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Sample records for acidification study ilwas

  1. Watershed approach: the EPRI Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, A.H.; Goldstein, R.A.; Chen, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the philosophy and organization of the Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS). These data are used for detailed watershed budgets and to establish a benchmark for future ecological effects studies in the Adirondacks. An intensive, integrated, five-year study of three forested watersheds was established to determine how lake waters become acidified and to quantify the train of events occurring as acid precipitation becomes lake water. The study integrated management questions into the scientific research at the planning stage. The total system was divided into compartments for detailed scientific analysis with a model being developed to reassemble the data from each subsection to represent the overall behavior of the system.

  2. Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS): contributions to the international conference on the ecological impact of acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) was initiated to study and detail lake acidification processes for three lake watershed basins in the Adirondack Park region of New York. The three basins (Woods, Sagamore, and Panther), receive similar amounts of acid deposition yet observable pH values for the lakes are very dissimilar indicating unequal acid neutralizing capacities among the watersheds. This volume contains a compilation of seven papers. Relevant topics include: a characterization of the geology, hydrology, limnology and vegetation of the three study sites, an analysis of acid precipitation quality and quantity, the effects of vegetative canopy, the effects of snowmelt, the effects of winter lake stratification, comparison of heavy metal transport, examination of acidic sources other than direct precipitation, assessment of lake acidification during spring thaw and integration of all acidification components with a mathematical model.

  3. AN EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF THREE DYNAMIC WATERSHED ACIDIFICATION CODES (MAGIC, ETD, AND ILWAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently using the dynamic watershed acidification codes MAGIC, ILWAS, and ETD to assess the potential future impact of acidic deposition on surface water quality by simulating watershed acid neutralization processes. The reliability o...

  4. An evaluation and analysis of three dynamic watershed acidification codes (MAGIC, ETD, and ILWAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.; Vail, L.W.; Girvin, D.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Hibler, L.F.; Miley, T.B.; Monsour, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently using the dynamic watershed acidification codes MAGIC, ILWAS, and ETD to assess the potential future impact of the acidic deposition on surface water quality by simulating watershed acid neutralization processes. The reliability of forecasts made with these codes is of considerable concern. The present study evaluates the process formulations (i.e., conceptual and numerical representation of atmospheric, hydrologic geochemical and biogeochemical processes), compares their approaches to calculating acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and estimates the relative effects (sensitivity) of perturbations in the input data on selected output variables for each code. Input data were drawn from three Adirondack (upstate New York) watersheds: Panther Lake, Clear Pond, and Woods Lake. Code calibration was performed by the developers of the codes. Conclusions focus on summarizing the adequacy of process formulations, differences in ANC simulation among codes and recommendations for further research to increase forecast reliability. 87 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  5. NUMERICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING WATERSHED ACIDIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three numerical models of watershed acidification, including the MAGIC II, ETD, and ILWAS models, are reviewed, and a comparative study is made of the specific process formulations that are incorporated in the models to represent hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical proc...

  6. Regional Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (RILWAS): Major findings for Adirondack and Blue Ridge Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. ); Altwicker, E.; Clesceri, N. ); April, R. ); Chen, C.W. ); Cronan, C.S. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Johannes, A.H. ); Newton, R.M.

    1989-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to test the hydrologic and chemical theory developed during the Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS). A secondary objective was to assess the distribution of fish species among lakes of varying water quality. A total of 24 lake-watershed systems across the Adirondacks served as stuey sites over a period of two years. The US Forest Service's, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, with over 20 years of data, was used to test the ILWAS model on a Blue Ridge mountain stream. 122 refs., 123 figs., 46 tabs.

  7. Studies show liming a direct, economical method to neutralize lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the effects of liming on the environment was missing until the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pulled researchers together to conduct integrated lake liming studies begun about six years ago. What researchers found is that liming is a cost-effective and environmentally sound method to treat acidic lakes so fish and other organisms may thrive. To research the acidification process, EPRI studied three lakes: Woods, Panther, and Sagamore, in the Adirondacks where most of the acidified lakes in the U.S. are located. The study done from 1976-84 and called Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) developed a general theory for understanding the effect of natural and man-made processes on lake chemistry. The theory is incorporated into a computer simulation model that accurately predicts a lake's vulnerability to acidification.

  8. Hydrologic data from the integrated lake-watershed acidification study in the west-central Adirondack Mountains, New York : October 1977 through January 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Murdoch, P.S.; Dalton, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected from three forested headwater lake watersheds in Herkimer and Hamilton Counties from October 1977 through early January 1982 as part of the Integrated Lake-Watersheds Acidification Study (ILWAS). ILWAS was established in 1977 to determine why these lakes differ in pH when all receive equal amounts of acidic atmospheric deposition. Woods Lake is acidic (pH ranges from 4 to 5), Panther Lake is neutral (pH ranges from 5 to 7.5), and Sagamore Lake is intermediate (pH ranges from 5 to 6). The data tabulated herein include discharge at the three lake outlets and in a tributary to each lake; lake-water stage at each lake; chemical quality of lake water, including total concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, and lead, at each lake outlet and at Lost Brook (a tributary to Sagamore Lake); groundwater stage from 29 wells; major ion concentrations of groundwater from 22 of these wells; temperature of soil from three depths at one site in each watershed; soil-moisture tension at three depths at eight sites - four in the neutral-lake basin, three in the acidic-lake basin , and one in the intermediate-lake basin; and average snowpack depths and water equivalents at approximately 20 snow-course sites in each basin for three sampling periods during the 1979-80 winter. (USGS)

  9. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  10. Development of in situ respirometers for ocean acidification studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risi, M. A.; Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Okuda, C. M.; Reisenbichler, K. R.; Robison, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of metabolic rates of deep-sea organisms are important components of research addressing the biological impacts of ocean acidification. These studies contribute to our understanding of the ocean carbon cycle by identifying the pathways and rates of organic carbon fluxes in ocean ecosystems. Oxygen consumption is expected to decrease in most animals in response to hypercapnic (high-CO2) stress, due to disruption of internal acid/base balance. To perform these field and laboratory studies, a respirometry system utilizing a controller with a distributed architecture was developed. The architecture has allowed the system to be adapted to midwater and benthic respirometers. The distributed nature of the architecture allows the easy expansion of the respirometers as well as the integration of new sensors. An overview of the system and field results to date will be presented.

  11. Ocean acidification: Linking science to management solutions using the Great Barrier Reef as a case study.

    PubMed

    Albright, Rebecca; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Baird, Mark; Beeden, Roger; Byrne, Maria; Collier, Catherine; Dove, Sophie; Fabricius, Katharina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kelly, Ryan P; Lough, Janice; Mongin, Mathieu; Munday, Philip L; Pears, Rachel J; Russell, Bayden D; Tilbrook, Bronte; Abal, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean acidification. While our understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems is growing, gaps remain that limit our ability to translate scientific knowledge into management action. To guide solution-based research, we review the current knowledge of ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs alongside management needs and priorities. We use the world's largest continuous reef system, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), as a case study. We integrate scientific knowledge gained from a variety of approaches (e.g., laboratory studies, field observations, and ecosystem modelling) and scales (e.g., cell, organism, ecosystem) that underpin a systems-level understanding of how ocean acidification is likely to impact the GBR and associated goods and services. We then discuss local and regional management options that may be effective to help mitigate the effects of ocean acidification on the GBR, with likely application to other coral reef systems. We develop a research framework for linking solution-based ocean acidification research to practical management options. The framework assists in identifying effective and cost-efficient options for supporting ecosystem resilience. The framework enables on-the-ground OA management to be the focus, while not losing sight of CO2 mitigation as the ultimate solution. PMID:27564868

  12. Ocean acidification postcards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  13. Estuarine acidification and minimum buffer zone—A conceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xinping; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2013-10-01

    This study uses a simulation method to explore how estuarine pH is affected by mixing between river water, anthropogenic CO2 enriched seawater, and by respiration. Three rivers with different levels of weathering products (Amazon, Mississippi, and St. Johns) are selected for this simulation. The results indicate that estuaries that receive low to moderate levels of weathering products (Amazon and St. Johns) exhibit a maximum pH decrease in the midsalinity region as a result of anthropogenic CO2 intrusion. This maximum pH decrease coincides with a previously unrecognized mid-salinity minimum buffer zone (MBZ). In addition, water column oxygen consumption can further depress pH for all simulated estuaries. We suggest that recognition of the estuarine MBZs may be important for studying estuarine calcifying organisms and pH-sensitive biogeochemical processes.

  14. Integrated lake-watershed acidification study. Volume 1: model principles and application procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Gherini, S.A.; Hudson, R.J.M.; Dean, J.D.

    1983-09-01

    The ILWAS model has been developed to simulate the biogeochemical processes occurring along the pathways which precipitation follows as it passes through the forest canopy, soil horizons, streams, bogs, and lakes. The model accepts as input precipitation quantity, precipitation quality, ambient air quality and basin properties. It calculates the volumetric flow rates and the concentrations of cations (H/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, and NH/sub 4//sup +/), anions (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, and F/sup -/), monomeric aluminum, total inorganic carbon, and an organic acid analog throughout the lake-watershed system. The model segments heterogeneous lake-watershed systems into cascades of homogeneous compartments. Precipitation is routed through the compartments using hydraulic formulations and the principle of continuity. Alkalinity is used as a master variable; major alkalinity producing and consuming reactions are simulated. Slow reactions are presented by rate expressions; fast reactions by multiphase equilibria. Modeled processes are all formulated in terms of deterministic equations. Application of the model involves eight steps: (1) system segmentation, (2) preparation of data on lake-watershed characteristics, (3) selection of model coefficients, (4) preparation of wet and dry deposition data, (5) model calibration, (6) sensitivity analysis, (7) hypotheses testing, and (8) evaluation of management scenarios. 89 references, 36 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Adding a New Dimension to the Study of Calcareous Plankton Response to Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, R. L.; Urbanski, J. M.; Bralower, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at unprecedented rates. This carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean causing both the pH and the concentration of carbonate ions to decrease. These chemical changes make it less energetically viable for calcareous organisms to form shells. This study focuses on a particularly important group of organisms; calcareous plankton, namely planktonic foraminifera and pteropods. These organisms lie at low trophic levels and therefore their demise could cause the total collapse of the marine food chain as we know it. The Pleistocene is defined by glacial-interglacial cycles with lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations (180 ppm) during glacials and higher concentrations (280 ppm) during interglacials. These fluctuations provide an ancient experiment assessing the response of planktonic foraminifera and pteropods to changing ocean chemistry. Measurements of planktonic foraminiferal tests over glacial-interglacial cycles (e.g. Broecker et al., 2003) show that shell weight increases as atmospheric CO2 decreases. We take this investigation one step further by observing individual plankton shells in a nano-CT (computed tomography) scanner which provides extraordinarily detailed three-dimensional images. These images enable us to determine detailed variations in test wall thickness and test volume, as well as ontogenetic changes in shell morphology as a response to changing atmospheric carbon dioxide. One of the key aspects of our investigation is that pteropods and planktonic foraminifera are studied collectively. This allows us to assess the differential impact of ocean acidification on aragonite and calcite. In our presentation, we illustrate the CT technique and present preliminary results from a downhole investigation of the Pleistocene from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1002 in the Cariaco Basin. In the future the nano-CT scanning method can be used to evaluate the detailed morphological response of

  16. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    PubMed Central

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed. PMID:12232364

  17. Potential future fisheries yields in shelf waters: a model study of the effects of climate change and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, S. M.; Le Quesne, W. F.; Parker, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a coupled marine water column model to three sites in the North Sea. The three sites represent different hydrodynamic regimes and are thus representative of a wider area. The model consists of a hydro-biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM-BFM) coupled one way upwards to a size-structured model representing pelagic predators and detritivores (Blanchard et al., 2009). Thus, bottom-up pressures like changing abiotic environment (climate change, chemical cycling) will have an impact on fish biomass across the size spectrum. Here, we studied three different impacts of future conditions on fish yield: climatic impacts (medium emission scenario), abiotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced pelagic nitrification), and biotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced detritivore growth rate). The three impacts were studied separately and combined, and results showed that sites within different hydrodynamic regimes can respond very differently. The seasonally stratified site showed an increase in fish yields (occurring in winter and spring), with acidification effects of the same order of magnitude as climatic effects. The permanently mixed site also showed an increase in fish yield (increase in summer, decrease in winter), due to climatic effects moderated by acidification impacts. The third site, which is characterised by large inter-annual variability in thermal stratification duration, showed a decline in fish yields (occurring in winter) due to decline in the benthic system which forms an important carbon pathway at this site. All sites displayed a shift towards a more pelagic-oriented system.

  18. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  19. Shallow water submarine hydrothermal activity - A case study in the assessment of ocean acidification and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, T.; Nagao, K.; Kusakabe, M.; Wang, B.; Chen, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Most natural Shallow Water submarine Hydrothermal activates (SWH) along coastlines are related to hydrothermal eruptions involving heating of groundwater with the volcanic gas. These SWHs supply nutrients such as phosphorus and micro nutrients like iron to the euphotic zone, contributing to the overall natural fertility and primary productivity of coastal waters. However, SWHs also have a negative effect, dispersing toxic materials such as mercury and arsenic, and affecting the acidification of the surrounding waters. In this study, we evaluate the impact of "iron supply" and "ocean acidification" on the primary production in a coastal marine environment, at a SWH area discovered off Gueshandao Island, northeast Taiwan. In the past three years, expeditions were conducted and observations made around this SWH site. Divers, small boats and a research vessel (R/V OR1, Ocean University National Taiwan) were used to survey successively larger areas around the site. Some of the results obtained are as follows. Hydrothermal vents are located in a hilly terrain rich with hot spring water with gas erupting intermittently. There are two types of vents, roughly divided by color, yellow hot spring water with higher temperature >110 degC ejected from sulfur chimneys of various sizes, and colorless water with lower temperature ~80 degC ejected directly from the crevices of the andesitic bedrock. Natural sulfur solidifying in the mouth of a small chimney was captured by a video camera, and explosions were also observed at intervals of a few minutes. Sediment, sand and particles of sulfur were deposited on the sides to a radius of about 50 m condensing around the chimney. The bottom type changes from sand/particles to outcrop/rock away from the vents. Moreover, gas samples were collected from the vents; the ratios of gas concentrations (N2/Ar) and isotopic composition of noble gas (3He/4He) suggest that these volcanic gases are mantle-derived. Hydrothermal fluid with high p

  20. How can present and future satellite missions support scientific studies that address ocean acidification?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salisbury, Joseph; Vandemark, Douglas; Jonsson, Bror; Balch, William; Chakraborty, Sumit; Lohrenz, Steven; Chapron, Bertrand; Hales, Burke; Mannino, Antonio; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Reul, Nicolas; Signorini, Sergio; Wanninkhof, Rik; Yates, Kimberly K.

    2016-01-01

    Space-based observations offer unique capabilities for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of the upper ocean inorganic carbon cycle and, in turn, supporting research tied to ocean acidification (OA). Satellite sensors measuring sea surface temperature, color, salinity, wind, waves, currents, and sea level enable a fuller understanding of a range of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena that drive regional OA dynamics as well as the potentially varied impacts of carbon cycle change on a broad range of ecosystems. Here, we update and expand on previous work that addresses the benefits of space-based assets for OA and carbonate system studies. Carbonate chemistry and the key processes controlling surface ocean OA variability are reviewed. Synthesis of present satellite data streams and their utility in this arena are discussed, as are opportunities on the horizon for using new satellite sensors with increased spectral, temporal, and/or spatial resolution. We outline applications that include the ability to track the biochemically dynamic nature of water masses, to map coral reefs at higher resolution, to discern functional phytoplankton groups and their relationships to acid perturbations, and to track processes that contribute to acid variation near the land-ocean interface.

  1. A novel marine mesocosm facility to study global warming, water quality, and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gustavo; Calderon, Emiliano N; Pereira, Cristiano M; Marangoni, Laura F B; Santos, Henrique F; Peixoto, Raquel S; Bianchini, Adalto; Castro, Clovis B

    2015-10-01

    We describe a completely randomizable flow-through outdoor mesocosm for climate change and ecotoxicology studies that was built with inexpensive materials. The 16 raceway tanks allow up to 6× water renewal per hour, avoiding changes in natural abiotic seawater conditions. We use an open-source hardware board (Arduino) that was adapted to control heaters and an innovative CO 2 injection system. This system reduced seawater pH up to -0.9 units and increased temperature up to +6°C in three treatments and a control. Treatments can be continuously compared with the control and vary according to diel fluctuations, thus following the diel range observed in the sea. The mesocosm facility also includes an integrated secondary system of 48 aquaria for ecotoxicology studies. We validated the reproducibility and relevance of our experimental system by analyzing the variation of the total DNA of the microbial community extracted from corals in three elevated temperature scenarios during a 40-day experiment. We also present data from temperature, acidification, and copper contamination trials, which allowed continuous, reliable, and consistent treatment manipulations. PMID:26668722

  2. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  3. A new CO2 vent for the study of ocean acidification in the Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Hernández, C A; Sangil, C; Hernández, J C

    2016-08-15

    Natural CO2 vents are considered the gold standard of ocean acidification (OA) studies. In coastal areas these rare vents have only been investigated at the Mediterranean temperate rocky reefs and at Indo-Pacific coral reefs, although there should be more at other volcanic shores around the world. Substantial scientific efforts on investigating OA effects have been mostly performed by laboratory experiments. However, there is a debate on how acute this kind of approach truly represents the responses to OA scenarios, since it generally involves short-term, rapid perturbation and single variable and species experiments. Due to these limitations, world areas with natural CO2 vents are essential to understand long-term marine ecosystem responses to rising human derived atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we presented a new vent found in the subtropical North East Atlantic reefs (28°N, La Palma Island) that shows moderate CO2 emission (900ppm), reducing pH values to an annual average of 7.86±0.16. PMID:27210563

  4. Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Erler, René; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2013-12-01

    Marine yeasts play an important role in biodegradation and nutrient cycling and are often associated with marine flora and fauna. They show maximum growth at pH levels lower than present-day seawater pH. Thus, contrary to many other marine organisms, they may actually profit from ocean acidification. Hence, we conducted a microcosm study, incubating natural seawater from the North Sea at present-day pH (8.10) and two near-future pH levels (7.81 and 7.67). Yeasts were isolated from the initial seawater sample and after 2 and 4 weeks of incubation. Isolates were classified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and representative isolates were identified by partial sequencing of the large subunit rRNA gene. From the initial seawater sample, we predominantly isolated a yeast-like filamentous fungus related to Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus sp., Candida sake, and various cold-adapted yeasts. After incubation, we found more different yeast species at near-future pH levels than at present-day pH. Yeasts reacting to low pH were related to Leucosporidium scottii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus sp., and Debaryomyces hansenii. Our results suggest that these yeasts will benefit from seawater pH reductions and give a first indication that the importance of yeasts will increase in a more acidic ocean.

  5. Acidification and sulfide formation control during reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane in groundwater: Effectiveness and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Chen, S C; Lin, Y C; Kuo, Y C; Chen, J Y; Kao, C M

    2016-10-01

    To enhance the reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) in groundwater, substrate injection may be required. However, substrate biodegradation causes groundwater acidification and sulfide production, which inhibits the bacteria responsible for DCA dechlorination and results in an odor problem. In the microcosm study, the effectiveness of the addition of ferrous sulfate (FS), desulfurization slag (DS), and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on acidification and sulfide control was studied during reductive dechlorination of DCA, and the emulsified substrate (ES) was used as the substrate. Up to 94% of the sulfide was removed with FS and DS addition (0.25 wt%) (initial DCA concentration = 13.5 mg/L). FS and DS amendments resulted in the formation of a metal sulfide, which reduced the hydrogen sulfide concentration as well as the subsequent odor problem. Approximately 96% of the DCA was degraded under reductive dechlorination with nZVI or DS addition using ES as the substrate. In microcosms with nZVI or DS addition, the sulfide concentration was reduced to less than 15 μg/L. Acidification can be controlled via hydroxide ions production after nZVI oxidation and reaction of free CaO (released from DS) with water, which enhanced DCA dechlorination. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results confirmed that the microcosms with nZVI added had the highest Dehalococcoides population (up to 2.5 × 10(8) gene copies/g soil) due to effective acidification control. The α-elimination mechanism was the main abiotic process, and reductive dechlorination dominated by Dehalococcides was the biotic mechanism that resulted in DCA removal. More than 22 bacterial species were detected, and dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils under alkaline and acidic conditions. PMID:27376861

  6. Comparative studies on the effects of seawater acidification caused by CO₂ and HCl enrichment on physiological changes in Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianli; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2016-02-01

    The present medium term (21 d) study was performed to evaluate the effects of HCl or CO2-induced acidified seawater (pH 7.7, 7.1 or 6.5; control: pH 8.1) on the physiological responses of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, at different levels of biological organization. The results demonstrate that: (1) either HCl or CO2 enrichment had significant impacts on physiological changes in M. edulis: the mortality increased while condition index (CI) decreased steadily as the pH decreased, those indexes indicate the metabolic activities (e.g. filtering rate, oxygen consumption rate, etc.) underwent similar changes; moreover, the decrease of calcification rate and carbonic anhydrase activity indicate that the carbon sink ability of the mussels was significantly affected. We hypothesize that acidification induced intracellular energy crisis and a decrease in enzyme activities could be a potential explanation for our findings. (2) Comparatively, CO2 enrichment had more severe effects on mortality but caused less stress to the metabolic and carbon sink indexes than HCl adjustment at the same pH level. Apoptosis caused by the 'intracellular acidification' in the CO2 group and difference in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration between two groups are suggested to be responsible for these results. (3) An integrated biomarker response (IBR) was set up on the basis of the estimated indexes; it was determined that the IBR decreased steadily with the decrease of pH, and a positive relationship was observed between them, inferring that the IBR might be a potential biological monitoring method in evaluating the effects of seawater acidification. PMID:26610296

  7. Future acidification of marginal seas: A comparative study of the Japan/East Sea and the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiming; Boudreau, Bernard P.

    2016-06-01

    The response of marginal (peripheral) seas to ocean acidification on short and long time scales is not well established. Through modeling, we examine the future acidification of two adjacent marginal seas, the South China Sea (SCS) and the Japan/East Sea (J/ES). Our results illustrate the importance of unique features in determining their acidification. The J/ES basin will become completely undersaturated with regard to calcite rapidly in the next few decades, while the SCS basin will experience relatively slower acidification. During its acidification, the J/ES will continually act as a sink for atmospheric CO2, whereas the SCS will temporarily switch from a source to a sink during the peak pCO2 interval, only to return slowly to being a source again. Marginal sea acidification will be determined by multiple factors, including their connections with the open ocean and their unique physical and biogeochemical dynamics, in addition to the level of atmospheric CO2.

  8. The contribution of lactic acid to acidification of tumours: studies of variant cells lacking lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, M.; Hasuda, K.; Stamato, T.; Tannock, I. F.

    1998-01-01

    Solid tumours develop an acidic extracellular environment with high concentration of lactic acid, and lactic acid produced by glycolysis has been assumed to be the major cause of tumour acidity. Experiments using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-deficient ras-transfected Chinese hamster ovarian cells have been undertaken to address directly the hypothesis that lactic acid production is responsible for tumour acidification. The variant cells produce negligible quantities of lactic acid and consume minimal amounts of glucose compared with parental cells. Lactate-producing parental cells acidified lightly-buffered medium but variant cells did not. Tumours derived from parental and variant cells implanted into nude mice were found to have mean values of extracellular pH (pHe) of 7.03 +/- 0.03 and 7.03 +/- 0.05, respectively, both of which were significantly lower than that of normal muscle (pHe = 7.43 +/- 0.03; P < 0.001). Lactic acid concentration in variant tumours (450 +/- 90 microg g(-1) wet weight) was much lower than that in parental tumours (1880 +/- 140 microg/g(-1)) and similar to that in serum (400 +/- 35 microg/g(-1)). These data show discordance between mean levels of pHe and lactate content in tumours; the results support those of Newell et al (1993) and suggest that the production of lactic acid via glycolysis causes acidification of culture medium, but is not the only mechanism, and is probably not the major mechanism responsible for the development of an acidic environment within solid tumours. PMID:9667639

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the biogenic composition of the sea-surface microlayer: Results from a mesocosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Stolle, Christian; Endres, Sonja; Schulz, Kai G.; Engel, Anja

    2014-11-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is the ocean's uppermost boundary to the atmosphere and in control of climate relevant processes like gas exchange and emission of marine primary organic aerosols (POA). The SML represents a complex surface film including organic components like polysaccharides, proteins, and marine gel particles, and harbors diverse microbial communities. Despite the potential relevance of the SML in ocean-atmosphere interactions, still little is known about its structural characteristics and sensitivity to a changing environment such as increased oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Here we report results of a large-scale mesocosm study, indicating that ocean acidification can affect the abundance and activity of microorganisms during phytoplankton blooms, resulting in changes in composition and dynamics of organic matter in the SML. Our results reveal a potential coupling between anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the biogenic properties of the SML, pointing to a hitherto disregarded feedback process between ocean and atmosphere under climate change.

  10. Ocean acidification worse in coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of ocean acidification in coral reefs outpaces the rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth's atmosphere, indicating that anthropogenic carbon emissions alone are not to blame for the threat to coral reefs, a new study shows.

  11. The Role of Temperature in Determining Species' Vulnerability to Ocean Acidification: A Case Study Using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Kristy J.; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M.; Hosfelt, Jessica D.; Miller, Seth H.; Sanford, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is occurring across a backdrop of concurrent environmental changes that may in turn influence species' responses to OA. Temperature affects many fundamental biological processes and governs key reactions in the seawater carbonate system. It therefore has the potential to offset or exacerbate the effects of OA. While initial studies have examined the combined impacts of warming and OA for a narrow range of climate change scenarios, our mechanistic understanding of the interactive effects of temperature and OA remains limited. Here, we use the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, as a model species to test how OA affects the growth of a calcifying invertebrate across a wide range of temperatures encompassing their thermal optimum. Mussels were exposed in the laboratory to a factorial combination of low and high pCO2 (400 and 1200 µatm CO2) and temperatures (12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 24°C) for one month. Results indicate that the effects of OA on shell growth are highly dependent on temperature. Although high CO2 significantly reduced mussel growth at 14°C, this effect gradually lessened with successive warming to 20°C, illustrating how moderate warming can mediate the effects of OA through temperature's effects on both physiology and seawater geochemistry. Furthermore, the mussels grew thicker shells in warmer conditions independent of CO2 treatment. Together, these results highlight the importance of considering the physiological and geochemical interactions between temperature and carbonate chemistry when interpreting species' vulnerability to OA. PMID:24984016

  12. Ocean acidification challenges copepod reproductive plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehmaa, A.; Almén, A.-K.; Brutemark, A.; Paul, A.; Riebesell, U.; Furuhagen, S.; Engström-Öst, J.

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification is challenging phenotypic plasticity of individuals and populations. Calanoid copepods (zooplankton) are shown to be fairly plastic against altered pH conditions, and laboratory studies indicate that transgenerational effects are one mechanism behind this plasticity. We studied phenotypic plasticity of the copepod Acartia bifilosa in the course of a pelagic, large-volume mesocosm study that was conducted to investigate ecosystem and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification. We measured copepod egg production rate, egg hatching success, adult female size and adult female antioxidant capacity (ORAC) as a function of acidification (fCO2 ~ 365-1231 μatm), and as a function of quantity and quality of their diet. We used an egg transplant experiment to reveal if transgenerational effects can alleviate the possible negative effects of ocean acidification on offspring development. We found significant negative effects of ocean acidification on adult female copepod size and egg hatching success. In addition, we found a threshold of fCO2 concentration (~ 1000 μatm), above which adaptive maternal effects cannot alleviate the negative effects of acidification on egg hatching and nauplii development. We did not find support for the hypothesis that insufficient food quantity (total particulate carbon ~ 55 μm) or quality (C : N) weakens the transgenerational effects. However, females with high ORAC produced eggs with high hatching success. Overall, these results indicate that A. bifilosa could be affected by projected near future CO2 levels.

  13. Topical acidification promotes healing of experimental deep partial thickness skin burns: a randomized double-blind preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, T; Eichenlaub, E H; Angel, M F; Levin, M; Futrell, J W

    1985-12-01

    The effects of three buffered solutions with pH values of 3.5, 7.42 and 8.5, respectively, on the healing rate of deep partial skin thickness burns, was followed for 21 days in 16 guinea-pigs. Two symmetrical burns were inflicted on the back of each animal and then each individual wound was dressed with an irrigation disc dressing; solutions were coded (no. 1 to no. 3) and the animals were randomly divided and blindly treated as follows: Group A, solution no. 1 v. solution no. 2 (n = 4); Group B, solution no. 2 v. solution no. 3(n = 4); Group C, solution no. 1 v. solution no. 3(n = 4); Group D, non-irrigated disc dressings (n = 4). The solutions were applied to the surface of the burn wounds at a rate of 0.15 ml/cm2. Dressings were changed every 7 days to assess contraction and epithelialization by a sonic digitizer. On post-burn day 21 the newly formed scar tissue was measured in all wounds. After computation of the healing rate at the end of the study, the data were then related to the coded treating agent. Contraction did not differ in all test groups during the study. Epithelialization was significantly faster in the pH 3.5-treated burns than in the other treated wounds (P less than 0.001). The present study indicates that topical acidification of experimental deep partial skin thickness burns promoted healing. The precise mechanism should be elucidated. PMID:4092157

  14. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Zoccola, Didier; Innocenti, Alessio; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity. PMID:27271641

  15. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Innocenti, Alessio; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity. PMID:27271641

  16. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  17. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  18. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Kathryn I; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  19. Soil acidification in southern Switzerland between 1987 and 1997: A case study based on the critical load concept

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, P.; Zimmermann, S.; Luster, J. ); Zysset, M. . Dept. of Soil Sciences)

    1999-07-15

    Southern Switzerland with its mainly acidic bedrock is potentially very sensitive to the effects of atmospheric proton input. In addition, this region suffers from relatively high acid deposition originating from the greater Milano area. The soil solution composition at different depths of a cryptopodzolic soil was monitored over a 10 year period with samples collected fortnightly. On the basis of the concept of critical loads of acidity, the molar ratio of base nutrient cations (BC) to aluminum was used as the parameter to assess acidification. Despite characteristic seasonal short-term variations of BC and Al, which could be attributed qualitatively to specific soil chemical processes, statistically significant trends over the entire observation period were observed. In all horizons a depletion of BC concentrations indicated an impoverishment of the nutrient status of the vegetation. Aluminum decreased in the upper soil, whereas a significant increase was observed at the lowest soil depth. The BC/Al ratio decreased significantly in all mineral soil horizons, indicating rapid soil acidification. Considering the constant decrease of acid deposition at the site during the observation period with values significantly below calculated critical loads, the observed acidification is attribute to a memory effect of the high acid loads between 1965 and 1985.

