groundwater velocities around the plume perimeter towards a group of pumping wells located near the plume center. The model does not account for hydrodynamic dispersion. Results show that pumping costs are particularly sensitive to injection capacity. An 8 percent decrease in the maximum allowable injection rate may lead to a 29 percent increase in total pumping costs.

  13. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Acid waste plume was observed in LANDSAT imagery fourteen times ranging from during dump up to 54 hours after dump. Circulation processes at the waste disposal site are highly storm-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasterlies. There is a mean flow to the south along shore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months (May through October), the ocean at the dump site stratifies with a distinct thermocline observed during all summer cruising at depths ranging from 10 to 21 m. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom currents were small. Surface currents responded to wind conditions resulting in rapid movement of surface drogues on windy days. Mid-depth drogues showed an intermediate behavior, moving more rapidly as wind velocities increased.

  14. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites. [Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Circulation processes at the acid waste disposal site are highly event-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasters. There is a mean flow to the south alongshore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months, the ocean stratifies with warm water over cold water. A distinct thermocline was observed with expendable bathythermographs during all summer cruises at depths ranging from 10 to 21 meters. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom drogues showed very little movements. The duPont waste plume was observed in LANDSAT satellite imagery during dump up to 54 hours after dump.

  15. Analyses of thermal plume of Cernavoda nuclear power plant by satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Nicolae, D. N.; Talianu, C. L.; Ciobanu, M.; Ciuciu, J. G.

    2005-10-01

    The synergistic use of multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data offers the possibility of monitoring of environment quality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP). Advanced digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and ASTER data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air for NPP Cernavoda , Romania . Cernavoda Unit 1 power plant, using CANDU technology, having 706.5 MW power, is successfully in operation since 1996. Cernavoda Unit 2 which is currently under construction will be operational in 2007. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactor cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube river. Water temperature distributions captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. Additional information regarding flooding events and earthquake risks is considered . During the winter, the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall, there is a larger thermal plume extending 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal, and the temperature change is about 1.0 oC. Variation of surface water temperature in the thermal plume is analyzed. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and to stratification in summer. Hydrodynamic simulation leads to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat from NPP Cernavoda is dissipated in the environment.

  16. A novel multi-phase bioreactor for fermentations to produce organic acids from dairy wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Silva, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel, fibrous bed bioreactor is developed for multi-phase fermentation processes. The microbial cells are immobilized in a spiral-wound, fibrous matrix packed in the bioreactor. This innovative, structured packing design allows good contact between two different moving phases (e.g., gas-liquid or liquid-solid) and has many advantages over conventional immobilized cell bioreactors. Because the reactor bed is not completely filled with the solid matrix, the bioreactor can be operated for a long period without developing problems such as clogging and high pressure drop usually associated with conventional packed bed and membrane bioreactors. This novel bioreactor was studied for its use in several organic acid fermentations. Production of propionate, acetate, and lactate from whey permeate was studied. In all cases studied, use of the fibrous bioreactor resulted in superior reactor performance-indicated by a more than tenfold increase in productivity, reduction or elimination of the requirement for nutrient supplementation to whey permeate, and resistance to contamination-as compared to conventional batch fermentation processes. Also, the reactor maintained high productivity throughout long-term continuous operation. No contamination, degeneration, or clogging problems were experienced during a 10-month period of continuous operation. This new bioreactor is thus suitable for industrial uses to improve fermentation processes which currently use conventional bioreactors.

  17. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form. PMID:23644591

  18. Characterization of olive mill wastes composts and their humic acids: stability assessment within different particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, Saoussan; Jarboui, Raja; El Feki, Hafedh; Gea, Teresa; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2013-01-01

