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Sample records for acidic waste plumes

  1. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  2. Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U

  3. Colloid Formation at Waste Plume Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Saiz, Eduardo; Larsen, Joern T.; Zheng, Zuoping; Couture, Rex A.

    2004-05-22

    Highly saline and caustic tank waste solutions containing radionuclides and toxic metals have leaked into sediments at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities such as the Hanford Site (Washington State). Colloid transport is frequently invoked to explain migration of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface. To understand colloid formation during interactions between highly reactive fluids and sediments and its impact on contaminant transport, we simulated tank waste solution (TWS) leakage processes in laboratory columns at ambient and elevated (70 C) temperatures. We found that maximum formation of mobile colloids occurred at the plume fronts (hundreds to thousands times higher than within the plume bodies or during later leaching). Concentrations of suspended solids were as high as 3 mass%, and their particle-sizes ranged from tens of nm to a few {micro}m. Colloid chemical composition and mineralogy depended on temperature. During infiltration of the leaked high Na{sup +} waste solution, rapid and completed Na{sup +} replacement of exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} from the sediment caused accumulation of these divalent cations at the moving plume front. Precipitation of supersaturated Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}-bearing minerals caused dramatic pH reduction at the plume front. In turn, the reduced pH caused precipitation of other minerals. This understanding can help predict the behavior of contaminant trace elements carried by the tank waste solutions, and could not have been obtained through conventional batch studies.

  4. Segregation of acid plume pixels from background water pixels, signatures of background water and dispersed acid plumes, and implications for calculation of iron concentration in dense plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Two files of data, obtained with a modular multiband scanner, for an acid waste dump into ocean water, were analyzed intensively. Signatures were derived for background water at different levels of effective sunlight intensity, and for different iron concentrations in the dispersed plume from the dump. The effect of increased sunlight intensity on the calculated iron concentration was found to be relatively important at low iron concentrations and relatively unimportant at high values of iron concentration in dispersed plumes. It was concluded that the basic equation for iron concentration is not applicable to dense plumes, particularly because lower values are indicated at the very core of the plume, than in the surrounding sheath, whereas radiances increase consistently from background water to dispersed plume to inner sheath to innermost core. It was likewise concluded that in the dense plume the iron concentration would probably best be measured by the higher wave length radiances, although the suitable relationship remains unknown.

  5. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  6. Acid precipitation chemistry in an urban plume

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, P.; Arcado, T.D.; Marler, B.L.; Altshuler, S.L. )

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the results of an ongoing study performed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) to: investigate the formation, transport and deposition of acidic species in the urban plume from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and assess the role of two gas-fired electric generation facilities located on the eastern boundary of the SFBA. They present a brief summary of their study area's climate. The network used in this study and our experimental methods are also described. An analysis of wet deposition data collected by our network is presented along with a discussion of the major findings, to date, of our study.

  7. Quantifying and Predicting Reactive Transport of Uranium in Waste Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu; Steefel, Carl; Burns, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The Hanford Site is the DOE's largest legacy waste site, with uranium (U) from plutonium processing being a major contaminant in its subsurface. Accident release of highly concentrated high level wastes (e.g. 0.5 lb U(VI)/gal) left large quantities of U in the vadose zone under tank farms (e.g. 7-8 tons U(VI) under tank BX-102 (Jones et al., 2001)). The U contamination has been found in groundwater in both 300 and 200 Areas of Hanford, indicating U(VI) was/is mobile. Because excavation costs are enormous, this U will likely be left in-ground for the foreseeable future. Therefore, understanding the contamination processes and the resulting U spatial and temporary distributions and mobility in the heavily contaminated Hanford site is needed in order to forecast its future transport. The overall objective of this research is to develop an experimentally supported conceptual model of U reactive transport, during and after the tank leakage, at heavily U-contaminated areas of the Hanford vadose zone. The conceptual model will incorporate key geochemical and physical controls on the contamination process, explain the current distribution of U in the vadose zone, and guide predictions of its future mobility under the influence of natural recharge. We do not seek to predict the complex flow geometry of any specific waste plume. Instead, our work is trying to identify the hierarchy of processes relevant along U waste plume paths.

  8. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  9. pH neutralization and zonation in alkaline-saline tank waste plumes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiamin; Larsen, Joern T; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Zheng, Zuoping

    2004-03-01

    At the Hanford Site in Washington State, the pH values of contaminant plumes resulting from leaking of initially highly alkaline-saline radioactive waste solutions into the subsurface are now found to be substantially neutralized. However, the nature of plume pH neutralization has not previously been understood. As a master geochemical variable, pH needs to be understood in order to predict the fate and transport of contaminants carried by the waste plumes. Through this laboratory study, we found that the plume pH values spanned a broad range from 14 (within the near-source region) down to the value of 7 (lower than the pH value of the initial soil solution) while the plume was still connected to an actively leaking source. We defined two zones within a plume: the silicate dissolution zone (SDZ, pH 14-10) and the neutralized zone (NZ, pH 10-7). Quartz dissolution at elevated temperature and precipitation of secondary silicates (including sodium metasilicate, cancrinite, and zeolites) are the key reactions responsible for the pH neutralization within the SDZ. The rapid and thorough cation exchange of Na+ replacing Ca2+/Mg2+, combined with transport, resulted in a dynamic Ca2+/Mg2+-enriched plume front. Subsequent precipitation of calcite, sodium silicate, and possibly talc led to dramatically reduced pH within the plume front and the neutralized zone. During aging (after the plume source became inactive), continued quartz dissolution and the secondary silicate precipitation drove the pH value lower, toward pH 11 at equilibrium within the SDZ, whereas the pH values in the NZ remained relatively unchanged with time. A pH profile of 11 from the plume source to pH 7 at the plume front is expected for a historical plume. This laboratory-based study provided realistic plume pH profiles (consistent with that measured from borehole samples) and identified underlying mechanisms responsible for pH evolution.

  10. Remotely sensed and laboratory spectral signatures of an ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Collins, V. G.

    1977-01-01

    An ocean-dumped acid waste plume was studied by using a rapid scanning spectrometer to remotely measure ocean radiance from a helicopter. The results of these studies are presented and compared with results from sea truth samples and laboratory experiments. An ocean spectral reflectance signature and a laboratory spectral transmission signature were established for the iron-acid waste pollutant. The spectrally and chemically significant component of the acid waste pollutant was determined to be ferric iron.

  11. Tritium Plume Dynamics in the Shallow Unsaturated Zone Adjacent to an Arid Waste Disposal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Michel, R. L.; Pohll, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented two plumes of tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Wastes were disposed on-site from 1962-92. Tritium has moved long distances (> 400 m) through a shallow (1-2-m depth) dry gravelly layer—orders of magnitude further than anticipated by standard transport models. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses and tritium flux calculations were applied to assess shallow plume dynamics. A grid-based plant-water sampling method was utilized to infer detailed, field-scale 3HHOg concentrations at 5-yr intervals during 2001-11. Results indicate that gravel-layer 3HHOg mass diminished faster than would be expected from radioactive decay (~70% in 10 yr). Both plumes exhibited center-of-mass stability, suggesting that bulk-plume movement is minimal during the period of study. Nonetheless, evidence of localized lateral advancement along some margins, combined with increases in the spatial covariance of concentration distribution, indicates intra-plume mass redistribution is ongoing. Previous studies have recognized that vertical movement of tritiated water from sub-root-zone gravel into the root-zone contributes to atmospheric release via evapotranspiration. Estimates of lateral and vertical tritium fluxes during the study period indicate (1) vertical tritiated water fluxes were dominated by diffusive-vapor fluxes (> 90%), and (2) vertical diffusive-vapor fluxes were roughly an order of magnitude greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes. This behavior highlights the importance of the atmosphere as a tritium sink. Estimates of cumulative vertical diffusive-vapor flux and radioactive decay with time were comparable to observed declines in total shallow plume mass with time. This suggests observed changes in plume mass may (1) be attributed, in considerable part, to these removal

  12. Evolution of REDOX Tank Waste Plumes in Hanford Vadose Zone: A Conceptual Model Developed Through Reactive Transport Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Zheng, Zuoping

    2003-03-27

    Decisions on remedial actions for leakage of highly radioactive tank waste solutions at the Hanford Site will depend highly on understanding of the current distribution and future migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The geochemical data obtained from borehole drilling at SX tank farm in the 200 Area, by Tank Farm Vadose Zone Characterization Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, revealed valuable insights as well as some results that challenge our basic understanding of waste plume evolution. In response to these needs and challenges, we have been investigating reactive transport of tank waste solutions in Hanford sediments through laboratory column experiments combined with geochemical modeling. Analyses of solid and aqueous phases within different zones of contaminant plumes, along with thermodynamic predictions provide the basis for our conceptual model. This model reveals the primary processes controlling evolution of REDOX waste plumes in the Hanford vadose zone.

  13. Sulfuric acid measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for the sulfuric acid formation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2002-04-01

    Sulfuric acid concentrations were measured in the exhaust plume of a B737-300 aircraft in flight. The measurements were made onboard of the German research aircraft Falcon using the Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer (VACA). The VACA measures total H2SO4, which is the sum of gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol H2SO4. Measurements took place at distances of 25-200 m behind the B737 corresponding to plume ages of about 0.1-1 seconds. The fuel sulfur content (FSC) of the fuel burned by the B737 engines was alternatively 2.6 and 56 mg sulfur per kilogram fuel (ppmm). H2SO4 concentrations measured in the plume for the 56 ppmm sulfur case were up to ~600 pptv. The average concentration of H2SO4 measured in the ambient atmosphere outside the aircraft plume was 88 pptv, the maximum ambient atmospheric H2SO4 was ~300 pptv. Average efficiencies ɛΔCO2 = 3.3 +/- 1.8% and ɛΔT = 2.9 +/- 1.6% for fuel sulfur conversion to sulfuric acid were inferred when relating the H2SO4 data to measurements of the plume tracers ΔCO2 and ΔT.

  14. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    46 2 4 H2 3 4 4 2 Phosphate Sulfuric Water Phosphoric Hydro- Phosphogypsum Rock Acid Acid fluoric Acid For our purposes the process could be viewed as...one where sulfuric acid is neutralized using phosphate rock rather than lime. Although the resulting calcium sulfate (referred to as phosphogypsum ...spearhead research in this country on uses for waste gypsum or phosphogypsum . They have published a recent review of historic and current work on

  15. Characterizing estuarine plume discharge into the coastal ocean using fatty acid biomarkers and pigment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew M; Ryan, John P; Levesque, Christian; Welschmeyer, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    The transformation of estuaries by human activities continues to alter the biogeochemical balance of the coastal ocean. The disruption of this balance can negatively impact the provision of goods and services, including fisheries, commerce and transportation, recreation and esthetic enjoyment. Here we examine a link, between the Elkhorn Slough and the coastal ocean in Monterey Bay, California (USA) using a novel application of fatty acid and pigment analysis. Fatty acid analysis of filtered water samples showed biologically distinct water types between the Elkhorn Slough plume and the receiving waters of the coastal ocean. A remarkable feature of the biological content of the plume entering the coastal ocean was the abundance of bacteria-specific fatty acids, which correlated well with concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Pigment analysis showed that plume waters contained higher concentrations of diatoms and cryptophytes, while the coastal ocean waters showed higher relative concentrations of dinoflagellates. Bacteria and cryptophytes can provide a source of labile, energy-rich organic matter that may be locally important as a source of food for pelagic and benthic communities. Surface and depth surveys of the plume show that the biogeochemical constituents of the slough waters are injected into the coastal waters and become entrained in the northward flowing, nearshore current of Monterey Bay. Transport of these materials to the northern portion of the bay can fuel a bloom incubator, which exists in this region. This study shows that fatty acid markers can reveal the biogeochemical interactions between estuaries and the coastal ocean and highlights how man-made changes have the potential to influence coastal ecological change.

  16. Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

  17. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. R.; Lerch, R. E.; Crippen, M. D.; Cowan, R. G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10/sup 6/ and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10/sup 8/; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450/sup 0/stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N/sub 2/) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO/sub 2/stack was > 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives.

  18. First direct sulfuric acid detection in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Sierau, B.; Arnold, F.; Baumann, R.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.

    Sulfuric acid (SA) was for the first time directly detected in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight. The measurements were made by a novel aircraft-based VACA (Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer) instrument of MPI-K Heidelberg while the research aircraft Falcon was chasing another research aircraft ATTAS. The VACA measures the total SA in the gas and in volatile submicron aerosol particles. During the chase the engines of the ATTAS alternatively burned sulfur-poor and sulfur-rich fuel. In the sulfur-rich plume very marked enhancements of total SA were observed of up to 1300 pptv which were closely correlated with ΔCO2 and ΔT and were far above the local ambient atmospheric background-level of typically 15-50 pptv. Our observations indicate a lower limit for the efficiency ɛ for fuel-sulfur conversion to SA of 0.34 %.

  19. Relation of laboratory and remotely sensed spectral signatures of ocean-dumped acid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of laboratory transmission and remotely sensed ocean upwelled spectral signatures of acid waste ocean water solutions are presented. The studies were performed to establish ocean-dumped acid waste spectral signatures and to relate them to chemical and physical interactions occurring in the dump plume. The remotely sensed field measurements and the laboratory measurements were made using the same rapid-scanning spectrometer viewing a dump plume and with actual acid waste and ocean water samples, respectively. Laboratory studies showed that the signatures were produced by soluble ferric iron being precipitated in situ as ferric hydroxide upon dilution with ocean water. Sea-truth water samples were taken and analyzed for pertinent major components of the acid waste. Relationships were developed between the field and laboratory data both for spectral signatures and color changes with concentration. The relationships allow for the estimation of concentration of the indicator iron from remotely sensed spectral data and the laboratory transmission concentration data without sea-truth samples.

  20. Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Technology Certification Program IRR Internal Rate of Return IWTP Industrial Waste Treatment Plan NPV Net Present Value PLC Programmable Logic Controller PNNL...operated through a graphical man-machine interface. A touch screen provides the operator access to the system. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) uses

  1. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  2. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

  3. Isotopic Systematics (U, nitrate and Sr) of the F-Area Acidic Contamination Plume at the Savannah River Site: Clues to Contaminant History and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. N.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Denham, M.; Wan, J.; Rakshit, S.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Spycher, N.

    2010-12-01

    Seepage basins in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site were used from 1955 to 1989 for the disposal of low-level radioactive acidic (ave. pH ˜2.9) waste solutions from site operations involving irradiated uranium billets and other materials used in the production of radionuclides. These disposal activities resulted in a persistent acidic groundwater plume (pH as low as 3.2) beneath the F-Area including contaminants such as tritium, nitrate, 90Sr, 129I and uranium and that has impinged on surface water (Four Mile Branch) about 600 m from the basins. After cessation of disposal in 1989, the basins were capped in 1991. Since that time, remediation has consisted of a pump-and-treat system that has recently been replaced with in situ treatment using a funnel-and-gate system with injection of alkaline solutions in the gates to neutralize pH. In order to delineate the history of contamination and the current mobility and fate of contaminants in F-Area groundwater, we have undertaken a study of variations in the isotopic compositions of U (234U/238U, 235U/238U, 236U/238U), Sr (87Sr/86Sr) and nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) within the contaminant plume. This data can be used to trace U transport within the plume, evaluate chemical changes of nitrate, and potentially track plume/sediment chemical interaction and trace the migration of 90Sr. We have analyzed a suite of groundwater samples from monitoring wells, as well as pore-water samples extracted from aquifer sediment cores to map out the isotopic variation within the plume. The isotopic compositions of U from well samples and porewater samples are all consistent with the variable burn-up of depleted U. The variation in U isotopic composition requires at least three different endmembers, without any significant influence of background natural U. The δ15N and δ18O of nitrate from F-Area plume groundwater are distinct both from natural and unaltered synthetic nitrate, and likely represents fractionation due to waste volume

  4. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Bea, Sergio A; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S; Denham, Miles E

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H(+) adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates

  5. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, Sergio A.; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S.; Denham, Miles E.

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H+ adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates and

  6. An application of geoelectrical methods for contamination plume recognition in Urbanowice waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mycka, Mateusz; Mendecki, Maciej Jan

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to detect groundwater pollution and to identify the conditions of soil and groundwater near the Urbanowice landfill site using geoelectrical measurements. Presented measurements are preliminary results from tested site and are beginning of continuous monitoring. Contamination outflows detected by resistivity and IP technique show a good correlation with available hydrological data. Contamination plume were found in Eastern part of survey profil.

  7. Leachate plume delineation and lithologic profiling using surface resistivity in an open municipal solid waste dumpsite, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, Hasintha Rangana; De Silva, Sunethra Nalin; Wijesundara, Dharani Thanuja De Silva; Basnayake, Bendict Francis Antony; Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of direct current resistivity techniques (DCRT) for investigation and characterization of leachate-contaminated subsurface environment of an open solid waste dumpsite at Kandy, Sri Lanka. The particular dumpsite has no liner and hence the leachate flows directly to the nearby river via subsurface and surface channels. For the identification of possible subsurface flow paths and the direction of the leachate, DCRT (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and vertical electrical sounding) have been applied. In addition, the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) of leachate collected from different points of the solid waste dumping area and leachate drainage channel were analysed. Resistivity data confirmed that the leachate flow is confined to the near surface and no separate plume is observed in the downstream area, which may be due to the contamination distribution in the shallow overburden thickness. The stratigraphy with leachate pockets and leachate plume movements was well demarcated inside the dumpsite via low resistivity zones (1-3 Ωm). The recorded EC, alkalinity, hardness and chloride contents in leachate were averaged as 14.13 mS cm⁻¹, 3236, 2241 and 320 mg L⁻¹, respectively, which confirmed the possible causes for low resistivity values. This study confirms that DCRT can be effectively utilized to assess the subsurface characteristics of the open dumpsites to decide on corridor placement and depth of permeable reactive barriers to reduce the groundwater contamination.

  8. Quantitative mapping of suspended solids in wastewater sludge plumes in the New York Bight apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Duedall, I. W.; Glasgow, R. M.; Proni, J. R.; Nelsen, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply the previously reported methodology to remotely sensed data that were collected over wastewater sludge plumes in the New York Bight apex on September 22, 1975. Spectral signatures were also determined during this study. These signatures may be useful in the specific identification of sludge plumes, as opposed to other plumes such as those created by the disposal of industrial acid wastes.

  9. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.

  10. Geochemical Characteristics of the Contaminant Waste Plume in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site: From Kilometer to Micrometer Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Denham, M.; Seaman, J. C.; Rakshit, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was a major DOE facility for plutonium production during the Cold War. Low-level radioactivity acidic waste solutions were discharged to a series of unlined seepage basins in the F-Area of the SRS from 1955-1989. Although the site has gone through many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic with pH values as low as 3.2, and the concentrations of U and other radionuclides are still up to ten times higher than their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In order to understand the current and predict the future contaminant behavior, a comprehensive investigation is being conducted, funded jointly by the DOE’s offices of Biological and Environmental Resources (BER) and Environmental Management (EM). Five boreholes were drilled outside and within the plume along the groundwater flow path. Samples were collected from varied depths of each borehole, sediment pore-waters were extracted by ultracentrifugation, and the solid phase and pore-water were characterized. We identified the sediment mineralogy as being composed predominantly fine quartz sand with 2 to 12% clay. Kaolinite and goethite are the major minerals of the clay-sized fraction, residing primarily as coatings of varied thicknesses on quartz sand grains, providing reactive surfaces for contaminant adsorption. The measured U “field” distribution coefficients (Kd) and U concentrations in the pore waters are strongly pH dependent. These results are consistent with laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies, where U adsorption onto SRS sediments increases sharply from pH 3 to 5, and reaches ≈100% at pH 6-7. The variability in U adsorption capacity in these sediments is mainly caused by differences in goethite/clay content and effective reactive specific surface area. Measured “field” Kd values are smaller than those obtained from laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies with the same contaminated sediments. The equilibrium pH-dependent U adsorption

  11. Amino acid cycling in the Mississippi River Plume and effects from the passage of Hurricanes Isadore and Lili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Grace, Bryan L.; Carman, Kevin R.; Maulana, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    We present data on the effects of Hurricanes Isadore and Lili on the spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of amino acids, and other bulk dissolved and particulate constituents in surface waters of the Mississippi River Plume (MRP) collected during 3 survey cruises (March 2002, October 2002, and April 2004). Abiotic factors (e.g., particle sorption and sediment resuspension) had the largest contribution in describing DAA and PAA dynamics in the MRP. The range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (88.61 to 699.90 μM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) (0.08 to 32.72 μM) values was slightly higher than the range observed for a broader region of the Louisiana shelf, but in general agreed with peak values at the mid-salinity range of the plume. The positive and negative correlations between acidic (e.g., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and basic (e.g., histidine and arginine) DAA and salinity, respectively, in the MRP, were largely controlled by differential partitioning of amino acids with suspended sediments. Concentrations of β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and δ-aminovaleric acid were significantly higher during October 2002 compared to spring sampling events, due to resuspension of shelf sediments caused by the recent passage of Hurricane Isadore and the approach of Hurricane Lili, as it entered the Gulf of Mexico during our sampling.

  12. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Saba, M.T.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-12-21

    Seven candidate materials, each contained in a static-bed column, have been evaluated for removing plutonium from nitric acid waste. Three materials have insufficient capacity for plutonium: TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) sorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 resin, O phi D(IB)CMPO (octylphenyl-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) sorbed on XAD-4, and Amberlite IRA-938 anion exchange resin. The remaining four materials reduced 10/sup -3/ g/l plutonium in 7.2M HNO/sub 3/ to low 10/sup -5/ g/l for 80 bed volumes (BV). The 10% breakthrough capacities for 3 x 10/sup -2/ g/l plutonium are: TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) on XAD-4 - 1800 BV, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) on XAD-4 - 960 BV, Dowex 1 x 4 - 840 BV, and DHDECMP + TBP - 640 BV. Based on these results and generally poor elution of all materials, TOPO on XAD-4 is recommended as the best candidate for recovery of plutonium followed by acid digestion or combustion of the TOPO to recover the concentrated plutonium.

  13. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  14. Diffusion and reaction of pollutants in stratus clouds: application to nocturnal acid formation in plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Seigneur, C.; Saxena, P.; Mirabella, V.A.

    1985-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the transport, turbulent diffusion, and chemical reactions of air pollutants in stratus clouds. The chemical kinetic mechanism treats 97 gaseous, heterogeneous, and aqueous reactions between 54 species. The dispersion and night-time chemistry of a power plant plume in a stratus cloud is simulated. The contributions of various chemical pathways to the formation of sulfate and nitrate, the differences between plume and background concentrations, and the effect of reduced primary emissions on secondary pollutants are discussed. Calculated sulfate and nitrate concentrations are commensurate with measured atmospheric concentrations.

  15. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  16. Movement of a tritium plume in shallow groundwater at a legacy low-level radioactive waste disposal site in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C E; Cendón, D I; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S I; Johansen, M P; Payne, T E; Vine, M; Collins, R N; Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2011-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1968 low-level radioactive waste was buried in a series of shallow trenches near the Lucas Heights facility, south of Sydney, Australia. Groundwater monitoring carried out since the mid 1970s indicates that with the exception of tritium, no radioactivity above typical background levels has been detected outside the immediate vicinity of the trenches. The maximum tritium level detected in ground water was 390 kBq/L and the median value was 5400 Bq/L, decay corrected to the time of disposal. Since 1968, a plume of tritiated water has migrated from the disposal trenches and extends at least 100 m from the source area. Tritium in rainfall is negligible, however leachate from an adjacent and fill represents a significant additional tritium source. Study data indicate variation in concentration levels and plume distribution in response to wet and dry climatic periods and have been used to determine pathways for tritium migration through the subsurface.

  17. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  18. ACID-BASE ACCOUNT EFFECTIVENESS FOR DETERMINATION OF MINE WASTE POTENTIAL ACIDITY. (R825549C048)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine waste is a widespread source of resource degradation, often resulting in the generation of acidic water and mobilization of heavy metals. The quantity of acid forming minerals present in mine waste, dominantly as pyrite (FeS2

  19. Multi-component reactive transport modeling of natural attenuation of an acid groundwater plume at a uranium mill tailings site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Hu, Fang Q.; Burden, David S.

    2001-11-01

    Natural attenuation of an acidic plume in the aquifer underneath a uranium mill tailings pond in Wyoming, USA was simulated using the multi-component reactive transport code PHREEQC. A one-dimensional model was constructed for the site and the model included advective-dispersive transport, aqueous speciation of 11 components, and precipitation-dissolution of six minerals. Transport simulation was performed for a reclamation scenario in which the source of acidic seepage will be terminated after 5 years and the plume will then be flushed by uncontaminated upgradient groundwater. Simulations show that successive pH buffer reactions with calcite, Al(OH) 3(a), and Fe(OH) 3(a) create distinct geochemical zones and most reactions occur at the boundaries of geochemical zones. The complex interplay of physical transport processes and chemical reactions produce multiple concentration waves. For SO 42- transport, the concentration waves are related to advection-dispersion, and gypsum precipitation and dissolution. Wave speeds from numerical simulations compare well to an analytical solution for wave propagation.

  20. Multi-component reactive transport modeling of natural attenuation of an acid groundwater plume at a uranium mill tailings site.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C; Hu, F Q; Burden, D S

    2001-11-01

    Natural attenuation of an acidic plume in the aquifer underneath a uranium mill tailings pond in Wyoming, USA was simulated using the multi-component reactive transport code PHREEQC. A one-dimensional model was constructed for the site and the model included advective-dispersive transport, aqueous speciation of 11 components, and precipitation-dissolution of six minerals. Transport simulation was performed for a reclamation scenario in which the source of acidic seepage will be terminated after 5 years and the plume will then be flushed by uncontaminated upgradient groundwater. Simulations show that successive pH buffer reactions with calcite, Al(OH)3(a), and Fe(OH)3(a) create distinct geochemical zones and most reactions occur at the boundaries of geochemical zones. The complex interplay of physical transport processes and chemical reactions produce multiple concentration waves. For SO4(2-) transport, the concentration waves are related to advection-dispersion, and gypsum precipitation and dissolution. Wave speeds from numerical simulations compare well to an analytical solution for wave propagation.

  1. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution.

  2. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  3. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  4. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  5. NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

  6. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  7. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  8. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  9. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  10. Testing the D/H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-08-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of paleosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity. Yet, there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPA correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1 (r2 = 0.51). These findings are mirrored by alkenone based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with alkenone concentrations < 10 ng L-1. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to very low salinity conditions. To circumvent these limitations, we suggest the complementary use of δDC37 and δDPA.

  11. Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of palaeosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity; yet there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPAM correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity-dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in a small number (n = 8) of samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1, while there is no correlation if all samples are taken into account. These findings are mirrored by alkenone-based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with low alkenone concentrations. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to low salinity and light limitation, for instance, under strong riverine discharge.

  12. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George

    2007-02-01

    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (<10 wt.%), (2) roasting at 550 degrees C (1 h) to remove sulfur from pyrite and other reactive sulfides, (3) HCl extraction (4 M, 30 min) for determination of jarosites. Products (solid and aqueous) have been characterized at each step including the jarosite decomposition process in Step 2 where temperature control is critical to avoid S loss. The sequential extraction procedure was used to quantitatively determine melanterite, epsomite, gypsum, pyrite and jarosite concentrations in a synthetic waste sample containing these mineral phases at 5 wt.% in quartz, and also tested using a tailings waste sample to quantitatively determine epsomite, gypsum and jarosite contents. The method is applicable to most waste samples including those with non-pyrite sulfides but for samples containing significant amounts of sulfur (>1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  13. Processing of wastes from lead/acid battery production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivianny, I. R.; Rusin, A. I.; Lata, V. A.; Khegay, L. D.; Nourjigitov, S. T.

    Experience in the recovery of scrap and wastes from lead/acid battery production suggests that an electrothermal method has good prospects. This process is characterized by a high degree of lead and antimony (approx 98%) extraction, by effective gas cleaning and dust collection, and by full dust returning to the furnace. The electrothermal method is also distinguished by the high reliability of electric furnaces, the useability of any type of secondary lead battery scrap and wastes, and the possibility of process mechanization and control. In this paper, a description is given of the main technical and economical factors of soda-reduction smelting in an electric furnace, a technological scheme for wastes recovery, and the charge composition and features of the process.

  14. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  15. Splash Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    I have discovered a new class of thermal upwellings in mantle convection simulations which are not rooted in a thermal boundary layer (ref 1). Since they look a bit like water droplet splashes, I have abbreviated these `plumes not rooted in thermal boundary layers' as `splash plumes'. These mantle convection simulations are high resolution ( ~ 22km spacing) 3D spherical simulations at Earth-like vigour. They have a chondritic rate of internal heating and bottom heating that straddles expected Earth values. There is a realistic depth variation in viscosity, with a lithosphere and lower mantle more viscous than upper mantle. The mantle is compressible with the coefficient of thermal expansion decreasing with depth. Some models have phase transitions. The surface of the models is driven by 119Myr of recent plate motion history. At the end of most simulations (present day) we discover many examples of hot mid-mantle thermal anomalies in the shape of bowls which have hot cylindrical plumes rising from the rim. They originate at a range of depths and are not rooted in thermal boundary layers. These splash plumes are formed from hot mantle collecting beneath the surface, and then a cold instability from the surface descending onto the sheet of hot underlying material pushing it down into the mantle and forming a bowl. The plumes are formed by instabilities coming from the bowl rim edge. In fact the downwellings can push the sheets all the way to the core mantle boundary in certain cases where it is then difficult to tell splash plumes apart from `traditional plumes'. Splash plumes might provide explanations for weak, short-lived plumes that do not seem to have deep roots (e.g. Eifel). If the surface boundary condition is made free-slip (ref 2), rather than be driven by recent plate motion history, we do not discover splash plumes but rather large steady strong thermal boundary layer plumes. Therefore while the discovery of splash plumes is interesting, potentially a more

  16. Large-scale redox plume in glaciofluvial deposits due to sugar-factory wastes and wastewater at Aarberg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wersin, P.; Abrecht, J.; Höhener, P.

    2001-06-01

    The sugar factory at Aarberg, Switzerland, has processed about 18×106 metric tons of sugar beets in the last 100 years. This has been accompanied by releases of dissolved organic carbon to the groundwater, induced both by direct wastewater disposal until 1964 and by ongoing leakage from solid-waste deposits. Downgradient in the groundwater of the glaciofluvial aquifer, depletion of oxygen concentrations accompanied by low nitrate, high ammonium, dissolved Mn(II) and Fe(II) concentrations are observed. This study was aimed at developing a quantitative comprehension of theimpact of the leaking waste deposits on biogeochemical processes in the aquifer and on groundwater quality. The study includes a review of historical information, a survey of the hydrogeochemistry in the aquifer, the characterisation of river-water infiltration rates with the radon method, establishment of a mass-balance model based on a numerical flow and transport model, and application of a stable-carbon-isotope method to show biodegradation of sugar-waste deposits in the aquifer. The investigations demonstrate that present emissions from waste deposits would not lead to the consumption of all the O2 in the aquifer. The present occurrence of anoxic groundwater conditions is explained as a result of the long history of waste loading.

  17. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Zheming; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutral conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and

  18. Uranium fate in Hanford sediment altered by simulated acid waste solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Szecsody, James E.; ...