  20. The geological record of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenisch, B.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Thomas, E.; Zachos, J. C.; Gibbs, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Marine sediments contain information on a variety of past climate and carbon cycle perturbation events that may provide insights into the consequences of ongoing ocean acidification and potential future biotic changes. A variety of candidate events have been proposed, for which we assess the evidence for elevated CO2, global warming, and seawater carbonate chemistry changes, as well as having been primarily driven by massive carbon release. However, in order to be able to draw valid parallels with anthropogenic ocean acidification, we must distinguish between long-term changes and quasi steady states of marine carbon cycling, and transient changes, as only events shorter than ~10,000 years will exhibit the coupled reductions in ocean pH and carbonate saturation state that characterize today's (and the future) ocean. Quantifying the magnitude and rate of carbon cycle perturbations is therefore key to identifying and interpreting past intervals of ocean acidification. However, much evidence for paleocean acidification has been inferred from biotic changes, which could alternatively have been caused by other environmental changes such as changes in temperature, nutrient supply and oxygenation. Independent geochemical proxy evidence for paleo-seawater pH and carbonate saturation is therefore critical to confirm that ocean acidification did indeed take place. As a case study, we focus on the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (56 Ma), an extreme climate event that displays close similarities with worst-case scenarios for the future, in terms of massive carbon release (~4,500 Pg C), associated warming (5-9°C), and its worldwide extent. We have applied the boron isotope/paleo-pH proxy to quantify the extent of ocean acidification associated with this event, and find a consistent pH decrease in the surface and deep ocean over the extent of the carbon isotope excursion, both in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins, confirming that ocean acidification did take place.

  1. Temporal and spatial trends in the chemistry of acidified lakes under ice cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G R; Galloway, J N; Schofield, C L

    1980-03-01

    When preparing materials budgets for watersheds containing lakes, the spatial and temporal interchange between large compartments within the whole system must be considered. This paper addresses the lakes of the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) and their role in our mass balance calculations for the period of winter stratification of 1978-1979, and presents data on lake metabolism.

  2. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  3. Acidification of the lower Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.F.; Rutherford, D.A.; Walker-Bryan, B.

    1992-05-01

    Nonpoint-source pollutants are implicated in the global acidification of fresh waters. Our ability to differentiate the effects of point-source and nonpoint-source pollution on the acidification of large rivers is limited. Most studies of point-source discharges have been concerned with municipal programs for reducing biochemical oxygen demand, bacterial counts, and total phosphorus; few have addressed acidification of rivers. Because of the meager information on the role of nonpoint-source and industrial pollution in the acidification of large rivers, we examined long-term trends (and cyclic seasonal events) in pH, alkalinity, and selected ions in the lower Mississippi River basin from 1958 to 1986. Time-series analyses disclosed significant declines in pH and alkalinity and increases in strong acid anions in the lower 300 km (industrial corridor) of the lower Mississippi River. However, upstream from most industry on the Mississippi River and throughout the Atchafalaya River, where agricultural development has predominated, long-term trends in those characteristics were variable or nonsignificant. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. MEDUSA-2.0: an intermediate complexity biogeochemical model of the marine carbon cycle for climate change and ocean acidification studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Anderson, T. R.

    2013-10-01

    MEDUSA-1.0 (Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification) was developed as an "intermediate complexity" plankton ecosystem model to study the biogeochemical response, and especially that of the so-called "biological pump", to anthropogenically driven change in the World Ocean (Yool et al., 2011). The base currency in this model was nitrogen from which fluxes of organic carbon, including export to the deep ocean, were calculated by invoking fixed C:N ratios in phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus. However, due to anthropogenic activity, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has significantly increased above its natural, inter-glacial background. As such, simulating and predicting the carbon cycle in the ocean in its entirety, including ventilation of CO2 with the atmosphere and the resulting impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, requires that both organic and inorganic carbon be afforded a more complete representation in the model specification. Here, we introduce MEDUSA-2.0, an expanded successor model which includes additional state variables for dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and detritus carbon (permitting variable C:N in exported organic matter), as well as a simple benthic formulation and extended parameterizations of phytoplankton growth, calcification and detritus remineralisation. A full description of MEDUSA-2.0, including its additional functionality, is provided and a multi-decadal spin-up simulation (1860-2005) is performed. The biogeochemical performance of the model is evaluated using a diverse range of observational data, and MEDUSA-2.0 is assessed relative to comparable models using output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5).

  5. Freshwater plankton response to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. III

    1984-01-01

    An in situ bag experiment was performed at circum-neutral Lake O'Woods, West Virgnia, where lakewater inside large enclosures was gradually acidified to pH 6.5 or 4.5, in order to examine plankton community succession during acidification. At acidic Cheat Lake (pH ca. 4.5), West Virginia, in situ feeding experiments and bag experiments were performed to evaluate the importance of selective herbivory in controlling algal community structure in acid lakes. The Lake O'Woods plankton community changed dramatically with increasing acidity. Species richness declined, as sensitive forms were eliminated. The phytoplankton became dominated by Peridinium inconspicuum and the filamentous green alga Mougoetia viridis, while euglenophytes, chrysophytes and diatoms were eliminated. Bosmina longirostris and Chydorus sphaericus were the dominant crustaceans at low pH. Only a single rotifer, Lecane luna, tolerated the acidic conditions. All others were eliminated at pH below 6.0. Despite the rapid acidification regime, the nature of the plankton community changes, as well as community structure at pH 4.5, were as predicted in the literature from earlier comparative studies. During the Cheat Lake feeding experiments, P. inconspicuum was always the extreme dominant alga. However, it was never significantly grazed by the herbivorous zooplankton. The herbivores selectively consumed the other, more rare algae, particularly the unicellular greens. Despite the existence of selective herbivory, algal community structure did not change inside enclosures where herbivores were excluded in a 26 and an 18 day experiment. Cheat Lake herbivores seem to have little effect on algal community structure. This is probably also true in most precipitation-acidified lakes. However, herbivore biomass, and also energy flow to higher trophic levels, may be suppressed because most of the primary producer biomass is inedible.

  6. Promoting International Collaboration on Ocean Acidification Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Lina; Appeltans, Ward; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Ocean acidification, often referred to as "the other carbon dioxide problem," is the progressive increase in ocean acidity that has taken place since the onset of the industrial revolution. Biological and ecological studies of ocean acidification impacts only began in the late 1990s, but the field has evolved rapidly, with exponential growth in the past decade. For example, 374 papers on this subject were published in 2013, compared with only 18 in 2004 (see http://tinyurl.com/oaicc-biblio).

  7. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  8. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  9. A global pattern of soil acidification caused by nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, S.; Tian, D., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition-induced soil acidification has become a global problem. However, the response patterns of soil acidification to N addition and the underlying mechanisms remain far from unclear. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 106 studies to reveal global patterns of soil acidification in responses to N addition. We found that N addition significantly reduced soil pH by 0.23 on average globally. However, the response ratio of soil pH varied with ecosystem types, N addition rate, N fertilization forms, and experimental durations. Soil pH decreased most in grassland, whereas boreal forest was insensitive to N addition in soil acidification. Soil pH decreased linearly with N addition rates. Addition of urea and NH4NO3 contributed more to soil acidification than NH4-form fertilizer. When experimental duration was longer than 20 years, N addition effects on soil acidification diminished. Environmental factors such as initial soil pH, soil carbon and nitrogen content, precipitation, and temperature all influenced the response ratio of soil pH. Base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ were critical important in buffering against N-induced soil acidification at the early stage. However, N addition has shifted global soils into the Al3+ buffering phase. Overall, this study indicates that acidification in global soils is very sensitive to N deposition, which is greatly modified by biotic and abiotic factors. Global soils are now at a buffering transition from base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) to non-base cations (Mn2+ and Al3+). This calls our attention to care about the limitation of base cations and the toxic impact of non-base cations for terrestrial ecosystems with N deposition.

  10. A metadata template for ocean acidification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, and locates an information resource (e.g., data). It is often coarsely described as data about data, and documents information such as what was measured, by whom, when, where, and how it was sampled, analyzed, with what instruments. Metadata is inherent to ensure the survivability and accessibility of the data into the future. With the rapid expansion of biological response ocean acidification (OA) studies, the lack of a common metadata template to document such type of data has become a significant gap for ocean acidification data management efforts. In this paper, we present a metadata template that can be applied to a broad spectrum of OA studies, including those studying the biological responses of organisms on ocean acidification. The "variable metadata section", which includes the variable name, observation type, whether the variable is a manipulation condition or response variable, and the biological subject on which the variable is studied, forms the core of this metadata template. Additional metadata elements, such as principal investigators, temporal and spatial coverage, platforms for the sampling, data citation are essential components to complete the template. We explain the structure of the template, and define many metadata elements that may be unfamiliar to researchers. For that reason, this paper can serve as a user's manual for the template.

  11. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. PMID:26595392

  12. Long-term mesocosms study of the effects of ocean acidification on growth and physiology of the sea urchin Echinometra mathaei.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Laure; Grosjean, Philippe; Leblud, Julien; Batigny, Antoine; Collard, Marie; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Recent research on the impact of ocean acidification (OA) has highlighted that it is important to conduct long-term experiments including ecosystem interactions in order to better predict the possible effects of elevated pCO2. The goal of the present study was to assess the long-term impact of OA on a suite of physiological parameters of the sea urchin Echinometra mathaei in more realistic food conditions. A long-term experiment was conducted in mesocosms provided with an artificial reef in which the urchins principally fed on algae attached to the reef calcareous substrate. Contrasted pH conditions (pH 7.7 vs control) were established gradually over six months and then maintained for seven more months. Acid-base parameters of the coelomic fluid, growth and respiration rate were monitored throughout the experiment. Results indicate that E. mathaei should be able to regulate its extracellular pH at long-term, through bicarbonate compensation. We suggest that, within sea urchins species, the ability to accumulate bicarbonates is related to their phylogeny but also on the quantity and quality of available food. Growth, respiration rate and mechanical properties of the test were not affected. This ability to resist OA levels expected for 2100 at long-term could determine the future of coral reefs, particularly reefs where E. mathaei is the major bioeroder. PMID:25490159

  13. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  14. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  15. Ocean acidification causes ecosystem shifts via altered competitive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeker, Kristy J.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification represents a pervasive environmental change that is predicted to affect a wide range of species, yet our understanding of the emergent ecosystem impacts is very limited. Many studies report detrimental effects of acidification on single species in lab studies, especially those with calcareous shells or skeletons. Observational studies using naturally acidified ecosystems have shown profound shifts away from such calcareous species, and there has been an assumption that direct impacts of acidification on sensitive species drive most ecosystem responses. We tested an alternative hypothesis that species interactions attenuate or amplify the direct effects of acidification on individual species. Here, we show that altered competitive dynamics between calcareous species and fleshy seaweeds drive significant ecosystem shifts in acidified conditions. Although calcareous species recruited and grew at similar rates in ambient and low pH conditions during early successional stages, they were rapidly overgrown by fleshy seaweeds later in succession in low pH conditions. The altered competitive dynamics between calcareous species and fleshy seaweeds is probably the combined result of decreased growth rates of calcareous species, increased growth rates of fleshy seaweeds, and/or altered grazing rates. Phase shifts towards ecosystems dominated by fleshy seaweed are common in many marine ecosystems, and our results suggest that changes in the competitive balance between these groups represent a key leverage point through which the physiological responses of individual species to acidification could indirectly lead to profound ecosystem changes in an acidified ocean.

  16. ATMOSPHERIC ACIDIFICATION CHEMISTRY: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric acidification is the result of the oxidation of sulfur, nitrogen, and organic compounds to form their corresponding acids. The gas and aqueous-phase pathways depend on the production of oxidizing free radicals (HO, CH3O2) that react directly with these compounds or pr...

  17. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P.; McKeown, Niall J.; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W.; Small, Daniel P.; Moore, Pippa J.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories. PMID:26822220

  18. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories. PMID:26822220

  19. Paleoecological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification (PIRLA), 1983--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R. )

    1989-10-01

    The Paleoecological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification'' (PIRLA) project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, is a broadly interdisciplinary paleoecological study of recent lake acidification. Approximately ten lakes are being studied in each of four low alkalinity regions in North America that are currently receiving acid deposition. The areas are the Adirondack Mountains (NY), northern New England, northern Great Lakes Region, and northern Florida. Sediment cores are being analyzed for diatom and chrysophyte remains to reconstruct acidification histories, including magnitude, rate, and timing of pH and alkalinity changes. Cores are dated using lead-210 and pollen and charcoal. Other sediment analyses include metals, sulfur, soot, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These provide information on lake acidification histories, and the relative roles of natural acidification processes, watershed disturbance, and atmospheric deposition of strong acids. This interim report contains seven papers representing the status of project research as of March 1985. Results support the hypothesis that diatom and chrysophyte sediment stratigraphies can be used to determine the extent of past variations in the pH levels of lakes.

  20. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification. Lake Acidification and Fisheries Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  1. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shabnam; Richards, Brian K; Steenhuis, Tammo S; McBride, Murray B; Baveye, Philippe; Dousset, Sylvie

    2004-11-01

    Leaching of sludge-borne trace elements has been observed in experimental and field studies. The role of microbial processes in the mobilization of trace elements from wastewater sludge is poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine trace element mobilization from sludge subjected to treatments representing microbial acidification, direct chemical acidification and no acidification, and to determine the readsorption potential of mobilized elements using calcareous sand. Triplicate columns (10-cm diameter) for incubation and leaching of sludge had a top layer of digested dewatered sludge (either untreated, acidified with H2SO4, or limed with CaCO3; all mixed with glass beads to prevent ponding) and a lower glass bead support bed. Glass beads in the sludge layer, support layer or both were replaced by calcareous sand in four treatments used for testing the readsorption potential of mobilized elements. Eight sequential 8-day incubation and leaching cycles were operated, each consisting of 7.6 d of incubation at 28 degrees C followed by 8 h of leaching with synthetic acid rain applied at 0.25 cm/h. Leachates were analyzed for trace elements, nitrate and pH, and sludge layer microbial respiration was measured. The largest trace element, nitrate and S losses occurred in treatments with the greatest pH depression and greatest microbial respiration rates. Cumulative leaching losses from both microbial acidification and direct acidification treatments were > 90% of Zn and 64-80% of Cu and Ni. Preventing acidification with sludge layer lime or sand restricted leaching for all trace elements except Mo. Results suggested that the primary microbial role in the rapid leaching of trace elements was acidification, with results from direct acidification being nearly identical to microbial acidification. Microbial activity in the presence of materials that prevented acidification mobilized far lower concentrations of trace elements, with the exception of Mo. Trace elements

  2. Impacts of ocean acidification on the carbonate system at the sediment-water interface: a case-study in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassmann, Jens; Lansard, Bruno; Gazeau, Frédéric; Grenz, Christian; Alliouane, Samir; Petit, Franck; Pozzato, Lara; Bombled, Bruno; Rabouille, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    According to common predictions, carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake from the atmosphere into the oceans will decrease the average pH of seawater by 0.06-0.32 pH units by 2100. Ocean acidification alters chemical equilibria in seawater and thus potentially impacts marine ecosystem structure and functioning. Shelf regions play a key role for an important fraction of marine life and represent an important part of the global carbon cycle. Due to shallow water depth, chemistry in the water column is strongly coupled with biogeochemistry in the sediments. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of ocean acidification on carbonate chemistry. It focuses especially on exchange fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and calcium through the sediment-water interface, and its impact on calcium carbonate precipitation or dissolution. For this purpose, sediment cores were incubated ex situ with an open flow of CO2 enriched seawater for 22 days (pHT=7,4, pH reported on the total proton scale). In parallel, sediment cores were incubated as a control with untreated seawater. Incubations took place in a water bath in a dark room with controlled temperature (14°C). Oxygen and pH microprofiles were recorded in the top first mm of the sediment during the whole experiment every 3 days. On 7 occasions, cores were isolated and incubated for 12 hours to estimate fluxes of DIC, TA, oxygen and nutrients. Porewater profiles of DIC, TA, calcium and nutrients were analyzed before and after incubation. On the solid phase, the content of particulate organic carbon, the C:N ratio and its isotopic δ15N and δ13C signature have been determined. In addition, total carbon contents have been measured and X-Ray diffraction was used to look for phase shifts between calcite and aragonite. A net decrease of pH was observed in the upper sediment layers, as well as an increase of DIC and TA pore water concentrations. The acidified cores showed higher DIC and TA exchange

  3. Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management. PMID:25463570

  4. Acidic deposition and soil processes

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, R.M.; April, R.H.

    1985-08-01

    The results of the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) show that the sensitivity of a watershed to surface water acidification is determined by the flow paths of water through the terrestrial system. If the water infiltrates through the soils into the groundwater system, acid neutralization occurs through weathering reactions involving minerals in the soils and till. Runoff and shallow interflow result in acid surface waters. Flow paths are determined in the ILWAS watersheds by the thickness of the glacial till. Complete neutralization can occur even in areas underlain by sensitive bedrock if the flow path through the mineral horizons is long enough. This appears to hold even in areas outside of the Adirondacks. 11 references, 5 figures.

  5. Nitrogen deposition contributes to soil acidification in tropical ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiankai; Mao, Qinggong; Gilliam, Frank S; Luo, Yiqi; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-12-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has greatly altered terrestrial ecosystem functioning, threatening ecosystem health via acidification and eutrophication in temperate and boreal forests across the northern hemisphere. However, response of forest soil acidification to N deposition has been less studied in humid tropics compared to other forest types. This study was designed to explore impacts of long-term N deposition on soil acidification processes in tropical forests. We have established a long-term N-deposition experiment in an N-rich lowland tropical forest of Southern China since 2002 with N addition as NH4 NO3 of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . We measured soil acidification status and element leaching in soil drainage solution after 6-year N addition. Results showed that our study site has been experiencing serious soil acidification and was quite acid-sensitive showing high acidification (pH(H2O) <4.0), negative water-extracted acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and low base saturation (BS,< 8%) throughout soil profiles. Long-term N addition significantly accelerated soil acidification, leading to depleted base cations and decreased BS, and further lowered ANC. However, N addition did not alter exchangeable Al(3+) , but increased cation exchange capacity (CEC). Nitrogen addition-induced increase in SOC is suggested to contribute to both higher CEC and lower pH. We further found that increased N addition greatly decreased soil solution pH at 20 cm depth, but not at 40 cm. Furthermore, there was no evidence that Al(3+) was leaching out from the deeper soils. These unique responses in tropical climate likely resulted from: exchangeable H(+) dominating changes of soil cation pool, an exhausted base cation pool, N-addition stimulating SOC production, and N saturation. Our results suggest that long-term N addition can contribute measurably to soil acidification, and that shortage of Ca and Mg should receive more attention than soil

  6. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy.

    PubMed

    Pan, T-C Francis; Applebaum, Scott L; Manahan, Donal T

    2015-04-14

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors. PMID:25825763

  7. Effects of seawater acidification on a coral reef meiofauna community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, V. C.; Souza, T. P.; Esteves, A. M.; Santos, P. J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing risk that ocean acidification will modify benthic communities, great uncertainty remains about how this impact will affect the lower trophic levels, such as members of the meiofauna. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water acidification on a phytal meiofauna community from a coral reef. Community samples collected from the coral reef subtidal zone (Recife de Fora Municipal Marine Park, Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil), using artificial substrate units, were exposed to a control pH (ambient seawater) and to three levels of seawater acidification (pH reductions of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 units below ambient) and collected after 15 and 30 d. After 30 d of exposure, major changes in the structure of the meiofauna community were observed in response to reduced pH. The major meiofauna groups showed divergent responses to acidification. Harpacticoida and Polychaeta densities did not show significant differences due to pH. Nematoda, Ostracoda, Turbellaria, and Tardigrada exhibited their highest densities in low-pH treatments (especially at the pH reduction of 0.6 units, pH 7.5), while harpacticoid nauplii were strongly negatively affected by low pH. This community-based mesocosm study supports previous suggestions that ocean acidification induces important changes in the structure of marine benthic communities. Considering the importance of meiofauna in the food web of coral reef ecosystems, the results presented here demonstrate that the trophic functioning of coral reefs is seriously threatened by ocean acidification.

  8. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, T.-C. Francis; Applebaum, Scott L.; Manahan, Donal T.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors. PMID:25825763

  9. Data-collection methods and quality-assurance/quality-control procedures used in the study of episodic stream acidification and its effect on fish and aquatic invertebrates in four Catskill Mountain streams, New York, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Horan-Ross, Debra; Allen, Ronald V.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a 20-month study during 1988-90 to evaluate the effects of episodic acidification on fish and aquatic invertebrates in pristine headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The study was part of the Episodic Response Project, a regional survey of episodic acidification by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and was carried out simultaneously with other studies in the Adirondack Mountains of New York by the Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation and in central Pennsylvania by Pennsylvania State University. This report summarizes the methods used, describes the sampling sites, and presents the data collected from October 1, 1988 through May 30, 1990 at four headwater watersheds (Biscuit Brook, East Branch Neversink River, Black Brook, and High Falls Brook). The study entailed (1) monitoring the quantity and chemical quality of atmospheric deposition and the quality of discharge of streams, and (2) experiments to determine the effect of stream-water-quality changes on fish and invertebrate populations.

  10. Parasitic infection: a buffer against ocean acidification?

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Colin D; Poulin, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a concerted research effort by marine scientists to quantify the sensitivity of marine organisms to ocean acidification (OA). Empirical data generated by this research have been used to predict changes to marine ecosystem health, biodiversity and productivity that will be caused by continued acidification. These studies have also found that the effects of OA on marine organisms can be significantly modified by additional abiotic stressors (e.g. temperature or oxygen) and biotic interactions (e.g. competition or predation). To date, however, the effects of parasitic infection on the sensitivity of marine organisms to OA have been largely ignored. We show that parasitic infection significantly altered the response of a marine gastropod to simulated OA conditions by reducing the mortality of infected individuals relative to uninfected conspecifics. Without the inclusion of infection data, our analysis would not have detected the significant effect of pH on host mortality. These results strongly suggest that parasitic infection may be an important confounding factor in OA research and must be taken into consideration when assessing the response of marine species to OA. PMID:27194286

  11. Tracing acidification induced by Deccan volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Eric; Adatte, Thierry; Fantasia, Alicia; Ponte, Jorge; Florindo, Fabio; Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Thakre, Deepali

    2015-04-01

    The Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) is constituted by three major phases of eruptions, for which the most voluminous - the Deccan Phase-2 - encompassed the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KT) boundary and has been pointed as the main contributor of the KT mass extinction. However, the mechanisms (including acidification) by which the massive Deccan Phase eruptions contributed to the end-Cretaceous global changes and to the controversial KT mass extinction are still poorly constrained. Here we identify the regional climate and environmental effects of the Deccan eruptions by studying the magnetic and mineral assemblages preserved in the lacustrine and continental intertrappeans sediments from the western Maharashtra Deccan Volcanic Provinces (DVP). To achieve this objective, we applied rock magnetic techniques coupled to scanning electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry to samples collected in three different stratigraphic sections. Our results show that the main magnetic carriers of the Deccan lacustrine and continental sediments are represented by allogenic (detrital) magnetite and hematite inherited from the weathering of the surrounding underlying basaltic bedrocks. Iron sulphides (pyrrhotite or greigite) are accessorily observed. Interestingly, the Podgawan deposits show peculiar and very distinct magnetic and mineralogical signatures, including iron oxide reductive dissolution and widespread crystallisation of iron vanadates, that we interpreted as the effect of Deccan induced acidification. Keywords: Deccan Volcanic Province, intertrappean continental sediments, environmental magnetism Funded by FCT (PTDC/CTE-GIX/117298/2010)

  12. RESPONSE OF PHYTOPLANKTON TO ACIDIFICATION IN EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to examine the response of stream phytoplankton communities to acidification, three artificial streams along the Mississippi River were sampled at biweekly intervals. This study took place at Monticello, Minnesota, during late spring-early summer, 1979. One stream served...

  13. Ocean acidification alters fish populations indirectly through habitat modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Connell, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean ecosystems are predicted to lose biodiversity and productivity from increasing ocean acidification. Although laboratory experiments reveal negative effects of acidification on the behaviour and performance of species, more comprehensive predictions have been hampered by a lack of in situ studies that incorporate the complexity of interactions between species and their environment. We studied CO2 vents from both Northern and Southern hemispheres, using such natural laboratories to investigate the effect of ocean acidification on plant-animal associations embedded within all their natural complexity. Although we substantiate simple direct effects of reduced predator-avoidance behaviour by fishes, as observed in laboratory experiments, we here show that this negative effect is naturally dampened when fish reside in shelter-rich habitats. Importantly, elevated CO2 drove strong increases in the abundance of some fish species through major habitat shifts, associated increases in resources such as habitat and prey availability, and reduced predator abundances. The indirect effects of acidification via resource and predator alterations may have far-reaching consequences for population abundances, and its study provides a framework for a more comprehensive understanding of increasing CO2 emissions as a driver of ecological change.

  14. The impact of low pH, low aragonite saturation state on calcifying corals: an in-situ study of ocean acidification from the "ojos" of Puerto Morelos, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, E. D.; Paytan, A.; Potts, D. C.; Hernandez Terrones, L.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide have resulted in rising aqueous CO2 concentrations that lower the pH of the oceans (Caldeira and Wickett 2003, 2005, Doney et al., 2009). It is estimated that over the next 100 years, the pH of the surface oceans will decrease by ~0.4 pH units (Orr et al., 2005), which is expected to hinder the calcifying capabilities of numerous marine organisms. Previous field work (Hall-Spencer et al., 2008) indicates that ocean acidification will negatively impact calcifying species; however, to date, very little is known about the long-term impacts of ocean acidification from the in-situ study of coral reef ecosystems. The Yucatán Peninsula of Quintana Roo, Mexico, represents an ecosystem where naturally low pH groundwater (7.14-8.07) has been discharging offshore at highly localized points (called ojos) for millennia. We present preliminary chemical and biological data on a selection of ojos from lagoon sites in Puerto Morelos, Mexico. Our findings indicate a decrease in species richness and size with proximity to the low pH waters. We address the potential long-term implications of low pH, low aragonite saturation state on coral reef ecosystems.

  15. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  16. Multivariate analysis of parameters related to lake acidification in Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Bobee, B.; Lachance, M.

    1984-08-01

    Physico-chemical data from 234 lakes were collected during the spring and summer of 1980 by the Quebec Ministry of the Environment, the Quebec Ministry of Recreation, Hunting and Fishing and the Canadian Wildlife Service. A statistical method, based on the joint use of factorial correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, was applied to these data to obtain a general picture of the spatial variability of a member of physico-chemical parameters related to the sensitivity or acidification of lakewaters. This method was first applied to the entire Quebec territory, and showed that the part of Quebec lying on the Canadian shield is especially vulnerable to acidification. The method also showed that the southwestern portion of this area of Quebec was more substantially affected by acid fallout. A detailed study of spatial variability over the shield area revealed the existence of greater spatial heterogeneity. More precisely, it was possible to pinpoint zones which are highly vulnerable to acid precipitation and zones whose lakes show clear signs of acidification resulting from such precipitation. These two statistical analyses led to a first general diagnosis on lake acidification in Quebec. They contribute to the rationalization of data acquisition in Quebec by delimitating zones where network density needs to be increased.

  17. Geobiological Responses to Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    During 240Ma of evolution, scleractinian corals survived major changes in ocean chemistry, yet recent concerns with rapid acidification after ca. 40Ma of almost constant oceanic pH have tended to distract attention from natural pH variation in coastal waters, where most corals and reefs occur. Unaltered skeletal environmental proxies reflect conditions experienced by individual organisms, with any variation on micro- habitat and micro-time scales appropriate for that individual's ecology, behavior and physiology, but proxy interpretation usually extrapolates to larger spatial (habitat, region to global) and temporal (seasonal, annual, interannual) scales. Therefore, predicting consequences of acidification for both corals and reefs requires greater understanding of: 1. Many potential indirect consequences of pH change that may affect calcification and/or carbonate accretion: e.g. an individual's developmental rates, growth, final size, general physiology and reproductive success; its population's distribution and abundance, symbionts, food availability, predators and pathogens; and its community and ecosystem services. 2. Potentially diverse responses to declining pH, ranging from non-evolutionary, rapid physiological changes (acclimation) or long term (seasonal to interannual) plasticity (acclimatization) of individuals, through genetic adaptation in local populations, and up to directional changes in species" characteristics and/or radiations/extinctions. 3. The evolutionary and environmental history of an organism's lineage, its ecological (own lifetime) exposure to environmental variation, and "pre-adaptation" via other factors acting on correlated characters.

  18. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    PubMed

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth. PMID:26909578

  19. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; MacLaren, Jana K.; Mason, Benjamin M.; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L.; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO32‑]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO32‑], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  20. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these

  1. Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, K. R. N.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Verlinden, N.; Tilbrook, B.; Andersson, A. J.

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems globally. In shallow-water systems, however, ocean acidification can be masked by benthic carbon fluxes, depending on community composition, seawater residence time, and the magnitude and balance of net community production (pn) and calcification (gn). Here, we examine how six benthic groups from a coral reef environment on Heron Reef (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) contribute to changes in seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa). Results of flume studies showed a hierarchy of responses across groups, depending on CO2 level, time of day and water flow. At low CO2 (350-450 μatm), macroalgae (Chnoospora implexa), turfs and sand elevated Ωa of the flume water by around 0.10 to 1.20 h-1 - normalised to contributions from 1 m2 of benthos to a 1 m deep water column. The rate of Ωa increase in these groups was doubled under acidification (560-700 μatm) and high flow (35 compared to 8 cm s-1). In contrast, branching corals (Acropora aspera) increased Ωa by 0.25 h-1 at ambient CO2 (350-450 μatm) during the day, but reduced Ωa under acidification and high flow. Nighttime changes in Ωa by corals were highly negative (0.6-0.8 h-1) and exacerbated by acidification. Calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda spp.) raised Ωa by day (by around 0.13 h-1), but lowered Ωa by a similar or higher amount at night. Analyses of carbon flux contributions from four different benthic compositions to the reef water carbon chemistry across Heron Reef flat and lagoon indicated that the net lowering of Ωa by coral-dominated areas can to some extent be countered by long water residence times in neighbouring areas dominated by turfs, macroalgae and potentially sand.