    Compost stability assessment within different particle size fractions was studied. Humic acids (HAs) were extracted from two kinds of co-composts prepared using evaporated olive mill wastewater (OMSW) or solid waste from olive oil extraction (OC) and poultry manure (PM). The elemental composition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis and molecular weight distribution were investigated to assess the composted organic matter stability in different fractions. In both composts, organic matter content was higher in the > 2 mm fractions than in the < 2 mm fractions, because of fractions' richness in hardly biodegradable compounds. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that OMSW compost fraction < 2 mm and OC compost 2-4 mm fraction were rich in aromatic compounds and oxygenated groups but poor in aliphatic structure. Moreover, the HA distribution reflected a high stabilized compost < 2 mm fraction, especially from evaporated effluent known as phytotoxic. However, the 4-6 mm fraction included high aliphatic compounds besides aromatic structures and did not exhibit any phytotoxicity, confirming compost fraction maturity. However, the low C/N ratio, the high OMSW compost mineral nutritive elements and the high aromatic C rate reflected highly stabilized products. Consequently, the performance of both prepared organic fertilizers for agriculture use contested the previous negative effect ascribed to olive mill wastewater. PMID:23837330

  19. Lead accumulation and depression of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in young birds fed automotive waste oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C., Jr.; Hoffman, D.J.; O'Leary, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a 3-week dietary exposure to automotive waste crankcase oil (WCO) were examined in 1-week-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) chicks. Treatment groups consisted of birds exposed to 0.5, 1.5, or 4.5% WCO, to 4.5% clean crankcase oil (CCO), or untreated controls. In both species, red blood cell ALAD activity was significantly inhibited after one week by 50 to 60% in the 0.5% WCO group and by 85 to 90% in the 4.5% WCO group due to the presence of lead. Growth, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were not significantly affected at the end of three weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was higher in mallards after three weeks of ingesting either 4.5% WCO or 4.5% CCO, suggesting an oil-related effect due to components other than lead. Treatment had no effect on plasma concentration of uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, total protein, or cholesterol. Lead analysis showed the WCO to contain 4,200 ppm Pb and the CCO to contain 2 ppm. Tissues of mallards were examined for accumulation of lead and the order of accumulation at the end of three weeks was kidney > liver > blood ~ brain.

  20. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO4), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1-0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70°C and 2h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO4 can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol. PMID:24246577

  1. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production. PMID:27343452

  2. Sequential separation of lanthanides, thorium and uranium using novel solid phase extraction method from high acidic nuclear wastes.

    PubMed

    Kesava Raju, Ch Siva; Subramanian, M S

    2007-06-25

    A novel grafted polymer for selective extraction and sequential separation of lanthanides, thorium and uranium from high acidic wastes has been developed by grafting Merrifield chloromethylated (MCM) resin with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) (MCM-CMPO). The grafting process is well characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, (31)P and (13)C CPMAS (cross-polarized magic angle spin) NMR spectroscopy and CHNPS elemental analysis. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters during metal ion extraction by the resin phase are studied and optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The resin shows very high sorption capacity values of 0.960mmolg(-1) for U(VI), 0.984mmolg(-1) for Th(IV), 0.488mmolg(-1) for La(III) and 0.502mmolg(-1) for Nd(III) under optimum HNO(3) medium, respectively. The grafted polymer shows faster rate exchange kinetics (<5min is sufficient for 50% extraction) and greater preconcentration ability, with reusability exceeding 20 cycles. During desorption process, sequential separation of the analytes is possible with varying eluting agents. The developed grafted resin has been successfully applied in extracting Th(IV) from high matrix monazite sand, U(VI) and Th(IV) from simulated nuclear spent fuel mixtures. All the analytical data is based on triplicate analysis and measurements are within 3.5% rsd reflecting the reproducibility and reliability of the developed method. PMID:17178189

  3. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production. PMID:25666310

  4. Use of plume mapping data to estimate chlorinated solvent mass loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, J.R.; Neupane, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    Results from a plume mapping study from November 2000 through February 2001 in the sand-and-gravel surficial aquifer at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, were used to assess the occurrence and extent of chlorinated solvent mass loss by calculating mass fluxes across two transverse cross sections and by observing changes in concentration ratios and mole fractions along a longitudinal cross section through the core of the plume. The plume mapping investigation was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of chlorinated solvents migrating from former waste disposal sites. Vertical contaminant concentration profiles were obtained with a direct-push drill rig and multilevel piezometers. These samples were supplemented with additional ground water samples collected with a minipiezometer from the bed of a perennial stream downgradient of the source areas. Results from the field program show that the plume, consisting mainly of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE), was approximately 670 m in length and 120 m in width, extended across much of the 9- to 18-m thickness of the surficial aquifer, and discharged to the stream in some areas. The analyses of the plume mapping data show that losses of the parent compounds, PCE and TCE, were negligible downgradient of the source. In contrast, losses of cis-1,2-DCE, a daughter compound, were observed in this plume. These losses very likely resulted from biodegradation, but the specific reaction mechanism could not be identified. This study demonstrates that plume mapping data can be used to estimate the occurrence and extent of chlorinated solvent mass loss from biodegradation and assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation as a remedial measure.