    2015-07-31

    Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant changes in pH and other physical, mineralogical and chemical properties, are not well documented in the literature. For this reason, we conducted a series of macroscopic batch experiments combined with a variety of bulk characterization studies (Mössbauer and laser spectroscopy), micro-scale inspections (µ-XRF), and molecular scale interrogations (XANES) with the objectives to: i) determine the extent of U(VI) partitioning to Hanford sediments previously exposed to acidic waste simulants (pH = 2 and pH = 5) and under neutralmore » conditions (pH = 8) at varying background solution concentrations (i.e., NaNO3); ii) determine micron-scale solid phase associated U valence state and phase identity; and iii) provide information for a plausible conceptual model of U(VI) attenuation under waste plume acidic conditions. The results of the batch experiments showed that the acid pre-treated sediment had high affinity for aqueous U(VI), which was removed from solution via two pH dependent and apparently different mechanisms (adsorption at pH = 2 and precipitation at pH = 5). The micro-scale inspections and XANES analyses confirmed that high concentration areas were rich mainly in U(VI), demonstrating that most of the added U(VI) was not reduced to U(IV). The laser spectroscopy data showed that uranyl phosphates {e.g. metaautunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•10-12H2O] and phosphuranylite [KCa(H3O)3(UO2)7(PO4)4O4•8(H2O)]} were present in the sediments. They also showed clear differences between the U bearing phases in the experiments conducted in the presence or absence of air. As a result, the data generated from these experiments will help in a better understanding of the reactions and processes that have a significant effect and/or control U mobility.« less

  19. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  20. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  1. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  2. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  3. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  4. Tvashtar's Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This dramatic image of Io was taken by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons at 11:04 Universal Time on February 28, 2007, just about 5 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The distance to Io was 2.5 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) and the image is centered at 85 degrees west longitude. At this distance, one LORRI pixel subtends 12 kilometers (7.4 miles) on Io.

    This processed image provides the best view yet of the enormous 290-kilometer (180-mile) high plume from the volcano Tvashtar, in the 11 o'clock direction near Io's north pole. The plume was first seen by the Hubble Space Telescope two weeks ago and then by New Horizons on February 26; this image is clearer than the February 26 image because Io was closer to the spacecraft, the plume was more backlit by the Sun, and a longer exposure time (75 milliseconds versus 20 milliseconds) was used. Io's dayside was deliberately overexposed in this picture to image the faint plumes, and the long exposure also provided an excellent view of Io's night side, illuminated by Jupiter. The remarkable filamentary structure in the Tvashtar plume is similar to details glimpsed faintly in 1979 Voyager images of a similar plume produced by Io's volcano Pele. However, no previous image by any spacecraft has shown these mysterious structures so clearly.

    The image also shows the much smaller symmetrical fountain of the plume, about 60 kilometers (or 40 miles) high, from the Prometheus volcano in the 9 o'clock direction. The top of a third volcanic plume, from the volcano Masubi, erupts high enough to catch the setting Sun on the night side near the bottom of the image, appearing as an irregular bright patch against Io's Jupiter-lit surface. Several Everest-sized mountains are highlighted by the setting Sun along the terminator, the line between day and night.

    This is the last of a handful of LORRI images that New Horizons is sending 'home' during its busy close

  5. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  6. Hydrogen ion (H+) in waste acid as a driver for environmentally sustainable processes: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    German, Michael; SenGupta, Arup K; Greenleaf, John

    2013-03-05

    Acid-base neutralization reaction in the aqueous phase is thermodynamically favorable and kinetically fast. Waste acid neutralization is also the most common waste management practice globally. However, waste acid neutralization is yet to be used for any work/energy generation because of the low concentrations of the waste acid and the high heat capacity of aqueous solutions. In this paper, we address potential processes that can effectively take advantage of the high energy inherent in neutralization reactions, in accordance with the goal of sustainable development.

  7. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  8. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement. [Masonry cement-boric acid waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH/sub 2/) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On and... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste...

  10. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On and... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste...

  11. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  12. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P < 0.05) of water and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and increases (P < 0.005) in protein and fiber. Anaerobic fermentation of FWM with or without LAB seemed effective in both 10- and 30-day-storage. The addition of LAB inoculants to FWM showed a linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increase in the number of total and lactic acid bacteria and toward the nutritional improvement with WSC increased and fiber decreased. Long-term (30 days) storage resulted in consistent reduction (P < 0.05) in numbers of total and lactic acid bacteria and pH and showed little change in chemical components, compared with short-term (10 days) storage. On the basis of these results, LAB inoculation improved fermentative characteristics of FWM. Among anaerobic treatments, further WSC increase and NDF reduction did not occur (P > 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%.

  13. Stabilization and Solidification of Nitric Acid Effluent Waste at Y-12

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta

    2016-12-16

    Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) at the Y-12 plant is investigating approaches for the treatment (stabilization and solidification) of a nitric acid waste effluent that contains uranium. Because the pH of the waste stream is 1-2, it is a difficult waste stream to treat and stabilize by a standard cement-based process. Alternative waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the nitric acid effluent wastes.

  14. Buckling of Chemical Wave Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Michael C.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2004-03-01

    Chemical wave fronts are found in many autocatalytic chemical reactions, such as the iodate oxidation of arsenous acid. In vertical capillary tubes, ascending chemical wave fronts show convective behavior when a dimensionless driving parameter S exceeds a critical value Sc ˜ 100. S ∝ a^3, where a is the radius of the tube. In the iodate arsenous-acid reaction, the density jump that drives convection is created by both the partial molal density decrease of the product solution and by thermal expansion due to the slight exothermicity of the reaction. We observed strongly supercritical ascending chemical wave plumes in vertical tubes with S 10^7. We report on the motion of these plumes in experiments where both the viscosity and the temperature of the reactant fluid are control parameters. We find experimentally that the background temperature of the reactant fluid has a significant influence on the behavior of the plumes. Above a critical temperature, plumes rise straight up the tube, whereas below this temperature, plumes go through an initial stage of buckling before they surrender to straight rising motion. The flow induced by the chemical plumes can be visualized using tracer particles. The buckling behavior of the plumes may arise from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, as in the case of a fluid jet descending through stratified surroundings [Pesci et al., Phys. Rev. E, 68, 056305 (2003)].

  15. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  16. Recovery of hydrochloric acid from the waste acid solution by diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Shuguang; Fu, Dan

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion dialysis using a series of anion exchange membranes was employed to recover HCl acid from the waste acid solution. Effects of flow rate, flow rate ratio of water to feed, and Fe ion concentration on the recovery of HCl were investigated. It was found that the flow rate ratio was an important factor in the diffusion dialysis operation, and the recovered HCl concentration and Fe ion concentration in diffusate decreased significantly with the change of flow rate ratio from 0.4 to 1.7. In addition, the higher the Fe ion concentration in the feed, the higher the Fe leakage in the recovered acid solution. The HCl recovery efficiency was influenced not only by the recovered acid concentration, but also the outlet flow rate. While using the actual pot galvanizing waste HCl solution with the co-existence of 2.70 mol/L of Fe and 0.07 mol/L of Zn ions, over 88% HCl recovery efficiency could be achieved and Fe leakage was within the range of 11-23%. However, over 56% of Zn leakage was found due to the formation of negative Zn complexes in solution, which was unfavorable for the recovered acid reuse.

  17. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas I. Contaminants and abiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-15

    Acid resins are residues characterised by elevated concentrations of hydrocarbons and trace elements, which were produced by mineral oil industries in Central Europe during the first half of the last century. Due to the lack of environmental legislation at that time, these wastes were dumped into excavated ponds in public areas without further protection. In this work, the long-term effects of such resin deposits on soil quality of two forest areas (Bayern, Germany) were assessed. We evaluated the distribution and accumulation of contaminants in the surroundings of the deposits, where the waste was disposed of about 60 years ago. General soil chemical properties such as pH, C, N and P content were also investigated. Chemical analysis of resin waste from the deposits revealed large amounts of potential contaminants such as hydrocarbons (93 g kg(-1)), As (63 mg kg(-1)), Cd (24 mg kg(-1)), Cu (1835 mg kg(-1)), Pb (8100 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (873 mg kg(-1)). Due to the location of the deposits on a hillside and the lack of adequate isolation, contaminants have been released downhill despite the solid nature of the waste. Five zones were investigated in each site: the deposit, three affected zones along the plume of contamination and a control zone. In affected zones, contaminants were 2 to 350 times higher than background levels depending on the site. In many cases, contaminants exceeded the German environmental guidelines for the soil-groundwater path and action levels based on extractable concentrations. Resin contamination yielded larger total C/total N ratios in affected zones, but no clear effect was observed on absolute C, N and P concentrations. In general, no major acidification effect was reported in affected zones.

  18. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  19. Using S and Pb isotope ratios to trace leaching of toxic substances from an acid-impacted industrial-waste landfill (Pozdatky, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra; Erbanova, Lucie; Veron, Alain J; Buzek, Frantisek; Jackova, Ivana; Paces, Tomas; Rukavickova, Lenka; Blaha, Vladimir; Holecek, Jan

    2012-10-15

    Slightly elevated concentrations of toxic species in waters sampled in the surroundings of a leaky landfill may be both a sign of an approaching contaminant plume, or a result of water-rock interaction. Isotopes can be instrumental in distinguishing between anthropogenic and geogenic species in groundwater. We studied sulfur and lead isotope ratios at an abandoned industrial-waste landfill, located in a densely populated part of Central Europe. Stable isotope variability in space and time was used to follow the movement of a groundwater plume, contaminated with toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Be), in fractured granitoids. Toxic metals had been mobilized from industrial waste by a strong pulse of sulfuric acid, also deposited in the landfill. Both tracers exhibited a wide range of values (δ(34)S between +2.6 and +18.9‰; (206)Pb/(207)Pb between 1.16 and 1.39), which facilitated identification of mixing end-members, and made it possible to assess the sources of the studied species. In situ fractionations did not hinder source apportionment. Influx of contaminated groundwater was observed neither in irrigation wells in a nearby village, nor at distances greater than 300 m from the landfill. Combination of stable isotope tracers can be used as part of an early-warning system in landscapes affected by landfills.

  20. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW).

  1. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  2. Separation of boric acid from PWR waste by volatilization during evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, A.; Braet, J.; Smaers, F.; De Regge, P.

    1997-01-01

    SCK{circ}CEN has developed a process to separate boric acid during and/or after evaporation of the liquid waste from pressurized light-water reactors. The key goal is to achieve higher waste volume reduction factors, while maintaining low activity discharge limits. An additional goal is to obtain purified boric acid for recycling. The process is based on the volatility of boric acid in steam. The liquid waste is treated in a semicontinuous evaporator, which operates preferentially at a higher temperature than the present evaporators. The stream loaded with boric acid is fed to a column for fractional condensation with partial reflux. In this way, one obtains a highly concentrated waste that contains all the radioactive and chemical impurities and little boron, a concentrated boric acid solution which can be reused, as well as a highly decontaminated effluent without boron. In case replacement or adaptation of existing evaporators is less practical, one can adapt the process for the treatment of evaporator concentrates. After having been intensively tested at SCK{circ}CEN, the process has recently been demonstrated in a small pilot installation and with realistic liquid waste, at the nuclear power station in Doel, Belgium. The results corresponded to the theoretical predictions. After a transitional period, the boron concentration in the evaporator no longer increased and consequently did not limit the achievable waste volume reduction factor. The boric acid was recovered from the steam and during a supplementary treatment additional boric acid from the waste concentrate was recovered.

  3. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment.

  4. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  5. Reaction kinetics of waste sulfuric acid using H2O2 catalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiade; Hong, Binxun; Tong, Xinyang; Qiu, Shufeng

    2016-12-01

    The process of recovering waste sulfuric acids using H2O2 catalytic oxidation is studied in this paper. Activated carbon was used as catalyst. Main operating parameters, such as temperature, feed rate of H2O2, and catalyst dosage, have effects on the removal of impurities from waste sulfuric acids. The reaction kinetics of H2O2 catalytic oxidation on impurities are discussed. At a temperature of 90°C, H2O2 feeding rate of 50 g (kg waste acid)(-1) per hour, and catalyst dosage of 0.2 wt% (waste acid weight), the removal efficiencies of COD and chrominance were both more than 99%, the recovery ratio of sulfuric acid was more than 95%, and the utilization ratio of H2O2 was 88.57%.

  6. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  7. Enzymatic saccharification coupling with polyester recovery from cotton-based waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Xiao, Wenxiong; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2013-02-01

    In order to recycle the cotton-based waste textiles, a novel process was designed for pretreating waste textiles with phosphoric acid to recover polyester and fermentable sugar. The effects of pretreatment conditions including, phosphoric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, time, and ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid were thoroughly investigated. Results indicated the mentioned four factors had significant influences on sugar and polyester recovery. Almost complete polyester recovery was achieved by enhancing phosphoric acid concentration, temperature and pretreatment time or reducing the ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid. However, these behaviors decreased the sugar recovery seriously. 100% polyester recovery with a maximum sugar recovery of 79.2% was achieved at the optimized conditions (85% phosphoric acid, 50°C, 7h, and the ratio of 1:15). According to the technical and cost-benefit analysis, it was technically feasible and potentially profitable to recover polyester and sugar from waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

  8. Quantitative mapping by remote sensing of an ocean acid-waste dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results from quantitative analysis show that airplane remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid-waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. These same data, however, could not be used to map the dump in terms of total suspended solids, organic suspended solids, or inorganic suspended solids concentrations. A single-variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440 to 490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540 to 580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the iron concentration in the acid-waste dump. The acid waste that was mapped varied in age from freshly dumped to 31/2 hr. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/l at a depth of 0.46 m. A classification technique was developed to identify pixels in the data set affected by sun glitter.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF PLUME DIVING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents an assessment of plume diving. Observations included: vertical plume delineation at East Patchogue, NY showed BTEX and MTBE plumes sinking on either side of a gravel pit; Lake Druid TCE plume sank beneath unlined drainage ditch; and aquifer recharge/dis...

  10. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  11. EPA Proposes to Add Roswell, NM, Groundwater Plume to National Priorities List of Superfund Sites, Five hazardous waste sites added, seven proposed nationally

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (DALLAS - Sept. 28, 2015) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed to add the Lea and West Second Street Groundwater Plume site in Roswell, NM, to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites, a list of sites that pose risks to pe

  12. EPA Proposes to Add Burnet Co., TX, Groundwater Plume to National Priorities List of Superfund Sites, Two hazardous waste sites added, six proposed nationally

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (DALLAS - March 24, 2015) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed to add the Main Street Groundwater Plume site in Burnet Co., TX, to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites, a list of sites that pose risks to people's healt

  13. EPA Adds Burnet Co., TX, Groundwater Plume to National Priorities List of Superfund Sites, Five hazardous waste sites added, seven proposed nationally

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (DALLAS - Sept. 28, 2015) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the Main Street Groundwater Plume site in Burnet Co., TX, to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites, a list of sites that pose risks to people's health and the

  14. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  15. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical fluid and nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jinhyun; Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Youngbae; Seol, Jeunggun; Ryu, Jaebong; Park, Kwangheon

    2011-07-01

    The waste oil used in nuclear fuel processing is contaminated with uranium because of its contact with materials or environments containing uranium. Under current law, waste oil that has been contaminated with uranium is very difficult to dispose of at a radioactive waste disposal site. To dispose of the uranium-contaminated waste oil, the uranium was separated from the contaminated waste oil. Supercritical R-22 is an excellent solvent for extracting clean oil from uranium-contaminated waste oil. The critical temperature of R-22 is 96.15 °C and the critical pressure is 49.9 bar. In this study, a process to remove uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 was developed. The waste oil has a small amount of additives containing N, S or P, such as amines, dithiocarbamates and dialkyldithiophosphates. It seems that these organic additives form uranium-combined compounds. For this reason, dissolution of uranium from the uranium-combined compounds using nitric acid was needed. The efficiency of the removal of uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 extraction and nitric acid treatment was determined.

  16. Production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus fungi from food processing waste streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Yin, Pinghe; Ma, Yihong; Zhao, Ling

    2005-12-01

    This study proposed a novel waste utilization bioprocess for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass from waste streams by fungal species of Rhizopus arrhizus 36017 and R. oryzae 2062. The lactic acid and fungal biomass were produced in a single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using potato, corn, wheat and pineapple waste streams as production media. R. arrhizus 36017 gave a high lactic acid yield up to 0.94-0.97 g/g of starch or sugars associated with 4-5 g/l of fungal biomass produced, while 17-19 g/l fungal biomass with a lactic acid yield of 0.65-0.76 g/g was produced by the R. oryzae 2062 in 36-48 h fermentation. Supplementation of 2 g/l of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract and peptone stimulated an increase in 8-15% lactic acid yield and 10-20% fungal biomass.

  17. In situ volatile fatty acids influence biogas generation from kitchen wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyang; Zhao, Mingxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Huang, Zhenxing; Gao, Shumei; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered to be an efficient way of disposing kitchen wastes, which can not only reduce waste amounts, but also produce biogas. However, the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) caused by high organic loads will inhibit anaerobic digestion intensively. Effects of the VFA composition on biogas generation and microbial community are still required for the investigation under various organic loads of kitchen wastes. Our results showed that the maximum specific methane production was 328.3 ml g TS(-1), and acetic acid was the main inhibitor in methanogenesis. With the increase of organic load, aceticlastic methanogenesis was more sensitive to acetic acid than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Meanwhile, methanogenic microbial community changed significantly, and few species grew well under excessive organic loads. This study provides an attempt to reveal the mechanism of VFA inhibition in anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

  18. Using marble wastes as a soil amendment for acidic soil neutralization.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Oztas, Taskin; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2014-01-15

    One of the most important factors limiting plant growth is soil pH. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of marble waste applications on neutralization of soil acidity. Marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) were applied to an acid soil at different rates and their effectiveness on neutralization was evaluated by a laboratory incubation test. The results showed that soil pH increased from 4.71 to 6.36 and 6.84 by applications of MCW and MQW, respectively. It was suggested that MQW and MCW could be used as soil amendments for the neutralization of acid soils and thus the negative impact of marble wastes on the environment could be reduced.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  20. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  1. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  2. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  3. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  4. Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1998-10-06

    Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

  5. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  6. Strategies to reduce short-chain organic acids and synchronously establish high-rate composting in acidic household waste.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Ove; Bøen, Anne S; Sørheim, Roald

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document whether addition of lime or increased amount of bulking agent would ensure, efficiently, a predictable composting process in acidic SSOW applicable in full scale plants. The results show that both lime addition and increasing the amount of bulking agent relative to waste support the development of high-rate respiration in composting. Both strategies are considered efficient in establishing desired microbial composting processes of acid household waste. Reduction in the content of different organic acids and loss on ignition were higher when more bulking agent was used compared with adding 5% lime to the acidic SSOW. Respiration was completely repressed in samples with 10% lime, where pH remained high. In addition fat and protein seem to degrade faster with increasing amount of bulking agent.

  7. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  13. Volcanic Plume Chemistry: Models, Observations and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tjarda; Martin, Robert; Oppenheimer, Clive; Griffiths, Paul; Braban, Christine; Cox, Tony; Jones, Rod; Durant, Adam; Kelly, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic plumes are highly chemically reactive; both in the hot, near-vent plume, and also at ambient temperatures in the downwind plume, as the volcanic gases and aerosol disperse into the background atmosphere. In particular, DOAS (Differential Optical Absortpion Spectroscopy) observations have identified BrO (Bromine Monoxide) in several volcanic plumes degassing into the troposphere. These observations are explained by rapid in-plume autocatalytic BrO-chemistry that occurs whilst the plume disperses, enabling oxidants such as ozone from background air to mix with the acid gases and aerosol. Computer modelling tools have recently been developed to interpret the observed BrO and predict that substantial ozone depletion occurs downwind. Alongside these modelling developments, advances in in-situ and remote sensing techniques have also improved our observational understanding of volcanic plumes. We present simulations using the model, PlumeChem, that predict the spatial distribution of gases in volcanic plumes, including formation of reactive halogens BrO, ClO and OClO that are enhanced nearer the plume edges, and depletion of ozone within the plume core. The simulations also show that in-plume chemistry rapidly converts NOx into nitric acid, providing a mechanism to explain observed elevated in-plume HNO3. This highlights the importance of coupled BrO-NOx chemistry, both for BrO-formation and as a production mechanism for HNO3 in BrO-influenced regions of the atmosphere. Studies of coupled halogen-H2S-chemistry are consistent with in-situ Alphasense electrochemical sensor observations of H2S at a range of volcanoes, and only predict H2S-depletion if Cl is additionally elevated. Initial studies regarding the transformations of mercury within volcanic plumes suggest that significant in-plume conversion of Hg0 to Hg2+ can occur in the downwind plume. Such Hg2+ may impact downwind ecology through enhanced Hg-deposition, and causing enhanced biological uptake of

  14. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides from Mo-99 Acidic Liquid Waste - 13027

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Pen, Ben-Li

    2013-07-01

    About 200 liters highly radioactive acidic liquid waste originating from Mo-99 production was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research). A study regarding the treatment of the radioactive acidic liquid waste was conducted to solve storage-related issues and allow discharge of the waste while avoiding environmental pollution. Before discharging the liquid waste, the acidity, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Hg ions in high concentrations, and radionuclides must comply with environmental regulations. Therefore, the treatment plan was to neutralize the acidic liquid waste, remove key radionuclides to reduce the dose rate, and then remove the nitrate and mercury ions. Bench tests revealed that NaOH is the preferred solution to neutralize the high acidic waste solution and the pH of solution must be adjusted to 9∼11 prior to the removal of nuclides. Significant precipitation was produced when the pH of solution reached 9. NaNO{sub 3} was the major content in the precipitate and part of NaNO{sub 3} was too fine to be completely collected by filter paper with a pore size of approximately 3 μm. The residual fine particles remaining in solution therefore blocked the adsorption column during operation. Two kinds of adsorbents were employed for Cs-137 and a third for Sr-90 removal to minimize cost. For personnel radiation protection, significant lead shielding was required at a number of points in the process. The final process design and treatment facilities successfully treated the waste solutions and allowed for environmentally compliant discharge. (authors)

  15. Conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol. Phase II. Reaction kinetics with phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.B.; Isbell, R.E.

    1982-05-01

    Waste cellulosic material can be hydrolyzed in dilute acid solution to produce fermentable sugars which can then be converted into ethanol. A laboratory investigation was made of the feasibility of using phosphoric acid as the hydrolysis catalyst. The hydrolysis reaction with phosphoric acid solutions was compared with the reaction employing the more conventional dilute sulfuric acid catalyst. The purpose of this research was to examine the hydrolysis step in a proposed process for the conversion of cellulose (from wood, newspapers, municipal solid waste, or other sources) into ethanol - by which a potentially valuable co-product, DICAL (dicalcium phosphate), might be made and sold with or without the lignin content as a fertilizer. The pertinent reaction kinetics for the acid catalyzed production of glucose from cellulose consists of consecutive, pseudo-first order reactions. The first reaction forms glucose by hydrolyzing the cellulose polymer and a subsequent reaction decomposes the glucose. The maximum theoretical yield depends on the ratio of the rate constants for these two reactions. The rate constants of both reactions were measured in a series of experiments studying temperature and concentration effects. The results suggest that the glucose decomposition reaction is similar with the two acids but that the cellulose hydrolysis reaction mechanism with phosphoric acid may be different than with sulfuric acid. The studies show phosphoric acid is unpromising and much inferior to sulfuric acid as the catalytic agent. Under the conditions studied, 0.8 wt % sulfuric acid gives a greater yield of glucose than 8.0 wt % phosphoric acid.

  16. Investigating the source of contaminated plumes downstream of the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant using EM34 conductivity data, VLF-EM and DC-resistivity geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz, Farzin Amirkhani; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coal washing factories may create serious environmental problems due to pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage generation from coal waste piles on nearby land. Infiltration of pyrite oxidation products through the porous materials of the coal waste pile by rainwater cause changes in the conductivity of underground materials and groundwater downstream of the pile. Electromagnetic and electrical methods are effective for investigation and monitoring of the contaminated plumes caused by coal waste piles and tailings impoundments. In order to investigate the environmental impact from a coal waste pile at the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, an EM34 ground conductivity meter was used on seven parallel lines in an E-W direction, downstream of the waste pile. Two-dimensional resistivity models obtained by the inversion of EM34 conductivity data identified conductive leachate plumes. In addition, quasi-3D inversion of EM34 data has confirmed the decreasing resistivity at depth due to the contaminated plumes. Comparison between EM34, VLF and DC-resistivity datasets, which were acquired for similar survey lines, agree well in identifying changes in the resistivity trend. The EM34 and DC-resistivity sections have greater similarity and better smoothness rather than those of the VLF model. Two-dimensional inversion models of these methods have shown some contaminated plumes with low resistivity.

  17. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    PubMed

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating.

  18. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area.

  19. Conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol. Phase 2: Reaction kinetics with phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, M. B.; Isbell, R. E.

    1982-05-01

    Waste cellulosic material can be hydrolyzed in dilute acid solution to produce fermentable sugars which can then be converted into ethanol. A laboratory investigation was made of the feasibility of using phosphoric acid as the hydrolysis catalyst. The hydrolysis reaction with phosphoric acid solutions was compared with the reaction employing the more conventional dilute sulfuric acid catalyst. The purpose of this research was to examine the hydrolysis step in a proposed process for the conversion of cellulose (from wood, newspapers, municipal solid waste, or other sources) into ethanol - by which a potentially valuable co-product, DICAL (dicalcium phosphate), might be made and sold with or without the lignin content as a fertilizer. The pertinent reaction kinetics for the acid catalyzed production of glucose from cellulose consists of consecutive, pseudo-first order reactions.

  20. Production of L-lactic Acid from Biomass Wastes Using Scallop Crude Enzymes and Novel Lactic Acid Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kanami; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    In the present study, biomass waste raw materials including paper mill sludge, bamboo, sea lettuce, and shochu residue (from a distiller) and crude enzymes derived from inedible and discarded scallop parts were used to produce L-lactic acid for the raw material of biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. The activities of cellulase and amylase in the crude enzymes were 22 and 170units/L, respectively, and L-lactic acid was produced from every of the above mentioned biomass wastes, by the method of liquid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) . The L-lactic acid concentrations produced from sea lettuce and shochu residue, which contain high concentration of starch were 3.6 and 9.3g/L, respectively, and corresponded to greater than 25% of the conversion of glucans contained in these biomass wastes. Furthermore, using the solid state SSF method, concentrations as high as 13g/L of L-lactic acid were obtained from sea lettuce and 26g/L were obtained from shochu residue.

  1. Modeling Europa's dust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B. S.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Jupiter's moon Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we simulate possible Europa plume configurations, analyze particle number density and surface deposition results, and estimate the expected flux of ice grains on a spacecraft. Due to Europa's high escape speed, observing an active plume will require low-altitude flybys, preferably at altitudes of 5-100 km. At higher altitudes a plume may escape detection. Our simulations provide an extensive library documenting the possible structure of Europa dust plumes, which can be quickly refined as more data on Europa dust plumes are collected.

  2. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  3. Consumption of aquaculture waste affects the fatty acid metabolism of a benthic invertebrate.

    PubMed

    White, Camille A; Bannister, Raymond J; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Husa, Vivian; Nichols, Peter D; Kutti, Tina; Dempster, Tim

    2017-02-17

    Trophic subsidies can drive widespread ecological change, thus knowledge of how keystone species respond to subsidies is important. Aquaculture of large carnivorous fish generates substantial waste as faeces and lost feed, providing a food source to mobile benthic invertebrates. We used a controlled feeding study combined with a field survey to better understand the interaction between salmon aquaculture and the sea urchin, Echinus acutus, a dominant mobile invertebrate in Norwegian fjords. We tested if diets affected urchin fatty acid composition by feeding them one of three diet treatments ("aquafeed", "composite" and "natural") for 10weeks. To test if proximity to fish farms altered E. acutus fatty acid composition, populations were sampled at 10 locations in Hardangerfjord and Masfjord (Western Norway) from directly adjacent and up to 12km from farms. Fatty acids were measured in gonads and eggs in the diet experiment and in gonads and gut contents from wild animals. Urchins directly assimilated aquaculture waste at farm sites, as evidenced by elevated linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and ∑LA, OA in their tissues. The diet experiment highlighted the biosynthetic and selective dietary sparing capacity of E. acutus in both gonads and eggs, with evidence for the elongation and desaturation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) from C18 fatty acid precursors. Elevated biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted (NMI) fatty acids, in particular 20:3Δ7,11,14 and 20:2 Δ5,11, were also linked to a high C18 fatty acid, low ≥C20 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) diet. Fatty acid composition of gonads of wild urchins indicated a highly variable diet. The study indicates that the generalist feeding ecology of E. acutus, coupled with extensive biosynthetic capacity, enables it to exploit aquaculture waste as an energy-rich trophic subsidy.

  4. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  5. REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

    2009-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese

  6. Encapsulating fly ash and acidic process waste water in brick structure.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, K; Polat, M; Polat, H

    2010-04-15

    Fly ash contains metals such as cadmium, iron, lead, aluminum and zinc in its structure in appreciable amounts. These metals can leach out into surface and ground waters if fly ash is not properly disposed of. A similar problem also exists for acidic process waste waters discharged by numerous industries. The purpose of this study was to utilize such wastes as additives in the production of construction quality bricks for the purpose of waste elimination. The bricks produced were subjected to flexural strength and water retention capacity tests along with heavy metal leaching experiments in order to determine the applicability of the procedure and the best possible recipes. This paper summarizes the results obtained in these tests along with the possible mechanisms involved in stabilizing the two wastes in the brick structure.

  7. Pressure leaching of metals from waste printed circuit boards using sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Manis K.; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kumari, Archana; Choubey, Pankaj K.; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

    2011-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are essential components of electronic equipments which contain various metallic values. This paper reports a hydrometallurgical recycling process for waste PCBs, which consists of the novel pretreatment consisting of organic swelling of PCBs followed by sulfuric acid leaching of metals from waste PCBs. To recycle the waste PCBs, experiments were carried out for the recovery of copper from the crushed and organic swelled materials of waste PCBs using sulfuric acid leaching in presence of hydrogen peroxide under atmospheric and pressure condition. The leaching of PCBs at 90°C, pulp density 100 g/L under atmospheric condition, using 6M sulfuric acid resulted in the dissolution of a minor amount of copper due to the presence of plastic coating on the surface of metallic layers. On the other hand, when the liberated metal sheets from organic swelled PCBs were treated with dilute sulfuric acid of concentration 2M along with hydrogen peroxide in an autoclave under oxygen atmosphere, the percentage recovery of copper was found to increase from 59.63% to 97.01% with an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration from 5 to 15% (v/v) keeping constant pulp density 30 g/L.

  8. HTR Fuel Waste Management: TRISO separation and acid-graphite intercalation compounds preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittonneau, Fabrice; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Grambow, Bernd

    2010-12-01

    Considering the need to reduce waste production and greenhouse emissions and still keeping high energy efficiency, various 4th generation nuclear energy systems have been proposed. As far as graphite-moderated reactors are concerned (future high temperature fast or thermal reactors), one of the key issues is the large volumes of irradiated graphite encountered. With the objective to reduce volume of waste in the HTR concept, it is very important to be able to separate the fuel from low level activity graphite representing a large volume. The separated TRISO particles can then be reprocessed for waste separation or disposed off in geological repository. In addition, preparation of acid-GICs from the separated graphite may constitute a way to recycle this waste. We used HTR-type compact fuel with ZrO 2 TRISO particles to test two separation methods: low (H 2SO 4 + H 2O 2) and high (H 2SO 4 + HNO 3) temperature acid treatments. In both cases the TRISO separation was complete but some TRISO layers oxidized at high temperature. At low temperature, the desegregation of graphite grains is facilitated by intercalation of sulfuric acid between the graphene layers. The acid-GIC obtained consists of pure phases of high quality suggesting their potential industrial recycling.

  9. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  10. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  11. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).