  2. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea from anthropogenic carbon penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, Abed El Rahman; Gemayel, Elissar; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Goyet, Catherine; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Guglielmi, Véronique; Touratier, Franck; Falco, Cédric

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an estimation of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) concentrations and acidification (ΔpH=pH2013-pHpre-industrial) in the Mediterranean Sea, based upon hydrographic and carbonate chemistry data collected during the May 2013 MedSeA cruise. The concentrations of CANT were calculated using the composite tracer TrOCA. The CANT distribution shows that the most invaded waters (>60 μmol kg-1) are those of the intermediate and deep layers in the Alboran, Liguro- and Algero-Provencal Sub-basins in the Western basin, and in the Adriatic Sub-basin in the Eastern basin. Whereas the areas containing the lowest CANT concentrations are the deep layers of the Eastern basin, especially those of the Ionian Sub-basin, and those of the northern Tyrrhenian Sub-basin in the Western basin. The acidification level in the Mediterranean Sea reflects the excessive increase of atmospheric CO2 and therefore the invasion of the sea by CANT. This acidification varies between -0.055 and -0.156 pH unit and it indicates that all Mediterranean Sea waters are already acidified, especially those of the Western basin where ΔpH is rarely less than -0.1 pH unit. Both CANT concentrations and acidification levels are closely linked to the presence and history of the different water masses in the intermediate and deep layers of the Mediterranean basins. Despite the high acidification levels, both Mediterranean basins are still highly supersaturated in calcium carbonate minerals.

  3. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. PMID:26108629

  4. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Luke F.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. PMID:26108629

  5. EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF FRESHWATER SYSTEMS IN CANADA - PHYSICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of episodic acidification in Canadian streams, lake waters and shallow groundwaters has been reviewed, and the controlling mechanisms identified "Episodes", which are periods of depressed alkalinity during hydrological events, have been studies mainly in southeaste...

  6. Nitrification and acidification from urea application in red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) after different long-term fertilization treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. Long-term manure applications can prevent or reverse soil acidification by chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer. However, the resistance to re-acidification from further chemical fertilization is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of urea application on nitrification and a...

  7. A field pilot-scale study of biological treatment of heavy oil-produced water by biological filter with airlift aeration and hydrolytic acidification system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Junming; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Zhaozheng; Zhang, Zhenjia; Zhang, Beiyu; Zhang, Guangqing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Heavy oil-produced water (HOPW) is a by-product during heavy oil exploitation and can cause serious environmental pollution if discharged without adequate treatment. Commercial biochemical treatment units are important parts of HOPW treatment processes, but many are not in stable operation because of the toxic and refractory substances, salt, present. Therefore, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of hydrolytic acidification-biological filter with airlift aeration (HA-BFAA), a novel HOPW treatment system. Four strains isolated from oily sludge were used for bioaugmentation to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants. The isolated bacteria were evaluated using 3-day biochemical oxygen demand, oil, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as evaluation indices. Bioaugmentation enhanced the COD removal by 43.5 mg/L under a volume load of 0.249 kg COD/m(3) day and hydraulic retention time of 33.6 h. The effluent COD was 70.9 mg/L and the corresponding COD removal was 75.0 %. The optimum volumetric air-to-water ratio was below 10. The removal ratios of the total extractable organic pollutants, alkanes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were 71.1, 94.4, and 94.0 %, respectively. Results demonstrated that HA-BFAA was an excellent HOPW treatment system. PMID:26549708

  8. Optogenetic Acidification of Synaptic Vesicles and Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Grauel, M. Katharina; Wozny, Christian; Bentz, Claudia; Blessing, Anja; Rosenmund, Tanja; Jentsch, Thomas J.; Schmitz, Dietmar; Hegemann, Peter; Rosenmund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Acidification is required for the function of many intracellular organelles, but methods to acutely manipulate their intraluminal pH have not been available. Here we present a targeting strategy to selectively express the light-driven proton pump Arch3 on synaptic vesicles. Our new tool, pHoenix, can functionally replace endogenous proton pumps, enabling optogenetic control of vesicular acidification and neurotransmitter accumulation. Under physiological conditions, glutamatergic vesicles are nearly full, as additional vesicle acidification with pHoenix only slightly increased the quantal size. By contrast, we found that incompletely filled vesicles exhibited a lower release probability than full vesicles, suggesting preferential exocytosis of vesicles with high transmitter content. Our subcellular targeting approach can be transferred to other organelles, as demonstrated for a pHoenix variant that allows light-activated acidification of lysosomes. PMID:26551543

  9. Potential acidification impacts on zooplankton in CCS leakage scenarios.

    PubMed

    Halsband, Claudia; Kurihara, Haruko

    2013-08-30

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies involve localized acidification of significant volumes of seawater, inhabited mainly by planktonic species. Knowledge on potential impacts of these techniques on the survival and physiology of zooplankton, and subsequent consequences for ecosystem health in targeted areas, is scarce. The recent literature has a focus on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, leading to enhanced absorption of CO2 by the oceans and a lowered seawater pH, termed ocean acidification. These studies explore the effects of changes in seawater chemistry, as predicted by climate models for the end of this century, on marine biota. Early studies have used unrealistically severe CO2/pH values in this context, but are relevant for CCS leakage scenarios. Little studied meso- and bathypelagic species of the deep sea may be especially vulnerable, as well as vertically migrating zooplankton, which require significant residence times at great depths as part of their life cycle. PMID:23632089

  10. NOAA Seeks Guidance on Ocean Acidification Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    As the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, the oceans become more acidic. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has already developed a 5-year interdisciplinary program on ocean acidification, which includes establishing coral reef monitoring stations, research on the physiological responses of various organisms to increasing ocean acidity, modeling of ocean acidification and its socioeconomic effect, and development of technology for measuring and monitoring carbon dioxide in the oceans.

  11. The peculiarities of water acidification in European Russia and Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, T. I.; Gashkina, N. A.; Dinu, M. I.; Kremleva, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies have proven the anthropogenic acidification of waters developing over the spacious territories of European Russia and West Siberia. The acidification is exhibited by the waters of small lakes characterized by bedrock consisting of granite and quartz formations. The acidified lakes of high water transparency, pH values below 6, and the prevalence of strong acids in the anion composition account for 4.4% of 201 lakes of European Russia and 8.2% of 166 explored lakes in the taiga and tundra regions of western Siberia. The main factor causing the development of acidification over the European Russia is the emission of technogenic sulfur by metallurgical smelteries. As for western Siberia, this is the combustion of associated gas at oil-producing enterprises. These processes combined with natural factors determine the complicated mechanism of anthropogenic acidification of waters.

  12. A cation counterflux supports lysosomal acidification

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Huynh, Kassidy K.; Brodovitch, Alexandre; Jabs, Sabrina; Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The profound luminal acidification essential for the degradative function of lysosomes requires a counter-ion flux to dissipate an opposing voltage that would prohibit proton accumulation. It has generally been assumed that a parallel anion influx is the main or only counter-ion transport that enables acidification. Indeed, defective anion conductance has been suggested as the mechanism underlying attenuated lysosome acidification in cells deficient in CFTR or ClC-7. To assess the individual contribution of counter-ions to acidification, we devised means of reversibly and separately permeabilizing the plasma and lysosomal membranes to dialyze the cytosol and lysosome lumen in intact cells, while ratiometrically monitoring lysosomal pH. Replacement of cytosolic Cl− with impermeant anions did not significantly alter proton pumping, while the presence of permeant cations in the lysosomal lumen supported acidification. Accordingly, the lysosomes were found to acidify to the same pH in both CFTR- and ClC-7–deficient cells. We conclude that cations, in addition to chloride, can support lysosomal acidification and defects in lysosomal anion conductance cannot explain the impaired microbicidal capacity of CF phagocytes. PMID:20566682

  13. Animal Slurry Acidification Affects Particle Size Distribution and Improves Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, I; Pociask, M; Coutinho, J; Fangueiro, D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-liquid separation is performed to improve slurry management, and acidification of the slurry is used to reduce ammonia emissions. Acidification is known to affect slurry characteristics, and we hypothesized that it may affect mechanical separation. Our objective in this study was to assess the effects of slurry acidification on particle size distribution and separation efficiency. Two types of slurry, aged pig and fresh dairy, and two different acidification additives, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate (alum), were studied. We found that acidification with sulfuric acid promoted phosphorus (P) solubilization for both slurries, but no change was observed with alum. More ammonium was found in the acidified dairy slurry compared with raw dairy slurry, but no difference was found in aged pig slurry. Acidification before separation increased the proportion of the solid fraction in the slurries, and the effect was significantly higher with alum. When alum was used to acidify the slurries, the proportion of particles larger than 100 μm increased significantly, as did the P concentration in this particle size range. The efficiency of P separation increased markedly in both slurries when alum was used, with the removal to the solid fraction of the dairy slurry being almost complete (90%). Because the priority in mechanical separation is to increase the P content in the solid fraction, the use of alum before centrifugation may be the most suitable option for enhancing its nutrient content. We conclude that separation efficiency and particle size distribution are significantly affected by acidification, but the extent of the effects depends on slurry type and on the type of additive used for acidification. PMID:27136179

  14. The impact of ocean acidification and warming on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus in Wadden Sea mesocosm studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winde, Vera; Pansch, Andreas; Fenner, Anna-Kathrina; Voss, Maren; Schmiedinger, Iris; Schneider, Bernd; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the German BIOACID II project the separate and combined effects of different stress factors (acidification, warming, eutrophication) on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in coastal waters of the the North Sea. We aim for a calibration of the biogeochemical and stable isotope composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature, pCO2 (pH), and nutrient changes. Benthocosm experiments are carried out at the AWI Wadden Sea station in List (Sylt Island, North Sea) with application of different stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost several months per season. The aquatic biogeochemistry (e.g. TA, pH, 13C(DIC)) as well as the elemental and stable isotope composition of the grown Fucus vesiculosus organic tissue were followed. It was found, that the changes in daily biological activity caused by alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis created strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system and changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental set-ups was enriched with gaseous carbon dioxide. This caused fast corresponding changes in the isotopic composition of DIC, thereby acting as a tracer for newly formed organic tissue. The chemical and isotopic parameters of the dissolved carbonate system showed differences between the set ups. The research is supported by BMBF during project BIOACID II, Helmholtz AWI Sylt, and Leibniz IOW

  15. Assessing approaches to determine the effect of ocean acidification on bacterial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, Timothy J.; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Teesdale-Spittle, Paul; Law, Cliff S.

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial extracellular enzymes play a significant role in the degradation of labile organic matter and nutrient availability in the open ocean. Although bacterial production and extracellular enzymes may be affected by ocean acidification, few studies to date have considered the methodology used to measure enzyme activity and bacterial processes. This study investigated the potential artefacts in determining the response of bacterial growth and extracellular glucosidase and aminopeptidase activity to ocean acidification as well as the relative effects of three different acidification techniques. Tests confirmed that the observed effect of pH on fluorescence of artificial fluorophores, and the influence of the MCA fluorescent substrate on seawater sample pH, were both overcome by the use of Tris buffer. In experiments testing different acidification methods, bubbling with CO2 gas mixtures resulted in higher β-glucosidase activity and 15-40 % higher bacterial abundance, relative to acidification via gas-permeable silicon tubing and acid addition (HCl). Bubbling may stimulate carbohydrate degradation and bacterial growth, leading to the incorrect interpretation of the impacts of ocean acidification on organic matter cycling.

  16. Responses of coccolithophores to ocean acidification: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Riebesell, U.

    2014-10-01

    Concerning their sensitivity to ocean acidification, coccolithophores, a group of calcifying single-celled phytoplankton, are one of the best-studied groups of marine organisms. However, in spite of the large number of studies investigating coccolithophore physiological responses to ocean acidification, uncertainties still remain due to variable and partly contradictory results. In the present study we have used all existing data in a meta-analysis to estimate the effect size of future pCO2 changes on the rates of calcification and photosynthesis and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon (PIC/POC) in different coccolithophore species. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has a negative effect on calcification and the cellular PIC/POC ratio in the most abundant coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. In contrast the more heavily calcified species Coccolithus braarudii did not show a distinct response when exposed to elevated pCO2/reduced pH. Photosynthesis in Gephyrocapsa oceanica was positively affected by high CO2, while no effect was observed for the other coccolithophore species. There was no indication that the method of carbonate chemistry manipulation was responsible for the inconsistent results regarding observed responses in calcification and the PIC/POC ratio. The perturbation method, however, appears to affect photosynthesis, as responses varied significantly between total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) manipulations. These results emphasize that coccolithophore species respond differently to ocean acidification, both in terms of calcification and photosynthesis. Where negative effects occur, they become evident at CO2 levels in the range projected for this century in case of unabated CO2 emissions. As the data sets used in this meta-analysis do not account for adaptive responses and ecological fitness, the questions remains how these physiological responses play out in the natural

  17. Marine oxygen holes as a consequence of oceanic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    An increase of atmospheric CO2 levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures towards values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary, but will also lead to an acidification of sea water which could harm the marine biota. Here we assess possible impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the marine biological carbon pump by utilizing a business-as-usual emission scenario of anthropogenic CO2. A corresponding release of 4075 Petagrams of Carbon in total has been applied to simulate the current millennium by employing an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC). This work is focused on studying the implications of reduced biogenic calcification caused by an increasing degree of oceanic acidification on the marine biological carbon pump. The attenuation of biogenic calcification imposes a small negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2 levels, tending to stabilize the Earth's climate. Since mineral ballast, notably particulate CaCO3, plays a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a dramatic effect discovered in our model world with severe consequences: since organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems. Our study indicates that unbridled ocean acidification would exacerbate the observed hypoxia trends due to various environmental factors as reported in recent empirical studies.

  18. Economic Vulnerability Assessment of U.S. Fishery Revenues to Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, S. R.; Doney, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean acidification, a predictable consequence of rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, is poised to change marine ecosystems profoundly by decreasing average ocean pH and the carbonate mineral saturation state worldwide. These conditions slow or reverse marine plant and animal calcium carbonate shell growth, thereby harming economically valuable species. In 2006, shellfish and crustaceans provided 50% of the 4 billion U.S. domestic commercial harvest value; value added to commercial fishery products contributed 35 billion to the gross national product that year. Laboratory studies have shown that ocean acidification decreases shellfish calcification; ocean acidification--driven declines in commercial shellfish and crustacean harvests between now and 2060 could decrease nationwide time-integrated primary commercial revenues by 860 million to 14 billion (net present value, 2006 dollars), depending on CO2 emissions, discount rates, biological responses, and fishery structure. This estimate excludes losses from coral reef damage and possible fishery collapses if ocean acidification pushes ecosystems past ecological tipping points. Expanding job losses and indirect economic costs will follow harvest decreases as ocean acidification broadly damages marine habitats and alters marine resource availability. Losses will harm many regions already possessing little economic resilience. The only true solution to ocean acidification is reducing atmospheric CO2 emissions, but implementing regional adaptive responses now from an ecosystem-wide, fisheries perspective will help better preserve sustainable ecosystem function and economic yields. Comprehensive management strategies must include monitoring critical fisheries, explicitly accounting for ocean acidification in management models, reducing fishing pressure and environmental stresses, and supporting regional economies most sensitive to acidification's impacts.

  19. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Crim, Ryan; Hendriks, Iris E; Ramajo, Laura; Singh, Gerald S; Duarte, Carlos M; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature. PMID:23505245

  20. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Crim, Ryan; Hendriks, Iris E; Ramajo, Laura; Singh, Gerald S; Duarte, Carlos M; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature. PMID:23505245

  1. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  2. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades. PMID:25580253

  3. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades. PMID:25580253

  4. Acidification increases microbial polysaccharide degradation in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, J.; Lunau, M.; Händel, N.; Borchard, C.; Wurst, M.; Engel, A.

    2010-05-01

    With the accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), a proceeding decline in seawater pH has been induced that is referred to as ocean acidification. The ocean's capacity for CO2 storage is strongly affected by biological processes, whose feedback potential is difficult to evaluate. The main source of CO2 in the ocean is the decomposition and subsequent respiration of organic molecules by heterotrophic bacteria. However, very little is known about potential effects of ocean acidification on bacterial degradation activity. This study reveals that the degradation of polysaccharides, a major component of marine organic matter, by bacterial extracellular enzymes was significantly accelerated during experimental simulation of ocean acidification. Results were obtained from pH perturbation experiments, where rates of extracellular α- and β-glucosidase were measured and the loss of neutral and acidic sugars from phytoplankton-derived polysaccharides was determined. Our study suggests that a faster bacterial turnover of polysaccharides at lowered ocean pH has the potential to reduce carbon export and to enhance the respiratory CO2 production in the future ocean.

  5. Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Doney, Scott C.

    2009-06-01

    Ocean acidification, a consequence of rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, is poised to change marine ecosystems profoundly by increasing dissolved CO2 and decreasing ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration, and calcium carbonate mineral saturation state worldwide. These conditions hinder growth of calcium carbonate shells and skeletons by many marine plants and animals. The first direct impact on humans may be through declining harvests and fishery revenues from shellfish, their predators, and coral reef habitats. In a case study of US commercial fishery revenues, we begin to constrain the economic effects of ocean acidification over the next 50 years using atmospheric CO2 trajectories and laboratory studies of its effects, focusing especially on mollusks. In 2007, the 3.8 billion US annual domestic ex-vessel commercial harvest ultimately contributed 34 billion to the US gross national product. Mollusks contributed 19%, or 748 million, of the ex-vessel revenues that year. Substantial revenue declines, job losses, and indirect economic costs may occur if ocean acidification broadly damages marine habitats, alters marine resource availability, and disrupts other ecosystem services. We review the implications for marine resource management and propose possible adaptation strategies designed to support fisheries and marine-resource-dependent communities, many of which already possess little economic resilience.

  6. A metadata template for ocean acidification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.-Q.; O'Connor, S. A.; Arzayus, K. M.; Parsons, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    This paper defines the best practices for documenting ocean acidification (OA) data and presents a framework for an OA metadata template. Metadata is structured information that describes and locates an information resource. It is the key to ensuring that a data set will be accessible into the future. With the rapid expansion of studies on biological responses to OA, the lack of a common metadata template to document the resulting data poses a significant hindrance to effective OA data management efforts. In this paper, we present a metadata template that can be applied to a broad spectrum of OA studies, including those studying the biological responses to OA. The "variable metadata section", which includes the variable name, observation type, whether the variable is a manipulation condition or response variable, and the biological subject on which the variable is studied, forms the core of this metadata template. Additional metadata elements, such as investigators, temporal and spatial coverage, and data citation, are essential components to complete the template. We explain the structure of the template, and define many metadata elements that may be unfamiliar to researchers.

  7. Cascading Effects of Ocean Acidification in a Rocky Subtidal Community

    PubMed Central

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gazeau, Frédéric; Francour, Patrice; Alliouane, Samir; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Temperate marine rocky habitats may be alternatively characterized by well vegetated macroalgal assemblages or barren grounds, as a consequence of direct and indirect human impacts (e.g. overfishing) and grazing pressure by herbivorous organisms. In future scenarios of ocean acidification, calcifying organisms are expected to be less competitive: among these two key elements of the rocky subtidal food web, coralline algae and sea urchins. In order to highlight how the effects of increased pCO2 on individual calcifying species will be exacerbated by interactions with other trophic levels, we performed an experiment simultaneously testing ocean acidification effects on primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying algae) and their grazers (sea urchins). Artificial communities, composed by juveniles of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and calcifying (Corallina elongata) and non-calcifying (Cystoseira amentacea var stricta, Dictyota dichotoma) macroalgae, were subjected to pCO2 levels of 390, 550, 750 and 1000 µatm in the laboratory. Our study highlighted a direct pCO2 effect on coralline algae and on sea urchin defense from predation (test robustness). There was no direct effect on the non-calcifying macroalgae. More interestingly, we highlighted diet-mediated effects on test robustness and on the Aristotle's lantern size. In a future scenario of ocean acidification a decrease of sea urchins' density is expected, due to lower defense from predation, as a direct consequence of pH decrease, and to a reduced availability of calcifying macroalgae, important component of urchins' diet. The effects of ocean acidification may therefore be contrasting on well vegetated macroalgal assemblages and barren grounds: in the absence of other human impacts, a decrease of biodiversity can be predicted in vegetated macroalgal assemblages, whereas a lower density of sea urchin could help the recovery of shallow subtidal rocky areas affected by overfishing from barren grounds to

  8. Cascading effects of ocean acidification in a rocky subtidal community.

    PubMed

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gazeau, Frédéric; Francour, Patrice; Alliouane, Samir; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Temperate marine rocky habitats may be alternatively characterized by well vegetated macroalgal assemblages or barren grounds, as a consequence of direct and indirect human impacts (e.g. overfishing) and grazing pressure by herbivorous organisms. In future scenarios of ocean acidification, calcifying organisms are expected to be less competitive: among these two key elements of the rocky subtidal food web, coralline algae and sea urchins. In order to highlight how the effects of increased pCO2 on individual calcifying species will be exacerbated by interactions with other trophic levels, we performed an experiment simultaneously testing ocean acidification effects on primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying algae) and their grazers (sea urchins). Artificial communities, composed by juveniles of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and calcifying (Corallina elongata) and non-calcifying (Cystoseira amentacea var stricta, Dictyota dichotoma) macroalgae, were subjected to pCO2 levels of 390, 550, 750 and 1000 µatm in the laboratory. Our study highlighted a direct pCO2 effect on coralline algae and on sea urchin defense from predation (test robustness). There was no direct effect on the non-calcifying macroalgae. More interestingly, we highlighted diet-mediated effects on test robustness and on the Aristotle's lantern size. In a future scenario of ocean acidification a decrease of sea urchins' density is expected, due to lower defense from predation, as a direct consequence of pH decrease, and to a reduced availability of calcifying macroalgae, important component of urchins' diet. The effects of ocean acidification may therefore be contrasting on well vegetated macroalgal assemblages and barren grounds: in the absence of other human impacts, a decrease of biodiversity can be predicted in vegetated macroalgal assemblages, whereas a lower density of sea urchin could help the recovery of shallow subtidal rocky areas affected by overfishing from barren grounds to

  9. Including high-frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Y.; Frieder, C. A.; Martz, T. R.; Ballard, J. R.; Feely, R. A.; Kram, S.; Nam, S.; Navarro, M. O.; Price, N. N.; Smith, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal-resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e.g., tidal) to months (e.g., seasonal), bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age; therefore a density-age relationship was derived for the study region and then combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from autonomous pH sensors deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100 m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO2 increase in the future, with the greatest increase in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

  10. Population-dependent effects of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Wood, Hannah L; Sundell, Kristina; Almroth, Bethanie Carney; Sköld, Helén Nilsson; Eriksson, Susanne P

    2016-04-13

    Elevated carbon dioxide levels and the resultant ocean acidification (OA) are changing the abiotic conditions of the oceans at a greater rate than ever before and placing pressure on marine species. Understanding the response of marine fauna to this change is critical for understanding the effects of OA. Population-level variation in OA tolerance is highly relevant and important in the determination of ecosystem resilience and persistence, but has received little focus to date. In this study, whether OA has the same biological consequences in high-salinity-acclimated population versus a low-salinity-acclimated population of the same species was investigated in the marine isopod Idotea balthica.The populations were found to have physiologically different responses to OA. While survival rate was similar between the two study populations at a future CO2 level of 1000 ppm, and both populations showed increased oxidative stress, the metabolic rate and osmoregulatory activity differed significantly between the two populations. The results of this study demonstrate that the physiological response to OA of populations from different salinities can vary. Population-level variation and the environment provenance of individuals used in OA experiments should be taken into account for the evaluation and prediction of climate change effects. PMID:27053741

  11. Inferred effects of lake acidification on Daphnia galeata mendotae

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, W. ); Yan, N.D.; Holtze, K.E. ); Pitblado, J.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Large numbers of Canadian Shield lakes have been acidified by the atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic sulfur. Biological damage attributable to acidification occurs at all levels of aquatic food webs; however, documentation of this damage has largely been confined to areas near large point sources of air pollutants, to small numbers of study lakes, or to experimentally acidified lakes. Demonstrations of widespread biological effects of acidification have been greatly hampered by the general absence of observations of the occurrence or abundance of important, ubiquitous species in large numbers of lakes ranging widely in acidity, coupled with laboratory determinations of lethal acid thresholds for these species. In consequence, it has been necessary to estimate rather than to document the regional extent of biological damage in North America. In this report the authors couple determination of the lethal acid threshold of Daphnia galeata mendotae Birge, a large, ubiquitous, planktonic crustacean, with results of extensive lake surveys, to examine if the acidification of lakes in Ontario has resulted in widespread losses of this important member of the zooplankton.

  12. Milk skimming, heating, acidification, lysozyme, and rennet affect the pattern, repeatability, and predictability of milk coagulation properties and of curd-firming model parameters: A case study of Grana Padano.

    PubMed

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Calamari, L; Bittante, G

    2015-08-01

    Milk coagulation properties are used to evaluate the cheesemaking aptitude of milk samples. No international standard procedure exists, although laboratories often mimic the production of a full-fat fresh cheese for milk coagulation properties. Questions have arisen about the predictability of such a procedure for different types of cheese production. The aim of this study was to establish a procedure mimicking the production conditions of a long-ripened hard cheese, taking Protected Designation of Origin Grana Padano as a case study. With respect to the traditional conditions (standard procedure; SP), the Grana Padano procedure (GP) modifications were the use of standardized milk, coagulation lower temperature, previous milk acidification, lysozyme addition, and rennet type. Each modification was tested in turn versus the SP and also all together in the GP. Another 3 tests were carried out: SP on naturally creamed milk, SP with double the quantity of rennet, and a simplified GP on a full-fat milk sample. The 10 procedures were tested on 2 subsamples with 2 replicates each and were repeated using individual milk samples from 15 dual-purpose Simmental cows in 4 sessions for a total of 600 tests. Two Formagraph instruments (Foss Electric A/S, Hillerød, Denmark) measuring curd firmness every 15 s were used, prolonging test duration to 60min to obtain 5 traditional single-point milk coagulation properties and 3 parameters of the curd firming model using all 240 points recorded for each replicate. The 8 traits of each replicate were analyzed according to a mixed model with fixed effects of 4 sessions, 10 treatments, 2 instruments, and 16microvats, and random effects of 15 animals and 300 subsamples. Compared with the SP, the coagulation and curd firming was slowed by low temperature and was accelerated by acidification and by adding a double amount of rennet; natural creaming, fat standardization, and rennet with 5% pepsin affected only some traits, whereas lysozyme

  13. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine seafood.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; DeJoseph, Bonnie M; Ray, Liza J; Wagner, Cherie A

    2013-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a series of chemical reactions due to increased CO(2) emissions. The resulting lower pH impairs the senses of reef fishes and reduces their survival, and might similarly impact commercially targeted fishes that produce most of the seafood eaten by humans. Shelled molluscs will also be negatively affected, whereas cephalopods and crustaceans will remain largely unscathed. Habitat changes will reduce seafood production from coral reefs, but increase production from seagrass and seaweed. Overall effects of ocean acidification on primary productivity and, hence, on food webs will result in hard-to-predict winners and losers. Although adaptation, parental effects, and evolution can mitigate some effects of ocean acidification, future seafood platters will look rather different unless CO(2) emissions are curbed. PMID:23122878

  14. Deoiling of produced water by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Konak, A.R.; Grisard, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    In order to raise 80% quality steam at 15 mpa from the produced water at Cold Lake, the water must be deoiled, desilicized and softened. In this work efforts are outlined to deoil the produced water by lowering the pH to 4.5. A mini-pilot running on 4 l/min produced water was constructed to measure the effects of acidification on the reduction of suspended oil, dissolved organic matter, and hydrogen sulfide as indicated in previous laboratory experiments. It is shown that acidification is a viable and practicable alternative to using a reverse demulsifying agent. The implications of the process are outlined.

  15. Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, K. R. N.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Verlinden, N.; Tilbrook, B.; Andersson, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems globally. In shallow-water systems, however, ocean acidification can be masked by benthic carbon fluxes, depending on community composition, seawater residence time, and the magnitude and balance of net community production (NCP) and calcification (NCC). Here, we examine how six benthic groups from a coral reef environment on Heron Reef (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) contribute to changes in the seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa). Results of flume studies using intact reef habitats (1.2 m by 0.4 m), showed a hierarchy of responses across groups, depending on CO2 level, time of day and water flow. At low CO2 (350-450 μatm), macroalgae (Chnoospora implexa), turfs and sand elevated Ωa of the flume water by around 0.10 to 1.20 h-1 - normalised to contributions from 1 m2 of benthos to a 1 m deep water column. The rate of Ωa increase in these groups was doubled under acidification (560-700 μatm) and high flow (35 compared to 8 cm s-1). In contrast, branching corals (Acropora aspera) increased Ωa by 0.25 h-1 at ambient CO2 (350-450 μatm) during the day, but reduced Ωa under acidification and high flow. Nighttime changes in Ωa by corals were highly negative (0.6-0.8 h-1) and exacerbated by acidification. Calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda spp.) raised Ωa by day (by around 0.13 h-1), but lowered Ωa by a similar or higher amount at night. Analyses of carbon flux contributions from benthic communities with four different compositions to the reef water carbon chemistry across Heron Reef flat and lagoon indicated that the net lowering of Ωa by coral-dominated areas can to some extent be countered by long water-residence times in neighbouring areas dominated by turfs, macroalgae and carbonate sand.

  16. Optimising methodology for determining the effect of ocean acidification on bacterial extracellular enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, T. J.; Maas, E. W.; Teesdale-Spittle, P.; Law, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    To fully understand the impact of ocean acidification on biogeochemical cycles, the response of bacterial extracellular enzymes needs to be considered as they play a central role in the degradation and distribution of labile organic matter. This study investigates the methodology, and potential artefacts involved in determining the response of bacterial extracellular glucosidase and protease to ocean acidification. The effect of pH on artificial fluorophores and substrates was examined, as well as the impact of three different acidification methods. The results indicate that pH has a significant effect on the fluorescence of the artificial fluorophore 4-methylumbeliferone for glucosidase activity, and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin for protease activity, while artificial aminopeptidase substrate alters the pH of seawater, confirming previous observations. Before use in ocean acidification research these enzyme assay components must be buffered in order to stabilise sample pH. Reduction of coastal seawater pH to 7.8 was shown to increase β-glucosidase activity rapidly (0.5 h), while no significant response was detected for leucine aminopeptidase, highlighting the need for short-term direct effects of pH on enzyme activities. Bubbling with CO2 gas resulted in higher β-glucosidase activity when compared to acidification using gas-permeable silicon tubing and acidification with HCl. Although bubbling showed variable effects between two experiments conducted at different times of the year. In addition, bacterial cell numbers were 15-40% higher with bubbling relative to seawater acidified with gas-permeable silicon tubing and HCl. Artefacts associated with bubbling may lead to the overestimation of extracellular enzyme activities, and interpretation of the impacts of ocean acidification on organic matter cycling.