  5. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes and plume impingement environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of experimental nozzle, exhaust plume, and exhaust plume impingement data is presented. The data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with propellant Al loadings of 2, 10 and 15% exhausting to simulated altitudes of 50,000, 100,000 and 112,000 ft. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase method of characteristics numerical solution and a technique for defining thermal and pressure environments experienced by bodies immersed in two-phase exhaust plumes.

  6. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  7. Citric Acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10(3) to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  8. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. PMID:17881224

  9. An evaluation of foaming potential in the IDMS melter. [Neutralization of waste sludge base components (hydroxides and carbonates) with nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-10-22

    The present DWPF flowsheet calls for the chemical treatment of waste sludge with 90 wt% formic acid prior to the addition of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product. An alternative processing methodology, denoted the Nitric Acid Flowsheet'', has been proposed. In the application of this flowsheet, nitric acid would be used to neutralize sludge base components (hydroxides and carbonates) prior to the addition of late wash PHA. The late wash PHA will contain sufficient quantities of formic acid to adequately complete necessary reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions. The use of this flowsheet may result in a change in the nominal concentrations of two of the major REDOX reaction participants: formate (HCOO[sup minus]) and nitrate (NO[sub 3][sup minus]).

  10. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US). PMID:24268472

  11. Simulation of plume dynamics using particle graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourtellott, John; Coker, Charles F.; Crow, Dennis R.

    2000-07-01

    To enhance the fidelity of numerical flow field (plume) imagery in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems, new methods using particle system graphics have been developed. To render infrared (IR) images that are consistent with the underlying physical phenomenology, techniques for particle placement, pixel rasterization and drawing were developed and implemented in computer software. The software was integrated into an existing HIL scene generator and used to demonstrate several new capabilities. Moving particle systems were used to depict the internal flow and turbulence common to plumes. Persistent particle systems were used to depict the trail of hot gas and particulates left behind typical plumes. The addition of plume dynamic behaviors such as these can potentially improve HIL systems and, as a result, improve the testing of seekers and other weapon systems.

  12. Propagation of an atmospheric pressure plasma plume

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Xiong, Q.; Xiong, Z.; Hu, J.; Zhou, F.; Gong, W.; Xian, Y.; Zou, C.; Tang, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-02-15

    The ''plasma bullet'' behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma plumes has recently attracted significant interest. In this paper, a specially designed plasma jet device is used to study this phenomenon. It is found that a helium primary plasma can propagate through the wall of a dielectric tube and keep propagating inside the dielectric tube (secondary plasma). High-speed photographs show that the primary plasma disappears before the secondary plasma starts to propagate. Both plumes propagate at a hypersonic speed. Detailed studies on the dynamics of the plasma plumes show that the local electric field induced by the charges on the surface of the dielectric tube plays an important role in the ignition of the secondary plasma. This indicates that the propagation of the plasma plumes may be attributed to the local electric field induced by the charges in the bulletlike plasma volume.

  13. High altitude plumes at Mars morning terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia Muñoz, A.; Garcia Melendo, E.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Gomez Forrellad, J. M.; Pellier, C.; Delcroix, M.; Lopez Valverde, M. A.; González Galindo, F.; Jaeschke, W.; Parker, D.; Phillips, J.; Peach, D.