  12. Hydrothermal production and characterization of protein and amino acids from silk waste.

    PubMed

    Lamoolphak, Wiwat; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Shotipruk, Artiwan

    2008-11-01

    Non-catalytic hydrothermal decomposition of sericin and fibroin from silk waste into useful protein and amino acids was examined in a closed batch reactor at various temperatures, reaction times, and silk to water ratios to examine their effects on protein and amino acid yields. For the decomposition of sericin, the highest protein yield was found to be 0.466 mg protein/mg raw silk, obtained after 10 min hydrothermal reaction of silk waste at 1:100 silk to water ratio at 120 degrees C. The highest amino acid yield was found to be 0.203 mg amino acids/mg raw silk, obtained after 60 min of hydrothermal reaction of silk waste at 1:20 silk to water ratio at 160 degrees C. For the hydrothermal decomposition of fibroin, the highest protein yield was 0.455 mg protein/mg silk fibroin (1:100, 220 degrees C, 10 min) and that of amino acids was 0.755 mg amino acids/mg silk fibroin (1:50, 220 degrees C, 60 min). The rate of silk fibroin decomposition could be described by surface reaction kinetics. The soluble reaction products were freeze-dried to obtain sericin and fibroin particles, whose conformation and crystal structure of the particles were shown to differ from the original silk materials, particularly in the case of fibroin, in which the change from beta-sheet conformation to alpha-helix/random coil was observed.

  13. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  14. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50°C, respectively, after 24h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate.

  15. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  16. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness.

  17. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  18. Modeling Europa's Dust Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa plume. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of plumes on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two plume locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust plumes with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, plume location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa plume will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa plume will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the plume on Enceladus, (ii) plume particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the plume location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active plume will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50

  19. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale.

  20. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  1. Sulfur chemistry in a copper smelter plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, D. J.; Christensen, J. J.; Eatough, N. I.; Hill, M. W.; Major, T. D.; Mangelson, N. F.; Post, M. E.; Ryder, J. F.; Hansen, L. D.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Fischer, J. W.

    Sulfur transformation chemistry was studied in the plume of the Utah smelter of Kennecott Copper Corporation from April to October 1977. Samples were taken at up to four locations from 4 to 60 km from the stacks. Data collected at each station included: SO 2 concentration, low-volume collected total paniculate matter, high-volume collected size fractionated paniculate matter, wind velocity and direction, temperature, and relative humidity. Paniculate samples were analyzed for S(IV). sulfate, strong acid, anions, cations, and elemental concentrations using calorimetric, ion Chromatographie, FIXE, ESCA, ion microprobe, and SEM-ion microprobe techniques. The concentration of As in the paniculate matter was used as a conservative plume tracer. The ratios Mo/As, Pb/As, and Zn/As were constant in particulate matter collected at all sampling sites for any particle size. Strong mineral acid was neutralized by background metal oxide and/or carbonate particulates within 40km of the smelter. This neutralization process is limited only by the rate of incorporation of basic material into the plume. Two distinct metal-S(IV) species similar to those observed in laboratory aerosol experiments were found in the plume. The formation of paniculate S(IV) species occurs by interaction of SO 2 (g) with both ambient and plume derived aerosol and is equilibrium controlled. The extent of formation of S(IV) complexes in the aerosol is directly proportional to the SO 2(g) and paniculate (Cu + Fe) concentration and inversely proportional to the paniculate acidity. S(IV) species were stable in collected paniculate matter only in the neutralized material, but with proper sampling techniques could be demonstrated to also be present in very acidic particles at high ambient SO 2(g) concentrations. Reduction of arsenate to arsenite by the aerosol S(IV) complexes during plume transport is suggested. The SO 2(g)-sulfate conversion process in the plume is described by a mechanism which is first order

  2. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  3. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made.

  4. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    PubMed

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-05

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA.

  5. Biodegradation of waste grease by Penicillium chrysogenum for production of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Arti; Ahmad, Razi; Negi, Sangeeta; Khare, Sunil Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present work was to effectively remediate grease waste by Penicillium chrysogenum. For efficient degradation, grease waste was pre-treated using various lipases, among them lipolase was the best. The pretreated grease was used as a substrate by P. chrysogenum resulting into the production of fatty acids. Process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using four variables viz; FeCl2 (mM), spore concentration (spores/ml), time period (days) and amount of grease (g). The optimized conditions viz; FeCl2 1.25mM, culture amount 5×10(11)spores/ml and time period 16days led to the production of 6.6mg/g fatty acid from 10.0g of pre-treated grease mixed with 5.0g wheat bran in 10.0ml czapek-dox medium under solid state fermentation. The fermented media was extracted with hexane and subjected to GCMS analysis, which showed the presence of higher amount of palmitic acid. It was purified by crystallization method and 2.8g of palmitic acid was recovered from 1.0kg grease waste in tray fermentation.

  6. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation.

  7. Co-composting of acid waste bentonites and their effects on soil properties and crop biomass.

    PubMed

    Soda, Wannipa; Noble, Andrew D; Suzuki, Shinji; Simmons, Robert; Sindhusen, La-Ait; Bhuthorndharaj, Suwannee

    2006-01-01

    Acid waste bentonite is a byproduct from vegetable oil bleaching that is acidic (pH < 3.0) and hydrophobic. These materials are currently disposed of in landfills and could potentially have a negative impact on the effective function of microbes that are intolerant of acidic conditions. A study was undertaken using three different sources of acid waste bentonites, namely soybean oil bentonite (SB), palm oil bentonite (PB), and rice bran oil bentonite (RB). These materials were co-composted with rice husk, rice husk ash, and chicken litter to eliminate their acid reactivity and hydrophobic nature. The organic carbon (OC) content, pH, exchangeable cations, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the acid-activated bentonites increased significantly after the co-composting phase. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of these materials as measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) decreased from >10 800 s to 16 to 80 s after composting. Furthermore, these composted materials showed positive impacts on soil physical attributes including specific surface area, bulk density, and available water content for crop growth. Highly significant increases in maize biomass (Zea mays L.) production over two consecutive cropping cycles was observed in treatments receiving co-composted bentonite. The study clearly demonstrates the potential for converting an environmentally hazardous material into a high-quality soil conditioner using readily available agricultural byproducts. It is envisaged that the application of these composted acid waste bentonites to degraded soils will increase productivity and on-farm income, thus contributing toward food security and poverty alleviation.

  8. Geochemical features of the utilization of buried wastes of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Plant using acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Sychkova, V. A.; Shevchenko, A. V.; Lexin, A. B.; Dudarov, Z. I.

    2016-10-01

    The decontamination of buried wastes of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Plant is complicated by the geochemical features of the waste composition: low sulfide and high carbonate content, polyelemental composition, and considerable amounts of technogenic admixtures (kerosene, oils, soda, and soluble glasses). These circumstances result in sufficient complication of the suggested technology of waste treatment, including the sulfuric-acid leaching and separate sorption recovery of hazardous and useful elements from the working solution.

  9. Efficient production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature by regulating key enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiong; Luo, Jinyang; Liu, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste has attracted much interest as it can treat organic wastes with simultaneous recovery of valuable by-products. However, the yield of L-lactic acid was very low and no optically pure L-lactic acid was produced in the literature due to (1) the lower activity of enzymes involved in hydrolysis and L-lactic acid generation, and (2) the participation of other enzymes related to D-lactic acid and acetic and propionic acids production. In this paper, a new strategy was reported for effective production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature, i.e. via regulating key enzyme activity by sewage sludge supplement and intermittent alkaline fermentation. It was found that not only optically pure L-lactic acid was produced, but the yield was enhanced by 2.89-fold. The mechanism study showed that the activities of enzymes relevant to food waste hydrolysis and lactic acid production were enhanced, and the key enzymes related to volatile fatty acids and D-lactic acid generations were severally decreased or inhibited. Also, the microbes responsible for L-lactic acid production were selectively proliferated. Finally, the pilot-scale continuous experiment was conducted to testify the feasibility of this new technique.

  10. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  11. Long-term geochemical evolution of acidic mine wastes under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenzhou; Lin, Chuxia; Ma, Yingqun

    2013-08-01

    A nearly 5-year anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted to observe the geochemical evolution of an acidic mine waste. Long-term storage of the mine waste under strict anaerobic conditions caused marked increase in aqueous sulfur, while aqueous iron showed no remarkable change. Co-existing oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur appeared to play a central role in controlling the evolutionary trends of aqueous sulfur and iron. Addition of organic matter increased the aqueous Fe concentration, possibly due to enhanced iron mobilization by microbial iron reduction and increased iron solubility by forming organically complexed Fe species. Further addition of CaCO3 resulted in immobilization of aqueous iron and sulfur due to elevated pH and gypsum formation. The chemical behaviors of environmentally significant metals were markedly affected by the added organic matter; Al, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn tended to be immobilized probably due to elevated pH and complexation with insoluble organic molecules, while As and Pb tended to be mobilized. Jarosite exhibited high stability after nearly 5 years of anaerobic incubation and even under circumneutral pH conditions. Long-term weathering of aluminosilicate through acid attack raised pH, while continuous reaction between the added CaCO3 and mine waste-borne stored acid decreased pH.

  12. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste.

  13. Entrainment by Lazy Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Nigel; Hunt, Gary

    2004-11-01

    We consider plumes with source conditions that have a net momentum flux deficit compared to a pure plume - so called lazy plumes. We examine both the case of constant buoyancy flux and buoyancy flux linearly increasing with height. By re-casting the plume conservation equations (Morton, Taylor & Turner 1956) for a constant entrainment coefficient ((α)) in terms of the plume radius (β) and the dimensionless parameter (Γ=frac5Q^2 B4α M^5/2) we show that the far-field flow in a plume with a linear internal buoyancy flux gain is a constant velocity lazy plume with reduced entrainment and radial growth rate. For highly lazy source conditions we derive first-order approximate solutions which indicate a region of zero entrainment near the source. These phenomena have previously been observed, however, it has often been assumed that reduced entrainment implies a reduced (α). We demonstrate that a constant (α) formulation is able to capture the behaviour of these reduced entrainment flows. Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I. & Turner, J. S. (1956), Turbulent gravitational convection from maintained and instantaneous sources.', Proc. Roy. Soc. 234, 1-23.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of oil fractions separated from food waste leachate over nanoporous acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Heo, Hyeon Su; Kim, Sang Guk; Ryoo, Ryong; Kim, Jeongnam; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-07-01

    Oil fractions, separated from food waste leachate, can be used as an energy source. Especially, high quality oil can be obtained by catalytic cracking. In this study, nanoporous catalysts such as Al-MCM-41 and mesoporous MFI type zeolite were applied to the catalytic cracking of oil fractions using the pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mesoporous MFI type zeolite showed better textural porosity than Al-MCM-41. In addition, mesoporous MFI type zeolite had strong Brönsted acidity while Al-MCM-41 had weak acidity. Significant amount of acid components in the food waste oil fractions were converted to mainly oxygenates and aromatics. As a result of its well-defined nanopores and strong acidity, the use of a mesoporous MFI type zeolite produced large amounts of gaseous and aromatic compounds. High yields of hydrocarbons within the gasoline range were also obtained in the case of mesoporous MFI type zeolite, whereas the use of Al-MCM-41, which exhibits relatively weak acidity, resulted in high yields of oxygenates and diesel range hydrocarbons.

  15. Prometheus: Io's wandering plume.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, S W; Lopes-Gautier, R; McEwen, A; Smythe, W; Keszthelyi, L; Carlson, R

    2000-05-19

    Unlike any volcanic behavior ever observed on Earth, the plume from Prometheus on Io has wandered 75 to 95 kilometers west over the last 20 years since it was first discovered by Voyager and more recently observed by Galileo. Despite the source motion, the geometric and optical properties of the plume have remained constant. We propose that this can be explained by vaporization of a sulfur dioxide and/or sulfur "snowfield" over which a lava flow is moving. Eruption of a boundary-layer slurry through a rootless conduit with sonic conditions at the intake of the melted snow can account for the constancy of plume properties.

  16. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, R M; Lee, S; Edwards, C A; Arancon, N Q; Metzger, J D

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1,000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates.

  17. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production.

  18. Resource recovery from waste LCD panel by hydrothermal transformation of polarizer into organic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Bai, Lan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen

    2015-12-15

    Based on the significant advantages of hydrothermal technology, it was applied to treat polarizer from the waste LCD panel with the aim of transforming it into organic acids (mainly acetic acid and lactic acid). Investigation was done to evaluate the effects of different factors on yields of organic acids, including the reaction temperature, reaction time and H2O2 supply, and the degradation process of polarizer was analyzed. Liquid samples were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, and solid-phase products were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Results showed that at the condition of temperature 300 °C and reaction time 5 min, the organic materials reached its highest conversion rate of 71.47% by adding 0.2 mL H2O2 and acetic acid was dominant in the products of organic acids with the yield of 6.78%. When not adding H2O2 to the system, the yields of lactic and acetic acid were respectively 4.24% and 3.80% at a nearly equal degree, they are suitable for esterification to form ethyl lactate instead of separating them for this case. In the hydrothermal process, polarizer was first decomposed to monosaccharides, alkane, etc., and then furfural and acids are produced with further decomposition.

  19. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs.

  20. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  1. Methane Plumes on Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spectrometer instruments attached to several telescopes detect plumes of methane emitted from Mars during its summer and spring seasons. High levels of methane are indicated by warmer colors. The m...

  2. Characterisation and classification of solid wastes coming from reductive acid leaching of low-grade manganiferous ore.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Olivieri, Agostino; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-03-15

    The present work was focused on the acid leaching process for manganese extraction in reducing environment to low-grade manganiferous ore that comes from Central Italy. The aim of this study was to establish optimum leaching operating conditions to reduce treatment costs of waste or, even better, to allow a waste valorisation as raw materials for other applications. Consequently, the main focus of the work was the characterization and classification of the solid wastes coming from the process carried out at different operating conditions; at the same moment the effect of process parameters on Mn extraction was also analysed. The effect of particles size on the manganese extraction in reductive acid leaching process was investigated, by using lactose as reducing agent. Particle size did not show a large influence on the Mn extraction yields in the investigated process conditions. This aspect suggests the use of the leaching waste for civil and/or environmental application: use of leaching solid wastes like filling material is to be applied, for example, for environmental restoration. The classification of the solid wastes, according to the Italian Laws about Release Test (RT), has demonstrated that the solid waste produced by leaching can be classifiable as "hazardous special waste". An improvement of solid washing let to reduce the SO(4)(2-) and an appropriate treatment is necessary to reduce the dangerousness of these solids. Possible application of ore and waste as raw materials in the ceramic industry was demonstrated not to be feasible.

  3. Sulfur plumes off Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur plumes rising up from the bottom of the ocean floor produce colorful swirls in the waters off the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. The plumes come from the breakdown of marine plant matter by anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen to live. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on April 24, 2002 Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  5. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  6. Anaerobic fermentation of organic solid wastes: volatile fatty acid production and separation.

    PubMed

    Yesil, H; Tugtas, A E; Bayrakdar, A; Calli, B

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of organic municipal solid waste was investigated using a leach-bed reactor (LBR) to assess the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production efficiency. The leachate recycle rate in the LBR affected the VFA composition of the leachate. A six-fold increase in the recycle rate resulted in an increase of the acetic acid fraction of leachate from 24.7 to 43.0%. The separation of VFAs via leachate replacement resulted in higher total VFA production. VFA separation from synthetic VFA mix and leachate of a fermented organic waste was assessed via a counter-current flow polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane contactor. Acetic and propionic acid permeation fluxes of 13.12 and 14.21 g/m(2).h were obtained at low feed pH values when a synthetic VFA mix was used as a feed solution. The highest selectivity was obtained for caproic acid compared to that of other VFAs when synthetic VFA mix or leachate was used as a feed solution. High pH values and the presence of suspended solids in the leachate adversely affected the permeation rate.

  7. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  8. Plume Measurement System (PLUMES) Calibration Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Atle Lohrmann SonTek, Inc. 7940 Silverton Avenue, No. 105 San Diego, California 92126 and Craig Huhta JIMAR University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822...Measurement System (PLUMES) Calibration Experiment by Age Lohrmann SonTek, Inc. 7940 Silverton Avenue, No. 105 San Diego, CA 92126 Craig Huhta JIMAR...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) &. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION SonTek, Inc., 7940 Silverton Avenue, No. 105, San Diego, CA 92126 REPORT NUMBER

  9. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  10. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres.

  11. Enhancement of propionic acid fraction in volatile fatty acids produced from sludge fermentation by the use of food waste and Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Dongbo

    2013-02-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) can be used as the additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR), and the increase of propionic acid percentage in VFA has been reported to facilitate the performance of BNR. In this study a new method for significantly improving the propionic acid fraction in VFA derived from waste activated sludge was reported, which included (1) mixing food waste with sludge and pre-fermenting the mixture (first stage), and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the pre-fermentation liquid and fermenting it after inoculating Propionibacterium acidipropionici (second stage). By optimizing the first stage with response surface methodology, a propionic acid content of 68.4% with propionic acid concentration of 7.13 g COD/L could be reached in the second stage, which was much higher than that reported previously. Lactic acid was found to be the most abundant product of the first stage and it served as the substrate for propionic acid production in the second stage. Further investigation showed that during the first stage the addition of food waste to the pre-fermentation system of sludge significantly increased the generation of lactic acid due to the synergistic effect, which resulted in the improvement of propionic acid production in the second stage. Finally, the use of propionic acid-enriched VFA as a superior carbon source of BNR was tested, and its performance was observed to be much better than using acetic acid-enriched VFA derived from sludge by the previously documented method.

  12. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  14. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  15. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  16. Production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid by Enterobacter sp. T4384 using organic waste materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Deshpande, Tushar R; Chun, Jongsik; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-02-01

    In a study of hydrogen-producing bacteria, strain T4384 was isolated from rice field samples in the Republic of Korea. The isolate was identified as Enterobacter sp. T4384 by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Enterobacter sp. T4384 grew at a temperature range of 10-45 degrees C and at an initial pH range of 4.5-9.5. Strain T4384 produced hydrogen at 0-6% NaCl by using glucose, fructose, and mannose. In serum bottle cultures using a complete medium, Enterobacter sp. T4384 produced 1,098 ml/l H2, 4.0 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid. In a pH-regulated jar fermenter culture with the biogas removed, 2,202 ml/l H2, 6.2 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid were produced, and the lag-phase time was 4.8 h. Strain T4384 metabolized the hydrolysate of organic waste for the production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid. The strain T4384 produced 947 ml/l H2, 3.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.2 g/l acetic acid from 6% (w/v) food waste hydrolysate; 738 ml/l H2, 4.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.8 g/l acetic acid from Miscanthus sinensis hydrolysate; and 805 ml/l H2, 5.0 g/l ethanol, and 0.7 g/l acetic acid from Sorghum bicolor hydrolysate.

  17. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  18. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  19. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution.

  20. Recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from complex waste effluents using membranes.

    PubMed

    Zacharof, M-P; Lovitt, R W

    2014-01-01

    Waste effluents from anaerobic digesters of agricultural waste were treated with a range of membranes, including microfiltration and nanofiltration (NF), to concentrate volatile fatty acids (VFA). Microfiltration was applied successfully to produce sterile, particle-free solutions with a VFA concentration of 21.08 mM of acetic acid and 15.81 mM of butyric acid. These were further treated using a variety of NF membranes: NF270 (Dow Chemicals, USA), HL, DL, DK (Osmonics, USA) and LF10 (Nitto Denko, Japan), achieving retention ratios of up to 75%, and giving retentates of up to 53.94 mM of acetate and 28.38 mM of butyrate. DK and NF270 membranes were identified as the best candidates for VFA separation and concentration from these multicomponent effluents, both in terms of retention and permeate flux. When the effluents are adjusted to alkali conditions, the highest productivity, retention and flux were achieved at pH 7. At higher pH there was a significant reduction in flux.

  1. Removal of Cesium From Acidic Radioactive Tank Waste Using IONSIV IE-911 (CST)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Nicholas Robert; Todd, Terry Allen

    2004-10-01

    IONSIV IE-911, or the engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST), manufactured by UOP Molecular Sieves, has been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) acidic radioactive tank waste. A series of batch contacts and column tests were performed by using three separate batches of CST. Batch contacts were performed to evaluate the concentration effects of nitric acid, sodium, and potassium ions on cesium sorption. Additional batch tests were performed to determine if americium, mercury, and plutonium would sorb onto IONSIV IE-911. An equilibrium isotherm was generated by using a concentrated tank waste simulant. Column tests using a 1.5 cm 3 column and flow rates of 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 bed volumes (BV)/hr were performed to elucidate dynamic cesium sorption capacities and sorption kinetics. Additional experiments investigated the effect of CST batch and pretreatment on cesium sorption. The thermal stability of IONSIV IE-911 was evaluated by performing thermal gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. Overall, IONSIV IE-911 was shown to be effective for cesium sorption from complex, highly acidic solutions; however, sorbent stability in these solutions may have a deleterious effect on cesium sorption.

  2. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  3. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  4. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  5. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  6. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  8. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  10. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... (total mass), corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (d) The limits for nitrogen oxides are specified...

  11. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  14. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  18. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  19. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  20. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed.

  1. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  3. A Brilliant Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons captured another dramatic picture of Jupiter's moon Io and its volcanic plumes, 19 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter on Feb. 28, 2007. LORRI took this 75 millisecond exposure at 0035 Universal Time on March 1, 2007, when Io was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the spacecraft.

    Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

    The shadow of Io, cast by the Sun, slices across the plume. The plume is quite asymmetrical and has a complicated wispy texture, for reasons that are still mysterious. At the heart of the eruption incandescent lava, seen here as a brilliant point of light, is reminding scientists of the fire fountains spotted by the Galileo Jupiter orbiter at Tvashtar in 1999.

    The sunlit plume faintly illuminates the surface underneath. 'New Horizons and Io continue to astonish us with these unprecedented views of the solar system's most geologically active body' says John Spencer, deputy leader of the New Horizons Jupiter Encounter Science Team and an Io expert from Southwest Research Institute.

    Because this image shows the side of Io that faces away from Jupiter, the large planet does not illuminate the moon's night side except for an extremely thin crescent outlining the edge of the disk at lower right. Another plume, likely from the volcano Masubi, is illuminated by Jupiter just above this lower right edge. A third and much fainter plume, barely visible at the 2 o'clock position, could be the first plume seen from the volcano Zal Patera.

    As in other New Horizons images of Io, mountains catch the setting Sun just beyond the terminator (the line dividing day and night

  4. Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, Allen J.; Conner, Cliff; Quigley, Kevin; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  6. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  7. Electromagnetic tracking of low resistivity pollution plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.R.; Phillips, T.A.; Adams, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, the primary technique for locating pollution plumes is drilling many observation wells. When relying only on drilling, it is difficult and expensive to map the complete extent of pollution plumes and be sure all branches have been identified. Since some pollution plumes are composed of conductive materials, it was decided to modify an electromagnetic (EM) technology for mapping deep conductive ore bodies and determine if it could be used to map conducting groundwater pollution. The modified technology was used to map the flow of underground acidic water at an abandoned mine which is producing water at several locations at the toe of the spoils. Special electrode configurations were used to directly energize the acidic water plume. Surface EM field changes were used to track the progression, branching, and spread of solutions in the subsurface. The survey provided an accurate map of the flow patterns within the mine spoils. The extent, branches, ponding areas, and constriction zones of acidic waters were outlined by the survey. This technology provides sufficient knowledge about subsurface flows and indicates that extensive exploratory drilling can be eliminated. Drilling can be limited to producing productive intercept and monitoring wells.

  8. Plume primary smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastenet, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    The exhaust from a solid propellant rocket motor usually contains condensed species. These particles, also called 'Primary Smoke', are often prejudicial to missile detectability and to the guidance system. To avoid operational problems it is necessary to know and quantify the effects of particles on all aspects of missile deployment. A brief description of the origin of the primary smoke is given. It continues with details of the interaction between particles and light as function of both particles and light properties (nature, size, wavelength, etc). The effects of particles on plume visibility, attenuation of an optical beam propagated through the plume and the contribution of particles on optical signatures of the plume are also described. Finally, various methods used in NATO countries to quantify the primary smoke effects are discussed.

  9. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    SciTech Connect

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  10. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-09-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, a VFA recovery efficiency of 98.3%, H2 of 18.4 mL and alkali production presented as pH of 12.64 were obtained using synthetic fermentation broth. The applied voltage, initial VFA concentrations and composition were affecting the VFA recovery. The energy balance revealed that net energy (5.20-6.86 kWh/kg-VFA recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). The coexistence of other anionic species had no negative effect on VFA transportation. The VFA concentration was increased 2.96 times after three consecutive batches. Furthermore, the applicability of MBEDC was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst.

  11. Food Waste Fermentation to Fumaric Acid by Rhizopus arrhizus RH7-13.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Ma, Jingyuan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Weinan; Deng, Li; Nie, Kaili; Yue, Xuemin; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-12-01

    Fumaric acid as a four-carbon unsaturated dicarboxylic acid is widely used in the food and chemical industries. Food waste (FW), rich in carbohydrates and protein, is a promising potential feedstock for renewable bio-based chemicals. In this research, we investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus RH7-13 in producing fumaric acid from FW. The liquid fraction of the FW (L-FW) was proven to be the best seed culture medium in our research. When it was however used to be fermentation medium, the yield of fumaric acid reached 32.68 g/L, at a volumetric production of 0.34 g/L h. The solid fraction of FW mixed with water (S-FW) could also be used as fermentation medium when a certain amount of glucose was added, and the yield of fumaric acid reached 31.26 g/L. The results indicated that both fractions of FW could be well utilized in fermentation process and it could replace a part of common carbon, nitrogen, and nutrient. The process has an application potential since reducing the costs of raw materials.

  12. Use of coal mining waste for the removal of acidity and metal ions Al (III), Fe (III) and Mn (II) in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Geremias, R; Laus, R; Macan, J M; Pedrosa, R C; Laranjeira, M C M; Silvano, J; Fávere, F V

    2008-08-01

    The coal industry may generate acid mine drainage (AMD) and mining wastes, which may adversely affect the quality of the environment. In this study we propose the use of this waste in the removal of acidity and metal ions, as well as in the reduction of the toxicity of AMD. A physico-chemical analysis of the waste shows the presence of mainly SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 and a superficial area of 4.316 m2 g(-1). The treatment of AMD with the waste resulted in an increase in pH from 2.6 to 7.8 and removed 100% of the Al (III), 100% of the Fe (III) and 89% of the Mn (II). We also observed that the high toxicity of the AMD towards Daphnia magna (LC50 = 3.68%) and Artemia sp. (LC50 = 4.97%) was completely eliminated after treatment with the waste. The data obtained allow us to propose that the waste can be used in the treatment of AMD, providing an economic use for the waste.

  13. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role.

  14. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

    2000-12-01

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water.

  15. Ferric sulphate catalysed esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Ooi, Chun Weng; Motala, Nafisa Osman; Ismail, Mohd Anas Farhan

    2010-10-01

    In this work, the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in waste cooking oil catalysed by ferric sulphate was studied as a pre-treatment step for biodiesel production. The effects of reaction time, methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and temperature on the conversion of FFA were investigated on a laboratory scale. The results showed that the conversion of FFA reached equilibrium after an hour, and was positively dependent on the methanol to oil molar ratio and temperature. An optimum catalyst concentration of 2 wt.% gave maximum FFA conversion of 59.2%. For catalyst loadings of 2 wt.% and below, this catalysed esterification was proposed to follow a pseudo-homogeneous pathway akin to mineral acid-catalysed esterification, driven by the H(+) ions produced through the hydrolysis of metal complex [Fe(H(2)O)(6)](3+) (aq).

  16. Continuous volatile fatty acid production from waste activated sludge hydrolyzed at pH 12.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Du, Maoan; Pan, Xiangliang; Wan, Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study adopted rapid alkaline treatment at pH 12 to hydrolyze 66% of total chemical oxygen demands. Then the hydrolyzed liquor was fermented in a continuous-flow stirred reactor to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at 8-h hydraulic retention time and at 35 °C. The maximum VFA productivity reached 365 mg VFAs g(-1) volatile suspended solids in a 45-d operation, with most produced VFAs being acetate and propionate, principally produced by protein degradation. The Bacteroidia, ε-proteobacteria and the Clostridia were identified to be the classes correlating with the fermentation processes. The fermented liquor was applied to denitrifying phosphorus removal process as alternative carbon source after excess phosphorus and nitrogen being recycled via struvite precipitation. Fermented liquors from alkaline hydrolysis-acid fermentation on waste activated sludge are a potential renewable resource for applications that need organic carbons.

  17. Where Plumes Live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    From the perspective of fluid dynamics, `Plumes or not?' might be the wrong question. Let me begin by defining a few terms. Plume with a `P' is the well-known thermal structure with thin (order 100 km) tail and large, bulbous head that originates at the core-mantle boundary. The thin tail/large, bulbous-head morphology has been generated in a number of laboratory and numerical experiments. It can be seen, for example, on the cover of the famous fluid dynamics text by Batchelor. There is a clearly-defined range of parameters for which this structure is the preferred solution for instabilities arising from a bottom boundary layer in a convecting fluid. For example, a strong temperature-dependent rheology is needed. By contrast, plume with a `p' is any cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical instability originating from a thermal (or thermo-chemical) boundary layer. In fluid dynamics plume is sometimes used interchangeable with jet. Unless there is a very small temperature drop across the core-mantle boundary or a rather remarkable balance between temperature and composition at the base of the mantle, there are almost certainly plumes. (Note the little p.) Are these plumes the thermal structures with thin (order 100 km) tails and large bulbous heads or could they be broad, hot regions such as the degree 2 pattern seen in global seismic tomography images of the lower mantle, or the disconnected droplets seen in chaotic convection? To study this question, I will present a sequence of numerical `experiments' that illustrate the morphology of instabilities from a basal thermal boundary layer, i.e., plumes. Some of the aspects I will present include: spherical geometry, temperature-and pressure-dependence of rheology, internal heating, pressure-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, variable coefficient of thermal diffusivity, phase transformations, and compositional layering at the base of the mantle. The goal is to map out the parameters and conditions where Plumes live

  18. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft.

  19. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production.

  20. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  1. Mechanisms contributing to muscle-wasting in acute uremia: activation of amino acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Price, S R; Reaich, D; Marinovic, A C; England, B K; Bailey, J L; Caban, R; Mitch, W E; Maroni, B J

    1998-03-01

    Acute uremia (ARF) causes metabolic defects in glucose and protein metabolism that contribute to muscle wasting. To examine whether there are also defects in the metabolism of essential amino acids in ARF, we measured the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for branched-chain amino acid catabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD), in rat muscles. Because chronic acidosis activates muscle BCKAD, we also evaluated the influence of acidosis by studying ARF rats given either NaCl (ARF-NaCl) or NaHCO3 (ARF-HCO3) to prevent acidosis, and sham-operated, control rats given NaHCO3. ARF-NaCl rats became progressively acidemic (serum [HCO3] = 21.3 +/- 0.7 mM within 18 h and 14.7 +/- 0.8 mM after 44 h; mean +/- SEM), but this was corrected with NaHCO3. Plasma valine was low in ARF-NaCl and ARF-HCO3 rats. Plasma isoleucine, but not leucine, was low in ARF-NaCl rats, and isoleucine tended to be lower in ARF-HCO3 rats. Basal BCKAD activity (a measure of active BCKAD in muscle) was increased more than 17-fold (P < 0.01) in ARF-NaCl rat muscles, and this response was partially suppressed by NaHCO3. Maximal BCKAD activity (an estimate of BCKAD content), subunit mRNA levels, and BCKAD protein content were not different in ARF and control rat muscles. Thus, ARF increases branched-chain amino acid catabolism by activating BCKAD by a mechanism that includes acidosis. Moreover, in a muscle-wasting condition such as ARF, there is a coordinated increase in protein and essential amino acid catabolism.