  17. A metadata template for ocean acidification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.-Q.; O'Connor, S. A.; Arzayus, K. M.; Kozyr, A.; Parsons, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines the best practices for documenting ocean acidification (OA) metadata and presents a framework for an OA metadata template. Metadata is structured information that describes and locates an information resource. It is the key to ensuring that a data set will survive and continue to be accessible into the future. With the rapid expansion of studies on biological responses of organisms to OA, the lack of a common metadata template to document the resulting data poses a significant hindrance to effective OA data management efforts. In this paper, we present a metadata template that can be applied to a broad spectrum of OA studies, including those studying the biological responses of organisms to OA. The "variable metadata section", which includes the variable name, observation type, whether the variable is a manipulation condition or response variable, and the biological subject on which the variable is studied, forms the core of this metadata template. Additional metadata elements, such as investigators, temporal and spatial coverage, platforms for the sampling, data citation, are essential components to complete the template. We also explain the structure of the template, and define many metadata elements that may be unfamiliar to researchers. Template availability. - Available at: http://ezid.cdlib.org/id/doi:10.7289/V5C24TCK. - DOI: doi:10.7289/V5C24TCK. - NOAA Institutional Repository Accession number: ocn881471371.

  18. Soil acidification stimulates the emission of ethylene from temperate forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xingkai; Kazuyuki, Inubushi

    2009-11-01

    Soil acidification via acid precipitation is recognized to have detrimental impacts on forest ecosystems, which is in part associated with the function of ethylene released from the soil. However, the impacts of acidification on the cycling of ethylene in forest soils have not been fully taken into consideration in global change studies. Forest topsoils (0-5 cm) under four temperate forest stands were sampled to study the effects of a pH change on the emissions of ethylene and carbon dioxide from the soils and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released into the soils. Increasing acidification or alkalinization of forest soils could increase concentrations of DOC released into the soils under anoxic and oxic conditions. The ethylene emission from these forest topsoils could significantly increase with a decreasing pH, when the soils were acidified experimentally to a pH<4.0, and it increased with an increasing concentration of DOC released into the soils, which was different from the carbon dioxide emission from the soils. Hence, the short-term stimulating responses of ethylene emission to a decreasing pH in such forest soils resulted from the increase in the DOC concentration due to acidification rather than carbon mineralization. The results would promote one to study the effects of soil acidification on the cycling of ethylene under different forest stands, particularly under degraded forest stands with heavy acid depositions.

  19. Glucose-Induced Acidification in Yeast Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan; Bourn, Julia; Pool, Brynne

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation (for A-level biology students and equivalent) into the mechanism of glucose-induced extracellular acidification in unbuffered yeast suspensions. The investigation is designed to enhance understanding of aspects of the A-level curriculum that relate to the phenomenon (notably glucose catabolism) and to develop key skills…

  20. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

  1. Sensitivity to acidification of subalpine ponds and lakes in north-western Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. H.; Muths, E.; Turk, J. T.; Corn, P. S.

    2004-10-01

    Although acidifying deposition in western North America is lower than in many parts of the world, many high-elevation ecosystems there are extremely sensitive to acidification. Previous studies determined that the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area (MZWA) has the most acidic snowpack and aquatic ecosystems that are among the most sensitive in the region. In this study, spatial and temporal variability of ponds and lakes in and near the MZWA were examined to determine their sensitivity to acidification and the effects of acidic deposition during and after snowmelt. Within the areas identified as sensitive to acidification based on bedrock types, there was substantial variability in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), which was related to differences in hydrological flowpaths that control delivery of weathering products to surface waters. Geological and topographic maps were of limited use in predicting acid sensitivity because their spatial resolution was not fine enough to capture the variability of these attributes for lakes and ponds with small catchment areas. Many of the lakes are sensitive to acidification (summer and autumn ANC < 100 μeq L-1), but none of them appeared to be threatened immediately by episodic or chronic acidification. In contrast, 22 ponds had minimum ANC < 30 μeq L-1, indicating that they are extremely sensitive to acidic deposition and could be damaged by episodic acidification, although net acidity (ANC < 0) was not measured in any of the ponds during the study. The lowest measured pH value was 5.4, and pH generally remained less than 6.0 throughout early summer in the most sensitive ponds, indicating that biological effects of acidification are possible at levels of atmospheric deposition that occurred during the study. The aquatic chemistry of lakes was dominated by atmospheric deposition and biogeochemical processes in soils and shallow ground water, whereas the aquatic chemistry of ponds was also affected by organic acids and biogeochemical

  2. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  3. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk. PMID:25534629

  4. Modeling past and future acidification of Swedish lakes.

    PubMed

    Moldan, Filip; Cosby, Bernard J; Wright, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    Decades of acid deposition have caused acidification of lakes in Sweden. Here we use data for 3000 lakes to run the acidification model MAGIC and estimate historical and future acidification. The results indicate that beginning in about 1920 a progressively larger number of lakes in Sweden fell into the category of "not naturally acidified" (∆pH > 0.4). The peak in acidification was reached about 1985; since then many lakes have recovered in response to lower levels of acid deposition. Further recovery from acidification will occur by the year 2030 given implementation of agreed legislation for emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) in Europe. But the number of catchments with soils being depleted in base cations will increase slightly. MAGIC-reconstructed history of acidification of lakes in Sweden agrees well with information on fish populations. Future acidification of Swedish lakes can be influenced by climate change as well as changes in forest harvest practices. PMID:23288615

  5. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high-latitude open ocean.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P; Leakey, Raymond J G; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects. PMID:26691595

  6. Gene expression changes in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi after 500 generations of selection to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Lohbeck, Kai T.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coccolithophores are unicellular marine algae that produce biogenic calcite scales and substantially contribute to marine primary production and carbon export to the deep ocean. Ongoing ocean acidification particularly impairs calcifying organisms, mostly resulting in decreased growth and calcification. Recent studies revealed that the immediate physiological response in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi to ocean acidification may be partially compensated by evolutionary adaptation, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we report on the expression levels of 10 candidate genes putatively relevant to pH regulation, carbon transport, calcification and photosynthesis in E. huxleyi populations short-term exposed to ocean acidification conditions after acclimation (physiological response) and after 500 generations of high CO2 adaptation (adaptive response). The physiological response revealed downregulation of candidate genes, well reflecting the concomitant decrease of growth and calcification. In the adaptive response, putative pH regulation and carbon transport genes were up-regulated, matching partial restoration of growth and calcification in high CO2-adapted populations. Adaptation to ocean acidification in E. huxleyi likely involved improved cellular pH regulation, presumably indirectly affecting calcification. Adaptive evolution may thus have the potential to partially restore cellular pH regulatory capacity and thereby mitigate adverse effects of ocean acidification. PMID:24827439

  7. No support for widespread surface ocean acidification during Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naafs, B. D.; Castro, J. M.; De Gea, G. A.; Quijano, M. L.; Schmidt, D. N.; Pancost, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Various studies suggested that changes in morphology and the demise of calcareous nannoplankton around Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a were the result of large-scale (surface) ocean acidification caused by a substantial input of CO2. However, the link between extinction, changes in morphology, calcification crisis and surface ocean acidification is heavily debated. Crucially the relative timing, magnitude and duration of CO2 input during OAE 1a and hence potential to change surface ocean pH and calcite saturation state (Ω) are unconstraint. Here we provide the first high-resolution record of atmospheric CO2 across OAE 1a that depicts the often-inferred increase and decrease in pCO2. Crucially, we show that the initial increase in pCO2 was a gradual and sustained process that lasted at least 100 kyr. Earth system modeling indicates that over such timescales buffering of ocean chemistry by dissolution of deep-sea carbonates and weathering on land prevent surface ocean acidification. Widespread surface ocean acidification could therefore not have occurred during OAE 1a. Our results challenge recent suggestion of widespread ocean acidification across OAE 1a and highlight that the currently observed and further predicted anthropogenic decrease in surface ocean pH and Ω is extremely rare if not unique within the geological record.

  8. Status of soil acidification in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenn, M.E.; Huntington, T.G.; Mclaughlin, S.B.; Eagar, C.; Gomez, A.; Cook, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of leaching of base cations, increased availability of soil Al, and the accumulation and ultimate transmission of acidity from forest soils to streams. Losses of calcium from forest soils and forested watersheds have now been documented as a sensitive early indicator and a functionally significant response to acid deposition for a wide range of forest soils in North America. For red spruce, a clear link has been established between acidic deposition, alterations in calcium and aluminum supplies and increased sensitivity to winter injury. Cation depletion appears to contribute to sugar maple decline on some soils, specifically the high mortality rates observed in northern Pennsylvania over the last decade. While responses to liming have not been systematically examined in North America, in a study in Pennsylvania, restoring basic cations through liming increased basal area growth of sugar maple and levels of calcium and magnesium in soil and foliage. In the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California near the west coast, the pH of the A horizon has declined by at least 2 pH units (to pH 4.0-4.3) over the past 30 years, with no detrimental effects on bole growth; presumably, because of the Mediterranean climate, base cation pools are still high and not limiting for plant growth.

  9. Bioremediation of waste under ocean acidification: Reviewing the role of Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Broszeit, Stefanie; Hattam, Caroline; Beaumont, Nicola

    2016-02-15

    Waste bioremediation is a key regulating ecosystem service, removing wastes from ecosystems through storage, burial and recycling. The bivalve Mytilus edulis is an important contributor to this service, and is used in managing eutrophic waters. Studies show that they are affected by changes in pH due to ocean acidification, reducing their growth. This is forecasted to lead to reductions in M. edulis biomass of up to 50% by 2100. Growth reduction will negatively affect the filtering capacity of each individual, potentially leading to a decrease in bioremediation of waste. This paper critically reviews the current state of knowledge of bioremediation of waste carried out by M. edulis, and the current knowledge of the resultant effect of ocean acidification on this key service. We show that the effects of ocean acidification on waste bioremediation could be a major issue and pave the way for empirical studies of the topic. PMID:26778338

  10. Morphological plasticity of the coral skeleton under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    PubMed

    Tambutté, E; Venn, A A; Holcomb, M; Segonds, N; Techer, N; Zoccola, D; Allemand, D; Tambutté, S

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes corals to calcify at reduced rates, but current understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we conduct a mechanistic study into how seawater acidification alters skeletal growth of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Reductions in colony calcification rates are manifested as increases in skeletal porosity at lower pH, while linear extension of skeletons remains unchanged. Inspection of the microstructure of skeletons and measurements of pH at the site of calcification indicate that dissolution is not responsible for changes in skeletal porosity. Instead, changes occur by enlargement of corallite-calyxes and thinning of associated skeletal elements, constituting a modification in skeleton architecture. We also detect increases in the organic matrix protein content of skeletons formed under lower pH. Overall, our study reveals that seawater acidification not only causes decreases in calcification, but can also cause morphological change of the coral skeleton to a more porous and potentially fragile phenotype. PMID:26067341

  11. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-08-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pH to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  13. Morphological plasticity of the coral skeleton under CO2-driven seawater acidification

    PubMed Central

    Tambutté, E.; Venn, A. A.; Holcomb, M.; Segonds, N.; Techer, N.; Zoccola, D.; Allemand, D.; Tambutté, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes corals to calcify at reduced rates, but current understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we conduct a mechanistic study into how seawater acidification alters skeletal growth of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Reductions in colony calcification rates are manifested as increases in skeletal porosity at lower pH, while linear extension of skeletons remains unchanged. Inspection of the microstructure of skeletons and measurements of pH at the site of calcification indicate that dissolution is not responsible for changes in skeletal porosity. Instead, changes occur by enlargement of corallite-calyxes and thinning of associated skeletal elements, constituting a modification in skeleton architecture. We also detect increases in the organic matrix protein content of skeletons formed under lower pH. Overall, our study reveals that seawater acidification not only causes decreases in calcification, but can also cause morphological change of the coral skeleton to a more porous and potentially fragile phenotype. PMID:26067341

  14. Biochemical alterations induced in Hediste diversicolor under seawater acidification conditions.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosa; Pires, Adília; Moreira, Anthony; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-06-01

    Seawater pH is among the environmental factors controlling the performance of marine organisms, especially in calcifying marine invertebrates. However, changes in non-calcifying organisms (including polychaetes) may also occur due to pH decrease. Polychaetes are often the most abundant group of organisms in estuarine systems, representing an important ecological and economic resource. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of seawater acidification in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a species commonly used as bioindicator. For this, organisms were exposed to different pH levels (7.9, 7.6 and 7.3) during 28 days and several biochemical markers were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that pH decrease negatively affected osmotic regulation and polychaetes metabolism, with individuals under low pH (7.6 and 7.3) presenting higher carbonic anhydrase activity, lower energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) and higher metabolic rate (measured as Electron transport system activity). The increase on CA activity was associated to organisms osmoregulation capacity while the increase on ETS and decrease on energy reserves was associated to the polychaetes capacity to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant defenses). In fact, despite having observed higher lipid peroxidation at pH 7.6, in polychaetes at the lowest tested pH (7.3) LPO levels were similar to values recorded in individuals under control pH (7.9). Such findings may result from higher antioxidant enzyme activity at the lowest tested pH, which prevented organisms from higher oxidative stress levels. Overall, our study demonstrated how polychaetes may respond to near-future ocean acidification conditions, exhibiting the capacity to develop biochemical strategies which will prevent organisms from lethal injuries. Such defense strategies will contribute for polychaetes populations maintenance and survival under predicted seawater acidification scenarios. PMID:27088614

  15. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  16. The effect of ocean acidification on carbon storage and sequestration in seagrass beds; a global and UK context.

    PubMed

    Garrard, Samantha L; Beaumont, Nicola J

    2014-09-15

    Ocean acidification will have many negative consequences for marine organisms and ecosystems, leading to a decline in many ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. This study reviews the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on seagrasses, assessing how this may affect their capacity to sequester carbon in the future and providing an economic valuation of these changes. If ocean acidification leads to a significant increase in above- and below-ground biomass, the capacity of seagrass to sequester carbon will be significantly increased. The associated value of this increase in sequestration capacity is approximately £500 and 600 billion globally between 2010 and 2100. A proportionally similar increase in carbon sequestration value was found for the UK. This study highlights one of the few positive stories for ocean acidification and underlines that sustainable management of seagrasses is critical to avoid their continued degradation and loss of carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:25103900

  17. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  18. Episodic acidification of a coastal plain stream in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, A. K.; Eshleman, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the episodic acidification of Reedy Creek, a wetland-influenced coastal plain stream near Richmond, Virginia. Primary objectives of the study were to quantify the episodic variability of acid- base chemistry in Reedy Creek, to examine the seasonal variability in episodic response and to explain the hydrological and geochemical factors that contribute to episodic acidification. Chemical response was similar in each of the seven storms examined, however, the ranges in concentrations observed were commonly greater in summer/fall storms than in winter/spring storms. An increase in SO4/2- concentration with discharge was observed during all storms and peak concentration occurred at or near peak flow. Small increases in Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ concentrations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were observed during most storms. At the same time, ANC, Na+ and Cl- concentrations usually decreased with increasing discharge. In summer/fall storms, the absolute increase in SO4/2- concentration was one-third to 15 times the increase observed in winter/spring storms; the decrease in ANC during summer/fall storms was usually within the range of the decrease observed in winter/spring storms. In contrast, the decrease in Na+ and Cl- concentrations during winter/spring storms was much greater than that observed during summer/fall storms. Data show that while base flow anion deficit was higher in summer/fall than in winter/spring, anion deficit decreased during most summer/fall storms. In contrast, base flow anion deficit was lower in spring and winter, but increased during winter/spring storms. Increased SO4/2- concentration was the main cause of episodic acidification during storms at Reedy Creek, but increased anion deficit indicates organic acids may contribute to episodic acidification during winter/spring storms. Changes in SO4/2- concentration coincident with the hydrograph rise indicate quick routing of water through the watershed. Saturation overland flow

  19. Organelle acidification is important for localisation of vacuolar proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Risa; Suzuki, Kuninori; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-12-01

    The acidic environments in the vacuole and other acidic organelles are important for many cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the roles of organelle acidification in vacuolar protein localisation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After repressing the acidification of acidic compartments by treatment with concanamycin A, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), we examined the localisation of GFP-fused proteins that were predicted to localise in the vacuolar lumen or on the vacuolar membrane. Of the 73 proteins examined, 19 changed their localisation to the cytoplasmic region. Localisation changes were evaluated quantitatively using the image processing programme CalMorph. The delocalised proteins included vacuolar hydrolases, V-ATPase subunits, transporters and enzymes for membrane biogenesis, as well as proteins required for protein transport. These results suggest that many alterations in the localisation of vacuolar proteins occur after loss of the acidification of acidic compartments. PMID:23708375

  20. Ocean acidification impacts mussel control on biomineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Cusack, Maggie; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2014-08-01

    Ocean acidification is altering the oceanic carbonate saturation state and threatening the survival of marine calcifying organisms. Production of their calcium carbonate exoskeletons is dependent not only on the environmental seawater carbonate chemistry but also the ability to produce biominerals through proteins. We present shell growth and structural responses by the economically important marine calcifier Mytilus edulis to ocean acidification scenarios (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm pCO2). After six months of incubation at 750 µatm pCO2, reduced carbonic anhydrase protein activity and shell growth occurs in M. edulis. Beyond that, at 1000 µatm pCO2, biomineralisation continued but with compensated metabolism of proteins and increased calcite growth. Mussel growth occurs at a cost to the structural integrity of the shell due to structural disorientation of calcite crystals. This loss of structural integrity could impact mussel shell strength and reduce protection from predators and changing environments.

  1. Lake acidification: Effects on crustacean zooplankton populations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. ); Yan, N.D. ); Keller, W. )

    1993-08-01

    The ranked acid sensitivities of six common crustacean zooplankton taxa were determined from a multilake field survey in Ontario and from laboratory bioassays. The two approaches gave the same ranking (from most to least sensitive): Daphnia galeata mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Skistodiaptomus oregonensis > Diaphanosoma birgei > Mesocyclops edax > Bosmina longirostris. This finding suggests that acidification has caused the widespread damage which has been documented for the zooplankton of Ontario and northeastern US lakes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Rates of Ocean Acidification: Decoupling of Planktic and Benthic Extinctions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Alegret, L.

    2012-12-01

    large fish and mosasaurs, while oceanic productivity in terms of biomass recovered rapidly. Acidification at the end of the Paleocene was triggered by the much slower injection of a large mass of carbon-compounds into the atmosphere and transfer into the oceans (~10-20 kyr), leading to severe extinction of deep-sea calcifying benthos, but much less severe turnover in the plankton. The study of the biogeography of biotic consequences of the K/Pg and P/E boundary events thus may assist in the evaluation of the varying effects on oceanic biota with varying rates and sources of acidification.

  3. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  4. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Scherner, Fernando; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; E Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  5. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; e Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  6. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  7. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  8. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  9. Effect of acidification on elemental and isotopic compositions of sediment organic matter and macro-invertebrate muscle tissues in food web research.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Debashish; Iles, Jordan; Kelleway, Jeff; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Knowles, Lisa; Saintilan, Neil; Hollins, Suzanne

    2010-10-30

    Stable isotope techniques in food web studies often focus on organic carbon in food sources which are subsequently assimilated in the tissue of consumer organisms through diet. The presence of non-dietary carbonates in bulk samples can affect their δ(13)C values, altering how their results are interpreted. Acidification of samples is a common practice to eliminate any inorganic carbon present prior to analysis. We examined the effects of pre-analysis acidification on two size fractions of sediment organic matter (SOM) from marine and freshwater wetlands and pure muscle tissue of a common freshwater invertebrate (Cherax destructor). The elemental content and isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen were compared between paired samples of acidified and control treatments. Our results showed that acidification does not affect the elemental or isotopic values of freshwater SOM. In the marine environment acidification depleted the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of the fine fraction of saltmarsh and δ(15)N values of mangrove fine SOM. Whilst acidification did not change the elemental content of invertebrate muscle tissue, the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were affected. We recommend to researchers considering using acidification techniques on material prepared for stable isotope analysis that a formal assessment of the effect of acidification on their particular sample type should be undertaken. Further detailed investigation to understand the impact of acidification on elemental and isotopic values of organic matter and muscular tissues is required. PMID:20872625

  10. Ocean acidification effects on calcification in pCO2 acclimated Caribbean scleractinian coral

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ocean acidification (OA) is projected to increase the acidity of coral reef habitats 2-3 times that of present day pCO2 levels. Many studies have shown the adverse effects on scleractinian calcification when exposed to elevated pCO2 levels, however, in these studies, corals have ...

  11. Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

  12. Herbaceous layer and soil response to experimental acidification in a central appalachian hardwood forest

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, F.S.; Turrill, N.L.; Aulick, S.D.; Evans, D.K.; Adams, M.B.

    1994-07-01

    The herbaceous layer is an important component of forest ecosystems and a potentially sensitive vegetation stratum in response to acid deposition. This study tested several hypotheses concerning soil and herbaceous layer response to experimental acidification at the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virginia. Fifteen circular sample plots (0.04 ha) were established in each of three watersheds: WS3 (an {approx} 20-yr-old watershed receiving acidification treatment with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), WS4 (>80-yr-old control), and WS7 ({approx} 20-yr-old control). The herb layer was sampled intensively in 10 1-m{sup 2} subplots within each sample plot, including determination of species composition, cover, and random biomass harvests. Few differences among watersheds for virtually all measured soil variables indicated minimal response of soil fertility to the acidification treatment. The herbaceous layer was also quite similar among watersheds with respect to cover-biomass and species diversity; WS7, however, had {approx} 70% higher herb layer cover that both Ws3 and WS4, a result of the predominance of a few high-cover fern species and attributable to the north-facing aspect of WS7 vs. south-facing aspects of WS3/WS4. There was a high degree of species similarity among watersheds, suggesting no shift in species composition in response to acidification. There was also minimal response of element concentrations to acidification, although Fe and Al exhibited evidence of increased uptake in WS3. We conclude that, contrary to our expectations, there has been little substantive response of the soil and herb layer to acidification, but hypothesize that herbaceous layer species may experience toxicity problems with increased mobility of Al and micronutrients in the future. 47 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Microbial population dynamics and changes in main nutrients during the acidification process of pig manures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Yuan, Xufeng; Guo, Peng; Suo, Yali; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Weidong; Cui, Zongjun

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of pig manure acidification on anaerobic treatment and composition of the fecal microbial community. According to the different chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the anaerobic treatment processes, pig manure was diluted 4 times (x4), 16 times (x16), or 64 times (x64) and subjected to acidification. During the acidification process, pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were determined along with microbial population dynamics. The pH of the three dilutions first declined, and then slowly increased. The total VFAs of x4 and x16 dilutions peaked on day 15 and 20, respectively. The content of acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and valeric acid of the x4 dilution were 23.6, 11.4, 8.8 and 0.6 g/L respectively, and that of the x16 dilution was 5.6, 2.3, 0.9 and 0.2 g/L respectively. Only acetic acid was detected in the x64 dilution, and its level peaked on day 10. The results showed that the liquid pig manure was more suitable to enter the anaerobic methanogenic bioreactors after two weeks of acidification. During the acidification process, total P concentration increased during the first ten days, then dropped sharply, and rose again to a relatively high final concentration, while total N concentration rose initially and then declined. Based on the analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clone library, we concluded that the acidification process reduced the number of pathogenic bacteria species in pig manure. PMID:21520820

  14. Base cation controlled recovery from acidification in streams in the Ridge/Blue Ridge provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robison, A.; Scanlon, T. M.; Cosby, B. J.; Webb, R.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Widespread recovery of surface waters from acidification has been documented throughout the U.S. and Europe over recent decades with a notable exception being the Ridge/Blue Ridge province of the central Appalachians of the U.S. In this region, a decrease in sulfate deposition has not led to a similar decrease in surface water concentrations of this acid anion. Sixty four streams in western Virginia were sampled on a quarterly basis from 1987 to 2010 and were analyzed for various chemical and physical properties. We report here that while acidification continues for most systems, recovery, in terms of increasing acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), has begun to occur in the region on a limited basis. Over the timeframe of study, 33% of the streams demonstrated a positive trend in ANC. The status of watersheds with respect to acidification is controlled primarily by the availability of base cations derived from the underlying bedrock. Recovery was associated almost exclusively by watersheds underlain by relatively base-rich mafic and felsic bedrock, while continued acidification was dominated by sites with relatively base-poor siliciclastic and argillaceous bedrock. Further influencing recovery is the region's high soil sulfate adsorption capacity, a result of older, more highly weathered soils that were not impacted during the most recent glacial maxima. This factor is the main cause of the delayed response of watersheds to decreased acidic deposition. However, a mass balance analysis of sulfate at the base-poor White Oak Run watershed reveals export may soon surpass storage for the first time in the nearly three decades of continuous monitoring. Therefore, recovery from acidification may be near for the region's more ubiquitous base-poor watersheds, as steam sulfate concentrations are predicted to finally decrease. Our findings show a positive, albeit limited step in the recovery of this region from acidification and suggest that more widespread recovery could being

  15. Responses of freshwater plants and invertebrates to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.; Yan, N.D.; Baumgartner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic, oligotrophic, clear waters often have strong similarities among their biota. In the phytoplankton, Dinophyceae, and to a lesser extent Chrysophyceae tend to dominate. Production of 25 Canadian Shield lakes (pH 6.1-7.1) ranged from 25 to 240 mg C m/sup -2/ d/sup -1/. Both biomass and production appear to be controlled by the supply and bio-availability of phosphorus rather than pH per se. We found little evidence of possible C limitation in acidified lakes. There does not appear to be a direct relationship between (H/sup +/) and biomass density in lakes, as illustrated by whole-lake manipulations of (H/sup +/) and total phosphorus (TP). These studies, however, do not examine effects of acidification on the whole lake-watershed system. It is suggested that watershed acidification processes such as leaching of Al may reduce TP loading to lakes. Zooplankton community biomass appears to be reduced at low pH and small-bodied forms may dominate. Among the zoobenthos, biomass does appear to be reduced in some lakes but not others. Various studies found shredders; collectors and scrapers to be reduced more than raptorial species. We hypothesize that removal of fish predation on benthos allows a relative increase in the invertebrate predators, reduction of herbivores (chironomids are relatively abundant) and the subsequent increase in benthic algae observed in many waters.

  16. Organelle acidification negatively regulates vacuole membrane fusion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Desfougères, Yann; Vavassori, Stefano; Rompf, Maria; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a proton pump consisting of a membrane-integral V0 sector and a peripheral V1 sector, which carries the ATPase activity. In vitro studies of yeast vacuole fusion and evidence from worms, flies, zebrafish and mice suggested that V0 interacts with the SNARE machinery for membrane fusion, that it promotes the induction of hemifusion and that this activity requires physical presence of V0 rather than its proton pump activity. A recent in vivo study in yeast has challenged these interpretations, concluding that fusion required solely lumenal acidification but not the V0 sector itself. Here, we identify the reasons for this discrepancy and reconcile it. We find that acute pharmacological or physiological inhibition of V-ATPase pump activity de-acidifies the vacuole lumen in living yeast cells within minutes. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that de-acidification induces vacuole fusion rather than inhibiting it. Cells expressing mutated V0 subunits that maintain vacuolar acidity were blocked in this fusion. Thus, proton pump activity of the V-ATPase negatively regulates vacuole fusion in vivo. Vacuole fusion in vivo does, however, require physical presence of a fusion-competent V0 sector. PMID:27363625

  17. Organelle acidification negatively regulates vacuole membrane fusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Desfougères, Yann; Vavassori, Stefano; Rompf, Maria; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a proton pump consisting of a membrane-integral V0 sector and a peripheral V1 sector, which carries the ATPase activity. In vitro studies of yeast vacuole fusion and evidence from worms, flies, zebrafish and mice suggested that V0 interacts with the SNARE machinery for membrane fusion, that it promotes the induction of hemifusion and that this activity requires physical presence of V0 rather than its proton pump activity. A recent in vivo study in yeast has challenged these interpretations, concluding that fusion required solely lumenal acidification but not the V0 sector itself. Here, we identify the reasons for this discrepancy and reconcile it. We find that acute pharmacological or physiological inhibition of V-ATPase pump activity de-acidifies the vacuole lumen in living yeast cells within minutes. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that de-acidification induces vacuole fusion rather than inhibiting it. Cells expressing mutated V0 subunits that maintain vacuolar acidity were blocked in this fusion. Thus, proton pump activity of the V-ATPase negatively regulates vacuole fusion in vivo. Vacuole fusion in vivo does, however, require physical presence of a fusion-competent V0 sector. PMID:27363625

  18. Data compilation on the biological response to ocean acidification: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Hansson, L.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    The exponential growth of studies on the biological response to ocean acidification over the last few decades has generated a large amount of data. To facilitate data comparison, a data compilation hosted at the data publisher PANGAEA was initiated in 2008 and is updated on a regular basis (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.149999). By January 2015, a total of 581 data sets (over 4 000 000 data points) from 539 papers had been archived. Here we present the developments of this data compilation 5 years since its first description by Nisumaa et al. (2010). Most of the study sites from which data have been archived are in the Northern Hemisphere and the number of archived data from studies from the Southern Hemisphere and polar oceans is still relatively low. Data from 60 studies that investigated the response of a mix of organisms or natural communities were all added after 2010, indicating a welcome shift from the study of individual organisms to communities and ecosystems. The initial imbalance of considerably more data archived on calcification and primary production than on other processes has improved. There is also a clear tendency towards more data archived from multifactorial studies after 2010. For easier and more effective access to ocean acidification data, the ocean acidification community is strongly encouraged to contribute to the data archiving effort, and help develop standard vocabularies describing the variables and define best practices for archiving ocean acidification data.