    2015-10-01

    In March and April 2012 two extremely high altitude plumes were observed at the Martian terminator reaching 200 -250 km or more above the surface[1]. They were located at about 195o West longitude and 45o South latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and extended ˜500 -1,000 km in both North-South and East- West, and lasted for about 10 days. Both plumes exhibited day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb. Another large plume was captured on Hubble Space Telescope images in May 1997 at 99º West longitude and 3º South latitude, but its altitude cannot be pr ecisely determined.Broad-band photometry was performed of both events in the spectral range 255 nm -1052 nm. Based on the observed properties, we discuss different possible scenarios for the mechanism responsible for the formation of these plumes.

  14. The Plasmaspheric Plume and Magnetopause Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, B. M.; Phan, T. D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Souza, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present near-simultaneous measurements from two THEMIS spacecraft at the dayside magnetopause with a 1.5 h separation in local time. One spacecraft observes a high-density plasmaspheric plume while the other does not. Both spacecraft observe signatures of magnetic reconnection, providing a test for the changes to reconnection in local time along the magnetopause as well as the impact of high densities on the reconnection process. When the plume is present and the magnetospheric density exceeds that in the magnetosheath, the reconnection jet velocity decreases, the density within the jet increases, and the location of the faster jet is primarily on field lines with magnetosheath orientation. Slower jet velocities indicate that reconnection is occurring less efficiently. In the localized region where the plume contacts the magnetopause, the high-density plume may impede the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling by mass loading the reconnection site.

  15. Modeling Macro- and Micro-Scale Turbulent Mixing and Chemistry in Engine Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent mixing and chemical processes in the near-field plume and plume-vortex regimes has been successfully carried out recently using a reduced gas phase kinetics mechanism which substantially decreased the computational cost. A detailed mechanism including gas phase HOx, NOx, and SOx chemistry between the aircraft exhaust and the ambient air in near-field aircraft plumes is compiled. A reduced mechanism capturing the major chemical pathways is developed. Predictions by the reduced mechanism are found to be in good agreement with those by the detailed mechanism. With the reduced chemistry, the computer CPU time is saved by a factor of more than 3.5 for the near-field plume modeling. Distributions of major chemical species are obtained and analyzed. The computed sensitivities of major species with respect to reaction step are deduced for identification of the dominant gas phase kinetic reaction pathways in the jet plume. Both the near field plume and the plume-vortex regimes were investigated using advanced mixing models. In the near field, a stand-alone mixing model was used to investigate the impact of turbulent mixing on the micro- and macro-scale mixing processes using a reduced reaction kinetics model. The plume-vortex regime was simulated using a large-eddy simulation model. Vortex plume behind Boeing 737 and 747 aircraft was simulated along with relevant kinetics. Many features of the computed flow field show reasonable agreement with data. The entrainment of the engine plumes into the wing tip vortices and also the partial detrainment of the plume were numerically captured. The impact of fluid mechanics on the chemical processes was also studied. Results show that there are significant differences between spatial and temporal simulations especially in the predicted SO3 concentrations. This has important implications for the prediction of sulfuric acid aerosols in the wake and may partly explain the discrepancy between past numerical studies

  16. Local stability of axisymmetric plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. v. K., Chakravarthy; Lesshafft, Lutz; Huerre, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A linear stability analysis of a forced plume with non-zero momentum at the inlet is performed for Pr = 1 , Re = 100 and Ri near 1. The steady base flow is obtained as a laminar solution of the steady Navier Stokes equations. The base flow asymptotes to a self-similar solution as it evolves downstream. In the non-self-similar regime close to the inlet, both axisymmetric mode (m = 0) and the helical mode (m = 1) are convectively unstable at sufficiently low Richardson number. In the self-similar regime, only the helical mode is absolutely unstable and the axisymmetric mode is stable. Higher helical modes (m >= 2) are seen to be convectively unstable very close to the inlet and become stable as the flow evolves downstream. The transition from convective to absolute instability makes the flow a good candidate for observing steep nonlinear global modes associated with buoyancy. This work is supported by a PhD scholarship from Ecole polytechnique.