  2. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  3. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  4. Recovery of H2SO4 from waste acid solution by a diffusion dialysis method.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinki; Kim, Min-Seuk; Kim, Byung-Su; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Won-Baek; Lee, Jae-Chun

    2005-09-30

    A diffusion dialysis method using anion exchange membrane was used to recover H2SO4 from waste sulfuric acid solution produced at the diamond manufacturing process. Effects of flow rate, operation temperature, and metal ion concentration on the recovery of H2SO4 were investigated. The recovery of H2SO4 increased with the concentration of H2SO4 and operation temperature. It also increased with the flow rate ratio of water/H2SO4 solution up to 1, above which no further increase was observed. The flow rate did not affect the rejection of Fe and Ni ions. About 80% of H2SO4 could be recovered from waste sulfuric acid which contained 4.5M free-H2SO4 at the flow rate of 0.26x10(-3) m3/hm3. The concentration of recovered H2SO4 was 4.3M and the total impurity was 2000 ppm. Preliminary economic evaluation has revealed that the dialysis system is highly attractive one that has payback period of only few months.

  5. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  6. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed.

  7. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  8. LAMP Observes the LCROSS Plume

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows LAMP’s view of the LCROSS plume. The first half of the animation shows the LAMP viewport scanning across the horizon, passing through the plume, and moving on. The second half of...

  9. Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil plume models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as plume centerline trajectory and plume radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant plume on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant plumes. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant plume, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant plume becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant plumes.

  10. EUV analysis of polar plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, I. A.; Withbroe, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Three polar plumes were studied using Skylab Mg X and O VI data. The plumes lie within the boundaries of a polar coronal hole. We find that the mean temperature of the plumes is about 1.1 million K and that they have a small vertical temperature gradient. Densities are determined and found consistent with white light analyses. The variation of density with height in the plumes is compared with that expected for hydrostatic equilibrium. As is the case for other coronal features, polar plumes will be a source of solar wind if the magnetic field lines are open. On the basis of the derived plume model and estimates of the numbers of plumes in polar coronal holes, it appears that polar plumes contain about 15% of the mass in a typical polar hole and occupy about 10% of the volume.

  11. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of acid tar waste from crude benzol refining: A thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chihobo, Chido H; Chowdhury, Arindrajit; Kuipa, Pardon K; Simbi, David J

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. A variation in the activation energy with conversion revealed that the pyrolysis of the acid tar waste progresses through complex multi-step kinetics. Mass spectrometry results revealed a predominance of gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide, implying that the pyrolysis of acid tar waste is potentially an energy source. Thus the pyrolysis of acid tar waste may present a viable option for its environmental treatment. There are however, some limitations imposed by the co-evolution of corrosive gaseous components for which appropriate considerations must be provided in both pyrolysis reactor design and selection of construction materials.

  12. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  13. Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

  14. Double Diffusive Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Lee, Brace

    2008-11-01

    Sour gas flares attempt to dispose of deadly H2S gas through combustion. What does not burn rises as a buoyant plume. But the gas is heavier than air at room temperature, so as the rising gas cools eventually it becomes negatively buoyant and descends back to the ground. Ultimately, our intent is to predict the concentrations of the gas at ground level in realistic atmospheric conditions. As a first step towards this goal we have performed laboratory experiments examining the structure of a steady state plume of hot and salty water that rises buoyantly near the source and descends as a fountain after it has cooled sufficiently. We call this a double-diffusive plume because its evolution is dictated by the different (turbulent) diffusivities of heat and salt. A temperature and conductivity probe measures both the salinity and temperature along the centreline of the plume. The supposed axisymmetric structure of the salinity concentration as it changes with height is determined by light-attenuation methods. To help interpret the results, a theory has been successfully adapted from the work of Bloomfield and Kerr (2000), who developed coupled equations describing the structure of fountains. Introducing a new empirical parameter for the relative rates of turbulent heat and salt diffusion, the predictions are found to agree favourably with experimental results.

  15. Evaluation of Visible Plumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Thomas

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline discusses plumes with contaminants that are visible to the naked eye. Information covers: (1) history of air pollution control regulations, (2) need for methods of evaluating…

  16. PLUME and research sotware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudin, Veronique; Gomez-Diaz, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The PLUME open platform (https://www.projet-plume.org) has as first goal to share competences and to value the knowledge of software experts within the French higher education and research communities. The project proposes in its platform the access to more than 380 index cards describing useful and economic software for this community, with open access to everybody. The second goal of PLUME focuses on to improve the visibility of software produced by research laboratories within the higher education and research communities. The "development-ESR" index cards briefly describe the main features of the software, including references to research publications associated to it. The platform counts more than 300 cards describing research software, where 89 cards have an English version. In this talk we describe the theme classification and the taxonomy of the index cards and the evolution with new themes added to the project. We will also focus on the organisation of PLUME as an open project and its interests in the promotion of free/open source software from and for research, contributing to the creation of a community of shared knowledge.

  17. Buoyant plume calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.

  18. Phosphorus and zinc dissolution from thermally gasified piggery waste ash using sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G

    2010-07-01

    Ash from thermally gasified piggery waste (GA) was treated with sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) using two extraction methods. First different loads (0.39-0.98 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg ash) and concentrations (0.2-2M) were used in 3h extraction. Second, titration of 1:25 (w/w) ash:water suspension was conducted with 4M H(2)SO(4) to determine ash buffer capacity at nine pH steps from 12 to 0.1. Total P and zinc (Zn) dissolution was monitored. Optimal acid load and concentration to dissolve 94% P and 55% Zn from GA was 0.98 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg ash and 0.6M, respectively, which corresponds to acid demand of 19.2 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg P recovered. High concentrations (2M) did not improve P dissolution, but Zn was easier released. Ash buffer capacity was the highest at pH 4 and 0.1, first one due to dissolution of Ca, the second one due to autoprotolysis of water. Acid load had stronger effect on dissolution than concentration in the first method, however in the second; both factors had comparable effect.

  19. Basaltic fissure eruptions, plume heights, and atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Wolff, J. A.; Self, S.; Rampino, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Convective plumes that rise above Hawaiian-style fire fountains consist of volcanic gases, aerosols, fine ash, and entrained heated air. Plume theory has been applied to observational estimates of the rate of thermal energy release from large fire fountains. The theoretically predicted heights of maintained plumes agree very well with the heights found from actual observations. Predicted plume heights for both central-vent (point-source) and fissure (line-source) eruptions indicate a stratospheric penetration by plumes that form over vents with very high magma-production rates. Flood basalt fissure eruptions that produce individual lava flows with volumes greater than 100 cu km at very high mass eruption rates are capable of injecting large quantities of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere, with potentially drastic short-term atmospheric consequences, like acid precipitation, darkening of the sky, and climatic cooling.

  20. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  1. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  2. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.P.; Rossky, P.J.

    1998-06-01

    'A new technology, hydrothermal oxidation (also called supercritical water oxidation), is being developed to treat high level nuclear wastes. Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen; furthermore, phosphates, alumina sludge, and chromium are solubilized, and the sludge is reconstituted as fine oxide particles. A major obstacle to development of this technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. The objective is to provide this knowledge with in-situ UV-vis spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. A major objective of the experimental studies has been to determine the equilibria for Cr(VI) up to 420 C as this is a key species to be removed from nuclear wastes. A wide range of concentrations of KOH and perchloric acid were utilized to manipulate the acid-base equilibria and to understand the effects of ion solvation and ion pairing. The second system is the equilibria between nitric acid, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, nitrite and nitrate ions and oxygen. For both of these systems, chemical equilibria has not been measured previously in hydrothermal solution at these temperatures. On the theoretical side, the authors have focused on the study of the transport properties of aqueous ions in supercritical water. The motivation for these studies is two fold. First, although transport coefficients are fundamental to solution chemistry reaction rates, the behavior of such transport properties over wide ranges of density and temperature are not well established experimentally, particularly at the densities typically of interest (< 0.5 g/cc). Second, due to practical challenges, ionic association equilibria in SCW is typically accessed via measurements of conductivity followed by analysis through a theoretical model that incorporates ion

  3. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O.; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  4. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods.

  5. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  6. Dynamics of thermochemical plumes: 2. Complexity of plume structures and its implications for mapping mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Chuan; van Keken, Peter E.

    2006-03-01

    The mantle plume hypothesis provides explanations for several major observations of surface volcanism. The dynamics of plumes with purely thermal origin has been well established, but our understanding of the role of compositional variations in the Earth's mantle on plume formation is still incomplete. In this study we explore the structures of plumes originating from a thermochemical boundary layer at the base of the mantle in an attempt to complement fluid dynamical studies of purely thermal plumes. Our numerical experiments reveal diverse characteristics of thermochemical plumes that frequently deviate from the classic features of plumes. In addition, owing to the interplay between the thermal and compositional buoyancy forces, the morphology, temperature, and flow fields in both the plume head and plume conduit are strongly time-dependent. The entrainment of the dense layer and secondary instabilities developed in the boundary layer contribute to lateral heterogeneities and enhance stirring processes in the plume head. Our models show that substantial topography of the compositional layer can develop simultaneously with the plumes. In addition, plumes may be present in the lower mantle for more than 70 million years. These features may contribute to the large low seismic velocity provinces beneath the south central Pacific, the southern Atlantic Ocean, and Africa. Our model results support the idea that the dynamics of mantle plumes is much more complicated than conventional thinking based on studies of purely thermal plumes. The widely used criteria for mapping mantle plumes, such as a vertically continuous low seismic velocity signature and strong surface topography swell, may not be universally applicable. We propose that the intrinsic density contrast of the distinct composition may reduce the associated topography of some large igneous provinces such as Ontong Java.

  7. Selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards by a novel non-acid process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-08-30

    An environmental benign, non-acid process was successfully developed for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the process, palladium was firstly enriched during copper recovery procedure and dissolved in a special solution made of CuSO4 and NaCl. The dissolved palladium was then extracted by diisoamyl sulfide (S201). It was found that 99.4% of Pd(II) could be extracted from the solution under the optimum conditions (10% S201, A/O ratio 5 and 2min extraction). In the whole extraction process, the influence of base metals was negligible due to the relatively weak nucleophilic substitution of S201 with base metal irons and the strong steric hindrance of S201 molecular. Around 99.5% of the extracted Pd(II) could be stripped from S201/dodecane with 0.1mol/L NH3 after a two-stage stripping at A/O ratio of 1. The total recovery percentage of palladium was 96.9% during the dissolution-extraction-stripping process. Therefore, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards.

  8. Bioleaching of copper from waste printed circuit boards by bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yun; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Nengwu; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Wen; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Ping

    2010-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the solubility of copper in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) by bacterial consortium enriched from natural acid mine drainage, and to determine optimum conditions of bioleaching copper from PCBs. The results indicated that the extraction of copper was mainly accomplished indirectly through oxidation by ferric ions generated from ferrous ion oxidation bacteria. The initial pH and Fe(2+) concentration played an important role in copper extraction and precipitate formation. The leaching rate of copper was generally higher at lower PCB powder dosage. Moreover, a two-step process was extremely necessary for bacterial growth and obtaining an appropriate Fe(2+) oxidation rate; a suitable time when 6.25 g/L of Fe(2+) remained in the solution was suggested for adding PCB powder. The maximum leaching rate of copper was achieved 95% after 5 days under the conditions of initial pH 1.5, 9 g/L of initial Fe(2+), and 20 g/L of PCB powder. All findings demonstrated that copper could be efficiently solubilized from waste PCBs by using bacterial consortium, and the leaching period was shortened remarkably from about 12 days to 5 days.

  9. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, M. Madalena; Pereira, M. Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z.; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The position of high‐rate anaerobic technology (HR‐AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR‐AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment. PMID:21255287

  10. Evaluation of UASB reactor performance during start-up operation using synthetic mixed-acid waste.

    PubMed

    Vadlani, P V; Ramachandran, K B

    2008-11-01

    A start-up experiment was performed in a laboratory-scale, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor using seed sludge from a domestic waste treatment plant at 3.8-33.3gCODl(-1)day(-1) loading rates. Analysis over the height of the reactor with time showed that the VSS in the reactor was initially differentiated into active and non-active biomass at increasing gas production and upflow velocities, and specific update rates of the volatile fatty acids (VFA) components were pronounced at the bottom 10% of the reactor. During start-up, specific methanogenic activity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) uptake rate increased from 0.075 to 0.75gCOD-CH4(gVSS)(-1)day(-1) and from 0.08 to 0.875gCOD removed (gVSS)(-1)day(-1), respectively. When seed sludge from a distillery waste treatment plant was used, improved performance due to a predominance of active biomass was evident when the loading rate was increased from 9.4 to 28.7gCODl(-1)day(-1). The proposed start-up evaluation is an effective tool to successfully monitor performance of UASB reactors.

  11. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long-chain fatty acids (LCFA).

    PubMed

    Alves, M Madalena; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Cavaleiro, Ana J; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J M

    2009-09-01

    The position of high-rate anaerobic technology (HR-AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR-AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment.

  12. Recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum and utilization for remediation of acid mine drainage from coal mines.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Radebe, V

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum (a waste product of the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process) was tested using sodium carbonate. Batch recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum slurries by reacting with sodium carbonate under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of CaCO(3) recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effect of key process parameters, such as the slurry concentration (%) and the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum were considered. It was observed that batch waste gypsum conversion significantly increased with decrease in the slurry concentration or increase in the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench-scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  13. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid in nitrite-containing simulated nuclear waste media

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1994-08-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed containing the major non-radioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}-, and NO{sub 2}- were used as media to evaluate the stability of formic acid towards hydrogen evolution by the reaction HCO{sub 2}H {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2} catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Small scale experiments using 40-50 mL of feed simulant in closed glass reactors (250-550 mL total volume) at 80-100{degree}C were used to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate ion on the catalytic activities of the noble metals for formic acid decomposition. Reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO, and N{sub 2}O in the gas phase as a function of time. Rhodium, which was introduced as soluble RhCl{sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, was found to be the most active catalyst for hydrogen generation from formic acid above {approx}80{degree}C in the presence of nitrite ion in accord with earlier observations. The inherent homogeneous nature of the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed formic acid decomposition is suggested by the approximate pseudo first-order dependence of the hydrogen production rate on Rh concentration. Titration of the typical feed simulants containing carbonate and nitrite with formic acid in the presence of rhodium at the reaction temperature ({approx}90{degree}C) indicates that the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid occurs only after formic acid has reacted with all of the carbonate and nitrite present to form CO{sub 2} and NO/N{sub 2}O, respectively. The catalytic activities of Ru and Pd towards hydrogen generation from formic acid are quite different than those of Rh in that they are inhibited rather than promoted by the presence of nitrite ion.

  14. Sampling by mantle plumes : the legacy of the plume source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandeis, G.; Touitou, F.; Davaille, A.

    2013-12-01

    Plumes in the Earth's mantle are considered to be at the origin of intraplate volcanism (or hotspots). They continue to fascinate the scientific community by the heterogeneity of the material they sample on the surface of our planet. To characterize what part of the mantle is sampled by plumes, we have developed a laboratory model for laminar thermal plumes at high Prandtl number, in a fluid whose viscosity depends strongly on the temperature. This study describes the precise phenomenology of the plume and proposes scaling laws for the speed and temperature of the conduit of the plume. We show a strong dependence of these features of the plume with the Rayleigh number and viscosity ratio. Our visualization technique allows for the simultaneous non-intrusive measurements of the temperature, deformation and velocity fields. By calculating numerically the advection of passive markers through the experimental velocity field, we found that (1) the hot center of the plume conduit only consists of fluid which has passed through the thermal boundary layer ("TBL") at the bottom of the tank from which the plume was issued. Moreover, as material is stretched by velocity gradients, it is also in the thermal boundary layer that most of the material stretching occurs (2). The fluid is then transported in the conduit without lateral mixing, and further stretched vertically by the lateral velocity gradients. Since it is only the hot upwelling plume center which melts and therefore is sampled by volcanic activity, (1) implies that the plume geochemical signature is representative of the material located in the deep TBL of the mantle from which the plume is issued. On the other hand, (2) implies that filaments, pancakes, and concentric or bimodal zonation of the plume at the surface all result from different distributions of the heterogeneities in the plume source, filaments being the most generic case. Finally, we apply the scaling laws to the case of Hawaii.

  15. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  16. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  17. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production.

  18. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  19. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-02-04

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  20. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  1. Transformation of waste cooking oil into C-18 fatty acids using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum through solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-10-01

    The prime aim of the current work was to illustrate the components existing in repeatedly used cooking oil and to develop an economical process for the production of fatty acids from low cost feedstock waste. The waste cooking oil was characterized by the occurrence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and polymerized derivative of esters. Triacontanoic acid methyl ester, 2,3,5,8-Tetramethyldecane, 3,3 dimethyl heptane, and 2,2,3,3-teramethyl pentane were detected as thermal and oxidative contaminants that adversely affect the quality of cooking oil. Fundamentally, waste cooking oil comprises ester bonds of long chain fatty acids. The extracellular lipase produced from P. chrysogenum was explored for the hydrolysis of waste cooking oil. The incorporation of lipase to waste cooking oil in 1:1 proportion released 17 % oleic acid and 5 % stearic acid.

  2. Characterization of phosphogypsum wastes associated with phosphoric acid and fertilizers production.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; El-Reefy, S A

    2009-05-01

    The present work is directed to characterize the phosphogypsum (PG) wastes associated with phosphoric acid produced by the wet process in industrial facility for the production of fertilizers and chemicals in Egypt. The PG waste samples were characterized in terms of spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, IR spectra) and radiometric analysis (gamma- and alpha-measurements). The gamma-ray measurements showed that the average activity concentrations are 140+/-12.6, 459+/-36.7, 323+/-28.4, 8.3+/-0.76 and 64.3+/-4.1 Bq/kg for U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 and K-40, respectively. The alpha-particle measurements of uranium isotopes showed that the average activity concentrations of U-238, U-235 and U-234 were 153+/-9.8, 7+/-0.38, 152+/-10.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The average radiochemical recovery (%) of the destructive alpha-particle measurements is approximately 70% with a resolution (FWHM) of approximately 30 keV. Activity ratios of U-238/Ra-226 and U-238/Pb-210 were less than unity (i.e., <1) and equal to 0.31+/-0.02 and 0.47+/-0.16, respectively. The isotopic ratios of U-238/U-235 and U-238/U-234 (in PG and PR samples) were close to the normal values of approximately 21.7 and approximately 1, respectively and are not affected by the wet processing of phosphate rock (PR). The obtained results of PG waste samples were compared with phosphate rock (PR) samples. The radiation hazard indices are namely, radium activity index (Ra-Eq>370 Bq/kg), total absorbed gamma dose rate (D(gamma r)>5 nGy/h) and radon emanation fraction (Rn-EF>20%). Uncertainty of the sample counting was 95% confidence level of sigma. The results indicated the necessity to find suitable routes to decrease and/or redistribute the radionuclide of environmental interest (i.e., Ra-226) in PG wastes, consequently to reduce its radiation impacts in the surrounding environment.

  3. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  4. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  5. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, 2.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  6. Development of Spheroidal Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Acidic Salt-Bearing Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-09-07

    A spheroidal composite inorganic sorbent was developed for U.S. Department of Energy-Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (USDOE-ESP) for potential use in removing radioactive cesium isotopes from acidic high-salt waste streams such as those at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate (ZrHP) embedded with fine powder of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), was prepared using a unique internal gelation process which can be used to make porous reproducible microspheres that are structurally strong, have a low tendency for surface erosion, and improve the flow dynamics for column operations. Both ZrHP and AMP are excellent sorbent materials and, being inorganic, are stable in high radiation fields. AMP is a very effective sorbent for removing cesium from salt-bearing waste streams for a wide range of acidity. In the pH range of 2 to 10, ZrHP is also a very effective sorbent for removing Cs, Sr, Th, U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Hg, and Pb from streams of lower ionic concentrations. Crucial to developing the spheroidal AMP-ZrHP sorbent was to determine the ideal weight percentage of AMP that could be embedded in the ZrHP microspheres in order to maintain the structural integrity of the microspheres and also achieve a good cesium separation. A total of 12 preparations were made. The dry weight percentage of AMP ranged from 30 to 60. Overall, the best composite microspheres prepared contained 50% AMP (by dry weight measurement). Another composite microsphere, which was composed of titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP) embedded with 18 wt % (air-dried weight) potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoCF) and developed for a different separations application, was also batch tested for comparison. It proved to be as effective in removing,the cesium as the air-dried AMP (50 wt %)-ZrHP. Granular KCoCF was also prepared and was very effective. Large samples of each of these materials were sent to

  7. Separation of boric acid in liquid waste with anion exchange membrane contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Lee, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to separate boric acid in liquid waste, some possible technologies were investigated and the membrane contactor without dispersion and density differences was selected. The separation experiments on a Celgard 3401{reg_sign} hydrophilic microporous membrane contactor were first performed to obtain the basic data and to determine the properties of the contactor. The experimental conditions were as follows: boric acid concentrations up to 2.0 M, pH 7.0, temperatures of 25 and 55 C, and flow rates of 100, 300, 500, and 800 cm{sup 3}/min. Secondly, an AFN{reg_sign} anion exchange membrane contactor was tested at temperatures of 40 and 55 C and flow rate 400 cm{sup 3}/min. Boric acid solutions were prepared by the same method as that for Celgard 3401{reg_sign} but contained 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}4} M cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}). To simulate membrane contractors, parameters such as the differential diffusion coefficients of boric acid and the mass transfer coefficients in the AFN membrane were measured, and regression models estimating the diffusion coefficient at several conditions were developed. The Celgard 3401{reg_sign} membrane contactor was simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results agreed with the experimental data well when a proper correction factor was utilized. The correction factor was independent of the solution temperature and was 8.75 at the flow rates of 300--800 cm{sup 3}/min. This correction factor was also applied to simulate the AFN{reg_sign} resulted in a good agreement with experiment at 40 C, but not 55 C. The retention on cobalt was also better at 40 c than 55 C. The simulating computer program was also applied to a life size contactor designed conceptually.

  8. Phosphorus and short-chain fatty acids recovery from waste activated sludge by anaerobic fermentation: Effect of acid or alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Hui; Liu, Jianyong; Duan, Tengfei; Luo, Jinghuan; Qian, Guangren

    2017-03-06

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) was pretreated by acid or alkali to enhance the anaerobic fermentation (AF) for phosphorus (P) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) release into the liquid simultaneously. With acid pretreatment, the released total P concentration achieved 120mg/L, which was 71.4% higher than that with alkali pretreatment. In addition, alkali pretreatment enhanced organic P release with about 35.3% of organic P in the solid being converted to inorganic P, while little had changed with acid pretreatment. The results also showed that acid and alkali pretreatment enhanced SCFAs production by 15.3 and 12.5times, respectively. Acid pretreatment could be preferred for simultaneous recovery of P and SCFAs by AF.

  9. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst.

  10. Production of propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acids from co-fermentation liquid of sewage sludge and food waste using Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Mu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Luo, Jingyang; Zhao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), derived from sludge fermentation, have been used as one effective carbon source for biological nutrient removal, especially favorable with VFA containing with high levels of propionic acid. In this paper, a new fermentation method was employed to significantly produce the propionic acid-enriched VFA from the co-fermentation liquid of sewage sludge and food waste: including (1) mixing food waste with sludge in the anaerobic digester (the first stage) and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the first stage liquid and fermenting it after inoculation with Propionibacterium acidipropionici (the second stage). The effect of the key parameters including pH, the mixing ratio of the food waste and sludge, fermentation time and temperature of the first stage on the propionic acid-enriched VFA production (the second stage) was individually discussed. By the molecular weight distribution analysis, the comparison of the solubilisation and hydrolysis process in difference parameters was fully elaborated. The optimal combination of the parameters was then obtained. Finally, the propionic acid-enriched VFA fermentation was successfully conducted in a semi-continuous reactor using the first stage liquid from the optimal condition.

  11. Suppression of muscle wasting by the plant‐derived compound ursolic acid in a model of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rizhen; Chen, Ji‐an; Xu, Jing; Cao, Jin; Wang, Yanlin; Thomas, Sandhya S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other catabolic disorders contributes to morbidity and mortality, and there are no therapeutic interventions that regularly and safely block losses of muscle mass. We have obtained evidence that impaired IGF‐1/insulin signalling and increases in glucocorticoids, myostatin and/or inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the development of muscle wasting in catabolic disorders by activating protein degradation. Methods Using in vitro and in vivo models of muscle wasting associated with CKD or dexamethasone administration, we measured protein synthesis and degradation and examined mechanisms by which ursolic acid, derived from plants, could block the loss of muscle mass stimulated by CKD or excessive levels of dexamethasone. Results Using cultured C2C12 myotubes to study muscle wasting, we found that exposure to glucocorticoids cause loss of cell proteins plus an increase in myostatin; both responses are significantly suppressed by ursolic acid. Results from promoter and ChIP assays demonstrated a mechanism involving ursolic acid blockade of myostatin promoter activity that is related to CEBP/δ expression. In mouse models of CKD‐induced or dexamethasone‐induced muscle wasting, we found that ursolic acid blocked the loss of muscle mass by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation. These beneficial responses included decreased expression of myostatin and inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TGF‐β, IL‐6 and TNFα), which are initiators of muscle‐specific ubiquitin‐E3 ligases (e.g. Atrogin‐1, MuRF‐1 and MUSA1). Conclusions Ursolic acid improves CKD‐induced muscle mass by suppressing the expression of myostatin and inflammatory cytokines via increasing protein synthesis and reducing proteolysis. PMID:27897418

  12. Updated Conceptual Model for the 300 Area Uranium Groundwater Plume

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Last, George V.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2012-11-01

    The 300 Area uranium groundwater plume in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit is residual from past discharge of nuclear fuel fabrication wastes to a number of liquid (and solid) disposal sites. The source zones in the disposal sites were remediated by excavation and backfilled to grade, but sorbed uranium remains in deeper, unexcavated vadose zone sediments. In spite of source term removal, the groundwater plume has shown remarkable persistence, with concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard over an area of approximately 1 km2. The plume resides within a coupled vadose zone, groundwater, river zone system of immense complexity and scale. Interactions between geologic structure, the hydrologic system driven by the Columbia River, groundwater-river exchange points, and the geochemistry of uranium contribute to persistence of the plume. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to document characterization of the 300 Area uranium plume and plan for beginning to implement proposed remedial actions. As part of the RI/FS document, a conceptual model was developed that integrates knowledge of the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the 300 Area and controlling processes to yield an understanding of how the system behaves and the variables that control it. Recent results from the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge site and the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Scientific Focus Area Project funded by the DOE Office of Science were used to update the conceptual model and provide an assessment of key factors controlling plume persistence.

  13. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles.

  14. Increasing Soluble Phosphate Species by Treatment of Phosphate Rocks with Acidic Waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Wedisson O; Hesterberg, Dean; Mattiello, Edson M; Vergütz, Leonardus; Barreto, Matheus S C; Silva, Ivo R; Souza Filho, Luiz F S

    2016-11-01

    The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations. Increasing the AMW concentration typically increased extractable P. X-ray diffraction data showed transformation of apatite to other species when PRs were reacted with AMW at ≥50% (v/v) in water, with gypsum or anhydrite forming at AMW concentrations as low as 12.5%. Linear combination fitting analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra also indicated a progressive transformation of apatite to noncrystalline Fe(III)-phosphate and more soluble Ca-phosphates with increasing AMW concentration. Because this AMW is costly to dispose of, reacting it with PR to produce a higher-grade phosphate fertilizer material could decrease the environmental impacts of the AMW and diminish the consumption of pure acids in conventional P fertilizer production.

  15. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  16. Bioconversion of waste office paper to gluconic acid in a turbine blade reactor by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yuko; Park, Enock Y; Okuda, Naoyuki

    2006-05-01

    Gluconic acid production was investigated using an enzymatic hydrolysate of waste office automation paper in a culture of Aspergillus niger. In repeated batch cultures using flasks, saccharified solution medium (SM) did not show any inhibitory effects on gluconic acid production compared to glucose medium (GM). The average gluconic acid yields were 92% (SM) and 80% (GM). In repeated batch cultures using SM in a turbine blade reactor (TBR), the gluconic acid yields were 60% (SM) and 67% (GM) with 80-100 g/l of gluconic acid. When pure oxygen was supplied the production rate increased to four times higher than when supplying air. Remarkable differences in the morphology of A. niger and dry cell weight between SM and GM were observed. The difference in morphology may have caused a reduction of oxygen transfer, resulting in a decrease in gluconic acid production rate in SM.

  17. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  18. Bioremediation of Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD) through organic carbon amendment by municipal sewage and green waste.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Pit lakes (abandoned flooded mine pits) represent a potentially valuable water resource in hot arid regions. However, pit lake water is often characterised by low pH with high dissolved metal concentrations resulting from Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD). Addition of organic matter to pit lakes to enhance microbial sulphate reduction is a potential cost effective remediation strategy. However, cost and availability of suitable organic substrates are often limiting. Nevertheless, large quantities of sewage and green waste (organic garden waste) are often available at mine sites from nearby service towns. We treated AMD pit lake water (pH 2.4) from tropical, North Queensland, Australia, with primary-treated sewage sludge, green waste, and a mixture of sewage and green waste (1:1) in a controlled microcosm experiment (4.5 L). Treatments were assessed at two different rates of organic loading of 16:1 and 32:1 pit water:organic matter by mass. Combined green waste and sewage treatment was the optimal treatment with water pH increased to 5.5 in only 145 days with decreases of dissolved metal concentrations. Results indicated that green waste was a key component in the pH increase and concomitant heavy metal removal. Water quality remediation was primarily due to microbially-mediated sulphate reduction. The net result of this process was removal of sulphate and metal solutes to sediment mainly as monosulfides. During the treatment process NH(3) and H(2)S gases were produced, albeit at below concentrations of concern. Total coliforms were abundant in all green waste-treatments, however, faecal coliforms were absent from all treatments. This study demonstrates addition of low-grade organic materials has promise for bioremediation of acidic waters and warrants further experimental investigation into feasibility at higher scales of application such as pit lakes.

  19. [Newly leaching method of copper from waste print circuit board using hydrochloric acid/n-butylamine/copper sulfate].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Cui, Zhao-Jie; Yao, Ya-Wei

    2010-12-01

    A newly leaching method of copper from waste print circuit board was established by using hydrochloric acid-n-butylamine-copper sulfate mixed solution. The conditions of leaching were optimized by changing the hydrochloric acid, n-butylamine, copper sulfate,temperature and other conditions using copper as target mimics. The results indicated that copper could be leached completely after 8 h at 50 degrees C, hydrochloric acid concentration of 1.75 mol/L, n-butylamine concentration of 0.25 mol/L, and copper sulfate mass of 0.96 g. Under the conditions, copper leaching rates in waste print circuit board samples was up to 95.31% after 9 h. It has many advantages such as better effects, low cost, mild reaction conditions, leaching solution recycling.

  20. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  1. Efficient conversion of polyamides to ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids: a new method for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Ikeda, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shuzo; Kato, Kazunari; Akinari, Yugo; Sugimoto, Tsunemi; Kashiwagi, Kohichi; Kaiso, Kouji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    An efficient transformation of polyamides to ω-hydroxy alkanoic acids was achieved. Treatment of nylon-12 with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid gave methyl ω-hydroxydodecanoate in 85% yield and the alcohol/alkene selectivity in the product was enhanced to up to 9.5:1. The use of (18)O-enriched acetic acid for the reaction successfully introduced an (18)O atom at the alcoholic OH group in the product. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for the chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  2. Seismic Imaging of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude

    The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed thirty years ago by Jason Morgan to explain hotspot volcanoes such as Hawaii. A thermal diapir (or plume) rises from the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and produces a chain of volcanoes as a plate moves on top of it. The idea is very attractive, but direct evidence for actual plumes is weak, and many questions remain unanswered. With the great improvement of seismic imagery in the past ten years, new prospects have arisen. Mantle plumes are expected to be rather narrow, and their detection by seismic techniques requires specific developments as well as dedicated field experiments. Regional travel-time tomography has provided good evidence for plumes in the upper mantle beneath a few hotspots (Yellowstone, Massif Central, Iceland). Beneath Hawaii and Iceland, the plume can be detected in the transition zone because it deflects the seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depths. In the lower mantle, plumes are very difficult to detect, so specific methods have been worked out for this purpose. There are hints of a plume beneath the weak Bowie hotspot, as well as intriguing observations for Hawaii. Beneath Iceland, high-resolution tomography has just revealed a wide and meandering plume-like structure extending from the core-mantle boundary up to the surface. Among the many phenomena that seem to take place in the lowermost mantle (or D''), there are also signs there of the presence of plumes. In this article I review the main results obtained so far from these studies and discuss their implications for plume dynamics. Seismic imaging of mantle plumes is still in its infancy but should soon become a turbulent teenager.