  19. Influence of Ocean Acidification on a Natural Winter-to-Summer Plankton Succession: First Insights from a Long-Term Mesocosm Study Draw Attention to Periods of Low Nutrient Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Taucher, Jan; Boxhammer, Tim; Ludwig, Andrea; Achterberg, Eric P.; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Anderson, Leif G.; Bellworthy, Jessica; Büdenbender, Jan; Czerny, Jan; Ericson, Ylva; Esposito, Mario; Fischer, Matthias; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Horn, Henriette G.; Hornick, Thomas; Meyer, Jana; Sswat, Michael; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Every year, the oceans absorb about 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to a re-equilibration of the marine carbonate system and decreasing seawater pH. Today, there is increasing awareness that these changes–summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)–could differentially affect the competitive ability of marine organisms, thereby provoking a restructuring of marine ecosystems and biogeochemical element cycles. In winter 2013, we deployed ten pelagic mesocosms in the Gullmar Fjord at the Swedish west coast in order to study the effect of OA on plankton ecology and biogeochemistry under close to natural conditions. Five of the ten mesocosms were left unperturbed and served as controls (~380 μatm pCO2), whereas the others were enriched with CO2-saturated water to simulate realistic end-of-the-century carbonate chemistry conditions (~760 μatm pCO2). We ran the experiment for 113 days which allowed us to study the influence of high CO2 on an entire winter-to-summer plankton succession and to investigate the potential of some plankton organisms for evolutionary adaptation to OA in their natural environment. This paper is the first in a PLOS collection and provides a detailed overview on the experimental design, important events, and the key complexities of such a “long-term mesocosm” approach. Furthermore, we analyzed whether simulated end-of-the-century carbonate chemistry conditions could lead to a significant restructuring of the plankton community in the course of the succession. At the level of detail analyzed in this overview paper we found that CO2-induced differences in plankton community composition were non-detectable during most of the succession except for a period where a phytoplankton bloom was fueled by remineralized nutrients. These results indicate: (1) Long-term studies with pelagic ecosystems are necessary to uncover OA-sensitive stages of succession. (2) Plankton communities fueled by regenerated nutrients may be more

  20. Influence of Ocean Acidification on a Natural Winter-to-Summer Plankton Succession: First Insights from a Long-Term Mesocosm Study Draw Attention to Periods of Low Nutrient Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bach, Lennart T; Taucher, Jan; Boxhammer, Tim; Ludwig, Andrea; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Anderson, Leif G; Bellworthy, Jessica; Büdenbender, Jan; Czerny, Jan; Ericson, Ylva; Esposito, Mario; Fischer, Matthias; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Horn, Henriette G; Hornick, Thomas; Meyer, Jana; Sswat, Michael; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Every year, the oceans absorb about 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to a re-equilibration of the marine carbonate system and decreasing seawater pH. Today, there is increasing awareness that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-could differentially affect the competitive ability of marine organisms, thereby provoking a restructuring of marine ecosystems and biogeochemical element cycles. In winter 2013, we deployed ten pelagic mesocosms in the Gullmar Fjord at the Swedish west coast in order to study the effect of OA on plankton ecology and biogeochemistry under close to natural conditions. Five of the ten mesocosms were left unperturbed and served as controls (~380 μatm pCO2), whereas the others were enriched with CO2-saturated water to simulate realistic end-of-the-century carbonate chemistry conditions (~760 μatm pCO2). We ran the experiment for 113 days which allowed us to study the influence of high CO2 on an entire winter-to-summer plankton succession and to investigate the potential of some plankton organisms for evolutionary adaptation to OA in their natural environment. This paper is the first in a PLOS collection and provides a detailed overview on the experimental design, important events, and the key complexities of such a "long-term mesocosm" approach. Furthermore, we analyzed whether simulated end-of-the-century carbonate chemistry conditions could lead to a significant restructuring of the plankton community in the course of the succession. At the level of detail analyzed in this overview paper we found that CO2-induced differences in plankton community composition were non-detectable during most of the succession except for a period where a phytoplankton bloom was fueled by remineralized nutrients. These results indicate: (1) Long-term studies with pelagic ecosystems are necessary to uncover OA-sensitive stages of succession. (2) Plankton communities fueled by regenerated nutrients may be more responsive

  1. Conservation of acid waterlogged shipwrecks: nanotechnologies for de-acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, R.; Chelazzi, D.; Baglioni, P.

    2006-06-01

    Preservation of waterlogged wooden artifacts, and in particular ancient wrecks, is a challenge in cultural heritage conservation. Samples, from the Swedish warship Vasa, are under investigation in order to develop innovative methods for wood de-acidification and preservation. The Vasa represents a unique case in the study of ancient wrecks. In the past four years the problem of the acidity of wood emerged as a strong threat to its conservation. The production of sulphuric acid inside the ship wood might be the cause of both chemical damage through the acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and of physical damage of the wood’s pore structure, due to the crystallization of sulphate minerals in the wood pores. In this paper we show that wood acidity can be neutralized by the application of nanoparticles of alkaline-earth carbonates and/or hydroxides. The treatment provides an alkaline reservoir inside the wood. Nanoparticles absorbed in the wood from an alcoholic dispersion adhere to the wood wall and release hydroxyl ions leading to the wood neutralization. Oak and pine samples from the Vasa wreck were characterized and treated with alkaline magnesium or calcium nanoparticle dispersions in non-aqueous solvents. De-acidification was monitored by pH changes and thermal analysis, and all the treated samples were submitted to thermal artificial ageing in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. The results obtained opened a new perspective in wood conservation.

  2. Acidification Methods for Stabilization and Storage of Salmon By-Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska’s fishing industry generates over one million metric tons of fish by-products each year, much of which is discarded during processing unless fishmeal plants are located nearby. Preservation methods, such as acidification, are less commonly used to inhibit spoilage. In this study, individual s...

  3. ACIDIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF A SPODOSOL BS HORIZON FROM ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. echanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40...

  4. Intraspecific variation in physiological performance of a benthic elasmobranch challenged by ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Valentina

    2016-06-01

    Elucidating the combined effects of increasing temperature and ocean acidification on performance of fishes is central to our understanding of how species will respond to global climate change. Measuring the metabolic costs associated with intense and short activities, such as those required to escape predators, is key to quantifying changes in performance and estimating the potential effects of environmental stressors on survival. In this study, juvenile little skate Leucoraja erinacea from two neighboring locations (Gulf of Maine, or northern location, and Georges Bank, or southern location) were developmentally acclimatized and reared at current and projected temperatures (15, 18 or 20°C) and acidification conditions (pH 8.1 or 7.7), and their escape performance was tested by employing a chasing protocol. The results from this study suggest countergradient variation in growth between skates from the two locations, while the optimum for escape performance was at a lower temperature in individuals from the northern latitudes, which could be related to adaptation to the local thermal environment. Aerobic performance and scope declined in skates from the northern latitudes under simulated ocean warming and acidification conditions. Overall, the southern skates showed lower sensitivity to these climatic stressors. This study demonstrates that even mobile organisms from neighboring locations can exhibit substantial differences in energetic costs of exercise and that skates from the northern part of the geographic range may be more sensitive to the directional increase in temperature and acidification expected by the end of the century. PMID:27026716

  5. Skeletal trade-offs in coralline algae in response to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. J.; Ragazzola, F.

    2014-08-01

    Ocean acidification is changing the marine environment, with potentially serious consequences for many organisms. Much of our understanding of ocean acidification effects comes from laboratory experiments, which demonstrate physiological responses over relatively short timescales. Observational studies and, more recently, experimental studies in natural systems suggest that ocean acidification will alter the structure of seaweed communities. Here, we provide a mechanistic understanding of altered competitive dynamics among a group of seaweeds, the crustose coralline algae (CCA). We compare CCA from historical experiments (1981-1997) with specimens from recent, identical experiments (2012) to describe morphological changes over this time period, which coincides with acidification of seawater in the Northeastern Pacific. Traditionally thick species decreased in thickness by a factor of 2.0-2.3, but did not experience a change in internal skeletal metrics. In contrast, traditionally thin species remained approximately the same thickness but reduced their total carbonate tissue by making thinner inter-filament cell walls. These changes represent alternative mechanisms for the reduction of calcium carbonate production in CCA and suggest energetic trade-offs related to the cost of building and maintaining a calcium carbonate skeleton as pH declines. Our classification of stress response by morphological type may be generalizable to CCA at other sites, as well as to other calcifying organisms with species-specific differences in morphological types.

  6. Cytoplasmic Acidification Induced by Inorganic Phosphate Uptake in Suspension Cultured Catharanthus roseus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Katsuhiro; Yazaki, Yoshiaki; Mimura, Tetsuro

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic acidification during inorganic phosphate (Pi) absorption by Catharanthus roseus cells were studied by means of a fluorescent pH indicator, 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 carboxyfluorescein (acetomethylester) (BCECF), and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cytoplasmic acidification measured by decrease in the fluorescence intensity started immediately after Pi application. Within a minute or so, a stable state was attained and no further acidification occurred, whereas Pi absorption was still proceeding. As soon as Pi in the medium was exhausted, cytoplasmic pH started to recover. Coincidentally, the medium pH started to recover toward the original acidic pH. The Pi-induced changes in the cytoplasmic pH were confirmed by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance study. Maximum acidification of the cytoplasm induced by 1.7 millimolar Pi was 0.2 pH units. Vacuolar pH was also affected by Pi. In some experiments, but not all, pH decreased reversibly by 0.2 to 0.3 pH units during Pi absorption. Results suggest that the cytoplasmic pH is regulated by proton pumps in the plasma membrane and in the tonoplast. In addition, other mechanisms that could consume extra protons in the cytoplasm are suggested. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668939

  7. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…

  8. Effects of seawater acidification on gene expression: resolving broader-scale trends in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler G; Watson-Wynn, Priscilla

    2014-06-01

    Sea urchins are ecologically and economically important calcifying organisms threatened by acidification of the global ocean caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Propelled by the sequencing of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome, profiling changes in gene expression during exposure to high pCO2 seawater has emerged as a powerful and increasingly common method to infer the response of urchins to ocean change. However, analyses of gene expression are sensitive to experimental methodology, and comparisons between studies of genes regulated by ocean acidification are most often made in the context of major caveats. Here we perform meta-analyses as a means of minimizing experimental discrepancies and resolving broader-scale trends regarding the effects of ocean acidification on gene expression in urchins. Analyses across eight studies and four urchin species largely support prevailing hypotheses about the impact of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers. The predominant expression pattern involved the down-regulation of genes within energy-producing pathways, a clear indication of metabolic depression. Genes with functions in ion transport were significantly over-represented and are most plausibly contributing to intracellular pH regulation. Expression profiles provided extensive evidence for an impact on biomineralization, epitomized by the down-regulation of seven spicule matrix proteins. In contrast, expression profiles provided limited evidence for CO2-mediated developmental delay or induction of a cellular stress response. Congruence between studies of gene expression and the ocean acidification literature in general validates the accuracy of gene expression in predicting the consequences of ocean change and justifies its continued use in future studies. PMID:25070868

  9. Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, Dan; Doherty, Carolyn; Edwards, Peter E. T.; Portela, Rosimeiry

    2015-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. Until that is achieved, feasible and locally relevant adaptation and mitigation measures are needed. To help to prioritize societal responses to ocean acidification, we present a spatially explicit, multidisciplinary vulnerability analysis of coastal human communities in the United States. We focus our analysis on shelled mollusc harvests, which are likely to be harmed by ocean acidification. Our results highlight US regions most vulnerable to ocean acidification (and why), important knowledge and information gaps, and opportunities to adapt through local actions. The research illustrates the benefits of integrating natural and social sciences to identify actions and other opportunities while policy, stakeholders and scientists are still in relatively early stages of developing research plans and responses to ocean acidification.

  10. Carbonate platform evidence of ocean acidification at the onset of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trecalli, Alberto; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.; Parente, Mariano

    2012-12-01

    The early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (Early Jurassic;˜183 Myr ago) is associated with one of the largest negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the whole Phanerozoic (3-7‰). Estimates of the magnitude and rate of CO2 injection in the ocean-atmosphere system are compatible with a scenario of ocean acidification. Many carbonate platforms drowned in the Pliensbachian, well before the early Toarcian event. In this paper we test the hypothesis of surface water ocean acidification by presenting data from a resilient carbonate platform: the Apennine Carbonate Platform of southern Italy. The studied sections document a dramatic shift of the carbonate factory from massive biocalcification to chemical precipitation. Lithiotis bivalves and calcareous algae (Palaeodasycladus mediterraneus), which were the most prolific carbonate producers of Pliensbachian carbonate platforms, disappear during the first phase of the early Toarcian CIE, before the most depleted values are reached. We discuss the local versus supraregional significance of this shift and propose a scenario involving abrupt decline of carbonate saturation, forced by CO2 release at the beginning of the early Toarcian CIE, followed by a calcification overshoot, driven by the recovery of ocean alkalinity. Attribution of the demise of carbonate platform hypercalcifiers to ocean acidification is supported by palaeophysiology and reinforced by experimental data on the detrimental effects of ocean acidification on recent shellfishes and calcareous algae.

  11. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p < 0.05) in the CO2 acidified seawater during the 30 days experiment and the health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd2+/Ca2+ in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion. PMID:26795597

  12. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p < 0.05) in the CO2 acidified seawater during the 30 days experiment and the health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd2+/Ca2+ in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  13. Are brook trout streams in western Virginia and Shenandoah National Park recovering from acidification?

    PubMed

    Webb, James R; Cosby, Bernard J; Deviney, Frank A; Galloway, James N; Maben, Suzanne W; Bulger, Arthur J

    2004-08-01

    Streamwater composition data obtained through periodic sampling of streams that support brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the mountains of western Virginia were examined for evidence of recovery from acidification during the 1988-2001 period. Measurements of sulfate deposition in precipitation indicate that sulfate deposition in the region declined approximately 40% between 1985 and 2000. While no significant regional trends in acid-base constituents were observed for the set (n = 65) of western Virginia study streams, significant regional trends were observed for a subset (n = 14) of streams in Shenandoah National Park (SNP). For the subset of SNP streams, the median increase in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was 0.168 microequiv L(-1) year(-1) and the median decrease in sulfate concentration was -0.229 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). Although these trends are consistent with recovery from acidification, the degree of apparent recovery is small compared to estimates of historic acidification in SNP streams and much less than observed in other, more northern regions in the United States. Correlation between sulfate concentration trends and current sulfate concentrations in streamwater suggests that recovery from stream acidification in the western Virginia region is determined by sulfur retention processes in watershed soils. A transient increase in nitrate concentrations that occurred among some western Virginia streams following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) complicates interpretation of the observed patterns of change in acid-base status. PMID:15352446

  14. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p < 0.05) in the CO2 acidified seawater during the 30 days experiment and the health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd(2+)/Ca(2+) in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion. PMID:26795597

  15. Acidification of lake water due to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley, L. M.; Zammit, B.; Jolley, A. M.; Barnett, L.

    2014-04-01

    Droughts are predicted to increase in many river systems due to increased demand on water resources and climate variability. A severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia from 2007 to 2009 resulted in unprecedented declines in water levels in the Lower Lakes (Ramsar-listed ecosystem of international importance) at the end of the river system. The receding water exposed large areas (>200 km2) of sediments on the lake margins. The pyrite (FeS2) in these sediments oxidised and generated high concentrations of acidity. Upon rewetting of the exposed sediments, by rainfall or lake refill, surface water acidification (pH 2-3) occurred in several locations (total area of 21.7 km2). High concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn), which greatly exceeded aquatic ecosystem protection guidelines, were mobilised in the acidic conditions. In many areas neutralisation of the surface water acidity occurred naturally during lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required in two areas to assist in restoring alkalinity. However acidity persists in the submerged lake sediment and groundwater several years after surface water neutralisation. The surface water acidification proved costly to manage and improved water management in the Murray-Darling Basin is required to prevent similar events occurring in the future.

  16. Detecting the unexpected: a research framework for ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Catherine A; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Frieder, Christina A; Baumann, Hannes; Bockmon, Emily E; White, Meredith M; Carter, Brendan R; Benway, Heather M; Blanchette, Carol A; Carrington, Emily; McClintock, James B; McCorkle, Daniel C; McGillis, Wade R; Mooney, T Aran; Ziveri, Patrizia

    2014-09-01

    The threat that ocean acidification (OA) poses to marine ecosystems is now recognized and U.S. funding agencies have designated specific funding for the study of OA. We present a research framework for studying OA that describes it as a biogeochemical event that impacts individual species and ecosystems in potentially unexpected ways. We draw upon specific lessons learned about ecosystem responses from research on acid rain, carbon dioxide enrichment in terrestrial plant communities, and nitrogen deposition. We further characterize the links between carbon chemistry changes and effects on individuals and ecosystems, and enumerate key hypotheses for testing. Finally, we quantify how U.S. research funding has been distributed among these linkages, concluding that there is an urgent need for research programs designed to anticipate how the effects of OA will reverberate throughout assemblages of species. PMID:25084232

  17. Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study. PMID:24718610

  18. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Processes in Shallow Waters of the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study. PMID:24718610

  19. Long-term tobacco plantation induces soil acidification and soil base cation loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuting; He, Xinhua; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yueqiang; Xu, Chen; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    Changes in soil exchangeable cations relative to soil acidification are less studied particularly under long-term cash crop plantation. This study investigated soil acidification in an Ali-Periudic Argosols after 10-year (2002-2012) long-term continuous tobacco plantation. Soils were respectively sampled at 1933 and 2143 sites in 2002 and 2012 (also 647 tobacco plants), from seven tobacco plantation counties in the Chongqing Municipal City, southwest China. After 10-year continuous tobacco plantation, a substantial acidification was evidenced by an average decrease of 0.20 soil pH unit with a substantial increase of soil sites toward the acidic status, especially those pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.5, whereas 1.93 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) was mostly derived from nitrogen (N) fertilizer input and plant N uptake output. After 1 decade, an average decrease of 27.6 % total exchangeable base cations or of 0.20 pH unit occurred in all seven tobacco plantation counties. Meanwhile, for one unit pH decrease, 40.3 and 28.3 mmol base cations kg(-1) soil were consumed in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Furthermore, the aboveground tobacco biomass harvest removed 339.23 kg base cations ha(-1) year(-1) from soil, which was 7.57 times higher than the anions removal, leading to a 12.52 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) as the main reason inducing soil acidification. Overall, our results showed that long-term tobacco plantation not only stimulated soil acidification but also decreased soil acid-buffering capacity, resulting in negative effects on sustainable soil uses. On the other hand, our results addressed the importance of a continuous monitoring of soil pH changes in tobacco plantation sites, which would enhance our understanding of soil fertility of health in this region. PMID:26566613

  20. Comparison of MAGIC and Diatom paleolimnological model hindcasts of lakewater acidification in the Adirondack region of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Bernert, J.A.; Eliers, J.M. ); Jenne, E.A. ); Cosby, B.J. . School of Forestry and Environmental Studies); Charles, D.F.; Selle, A.R. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three lakes that had been statistically selected as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Eastern Lake Survey and Direct Delayed Response Project (DDRP) were used to compare the MAGIC (watershed) and Diatom (paleolimnological) models. The study lakes represented a well-defined group of Adirondack lakes, each larger than 4 ha in area and having acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) <400 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}. The study first compared current and pre-industrial (before 1850) pH and ANC estimates from Diatom and MAGIC as they were calibrated in the preceding Paleocological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification (PIRLA) and DDRP studies, respectively. Initially, the comparison of hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry was confounded by seasonal and methodological differences in lake chemistry data used in calibration of the model. Although certain differences proved to be of little significance for comparison, MAGIC did predict significantly higher pre-industrial ANC and pH values than did Diatom, using calibrations in the preceding studies. Both models suggest acidification of low ANC Adirondack region lakes since preindustrial times, but differ primarily in that MAGIC inferred greater acidification and that acidification has occurred in all lakes in the comparison, whereas Diatom inferred that acidification has been restricted to low ANC lakes (

  1. Assessing physiological tipping points in response to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S. T.; Dorey, N.; Lançon, P.; Thorndyke, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Impact of near-future ocean acidification on marine invertebrates was mostly assessed in single-species perturbation experiment. Moreover, most of these experiments are short-term, only consider one life-history stage and one or few parameters. They do not take into account important processes such as natural variability and acclimation and evolutionary processes. In many studies published so far, there is a clear lack between the observed effects and individual fitness, most of the deviation from the control being considered as potentially negative for the tested species. However, individuals are living in a fluctuating world and changes can also be interpreted as phenotypic plasticity and may not translate into negative impact on fitness. For example, a vent mussel can survive for decades in very acidic waters despite a significantly reduced calcification compare to control (Tunnicliffe et al. 2009). This is possible thanks to the absence of predatory crabs as a result of acidic conditions that may also inhibit carapace formation. This illustrates the importance to take into account ecological interactions when interpreting single-species experiments and to consider the relative fitness between interacting species. To understand the potential consequence of ocean acidification on any given ecosystem, it is then critical to consider the relative impact on fitness for every interactive species and taking into account the natural fluctuation in environment (e.g. pH, temperature, food concentration, abundance) and discriminate between plasticity with no direct impact on fitness and teratology with direct consequence on survival. In this presentation, we will introduce the concept of "physiological tipping point" in the context of ocean acidification. This will be illustrated by some work done on sea urchin development. Embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis were exposed to a range of pH from 8.1 to 6.5. When exposed to low pH, growth

  2. Ocean acidification risk assessment for Alaska's fishery sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cooley, S. R.; Lucey, N.; Colt, S.; Ekstrom, J.; Hurst, T.; Hauri, C.; Evans, W.; Cross, J. N.; Feely, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The highly productive fisheries of Alaska are located in seas projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that are most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) contribute substantially to the state's commercial fisheries and traditional subsistence way of life. Prior studies of OA's potential impacts on human communities have focused only on possible direct economic losses from specific scenarios of human dependence on commercial harvests and damages to marine species. However, other economic and social impacts, such as changes in food security or livelihoods, are also likely to result from climate change. This study evaluates patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. Here, we used a risk assessment framework based on one developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to analyze earth-system global ocean model hindcasts and projections of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The fisheries examined were: shellfish, salmon and other finfish. The final index incorporates all of these data to compare overall risk among Alaska's federally designated census areas. The analysis showed that regions in southeast and southwest Alaska that are highly reliant on fishery harvests and have relatively lower incomes and employment alternatives likely face the highest risk from OA. Although this study is an intermediate step toward our full understanding, the results presented here show that OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains.

  3. Interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acidification and warming resulting from anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide are increasing threats to marine ecosystems. Previous studies have documented the effects of either seawater acidification or warming on marine calcifiers; however, the combined effects of these stressors are poorly understood. In our study, we examined the interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(CO2)) and temperature on biomineralization and amino acid content in an ecologically and economically important mussel, Mytilus edulis. Adult M. edulis were reared at different combinations of P(CO2) (pH 8.1 and 7.8) and temperature (19, 22 and 25°C) for 2 months. The results indicated that elevated P(CO2) significantly decreased the net calcification rate, the calcium content and the Ca/Mg ratio of the shells, induced the differential expression of biomineralization-related genes, modified shell ultrastructure and altered amino acid content, implying significant effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism. Notably, elevated temperature enhanced the effects of seawater acidification on these parameters. The shell breaking force significantly decreased under elevated P(CO2), but the effect was not exacerbated by elevated temperature. The results suggest that the interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on mussels are likely to have ecological and functional implications. This study is therefore helpful for better understanding the underlying effects of changing marine environments on mussels and other marine calcifiers. PMID:26417015

  4. Ocean warming ameliorates the negative effects of ocean acidification on Paracentrotus lividus larval development and settlement.

    PubMed

    García, Eliseba; Clemente, Sabrina; Hernández, José Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Ocean warming and acidification both impact marine ecosystems. All organisms have a limited body temperature range, outside of which they become functionally constrained. Beyond the absolute extremes of this range, they cannot survive. It is hypothesized that some stressors can present effects that interact with other environmental variables, such as ocean acidification (OA) that have the potential to narrow the thermal range where marine species are functional. An organism's response to ocean acidification can therefore be highly dependent on thermal conditions. This study evaluated the combined effects of predicted ocean warming conditions and acidification, on survival, development, and settlement, of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Nine combined treatments of temperature (19.0, 20.5 and 22.5 °C) and pH (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 units) were carried out. All of the conditions tested were either within the current natural ranges of seawater pH and temperature or are within the ranges that have been predicted for the end of the century, in the sampling region (Canary Islands). Our results indicated that the negative effects of low pH on P. lividus larval development and settlement will be mitigated by a rise in seawater temperature, up to a thermotolerance threshold. Larval development and settlement performance of the sea urchin P. lividus was enhanced by a slight increase in temperature, even under lowered pH conditions. However, the species did show negative responses to the levels of ocean warming and acidification that have been predicted for the turn of the century. PMID:26275754

  5. CO2-Induced Acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, G. A.; Phillips, J.; Bennington, V.; Bootsma, H. A.; Pilcher, D.; Sterner, R.; Urban, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies indicate that air-water equilibration is the dominant control on pCO2 in several Great Lakes at annual timescales or longer. Assuming this is the case across all lakes at present and into the future, we show that pH will decline by 0.3-0.4 units through 2100 under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. In a survey of the Great Lakes scientific community, 87% of respondents indicate that CO2-driven acidification is likely. The available pH data do not support these predicted trends, but limited sampling in an environment characterized by significant spatio-temporal variability, as well as significant measurement uncertainty, cast doubt on the ability of the historical pH record to resolve the predicted trends. Evaluation of the current sampling strategy using eddy-resolving numerical models of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan are key evidence that the current monitoring strategy is inadequate. In order to track long-term pH change and assess whether atmospheric CO2 will affect the Great Lakes like the oceans, a new approach to Great Lakes pH monitoring is required. Ecological impacts of CO2 acidification have not been studied for the Great Lakes, but potential effects can be gleaned from the literature. In addition, our qualitative and quantitative survey results suggest that processes such as fish recruitment, dreissenid mussel growth, and nutrient cycling may be sensitive to pH, but there is lack of consensus about the magnitude and overall significance of these effects.

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. PMID:23218453

  7. Episodic acidification of Adirondack lakes during snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.A.; Driscoll, C.T.; Van Dreason, R.; Yatsko, C.P.

    1990-07-01

    Maximum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Adirondack, New York lake outlets generally occur during summer and autumn. During spring snowmelt, transport of acidic water through acid-sensitive watersheds causes depression of upper lake water ANC. In some systems lake outlet ANC reaches negative values. The authors examined outlet water chemistry from II Adirondack lakes during 1986 and 1987 snowmelts. In these lakes, SO concentrations were diluted during snowmelt and did not depress ANC. For lakes with high baseline ANC values, springtime ANC depressions were primarily accompanied by basic cation dilution. For lakes with low baseline ANC, No increases dominated ANC depressions. Lakes with intermediate baseline ANC were affected by both processes and exhibited larger ANC depressions. Ammonium dilution only affected wetland systems. A model predicting a linear relationship between outlet water ANC minima and autumn ANC was inappropriate. To assess watershed response to episodic acidification, hydrologic flow paths must be considered. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)

  8. Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chemello, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems. PMID:24577050

  9. Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Chemello, Renato

    2014-02-01

    Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems.

  10. Univalent-cation-elicited acidification by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Kotyk, A; Georghiou, G

    1994-08-01

    Addition of univalent cations to sugar-metabolizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lodderomyces elongisporus brought about a powerful acidification of the external medium with rates up to nearly 20 nmol H+ per min per mg dry wt. in S. cerevisiae, over 15 nmol in S. pombe, and 4.7 nmol in L. elongisporus. These rates were as much as 20 times, 5.5 times and 10.3 times, respectively. higher than in the absence of K+. Use of galactose-induced cells, of H(+)-ATPase-deficient mutants and observations over the entire growth curve indicated that the K+ effect on H+ extrusion is not connected with the H(+)-ATPase function as such but rather depends on metabolic reactions producing ATP. The effect has apparently nothing to do with the electrical potential across the plasma membrane. PMID:7804140

  11. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  12. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna L; Levitan, Don R; Hosken, David J; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  13. Mechanisms of airway responses to esophageal acidification in cats.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Haworth, Steven T; Medda, Bidyut K; Forster, Hubert; Shaker, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Acid in the esophagus causes airway constriction, tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and a decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport rate. This study was designed to investigate the neuropharmacological mechanisms controlling these responses. In chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 72), we investigated the effects of vagotomy or atropine (100 μg·kg(-1)·30 min(-1) iv) on airway responses to esophageal infusion of 0.1 M PBS or 0.1 N HCl at 1 ml/min. We quantified 1) diameter of the bronchi, 2) tracheobronchial mucociliary transport rate, 3) tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and 4) mucous content of the tracheal epithelium and submucosa. We found that vagotomy or atropine blocked the airway constriction response but only atropine blocked the increase in mucous output and decrease in mucociliary transport rate caused by esophageal acidification. The mucous cells of the mucosa produced more Alcian blue- than periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained mucosubstances, and the mucous cells of the submucosa produced more PAS- than Alcian blue-stained mucosubstances. Selective perfusion of the different segments of esophagus with HCl or PBS resulted in significantly greater production of PAS-stained mucus in the submucosa of the trachea adjacent to the HCl-perfused esophagus than in that adjacent to the PBS-perfused esophagus. In conclusion, airway constriction caused by esophageal acidification is mediated by a vagal cholinergic pathway, and the tracheobronchial transport response is mediated by cholinergic receptors. Acid perfusion of the esophagus selectively increases production of neutral mucosubstances of the apocrine glands by a local mechanism. We hypothesize that the airway responses to esophageal acid exposure are part of the innate, rather than acute emergency, airway defense system. PMID:26846551

  14. Coastal ocean acidification: The other eutrophication problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ryan B.; Baumann, Hannes; Grear, Jason S.; Aller, Robert C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2014-07-01

    Increased nutrient loading into estuaries causes the accumulation of algal biomass, and microbial degradation of this organic matter decreases oxygen levels and contributes towards hypoxia. A second, often overlooked consequence of microbial degradation of organic matter is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and a lowering of seawater pH. To assess the potential for acidification in eutrophic estuaries, the levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωaragonite) were horizontally and vertically assessed during the onset, peak, and demise of low oxygen conditions in systems across the northeast US including Narragansett Bay (RI), Long Island Sound (CT-NY), Jamaica Bay (NY), and Hempstead Bay (NY). Low pH conditions (<7.4) were detected in all systems during summer and fall months concurrent with the decline in DO concentrations. While hypoxic waters and/or regions in close proximity to sewage discharge had extremely high levels of pCO2, (>3000 μatm), were acidic pH (<7.0), and were undersaturated with regard to aragonite (Ωaragonite < 1), even near-normoxic but eutrophic regions of these estuaries were often relatively acidified (pH < 7.7) during late summer and/or early fall. The close spatial and temporal correspondence between DO and pH and the occurrence of extremes in these conditions in regions with the most intense nutrient loading indicated that they were primarily driven by microbial respiration. Given that coastal acidification is promoted by nutrient-enhanced organic matter loading and reaches levels that have previously been shown to negatively impact the growth and survival of marine organisms, it may be considered an additional symptom of eutrophication that warrants managerial attention.