  17. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

  18. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. PMID:26831563

  19. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  20. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  1. Cretaceous Arctic magmatism: Slab vs. plume? Or slab and plume?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, E. S.; Miller, E. L.; Andronikov, A. V.; Brumley, K.; Mayer, L. A.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Tectonic models for the Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent landmasses propose that rifting in the Amerasia Basin (AB) began in Jura-Cretaceous time, accompanied by the development of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). During the same timespan, deformation and slab-related magmatism, followed by intra-arc rifting, took place along the Pacific side of what was to become the Arctic Ocean. A compilation and comparison of the ages, characteristics and space-time variation of circum-Arctic magmatism allows for a better understanding of the role of Pacific margin versus Arctic-Atlantic plate tectonics and the role of plume-related magmatism in the origin of the Arctic Ocean. In Jura-Cretaceous time, an arc built upon older terranes overthrust the Arctic continental margins of North America and Eurasia, shedding debris into foreland basins in the Brooks Range, Alaska, across Chukotka, Russia, to the Lena Delta and New Siberian Islands region of the Russian Arctic. These syn-tectonic sediments have some common sources (e.g., ~250-300 Ma magmatic rocks) as determined by U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology. They are as young as Valanginian-Berriasian (~136 Ma, Gradstein et al., 2004) and place a lower limit on the age of formation of the AB. Subsequent intrusions of granitoid plutons, inferred to be ultimately slab-retreat related, form a belt along the far eastern Russian Arctic continental margin onto Seward Peninsula and have yielded a continuous succession of zircon U-Pb ages from ~137-95 Ma (n=28) and a younger suite ~91-82 Ma (n=16). All plutons dated were intruded in an extensional tectonic setting based on their relations to wall-rock deformation. Regional distribution of ages shows a southward migration of the locus of magmatism during Cretaceous time. Basaltic lavas as old as 130 Ma and as young as 80 Ma (40Ar/39Ar)) erupted across the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and are associated with

  2. A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-12-01

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher

  3. Bathymetric effects on estuarine plume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungwoo; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2013-04-01

    influence of bathymetry on an estuary plume at an estuary-shelf transition is studied with a three-dimensional ocean circulation model. To understand the response of the plume to bathymetry, several types of estuarine shapes and shelf geometries were adopted in this numerical study. The channel's shape and its width-to-depth aspect ratio affected the fate of the plume by determining flow characteristics inside the estuary. Moreover, the bathymetry of the shelf such as the shelf slope and the direction of a submarine channel defined the plume characteristics on the shelf. An estuarine channel with a triangular cross section generated relatively stronger exchange flows at midestuary than a rectangular cross section, which resulted in a larger surface plume over the shelf. The extension of the submarine channel onto the shelf favored increased plume water transport out to the shelf, a result of reduced frictional effects on the shelf. The orientation of the submarine channel changed the direction of the plume over the shelf, with no additional external forces. Two fronts developed at the edges of the submarine channel because of enhanced lateral shears in the flow. When the estuary was relatively wide compared to the internal Rossby radius (Kelvin number Ke ≥ 5), or when the relative strength of the freshwater discharge compared to the estuary width was weak (Rossby number Ro ≤ 0.05), the coastal plume did not expand up-shelf. In fact, results indicated that freshwater up-shelf transport in a coastal current, moving against Coriolis' accelerations, was proportional to Ro.

  4. Puff/Plume for Windows 95-NT

    1998-05-20

    PFPL-NT is a GUI event-driven scientific application integrating 14 background processes to access the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials from production facilities and transportation vehicles. A simple straight-line Gaussian assumption has been employed with observations from meteorological towers to calculate and visually display plume directions, plume width, and dose/concentration estimates in the immediate vicinity of a radiological or chemical release.

  5. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill

  6. OPAD data analysis. [Optical Plumes Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Kraft, Richard; Whitaker, Kevin; Cooper, Anita E.; Powers, W. T.; Wallace, Tim L.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained in the framework of an Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) program intended to create a rocket engine health monitor based on spectrometric detections of anomalous atomic and molecular species in the exhaust plume are analyzed. The major results include techniques for handling data noise, methods for registration of spectra to wavelength, and a simple automatic process for estimating the metallic component of a spectrum.