  3. Increase of Unsaturated Fatty Acids (Low Melting Point) of Broiler Fatty Waste Obtained Through Staphylococcus xylosus Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger V; Duval, Eduarda H; Corrêa, Luciara B; Corrêa, Érico K

    2015-11-01

    The increasing rise in the production of meat around the world causes a significant generation of agro-industrial waste--most of it with a low value added. Fatty wastes have the potential of being converted into biodiesel, given the overcome of technological and economical barriers, as well as its presentation in solid form. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of Staphylococcus xylosus strains to modify the chemical structure of chicken fatty wastes intending to reduce the melting points of the wastes to mild temperatures, thereby breaking new ground in the production of biodiesel from these sources in an economically attractive and sustainable manner. The effects in time of fermentation and concentration of the fat in the medium were investigated, assessing the melting point and profile of fatty acids. The melting temperature showed a decrease of approximately 22 °C in the best operational conditions, due to reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids (high melting point) and increase of unsaturated fatty acids (low melting point).

  4. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  5. Mantle plumes and continental tectonics.

    PubMed

    Hill, R I; Campbell, I H; Davies, G F; Griffiths, R W

    1992-04-10

    Mantle plumes and plate tectonics, the result of two distinct modes of convection within the Earth, operate largely independently. Although plumes are secondary in terms of heat transport, they have probably played an important role in continental geology. A new plume starts with a large spherical head that can cause uplift and flood basalt volcanism, and may be responsible for regional-scale metamorphism or crustal melting and varying amounts of crustal extension. Plume heads are followed by narrow tails that give rise to the familiar hot-spot tracks. The cumulative effect of processes associated with tail volcanism may also significantly affect continental crust.

  6. Quaternary herbicides retention by the amendment of acid soils with a bentonite-based waste from wineries.

    PubMed

    Pateiro-Moure, M; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J C; Arias-Estévez, M; López-Periago, E; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2009-05-30

    The agronomic utility of a solid waste, waste bentonite (WB), from wine companies was assessed. In this sense, the natural characteristics of the waste were measured, followed by the monitoring of its effects on the adsorption/desorption behaviour of three quaternary herbicides in acid soils after the addition of increasing levels of waste. This was done with the intention of studying the effect of the added organic matter on their adsorption. The high content in C (294 g kg(-1)), N (28 g kg(-1)), P (584 mg kg(-1)) and K (108 g kg(-1)) of WB turned it into an appropriate amendment to increase soil fertility, solving at the same time its disposal. WB also reduced the potential Cu phytotoxicity due to a change in Cu distribution towards less soluble fractions. The adsorption of the herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat by acid soils amended with different ratios of WB was measured. In all cases, Langmuir equation was fitted to the data. Paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) were adsorbed and retained more strongly than difenzoquat (DFQ) in the acid soil studied. However, the lowest retention of DFQ in an acid soil can be increased by amendment with organic matter through a solid waste from wineries, and it is enough for duplicate retention a dosage rate of 10t/ha. Anyway, detritivores ecology can still be affected. Detritivores are the organisms that consume organic material, and in doing so contribute to decomposition and the recycling of nutrients. The term can also be applied to certain bottom-feeders in wet environments, which play a crucial role in benthic ecosystems, forming essential food chains and participating in the nitrogen cycle.

  7. Single SCA-plume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J.-I.; Baizig, Hichem

    2012-11-01

    A fully prognostic prototype of bulk mass-flux convection parameterization is presented. The bulk mass-flux parameterization is formulated by assuming a subgrid-scale system consisting only of a convective plume and environment. Both subcomponents (segments) are assumed to be homogeneous horizontally. This assumption is called the segmentally constant approximation (SCA). The present study introduces this purely geometrical constraint (SCA) into the full nonhydrostatic anelastic system. A continuous-space description of the full system is, thus, replaced by a discretization consisting only of two segments (plume and environment) in the horizontal direction. The resulting discretized system is mathematically equivalent to a 0th order finite volume formulation with the only two finite volumes. The model is presented under a two-dimensional configuration. Interfaces between the plume and the environment segments may either be fixed in time or Lagrangianly advected as two limiting cases. Under this framework, the single-plume dynamics is systematically investigated in a wide phase space of Richardson number, the aspect ratio, and a displacement rate of the plume interfaces relative to the Lagrangian displacement. Advantage of the present model is in evaluating the lateral mixing processes of the plume without invoking an entrainment-detrainment hypothesis. The fractional entrainment-detrainment rate diagnosed from the present model simulations highly varies both over space and time, suggesting a limitation of applying an entrainment-detrainment hypothesis to unsteady plumes, as in the present case, in which circulations of the plume scale dominates over the turbulent mixing process. Furthermore, when the entrainment-plume hypothesis of Morton et al. is adopted for defining the plume-interface displacement rate, the plume continuously expands with time without reaching equilibrium.

  8. Effect of pH on lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of food waste with different types of inocula.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang C; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2017-01-01

    Effect of acidic pH (4, 5, 6 and uncontrolled) on lactic acid (LA) fermentation from food waste was investigated by batch fermentation experiments using methanogenic sludge, fresh food waste and anaerobic activated sludge as inocula. Results showed that due to the increase of hydrolysis, substrate degradation rate and enzyme activity, the optimal LA concentration and yield were obtained at pH 5, regardless of the inoculum used. The highest LA concentration (28.4g/L) and yield (0.46g/g-TS) were obtained with fresh food waste as inoculum. Moreover, after the substrate was completely utilized, the lactic acid bacteria population sharply decreased, and the LA produced was converted to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at pH 6 within a short period. The VFA components varied with the inoculum supplied. Microbial community analysis using high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that diversity decreased and a high abundance of Lactobacillus (83.4-98.5%) accumulated during fermentation with all inocula.

  9. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  10. El Chichon - Composition of plume gases and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotra, J. P.; Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft measurements were made of trace gases, atmospheric particles, and condensed acid volatiles in the plume of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, in November 1982. Hydrogen sulfide was the primary gaseous sulfur species in the plume at the time of collection. Concentrations of 28 elements were determined by neutron activation analysis of particulate material from the plume. The volatile elements sulfur, chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, antimony, iodine, tungsten, and mercury were enriched relative to bulk pyroclastic material by factors of 60 to 20,000. Arsenic, antimony, and selenium were associated predominantly with small (not greater than 3 micrometer) particles. Calcium and sodium were present almost exclusively on larger particles and aluminum and manganese were bimodally distributed. Ashladen particulate material injected into the stratosphere during the early violent eruptions was enriched by factors of 10 to 30 relative to ash in some of the same elements observed in the quiescent plume.

  11. An Approach to In-Situ Observations of Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W. D.; Lopes, M. C.; Pieri, D. C.; Hall, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Volcanoes have long been recognized as playing a dominant role in the birth, and possibly the death, of biological populations. They are possible sources of primordial gases, provide conditions sufficient for creating amino acids, strongly affect the heat balance in the atmosphere, and have been shown to sustain life (in oceanic vents.) Eruptions can have profound effects on local flora and fauna, and for very large eruptions, may alter global weather patterns and cause entire species to fail. Measurements of particulates, gases, and dynamics within a volcanic plume are critical to understanding both how volcanoes work and how plumes affect populations, environment, and aviation. Volcanic plumes and associated eruption columns are a miasma of toxic gases, corrosive condensates, and abrasive particulates that makes them hazardous to nearby populations and poses a significant risk to all forms of aviation. Plumes also provide a mechanism for sampling the volcanic interior, which, for hydrothermal environments, may host unique biological populations.

  12. El Chichon - Composition of plume gases and particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotra, J. P.; Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.

    1983-12-01

    Aircraft measurements were made of trace gases, atmospheric particles, and condensed acid volatiles in the plume of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, in November 1982. Hydrogen sulfide was the primary gaseous sulfur species in the plume at the time of collection. Concentrations of 28 elements were determined by neutron activation analysis of particulate material from the plume. The volatile elements sulfur, chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, antimony, iodine, tungsten, and mercury were enriched relative to bulk pyroclastic material by factors of 60 to 20,000. Arsenic, antimony, and selenium were associated predominantly with small (not greater than 3 micrometer) particles. Calcium and sodium were present almost exclusively on larger particles and aluminum and manganese were bimodally distributed. Ashladen particulate material injected into the stratosphere during the early violent eruptions was enriched by factors of 10 to 30 relative to ash in some of the same elements observed in the quiescent plume.

  13. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals.

  14. Production of lactic acid from pulp mill solid waste and xylose using Lactobacillus delbrueckii (NRRL B445).

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    2000-01-01

    Using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique, pulp mill solid waste cellulose was converted into glucose using cellulase enzyme and glucose into lactic acid using NRRL B445. SSF experiments were conducted at various pH levels, temperatures, and nutrient concentrations, and the lactic acid yield ranged from 86 to 97%. The depletion of xylose in SSF was further investigated by inoculating NRRL B445 into a xylose-only medium. On prolonged incubation, depletion of xylose with lactic acid production was observed. An experimental procedure with a nonglucose medium was developed to eliminate the lag phase. From xylose fermentation, Lactobacillus delbrueckii yielded 88-92% lactic acid and 2-12% acetic acid.

  15. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1993-01-01

    Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

  16. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor.

  17. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  18. Production of L- and D-lactic acid from waste Curcuma longa biomass through simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Kim, Jin-Seog; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Kim, Seul Ki; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of Curcuma longa waste biomass obtained after turmeric extraction to L- and D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus coryniformis and Lactobacillus paracasei, respectively, was investigated. This is a rich, starchy, agro-industrial waste with potential for use in industrial applications. After optimizing the fermentation of the biomass by adjusting nitrogen sources, enzyme compositions, nitrogen concentrations, and raw material concentrations, the SSCF process was conducted in a 7-l jar fermentor at 140 g dried material/L. The maximum lactic acid concentration, average productivity, reducing sugar conversion and lactic acid yield were 97.13 g/L, 2.7 g/L/h, 95.99% and 69.38 g/100 g dried material for L-lactic acid production, respectively and 91.61 g/L, 2.08 g/L/h, 90.53% and 65.43 g/100 g dried material for D-lactic acid production, respectively. The simple and efficient process described in this study could be utilized by C. longa residue-based lactic acid industries without requiring the alteration of plant equipment.

  19. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis.

  1. Screening for perfluoroalkyl acids in consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    PubMed

    Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Vojta, Šimon; Komprdová, Klára; Klánová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of important chemical compounds with unique and useful physico-chemical properties, widely produced and used in many applications. However, due to the toxicity, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential of certain PFASs, they are of significant concern to scientists and policy makers. To assess human exposure to PFASs, it is necessary to understand the concentrations of these emerging contaminants in our environment, and particularly environments where urban population spend most of their time, i.e. buildings and vehicles. A total of 126 samples of building materials, consumer products, car interior materials and wastes were therefore analyzed for their content of key PFASs - 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). At least one of the target PFAAs was detected in 88% of all samples. The highest concentration of Σ15PFAAs was found in textile materials (77.61 μg kg(-1)), as expected, since specific PFAAs are known to be used for textile treatment during processing. Surprisingly, PFAAs were also detected in all analyzed composite wood building materials, which were dominated by perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with 5-8 carbons in the chain (Σ4PFCAs up to 32.9 μg kg(-1)). These materials are currently widely used for building refurbishment, and this is the first study to find evidence of the presence of specific PFASs in composite wood materials. Thus, in addition to consumer products treated with PFASs, materials used in the construction of houses, schools and office buildings may also play an important role in human exposure to PFASs.

  2. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C.

  3. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid determination in waste water using a reversible reagentless biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Vanesa; de Marcos, Susana; Galbán, Javier

    2007-02-05

    During the reversible reaction between peroxidase (HRP) and peroxides, several peroxidase intermediate species, showing different molecular absorption spectra, are formed which can be used for their determination. On this basis, a reversible reagentless optical biosensor based on HRP for hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid determinations has been developed. The biosensor (which can be used for at least 3 months and/or more than 200 measurements) is prepared by HRP entrapment in a polyacrylamide gel matrix. A mathematical model (in which optical, kinetic and transport aspects are considered) relating the measured absorbance with the analyte concentration is also presented. Both peroxides show similar responses in the sensor film. Under the recommended working conditions, the biosensor shows linear response ranges from 6x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-4) M using FIA mode, and from 2x10(-7) to 1.5x10(-5) M using continuous mode for both peroxides; the precision, expressed as R.S.D., is about 4%. This biosensor has been applied for peroxide determination in waste water samples previously treated with peroxides.

  5. Effect of inoculating microbes in municipal solid waste composting on characteristics of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zimin; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Shiping; Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Youhai

    2007-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contains a significant amount of humic substances. In this study, the compost consisted of residual MSW with the metal, plastic and glass removed. In order to enhance degradation processes and the degree of composting humification, complex microorganisms (Bacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri and Candida rugopelliculosa) and ligno-cellulolytic (Trichoderma and White-rot fungi) microorganisms were respectively inoculated in the composting process. During the MSW composting, humic acid (HA) was extracted and purified. Elements (C, N, H, O) and spectroscopic characteristics of the HA were determined using elementary analyzer, UV, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements analysis, UV, FTIR and fluorescence spectra all led to the same conclusion, that is inoculations with microbes led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control process (CK) with no inoculation microbes. This indicated that inoculation with microbes in composting would improve the degree humification and maturation processes, in the following order: lingo-cellulolytic>complex microorganisms>CK. And mixed inoculation of MSW with complex microorganisms and lingo-cellulolytic during composting gave a greater degree of HA aromatization than inoculation with complex microorganisms or lingo-cellulolytic alone. But comparing with the HA of soil, the HA of MSW compost revealed a lower degree of aromatization.

  6. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method.

  7. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  8. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  9. Improved production of propionic acid driven by hydrolyzed liquid containing high concentration of l-lactic acid from co-fermentation of food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Sizhou; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improved production propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acid (VFA) from high concentration (Cs) of food waste and waste activated sludge (WAS) via lactic acid pathway by using of Propionibacterium acidipropionici. It was observed that production of l-lactate overwhelmed to d-lactate at first stage, which improved from 3.21 to 35.45gCOD/L with increase of substrate Cs. However, kinetic model analysis indicated that P. acidipropionici growth rate μmax was decreased with increase of l-lactate concentration, which explained second stage free cell fermentation of propionic acid was inhibited when fed by first stage liquid from R-40, R-55 and R-70. Then, the fibrous bed bioreactor was employed to eliminate the feed inhibition. The maximal percentage of propionic acid (68.3%) and production (16.31gCOD/L) was obtained by feeding liquid of R-55, which was improved by 3.33 folds compared to the free cell fermentation.

  10. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  11. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  12. Effect of phosphoric acid as a catalyst on the hydrothermal pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Kun; Yin, Jun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Xiaoqin

    2016-05-01

    The hydrothermal method was applied to food waste (FW) pretreatment with phosphoric acid as a catalyst. The content of soluble substances such as protein and carbohydrate in the FW increased after the hydrothermal pretreatment with phosphoric acid addition (⩽5%). The SCOD approached approximately 29.0g/L in 5% phosphoric acid group, which is almost 65% more than the original FW. The hydrothermal condition was 160°C for 10min, which means that at least 40% of energy and 60% of reaction time were saved to achieve the expected pretreatment effect. Subsequent fermentation tests showed that the optimal dosage of phosphoric acid was 3% with a VFA yield of 0.763g/gVSremoval, but the increase in salinity caused by phosphoric acid could adversely affect the acidogenesis. With an increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid, among the VFAs, the percentage of propionic acid decreased and that of butyric acid increased. The PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the microbial diversity could decrease with excessive phosphoric acid, which resulted in a low VFA yield.

  13. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  14. [Effect of pH and fermentation time on yield and optical purity of lactic acid from kitchen wastes fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2007-04-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to analyze the effect of pH and fermentation time on the yield of total lactic acid and the distribution of L- and D-lactic acid among total lactic acid during the non-sterilized fermentation of kitchen wastes. The results show that the concentration of reduced sugar (calculated as organic carbon) is low, and its concentration was higher at neutral and alkali conditions (pH 6 - 8) than at acidic conditions (non-controlled pH and pH = 5). The maximum total lactic acid production rate and yield is 0.59 g x (L x h)(-1) and 0.62 g per gram VS at pH 7, respectively. The proportion of lactic acid (calculated as organic carbon) among the TOC reaches 78% and 89% at controlled pH 7 and 8, respectively. The L-lactic acid is the predominant isomer form at pH 8. Lactic acid concentration depends on pH, fermentation time and interaction from the response surface analysis. pH and fermentation time have a significant effect on the optical purity of lactic acid. At acidic conditions, the ratio of L-lactic acid to the total lactic acid increases with the fermentation time before 120 h, and the ratio reaches 0.9 at 120 h. At alkaline conditions, the ratio keeps at above 0.86 in the whole experimental fermentation time and reachs the maximum value (0.93) at 48 h. It decreases with fermentation time at pH 7. To obtain high lactic acid yield and optical purity simultaneously, it is suggested that pH should be contralled at 8.

  15. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds.

  16. Optical characterization of water masses within the Columbia River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2012-11-01

    The Columbia River plume (CRP) is a buoyant plume that influences the Oregon and Washington shelf with the delivery of freshwater, silicic acid, trace metals, and particulate and dissolved organic matter. The highly dynamic plume contains submesoscale features that have an impact on the chemistry, biology, and transport of water and material offshore. Bio-optical classification of the larger plume water mass has confirmed seasonal and annual flow patterns but has not described the internal structure of the plume in a biogeochemically relevant way, as there were no in situ data to validate classification. The objectives of this study were to define water types statistically within the CRP using in situ measurements of biogeochemically and bio-optically relevant variables, to build a training data set from these water types, and to apply this training data set to 250 m resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua imagery from an oceanographically downwelling and upwelling period to predictively discriminate water masses within the plume. This study's classification technique was effective at predicting water types in the CRP. The three-variable input matrix (temperature, salinity, and chlorophyllafluorescence) performed better than the two-variable input matrix (temperature and salinity) at distinguishing fine-scale structure within the plume at the river mouth. Retentive features such as the plume bulge and eddies were observed at the river mouth and on the Washington shelf. This classification approach was limited to the available continuous variables measured by shipboard, mooring, and satellite sensors. Two new classification methods are proposed that build on the framework of the classifier described here.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  18. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M E; Scheele, R D; Tingey, J M

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected.

  20. The use of drilling solid waste as amendment of acid-sulphate soils of the Orinoco Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, P.; Urich, J.; Gonzalez, V.

    1996-12-31

    The Venezuelan oil industry has begun an exploration and drilling program in the Orinoco Delta, and an intensive research is executed about the feasibility of landspreading as an option to dispose water based drilling wastes (DW) to avoid the contamination of water bodies. The original fluvial marine seasonal floodplain nearby Boca de Uracoa town (9{degrees}N, 62{degrees}, 21{degrees} W), was modified after the closure of Manamo distributary, which led to the transformation of the original substrate with high pyrite contain, to acid-sulphate soils. Greenhouse experiments were carried out applying Drilling Waste (DW) equivalent doses of 0, 200, 500, 1000 and 1500 m3/ha to an acid-sulphate soil, using as test plant Zea mays var. PB-8. The results show that the elevated pH of DW (pH of 9.7) neutralizes the very acidic reaction of the acid-sulphate soils (pH 2.85) which is reflected on the higher production of biomass obtained with DW equivalent doses over 500 m3/ha. The Ba content in aerial biomass was below 0.2 {mu}g/g in all treatments, while Pb and Zn content were depleted by the parallel application of Phosphoric rock (PR). Concentrations of these elements in the soil equilibrium solution, shows very low leaching and low availability for vegetation.

  1. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  2. Stimulating short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge by nano zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Naidong; Wang, Dongbo

    2014-10-10

    An efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding nano zero-valent iron into anaerobic fermentation systems to remarkably stimulate the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from waste activated sludge via accelerating the solubilization and hydrolysis processes has been developed. In the presence of nano zero-valent iron, not only the short-chain fatty acids production was significantly improved, but also the fermentation time for maximal short-chain fatty acids was shortened compared with those in the absence of nano zero-valent iron. Mechanism investigations showed that the solubilization of sludge, hydrolysis of solubilized substances and acidification of hydrolyzed products were all enhanced by addition of nano zero-valent iron. Also, the general microbial activity of anaerobes and relative activities of key enzymes with hydrolysis and acidification of organic matters were improved than those in the control. 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis suggested that the abundance of bacteria responsible for waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids production was greatly enhanced due to nano zero-valent iron addition.

  3. COMPARING AND LINKING PLUMES ACROSS MODELING APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    River plumes carry many pollutants, including microorganisms, into lakes and the coastal ocean. The physical scales of many stream and river plumes often lie between the scales for mixing zone plume models, such as the EPA Visual Plumes model, and larger-sized grid scales for re...

  4. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  5. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, José Miguel

    2010-05-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO(2) by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L(-1), iron 348 mg L(-1)) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 Ls(-1) for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO(2) and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  6. Electrical Charging of Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Wilson, L.; Lane, S. J.; Gilbert, J. S.; Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Martin, R. S.

    2008-06-01

    Many explosive terrestrial volcanic eruptions are accompanied by lightning and other atmospheric electrical phenomena. The plumes produced generate large perturbations in the surface atmospheric electric potential gradient and high charge densities have been measured on falling volcanic ash particles. The complex nature of volcanic plumes (which contain gases, solid particles, and liquid drops) provides several possible charging mechanisms. For plumes rich in solid silicate particles, fractoemission (the ejection of ions and atomic particles during fracture events) is probably the dominant source of charge generation. In other plumes, such as those created when lava enters the sea, different mechanisms, such as boiling, may be important. Further charging mechanisms may also subsequently operate, downwind of the vent. Other solar system bodies also show evidence for volcanism, with activity ongoing on Io. Consequently, volcanic electrification under different planetary scenarios (on Venus, Mars, Io, Moon, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Triton) is also discussed.

  7. Electrical Charging of Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Wilson, L.; Lane, S. J.; Gilbert, J. S.; Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Martin, R. S.

    Many explosive terrestrial volcanic eruptions are accompanied by lightning and other atmospheric electrical phenomena. The plumes produced generate large perturbations in the surface atmospheric electric potential gradient and high charge densities have been measured on falling volcanic ash particles. The complex nature of volcanic plumes (which contain gases, solid particles, and liquid drops) provides several possible charging mechanisms. For plumes rich in solid silicate particles, fractoemission (the ejection of ions and atomic particles during fracture events) is probably the dominant source of charge generation. In other plumes, such as those created when lava enters the sea, different mechanisms, such as boiling, may be important. Further charging mechanisms may also subsequently operate, downwind of the vent. Other solar system bodies also show evidence for volcanism, with activity ongoing on Io. Consequently, volcanic electrification under different planetary scenarios (on Venus, Mars, Io, Moon, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Triton) is also discussed.

  8. Collapsing plumes and resurrecting fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bremer, Ton; Hunt, Gary

    2012-11-01

    We explore the range of behaviour predicted for steady plumes and fountains that undergo an increase or decrease in buoyancy which arise due to phase changes or chemical reactions. We model these changes in the simplest possible way by assuming a quadratic relationship between the density and the temperature of the fluid. We thereby extend the model of Caulfield & Woods (`95) to include the most recent developments in the literature on steady releases of buoyancy emitted vertically from horizontal area sources in unconfined quiescent environments of uniform density based on the plume model of Morton, Taylor & Turner (`56). We provide closed-form solutions and identify four classes of solution: collapsing plumes, resurrecting fountains, plumes with enhanced buoyancy and fountains with enhanced negative buoyancy. We provide criteria for each category of behaviour in terms of the source-value of two non-dimensional quantities: the Richardson number and a temperature parameter.

  9. Characterization of Jamaican agro-industrial wastes. Part I: characterization of amino acids using HPLC: pre-column derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Bailey-Shaw, Y A; Golden, K D; Pearson, A G M; Porter, R B R

    2009-09-01

    Jamaican agro-industries generate large quantities of wastes, which are either discarded or under-utilized. In order to evaluate the possible utilization of these wastes, it is necessary that the profiles of the major biochemical groups be developed. This paper describes the determination of the amino acid composition of coffee, citrus, and rum distillery wastes using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Acid hydrolysates of the wastes are derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate. They are analyzed as their phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives and determined quantitatively using norleucine as the internal standard. The presence of all the 17 amino acids investigated, nine of which include those essential for animal nutrition, are observed in the samples investigated, suggesting a high quality of protein with implications in the formulation of animal feeds.

  10. Extractive separation and determination of arsenic at different valences in industrial solutions and sulfuric acid production waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Minasyan, K.V.; Vrtanesyan, S.G.; Badalyan, M.A.

    1986-12-01

    Wash towers of sulfuric acid production divisions of non-ferrous metallurgy plants contain sulfated solutions and waste waters with arsenic contents over a wide range of concentrations (1-20 g/liter). These solutions also contain large amounts of iron, copper, zinc, selenium, tellurium, and other impurities. Monitoring arsenic removal from the solutions requires rapid and accurate methods of determining not only the total arsenic content but also its valence state. In this paper, the authors report the quantitative extractive separation of arsenic(III) from sulfuric acid solutions with toluene (or benzene) in the presence of chlorides. The technique is intended to be a preliminary step in developing a method for separately determining tri- and pentavalent arsenic in complex sulfuric acid solutions.

  11. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  12. Synthesis of caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid molecularly imprinted polymers and their application for the selective extraction of polyphenols from olive mill waste waters.

    PubMed

    Michailof, Chrysa; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Panayiotou, Costas

    2008-02-22

    Using caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid as templates, two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared that were used for isolation of polyphenols from olive mill waste water samples (OMWWs) without previous pre-treatment. For the preparation of the caffeic acid MIPs 4-vinylpyridine, allylurea, allylaniline and methacrylic acid were tested as functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EDMA), pentaerythritol trimethylacrylate (PETRA) and divinylbenzene 80 (DVB80) as cross-linkers and tetrahydrofuran as porogen. For p-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-vinylpyridine, allylurea and allylaniline were tested as functional monomers, EDMA and PETRA as cross-linkers and acetonitrile as porogen. The performance of the synthesized polymers was evaluated against seven structurally related compounds by means of polymer-based HPLC. The two polymers that presented the most interesting properties were further evaluated by batch rebinding and from the derived isotherms their capacity and binding strength were determined. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), their ability to recognize and bind the template molecule from an aqueous solution as well as the pH dependence of the binding strength were explored. After establishing the best SPE protocol, an aqueous model mixture of compounds and a raw OMWWs sample were loaded on the two best polymers. The result of the consecutive use of the two polymers on the same sample was explored. It was concluded that acidic conditions favour the recognition abilities of both polymers and that they can be used for a quick and efficient isolation of the polyphenol fraction directly from raw OMWW.

  13. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  14. Improved utilization of fish waste by anaerobic digestion following omega-3 fatty acids extraction.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Mbatia, Betty; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-11-15

    Fish waste is a potentially valuable resource from which high-value products can be obtained. Anaerobic digestion of the original fish waste and the fish sludge remaining after enzymatic pre-treatment to extract fish oil and fish protein hydrolysate was evaluated regarding the potential for methane production. The results showed high biodegradability of both fish sludge and fish waste, giving specific methane yields of 742 and 828 m(3)CH(4)/tons VS added, respectively. However, chemical analysis showed high concentrations of light metals which, together with high fat and protein contents, could be inhibitory to methanogenic bacteria. The feasibility of co-digesting the fish sludge with a carbohydrate-rich residue from crop production was thus investigated, and a full-scale process outlined for converting odorous fish waste to useful products.

  15. Active Volcanic Plumes on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This color image, acquired during Galileo's ninth orbit around Jupiter, shows two volcanic plumes on Io. One plume was captured on the bright limb or edge of the moon (see inset at upper right), erupting over a caldera (volcanic depression) named Pillan Patera after a South American god of thunder, fire and volcanoes. The plume seen by Galileo is 140 kilometers (86 miles) high and was also detected by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Galileo spacecraft will pass almost directly over Pillan Patera in 1999 at a range of only 600 kilometers (373 miles).

    The second plume, seen near the terminator (boundary between day and night), is called Prometheus after the Greek fire god (see inset at lower right). The shadow of the 75-kilometer (45- mile) high airborne plume can be seen extending to the right of the eruption vent. The vent is near the center of the bright and dark rings. Plumes on Io have a blue color, so the plume shadow is reddish. The Prometheus plume can be seen in every Galileo image with the appropriate geometry, as well as every such Voyager image acquired in 1979. It is possible that this plume has been continuously active for more than 18 years. In contrast, a plume has never been seen at Pillan Patera prior to the recent Galileo and Hubble Space Telescope images.

    North is toward the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) per picture element. This composite uses images taken with the green, violet and near infrared filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The images were obtained on June 28, 1997, at a range of more than 600,000 kilometers (372,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page

  16. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  17. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments

  18. Enhanced production of short-chain fatty acid from food waste stimulated by alkyl polyglycosides and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Luo, Kun; Zhong, Yu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the valuable products derived from the anaerobic fermentation of organic solid waste. However, SCFAs yield was limited by the worse solubilization and hydrolysis of particulate organic matter, and rapid consumption of organic acid by methanogens. In this study, an efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding biosurfactant alkyl polyglycosides (APG) into anaerobic fermentation system, was applied to enhance SCFAs production from food waste. Experimental results showed that APG not only greatly improved SCFAs production but also shortened the fermentation time for the maximum SCFAs accumulation. The SCFAs yield at optimal APG dosage 0.2g/g TS (total solid) reached 37.2g/L, which was 3.1-fold of that in blank. Meanwhile, the time to accumulate the maximum SCFAs in the presence of APG was shortened from day 14 to day 6. The activities of key enzymes such as hydrolytic and acid-forming enzymes were greatly promoted due to the presence of APG. These results demonstrated that the enhanced mechanism of SCFAs production should be attributed to the acceleration of solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancement of acidification and inhibition of methanogenesis by APG.

  19. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product.

  20. Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-15

    The occurrence of 21 acidic pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs, and personal care products (PPCPs) in waste, surface and drinking water and in sediments of the Turia River Basin (Valencia, Spain) was studied. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of these PPCPs with electrospray (ESI) in negative ionization (NI) mode. Ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase improved ionization efficiency by an average increase in peak area of 5 compared to ammonium formate or formic acid. All studied compounds were detected and their concentration was waste water>surface water>drinking water. PPCPs were in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) influents up to 7.26μgL(-1), dominated by ibuprofen, naproxen and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCOOH). WWTPs were highly effective in removing most of them, with an average removal rate of >90%. PPCPs were still detected in effluents in the 6.72-940ngL(-1) range, with the THCOOH, triclocarban, gemfibrozil and diclofenac as most prevalent. Similarly, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and propylparaben were detected quite frequently from the low ngL(-1) range to 7μgL(-1) in the surface waters of Turia River. Ibuprofen, methylparaben, salicylic acid and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were at concentrations up to 0.85ngg(-1) d.w. in sediments. The discharge of WWTP as well as of non-treated waters to this river is a likely explanation for the significant amount of PPCPs detected in surface waters and sediments. Mineral and tap waters also presented significant amounts (approx. 100ngL(-1)) of ibuprofen, naproxen, propylparaben and butylparaben. The occurrence at trace levels of several PPCPs in drinking water raises concerns about possible implications for human health.