  15. Calcifying species sensitivity distributions for ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ligia B; De Schryver, An M; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2015-02-01

    Increasing CO2 atmospheric levels lead to increasing ocean acidification, thereby enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution of calcifying species. We gathered peer-reviewed experimental data on the effects of acidified seawater on calcifying species growth, reproduction, and survival. The data were used to derive species-specific median effective concentrations, i.e., pH50, and pH10, via logistic regression. Subsequently, we developed species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to assess the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species exposed to pH declines. Effects on species growth were observed at higher pH than those on species reproduction (mean pH10 was 7.73 vs 7.63 and mean pH50 was 7.28 vs 7.11 for the two life processes, respectively) and the variability in the sensitivity of species increased with increasing number of species available for the PAF (pH10 standard deviation was 0.20, 0.21, and 0.33 for survival, reproduction, and growth, respectively). The SSDs were then applied to two climate change scenarios to estimate the increase in PAF (ΔPAF) by future ocean acidification. In a high CO2 emission scenario, ΔPAF was 3 to 10% (for pH50) and 21 to 32% (for pH10). In a low emission scenario, ΔPAF was 1 to 4% (for pH50) and 7 to 12% (for pH10). Our SSDs developed for the effect of decreasing ocean pH on calcifying marine species assemblages can also be used for comparison with other environmental stressors. PMID:25551400

  16. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries. PMID:27358374

  17. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    EPA Science Inventory

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  18. Molecular Actions of Ovarian Cancer G Protein-Coupled Receptor 1 Caused by Extracellular Acidification in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Jiang, Li-Bo; Wang, Hui-Ren; Cao, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Gang; Li, Xi-Lei; Dong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular acidification occurs under physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as exercise, ischemia, and inflammation. It has been shown that acidosis has various adverse effects on bone. In recent years there has been increasing evidence which indicates that ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) is a pH-sensing receptor and mediates a variety of extracellular acidification-induced actions on bone cells and other cell types. Recent studies have shown that OGR1 is involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation, survival, and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, OGR1 also regulates acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes in intervertebral discs. These observations demonstrate the importance of OGR1 in skeletal development and metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of OGR1 regulation ofosteoclasts, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes, and the molecular actions of OGR1 induced by extracellular acidification in the maintenance of bone health. PMID:25479080

  19. Inhibition of phagocytosis and lysosomal acidification suppresses neurotoxic prion peptide-induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fushan; Yang, Yang; Kouadir, Mohammed; Fu, Yongyao; Yang, Lifeng; Zhou, Xiangmei; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhao, Deming

    2013-07-15

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein. In a previous study, we showed that neurotoxic prion peptide (PrP106-126) induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in mouse primary and immortalized microglia. In the present work, we examined the relevance of phagocytosis and lysosomal acidification to the activation of the NALP3 inflammasome in PrP106-126-stimulated microglia. Our results showed that the inhibition of phagocytosis or lysosomal acidification significantly reduced IL-1β and IL-18 production, downregulated NALP3 and ASC expression, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory factors. We concluded that phagocytosis and lysosomal acidification are necessary for PrP106-126-induced NALP3 activation in BV2 cells. PMID:23680490

  20. Ocean acidification and its potential effects on marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Guinotte, John M; Fabry, Victoria J

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acidification is rapidly changing the carbonate system of the world oceans. Past mass extinction events have been linked to ocean acidification, and the current rate of change in seawater chemistry is unprecedented. Evidence suggests that these changes will have significant consequences for marine taxa, particularly those that build skeletons, shells, and tests of biogenic calcium carbonate. Potential changes in species distributions and abundances could propagate through multiple trophic levels of marine food webs, though research into the long-term ecosystem impacts of ocean acidification is in its infancy. This review attempts to provide a general synthesis of known and/or hypothesized biological and ecosystem responses to increasing ocean acidification. Marine taxa covered in this review include tropical reef-building corals, cold-water corals, crustose coralline algae, Halimeda, benthic mollusks, echinoderms, coccolithophores, foraminifera, pteropods, seagrasses, jellyfishes, and fishes. The risk of irreversible ecosystem changes due to ocean acidification should enlighten the ongoing CO(2) emissions debate and make it clear that the human dependence on fossil fuels must end quickly. Political will and significant large-scale investment in clean-energy technologies are essential if we are to avoid the most damaging effects of human-induced climate change, including ocean acidification. PMID:18566099

  1. Prediction of episodic acidification in Maryland Coastal Plain streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, J.; Dietz, J.; Wilson, H.T.; Janicki, A.J.

    1989-12-01

    Episodic acidification from acidic precipitation in Coastal Plain streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed is a potential threat to spawning and survival of anadromous fish species. The study is part of a process of selection of streams for mitigation of acidic episodes to increase the spawning success of anadromous fish stocks. It describes the development of practical, empirical models to predict the chemical response of Coastal Plain streams during precipitation events. One of the design criteria for the models was that they predict the response of a stream to precipitation events using data that are relatively easy to obtain. Data used to build and test the models were from several intensive studies of episodic acidification in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Regression models were developed to predict minimum pH during an event, change in pH during an event and minimum ANC (alkalinity) during an event. Two models were developed for each dependent variable.

  2. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sue-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are ‘solar-powered’ animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals. PMID:26083404

  3. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sue-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals. PMID:26083404

  4. Fish population losses from Adirondack Lakes: The role of surface water acidity and acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Joan P.; Warren-Hicks, William J.; Gallagher, James; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    1993-04-01

    communities were significantly larger and deeper and have higher pH than do Adirondack lakes in general; thus, fish communities adversely affected by acidification and acidic deposition may be underrepresented in this study.

  5. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  6. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Czerny, J.; Haunost, M.; Schulz, K.-G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically-fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ~ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 μatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in inorganic or organic N pools sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom plankton

  7. Acidifying intermediate water accelerates the acidification of seawater on shelves: An example of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Lee, Jay; Wang, Shu-Lun; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang

    2015-12-01

    This study is the first to present observed acidification rates at the shelf break of the East China Sea (ECS) and in the Okinawa Trough between 1982 and 2007. The use of apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) data to quantify the change in pH due to physical changes and changes in biological activities is demonstrated. The results thus obtained reveal that the drop in pH of the Kuroshio Intermediate Water (KIW) in the ECS is a result of not only the intrusion of atmospheric CO2, but also an increase in AOU concentration. The acidification rates caused by the increasing AOU concentration could contribute up to -0.00086±0.00017 pH unit yr-1 at 900 m in the Okinawa Trough and -0.00082±0.00057 pH unit yr-1 on the shelf break of the ECS. These values are equivalent to 54% and 51%, respectively, of the acidification rate of -0.0016 pH unit yr-1 based on an assumption of the air-sea CO2 equilibrium. When the effects of changing AOU and θ are eliminated, the acidification rate in the basin of the ECS captures the rate of change that is caused by an increase in anthropogenic CO2 concentration. In contrast, when the effects of changing AOU and θ are eliminated, the acidification rate at the shelf break is 69% higher than the rate based on an assumption of the air-sea CO2 equilibrium. Since the seawater on the shelf contains a higher proportion of the South China Sea (SCS) seawater and coastal water than does that in the Okinawa Trough, the result herein may imply that the SCS seawater, coastal water, or a combination of them suffered a higher acidification rate during the studied period. This study, to the best of the authors' knowledge, is the first to demonstrate that changing the carbonate chemistry of both incoming offshore intermediate seawater and coastal water results in the acidification of seawater on a continental shelf. The results herein reveal a situation in which the acidification of coastal seawater may be faster than expected when the reduction of pH of the

  8. Ocean acidification bends the mermaid's wineglass.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Laura A; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Carrington, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Ocean acidification lowers the saturation state of calcium carbonate, decreasing net calcification and compromising the skeletons of organisms such as corals, molluscs and algae. These calcified structures can protect organisms from predation and improve access to light, nutrients and dispersive currents. While some species (such as urchins, corals and mussels) survive with decreased calcification, they can suffer from inferior mechanical performance. Here, we used cantilever beam theory to test the hypothesis that decreased calcification would impair the mechanical performance of the green alga Acetabularia acetabulum along a CO₂ gradient created by volcanic seeps off Vulcano, Italy. Calcification and mechanical properties declined as calcium carbonate saturation fell; algae at 2283 µatm CO₂ were 32% less calcified, 40% less stiff and 40% droopier. Moreover, calcification was not a linear proxy for mechanical performance; stem stiffness decreased exponentially with reduced calcification. Although calcifying organisms can tolerate high CO₂ conditions, even subtle changes in calcification can cause dramatic changes in skeletal performance, which may in turn affect key biotic and abiotic interactions. PMID:26562936

  9. Reviews and Syntheses: Responses of coccolithophores to ocean acidification: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-03-01

    Concerning their sensitivity to ocean acidification, coccolithophores, a group of calcifying single-celled phytoplankton, are one of the best-studied groups of marine organisms. However, in spite of the large number of studies investigating coccolithophore physiological responses to ocean acidification, uncertainties still remain due to variable and partly contradictory results. In the present study we have used all existing data in a meta-analysis to estimate the effect size of future pCO2 changes on the rates of calcification and photosynthesis and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon (PIC / POC) in different coccolithophore species. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has a negative effect on calcification and the cellular PIC / POC ratio in the two most abundant coccolithophore species: Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. In contrast, the more heavily calcified species Coccolithus braarudii did not show a distinct response when exposed to elevated pCO2/reduced pH. Photosynthesis in Gephyrocapsa oceanica was positively affected by high CO2, while no effect was observed for the other coccolithophore species. There was no indication that the method of carbonate chemistry manipulation was responsible for the inconsistent results regarding observed responses in calcification and the PIC / POC ratio. The perturbation method, however, appears to affect photosynthesis, as responses varied significantly between total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) manipulations. These results emphasize that coccolithophore species respond differently to ocean acidification, both in terms of calcification and photosynthesis. Where negative effects occur, they become evident at CO2 levels in the range projected for this century in the case of unabated CO2 emissions. As the data sets used in this meta-analysis do not account for adaptive responses, ecological fitness and ecosystem interactions, the question remains as to how these

  10. Acidification and buffering mechanisms in acid sulfate soil wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Glover, Fiona; Whitworth, Kerry L; Kappen, Peter; Baldwin, Darren S; Rees, Gavin N; Webb, John A; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    The acid generation mechanisms and neutralizing capacities of sulfidic sediments from two inland wetlands have been studied in order to understand the response of these types of systems to drying events. The two systems show vastly different responses to oxidation, with one (Bottle Bend (BB) lagoon) having virtually no acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and the other (Psyche Bend (PB) lagoon) an ANC that is an order of magnitude greater than the acid generation potential. While BB strongly acidifies during oxidation the free acid generation is less than that expected from the measured proton production and consumption processes, with additional proton consumption attributed to the formation of an acid-anion (chloride) FeIII (oxyhydr)oxide product, similar to akaganéite (Fe(OH)2.7Cl0.3). While such products can partially attenuate the acidification of these systems, resilience to acidification is primarily imparted by sediment ANC. PMID:21375259

  11. Accelerated acidification by inoculation with a microbial consortia in a complex open environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiadong; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yubin; Wu, Jingwei; Yuan, Xufeng; Zhu, Wanbin; Cui, Zongjun

    2016-09-01

    Bioaugmentation using microbial consortia is helpful in some anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, but accelerated acidification to produce methane has not been performed effectively with corn stalks and cow dung. In this study, the thermophilic microbial consortia MC1 was inoculated into a complex open environment (unsterilized and sterilized systems) to evaluate the feasibility of bioaugmentation to improve acidification efficiency. The results indicated that MC1 itself degraded lignocellulose efficiently, and accumulated more organic acids within 3days. Similar trends were also observed in the unsterilized system, where the hemicellulose degradation rate and organic acid concentrations increased significantly by two-fold and 20.1% (P<0.05), respectively, and clearly reduced the loss of product. Microbial composition did not change obviously after inoculating MC1, but the abundance of members of MC1, such as Bacillus and Clostridium, increased clearly on day 3. Finally, the acidogenic fluid improved methane yield significantly (P<0.05) via bioaugmentation. PMID:27253477

  12. History of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry, Atmospheric CO2, and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    2012-05-01

    Humans are continuing to add vast amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere through fossil fuel burning and other activities. A large fraction of the CO2 is taken up by the oceans in a process that lowers ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation state. This effect has potentially serious consequences for marine life, which are, however, difficult to predict. One approach to address the issue is to study the geologic record, which may provide clues about what the future holds for ocean chemistry and marine organisms. This article reviews basic controls on ocean carbonate chemistry on different timescales and examines past ocean chemistry changes and ocean acidification events during various geologic eras. The results allow evaluation of the current anthropogenic perturbation in the context of Earth's history. It appears that the ocean acidification event that humans are expected to cause is unprecedented in the geologic past, for which sufficiently well-preserved records are available.

  13. Ocean acidification alters the otoliths of a pantropical fish species with implications for sensory function

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, Sean; Enochs, Ian C.; Manzello, Derek P.; Sponaugle, Su; Cowen, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification affects a wide diversity of marine organisms and is of particular concern for vulnerable larval stages critical to population replenishment and connectivity. Whereas it is well known that ocean acidification will negatively affect a range of calcareous taxa, the study of fishes is more limited in both depth of understanding and diversity of study species. We used new 3D microcomputed tomography to conduct in situ analysis of the impact of ocean acidification on otolith (ear stone) size and density of larval cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a large, economically important, pantropical fish species that shares many life history traits with a diversity of high-value, tropical pelagic fishes. We show that 2,100 μatm partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) significantly increased not only otolith size (up to 49% greater volume and 58% greater relative mass) but also otolith density (6% higher). Estimated relative mass in 800 μatm pCO2 treatments was 14% greater, and there was a similar but nonsignificant trend for otolith size. Using a modeling approach, we demonstrate that these changes could affect auditory sensitivity including a ∼50% increase in hearing range at 2,100 μatm pCO2, which may alter the perception of auditory information by larval cobia in a high-CO2 ocean. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has a graded effect on cobia otoliths, with the potential to substantially influence the dispersal, survival, and recruitment of a pelagic fish species. These results have important implications for population maintenance/replenishment, connectivity, and conservation efforts for other valuable fish stocks that are already being deleteriously impacted by overfishing. PMID:23589887

  14. Ocean acidification alters the otoliths of a pantropical fish species with implications for sensory function.

    PubMed

    Bignami, Sean; Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Sponaugle, Su; Cowen, Robert K

    2013-04-30

    Ocean acidification affects a wide diversity of marine organisms and is of particular concern for vulnerable larval stages critical to population replenishment and connectivity. Whereas it is well known that ocean acidification will negatively affect a range of calcareous taxa, the study of fishes is more limited in both depth of understanding and diversity of study species. We used new 3D microcomputed tomography to conduct in situ analysis of the impact of ocean acidification on otolith (ear stone) size and density of larval cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a large, economically important, pantropical fish species that shares many life history traits with a diversity of high-value, tropical pelagic fishes. We show that 2,100 μatm partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) significantly increased not only otolith size (up to 49% greater volume and 58% greater relative mass) but also otolith density (6% higher). Estimated relative mass in 800 μatm pCO2 treatments was 14% greater, and there was a similar but nonsignificant trend for otolith size. Using a modeling approach, we demonstrate that these changes could affect auditory sensitivity including a ∼50% increase in hearing range at 2,100 μatm pCO2, which may alter the perception of auditory information by larval cobia in a high-CO2 ocean. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has a graded effect on cobia otoliths, with the potential to substantially influence the dispersal, survival, and recruitment of a pelagic fish species. These results have important implications for population maintenance/replenishment, connectivity, and conservation efforts for other valuable fish stocks that are already being deleteriously impacted by overfishing. PMID:23589887

  15. Extracellular acidification stimulates GPR68 mediated IL-8 production in human pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vikash; Karamitri, Angeliki; Richards, Paul; Cormier, Françoise; Ramond, Cyrille; Jockers, Ralf; Armanet, Mathieu; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis are often associated with extracellular acidification and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which human β-cells sense and respond to acidic pH remain elusive. In this study, using the recently developed human β-cell line EndoC-βH2, we demonstrate that β-cells respond to extracellular acidification through GPR68, which is the predominant proton sensing receptor of human β-cells. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we provide evidence that the β-cell enriched transcription factor RFX6 is a major regulator of GPR68. Further, we show that acidic pH stimulates the production and secretion of the chemokine IL-8 by β-cells through NF-кB activation. Blocking of GPR68 or NF-кB activity severely attenuated acidification induced IL-8 production. Thus, we provide mechanistic insights into GPR68 mediated β-cell response to acidic microenvironment, which could be a new target to protect β-cell against acidosis induced inflammation. PMID:27166427

  16. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeakel, Kiley L.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Noyes, Timothy J.; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes.

  17. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Kiley L; Andersson, Andreas J; Bates, Nicholas R; Noyes, Timothy J; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-11-24

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes. PMID:26553977

  18. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Kiley L.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Noyes, Timothy J.; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes. PMID:26553977

  19. Extracellular acidification stimulates GPR68 mediated IL-8 production in human pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikash; Karamitri, Angeliki; Richards, Paul; Cormier, Françoise; Ramond, Cyrille; Jockers, Ralf; Armanet, Mathieu; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis are often associated with extracellular acidification and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which human β-cells sense and respond to acidic pH remain elusive. In this study, using the recently developed human β-cell line EndoC-βH2, we demonstrate that β-cells respond to extracellular acidification through GPR68, which is the predominant proton sensing receptor of human β-cells. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we provide evidence that the β-cell enriched transcription factor RFX6 is a major regulator of GPR68. Further, we show that acidic pH stimulates the production and secretion of the chemokine IL-8 by β-cells through NF-кB activation. Blocking of GPR68 or NF-кB activity severely attenuated acidification induced IL-8 production. Thus, we provide mechanistic insights into GPR68 mediated β-cell response to acidic microenvironment, which could be a new target to protect β-cell against acidosis induced inflammation. PMID:27166427

  20. Organic solute changes with acidification in Lake Skjervatjern as shown by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Hayes, T.

    1994-01-01

    1H-NMR spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool to establish possible real differences and trends between all natural organic solute fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and XAD-4 acids) after acid-rain additions to the Lake Skjervatjern watershed. The proton NMR technique used in this study determined the spectral distribution of nonexchangeable protons among four peaks (aliphatic protons; aliphatic protons on carbon ?? or attached to electronegative groups; protons on carbons attached to O or N heteroatoms; and aromatic protons). Differences of 10% or more in the respective peak areas were considered to represent a real difference. After one year of acidification, fulvic acids decreased 13% (relative) in Peak 3 protons on carbon attached to N and O heteratoms and exhibited a decrease in aromatic protons between 27% and 31%. Humic acids also exhibited an 11% relative decrease in aromatic protons as a result of acidification. After one year of acidification, real changes were shown in three of the four proton assignments in XAD-4 acids. Peak 1 aliphatic protons increased by 14% (relative), Peak 3 protons on carbons attached to O and N heteroatoms decreased by 13% (relative), and aromatic protons (Peak 4) decreased by 35% (relative). Upon acidification, there was a trend in all solutes for aromatic protons to decrease and aliphatic protons to increase. The natural variation in organic solutes as shown in the Control Side B of the lake from 1990 to 1991 is perhaps a small limitation to the same data interpretations of acid rain changes at the Lake Skjervatjern site, but the proton NMR technique shows great promise as an independent scientific tool to detect and support other chemical techniques in establishing organic solute changes with different treatments (i.e., additions of acid rain).

  1. Acidification of non-medicated and oxytetracycline-medicated cattle manures during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Cağri; Ince, Orhan; Türker, Gökhan; Ince, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Possible adverse effects of a commonly used veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), on acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure along with optimum operating conditions were investigated. A standard veterinary practice of 50 ml OTC solution (20 mg/kg cattle weight) was injected into the muscles of cattle and then manure samples were collected for 5 days following the injection. The 5-day samples were equally mixed and used throughout digestion experiments. Preliminary batch tests were conducted to obtain the optimum pH range and observe volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. In this regard, different sets of batch digesters were operated at pH ranging from 5.2 +/- 0.1 to 5.8 +/- 0.1 at mesophilic conditions with total solids content of 6.0 +/- 0.2%. The pH of 5.5 +/- 0.1 was found to be the optimum value for acidification for both non-medicated and OTC-medicated conditions. Under predetermined conditions, maximum total VFA (VFAtot) of 830 +/- 3 mg (as acetic acid)/L was produced and maximum acidification rate was evaluated as 11% for OTC-medicated cattle manure, whereas they were 900 +/- 6 mg (as acetic acid)/L and 12% for non-medicated manure. Digestion studies were further continued in a semi-continuous mode at pH 5.5 +/- 0.1 and SRT/HRT of 5 days. VFAtot concentrations and maximum acidification rate increased up to 2181 +/- 19 mg (as acetic acid)/L and 29% for non-medicated cattle manure. For OTC-medicated cattle manure, lower acidification rate of 18% was observed. PMID:25145191

  2. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 29% were acidified based on an ANCG value < 0 ??eq L-1. During the survey when stream water was least acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 5% were acidified based on ANCG value < 0 ??eq L -1. The contribution of acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of experimental lake acidification on the reproductive success of tree swallows

    SciTech Connect

    St. Louis, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of lake acidification on reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding near experimentally acidified and unmanipulated reference lakes at the Experimental Lake Area (ELA) were studied. Tree swallows are aerial insectivores that commonly breed near water and forage on emergent insects. Predictions suggest that avian food abundance and quality may be altered due to acidification. Breeding swallows foraged on chironomids emerging at their nest-site lakes before searching for food elsewhere. Among the calcium-rich items consumed by the swallows, fish bones were most numerous, followed by crayfish exoskeleton, clam shell, and bird eggshell. We found significantly fewer calcium-rich items in the stomachs of nestlings from acid lakes than in those from reference lakes. Chironomid species were significantly more abundant in acid lakes, while the Chironominae were less numerous. Biomass of emerging chironomids either increased significantly following acidification, or was not different from that of reference lakes. Concentrations of Al, Ca, Mn, and Zn were on average higher in chironomids from a number of the acid lakes than in chironomids from reference lakes. Calcium concentrations in chironomids from the most acid lake were significantly lower, suggesting that Ca may be difficult to sequester at low pH levels. Hepatic concentrations of metallothioneins in tree swallow nestlings were negatively correlated with pH of the nest-site lake. Additive concentrations of Cu and Zn in the liver were correlated with liver MT concentrations, but Cd was not. Near acidified lakes, eggs were smaller in certain dimensions, hatching success was lower, certain nestling body characters were smaller, nestling wing length was shorter, and growth functions were different than near unmanipulated reference lakes. Clearly even non-aquatic organisms are affected by acidification of freshwater ecosystems.

  4. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

    2014-05-01

    We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

  5. Ocean acidification effects on Caribbean scleractinian coral calcification using a recirculating system: a novel approach to OA research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projected increases in ocean pCO2 levels are likely to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than any other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) has been documented in numerous species of corals in both laboratory and field studies....

  6. Ocean Acidification: Adaptive Challenge or Extinction Threat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2012-12-01

    these small scale experiments the potential for adaptation in ecological or evolutionary time. The current evidence points to ocean acidification being catastrophic for at least some organisms and ecosystems (e.g., possibly coral reefs) and likely to lead to the extinction of at least some species. On the other hand, for many organisms and ecosystems (e.g., perhaps some open ocean fish-dominated ecosystems), ocean acidification may represent little more than a minor adaptive challenge. Science can help us to understand the risks, even if some central questions will of necessity remain unanswered. Hopefully, CO2 emissions will be curtailed, and we will never find out which of the more pessimistic or more optimistic projections were correct.

  7. Is there evidence for a biotic response to surface water acidification in the geologic past? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), ~56 million years ago, is perhaps the most widely studied global warming event of the Cenozoic era and recently has also become a focus for investigations of past ocean acidification. Carbon cycle perturbation across this event is manifest in records of bottom water ocean acidification but the key to utilizing the PETM in understanding ongoing anthropogenic ocean acidification is to constrain concomitant surface water chemistry change. Currently, data from modelling suggests that levels of carbonate chemistry change in surface waters may have been relatively low and the biotic response of calcifiers is in line with this conclusion. In particular, we see no evidence for a significant carbonate chemistry impact on the production, distribution or micro-evolution of calcifying nannoplankton. Here I discuss the PETM and other pertinent time intervals, including the Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events, considering hypotheses being put forward that include malformation of calcifying plankton and reductions in carbonate accumulation as possible indicators of surface water acidity.

  8. Topical Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Activators Accelerate Postnatal Stratum Corneum Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Man, Mao-Qiang; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pH declines from between 6 and 7 at birth to adult levels (pH 5.0–5.5) over 5–6 days in neonatal rat stratum corneum (SC). As a result, at birth, neonatal epidermis displays decreased permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity, improving days 5–6. We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification. Topical treatment with two different PPARα activators, clofibrate and WY14643, accelerated the postnatal decline in SC surface pH, whereas treatment with PPARγ activators did not and a PPARβ/δ activator had only a modest effect. Treatment with clofibrate significantly accelerated normalization of barrier function. The morphological basis for the improvement in barrier function in PPARα-treated animals includes accelerated secretion of lamellar bodies and enhanced, postsecretory processing of secreted lamellar body contents into mature lamellar membranes. Activity of β-glucocerebrosidase increased after PPARα-activator treatment. PPARα activator also improved SC integrity, which correlated with an increase in corneodesmosome density and increased desmoglein-1 content, with a decline in serine protease activity. Topical treatment of newborn animals with a PPARα activator increased secretory phospholipase A2 activity, which likely accounts for accelerated SC acidification. Thus, PPARα activators accelerate neonatal SC acidification, in parallel with improved permeability homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion. Hence, PPARα activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses. PMID:18704104

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the dissolution rates of reef-coral skeletons

    PubMed Central

    van Woesik, Kelly; van Woesik, Liana; van Woesik, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification threatens the foundation of tropical coral reefs. This study investigated three aspects of ocean acidification: (i) the rates at which perforate and imperforate coral-colony skeletons passively dissolve when pH is 7.8, which is predicted to occur globally by 2100, (ii) the rates of passive dissolution of corals with respect to coral-colony surface areas, and (iii) the comparative rates of a vertical reef-growth model, incorporating passive dissolution rates, and predicted sea-level rise. By 2100, when the ocean pH is expected to be 7.8, perforate Montipora coral skeletons will lose on average 15 kg CaCO3 m−2 y−1, which is approximately −10.5 mm of vertical reduction of reef framework per year. This rate of passive dissolution is higher than the average rate of reef growth over the last several millennia and suggests that reefs composed of perforate Montipora coral skeletons will have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise under ocean acidification. Reefs composed of primarily imperforate coral skeletons will not likely dissolve as rapidly, but our model shows they will also have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise by 2050. PMID:24282670

  10. A potential tool for high-resolution monitoring of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Aron; Anderson, Leif G; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Hulth, Stefan; Karlson, Bengt

    2013-07-01

    Current anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions generate besides global warming unprecedented acidification rates of the oceans. Recent evidence indicates the possibility that ocean acidification and low oceanic pH may be a major reason for several mass extinctions in the past. However, a major bottleneck for research on ocean acidification is long-term monitoring and the collection of consistent high-resolution pH measurements. This study presents a low-power (<1 W) small sample volume (25 μL) semiconductor based fluorescence method for real-time ship-board pH measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution (approximately 15 s and 100 m between samples). A 405 nm light emitting diode and the blue and green channels from a digital camera was used for swift detection of fluorescence from the pH sensitive dye 6,8-Dihydroxypyrene-1,3-disulfonic acid in real-time. Main principles were demonstrated by automated continuous measurements of pH in the surface water across the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat region with a large range in salinity (~3-30) and temperature (~0-25°C). Ship-board precision of salinity and temperature adjusted pH measurements were estimated as low as 0.0001 pH units. PMID:23790284

  11. Producing high-strength liquor from mesophilic batch acidification of chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Christian; Wünsche, Erik; Luschnig, Olaf; Bürger, Christoph; Günther, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the results from anaerobic batch acidification of chicken manure as a mono-substrate studied under mesophilic conditions. The manure was diluted with tap water to prevent methane formation during acidification and to improve mixing conditions by reducing fluid viscosity; no anaerobic digester sludge has been added as an inoculum. Highest acidification rates were measured at concentrations of 10 gVS L⁻¹ and 20 gVS L⁻¹; the pH value remained high (pH 6.9-7.9) throughout the test duration and unexpected fast methane formation was observed in every single batch. At substrate concentrations of 10 gVS L⁻¹ there was a remarkable methane formation representing a value of 82% of the respective biochemical methane potential of chicken manure. Increasing substrate concentrations did not supress methane formation but impaired acid production. Consequently, the liquor cannot be stored over longer periods but should immediately be used in a digestion process. PMID:25672618

  12. Effect of initial pH on mesophilic hydrolysis and acidification of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Wan, Chunli; Liu, Xiang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2013-05-01

    Effects of initial pH (3-12) on mesophilic hydrolysis and acidification reactions of swine manure was studied. The initial pH changed the microbial community in the suspension so as to affect hydrolysis and acidification reactions on swine manure. At pH 10-12 the Clostridium alkalicellum and/or Corynebacterium humireducens were enriched and the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), proteins and carbohydrates from manure were increased in quantities. In particular, at pH 10 the VFA concentration peaked at 13,600 mg-COD/L, with acetate and propionate accounting for 71.8% of the total VFAs. Acidic environment facilitates release of ammonium from manure. The Butyricimonas sp. was found existing at initial pH 5 which led to accumulated quantities of butyrate. Initial pH adjustment was revealed to be an effective way to manipulate rates and end products of hydrolysis and acidification of swine manure. PMID:23567695

  13. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Antoine O. H. C.; Munday, Philip L.; Brown, Grant E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  14. Calcification responses of symbiotic and aposymbiotic corals to near-future levels of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-11-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (± 5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of ~100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that: (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e., broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  15. Effects of ocean acidification on the dissolution rates of reef-coral skeletons.