  7. A tidal plume front and internal solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald R.; Weidemann, Alan D.

    1998-07-01

    A tidal plume front (internal tidal bore) propagating from the Apalachicola Bay outflow into the northern Gulf of Mexico is examined in a brief set of observations. Temperature and salinity time series showed a radially spreading "pool" of estuarine water with a character similar to a previously observed "turbulent rotor", and with a following packet of internal solitons. Features associated with these observations may be pertinent to interpretation of remotely sensed plumes and to predictive modeling.

  8. Ion recombination in aircraft exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Mirabel, P.

    In this article, a model which examines the evolution of ion concentrations in a hot aircraft exhaust plume on the ground is proposed. The model includes plume dilution and ion-ion recombination with coefficients which vary with temperature. A comparison of the model is made with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines. From this comparison, an ion emission index of the order of 8 1016 ions/kg(fuel) inferred.

  9. Vertical distribution of Pahang River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, T. M.; Lihan, T.; Mustapha, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Large rivers transported high amount of discharge towards the sea and induced the river plume formation. The contents of the plume consist of suspended solids, nutrients, pollutants and other particles. Productivity at estuary depends on the organic and nutrient contents from the river discharge. Due to many possible factors, the dispersal of the plume shows spatial variation horizontally and vertically. The monsoonal wind is a factor that effecting plume vertical profile pattern. This study determines the vertical distribution pattern of the plumeat Pahang River through field observation. Several water parameters were measured during cruises conducted at respective monsoon. Data collected includes depth, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature and suspended particulate matter. Depth at Pahang's offshore usually does not reached more than 15 m depth because of the shallow continental shelf at South China Sea. The plume has higher concentration at the mouth of the river which causes the area to be less saline and it decreases as the station furthers from the river. Chlorophyll-a is distributed mainly at the surface level where the area is warmer and received freshwater runoff. Suspended particulate matter shows downward distribution from the front of the estuary towards deep water column depth (10 m). Temperature pattern shows warmer surface layer with depth less than 5 m while deeper water column has lower temperature. Vertical profile pattern of Pahang River plume generally shows slight difference between each monsoon by referring to particular parameter.

  10. Relative Abundance Measurements in Plumes and Interplumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guennou, C.; Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-07-01

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) <10 eV are enhanced relative to their photospheric abundances. This coronal-to-photospheric abundance ratio, commonly called the FIP bias, is typically 1 for elements with a high-FIP (>10 eV). We have used Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over a ≈24 hr period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we used a differential emission measure analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These results may help to identify whether plumes or interplumes contribute to the fast solar wind observed in situ and may also provide constraints on the formation and heating mechanisms of plumes.

  11. Investigation of ship-plume chemistry using a newly-developed photochemical ship-plume model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.

    2009-05-01

    A photochemical ship-plume model, which can consider the ship-plume dynamics and ship-plume chemistry, simultaneously, was developed to gain a better understanding of atmospheric impact of ship emissions. The model performance was then evaluated by a comparison with the observation data measured on a NOAA WP-3D flight during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) airborne field campaign. The simulation conditions and parameters, such as meteorological conditions, emission rates, and background gas and particulate species concentrations, were obtained directly and/or inferred indirectly from the ITCT 2K2 observation data. The model-predicted concentrations showed good agreement with the observed concentrations of five ambient species (NOx, NOy, O3, HNO3, and H2SO4) at the eight plume transects by the WP-3D flight with strong correlations around the 1:1 line (0.66≤R≤0.85). In addition, a set of tests were carried out to approximate the magnitude of the reaction probability of HNO3 onto sea-salt particles in the model-observation comparison framework. These results suggest that the reaction probability of HNO3 onto sea-salt particles may be in the order of 10-3 or smaller. The equivalent NOx lifetime throughout the "entire" plume was also estimated from ship-plume chemistry modeling. The NOx lifetimes estimated throughout the "entire ship plume" was 3.36 h. The short NOx lifetime over the entire ship plume clearly shows that the ship-plume chemistry shortens the NOx lifetime considerably. Therefore, the ship-plume chemistry model should be used to model the changes in ship-plume chemical compositions and better evaluate the atmospheric impact of ocean-going ship emissions.