  1. Plumes, orogenesis, and supercontinental fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.; Lawver, L. A.; Murphy, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    A time-space relationship between large igneous provinces (LIPS), present day hot spots, and the fragmentation of Pangea has been documented over several decades, but the cause of fragmentation has remained elusive. LIPS are regarded either as the result of impingement of a mantle plume on the base of the lithosphere, or as the initial products of adiabatic decompression melting of anomalously hot mantle. Do LIPS therefore constitute evidence of an active role for plumes from the deep mantle in supercontinental fragmentation, or are they merely the first indications of a large-scale but near-surface tectonic process? Two long recognized and enigmatic orogenic events may offer a solution to this geologically important 'chicken or egg' conundrum. The reconstructed early Mesozoic Gondwanide fold belt of South America, southern Africa, and Antarctica, could have resulted from 'plume-modified orogeny', flattening of a downgoing lithospheric slab due to the buoyancy of a plume rising beneath a continental margin subduction zone. If so, the ˜180 Ma Karroo and Ferrar LIPS associated with the opening of the ocean basin between East and West Gondwanaland at ˜165 Ma resulted from impingement of this plume and are unrelated to the thermal insulation of the shallow mantle beneath Gondwanaland. It would then follow that the plume itself played an active, possibly critical, role in the initial breakup of the supercontinent. The Late Paleozoic 'Ancestral Rockies' deformation in the southwestern United States could be yet another example of orogeny driven by a plume that initiated the break-up of Pangea approximately 15 Myr earlier in the Central Atlantic region.

  2. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  3. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  4. Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 2. Mass balance and biodegradation indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.; Devlin, John F.; Butler, Barbara J.

    1999-10-01

    A source of coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. A mass balance indicated that ongoing transformation occurred for seven study compounds. Phenol migrated as a discrete slug plume and almost completely disappeared after 2 years, after being completely leached from the source early in the study. The m-xylene plume migrated outward to a maximum distance at approximately 2 years, and then receded back towards the source as the rate of mass flux out of the source decreased to below the overall rate of plume transformation. Carbazole showed similar behaviour, although the reversal in plume development occurred more slowly. The dibenzofuran plume remained relatively constant in extent and mass over the last 2 years of monitoring, despite constant source input over this period, providing evidence that the dibenzofuran plume was at steady state. Meanwhile, the naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene plumes continued to advance and increase in mass over the observation period, although at a decreasing rate. The phenanthrene plume was also subject to transformation, although measurement of the rate was less conclusive due to the higher proportion of sorbed mass for this compound. Three lines of evidence are presented to evaluate whether the observed plume mass loss was due to microbial biodegradation. Measurement of redox-sensitive parameters in the vicinity of the plume showed the types of changes that would be expected to occur due to plume biodegradation: dissolved oxygen and SO 42- decreased in groundwater within the plume while significant increases were noted for Fe 2+, Mn 2+ and methane. Further evidence that plume mass loss was microbially-mediated was provided by the accumulation of aromatic acids within the plume. Measurements of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in aquifer material indicated that microbial biomass and turnover rate were greater within the plume

  5. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  6. Bromine oxidation in volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowski, N.; Vogel, L.; Kern, C.; Giuffrida, G. B.; Delgado-Granados, H.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanoes are very strong sources of hydrogen, carbon, sulphur and halogen compounds, as well as of particles. Some gases only behave as passive tracers; others interact and affect the formation, growth or chemical characteristics of aerosol particles in a complex system. Recent measurements of halogen radicals in volcanic plumes showed that volcanic plumes are chemically very active. Kinetic considerations (Oppenheimer et al., 2006) and detailed calculations with an atmospheric chemistry model (Bobrowski et al., 2007) explain the halogen chemistry mainly with photochemical reactions involving both, the gas and particle phase. They reproduce the measured gas-phase concentrations quite well. However, temporal evolution of BrO in the early plume is not well described in the models. The understanding of chemical kinetics of BrO formation is still not complete. Recent measurement results (Vogel et al., 2008) do not fit with initial model calculation. The new data lead to the suggestion that the BrO formation could be much faster during the first few minutes after emission than initially suggested. Old and recent data sets will be confronted, compared and possible causes of their differences discussed. The measurements considered were taken at Mt. Etna (Italy), Villarica (Chile), and Popocatépetl (Mexico) volcanoes. Additionally, at Mt Etna the emission consists of up to four individual plumes from four summit craters. The differences between the individual plumes have been investigated during the last years and will be presented.

  7. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  8. Determination of the amount of protein and amino acids extracted from the microbial protein (SCP) of lignocellulosic wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A R; Ghoorchian, H; Hajihosaini, R; Khanifar, J

    2010-04-15

    With the increasing world population, the use of lignocellulosic wastes for production of microbial protein as animal feed becomes a necessity of our time. In order to verify the most productive protein, the amount of protein and amino acid extracted from Single Cell Protein (SCP) needs to be determined by an effective method. In this study Microbial protein was produced by treatment of wheat straw with Pleurotus florida; with heat at 100 degrees C and NaOH 2% as substrate by solid state fermentation. Concentration of protein was 62.8% per 100 g of dried microbial protein. Then the extracted protein hydrolyzed with HCl 6 Normal for 48 h under 110 degrees C temperature condition. Then the amino acids analyzed by using A-200 Amino Nova analyzer. The results of this study indicated that the ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids was 65.6%. The concentration of essnyial amino acids were: Lysine = 9.5, histidine = 19.8, threonine = 0.6, valine = 6.6, methionine = 2.1, isoleucine = 7.3, leucine = 6.8, phenylalanine = 4.3 and arginine = 8.3 g/100 g of extracted protein that indicated the obtained microbial protein can be a good or suitable substitute in the food program of animal feed.

  9. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  10. Leaching of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash by means of acid extraction followed by adsorption on orange waste gel.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Biplob Kumar; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Keisuke; Kawakita, Hidetaka

    2009-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration have a high phosphorus content, approximately 8% (W/W), which indicates a potential resource of the limiting nutrient. Incineration of sewage sludge with subsequent recovery of phosphorus is a relatively new sludge treatment technique. In this article, the leaching of phosphorus by using sulfuric acid as well as hydrochloric acid by means of several batch experiments was presented. At the same time a selective recovery of phosphorus by adsorption was also discussed. The effects of acid concentration, temperature and time on extraction were studied. The phosphorus leaching increased with the increase in acid concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the complete leaching of phosphorus took place in less than 4 h. Selective adsorption of phosphorus by using orange waste gel provided a hint for recovery of this natural resource, which eventually could meet the ever-increasing requirement for phosphorus. The overall results indicated that the incinerated sewage sludge ash can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorus and thus can be considered a potentially renewable source of phosphorus.

  11. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching--a response surface modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Rath, Swagat S; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P S; Roy Chaudhury, G; Mishra, B K

    2012-03-01

    The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  12. MERCURY-NITRITE-RHODIUM-RUTHENIUM INTERACTIONS IN NOBLE METAL CATALYZED HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM FORMIC ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136C

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Chemical pre-treatment of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is performed to prepare the waste for vitrification into a stable waste glass form. During pre-treatment, compounds in the waste become catalytically active. Mercury, rhodium, and palladium become active for nitrite destruction by formic acid, while rhodium and ruthenium become active for catalytic conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Nitrite ion is present during the maximum activity of rhodium, but is consumed prior to the activation of ruthenium. Catalytic hydrogen generation during pre-treatment can exceed radiolytic hydrogen generation by several orders of magnitude. Palladium and mercury impact the maximum catalytic hydrogen generation rates of rhodium and ruthenium by altering the kinetics of nitrite ion decomposition. New data are presented that illustrate the interactions of these various species.

  13. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  14. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-05-01

    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition.

  15. Noble metal-catalyzed homogeneous and heterogeneous processes in treating simulated nuclear waste media with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-09-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed containing the major non-radioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO{sub 3}{sup 2}-, NO{sub 3}-, and NO{sub 2}- were used to study reactions of formic acid at 90{degrees}C catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Such reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO, and N{sub 2}O in the gas phase and a microammonia electrode to analyze the NH{sub 4}+/NH{sub 3} in the liquid phase as a function of time. The following reactions have been studied in these systems since they are undesirable side reactions in nuclear waste processing: (1) Decomposition of formic acid to CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2} is undesirable because of the potential fire and explosion hazard of H{sub 2}. Rhodium, which was introduced as soluble RhCl{sub 3}-3H{sub 2}O, was found to be the most active catalyst for H{sub 2} generation from formic acid above {approximately} 80{degrees}C in the presence of nitrite ion. The H{sub 2} production rate has an approximate pseudo first-order dependence on the Rh concentration, (2) Generation of NH{sub 3} from the formic acid reduction of nitrate and/or nitrite is undesirable because of a possible explosion hazard from NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} accumulation in a waste processing plant off-gas system. The Rh-catalyzed reduction of nitrogen-oxygen compounds to ammonia by formic acid was found to exhibit the following features: (a) Nitrate rather than nitrite is the principal source of NH{sub 3}. (b) Ammonia production occurs at the expense of hydrogen production. (c) Supported rhodium metal catalysts are more active than rhodium in any other form, suggesting that ammonia production involves heterogeneous rather than homogeneous catalysis.

  16. Generation of secondary pollutants in a power plant plume: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hov, Oystein; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    A plume model is developed where chemistry and meteorology of the boundary layer interact with a power plant plume which is given a spatial resolution in the cross wind direction. Ozone bulges are formed after 2 1/2-3 h or more, with excess ozone 10-20 % above ambient levels in fair weather during summer for a plume comparable to the St. Louis Labadie power plant plume. The chemical activity peaks first on the plume fringes, later close to the central axis. Hydroxyl exceeds 13 × 10 6 molecules cm -3 within the plume after a few hours and the corresponding SO 2 to sulphate conversion rate ranges between 1 and 5%h -1. Nitric acid formation exceeds sulphuric acid formation during developed stages of the plume. Ambient emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons representative for heavily populated areas tend to reduce the relative size of the ozone bulge compared to cases with lower emissions, and medium size power plants give rise to more excess ozone than larger plants. The ozone bulge disappears when the solar radiation is substantially reduced. The fate of the HSO x radicals and its involvement in odd hydrogen regeneration is essential in the understanding of the plume chemistry.

  17. Plume base flow simulation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B. B.; Wallace, R. O.; Sims, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A combined analytical/empirical approach was studied in an effort to define the plume simulation parameters for base flow. For design purposes, rocket exhaust simulation (i.e., plume simulation) is determined by wind tunnel testing. Cold gas testing was concluded to be a cost and schedule effective data base of substantial scope. The results fell short of the target, although work conducted was conclusive and advanced the state of the art. Comparisons of wind tunnel predictions with Space Transportation System (STS) flight data showed considerable differences. However, a review of the technology program data base has yielded an additional parameter that may correlate flight and cold gas test data. Data from the plume technology program and the NASA test flights are presented to substantiate the proposed simulation parameters.

  18. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  19. IASI measurements of reactive trace species in biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coheur, P.-F.; Clarisse, L.; Turquety, S.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work presents observations of a series of short-lived species in biomass burning plumes from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), launched onboard the MetOp-A platform in October 2006. The strong fires that have occurred in the Mediterranean Basin - and particularly Greece - in August 2007, and those in Southern Siberia and Eastern Mongolia in the early spring of 2008 are selected to support the analyses. We show that the IASI infrared spectra in these fire plumes contain distinctive signatures of ammonia (NH3), ethene (C2H4), methanol (CH3OH) and formic acid (HCOOH) in the atmospheric window between 800 and 1200 cm-1, with some noticeable differences between the plumes. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3COOONO2, abbreviated as PAN) was also observed with good confidence in some plumes and a tentative assignment of a broadband absorption spectral feature to acetic acid (CH3COOH) is made. For several of these species these are the first reported measurements made from space in nadir geometry. The IASI measurements are analyzed for plume height and concentration distributions of NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. The Greek fires are studied in greater detail for the days associated with the largest emissions. In addition to providing information on the spatial extent of the plume, the IASI retrievals allow an estimate of the total mass emissions for NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. Enhancement ratios are calculated for the latter relative to carbon monoxide (CO), giving insight in the chemical processes occurring during the transport, the first day after the emission.

  20. Simulation of Europa's water plume .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Cremonese, G.; Schneider, N. M.; Plainaki, C.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Plumes on Europa would be extremely interesting science and mission targets, particularly due to the unique opportunity to obtain direct information on the subsurface composition, thereby addressing Europa's potential habitability. The existence of water plume on the Jupiter's moon Europa has been long speculated until the recent discover. HST imaged surpluses of hydrogen Lyman alpha and oxygen emissions above the southern hemisphere in December 2012 that are consistent with two 200 km high plumes of water vapor (Roth et al. 2013). In previous works ballistic cryovolcanism has been considered and modeled as a possible mechanism for the formation of low-albedo features on Europa's surface (Fagents et al. 2000). Our simulation agrees with the model of Fagents et al. (2000) and consists of icy particles that follow ballistic trajectories. The goal of such an analysis is to define the height, the distribution and the extension of the icy particles falling on the moon's surface as well as the thickness of the deposited layer. We expect to observe high albedo regions in contrast with the background albedo of Europa surface since we consider that material falling after a cryovolcanic plume consists of snow. In order to understand if this phenomenon is detectable we convert the particles deposit in a pixel image of albedo data. We consider also the limb view of the plume because, even if this detection requires optimal viewing geometry, it is easier detectable in principle against sky. Furthermore, we are studying the loss rates due to impact electron dissociation and ionization to understand how these reactions decrease the intensity of the phenomenon. We expect to obtain constraints on imaging requirements necessary to detect potential plumes that could be useful for ESA's JUICE mission, and in particular for the JANUS camera (Palumbo et al. 2014).

  1. Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

    2007-08-20

    In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology

  2. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis.

  3. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production.

  4. Integrated conversion of food waste diluted with sewage into volatile fatty acids through fermentation and electricity through a fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Arslan, Doga; Van Bogaert, Gilbert; Gallego, Yolanda Alvarez; De Wever, Heleen; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, domestic wastewater was given a second life as dilution medium for concentrated organic waste streams, in particular artificial food waste. A two-step continuous process with first volatile fatty acid (VFA)/hydrogen production and second electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was employed. For primary treatment, bioreactors were optimized to produce hydrogen and VFAs. Hydrolysis of the solids and formation of fermentation products and hydrogen was monitored. In the second step, MFCs were operated batch-wise using the effluent rich in VFAs specifically acetic acid from the continuous reactor of the first step. The combined system was able to reduce the chemical oxygen demand load by 90%. The concentration of VFAs was also monitored regularly in the MFCs and showed a decreasing trend over time. Further, the anode potential changed from -500 to OmV vs. Ag/AgCl when the VFAs (especially acetate) were depleted in the system. On feeding the system again with the effluent, the anode potential recovered back to -500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, the overall aim of converting chemical energy into electrical energy was achieved with a columbic efficiency of 46% generating 65.33 mA/m2 at a specific cell potential of 148 mV.

  5. Geochemical characterization of acid mine drainage from a waste rock pile, Mine Doyon, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, O.; Choquette, M.; Gélinas, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Nicholson, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Water quality in the unsaturated and saturated zones of a waste rock pile containing sulphides was investigated. The main objectives of the project were (1) the evaluation of geochemical trends including the acid mine drainage (AMD)-buffering mechanism and the role of secondary minerals, and (2) the investigation of the use of stable isotopes for the interpretation of physical and geochemical processes in waste rock. Pore water in unsaturated zone was sampled from suction lysimeters and with piezometers in underlying saturated rocks. The investigation revealed strong temporal (dry period vs. recharge period), and spatial (slope vs. central region of pile) variability in the formation of acid mine drainage. The main secondary minerals observed were gypsum and jarosite. There was a higher concentration of gypsum in solid phase at Site TBT than at Site 6, suggesting that part of the gypsum formed at Site 6 in the early stage of AMD has been already dissolved. Formation of secondary minerals contributed to the formation of AMD by opening of foliation planes in waste rock, thus increasing the access of oxidants like O 2 and Fe 3+ to previously encapsulated pyrite. The behavior of several dissolved species such as Mg, Al, and Fe 2+ can be considered as conservative in the leachate. Stable isotopes, deuterium and 18O, indicated internal evaporation within the pile, and were used to trace recharge pulses from snowmelt. Isotope trends for 34S and 18O(SO 4) indicated a lack of sulfate reduction and zones of active oxidation of pyrite, respectively. Results of numerical modeling of pyrite oxidation and gas and water transport were consistent with geochemical and isotopic trends and confirmed zones of high evaporation rate within the rock pile close to the slope. The results indicate that physical and chemical processes within the pile are strongly coupled and cannot be considered separately when oxidation rates are high and influence gas transport as a result of heat

  6. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  7. Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon; Park, Jeung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recovery of metal values from GaN, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) waste of GaN based power device and LED industry is investigated by acidic leaching. Leaching kinetics of gallium rich MOCVD waste is studied and the process is optimized. The gallium rich waste MOCVD dust is characterized by XRD and ICP-AES analysis followed by aqua regia digestion. Different mineral acids are used to find out the best lixiviant for selective leaching of the gallium and indium. Concentrated HCl is relatively better lixiviant having reasonably faster kinetic and better leaching efficiency. Various leaching process parameters like effect of acidity, pulp density, temperature and concentration of catalyst on the leaching efficiency of gallium and indium are investigated. Reasonably, 4 M HCl, a pulp density of 50 g/L, 100 °C and stirring rate of 400 rpm are the effective optimum condition for quantitative leaching of gallium and indium.

  8. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  9. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  10. Thermochemical destruction of asbestos-containing roofing slate and the feasibility of using recycled waste sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seong-Nam; Jeong, Seongkyeong; Lim, Hojoo

    2014-01-30

    In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a thermochemical technique on ∼17% chrysotile-containing roofing sheet or slate (ACS), in which 5N sulfuric acid-digestive destruction was incorporated with 10-24-h heating at 100°C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the polarized light microscopy (PLM) results have clearly shown that raw chrysotile asbestos was converted to non-asbestiform material with no crystallinity by the low temperature thermochemical treatment. As an alternative to the use of pricey sulfuric acid, waste sulfuric acid discharged from a semiconductor manufacturing process was reused for the asbestos-fracturing purpose, and it was found that similar removals could be obtained under the same experimental conditions, promising the practical applicability of thermochemical treatment of ACWs. A thermodynamic understanding based on the extraction rates of magnesium and silica from a chrysotile structure has revealed that the destruction of chrysotile by acid-digestion is greatly influenced by the reaction temperatures, showing a 80.3-fold increase in the reaction rate by raising the temperature by 30-100°C. The overall destruction is dependent upon the breaking-up of the silicon-oxide layer - a rate-limiting step. This study is meaningful in showing that the low temperature thermochemical treatment is feasible as an ACW-treatment method.

  11. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite.

  12. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas II. Biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of two acid resin deposits on the soil microbiota of forest areas by means of biomass, microbial activity-related estimations and simple biological ratios. The determinations carried out included: total DNA yield, basal respiration, intracellular enzyme activities (dehydrogenase and catalase) and extracellular enzyme activities involved in the cycles of C (beta-glucosidase and chitinase), N (protease) and P (acid-phosphatase). The calculated ratios were: total DNA/total N; basal respiration/total DNA; dehydrogenase/total DNA and catalase/total DNA. Total DNA yield was used to estimate soil microbial biomass. Results showed that microbial biomass and activity were severely inhibited in the deposits, whilst resin effects on contaminated zones were variable and site-dependant. Correlation analysis showed no clear effect of contaminants on biomass and activities outside the deposits, but a strong interdependence with natural organic matter related parameters such as total N. In contrast, by using simple ratios we could detect more stressful conditions in terms of organic matter turnover and basal metabolism in contaminated areas compared to their uncontaminated counterparts. These results stress that developed ecosystems such as forests can buffer the effects of pollutants and preserve high functionality via natural attenuation mechanisms, but also that acid resins can be toxic to biological targets negatively affecting soil dynamics. Acid resin deposits can therefore act as contaminant sources adversely altering soil processes and reducing the environmental quality of affected areas despite the solid nature of these wastes.

  13. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  14. Ash iron mobilization in volcanic eruption plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~150 and ~50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (>95% of HCl, 3-20% of SO2 and 12-62% of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1 to 33% of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  16. Smoke Plume Over Eastern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In late May, a massive smoke plume hundreds of kilometers across blew eastward over New Brunswick toward the Atlantic Ocean. On May 26, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image at 11:40 a.m. local time. By the time MODIS took this picture, the smoke appeared to have completely detached itself from the source, a large fire burning in southwestern Quebec, beyond the western edge of this image. In this image, the smoke appears as a gray-beige opaque mass with fuzzy, translucent edges. The plume is thickest in the southwest and diminishes toward the northeast. Just southwest of the plume is a red outline indicating a hotspot an area where MODIS detected anomalously warm surface temperatures, such as those resulting from fires. This hotspot, however, is not the source for this smoke plume. According to a bulletin from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the southwestern Quebec fire was the source. According to reports from the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre on May 29, that fire was estimated at 63,211 hectares (156,197 acres), and it was classified as 'being held.' At the same time, more than 20 wildfires burned in Quebec, news sources reported, and firefighters from other Canadian provinces and the United States had been brought in to provide reinforcements for the area's firefighters.

  17. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-03-11

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume.

  18. Heat sources for mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, C.; Rushmer, T.; Turner, S. P.

    2008-06-01

    Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. This excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either (1) an enrichment of the heat-producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay, (2) material transport from core to mantle (either advective or diffusive), or (3) conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective/diffusive transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g., increased 186Os, 187Os, and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modeling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville, and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 0.9 Mg s-1 (Afar) to 8.7 Mg s-1 (Hawaii), providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat-producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation-corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th, and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g., Hawaii, Iceland, and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than, e.g., Tristan da Cunha, the Canary

  19. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  20. Downwelling wind, tides, and estuarine plume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Huang, Mingfen; Chen, Changsheng; Chen, Yong; Xie, Congbin; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2016-06-01

    The estuarine plume dynamics under a downwelling-favorable wind condition were examined in the windy dry season of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using the PRE primitive-equation Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The wind and tide-driven estuarine circulation had a significant influence on the plume dynamics on both local and remote scales. Specifically, the local effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was similar to the theoretical descriptions of coastal plumes, narrowing the plume width, and setting up a vertically uniform downstream current at the plume edge. Tides tended to reduce these plume responses through local turbulent mixing and advection from upstream regions, resulting in an adjustment of the isohalines in the plume and a weakening of the vertically uniform downstream current. The remote effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was due to the wind-induced estuarine sea surface height (SSH), which strengthened the estuarine circulation and enhanced the plume transport accordingly. Associated with these processes, tide-induced mixing tended to weaken the SSH gradient and thus the estuarine circulation over a remote influence scale. Overall, the typical features of downwelling-favorable wind-driven estuarine plumes revealed in this study enhanced our understanding of the estuarine plume dynamics under downwelling-favorable wind conditions.

  1. Nitrogen conservation and acidity control during food wastes composting through struvite formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Chan, Manting; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2013-11-01

    One of the main problems of food waste composting is the intensive acidification due to initial rapid fermentation that retards decomposition efficiency. Lime addition overcame this problem, but resulted in significant loss of nitrogen as ammonia that reduces the nutrient contents of composts. Therefore, this study investigated the feasibility of struvite formation as a strategy to control pH and reduce nitrogen loss during food waste composting. MgO and K2HPO4 were added to food waste in different molar ratios (P1, 1:1; P2, 1:2), and composted in 20-L composters. Results indicate that K2HPO4 buffered the pH in treatment P2 besides supplementing phosphate into the compost. In P2, organic decomposition reached 64% while the formation of struvite effectively reduced the nitrogen loss from 40.8% to 23.3% during composting. However, electrical conductivity of the compost increased due to the addition of Mg and P salts that requires further investigation to improve this technology.

  2. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1994-10-01

    The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94.

  3. Injection of acidic industrial waste into the Floridan Aquifer near Belle Glade, Florida: upward migration and geochemical interactions, 1973-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    In 1966, a furfural plant at Belle Glade, Florida, began injecting hot, acidic liquid waste into the saline, water-filled lower part of the Floridan aquifer, between the depths of 1 ,495-1,939 feet. The beds above and below the injection zone were subjected to attack by the acid waste. By 1969, effects of the waste were detected in the water of the well monitoring the upper part of the Floridan aquifer at 1,400 feet. The disposal well was deepened late in 1971 to 2,242 feet in an attempt to stop the upward migration of waste. The results of research investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1966-73 indicated that the waste continued to move upward and laterally. This investigated, continued by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973-1975, shows that the remedial actions of repairing the disposal well liner and injecting periodically into the deep monitor well at 2,060 feet failed to contain the wastes within the lower part of the Floridan aquifer. The data collected by the Survey are supported by the owner 's chemical-oxygen-demand and pH determinations. A hydraulic connection between the injection zone and the overlying monitoring zone is implied. Plans call for injecting into deepter strata. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751.

  5. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  6. Ultrasonic recovery of copper and iron through the simultaneous utilization of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) spent acid etching solution and PCB waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang

    2011-01-15

    A method was developed to recover the copper and iron from Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing generated spent acid etching solution and waste sludge with ultrasonic energy at laboratory scale. It demonstrated that copper-containing PCB spent etching solution could be utilized as a leaching solution to leach copper from copper contained PCB waste sludge. It also indicated that lime could be used as an alkaline precipitating agent in this method to precipitate iron from the mixture of acidic PCB spent etching solution and waste sludge. This method provided an effective technique for the recovery of copper and iron through simultaneous use of PCB spent acid solution and waste sludge. The leaching rates of copper and iron enhanced with ultrasound energy were reached at 93.76% and 2.07% respectively and effectively separated copper from iron. Followed by applying lime to precipitate copper from the mixture of leachate and rinsing water produced by the copper and iron separation, about 99.99% and 1.29% of soluble copper and calcium were settled as the solids respectively. Furthermore the settled copper could be made as commercial rate copper. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and temperature. This method provided a simple and reliable technique to recover copper and iron from waste streams generated by PCB manufacturing, and would significantly reduce the cost of chemicals used in the recovery.

  7. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  8. Liquid Booster Module (LBM) plume flowfield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    A complete definition of the LBM plume is important for many Shuttle design criteria. The exhaust plume shape has a significant effect on the vehicle base pressure. The LBM definition is also important to the Shuttle base heating, aerodynamics and the influence of the exhaust plume on the launch stand and environment. For these reasons a knowledge of the LBM plume characteristics is necessary. A definition of the sea level LBM plume as well as at several points along the Shuttle trajectory to LBM, burnout is presented.

  9. Encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste with gelatin and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) as carrier.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y T; Chiu, C P; Chien, J T; Ho, G H; Yang, J; Chen, B H

    2007-06-27

    Tomato pulp waste, a byproduct obtained during the processing of tomato juice, has been shown to be a rich source of lycopene. The objectives of this study were to use gelatin and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) as coating materials for the encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste. Initially, lycopene was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, followed by microencapsulation using an emulsion system consisting of 4.5% gelatin, 10% gamma-PGA, and 4.8% lycopene extract. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the thermal stability of the coating material could be up to 120 degrees C, with a mean particle size of 38.7 microm based on Coulter counter analysis. The total weight of microencapsulated powder was 617 microg with the yield of lycopene being 76.5%, indicating a 23.5% loss during freeze drying. During storage of microencapsulated powder, the concentrations of cis-, trans-, and total lycopene decreased along with increasing time and temperature. A fast release of lycopene in the powder occurred at pH 5.5 and 7.0, while no lycopene was released at pH 2.0 and 3.5.

  10. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Changjun; Zhao, Pinwen; Shi, Lihong; Huang, Shaobing; Luo, Pingya

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 °C and reaction time of 180 min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production.

  11. Chlorpyrifos-methyl solubilisation by humic acids used as bio-surfactants extracted from lignocelluloses and kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Baglieri, Andrea; Tambone, Fulvia; Gennari, Mara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide that can accumulate in soil and become toxic to humans. CLP-m can be removed from soil by its solubilisation using synthetic surfactants. However, synthetic surfactants can accumulate in soil causing contamination phenomena themselves. Bio-surfactants can be used as an alternative to synthetic ones, reducing costs and environmental issues. In this work, humic acid (HA) extracted from raw biomasses, i.e. lignocelluloses (HAL) and lignocelluloses plus kitchen food waste (HALF), corresponding composts (C) (HALC and HALFC) and leonardite (HAc), were tested in comparison with commercial surfactants, i.e. SDS, Tween 20 and DHAB, to solubilize CLP-m. Results obtained indicated that only biomass-derived HA, composted biomass-derived HA, and SDS solubilized CLP-m: SDS = 0.006; HAL = 0.007; HALC = 0.009 g; HALF = 0.025; HALFC = 0.024) (g CLP-m g(-1) surfactant). Lignocelluloses HAs (HAL, HALF) solubilized CLP-m just as well as SDS while lignocellulosic plus kitchen food waste HA (HALF, HALFC) showed a three times higher CLP-m solubilisation capability. This difference was attributed to the higher concentration of alkyl-Carbon that creates strong links with CLP-m in the hydrophobic micelle-core of the surfactants.

  12. Heterogeneity of the electron exchange capacity of kitchen waste compost-derived humic acids based on fluorescence components.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Tan, Wen-Bing; He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Gao, Ru-Tai; Zhang, Hui; Dang, Qiu-Ling; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Composting is widely used for recycling of kitchen waste to improve soil properties, which is mainly attributed to the nutrient and structural functions of compost-derived humic acids (HAs). However, the redox properties of compost-derived HAs are not fully explored. Here, a unique framework is employed to investigate the electron exchange capacity (EEC) of HAs during kitchen waste composting. Most components of compost-derived HAs hold EEC, but nearly two-thirds of them are found to be easily destroyed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and thus result in an EEC lower than the electron - donating capacity in compost-derived HAs. Fortunately, a refractory component also existed within compost-derived HAs and could serve as a stable and effective electron shuttle to promote the MR-1 involved in Fe(III) reduction, and its EEC was significantly correlated with the aromaticity and the amount of quinones. Nevertheless, with the increase of composting time, the EEC of the refractory component did not show an increasing trend. These results implied that there was an optimal composting time to maximize the production of HAs with more refractory and redox molecules. Recognition of the heterogeneity of EEC of the compost-derived HAs enables an efficient utilization of the composts for a variety of environmental applications. Graphical abstract Microbial reduction of compost-derived HAs.

  13. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on β-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Si; Liu, Guangmin; Wu, Shuyan; Wan, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β-CD addition (0.2 g/g TS) performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β-CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18-3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences.

  14. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on β-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Si; Wu, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β-CD addition (0.2 g/g TS) performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β-CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18–3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences. PMID:28096735

  15. Efficient decolorization and deproteinization using uniform polymer microspheres in the succinic acid biorefinery from bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Lei, Jiandu; Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Juan; Xing, Jianmin; Gao, Fei; Gong, Fangling; Yan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dan; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2013-05-01

    Bio-waste cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks were converted into succinic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. After 54 h SSF at 40 °C and pH 7.0, the production of succinic acid was 63 g/L, with 1.17 g/L/h productivity and 64% conversion yield. After SSF, a simple method for the decolorization and deproteinization of crude SSF broth was developed through adsorption tests of polystyrene (PSt) microspheres. Under optimized conditions (5% PSt loading (w/v), pH 4.0, 60 °C and adsorption time of 40 min), the ratios of decolorization, deproteinization and succinic acid loss ratios were 96.6, 84.5 and 4.1%, respectively. The method developed will provide a potential approach for large-scale production of succinic acid from the biomass waste.