    PubMed

    van Woesik, Robert; van Woesik, Kelly; van Woesik, Liana; van Woesik, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification threatens the foundation of tropical coral reefs. This study investigated three aspects of ocean acidification: (i) the rates at which perforate and imperforate coral-colony skeletons passively dissolve when pH is 7.8, which is predicted to occur globally by 2100, (ii) the rates of passive dissolution of corals with respect to coral-colony surface areas, and (iii) the comparative rates of a vertical reef-growth model, incorporating passive dissolution rates, and predicted sea-level rise. By 2100, when the ocean pH is expected to be 7.8, perforate Montipora coral skeletons will lose on average 15 kg CaCO3 m(-2) y(-1), which is approximately -10.5 mm of vertical reduction of reef framework per year. This rate of passive dissolution is higher than the average rate of reef growth over the last several millennia and suggests that reefs composed of perforate Montipora coral skeletons will have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise under ocean acidification. Reefs composed of primarily imperforate coral skeletons will not likely dissolve as rapidly, but our model shows they will also have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise by 2050. PMID:24282670

  16. Monitoring and assessment of ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean-A scoping paper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Feely, Richard; Fabry, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the ocean surface by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats. The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  17. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Munday, Philip L; Brown, Grant E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Promotes Activation and Vacuolar Acidification and Delays Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Leaf Senescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Ji, Yingbin; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2016-03-01

    PI3K and its product PI3P are both involved in plant development and stress responses. In this study, the down-regulation of PI3K activity accelerated leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and suppressed the activation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PI3K bound to the V-ATPase B subunit (VHA-B). Analysis of bimolecular fluorescence complementation in tobacco guard cells showed that PI3K interacted with VHA-B2 in the tonoplasts. Through the use of pharmacological and genetic tools, we found that PI3K and V-ATPase promoted vacuolar acidification and stomatal closure during leaf senescence. Vacuolar acidification was suppressed by the PIKfyve inhibitor in 35S:AtVPS34-YFP Arabidopsis during MeJA-induced leaf senescence, but the decrease was lower than that in YFP-labeled Arabidopsis. These results suggest that PI3K promotes V-ATPase activation and consequently induces vacuolar acidification and stomatal closure, thereby delaying MeJA-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26739232

  19. Odor tracking in sharks is reduced under future ocean acidification conditions.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Danielle L; Jennings, Ashley R; Atema, Jelle; Munday, Philip L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that ocean acidification impairs sensory functions and alters the behavior of teleost fishes. If sharks and other elasmobranchs are similarly affected, this could have significant consequences for marine ecosystems globally. Here, we show that projected future CO2 levels impair odor tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis). Adult M. canis were held for 5 days in a current-day control (405 ± 26 μatm) and mid (741 ± 22 μatm) or high CO2 (1064 ± 17 μatm) treatments consistent with the projections for the year 2100 on a 'business as usual' scenario. Both control and mid CO2 -treated individuals maintained normal odor tracking behavior, whereas high CO2 -treated sharks significantly avoided the odor cues indicative of food. Control sharks spent >60% of their time in the water stream containing the food stimulus, but this value fell below 15% in high CO2 -treated sharks. In addition, sharks treated under mid and high CO2 conditions reduced attack behavior compared to the control individuals. Our findings show that shark feeding could be affected by changes in seawater chemistry projected for the end of this century. Understanding the effects of ocean acidification on critical behaviors, such as prey tracking in large predators, can help determine the potential impacts of future ocean acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:25111824

  20. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2003-01-02

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

  2. [Current status of surface water acidification in Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-yi; Kang, Rong-hua; Luo, Yao; Duan, Lei

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate the status of surface water acidification in Northeast China, chemical composition of 33 small streams was investigated in August, 2011. It was found that only a few waters located in Changbai Mountain had pH of lower than 6.0, and all waters had acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of higher than 0.2 meq x L(-1). This indicated that surface water acidification was not a regional environmental issue in Northeast China. HCO3- was the major anion, with SO4(2-) concentration mostly below 150 microeq x L(-1) and even much lower NO3- concentration. Low concentration of SO4(2-) and NO3- means no serious acid deposition in this area. However, the distribution of acidic forest soils, with low base cation weathering rate, could only provide limited buffering capacity for surface water to acidification in Northeast China, and the potential risk of water acidification still existed. Currently, acid deposition in Northeast Asia could hardly cause severe acidification of surface water. The neighboring countries should therefore not amplify the environmental impact by transboundary air pollutants from China. PMID:23914517

  3. Observed acidification trends in North Atlantic water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, M.; Pérez, F. F.; Velo, A.; Ríos, A. F.; Mercier, H.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of observational pH data has made it difficult to assess recent rates of ocean acidification, particularly in the high latitudes. Here we present a time series that spans over 27 yr (1981-2008) of high-quality carbon system measurements in the North Atlantic, which comprises fourteen cruises and covers the important water mass formation areas of the Irminger and Iceland Basins. We provide direct quantification of acidification rates in upper and intermediate North Atlantic waters. The highest rates were associated with surface waters and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). The Subarctic Intermediate and Subpolar Mode Waters (SAIW and SPMW) showed acidification rates of -0.0019 ± 0.0001 and -0.0012 ± 0.0002 yr-1, respectively. The deep convection activity in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre injects surface waters loaded with anthropogenic CO2 into lower layers, provoking the remarkable acidification rate observed for LSW in the Iceland Basin (-0.0016 ± 0.0002 yr-1). An extrapolation of the observed linear acidification trends suggests that the pH of LSW could drop 0.45 units with respect to pre-industrial levels by the time atmospheric CO2 concentrations reach ~775 ppm. Under circulation conditions and evolution of CO2 emission rates similar to those of the last three decades, by the time atmospheric CO2 reaches 550 ppm, an aragonite undersaturation state could be reached in the cLSW of the Iceland Basin, earlier than surface SPMW.

  4. Response of the Miliolid Archaias angulatus to simulated ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knorr, Paul O.; Robbins, Lisa L.; Harries, Peter J.; Hallock, Pamela; Wynn, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A common, but not universal, effect of ocean acidification on benthic foraminifera is a reduction in the growth rate. The miliolid Archaias angulatus is a high-Mg (>4 mole% MgCO3), symbiont-bearing, soritid benthic foraminifer that contributes to Caribbean reef carbonate sediments. A laboratory culture study assessed the effects of reduced pH on the growth of A. angulatus. We observed a statistically significant 50% reduction in the growth rate (p < 0.01), calculated from changes in maximum diameter, from 160 μm/28 days in the pH 8.0/pCO2air 480 ppm control group to 80 μm/28 days at a treatment level of pH 7.6/pCO2air 1328 ppm. Additionally, pseudopore area, δ18O values, and Mg/Ca ratio all increased, albeit slightly in the latter two variables. The reduction in growth rate indicates that under a high-CO2 setting, future A. angulatus populations will consist of smaller adults. A model using the results of this study estimates that at pH 7.6 A. angulatus carbonate production in the South Florida reef tract and Florida Bay decreases by 85%, from 0.27 Mt/yr to 0.04 Mt/yr, over an area of 9,000 km2.

  5. Eutrophication counteracts ocean acidification effects on DMS emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, Nathalie; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean has altered carbonate chemistry in surface waters since pre-industrial times and is expected to continue to do so in the coming centuries (ocean acidification). Changes in carbonate chemistry can modify the rates and fates of marine primary production and calcification. Available information from manipulative experiments suggests that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS) would decrease in response to ocean acidification. However, in coastal environments it has been shown that carbonate chemistry in surface waters has strongly responded to eutrophication during the last 50 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that DMS emissions also strongly respond to eutrophication in addition to ocean acidification at decadal timescales. We use the MIRO-BIOGAS model setup in the strongly eutrophied Southern Bight of the North Sea characterized by intense blooms of Phaeocystis that are strong producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of DMS.

  6. Digestion in sea urchin larvae impaired under ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian; Casties, Isabel; Saborowski, Reinhard; Bleich, Markus; Melzner, Frank; Dupont, Sam

    2013-12-01

    Larval stages are considered as the weakest link when a species is exposed to challenging environmental changes. Reduced rates of growth and development in larval stages of calcifying invertebrates in response to ocean acidification might be caused by energetic limitations. So far no information exists on how ocean acidification affects digestive processes in marine larval stages. Here we reveal alkaline (~pH 9.5) conditions in the stomach of sea urchin larvae. Larvae exposed to decreased seawater pH suffer from a drop in gastric pH, which directly translates into decreased digestive efficiencies and triggers compensatory feeding. These results suggest that larval digestion represents a critical process in the context of ocean acidification, which has been overlooked so far.

  7. Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, M O; Kasemann, S A; Wood, R A; Lenton, T M; Daines, S J; Richoz, S; Ohnemueller, F; Meixner, A; Poulton, S W; Tipper, E T

    2015-04-10

    Ocean acidification triggered by Siberian Trap volcanism was a possible kill mechanism for the Permo-Triassic Boundary mass extinction, but direct evidence for an acidification event is lacking. We present a high-resolution seawater pH record across this interval, using boron isotope data combined with a quantitative modeling approach. In the latest Permian, increased ocean alkalinity primed the Earth system with a low level of atmospheric CO2 and a high ocean buffering capacity. The first phase of extinction was coincident with a slow injection of carbon into the atmosphere, and ocean pH remained stable. During the second extinction pulse, however, a rapid and large injection of carbon caused an abrupt acidification event that drove the preferential loss of heavily calcified marine biota. PMID:25859043

  8. Interactive Effects of Seawater Acidification and Elevated Temperature on the Transcriptome and Biomineralization in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiguo; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Chuang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-02-01

    Interactive effects of ocean acidification and ocean warming on marine calcifiers vary among species, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. The present study investigated the combined effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature (ambient condition: pH 8.1 × 23 °C, stress conditions: pH 7.8 × 23 °C, pH 8.1 × 28 °C, and pH 7.8 × 28 °C, exposure time: two months) on the transcriptome and biomineralization of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, which is an important marine calcifier. Transcriptome analyses indicated that P. fucata implemented a compensatory acid-base mechanism, metabolic depression and positive physiological responses to mitigate the effects of seawater acidification alone. These responses were energy-expensive processes, leading to decreases in the net calcification rate, shell surface calcium and carbon content, and changes in the shell ultrastructure. Elevated temperature (28 °C) within the thermal window of P. fucata did not induce significant enrichment of the sequenced genes and conversely facilitated calcification, which was detected to alleviate the negative effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and the shell ultrastructure. Overall, this study will help elucidate the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing seawater conditions and predict the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture. PMID:26727167

  9. Urine acidification has no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling or epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in rat urinary bladder urothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Achanzar, William E. Moyer, Carolyn F.; Marthaler, Laura T.; Gullo, Russell; Chen, Shen-Jue; French, Michele H.; Watson, Linda M.; Rhodes, James W.; Kozlosky, John C.; White, Melvin R.; Foster, William R.; Burgun, James J.; Car, Bruce D.; Cosma, Gregory N.; Dominick, Mark A.

    2007-09-15

    We previously reported prevention of urolithiasis and associated rat urinary bladder tumors by urine acidification (via diet acidification) in male rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}/{gamma} agonist muraglitazar. Because urine acidification could potentially alter PPAR signaling and/or cellular proliferation in urothelium, we evaluated urothelial cell PPAR{alpha}, PPAR{delta}, PPAR{gamma}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, PPAR signaling, and urothelial cell proliferation in rats fed either a normal or an acidified diet for 5, 18, or 33 days. A subset of rats in the 18-day study also received 63 mg/kg of the PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone daily for the final 3 days to directly assess the effects of diet acidification on responsiveness to PPAR{gamma} agonism. Urothelial cell PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} expression and signaling were evaluated in the 18- and 33-day studies by immunohistochemical assessment of PPAR protein (33-day study only) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurement of PPAR-regulated gene expression. In the 5-day study, EGFR expression and phosphorylation status were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and egfr and akt2 mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Diet acidification did not alter PPAR{alpha}, {delta}, or {gamma} mRNA or protein expression, PPAR{alpha}- or {gamma}-regulated gene expression, total or phosphorylated EGFR protein, egfr or akt2 gene expression, or proliferation in urothelium. Moreover, diet acidification had no effect on pioglitazone-induced changes in urothelial PPAR{gamma}-regulated gene expression. These results support the contention that urine acidification does not prevent PPAR{gamma} agonist-induced bladder tumors by altering PPAR{alpha}, {gamma}, or EGFR expression or PPAR signaling in rat bladder urothelium.

  10. Probing the Impact of Acidification on Spider Silk Assembly Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dian; Guo, Chengchen; Holland, Gregory P

    2015-07-13

    Spiders utilize fine adjustment of the physicochemical conditions within its silk spinning system to regulate spidroin assembly into solid silk fibers with outstanding mechanical properties. However, the exact mechanism about which this occurs remains elusive and is still hotly debated. In this study, the effect of acidification on spider silk assembly was investigated on native spidroins from the major ampullate (MA) gland fluid excised from Latrodectus hesperus (Black Widow) spiders. Incubating the protein-rich MA silk gland fluid at acidic pH conditions results in the formation of silk fibers that are 10-100 μm in length and ∼2 μm in diameter as judged by optical and electron microscope methods. The in vitro spider silk assembly kinetics were monitored as a function of pH with a (13)C solid-state MAS NMR approach. The results confirm the importance of acidic pH in the spider silk self-assembly process with observation of a sigmoidal nucleation-elongation kinetic profile. The rates of nucleation and elongation as well as the percentage of β-sheet structure in the grown fibers depend on the pH. These results confirm the importance of an acidic pH gradient along the spinning duct for spider silk formation and provide a powerful spectroscopic approach to probe the kinetics of spider silk formation under various biochemical conditions. PMID:26030517

  11. Inhibition of betanodavirus infection by inhibitors of endosomal acidification.

    PubMed

    Adachi, K; Ichinose, T; Takizawa, N; Watanabe, K; Kitazato, K; Kobayashi, N

    2007-01-01

    Betanodaviruses, members of the family Nodaviridae, have small positive-stranded bipartite RNA genomes and are the causal agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in many species of marine farmed fish. In the aquaculture industry, outbreaks of betanodavirus infection and spread in larval and juvenile fish result in devastating damage and heavy economic loss. Although an urgent need exists to develop drugs that inhibit betanodavirus infection, there have been no reports about anti-betanodavirus drugs. Recently, it was reported that betanodaviruses were detected in the endosomes of infected cells, suggesting that betanodaviruses enter fish cells by endocytosis. This finding prompted us to examine whether blocking this endosomal pathway could provide a target for antiviral drug development. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of several lysosomotropic agents against betanodavirus infection in fish E-11 cells. The presence of 1 mM NH4Cl or 1 microM chloroquine in the medium inhibited the entry of betanodaviruses into cells and inhibited viral infection. The lysosomotropic agents bafilomycin A1 and monensin also inhibited virus-induced cytopathology and virus production. Our data demonstrate that inhibitors of endosomal acidification are candidates as antiviral agents against betanodavirus. PMID:17891330

  12. Framework of barrier reefs threatened by ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Steeve; Lantz, Coulson A; Edmunds, Peter J; Carpenter, Robert C

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies of ocean acidification (OA) on coral reefs have focused on organisms rather than communities, and the few community effects that have been addressed have focused on shallow back reef habitats. The effects of OA on outer barrier reefs, which are the most striking of coral reef habitats and are functionally and physically different from back reefs, are unknown. Using 5-m long outdoor flumes to create treatment conditions, we constructed coral reef communities comprised of calcified algae, corals, and reef pavement that were assembled to match the community structure at 17 m depth on the outer barrier reef of Moorea, French Polynesia. Communities were maintained under ambient and 1200 μatm pCO2 for 7 weeks, and net calcification rates were measured at different flow speeds. Community net calcification was significantly affected by OA, especially at night when net calcification was depressed ~78% compared to ambient pCO2 . Flow speed (2-14 cm s(-1) ) enhanced net calcification only at night under elevated pCO2 . Reef pavement also was affected by OA, with dissolution ~86% higher under elevated pCO2 compared to ambient pCO2 . These results suggest that net accretion of outer barrier reef communities will decline under OA conditions predicted within the next 100 years, largely because of increased dissolution of reef pavement. Such extensive dissolution poses a threat to the carbonate foundation of barrier reef communities. PMID:26154126

  13. Predicting regional episodic acidification of surface waters using empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.

    1988-07-01

    Studies of individual lakes and streams have documented the occurrence of transient, short-term acidification of surface waters during hydrologic events, but a regional assessment of episodic chemical effects has not been made. Application of a two-box mixing model, together with regional chemistry and deposition data, indicates that acidic episodes (acid neutralizing capacity <0) are likely an important regional phenomenon. Population estimates of the total proportion of acidic stream reaches increased by 40-640% in six subrogions of the eastern United States when episodes were taken into account. Data from a small sample of lakes in the Adirondacks (which appear to be representative of the lake population) show that fall "index" acid neutralizing capacity is an excellent predictor of the minimum episodic ANC measured at the outlets of these lakes during spring snowmelt. While 11% of the Adirondack lakes were acidic at fall overturn, a linear regression model predicts that more than 35% were acidic at their outlets during the spring of 1986.

  14. The effect of uncomplicated potassium depletion on urine acidification

    PubMed Central

    Tannen, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were performed on normal human subjects to determine the effects of potassium depletion on urine acidification. Depletion was induced by ingestion of a low potassium diet either alone or in combination with a potassium-binding resin, and the response of each subject to an acute ammonium chloride load in the potassium-depleted state was compared to his normal response. Urine pH was significantly higher during potassium deficiency if sufficient potassium depletion had been induced. No differences in blood acid-base parameters, urinary flow rate, or urinary fixed buffer excretion rate were found to account for this change; however, the increase in urine pH was accompanied by a concomitant increase in net acid and ammonium excretion. It is proposed that these changes during potassium depletion reflect an increase in ammonia diffusion into the urine, presumably as a result of increased renal ammonia production. In addition, it is speculated that changes in ammonia metabolism may be a physiologic control mechanism for potassium conservation. PMID:5443182

  15. Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

    2003-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese

  16. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  17. Effect of soil acidification induced by a tea plantation on chemical and mineralogical properties of Alfisols in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, T; Alekseev, A; Xu, Ren-Kou; Zhao, An-Zhen; Kalinin, P

    2011-04-01

    The effect of a tea plantation on soil basic properties, chemical and mineralogical compositions, and magnetic properties of Alfisols from eastern China was studied. Under the tea plantation, acidification took place within a soil depth of 70 cm, with the maximum difference in pH in the upper 17 cm (ΔpH = 2.80). Both the tea plantation and unused soil profiles were predominated by free Fe and Al oxides, i.e. citrate/bicarbonate/dithionite extractable Fe (Fe(d)) and Al (Al(d)). Tea plantation soil was characterized by higher Al(d) and Fe(d) and lower Fe oxalate, Fe(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3); CaO was depleted, whereas SiO(2) accumulated. Acidification induced by the tea plantation led to destruction of vermiculite followed by dissolution of the hydroxy-Al interlayers within its structure. The data clearly demonstrated that significant soil weathering occurred with acidification caused by tea cultivation. This acidification also resulted in decreased content of ferrimagnetic minerals due to the dissolution of minerals and movement of Fe in the profile. PMID:20563880

  18. Near-shore Antarctic pH variability has implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Kelley, Amanda L.; Shaw, Emily C.; Martz, Todd R.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how declining seawater pH caused by anthropogenic carbon emissions, or ocean acidification, impacts Southern Ocean biota is limited by a paucity of pH time-series. Here, we present the first high-frequency in-situ pH time-series in near-shore Antarctica from spring to winter under annual sea ice. Observations from autonomous pH sensors revealed a seasonal increase of 0.3 pH units. The summer season was marked by an increase in temporal pH variability relative to spring and early winter, matching coastal pH variability observed at lower latitudes. Using our data, simulations of ocean acidification show a future period of deleterious wintertime pH levels potentially expanding to 7–11 months annually by 2100. Given the presence of (sub)seasonal pH variability, Antarctica marine species have an existing physiological tolerance of temporal pH change that may influence adaptation to future acidification. Yet, pH-induced ecosystem changes remain difficult to characterize in the absence of sufficient physiological data on present-day tolerances. It is therefore essential to incorporate natural and projected temporal pH variability in the design of experiments intended to study ocean acidification biology.

  19. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2016-10-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house acidification and separation on marine eutrophication potential compared to these technologies individually. The model was sensitive to the chosen ammonia emission coefficients and to the choice of inclusion of indirect nitrous oxide emissions, since scenarios changed ranking for certain impact categories. PMID:27566935

  20. Inhibiting excessive acidification using zero-valent iron in anaerobic digestion of food waste at high organic load rates.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin; Wei, Yonghong; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Liu, Yili; Yu, Shuyao

    2016-07-01

    Excessive acidification occurs frequently in food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) due to the high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of FW. In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was applied to prevent the excessive acidification. All of the control groups, without ZVI addition (pH∼5.3), produced little methane (CH4) and had high volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (VFA/ALK). By contrast, at OLR of 42.32gVS/Lreactor, the pH of effluent from the reactors with 0.4g/gVSFWadded of ZVI increased to 7.8-8.2, VFA/ALK decreased to <0.1, and the final CH4 yield was ∼380mL/gVSFWadded, suggesting inhibition of excessive acidification. After adding powdered or scrap metal ZVI to the acidogenic reactors, the fractional content of butyric acid changed from 30-40% to 0%, while, that of acetic acid increased. These results indicate that adding ZVI to FW digestion at high OLRs could eliminate excessive acidification by promoting butyric acid conversion and enhancing methanogen activity. PMID:26998799

  1. Air-pollution emission control in China: impacts on soil acidification recovery and constraints due to drought.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Liu, Jing; Xin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-10-01

    The Chinese government has established compulsory targets to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 8% and 10%, respectively, during 2010-2015. In this study, the effect of the policy was evaluated by predicting the recovery of acidified forest soil in Chongqing, an area severely impacted by acid rain in southwest China. Since precipitation has decreased significantly in this area in recent years, the impact of drought on soil acidification was also considered. A dynamic acidification model, MAGIC, was used to predict future trends in soil chemistry under different scenarios for deposition reduction as well as drought. We found that the current regulation of SO2 emission abatement did not significantly increase soil water pH values, the Ca2+ to Al3+ molar ratio (Ca/Al), or soil base saturation to the level of 2000 before 2050. NOx emission control would have less of an effect on acidification recovery, while emission reduction of particulate matter could offset the benefits of SO2 reduction by greatly decreasing the deposition of base cations, particularly Ca(2+). Continuous droughts in the future might also delay acidification recovery. Therefore, more stringent SO2 emission control should be implemented to facilitate the recovery of seriously acidified areas in China. PMID:23891996

  2. Inhibition of Endosome-Lysosome System Acidification Enhances Porcine Circovirus 2 Infection of Porcine Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Misinzo, Gerald; Delputte, Peter L.; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Misinzo et al. (G. Misinzo, P. Meerts, M. Bublot, J. Mast, H. M. Weingartl, and H. J. Nauwynck, J. Gen. Virol. 86:2057-2068, 2005) reported that inhibiting endosome-lysosome system acidification reduced porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection of monocytic 3D4/31 cells. The present study examined the effect of inhibiting endosome-lysosome system acidification in epithelial cells, since epithelial cells support PCV2 infection in vivo and are used in culturing PCV2 in vitro. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), chloroquine diphosphate (CQ), and monensin were used to inhibit endosome-lysosome system acidification. NH4Cl, CQ, or monensin increased PCV2 (Stoon-1010) infection by 726% ± 110%, 1,212% ± 34%, and 1,100% ± 179%, respectively, in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells; by 128% ± 7%, 158% ± 3%, and 142% ± 11% in swine kidney cells; by 160% ± 28%, 446% ± 50%, and 162% ± 56% in swine testicle (ST) cells; and by 313% ± 25%, 611% ± 86%, and 352% ± 44% in primary kidney epithelial cells. Similarly, increased PCV2 infection was observed with six other PCV2 strains in PK-15 cells treated with endosome-lysosome system acidification inhibitors. The mechanism behind increased PCV2 infection was further investigated in PK-15 cells using CQ. PCV2 infection of PK-15 cells was increased only when CQ was added early during PCV2 infection. CQ did not affect PCV2 virus-like particle (VLP) attachment to PK-15 cells but increased the disassembly of internalized PCV2 VLPs. In untreated PK-15 cells, internalized PCV2 VLPs localized within the endosome-lysosome system. PCV2 infection of untreated 3D4/31 and PK-15 cells and CQ-treated PK-15 cells was blocked by a serine protease inhibitor [4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride] but not by aspartyl protease (pepstatin A), cysteine protease (E-64), and metalloprotease (phosphoramidon) inhibitors. These results suggest that serine protease-mediated PCV2 disassembly is enhanced in porcine epithelial cells but inhibited

  3. Ocean acidification research in the 'post-genomic' era: Roadmaps from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler G; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Pespeni, Melissa H; Chan, Francis; Menge, Bruce A; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Russell, Ann D; Palumbi, Stephen R; Sanford, Eric; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2015-07-01

    Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology are removing obstacles that historically prevented use of genomics within ocean change biology. As one of the first marine calcifiers to have its genome sequenced, purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) have been the subject of early research exploring genomic responses to ocean acidification, work that points to future experiments and illustrates the value of expanding genomic resources to other marine organisms in this new 'post-genomic' era. This review presents case studies of S. purpuratus demonstrating the ability of genomic experiments to address major knowledge gaps within ocean acidification. Ocean acidification research has focused largely on species vulnerability, and studies exploring mechanistic bases of tolerance toward low pH seawater are comparatively few. Transcriptomic responses to high pCO₂ seawater in a population of urchins already encountering low pH conditions have cast light on traits required for success in future oceans. Secondly, there is relatively little information on whether marine organisms possess the capacity to adapt to oceans progressively decreasing in pH. Genomics offers powerful methods to investigate evolutionary responses to ocean acidification and recent work in S. purpuratus has identified genes under selection in acidified seawater. Finally, relatively few ocean acidification experiments investigate how shifts in seawater pH combine with other environmental factors to influence organism performance. In S. purpuratus, transcriptomics has provided insight into physiological responses of urchins exposed simultaneously to warmer and more acidic seawater. Collectively, these data support that similar breakthroughs will occur as genomic resources are developed for other marine species. PMID:25773301

  4. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration.

    PubMed

    Dai, X R; Blanes-Vidal, V

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect on average NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S emissions both during the process and from stored slurry after venting treatments. During aeration treatment, the NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S release pattern observed was related to the liquid turbulence caused by the gas bubbles rather than to biological oxidation processes in this study. PMID:23246907

  5. [Effect of Residual Hydrogen Peroxide on Hydrolysis Acidification of Sludge Pretreated by Microwave -H2O2-Alkaline Process].

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui-lai; Liu, Ji-bao; Wei, Yuan-song; Cai, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have found that in the hydrolysis acidification process, sludge after microwave -H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2-OH, pH = 10) pretreatment had an acid production lag due to the residual hydrogen peroxide. In this study, effects of residual hydrogen peroxide after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment on the sludge hydrolysis acidification were investigated through batch experiments. Our results showed that catalase had a higher catalytic efficiency than manganese dioxide for hydrogen peroxide, which could completely degraded hydrogen peroxide within 10 min. During the 8 d of hydrolysis acidification time, both SCOD concentrations and the total VFAs concentrations of four groups were firstly increased and then decreased. The optimized hydrolysis times were 0.5 d for four groups, and the optimized hydrolysis acidification times were 3 d for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group. The optimized hydrolysis acidification time for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group was 4 d. Residual hydrogen peroxide inhibited acid production for sludge after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) pretreatment, resulting in a lag in acidification stage. Compared with MW-H2O2-OH ( pH = 10) pretreatment, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11 ) pretreatment released more SCOD by 19.29% and more organic matters, which resulted in the increase of total VFAs production significantly by 84.80% at 5 d of hydrolysis acidification time and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group could shorten the lag time slightly. Dosing catalase (100 mg x -L(-1)) after the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment not only significantly shortened the lag time (0.5 d) in acidification stage, but also produced more total VFAs by 23.61% and 50.12% in the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group, compared with MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group at 3d of hydrolysis acidification time. For MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and

  6. Extracellular acidification induces connective tissue growth factor production through proton-sensing receptor OGR1 in human airway smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Yamada, Hidenori; Kamide, Yosuke; Hisada, Takeshi; Ichimonji, Isao; Aoki, Haruka; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Komachi, Mayumi; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko; Dobashi, Kunio; Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mori, Masatomo; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} The involvement of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling was investigated. {yields} Extracellular acidification alone induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. {yields} Extracellular acidification enhanced TGF-{beta}-induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. {yields} Proton-sensing receptor OGR1 was involved in acidic pH-stimulated CTGF production. {yields} OGR1 may play an important role in airway remodeling in asthma. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Extracellular acidification is known to be associated with severe asthma; however, the role of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of acidification on the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a critical factor involved in the formation of extracellular matrix proteins and hence airway remodeling, were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Acidic pH alone induced a substantial production of CTGF, and enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}-induced CTGF mRNA and protein expression. The extracellular acidic pH-induced effects were inhibited by knockdown of a proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor (OGR1) with its specific small interfering RNA and by addition of the G{sub q/11} protein-specific inhibitor, YM-254890, or the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) receptor antagonist, 2-APB. In conclusion, extracellular acidification induces CTGF production through the OGR1/G{sub q/11} protein and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in human ASMCs.

  7. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

  8. Lake sensitivity to acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Shurkin, J.; Goldstein, R.

    1985-06-01

    Research in the Adirondacks suggests that watershed dynamics are the key to a lake's vulnerability to acidification. The Electric Power Research Institute's Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) produced a computer model that successfully integrated the physical and chemical factors that determine these dynamics. The research required an unprecedented level of awareness of how watersheds work and how rain, soil, forests, and rocks interact. One outcome of the field and laboratory studies was the finding that some soils act as buffers, taking certain ions out of the water, while some added ions. While the ability of the watershed as a whole to neutralize acid is the main determinant of a lake's vulnerability, seasonal changes demonstrate that time is a factor. The model is in demand to test water in other locations and to explore buffering agents. 2 figures.

  9. Carbon Fluxes and Ocean Acidification in the Irminger Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Daniela; Barkhouse, Ryan; Olafsson, Jon; Olafsdottir, Solveig; Gulev, Sergej; Wallace, Doug

    2016-04-01

    Complex horizontal and vertical circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas has the potential to influence global ocean circulation and climate patterns. Deep water formation coupled with strong winds, and high rates of primary productivity in spring and summer result in these regions of the North Atlantic acting as strong sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. An increase in surface water pCO2 over the past two decades at a rate greater than that of the atmosphere has been observed and indicates a decrease in the air-sea pCO2 difference, the driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux. In response to the increasing pCO2, the surface water pH and the aragonite saturation states (Ωar) show a decreasing trend. Much of the previous work in the region has occurred on a few repeated transects over time, or in specific regions the Irminger basin. There is therefore a need for surveys of carbon parameters with broader horizontal spatial coverage to determine the CO2 fluxes and the effect of ocean acidification (OA) in the Irminger Sea. Here, we estimate surface pCO2 and CO2 fluxes, and Ωar over a large portion of the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters in the summer of 2013. These estimates are based on measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and pH from discrete samples in the upper 100m, collected at 83 stations on two cruises during the International Redfish Survey. The present study is designed to provide a baseline of inorganic carbon parameters for future, long-term study in the region. The large spatial scope of this study, and planned future work, will provide data that will help contextualize measures from repeated transect studies, underway measures, as well as measures from fixed observatories such those deployed by Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).