  12. Lateral plume spreading in a medium size river plume using surface Lagrangian drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoulaki, Georgia; MacDonald, Daniel; Cole, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Groups of 27 Lagrangian drifters deployed in the Merrimack River plume over twelve tides, with river discharges ranging between 150-800 m3/s, are used to understand the external forcing mechanisms responsible for the extent of spreading in river plumes. The transition of buoyant flow from a confined estuary to an unconfined coastal ocean introduces the complicated phenomenon of lateral spreading, which occurs preferentially near the surface and results in a flow that spreads laterally as plume water propagates forward in the direction of mean flow. In this work, the temporal and spatial scales of the active spreading region are estimated in the sampled plumes and related to environmental parameters at the river mouth such as inflow river discharge, initial drifter velocity at the point of release, initial reduced gravity and initial internal wave speed. The initial wave speed was found to be the environmental parameter that best predicts the magnitude of the spatial and temporal scales of the active spreading region. Previous studies have asserted the importance of initial plume parameters in near-field plume evolution and here we extrapolate this idea to the mid-field. Interestingly, we find that that lateral plume spreading is arrested at approximately one inertial radius from the river mouth. We therefore propose that the shutdown of spreading is controlled almost exclusively by Coriolis force and it is responsible for converting spreading motion to spinning motion after the mid field region. The outcomes of this research are widely applicable to other energetic, medium size river plume systems and to the author's knowledge this is the first study to estimate lateral plume expansion using observations beyond the immediate near field region of a river plume. This work will provide further development in understanding plume dynamics and the fundamental physical processes that influence coastal ecosystems.

  13. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution. PMID:25560662

  14. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.

    Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.

    Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.

    The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.

    Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.

    This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through

  15. Pele Plume Deposit on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The varied effects of Ionian volcanism can be seen in this false color infrared composite image of Io's trailing hemisphere. Low resolution color data from Galileo's first orbit (June, 1996) have been combined with a higher resolution clear filter picture taken on the third orbit (November, 1996) of the spacecraft around Jupiter.

    A diffuse ring of bright red material encircles Pele, the site of an ongoing, high velocity volcanic eruption. Pele's plume is nearly invisible, except in back-lit photographs, but its deposits indicate energetic ejection of sulfurous materials out to distances more than 600 kilometers from the central vent. Another bright red deposit lies adjacent to Marduk, also a currently active ediface. High temperature hot spots have been detected at both these locations, due to the eruption of molten material in lava flows or lava lakes. Bright red deposits on Io darken and disappear within years or decades of deposition, so the presence of bright red materials marks the sites of recent volcanism.

    This composite was created from data obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The region imaged is centered on 15 degrees South, 224 degrees West, and is almost 2400 kilometers across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3 kilometers across. North is towards the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the west.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Identification of a reactive degradation zone at a landfill leachate plume fringe using high resolution sampling and incubation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuxen, Nina; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2006-05-01

    Vertical small-scale variation in phenoxy acid herbicide degradation across a landfill leachate plume fringe was studied using laboratory degradation experiments. Sediment cores (subdivided into 5 cm segments) were collected in the aquifer and the sediment and porewater were used for microcosm experiments (50 experiments) and for determination of solid organic carbon, solid-water partitioning coefficients, specific phenoxy acid degraders and porewater chemistry. Results from a multi-level sampler installed next to the cores provided information on the plume position and oxygen concentration in the groundwater. Oxygen concentration was controlled individually in each microcosm to mimic the conditions at their corresponding depths. A highly increased degradation potential existed at the narrow plume fringe (37.7 to 38.6 masl), governed by the presence of phenoxy acids and oxygen. This resulted in the proliferation of a microbial population of specific phenoxy acid degraders, which further enhanced the degradation potential for phenoxy acids at the fringe. The results illustrate the importance of fringe degradation processes in contaminant plumes. Furthermore, they highlight the relevance of using high-resolution sampling techniques as well as controlled microcosm experiments in the assessment of the natural attenuation capacity of contaminant plumes in groundwater.