  16. Acidogenic fermentation characteristics of different types of protein-rich substrates in food waste to produce volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dongsheng; Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Shentu, Jiali; Chen, Ting

    2017-03-01

    In this study, tofu and egg white, representing typical protein-rich substrates in food waste based on vegetable and animal protein, respectively, were investigated for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by acidogenic fermentation. VFA production, composition, conversion pathways and microbial communities in acidogenesis from tofu and egg white with and without hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment were compared. The results showed HT pretreatment could improve the VFA production of tofu but not for egg white. The optimum VFA yields were 0.46g/gVS (tofu with HT) and 0.26g/gVS (egg white without HT), respectively. Tofu could directly produce VFAs through the Stickland reaction, while egg white was converted to lactate and VFAs simultaneously. About 30-40% of total protein remained in all groups after fermentation. Up to 50% of the unconverted soluble protein in the HT groups was protease. More lactate-producing bacteria, mainly Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, were present during egg white fermentation.

  17. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards.

  18. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis.

  19. Teaching the Mantle Plumes Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether or not mantle plumes exist. This debate has highlighted a number of issues regarding how Earth science is currently practised, and how this feeds into approaches toward teaching students. The plume model is an hypothesis, not a proven fact. And yet many researchers assume a priori that plumes exist. This assumption feeds into teaching. That the plume model is unproven, and that many practising researchers are skeptical, may be at best only mentioned in passing to students, with most teachers assuming that plumes are proven to exist. There is typically little emphasis, in particular in undergraduate teaching, that the origin of melting anomalies is currently uncertain and that scientists do not know all the answers. Little encouragement is given to students to become involved in the debate and to consider the pros and cons for themselves. Typically teachers take the approach that “an answer” (or even “the answer”) must be taught to students. Such a pedagogic approach misses an excellent opportunity to allow students to participate in an important ongoing debate in Earth sciences. It also misses the opportunity to illustrate to students several critical aspects regarding correct application of the scientific method. The scientific method involves attempting to disprove hypotheses, not to prove them. A priori assumptions should be kept uppermost in mind and reconsidered at all stages. Multiple working hypotheses should be entertained. The predictions of a hypothesis should be tested, and unpredicted observations taken as weakening the original hypothesis. Hypotheses should not be endlessly adapted to fit unexpected observations. The difficulty with pedagogic treatment of the mantle plumes debate highlights a general uncertainty about how to teach issues in Earth science that are not yet resolved with certainty. It also represents a missed opportunity to let students experience how scientific theories evolve, warts

  20. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.

  1. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  2. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites. [Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Circulation processes at the acid waste disposal site are highly event-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasters. There is a mean flow to the south alongshore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months, the ocean stratifies with warm water over cold water. A distinct thermocline was observed with expendable bathythermographs during all summer cruises at depths ranging from 10 to 21 meters. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom drogues showed very little movements. The duPont waste plume was observed in LANDSAT satellite imagery during dump up to 54 hours after dump.

  3. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Acid waste plume was observed in LANDSAT imagery fourteen times ranging from during dump up to 54 hours after dump. Circulation processes at the waste disposal site are highly storm-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasterlies. There is a mean flow to the south along shore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months (May through October), the ocean at the dump site stratifies with a distinct thermocline observed during all summer cruising at depths ranging from 10 to 21 m. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom currents were small. Surface currents responded to wind conditions resulting in rapid movement of surface drogues on windy days. Mid-depth drogues showed an intermediate behavior, moving more rapidly as wind velocities increased.

  4. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  5. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation.

  6. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  7. The ice plumes of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William

    2014-10-01

    It is of extreme interest to NASA and the scientific community that evidence has been found for plumes of water ice venting from the polar regions of Europa (Roth et al 2014) - spectroscopic detection of off-limb line emission from the dissociation products of water. We were awarded Cycle 21 time to seek direct images of the Europa exosphere, including Enceladus-like plumes if present, basing our study on FUV images of Europa as it transits the smooth face of Jupiter. We also obtained a necessary FUV image of Europa out of transit. These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of ice plumes on Europa. Here, we propose to augment our previous imaging work and to seek an initial, efficient characterization of off-limb emission as Europa orbits Jupiter. Such images provide sensitive flux and column density limits, with exceptional spatial resolution. In transit, our strategy can place firm limits on, or measurements of, absorbing columns, their distribution with altitude above the surface of Europa, and constrain their wavelength dependence and hence composition. Out of transit, geometrical and surface brightness considerations can help us distinguish between continuum FUV emission from forward- or back-scattering, from line emission, or, though we might prefer otherwise, from more subtle instrumental artifacts than hitherto understood. If the ice fountains of Europa arise from the deep ocean, we have gained access to probably the most astrobiologically interesting location in the Solar System.

  8. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Bekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation.

  9. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  10. El Chichon: Composition of Plume Gases and Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan Kotra, Janet; Finnegan, David L.; Zoller, William H.; Hart, Mark A.; Moyers, Jarvis L.

    1983-12-01

    Aircraft measurements were made of trace gases, atmospheric particles, and condensed acid volatiles in the plume of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, in November 1982. Hydrogen sulfide was the primary gaseous sulfur species in the plume at the time of collection. Concentrations of 28 elements were determined by neutron activation analysis of particulate material from the plume. Rates of trace element emission to the atmosphere for each species were estimated by normalization to the simultaneously determined total sulfur emission rate. The volatile elements sulfur, chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, antimony, iodine, tungsten, and mercury were enriched relative to bulk pyroclastic material by factors of 60 to 20,000. Arsenic, antimony, and selenium were associated predominantly with small (<= 3 micrometer) particles. Calcium and sodium were present almost exclusively on larger particles and aluminum and manganese were bimodally distributed. Ashladen particulate material injected into the stratosphere during the early violent eruptions was enriched by factors of 10 to 30 relative to ash in some of the same elements observed in the quiescent plume.

  11. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.

    2017-02-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world's coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas < 10,000 km2), such as found along most active geologic coastal margins, were much more likely to have river plumes that collide and interact than coastal settings with large rivers (watershed areas > 100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world's smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of

  12. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world’s coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas < 10,000 km2), such as found along most active geologic coastal margins, were much more likely to have river plumes that collide and interact than coastal settings with large rivers (watershed areas > 100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world’s smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and

  13. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic organic compounds in a landfill leachate plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baun, Anders; Reitzel, Lotte A.; Ledin, Anna; Christensen, Thomas H.; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2003-09-01

    Demonstration of natural attenuation of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in landfill leachate plumes is a difficult task and still an emerging discipline within groundwater remediation. One of the early studies was made at the Vejen Landfill in Denmark in the late 1980s, which suggested that natural attenuation of XOCs took place under strongly anaerobic conditions within the first 150 m of the leachate plume. This paper reports on a revisit to the same plume 10 years later. Within the strongly anaerobic part of the plume, 49 groundwater samples were characterized with respect to redox-sensitive species and XOCs. The analytical procedures have been developed further and more compounds and lower detection limits were observed this time. In addition, the samples were screened for degradation intermediates and for toxicity. The plume showed fairly stationary features over the 10-year period except that the XOC level as well as the level of chloride and nonvolatile organic carbon (NVOC) in the plume had decreased somewhat. Most of the compounds studied were subject to degradation in addition to dilution. Exceptions were benzene, the herbicide Mecoprop (MCPP), and NVOC. In the early study, NVOC seemed to degrade in the first part of the plume, but this was no longer the case. Benzyl succinic acid (BSA) was for the first time identified in a leachate plume as a direct indicator, and as the only intermediate of toluene degradation. Toxicity measurements on solid phase-extracted (SPE) samples revealed that toxic compounds not analytically identified were still present in the plume, suggesting that toxicity measurements could be helpful in assessing natural attenuation in leachate plumes.

  14. Seismically imaging the Afar plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plume related flood basalt volcanism in Ethiopia has long been cited to have instigated continental breakup in northeast Africa. However, to date seismic images of the mantle beneath the region have not produced conclusive evidence of a plume-like structure. As a result the nature and even existence of a plume in the region and its role in rift initiation and continental rupture are debated. Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie northeast Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 6 other regional experiments and global network stations across Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S- wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that the top 100km is dominated by focussed low velocity zones, likely associated with melt in the lithosphere/uppermost asthenosphere. Below these depths a broad SW-NE oriented sheet like upwelling extends down to the top of the transition zone. Within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. The nature of the transition zone anomalies suggests that small upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. Our images of secondary upwellings

  15. U.S. Geological survey program on toxic waste--ground-water contamination; proceedings of the Second technical meeting, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, October 21-25, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragone, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This study characterizes the clay minerals in sediments associated with a plume of creosote-contaminated groundwater. The plume of contaminated groundwater near Pensacola, FL, is in shallow, permeable, Miocene to Holocene quartz sand and flows southward toward Pensacola Bay. Clay-size fractions were separated from 41 cores, chiefly split-spoon samples at 13 drill sites. The most striking feature of the chemical analyses of the clay fractions from uncontaminated site 2 and contaminated sites 4,5,6, and 7 is the variability of iron oxide (species in some samples as Fe2O3); total iron oxide abundance is lowest (2.5%) in uncontaminated sample 2-40, but is > 4.5% (4.5 to 8.5%) in the remaining assemblages. One feature suggesting interaction between the indigenous clays and the waste plume is the presence of nontronite-rich smectite. Nontronite commonly has been identified as the product of hydrothermal alteration and deep-sea weathering of submarine basalts; it is not a common constituent of Cenozoic Gulf Coast sediments. At the Pensacola site, relatively abundant nontronitic smectite is confined to contaminated sands or associated muds; it is least abundant or absent in sands and muds peripheral to the waste plume. The geochemistry of the waste plume, its substantial dissolved, (chiefly ferrous iron), mildly acidic (pH 5-6), and low redox composition, provides an environment similar to that previously determined for the low-temperature synthesis of nontronite. Data from clay-size fractions confirm conclusions that neoformed pyrite in some grain coatings occurs in an assemblage with excess iron over that required in the pyrite. Continuing studies to evaluate these tentative conclusions include: (1) chemical analysis of clay fractions from remaining sites to further examine the apparent relation between iron content and abundance of nontronitic smectite; (2) clay separation and analysis, and pore fluid extraction (squeezing or ultracentrifugation) and analysis from a

  16. Synergism and effect of high initial volatile fatty acid concentrations during food waste and pig manure anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Croize, Thomas; Jiang, Yan; Morrison, Liam; Gardiner, Gillian E; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) was undertaken in batch mode at 37°C in order to identify and quantify the synergistic effects of co-digestion on the specific methane yield (SMY) and reaction kinetics. The effects of the high initial volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in PM on synergy observed during co-digestion, and on kinetic modelling were investigated. PM to FW mixing ratios of 1/0, 4/1, 3/2, 2/3, 1/4 and 0/1 (VS basis) were examined. No VFA or ammonia inhibition was observed. The highest SMY of 521±29ml CH4/gVS was achieved at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. Synergy in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY occurred at PM/FW mixing ratios of 3/2, 2/3 and 1/4. Initial VFA concentrations did not explain the synergy observed. Throughout the study the conversion of butyric acid was inhibited. Due to the high initial VFA content of PM, conventional first order and Gompertz models were inappropriate for determining reaction kinetics. A dual pooled first order model was found to provide the best fit for the data generated in this study. The optimal mixing ratio in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY was found at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4.

  17. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  18. Enhancement of l-lactic acid production via synergism in open co-fermentation of Sophora flavescens residues and food waste.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Gao, Ming; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiaohong; Chang, Qiang; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Sophora flavescens residues (SFR) were used for l-lactic acid production and were mixed with food waste (FW) to assess the effects of different compositions of SFR and FW. Positive synergistic effects of mixed substrates were achieved with co-fermentation. Co-fermentation increased the proportion of l-lactic acid by decreasing the co-products of ethanol and other organic acids. A maximum l-lactic acid concentration of 48.4g/L and l-lactic acid conversion rate of 0.904g/g total sugar were obtained through co-fermentation of SFR and FW at the optimal ratio of 1:1.5. These results were approximately 6-fold those obtained during mono-fermentation of SFR. Co-fermentation of SFR and FW provides a suitable C/N ratio and pH for effective open fermentative production of l-lactic acid.

  19. Production of high optical purity l-lactic acid from waste activated sludge by supplementing carbohydrate: effect of temperature and pretreatment time.

    PubMed

    Jian, Qiwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan; Pan, Yin

    2016-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that the most environmentally beneficial way to treat waste activated sludge (WAS), the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment plant, is to recover the valuable organic acid. However, the bio-conversion of lactic acid, one of the high added-value chemical, is seldom reported from WAS fermentation. In this paper, l-lactic acid was observed dominant in the WAS fermentation liquid with carbohydrate addition at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid production was fully discussed: two isomers were rapidly produced and consumed up in one day at mesophilic condition; and almost optically pure l-lactic acid was generated at thermophilic condition, yet time-consuming with yield of l-lactic acid enhancing by 52.9% compared to that at ambient temperature. The study mechanism showed that mesophilic condition was optimal for both production and consumption of l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, while consumption of l-lactic acid and production of d-lactic acid were severely inhibited at thermophilic condition. Therefore, by maintaining thermophilic for 4 h in advance and subsequently fermenting mesophilic for 34 h, the concentration of l-lactic acid with optical activity of 98.3% was improved to 16.6 ± 0.5 g COD/L at a high specific efficiency of 0.6097/d.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash.

  2. A new process to improve short-chain fatty acids and bio-methane generation from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    As an important intermediate product, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be generated after hydrolysis and acidification from waste activated sludge, and then can be transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion process. In order to obtain more SCFA and methane, most studies in literatures were centered on enhancing the hydrolysis of sludge anaerobic digestion which was proved as un-efficient. Though the alkaline pretreatment in our previous study increased both the hydrolysis and acidification processes, it had a vast chemical cost which was considered uneconomical. In this paper, a low energy consumption pretreatment method, i.e. enhanced the whole three stages of the anaerobic fermentation processes at the same time, was reported, by which hydrolysis and acidification were both enhanced, and the SCFA and methane generation can be significantly improved with a small quantity of chemical input. Firstly, the effect of different pretreated temperatures and pretreatment time on sludge hydrolyzation was compared. It was found that sludge pretreated at 100°C for 60min can achieve the maximal hydrolyzation. Further, effects of different initial pHs on acidification of the thermal pretreated sludge were investigated and the highest SCFA was observed at initial pH9.0 with fermentation time of 6d, the production of which was 348.63mg COD/gVSS (6.8 times higher than the blank test) and the acetic acid was dominant acid. Then, the mechanisms for this new pretreatment significantly improving SCFA production were discussed. Finally, the effect of this low energy consumption pretreatment on methane generation was investigated.

  3. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  4. Production of a bioflocculant from chromotropic acid waste water and its application in steroid estrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Chen, Li; Yang, Xianghui; Yang, Baokun; Hong, Wentao; Mao, Kewei; Wang, Buyun; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as SW-2) which could convert chromotropic acid into bioflocculants was isolated from chromotropic acid wastewater. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 7.74%, initial pH 6.9, and CODCr of the chromotropic acid wastewater 425mg/L. The yielded bioflocculant was primarily consisting of polysaccharide and protein. It could maintain its flocculating activity to 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 3-9 and 20-80°C. In addition, conditions for the removal of estrogens with the bioflocculant were investigated and determined to be bioflocculant dosage 50mg/L, initial pH 3, reaction time 60min, and temperature 45°C. Under these optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of E1, E2, EE2, and E3 were 87%, 92%, 88% and 96%, respectively. The bioflocculant was shown to offer a promising alternative method of removing estrogens from water in pretreatment applications.

  5. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g−1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg−1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g−1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg−1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls. PMID:26648414

  6. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  7. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  8. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g-1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg-1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g-1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg-1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls.

  9. Sulfuric-acid-regeneration waste-disposal technology. Final report, June 1985-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Balasco, A.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Stahr, J.J.; Stevens, J.I.; Fields, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    All U.S. Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs) having sulfuric acid regeneration (SAR) facilities use lime precipitation as the principal means of acid-wastewater neutralization. This is as an advanced system as is used in industrial practice. However, lime precipitation could not meet zero discharge of pollutants should these be promulgated for the sulfuric-acid industry. In fact it discharges a water high in soluble sulfates. Further, based on the only current experience at Radford AAP, this process is plagued with: excessive scaling, poor pH and turbididty control, and excessive maintenance and downtime. One probable cause of these difficulties is excessive water loads from the SAR plants resulting in inadequate residence time for crystal formation and settling, coupled with the inherent slowness of this chemical reaction. However, it should be pointed out there is an almost total lack of operating data on the adequacy or inadequacy of these lime-precipitation systems to meet even today's standards. Presumably because of concern at one time for soluble sulfate, two AAPs have secondary treatment: 1) ion exchange to remove the soluble calcium (Ca) and sulfate (SO/sub 4/) ions (Volunteer AAP); and 2) barium (Ba) precipitation to remove the soluble SO/sub 4/, followed by ion exchange (Joliet AAP). Secondary treatment would permit total recycle of the process water, thus achieving zero discharge; however, we question the utility of both of these systems in achieving any improvement in the total environment of the watersheds of the plants in question.

  10. Reclamation of acidic mine residues by creation of technosoils with the addition of biochar and marble waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raul

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the short-term effect of biochar and marble waste addition for the reclamation of acidic mine residues. A lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1. Bochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control soil was used without application of amendments. The evolution of different physical, chemical and biochemical properties and availability of heavy metals was periodically monitored. Results showed that original pH (2.8) was increased with all amendments, those samples containing MW being the ones with the highest pH (~8.0). The electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 6.6 to 3.0-4.5 mS cm-1 in all the treatments receiving MW. Soil organic C (SOC) increased in all samples receiving biochar up to 18-20 g kg-1, with no shifts during the 90 d incubation, indicating the high stability of the C supplied. Recalcitrant organic C accounted for ~90-98% of the SOC. No significant effect of amendment addition was observed for carbohydrates, soluble C, microbial biomass C and β-glucosidase activity. However, arylesterase activity increased with amendments, highly related to pH. The availability of heavy metals decreased up to 90-95% owing to the addition of amendments, mainly in samples containing MW. The MW provided conditions to increase pH and decrease EC and metals mobility. Biochar was an effective strategy to increase SOC, recalcitrant C and AS, essential to create soil structure. However, a labile source of organic matter should be added together with the proposed amendments to promote the activation of microbial communities. Acknowledgement : This work has been funded by Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) by the project 18920/JLI/13

  11. Constraining the source of mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagney, N.; Crameri, F.; Newsome, W. H.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Cotel, A.; Hart, S. R.; Whitehead, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    In order to link the geochemical signature of hot spot basalts to Earth's deep interior, it is first necessary to understand how plumes sample different regions of the mantle. Here, we investigate the relative amounts of deep and shallow mantle material that are entrained by an ascending plume and constrain its source region. The plumes are generated in a viscous syrup using an isolated heater for a range of Rayleigh numbers. The velocity fields are measured using stereoscopic Particle-Image Velocimetry, and the concept of the 'vortex ring bubble' is used to provide an objective definition of the plume geometry. Using this plume geometry, the plume composition can be analysed in terms of the proportion of material that has been entrained from different depths. We show that the plume composition can be well described using a simple empirical relationship, which depends only on a single parameter, the sampling coefficient, sc. High-sc plumes are composed of material which originated from very deep in the fluid domain, while low-sc plumes contain material entrained from a range of depths. The analysis is also used to show that the geometry of the plume can be described using a similarity solution, in agreement with previous studies. Finally, numerical simulations are used to vary both the Rayleigh number and viscosity contrast independently. The simulations allow us to predict the value of the sampling coefficient for mantle plumes; we find that as a plume reaches the lithosphere, 90% of its composition has been derived from the lowermost 260-750 km in the mantle, and negligible amounts are derived from the shallow half of the lower mantle. This result implies that isotope geochemistry cannot provide direct information about this unsampled region, and that the various known geochemical reservoirs must lie in the deepest few hundred kilometres of the mantle.

  12. Aggregate particles in the plumes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peter; Kopparla, Pushkar; Zhang, Xi; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492-506), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of mostly spheres. The high particulate mass plumes have total particulate masses of (166 ± 42) × 103 kg, consistent with the results of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492-506). The low particulate mass plumes have masses of (25 ± 4) × 103 kg, leading to a solid to vapor mass ratio of 0.07 ± 0.01 for the plume. If indeed the plumes are made of such aggregates, then a vapor-based origin for the plume particles cannot be ruled out. Finally, we show that the residence time of the monomers inside the plume vents is sufficiently long for Brownian coagulation to form the aggregates before they are ejected to space.

  13. An effective utilization of the slag from acid leaching of coal-waste: preparation of water glass with a low-temperature co-melting reaction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Duan, Xiaofang; Chen, Rongming; Cheng, Fangqin

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an effective utilization of slag from acid leaching of coal-waste with a novel approach, namely low-temperature co-melting method, for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock. It is very interesting that the co-melting reaction temperature of the mixture of Na2CO3 and the feedstock (50-100 microm) was as low as 850 degrees C, which was significantly lower than the temperature used in traditional sodium silicate production (1400 degrees C). The optimum SiO2/Na2O ratio was identified as 7:3 according to the results of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), ICP-AES, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. In this condition, the main product was sodium disilicate (Na2O x 2SiO2), with water solubility of 85.0%. More importantly, the impurities such as aluminum in the feedstock, which had adverse effect on subsequent treatment, were concentrated almost completely in the filter residue as insoluble sodium alumunosilicates, i.e., Na(Si2Al)O6 x H2O. The lower co-melting temperature of this process demonstrates a significant energy-saving opportunity and thus a promising approach for highly effective utilization of coal-waste. Implications: Recently, alumina extraction from coal-waste has been extensively investigated and industrial applied in China. However, the slag-containing silica generated from the acid leaching process of coal-waste led to a secondary pollution, which hindered large-scale production. The proposed low-temperature co-melting method for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock indicated that it is an efficient approach for the recovery of silica from the acid-leached slag of coal-waste with minimal environmental impact.

  14. Tritium plume dynamics in the shallow unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maples, S.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Pohll, G.; Michel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of a tritium plume in the shallow unsaturated zone and the mechanisms controlling its transport were evaluated during a 10-yr study. Plume movement was minimal and its mass declined by 68%. Upward-directed diffusive-vapor tritium fluxes and radioactive decay accounted for most of the observed plume-mass declines. Effective isolation of tritium (3H) and other contaminants at waste-burial facilities requires improved understanding of transport processes and pathways. Previous studies documented an anomalously widespread (i.e., theoretically unexpected) distribution of 3H (>400 m from burial trenches) in a dry, sub-root-zone gravelly layer (1–2-m depth) adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, that closed in 1992. The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize long-term, spatiotemporal variability of 3H plumes; and (ii) quantify the processes controlling 3H behavior in the sub-root-zone gravelly layer beneath native vegetation adjacent to the facility. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses, and mass flux calculations were applied to a spatiotemporally comprehensive, 10-yr data set (2001–2011). Results showed minimal bulk-plume advancement during the study period and limited Fickian spreading of mass. Observed spreading rates were generally consistent with theoretical vapor-phase dispersion. The plume mass diminished more rapidly than would be expected from radioactive decay alone, indicating net efflux from the plume. Estimates of upward 3H efflux via diffusive-vapor movement were >10× greater than by dispersive-vapor or total-liquid movement. Total vertical fluxes were >20× greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes, highlighting the importance of upward migration toward the land surface. Mass-balance calculations showed that radioactive decay and upward diffusive-vapor fluxes contributed the majority of plume loss. Results indicate that plume losses

  15. Redox conditions for mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    The vanadium to scandium ratio (V/Sc) for basalts from mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and arc environments has been proposed as a proxy for fO2 conditions during partial melting (e.g. [1] and [2]). Contrary to barometric measurements of the fO2 of primitive lavas, the V/Sc ratio of the upper mantle at mid-ocean ridges and arcs is similar, leading previous authors to propose that the upper mantle has uniform redox potential and is well-buffered. We have attempted to broaden the applicability of the V/Sc parameter to plume-influenced localities (both oceanic and continental), where mantle heterogeneities associated with recycled sediments, mafic crust, and metasomatized mantle, whether of shallow or deep origin, exist. We find that primitive basalts from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), Hawaii (both the Loa and Kea trends), Deccan, Columbia River, and Siberian Traps show a range of V/Sc ratios that are generally higher (average ~9) than those for MOR (average ~ 6.7) or arc (average ~7) lavas. Based on forward polybaric decompression modeling, we attribute these differences to polybaric melting and melt segregation within the garnet stability field rather than the presence of a more oxidized mantle in plume-influenced settings. Like MORB, the V/Sc ratios for plume-influenced basalts can be accounted for by an oxidation state approximately one log unit below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO-1). Our analysis suggests that source heterogeneities have little, if any, resolvable influence on mantle redox conditions, although they have significant influence on the trace element and isotopic composition of mantle-derived melts. We suggest that variations in the redox of erupted lavas is largely a function of shallow lithospheric processes rather than intrinsic to the mantle source, regardless of tectonic setting. [1] Li and Lee (2004) EPSL, [2] Lee et al. (2005) J. of Petrology

  16. Free nitrous acid serving as a pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation to enhance short-chain fatty acid production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Alkaline condition (especially pH 10) has been demonstrated to be a promising method for short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation, because it can effectively inhibit the activities of methanogens. However, due to the limit of sludge solubilization rate, long fermentation time is required but SCFA yield is still limited. This paper reports a new pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge for 2 d, by which the fermentation time is remarkably shortened and meanwhile the SCFA production is significantly enhanced. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production of 370.1 mg COD/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) was achieved at 1.54 mg FNA/L pretreatment integration with 2 d of pH 10 fermentation, which was 4.7- and 1.5-fold of that in the blank (uncontrolled) and sole pH 10 systems, respectively. The total time of this integration system was only 4 d, whereas the corresponding time was 15 d in the blank and 8 d in the sole pH 10 systems. The mechanism study showed that compared with pH 10, FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. After FNA pretreatment, pH 10 treatment (1 d) caused 38.0% higher substrate solubilization than the sole FNA, which indicated that FNA integration with pH 10 could cause positive synergy on sludge solubilization. It was also observed that this integration method benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes. Therefore, more SCFA was produced, but less fermentation time was required in the integrated system.

  17. [Distribution characteristics of phthalic acid esters in soils and plants at e-waste recycling sites in Taizhou of Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Lian-Qiu; Shen, Chao-Feng; Wang, Jiang

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, great attention has being paid on the consequences of improper electric and electronic waste (e-waste) disposal. In this paper, soil and plant samples were collected from the e-waste recycling sites in Taizhou City of Zhejiang Province, China, with five kinds of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) analyzed. In the soil samples, the total PAEs concentration was 12.566-46.669 mg x kg(-1) soil, among which, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the major phthalates, accounting for more than 94% of the total. In the plant samples, the PAEs concentration was obviously higher in Vicia faba L. than in other plants. No significant correlations were observed in the PAEs concentration between soils and various plants (P > 0.05). Comparing with the soil cleanup guidelines in USA, the soils at test sites were severely contaminated by PAEs.

  18. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J.; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A set of techniques was used to characterize humic acids content of vermicomposts. • The properties of the humic acids produced from different waste mixtures were similar. • This set of techniques allowed distinguishing the humic acids of each vermicomposts. • Increasing humic acid contents in initial mixtures would produce richer vermicomposts. - Abstract: A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV–visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  19. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.; Boden, G.

    1999-01-01

    Bed rest is generally accepted as being an appropriate ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that increasing the amount of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the diet could attenuate the protein loss associated with bed rest. Nineteen healthy subjects were randomized into two groups according to diet. During the 6 d of bed rest, the diets were supplemented with either 30 mmol/d each of three non-essential amino acids, glycine, serine, and alanine (control group), or with 30 mmol/d each of the BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine (BCAA group). Nutrition was supplied as a commercially available defined formula diet at a rate of 1.3 x REE. Nitrogen (N) balance and urinary 3-MeH excretion were determined for the 6 d. In our results, the urine-based estimate of N balance was 22.2 +/- 14.4 (n = 9) mg N.kg-1.d-1 and 60.5 +/- 10.1 mg (n = 8) N.kg-1.d-1 for the control and BCAA-supplemented groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Urinary 3-MeH excretion was unchanged in both groups with bed rest. We conclude that BCAA supplementation attenuates the N loss during short-term bed rest.

  20. Simulation of plume rise: Study the effect of stably stratified turbulence layer on the rise of a buoyant plume from a continuous source by observing the plume centroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhimireddy, Sudheer Reddy; Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2016-11-01

    Buoyant plumes are common in atmosphere when there exists a difference in temperature or density between the source and its ambience. In a stratified environment, plume rise happens until the buoyancy variation exists between the plume and ambience. In a calm no wind ambience, this plume rise is purely vertical and the entrainment happens because of the relative motion of the plume with ambience and also ambient turbulence. In this study, a plume centroid is defined as the plume mass center and is calculated from the kinematic equation which relates the rate of change of centroids position to the plume rise velocity. Parameters needed to describe the plume are considered as the plume radius, plumes vertical velocity and local buoyancy of the plume. The plume rise velocity is calculated by the mass, momentum and heat conservation equations in their differential form. Our study focuses on the entrainment velocity, as it depicts the extent of plume growth. This entrainment velocity is made up as sum of fractions of plume's relative velocity and ambient turbulence. From the results, we studied the effect of turbulence on the plume growth by observing the variation in the plume radius at different heights and the centroid height reached before loosing its buoyancy.

  1. The effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes on growth, metabolizable energy value, and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C; Toelle, V D

    1992-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato pomace on gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen utilization, and ME of diets for broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, both treated and untreated tomato pomace was included in broiler diets at a 10 or 20% level. Results indicated that the level or antinutritional factors present in untreated tomato cannery waste did not appreciably depress any measured production parameter. Hence, it appeared that untreated tomato cannery wastes might be used as a feed ingredient in low-energy poultry diets (broiler breeder and laying hen recycling rations), ruminant diets, and as a protein source in regions of the world where such feed ingredients are scarce. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of alkali concentration and treatment time of tomato pomace on the performance of broiler chicks. Alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of broiler chicks over those of untreated tomato waste controls. Results indicated that the increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of the chicks were due in part to the acid neutralization phase of the alkali treatment. Alkali treatment apparently affects the tomato cannery wastes almost instantaneously, as differences among actual treatment times and concentrations were small. However, only the highest alkali treatment increased the pH of the tomato cannery waste above 7, suggesting that a true alkali treatment might cause additional improvements in gain and feed to gain ratio when fed to broiler chicks.