  17. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  18. The planet beyond the plume hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alan D.; Lewis, Charles

    1999-12-01

    Acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics was accompanied by the rise of the mantle plume/hotspot concept which has come to dominate geodynamics from its use both as an explanation for the origin of intraplate volcanism and as a reference frame for plate motions. However, even with a large degree of flexibility permitted in plume composition, temperature, size, and depth of origin, adoption of any limited number of hotspots means the plume model cannot account for all occurrences of the type of volcanism it was devised to explain. While scientific protocol would normally demand that an alternative explanation be sought, there have been few challenges to "plume theory" on account of a series of intricate controls set up by the plume model which makes plumes seem to be an essential feature of the Earth. The hotspot frame acts not only as a reference but also controls plate tectonics. Accommodating plumes relegates mantle convection to a weak, sluggish effect such that basal drag appears as a minor, resisting force, with plates having to move themselves by boundary forces and continents having to be rifted by plumes. Correspondingly, the geochemical evolution of the mantle is controlled by the requirement to isolate subducted crust into plume sources which limits potential buffers on the composition of the MORB-source to plume- or lower mantle material. Crustal growth and Precambrian tectonics are controlled by interpretations of greenstone belts as oceanic plateaus generated by plumes. Challenges to any aspect of the plume model are thus liable to be dismissed unless a counter explanation is offered across the geodynamic spectrum influenced by "plume theory". Nonetheless, an alternative synthesis can be made based on longstanding petrological evidence for derivation of intraplate volcanism from volatile-bearing sources (wetspots) in conjunction with concepts dismissed for being incompatible or superfluous to "plume theory". In the alternative Earth, the sources for

  19. African Equatorial and Subtropical Ozone Plumes: Recurrences Timescales of the Brown Cloud Trans-African Plumes and Other Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Thompson, Anne M.; Guan, Hong; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    We have found repeated illustrations in the maps of Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) of apparent transport of ozone from the Indian Ocean to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Most interesting are examples that coincide with the INDOEX observations of late northern winter, 1999. Three soundings associated with the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network help confirm and quantify degree of influence of pollution, lightning, and stratospheric sources, suggesting that perhaps 40% of increased Atlantic ozone could be Asian pollution during periods of maximum identified in the TTO maps. We outline recurrent periods of apparent ozone transport from Indian to Atlantic Ocean regions both during and outside the late-winter period. These are placed in the context of some general observations about factors controlling recurrence timescales for the expression of both equatorial and subtropical plumes. Low-level subtropical plumes are often controlled by frontal systems approaching the Namib coast; these direct mid-level air into either easterly equatorial plumes or westerly mid- troposphere plumes. Equatorial plumes of ozone cross Africa on an easterly path due to the occasional coincidence of two phenomena: (1) lofting of ozone to mid and upper levels, often in the Western Indian Ocean, and (2) the eastward extension of an Equatorial African easterly jet.

  20. PlumeSat: A Micro-Satellite Based Plume Imagery Collection Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Ng, L.C.

    2002-06-30

    This paper describes a technical approach to cost-effectively collect plume imagery of boosting targets using a novel micro-satellite based platform operating in low earth orbit (LEO). The plume collection Micro-satellite or PlueSat for short, will be capable of carrying an array of multi-spectral (UV through LWIR) passive and active (Imaging LADAR) sensors and maneuvering with a lateral divert propulsion system to different observation altitudes (100 to 300 km) and different closing geometries to achieve a range of aspect angles (15 to 60 degrees) in order to simulate a variety of boost phase intercept missions. The PlumeSat will be a cost effective platform to collect boost phase plume imagery from within 1 to 10 km ranges, resulting in 0.1 to 1 meter resolution imagery of a variety of potential target missiles with a goal of demonstrating reliable plume-to-hardbody handover algorithms for future boost phase intercept missions. Once deployed on orbit, the PlumeSat would perform a series phenomenology collection experiments until expends its on-board propellants. The baseline PlumeSat concept is sized to provide from 5 to 7 separate fly by data collects of boosting targets. The total number of data collects will depend on the orbital basing altitude and the accuracy in delivering the boosting target vehicle to the nominal PlumeSat fly-by volume.