  2. The MISR Wildfire Smoke Plume Height Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. L.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Together the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra satellite observe several characteristics of wildfire smoke plumes. With support from NASA and the EPA, the MISR team is assembling a database of these observations for North America, Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, etc. that extends back to the beginning of the Terra mission in 2000. The thermal infrared channels on MODIS provide the location of fires and their approximate radiative power. By using an interactive visualization program called the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX), users interactively digitize wildfire plumes to retrieve accurate plume heights and wind speeds using a new stereo height retrieval algorithm. This information, along with the locations and directions of individual plumes, their areas and aerosol properties derived from the operational MISR aerosol algorithm, are stored in this publicly accessible database for subsequent analysis (http://www-misr2.jpl.nasa.gov/EPA-Plumes/). The plume database currently contains about 4000 smoke plumes and smoke clouds from North America. An equal number of plumes and clouds for other regions around the world has also been digitized. A few thousand additional plumes are in the process of being incorporated. Smoke plumes in this context are considered to be discrete regions of smoke that can be followed to their fire sources at ground level and have a distinctive shape determined by the direction the smoke is driven downwind. Smoke “clouds” are defined here as regions of dense smoke not clearly associated with specific fire sources, and whose direction of transport is not easily determined. Plume height measurements can be used as a surrogate for injection heights, which are important for modeling smoke transport. Examples of height and wind retrievals for specific plumes will be shown. Those chosen have not only been incorporated in statistical analyses of plume

  3. Radiation Chemistry of Potential Europa Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudipati, M. S.; Henderson, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent detection of atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen and their correlation to potential water plumes on Europa [Roth, Saur et al. 2014] invoked significant interest in further understanding of these potential/putative plumes on Europa. Unlike on Enceladus, Europa receives significant amount of electron and particle radiation. If the plumes come from trailing hemisphere and in the high radiation flux regions, then it is expected that the plume molecules be subjected to radiation processing. Our interest is to understand to what extent such radiation alterations occur and how they can be correlated to the plume original composition, whether organic or inorganic in nature. We will present laboratory studies [Henderson and Gudipati 2014] involving pulsed infrared laser ablation of ice that generates plumes similar to those observed on Enceladus [Hansen, Esposito et al. 2006; Hansen, Shemansky et al. 2011] and expected to be similar on Europa as a starting point; demonstrating the applicability of laser ablation to simulate plumes of Europa and Enceladus. We will present results from electron irradiation of these plumes to determine how organic and inorganic composition is altered due to radiation. Acknowledgments:This research was enabled through partial funding from NASA funding through Planetary Atmospheres, and the Europa Clipper Pre-Project. B.L.H. acknowledges funding from the NASA Postdoctoral Program for an NPP fellowship. Hansen, C. J., L. Esposito, et al. (2006). "Enceladus' water vapor plume." Science 311(5766): 1422-1425. Hansen, C. J., D. E. Shemansky, et al. (2011). "The composition and structure of the Enceladus plume." Geophysical Research Letters 38. Henderson, B. L. and M. S. Gudipati (2014). "Plume Composition and Evolution in Multicomponent Ices Using Resonant Two-Step Laser Ablation and Ionization Mass Spectrometry." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118(29): 5454-5463. Roth, L., J. Saur, et al. (2014). "Transient Water Vapor at Europa's South

  4. Klebsiella sp. strain C2A isolated from olive oil mill waste is able to tolerate and degrade tannic acid in very high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Milva; Cappelli, Serena; Hachicho, Nancy; Perra, Guido; Renzi, Monia; Tarabelli, Alessandro; Altieri, Roberto; Esposito, Alessandro; Focardi, Silvano E; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2013-06-01

    Four bacterial strains capable of growing in the presence of tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated from olive mill waste mixtures. 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned them to the genus Klebsiella. The most efficient strain, Klebsiella sp. strain C2A, was able to degrade 3.5 g L(-1) tannic acid within 35 h with synthesizing gallic acid as main product. The capability of Klebsiella sp. strain C2A to produce tannase was evidenced at high concentrations of tannic acid up to 50 g L(-1) . The bacteria adapted to the toxicity of tannic acids by an increase in the membrane lipid fatty acids degree of saturation, especially in the presence of concentrations higher than 20 g L(-1) . The highly tolerant and adaptable bacterial strain characterized in this study could be used in bioremediation processes of wastes rich in polyphenols such as those derived from olive mills, winery or tanneries.

  5. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

    2015-01-01

    An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

  6. Particle geochemistry of volcanic plumes of Etna and Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, Johan C.; Thomas, Ellen; Germani, Mark; Buseck, Peter R.

    1986-11-01

    Particles in volcanic plumes include vapor condensates and reaction products of ash with vapors or condensed liquids, in addition to abundant silicate particles. In the 1980 Mount St. Helens plume we detected abundant (Na, K) Cl crystals as well as Ca sulfates, the latter commonly as overgrowths on ash or anthropogenic particles. Many of the chloride particles contained zinc and cadmium. High-temperature fumarolic incrustations showed strong enrichments of arsenic, zinc, alkalis, and iron. At Etna we did not detect chloride crystals but found abundant Al, Fe, and Ca sulfates. Sulfuric acid droplets were ubiquitous in both plumes. Bulk analyses of fumarole incrustations at Etna showed an enrichment in the rare earth elements (REE). The chemical and textural data of the plume particles indicate that chloride particles form relatively early and react later with sulfuric acid droplets to form sulfates. At Etna, aluminum as well as some REE are probably transported as volatile fluorine compounds. The differences in plume chemistry between Etna and Mount St. Helens are most likely related to differences in F/Cl ratios of the vapors. Based on the abundance of particulate chlorine in plumes, we suggest that only a small fraction of the total chlorine released during an eruption might reach the stratosphere in the vapor phase.

  7. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  8. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described.

  9. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  10. Lead accumulation and depression of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in young birds fed automotive waste oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; O'Leary, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a 3-week dietary exposure to automotive waste crankcase oil (WCO) were examined in 1-week-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) chicks. Treatment groups consisted of birds exposed to 0.5, 1.5, or 4.5% WCO, to 4.5% clean crankcase oil (CCO), or untreated controls. In both species, red blood cell ALAD activity was significantly inhibited after one week by 50 to 60% in the 0.5% WCO group and by 85 to 90% in the 4.5% WCO group due to the presence of lead. Growth, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were not significantly affected at the end of three weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was higher in mallards after three weeks of ingesting either 4.5% WCO or 4.5% CCO, suggesting an oil-related effect due to components other than lead. Treatment had no effect on plasma concentration of uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, total protein, or cholesterol. Lead analysis showed the WCO to contain 4,200 ppm Pb and the CCO to contain 2 ppm. Tissues of mallards were examined for accumulation of lead and the order of accumulation at the end of three weeks was kidney > liver > blood ~ brain.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted removal of Acid Red 17 using nanosized Fe3O4-loaded coffee waste hydrochar.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Kayan, Berkant; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Karimi, Atefeh; Akay, Sema; Konsolakis, Michalis

    2017-03-01

    The Fe3O4-loaded coffee waste hydrochar (Fe3O4-CHC) was synthesized using a simple precipitation method. The as-prepared adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe in the structure of Fe3O4-CHC. The specific surface area of hydrochar increased from 17.2 to 34.7m(2)/g after loading of Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto it. The prepared Fe3O4-CHC was used for removal of Acid Red 17 (AR17) through ultrasound-assisted process. The decolorization efficiency decreased from 100 to 74% with the increase in initial dye concentration and from 100 to 91 and 85% in the presence of NaCl and Na2SO4, respectively. The synthesized Fe3O4-CHC exhibited good stability in the repeated adsorption-desorption cycles. The high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.997) obtained from Langmuir model indicated that physical and monolayer adsorption of dye molecules occurred on the Fe3O4-CHC surface. Furthermore, the by-products generated through the degradation of AR17 was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

  12. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO4), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1-0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70°C and 2h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO4 can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  13. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.

  14. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form.

  15. Legume-grass intercropping phytoremediation of phthalic acid esters in soil near an electronic waste recycling site: a field study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the phytoremediation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by legume (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.)-grass (perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. and tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea) intercropping in contaminated agricultural soil at one of the largest e-waste recycling sites in China. Two compounds, DEHP and DnBP, were present in the soil and in the shoots of the test plants at much higher concentrations than the other target PAEs studied. Over 80% of 'total' (i.e., all six) PAEs were removed from the soil across all treatments by the end of the experiment. Alfalfa in monoculture removed over 90% of PAEs and alfalfa in the intercrop of the three plant species contained the highest shoot concentration of total PAEs of about 4.7 mg kg(-1) DW (dry weight). Calculation of phytoextraction efficiency indicated that the most effective plant combinations in eliminating soil PAEs were the three-species intercrop (1.78%) and the alfalfa monocrop (1.41%). Phytoremediation with alfalfa was effective in both monoculture and intercropping. High bioconcentration factors (BCFs) indicated the occurrence of significant extraction of PAEs by plants from soil, suggesting that phytoremediation may have potential for the removal of PAEs from contaminated soils.

  16. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate.

  17. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  18. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has a history of developing plume models and providing technical assistance. The Visual Plumes model (VP) is a recent addition to the public-domain models available on the EPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) web page. The Wind...

  19. Io with Loki Plume on Bright Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Voyager 1 image of Io showing active plume of Loki on limb. Heart-shaped feature southeast of Loki consists of fallout deposits from active plume Pele. The images that make up this mosaic were taken from an average distance of approximately 490,000 kilometers (340,000 miles).

  20. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  1. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution.

  2. Low-buoyancy thermochemical plumes resolve controversy of classical mantle plume concept

    PubMed Central

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models predict large plume heads that cause kilometre-scale surface uplift, and narrow (100 km radius) plume tails that remain in the mantle after the plume head spreads below the lithosphere. However, in many cases, such uplifts and narrow plume tails are not observed. Here using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes contain up to 15–20% of recycled oceanic crust in a form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth dependent. We demonstrate that, despite their low buoyancy, large enough thermochemical plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Their tails are bulky (>200 km radius) and remain in the upper mantle for 100 millions of years. PMID:25907970

  3. Low-buoyancy thermochemical plumes resolve controversy of classical mantle plume concept.

    PubMed

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan V

    2015-04-24

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models predict large plume heads that cause kilometre-scale surface uplift, and narrow (100 km radius) plume tails that remain in the mantle after the plume head spreads below the lithosphere. However, in many cases, such uplifts and narrow plume tails are not observed. Here using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes contain up to 15-20% of recycled oceanic crust in a form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth dependent. We demonstrate that, despite their low buoyancy, large enough thermochemical plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Their tails are bulky (>200 km radius) and remain in the upper mantle for 100 millions of years.

  4. Follow the plume: the habitability of Enceladus.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Porco, Carolyn; Tsou, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The astrobiological exploration of other worlds in our Solar System is moving from initial exploration to more focused astrobiology missions. In this context, we present the case that the plume of Enceladus currently represents the best astrobiology target in the Solar System. Analysis of the plume by the Cassini mission indicates that the steady plume derives from a subsurface liquid water reservoir that contains organic carbon, biologically available nitrogen, redox energy sources, and inorganic salts. Furthermore, samples from the plume jetting out into space are accessible to a low-cost flyby mission. No other world has such well-studied indications of habitable conditions. Thus, the science goals that would motivate an Enceladus mission are more advanced than for any other Solar System body. The goals of such a mission must go beyond further geophysical characterization, extending to the search for biomolecular evidence of life in the organic-rich plume. This will require improved in situ investigations and a sample return.

  5. Water Vapor Enhancement in Prescribed Fire Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, C. M.; Clements, C. B.; Potter, B. E.; Strenfel, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    In situ radiosonde measurements were obtained during multiple prescribed fires at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, Georgia in March and July of 2008. Data were obtained from prescribed fires conducted in longleaf pine ecosystems. After significant smoke generation was observed, radiosondes were launched downwind of the fire front and rose directly into the smoke plumes. Radiosondes were also launched before each burn to obtain ambient background conditions. This provided a unique dataset of smoke plume moisture to determine how moisture enhancement from fire smoke alters the dynamics of the smoke plume. Preliminary analysis of results show moisture enhancement occurred in all smoke plumes with relative humidity values increasing by 10 to 30 percent and water vapor mixing ratios increasing by 1 to 4 g kg-1. Understanding the moisture enhancement in prescribed fire smoke plumes will help determine the convective dynamics that occur in major wildland fires and convection columns.

  6. MISR Observations of Etna Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollo, S.; Kahn, R. A.; Nelson, D. L.; Coltelli, M.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    In the last twelve years, Mt. Etna, located in eastern Sicily, has produced a great number of explosive eruptions. Volcanic plumes have risen to several km above sea level and created problems for aviation and the communities living near the volcano. A reduction of hazards may be accomplished using remote sensing techniques to evaluate important features of volcanic plumes. Since 2000, the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on board NASA s Terra spacecraft has been extensively used to study aerosol dispersal and to extract the three-dimensional structure of plumes coming from anthropogenic or natural sources, including volcanoes. In the present work, MISR data from several explosive events occurring at Etna are analyzed using a program named MINX (MISR INteractive eXplorer). MINX uses stereo matching techniques to evaluate the height of the volcanic aerosol with a precision of a few hundred meters, and extracts aerosol properties from the MISR Standard products. We analyzed twenty volcanic plumes produced during the 2000, 2001, 2002-03, 2006 and 2008 Etna eruptions, finding that volcanic aerosol dispersal and column height obtained by this analysis is in good agreement with ground-based observations. MISR aerosol type retrievals: (1) clearly distinguish volcanic plumes that are sulphate and/or water vapor dominated from ash-dominated ones; (2) detect even low concentrations of volcanic ash in the atmosphere; (3) demonstrate that sulphate and/or water vapor dominated plumes consist of smaller-sized particles compared to ash plumes. This work highlights the potential of MISR to detect important volcanic plume characteristics that can be used to constrain the eruption source parameters in volcanic ash dispersion models. Further, the possibility of discriminating sulphate and/or water vapor dominated plumes from ash-dominated ones is important to better understand the atmospheric impact of these plumes.

  7. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.E.; McMillan, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained “ash” particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 106 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous “snowflakes” as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  8. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production.

  9. The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) dry scrubber residue.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Malin; Berg, Magnus; Ifwer, Karin; Sjöblom, Rolf; Ecke, Holger

    2007-06-01

    Co-landfilling of incineration ash and cellulose might facilitate the alkaline degradation of cellulose. A major degradation product is isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a complexing agent for metals. The impact of ISA on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd from a municipal solid waste incineration dry scrubber residue was studied at laboratory using a reduced 2(5-1) factorial design. Factors investigated were the amount of calcium isosaccharinate (Ca(ISA)(2)), L/S ratio, temperature, contact time and type of atmosphere (N(2), air, O(2)). The effects of pH and Ca(ISA)(2) as well as other factors on the leaching of metals were quantified and modelled using multiple linear regression (alpha=0.05). Cd was excluded from the study since the concentrations were below the detection limit. The presence of Ca(ISA)(2) resulted in a higher leaching of Cu indicating complex formation. Ca(ISA)(2) alone had no effect on the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr. A secondary effect on the mobilization was predicted to occur since Ca(ISA)(2) had a positive effect on the pH and the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr increased with increasing pH. The leaching of Pb varied from 24 up to 66 wt.% of the total Pb amount (1.74+/-0.02 g(kgTS)(-1)) in the dry scrubber residue. The corresponding interval for Zn (7.29+/-0.07 g(kgTS)(-1)) and Cu (0.50+/-0.02 g(kgTS)(-1)) were 0.5-14 wt.% of Zn and 0.8-70wt.% of Cu. Maximum leaching of Cr (0.23+/-0.03 g(kgTS)(-1)) was 4.0 wt.%. At conditions similar to a compacted and covered landfill (4 degrees C, 7 days, 0 vol.% O(2)) the presence of ISA can increase the leaching of Cu from 2 to 46 wt.% if the amount of cellulose-based waste increases 20 times, from the ratio 1:100 to 1:5. As well, the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cr can increase from 32 to 54 wt.% (Pb), 0.8-8.0 wt.% (Zn), and 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% (Cr) depending on the amount of cellulose and L/S ratio and pH value. Therefore, a risk (alpha=0.05) exists that higher amounts of metals are leached from landfills where cellulose

  10. Plumes on Enceladus: Lessons for Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.

    2014-12-01

    The possible detection of a water vapour plume on Europa [1] suggests resemblances to Enceladus, a cryovolcanically active satellite [2]. How does this activity work, and what lesson does Enceladus have for plumes on Europa? The inferred vapour column densities of the Europa [1] and Enceladus [3] plumes are similar, but the inferred velocity and mass flux of the former are higher. At Enceladus, the inferred plume strength is modulated by its orbital position [4,5], suggesting that tides opening and closing cracks control the eruption behaviour [6,7]. An additional source of stress potentially driving eruptions is the effect of slow freezing of the ice shell above[7,8]. The original detection of the Europa plume was close to apocentre, when polar fractures are expected to be in tension [1]. Follow-up observations at the same orbital phase did not detect a plume [9], although the Galileo E12 magnetometer data may provide evidence for an earlier plume [Khurana, pers. comm.]. One possible explanation for the plume's disappearance is that longer-period tidal effects are playing a role; there are hints of similar secular changes in the Enceladus data [4,5]. Another is that detectability of the Europa plumein the aurora observations also depends on variations in electron density (which affects the UV emission flux) [9]. Or it may simply be that eruptive activity on Europa is highly time-variable, as on Io. At Enceladus, the plume scale height is independent of orbital position and plume brightness [5]. This suggests that the vapour velocity does not depend on crack width, consistent with supersonic flow through a near-surface throat. The large scale height inferred for the Europa plume likewise suggests supersonic behaviour. Continuous fallback of solid plume material at Enceladus affects both the colour [10] and surface texture [2] of near-polar regions. Less frequent plume activity would produce subtler effects; whether the sparse available imagery at Europa [11

  11. Dynamics and Deposits of Coignimbrite Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engwell, Samantha; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Neri, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Fine ash in the atmosphere poses a significant hazard, with potentially disastrous consequences for aviation and, on deposition, health and infrastructure. Fine-grained particles form a large proportion of ejecta in Plinian volcanic clouds. However, another common, but poorly studied phenomena exists whereby large amounts of fine ash are injected into the atmosphere. Coignimbrite plumes form as material is elutriated from the top of pyroclastic density currents. The ash in these plumes is considerably finer grained than that in Plinian plumes and can be distributed over thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere. Despite their significance, very little is known regarding coignimbrite plume formation and dispersion, predominantly due to the poor preservation of resultant deposits. As a result, consequences of coignimbrite plume formation are usually overlooked when conducting hazard and risk analysis. In this study, deposit characteristics and numerical models of plumes are combined to investigate the conditions required for coignimbrite plume formation. Coignimbrite deposits from the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Magnitude 7.7, 39 ka) are well sorted and very fine, with a mode of between 30 and 50 microns, and a significant component of respirable ash (less than 10 microns). Analogous distributions are found for coignimbrite deposits from Tungurahua 2006 and Volcan de Colima (2004-2006), amongst others, regardless of magnitude, type or chemistry of eruption. These results indicate that elutriation processes are the dominant control on coignimbrite grainsize distribution. To further investigate elutriation and coignimbrite plume dynamics, the numerical plume model of Bursik (2001) is applied. Model sensitivity analysis demonstrates that neutral buoyancy conditions (required for the formation of the plume) are controlled by a balance between temperature and gas mass flux in the upper most parts of the pyroclastic density current. In addition, results emphasize the

  12. Geophysical Characterization and Reactive Transport Modeling to Quantify Plume Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Wainwright, H.; Bea, S. A.; Spycher, N.; Li, L.; Sassen, D.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of subsurface contaminant plume mobility and remediation often fail due to the inability to tractably characterize heterogeneous flow-and-transport properties and monitor critical geochemical transitions over plume-relevant scales. This study presents two recently developed strategies to quantify and predict states and processes across scales that govern plume behavior. Development of both strategies takes advantage of multi-scale and disparate datasets and has involved the use of reactive transport models, geophysical methods, and stochastic integration approaches. The first approach, called reactive facies, exploits coupled physiochemical heterogeneity to characterize subsurface flow and transport properties that impact plume sorption and thus mobility. We develop and test the reactive facies concept within uranium contaminated Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments that underlie the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, F-Area, South Carolina. Through analysis of field data (core samples, geophysical well logs, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar and seismic datasets) coupled with laboratory sorption studies, we have identified two reactive facies that have unique distributions of mineralogy, texture, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and geophysical attributes. We develop and use facies-based relationships with geophysical data in a Bayesian framework to spatially distribute reactive facies and their associated transport properties and uncertainties along local and plume-scale geophysical transects. To illustrate the value of reactive facies, we used the geophysically-obtained reactive facies properties to parameterize reactive transport models and simulate the migration of an acidic-U(VI) plume through the 2D domains. Modeling results suggest that each identified reactive facies exerts control on plume evolution, highlighting the usefulness of the reactive facies concept and approach for spatially distributing properties that control flow and

  13. Plume wash-out near a coal-fired power plant: Measurements and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, H. M.; Janssen, A. J.; Slanina, J.

    The contribution of plume wash-out to the wet deposition of pollutants in the vicinity of a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant in The Netherlands has been investigated. Whereas the extra wet deposition of heavy metals, emitted in the form of fly-ash, is not of importance as compared to the background deposition, drastically increased wet deposition of Cl -, F - and especially B-compounds was observed. Little extra deposition of S compounds was found, due to the fact that increased acidity in precipitation, associated with wash-out of HCl and (to a lesser extent) HF, limits the uptake of SO 2. The results of the experiments near the 1000 MWe installation were used to test and validate a wash-out model developed to study and predict wet removal of the major pollutants from a plume. Annual wet deposition patterns of these constituents due to plume wash-out have been calculated for a more characteristic 600 MWe coal-fired power plant. Very locally, at short distances from the stack, plume washout may nearly double local acid deposition under conditions prevalent in The Netherlands. This is mainly the result of wash-out of HCl, whereas the contribution of SO 2 is negligible. Significant plume contributions to the deposition of HF, B-compounds, Al, Ti and Br may be expected. Application of desulfurization units ('scrubbers') will reduce the emission and deposition of acids.

  14. Use of plume mapping data to estimate chlorinated solvent mass loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, J.R.; Neupane, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    Results from a plume mapping study from November 2000 through February 2001 in the sand-and-gravel surficial aquifer at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, were used to assess the occurrence and extent of chlorinated solvent mass loss by calculating mass fluxes across two transverse cross sections and by observing changes in concentration ratios and mole fractions along a longitudinal cross section through the core of the plume. The plume mapping investigation was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of chlorinated solvents migrating from former waste disposal sites. Vertical contaminant concentration profiles were obtained with a direct-push drill rig and multilevel piezometers. These samples were supplemented with additional ground water samples collected with a minipiezometer from the bed of a perennial stream downgradient of the source areas. Results from the field program show that the plume, consisting mainly of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE), was approximately 670 m in length and 120 m in width, extended across much of the 9- to 18-m thickness of the surficial aquifer, and discharged to the stream in some areas. The analyses of the plume mapping data show that losses of the parent compounds, PCE and TCE, were negligible downgradient of the source. In contrast, losses of cis-1,2-DCE, a daughter compound, were observed in this plume. These losses very likely resulted from biodegradation, but the specific reaction mechanism could not be identified. This study demonstrates that plume mapping data can be used to estimate the occurrence and extent of chlorinated solvent mass loss from biodegradation and assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation as a remedial measure.

  15. Hazardous Waste Minimization and Treatment Opportunities in the Eighth U.S. Army and the U.S. Army, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    34industrial wastes" as the wastes compri d of ashes, sludge, waste oil, waste acid and alkali, waste plastics resulting from business activities arad any...defined by Article 2 of the Cabinet Order for Implementing the Air Pollution Law, and facilities incinerating sludge, waste oil, waste acid and waste...alkali, waste plastics, and PCB-applied paper and metal 10. Substances processed from cinders, sludge, and waste oil, waste acid and alkali, and

  16. Observations of nucleation of new particles in a volcanic plume.

    PubMed

    Boulon, Julien; Sellegri, Karine; Hervo, Maxime; Laj, Paolo

    2011-07-26

    Volcanic eruptions caused major weather and climatic changes on timescales ranging from hours to centuries in the past. Volcanic particles are injected in the atmosphere both as primary particles rapidly deposited due to their large sizes on time scales of minutes to a few weeks in the troposphere, and secondary particles mainly derived from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide. These particles are responsible for the atmospheric cooling observed at both regional and global scales following large volcanic eruptions. However, large condensational sinks due to preexisting particles within the plume, and unknown nucleation mechanisms under these circumstances make the assumption of new secondary particle formation still uncertain because the phenomenon has never been observed in a volcanic plume. In this work, we report the first observation of nucleation and new secondary particle formation events in a volcanic plume. These measurements were performed at the puy de Dôme atmospheric research station in central France during the Eyjafjallajokull volcano eruption in Spring 2010. We show that the nucleation is indeed linked to exceptionally high concentrations of sulfuric acid and present an unusual high particle formation rate. In addition we demonstrate that the binary H(2)SO(4) - H(2)O nucleation scheme, as it is usually considered in modeling studies, underestimates by 7 to 8 orders of magnitude the observed particle formation rate and, therefore, should not be applied in tropospheric conditions. These results may help to revisit all past simulations of the impact of volcanic eruptions on climate.

  17. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Nieto, José Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste.

  18. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-12-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  19. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  20. Io's Active Eruption Plumes: Insights from HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, K. L.; Spencer, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    Taking advantage of the available data, we recently [10] completed a detailed analysis of the spectral signature of Io's Pele-type Tvashtar plume as imaged by the HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (HST/WFPC2) via absorption during Jupiter transit and via reflected sunlight in 2007, as well as HST/WFPC2 observations of the 1997 eruption of Io's Prometheus-type Pillan plume (Fig. 1). These observations were obtained in the 0.24-0.42 μm range, where the plumes gas absorption and aerosol scattering properties are most conspicuous. By completing a detailed analysis of these observations, several key aspects of the reflectance and the absorption properties of the two plumes have been revealed. Additionally, by considering the analysis of the HST imaging data in light of previously published spectral analysis of Io's Prometheus and Pele-type plumes several trends in the plume properties have been determined, allowing us to define the relative significance of each plume on the rate of re-surfacing occurring on Io and providing the measurements needed to better assess the role the volcanoes play in the stability of Io's tenuous atmosphere.

  1. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-15

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Clive; Kyle, Philip; Eisele, Fred; Crawford, Jim; Huey, Greg; Tanner, David; Kim, Saewung; Mauldin, Lee; Blake, Don; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Buhr, Martin; Davis, Doug

    2010-01-01

    We report measurements of the atmospheric plume emitted by Erebus volcano, Antarctica, renowned for its persistent lava lake. The observations were made in December 2005 both at source, with an infrared spectrometer sited on the crater rim, and up to 56 km downwind, using a Twin Otter aircraft; with the two different measurement platforms, plume ages were sampled ranging from <1 min to as long as 9 h. Three species (CO, carbonyl sulfide (OCS), and SO2) were measured from both air and ground. While CO and OCS were conserved in the plume, consistent with their long atmospheric lifetimes, the downwind measurements indicate a SO2/CO ratio about 20% of that observed at the crater rim, suggesting rapid chemical conversion of SO2. The aircraft measurements also identify volcanogenic H2SO4, HNO3 and, recognized for the first time in a volcanic plume, HO2NO2. We did not find NOx in the downwind plume despite previous detection of NO2 above the crater. This suggests that near-source NOx was quickly oxidized to HNO3 and HO2NO2, and probably NO32-(aq), possibly in tandem with the conversion of SO2 to sulfate. These fast processes may have been facilitated by "cloud processing" in the dense plume immediately downwind from the crater. A further striking observation was O3 depletion of up to ˜35% in parts of the downwind plume. This is likely to be due to the presence of reactive halogens (BrO and ClO) formed through heterogeneous processes in the young plume. Our analysis adds to the growing evidence for the tropospheric reactivity of volcanic plumes and shows that Erebus volcano has a significant impact on Antarctic atmospheric chemistry, at least locally in the Southern Ross Sea area.

  3. Digital filtering of plume emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transformation and digital filtering techniques were used to separate the superpositioned spectral phenomena observed in the exhaust plumes of liquid propellant rocket engines. Space shuttle main engine (SSME) spectral data were used to show that extraction of spectral lines in the spatial frequency domain does not introduce error, and extraction of the background continuum introduces only minimal error. Error introduced during band extraction could not be quantified due to poor spectrometer resolution. Based on the atomic and molecular species found in the SSME plume, it was determined that spectrometer resolution must be 0.03 nm for SSME plume spectral monitoring.

  4. RAPID REMOVAL OF A GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefkoff, L. Jeff; Gorelick, Steven M.; ,

    1985-01-01

    A groundwater management model is used to design an aquifer restoration system that removes a contaminant plume from a hypothetical aquifer in four years. The design model utilizes groundwater flow simulation and mathematical optimization. Optimal pumping and injection strategies achieve rapid restoration for a minimum total pumping cost. Rapid restoration is accomplished by maintaining specified groundwater velocities around the plume perimeter towards a group of pumping wells located near the plume center. The model does not account for hydrodynamic dispersion. Results show that pumping costs are particularly sensitive to injection capacity. An 8 percent decrease in the maximum allowable injection rate may lead to a 29 percent increase in total pumping costs.

  5. Low-cost, acid/alkaline-resistant, and fluorine-free superhydrophobic fabric coating from onionlike carbon microspheres converted from waste polyethylene terephthalate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibo; Gao, Lei; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

    2014-01-01

    Onionlike carbon microspheres composed of many nanoflakes have been prepared by pyrolyzing waste polyethylene terephthalate in supercritical carbon dioxide at 650 °C for 3 h followed by subsequent vacuum annealing at 1500 °C for 0.5 h. The obtained onionlike carbon microspheres have very high surface roughness and exhibit unique hydrophobic properties. Considering their structural similarities with a lotus leaf, we further developed a low-cost, acid/alkaline-resistant, and fluorine-free superhydrophobic coating strategy on fabrics by employing the onionlike carbon microspheres and polydimethylsiloxane as raw materials. This provides a novel technique to convert waste polyethylene terephthalate to valuable carbon materials. At the same time, we demonstrate a novel application direction of carbon materials by taking advantage of their unique structural properties. The combination of recycling waste solid materials as carbon feedstock for valuable carbon material production, with the generation of highly value-added products such as superhydrophobic fabrics, may provide a feasible solution for sustainable solid waste treatment.

  6. Tropospheric impacts of volcanic halogen emissions: first simulations of reactive halogen chemistry in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tjarda

    2013-04-01

    rapidly converted into nitric acid (via BrONO2). Such HNO3-formation might contribute towards new particle formation, noting reported very high in-plume particle nucleation rates in Eyjafjallajökull plume. Thus, plume halogen chemistry influences on aerosol formation and growth are emphasized regarding studies of climatic and health impacts of volcanic aerosol. As the plume disperses, in-plume ozone concentrations partially recover due to entrainment of O3-rich background air. However, the cumulative net impact on ozone depletion continues. Whilst the global tropospheric impact of Eyjafjallajokull is small, up-scaling of the model findings in the context of present day global volcanic degassing and recent historic eruptions indicates potential for significant impacts of global volcanic halogen emissions on tropospheric ozone, particularly during periods of enhanced volcanic activity. Notably, this model-observation study of Eyjafjallajökull plume exhibits contrasts to a related model-observation study that quantified ozone loss in Redoubt volcano eruption plume (Kelly et al., JVGR in press). Meteorological and volcanological causes for these differences in plume halogen evolution (hence impacts) are discussed. This has implications for wider atmospheric modelling efforts to quantify global impacts from volcanic halogen emissions and highlights the useful role of fully-flexible and computationally inexpensive models such as PlumeChem to inform larger (regional or global) model studies regarding model initialisation and particularly near-source plume chemistry.

  7. Waste-Glycerol-Directed Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Carbon with Superior Performance in Room-Temperature Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Sung-Wook; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The development of easier, cheaper, and more ecofriendly synthetic methods for mesoporous materials remains a challenging topic to commercialize them, and the transformation of waste glycerol, as a biodiesel byproduct, into something useful and salable is one of the pending issues to be resolved. Here we first report that mesoporous silica (KIE-6) and carbon (KIE-7) can be simultaneously synthesized by using cheap and ecofriendly crude-waste-glycerol of biodiesel with or without glycerol purification, and we demonstrated the excellent performance of the mesoporous material as a catalyst support for formic acid decomposition. As a result, Pd-MnOx catalysts supported on NH2-functionalized KIE-6 showed the highest catalytic activity (TOF: 540.6 h−1) ever reported for room-temperature formic acid decomposition without additives. Moreover, we conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) from biomass cultivation through biodiesel production to KIE-6 and KIE-7 preparation, and it was confirmed that CO2 emission during synthesis of KIE-6 and KIE-7 could be reduced by 87.1% and 85.7%, respectively. We believe that our study suggested more ecofriendly and industry-friendly approaches for preparation of mesoporous materials, and utilization of waste glycerol. PMID:26515193