  10. Ocean acidification through the lens of ecological theory.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, Brian; Kroeker, Kristy J; Sunday, Jennifer M; Anderson, Kathryn M; Barry, James P; Brown, Norah E; Connell, Sean D; Dupont, Sam; Fabricius, Katharina E; Hall-Spencer, Jason Hall; Klinger, Terrie; Milazzo, Marco; Munday, Philip L; Russell, Bayden D; Sanford, Eric; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Vaughan, Megan L H; Widdicombe, Steven; Harley, Christopher D G

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, chemical changes to the carbonate system of seawater, is emerging as a key environmental challenge accompanying global warming and other human-induced perturbations. Considerable research seeks to define the scope and character of potential outcomes from this phenomenon, but a crucial impediment persists. Ecological theory, despite its power and utility, has been only peripherally applied to the problem. Here we sketch in broad strokes several areas where fundamental principles of ecology have the capacity to generate insight into ocean acidification's consequences. We focus on conceptual models that, when considered in the context of acidification, yield explicit predictions regarding a spectrum of population- and community-level effects, from narrowing of species ranges and shifts in patterns of demographic connectivity, to modified consumer-resource relationships, to ascendance of weedy taxa and loss of species diversity. Although our coverage represents only a small fraction of the breadth of possible insights achievable from the application of theory, our hope is that this initial foray will spur expanded efforts to blend experiments with theoretical approaches. The result promises to be a deeper and more nuanced understanding of ocean acidification'and the ecological changes it portends. PMID:26236884

  11. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  12. Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oceans continue to absorb CO2 in step with the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2. The dissolved CO2 reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) and liberate hydrogen ions, causing the pH of the oceans to decrease. Ocean acidification is thus an inevitable a...

  13. Millennial-scale ocean acidification and late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Liang, Liyuan; Braga, Dr Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21 000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14 000 years with largest reduction occurring 12 000 10 000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects.

  14. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  15. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  16. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has acidified the surface ocean by ~0.1 pH units and driven down the carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems and may alter key biogeochemical cycles. Coastal oceans have also b...

  17. Adaptive divergence of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) along an acidification gradient

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental stress can result in strong ecological and evolutionary effects on natural populations, but to what extent it drives adaptive divergence of natural populations is little explored. We used common garden experiments to study adaptive divergence in embryonic and larval fitness traits (embryonic survival, larval growth, and age and size at metamorphosis) in eight moor frog, Rana arvalis, populations inhabiting an acidification gradient (breeding pond pH 4.0 to 7.5) in southwestern Sweden. Embryos were raised until hatching at three (pH 4.0, 4.3 and 7.5) and larvae until metamorphosis at two (pH 4.3 and 7.5) pH treatments. To get insight into the putative selective agents along this environmental gradient, we measured relevant abiotic and biotic environmental variables from each breeding pond, and used linear models to test for phenotype-environment correlations. Results We found that acid origin populations had higher embryonic and larval acid tolerance (survival and larval period were less negatively affected by low pH), higher larval growth but slower larval development rates, and metamorphosed at a larger size. The phenotype-environment correlations revealed that divergence in embryonic acid tolerance and metamorphic size correlated most strongly with breeding pond pH, whereas divergence in larval period and larval growth correlated most strongly with latitude and predator density, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that R. arvalis has diverged in response to pH mediated selection along this acidification gradient. However, as latitude and pH were closely spatially correlated in this study, further studies are needed to disentangle the specific agents of natural selection along acidification gradients. Our study highlights the need to consider the multiple interacting selective forces that drive adaptive divergence of natural populations along environmental stress gradients. PMID:22182445

  18. Extracellular acidification synergizes with PDGF to stimulate migration of mouse embryo fibroblasts through activation of p38MAPK with a PTX-sensitive manner

    SciTech Connect

    An, Caiyan; Sato, Koichi; Wu, Taoya; Bao, Muqiri; Bao, Liang; Tobo, Masayuki; Damirin, Alatangaole

    2015-05-01

    The elucidation of the functional mechanisms of extracellular acidification stimulating intracellular signaling pathway is of great importance for developing new targets of treatment for solid tumors, and inflammatory disorders characterized by extracellular acidification. In the present study, we focus on the regulation of extracellular acidification on intracellular signaling pathways in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We found extracellular acidification was at least partly involved in stimulating p38MAPK pathway through PTX-sensitive behavior to enhance cell migration in the presence or absence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Statistical analysis showed that the actions of extracellular acidic pH and PDGF on inducing enhancement of cell migration were not an additive effect. However, we also found extracellular acidic pH did inhibit the viability and proliferation of MEFs, suggesting that extracellular acidification stimulates cell migration probably through proton-sensing mechanisms within MEFs. Using OGR1-, GPR4-, and TDAG8-gene knock out technology, and real-time qPCR, we found known proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) were unlikely to be involved in the regulation of acidification on cell migration. In conclusion, our present study validates that extracellular acidification stimulates chemotactic migration of MEFs through activation of p38MAPK with a PTX-sensitive mechanism either by itself, or synergistically with PDGF, which was not regulated by the known proton-sensing GPCRs, TRPV1, or ASICs. Our results suggested that others proton-sensing GPCRs or ion channels might exist in MEFs, which mediates cell migration induced by extracellular acidification in the presence or absence of PDGF. - Highlights: • Acidic pH and PDGF synergize to stimulate MEFs migration via Gi/p38MAPK pathway. • Extracellular acidification inhibits the

  19. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-01

    Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, by the DL-starter culture, and by the type strains. High and low levels of oxygen were produced by flushing milk with oxygen or nitrogen, respectively. The kinetics of milk acidification was characterized by the maximum rate and time of acidification (Vamax and Tamax), the maximum rate and time of reduction (Vrmax and Trmax), the minimum redox potential (Eh7 final), and time of reaching Eh7 final (Trfinal). Variations in kinetic parameters were observed at both the species and strain levels. Two of the Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strains were not able to lower redox potential to negative values. Kinetic parameters of the DL-starter culture were comparable with the best acidifying and reducing strains, indicating their additive effects. Acidification curves were mostly diauxic at all oxygen levels, displaying 2 maxima of acidification rate: before (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had a negative effect on reduction and acidification capacity of tested LAB. Reduction was significantly delayed at high initial oxygen, exhibiting longer Trmax, Trfinal, or both

  20. Effects of local emission sources on the acidification of rainwater in an industrial city in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Der-Yuan Wu

    1996-12-31

    This study investigated the acidification of precipitation in an industrial city in Taiwan Island. The purposes of this study is two fold. The first is to characterize the status of add precipitation around the industrial city. Rainwater samples were collected by automatic rainwater samplers-located at five sampling sites which covered the entire city. The second is to investigate the potential sources of acidic species in the acid rainwater. Further study was taken to ascertain the effects of local emissions as well as long range transportation on the acidification of precipitation. Investigation of acid rain on the Island of Taiwan has been conducted since 1984. Most of these researches were short-term and/or large-scale investigations. Long-term sampling of acid rain at heavy polluted region has never been investigated yet. In this investigation, Kaohsiung was selected as the city for the intensive acid rain sampling since it is the largest industrial city as well as the largest harbor in Taiwan Island. Both dry and wet acid samples were collected daily by the automatic rainwater samplers. Major cations (H{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}), anions (F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO3{sup -}, and SO4{sup -2}), and conductivity of acid samples were measured simultaneously. Actually, both pH value and conductivity were measured on site. During the period of investigation, 325 collected rainwater samples demonstrated an average pH value of 5.2 with the range of 3.1 to 6.3. This investigation revealed that emissions from local sources such as power plants, petrochemical plants, and cement plants play important roles on the acidification of rainwater in the industrial city in Taiwan.

  1. Planktonic foraminiferal response to ocean acidification in the Santa Barbara Basin over the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, E.; Bizimis, M.; Cai, W. J.; Wang, Y.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, D.; Benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Holm, J. A.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the onset of the industrial revolution, atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased by more than 40% (120 ppm) due to anthropogenic activities. While nearly half of these carbon emissions remain in the atmosphere, the ocean has absorbed approximately 30% of the excess CO2. The increase in the ocean aqueous CO2 inventory has resulted in a significant change in seawater chemistry, most notably the decline of mean seawater pH (0.1 units since 1750). Some marine calcifiers, such as planktonic foraminifera, have shown an adverse response to ocean acidification exhibited as a reduction in calcification efficiency. Estimates indicate that planktonic foraminifera are responsible for up to 55% of the total open marine calcium carbonate flux and also serve as low tropic food web members making them an important constituent for chemical and biological processes in the oceans. This study utilizes morphometric (area density) and geochemical (B/Ca) analyses of planktonic foraminifera to calibrate species-specific responses to changes in modern ocean carbonate chemistry. These proxy methods have been applied to down-core records with nearly annual to sub-annual resolution to reconstruct past changes that have occured since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The sediments used for this study were collected in the Santa Barbara Basin within the California Current System (CSS), which has been identified as a region of rapidly increasing ocean acidification due to natural upwelling processes and increasing atmospheric CO2. This study will evaluate the effect of ocean acidification on several species of planktonic foraminifera to improve our understanding of the response of these organisms to modern changes in atmospheric CO2.

  2. Ocean acidification in the Meso- vs. Cenozoic: lessons from modeling about the geological expression of paleo-ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Kirtland Turner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid climatic and biotic events putatively associated with ocean acidification are scattered throughout the Meso-Cenozoic. Many of these rapid perturbations, variably referred to as hyperthermals (Paleogene) and oceanic anoxic events or mass extinction events (Mesozoic), share a number of characteristic features, including some combination of negative carbon isotopic excursion, global warming, and a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Comparisons between ocean acidification events over the last ~250 Ma are, however, problematic because the types of marine geological archives and carbon reservoirs that can be interrogated are fundamentally different for early Mesozoic vs. late Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Many Mesozoic events are known primarily or exclusively from geological outcrops of relatively shallow water deposits, whereas the more recent Paleogene hyperthermal events have been chiefly identified from deep sea records. In addition, these earlier events are superimposed on an ocean with a fundamentally different carbonate buffering capacity, as calcifying plankton (which created the deep-sea carbonate sink) originate in the mid-Mesozoic. Here, we use both Earth system modeling and reaction transport sediment modeling to explore the ways in which comparable ocean acidification-inducing climate perturbations might manifest in the Mesozoic vs. the Cenozoic geological record. We examine the role of the deep-sea carbonate sink in the expression of ocean acidification, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of surface ocean pH and carbonate saturation state. These results critically inform interpretations of ocean acidification prior to the mid-Mesozoic advent of calcifying plankton and expectations about the recording of these events in geological outcrop.

  3. Resistance among wild invertebrate populations to recurrent estuarine acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2011-07-01

    Acid sulphate soils (ASS), which occur on floodplains worldwide, pose a significant threat to estuarine ecosystems. In laboratory and field experiments, naïve calcifying organisms that are exposed for even short periods (1-2 mo) to runoff from ASS suffer 80% mortality and slowed growth. Based on these observations we expected that sampling of wild oyster, gastropod and crab populations at sites close to and away from drains discharging ASS runoff would reveal more depauperate populations, of sparser and smaller-sized individuals at the more acidified sites. Sampling within three estuaries of New South Wales, Australia, confirmed that the oyster Saccostrea glomerata and gastropods (primarily Bembicium auratum) were less abundant at ASS-affected than reference sites. Nevertheless, crab abundances did not differ between the acidified and reference sites and impacts to bivalves and gastropods were far smaller than predicted. Although at ASS-affected sites gastropod populations were dominated by smaller individuals than at reference sites, oyster populations were skewed towards larger individuals. Even at ASS-affected sites, oyster and gastropod abundances were within the range encountered in estuaries that are not influenced by ASS runoff. Behaviour, long-term physiological acclimation or genetic selection may be responsible for differences in the responses of wild and naïve macroinvertebrates to acidification. Alternatively, wild populations may exhibit some recovery between the rainfall events that transport ASS runoff into estuaries, despite the persistently lower pH near outflow drains. Irrespective, this study suggests that at the population level, calcifying organisms display a certain degree of natural resistance to recurrent disturbance from ASS runoff.

  4. The requirement of environmental acidification for Ibaraki virus infection to host cells

    PubMed Central

    TSURUTA, Yuya; SHIBUTANI, Shusaku T.; WATANABE, Rie; IWATA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of environmental acidification on Ibaraki virus (IBAV) infection was tested using endosomal inhibitory chemicals and low pH treatment. Treatment of target cells with endosomal inhibitors significantly decreased the progeny virus production. IBAV outer capsid proteins, VP5 and VP2, were removed from virion when purified IBAV was exposed to low pH environment. Further experiment showed that the exposure to low pH buffer facilitated IBAV infection when the cellular endosomal pathway was impaired by bafilomycin A1. Results obtained in this study suggest that acidic environment is essential to initiate IBAV infection. PMID:26321298

  5. Urinary and proximal tubule acidification during reduction of renal blood flow in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Aires, M M; Malnic, G

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of reduction in renal blood flow (RBF) on urinary acidification and proximal tubule H+ ion secretion were studied after partial aortic clamping in rats. 2. Acute reduction of the renal perfusion pressure (from 109 +/- 3.88 to 77.4 +/- 1.05 mmHg) decreased both inulin and PAH (p-aminohippurate) clearances to about one-third of their control values. Absolute levels of urinary sodium excretion also decreased markedly, but fractional sodium excretion did not change significantly. 3. Urine pH and bicarbonate levels were not affected, but titratable acidity increased significantly from 0.12 +/- 0.011 to 0.25 +/- 0.042 muequiv min-1 ml-1 glomerular filtration rate (GFR). During aortic clamping, cortical PCO2 as determined by means of Severinghaus microelectrodes was reduced by a mean value of 7.0 +/- 1.5 mmHg. 4. Proximal tubule acidification kinetics were studied by stationary microperfusion techniques in which the time course of pH changes was monitored by pH microelectrodes. Steady-state pH fell from a mean control value of 6.77 +/- 0.03 to 6.65 +/- 0.02, and stationary bicarbonate concentrations from 4.70 +/- 0.27 to 2.84 +/- 0.18 mM. Acidification half-time decreased from 5.07 +/- 0.30 to 4.39 +/- 0.19 s, and net bicarbonate reabsorption increased from 1.63 +/- 0.14 to 1.99 +/- 0.12 nmol cm-2 s-1, these changes being statistically significant. 5. The experiments demonstrate that both overall acid excretion and proximal acid secretion are not compromised by a large decrease of RBF to about one-third of the control value; titratable acid excretion and proximal net bicarbonate reabsorption were even moderately increased under these conditions. PMID:2348400

  6. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

  7. Temperature increase prevails over acidification in gene expression modulation of amastigote differentiation in Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extracellular promastigote and the intracellular amastigote stages alternate in the digenetic life cycle of the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania. Amastigotes develop inside parasitophorous vacuoles of mammalian phagocytes, where they tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Temperature increase and pH decrease are crucial factors in the multifactorial differentiation process of promastigotes to amastigotes. Although expression profiling approaches for axenic, cell culture- and lesion-derived amastigotes have already been reported, the specific influence of temperature increase and acidification of the environment on developmental regulation of genes has not been previously studied. For the first time, we have used custom L. infantum genomic DNA microarrays to compare the isolated and the combined effects of both factors on the transcriptome. Results Immunofluorescence analysis of promastigote-specific glycoprotein gp46 and expression modulation analysis of the amastigote-specific A2 gene have revealed that concomitant exposure to temperature increase and acidification leads to amastigote-like forms. The temperature-induced gene expression profile in the absence of pH variation resembles the profile obtained under combined exposure to both factors unlike that obtained for exposure to acidification alone. In fact, the subsequent fold change-based global iterative hierarchical clustering analysis supports these findings. Conclusions The specific influence of temperature and pH on the differential regulation of genes described in this study and the evidence provided by clustering analysis is consistent with the predominant role of temperature increase over extracellular pH decrease in the amastigote differentiation process, which provides new insights into Leishmania physiology. PMID:20074347

  8. Hypoxia and acidification in ocean ecosystems: coupled dynamics and effects on marine life.

    PubMed

    Gobler, Christopher J; Baumann, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that low dissolved oxygen (DO) and low pH conditions co-occur in many coastal and open ocean environments. Within temperate ecosystems, these conditions not only develop seasonally as temperatures rise and metabolic rates accelerate, but can also display strong diurnal variability, especially in shallow systems where photosynthetic rates ameliorate hypoxia and acidification by day. Despite the widespread, global co-occurrence of low pH and low DO and the likelihood that these conditions may negatively impact marine life, very few studies have actually assessed the extent to which the combination of both stressors elicits additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects in marine organisms. We review the evidence from published factorial experiments that used static and/or fluctuating pH and DO levels to examine different traits (e.g. survival, growth, metabolism), life stages and species across a broad taxonomic spectrum. Additive negative effects of combined low pH and low DO appear to be most common; however, synergistic negative effects have also been observed. Neither the occurrence nor the strength of these synergistic impacts is currently predictable, and therefore, the true threat of concurrent acidification and hypoxia to marine food webs and fisheries is still not fully understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will require an expansion of multi-stressor approaches in experimental and field studies, and the development of a predictive framework. In consideration of marine policy, we note that DO criteria in coastal waters have been developed without consideration of concurrent pH levels. Given the persistence of concurrent low pH-low DO conditions in estuaries and the increased mortality experienced by fish and bivalves under concurrent acidification and hypoxia compared with hypoxia alone, we conclude that such DO criteria may leave coastal fisheries more vulnerable to population reductions than previously anticipated. PMID

  9. Ocean acidification and its impacts: an expert survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, J.; Mach, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The number of scientists investigating ocean acidification as well as the number of papers published on this issue have increased considerably in the past few years. On the one hand, the advances are welcome for the assessment of ocean acidification and its impacts. On the other hand, the volume and rapidity of the scientific developments as well as some contradictory results have created challenges for assessing the current state of knowledge and informing policy makers. Two tools are being used to synthesize the current information: meta-analysis and expert survey. In January this year, Working Groups I and II of the IPCC organized an expert meeting on ocean acidification in Okinawa. Following this meeting, we built a set of 22 statements, in consultation with several of the meeting participants. An expert survey was then conducted. It involved 52 experts who provided a considerable amount of information. The statements covered a broad array of research fields and were grouped in 3 categories: chemical aspects, biological and biogeochemical responses, and policy and socio-economic aspects. The survey results indicate a relatively strong consensus for most statements related to the past, present and future chemical aspects. Examples of consensual issues are: non-anthropogenic ocean acidification events have occurred in the geological past, anthropogenic CO2 emissions is the main (but not the only) mechanism generating the current ocean acidification event, and ocean acidification will be felt for centuries. The experts generally agreed that there will be impacts on biological and ecological processes and biogeochemical feedbacks, but for such statements, the levels of agreement were lower overall, with more variability across responses. Levels of agreements among experts surveyed were comparatively higher for statements regarding calcification, primary production and nitrogen fixation, as compared to impacts on food-webs. The levels of agreement for statements

  10. Development of Ocean Acidification Flow-Thru Experimental Raceway Units (OAFTERU): Simulating the Future Reefs in the Keys Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. R.; Vaughan, D.; Crosby, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean acidification, a consequence of anthropogenic CO2 production due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and cement production, has been referred to as "the other CO2 problem" and is receiving much attention in marine science and public policy communities. Critical needs that have been identified by top climate change and marine scientists include using projected pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2 in seawater) levels in manipulative experiments to determine physiological indices of ecologically important species, such as corals. Coral reefs were one of the first ecosystems to be documented as susceptible to ocean acidification. The Florida Keys reef system has already experienced a long-term deterioration, resulting in increased calls for large scale coral reef ecosystem restoration of these critical resources. It has also been speculated that this decline in reef ecosystem health may be exacerbated by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels with resulting ocean acidification. Therefore, reef resilience to ocean acidification and the potential for successful restoration of these systems under forecasted long-term modified pH conditions in the Florida Keys is of great concern. Many studies for testing effects of ocean acidification on corals have already been established and tested. However, many employ pH modification experimental designs that include addition of acid to seawater which may not mimic conditions of climate change induced ocean acidification. It would be beneficial to develop and maintain an ocean acidification testing system more representative of climate change induced changes, and specific to organisms and ecosystems indigenous to the Florida Keys reef tract. The Mote Marine Laboratory research facility in Summerland Key, FL has an established deep well from which its supply of seawater is obtained. This unique source of seawater is 80 feet deep, "fossil" marine water. It is pumped from the on-site aquifer aerated to reduce H2S and ammonia, and passed

  11. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid-base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na(+)/[Formula: see text] cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl(-)/[Formula: see text] exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H(+)-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl(-) channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal [Formula: see text] secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood [Formula: see text] levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans. PMID:27313538

  12. Impact of water column acidification on protozoan bacterivory at the lake sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S C; Mills, A L

    1991-03-01

    Although the impact of acidification on planktonic grazer food webs has been extensively studied, little is known about microbial food webs either in the water column or in the sediments. Protozoon-bacterium interactions were investigated in a chronically acidified (acid mine drainage) portion of a lake in Virginia. We determined the distribution, abundance, apparent specific grazing rate, and growth rate of protozoa over a pH range of 3.6 to 6.5. Protozoan abundance was lower at the most acidified site, while abundance, in general, was high compared with other systems. Specific grazing rates were uncorrelated with pH and ranged between 0.02 and 0.23 h, values similar to those in unacidified systems. The protozoan community from an acidified station was not better adapted (P = 0.95) to low-pH conditions than a community from an unacidified site (multivariate analysis of variance on growth rates for each community incubated at pHs 4, 5, and 6). Both communities had significantly lower (P < 0.05) growth rates at pHs 4 and 5 than at pH 6. Reduced protozoan growth rates coupled with high grazing rates and relatively higher bacterial yields (ratio of bacterial-protozoan standing stock) at low pH indicate reduced net protozoan growth efficiency and a metabolic cost of acidification to the protozoan community. However, the presence of an abundant, neutrophilic protozoan community and high bacterial grazing rates indicates that acidification of Lake Anna has not inhibited the bacterium-protozoon link of the sediment microbial food web. PMID:16348443

  13. Physiological energetics of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to seawater acidification and thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youji; Li, Lisha; Hu, Menghong; Lu, Weiqun

    2015-05-01

    Anthropogenic CO₂ emissions have caused seawater temperature elevation and ocean acidification. In view of both phenomena are occurring simultaneously, their combined effects on marine species must be experimentally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to estimate the combined effects of seawater acidification and temperature increase on the energy budget of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Juvenile mussels were exposed to six combined treatments with three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3)×two temperatures (25 °C and 30 °C) for 14 d. We found that clearance rates (CRs), food absorption efficiencies (AEs), respiration rates (RRs), ammonium excretion rates (ER), scope for growth (SFG) and O:N ratios were significantly reduced by elevated temperature sometimes during the whole experiments. Low pH showed significant negative effects on RR and ER, and significantly increased O:N ratios, but showed almost no effects on CR, AE and SFG of M. coruscus. Nevertheless, their interactive effects were observed in RR, ER and O:N ratios. PCA revealed positive relationships among most physiological indicators, especially between SFG and CR under normal temperatures compared to high temperatures. PCA also showed that the high RR was closely correlated to an increasing ER with increasing pH levels. These results suggest that physiological energetics of juvenile M. coruscus are able to acclimate to CO2 acidification with a little physiological effect, but not increased temperatures. Therefore, the negative effects of a temperature increase could potentially impact the ecophysiological responses of M. coruscus and have significant ecological consequences, mainly in those habitats where this species is dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. PMID:25666286

  14. Responses of the tropical gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to ocean acidification conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, C. E.; Paul, V. J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Muehllehner, N.; Langdon, C.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification can have negative repercussions from the organism to ecosystem levels. Octocorals deposit high-magnesium calcite in their skeletons, and according to different models, they could be more susceptible to the depletion of carbonate ions than either calcite or aragonite-depositing organisms. This study investigated the response of the gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to a range of CO2 concentrations from 285 to 4,568 ppm (pH range 8.1-7.1) over a 4-week period. Gorgonian growth and calcification were measured at each level of CO2 as linear extension rate and percent change in buoyant weight and calcein incorporation in individual sclerites, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship for calcification and CO2 concentration that was well explained by a linear model regression analysis for both buoyant weight and calcein staining. In general, growth and calcification did not stop in any of the concentrations of pCO2; however, some of the octocoral fragments experienced negative calcification at undersaturated levels of calcium carbonate (>4,500 ppm) suggesting possible dissolution effects. These results highlight the susceptibility of the gorgonian coral E. fusca to elevated levels of carbon dioxide but suggest that E. fusca could still survive well in mid-term ocean acidification conditions expected by the end of this century, which provides important information on the effects of ocean acidification on the dynamics of coral reef communities. Gorgonian corals can be expected to diversify and thrive in the Atlantic-Eastern Pacific; as scleractinian corals decline, it is likely to expect a shift in these reef communities from scleractinian coral dominated to octocoral/soft coral dominated under a "business as usual" scenario of CO2 emissions.

  15. Impact of water column acidification on protozoan bacterivory at the lake sediment-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, S.C.; Mills, A.L. )

    1991-03-01

    Although the impact of acidification on planktonic grazer food webs has been extensively studied, little is known about microbial food webs either in the water column or in the sediments. Protozoan-bacterium interactions were investigated in a chronically acidified (acid mine drainage) portion of a lake in Virginia. The authors determined the distribution, abundance, apparent specific grazing rate, and growth rate of protozoa over a pH range of 3.6 to 6.5. Protozoan abundance was lower at the most acidified site, while abundance, in general, was high compared with other systems. Specific grazing rates were uncorrelated with pH and ranged between 0.02 and 0.23 h{sup {minus}1}, values similar to those in unacidified systems. The protozoan community from an acidified station was not better adapted to low-pH conditions than a community from an unacidified site (multivariate analysis of variance on growth rates for each community incubated at pHs 4, 5, and 6). Both communities had significantly lower growth rates at pHs 4 and 5 than at pH 6. Reduced protozoan growth rates coupled with high grazing rates and relatively higher bacterial yields (ratio of bacterial-protozoan standing stock) at low pH indicate reduced net protozoan growth efficiency and a metabolic cost of acidification to the protozoan community. However, the presence of an abundant, neutrophilic protozoan community and high bacterial grazing rates indicates that acidification of Lake Anna has not inhibited the bacterium-protozoan link of the sediment microbial food web.

  16. Combined Effect of Ocean Acidification and Seawater Freshening: Response of Pteropod Swimming Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, C.; Morata, N.; Primicerio, R.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions induce ocean acidification. Pteropods, the main planktonic producers of aragonite in the worlds' oceans, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in sea water chemistry. The negative effects are expected to be most severe at high-latitudes, where natural carbonate ion concentrations are low. In this study we investigated the combined effects of ocean acidification and freshening on Limacina retroversa, the dominant pteropod in sub polar areas. Living Limacina retroversa, collected in Northern Norwegian Sea, were exposed to four different pH values ranging from the pre-industrial level to the forecasted end of century ocean acidification scenario. Since over the past half-century the Norwegian Sea has experienced a progressive freshening with time, each pH level was combined with a salinity gradient. Survival, shell degradation and swimming behavior were investigated. Mortality was strongly affected only when both pH and salinity reduced simultaneously. The combined effects of lower salinity and lower pH also affected negatively the ability of pteropods to swim where they decreasing the locomotory speed upwards and increasing the wing beats. Results suggest that, the extra energy cost due to maintaining of body fluids and to avoid sinking (in low salinity scenario) combined with the extra energy cost necessary to counteract the dissolution (in high pCO2 scenario), exceeds the available energy budget of this organism and then pteropods change in swimming behavior and begin to collapse. Since Limacina retroversa play an important role in the transport of carbonates to the deep oceans these findings have significant implications for the mechanisms influencing the inorganic carbon cycle in the sub-polar area.

  17. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Marian Y.; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M.; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na+/HCO3− cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl− channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3− secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3− levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans. PMID:27313538

  18. Acidification of the Shallow Arctic Seas as Biogeochemical Consequences of Permafrost Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I.; Repina, I.; Pugach, S.; Dudarev, O.; Charkin, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing concern about consequences of ocean acidification from the increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide driven shifts toward lower seawater pH The largest pH changes in this century are anticipated in the surface waters of the Arctic ocean (Orr et al., 2005; Steinacher et al., 2009). Concurrently, aragonite undersaturation might occur locally and become widespread as atmospheric CO2 increases to more than 450ppm (Olafsson et al., 2009). However, the ocean acidification effects induced by increasing Arctic land-shelf export of fluvial and erosional organic carbon (OC) and its oxidation are unknown. Here we show that massive net redistribution of old OC from thawing permafrost to the East-Siberian Arctic Seas (ESAS) and its consequent remineralization drives acidification over the ESAS which represents the broadest and shallowest shelf of the World Ocean. From top to the bottom the ESAS waters were observed to be undersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite, and thus potentially corrosive to CaCO3 for the shelf sediments and benthic ecosystems. Our multiyear all-seasonal results (1999-2011) demonstrate how the net ecosystem metabolism of the Siberian shelves, which is the net balance of autotrophic (photosynthesis and net community production) and heterotrophic (respiration and remineralization) processes, is likely to function as the heterotrophic dominated ecosystem. CO2 outgassing from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is quantified using multi-year eddy-correlation flux measurements. It is shown that the ESAS is currently a source of atmospheric CO2. A continuing warming adds more terrestrial OC to the Arctic Shelf Seas, which increases pCO2, as the same time as decreased transparency lowers primary production, which reduce consumption of CO2 (and increase acidification effects). This effect results in a positive feedback by outgassing CO2 over the Siberian Shelf , which comprises one half of the entire shelf area. This multi-year study

  19. Alterations in the macrobenthic fauna from Guadarranque River (Southern Spain) associated with sediment-seawater acidification deriving from CO2 leakage.

    PubMed

    Almagro-Pastor, V; Conradi, M; DelValls, T A; Riba, I

    2015-07-15

    Nowadays, Carbon Storage in Sub-Seabed Geological Structures (CS-SSGS) is having much interest. Nonetheless, these technologies are still under development, especially the leakage of the stored CO2 and the consequent acidification of the environment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to test the impact of CO2-induced acidification on a macrobenthic community due to leakages from CS-SSGS using a mesocosm-based experiment. Results confirmed the significant correlation between the abundance of the species and the pH (positively), and the alkalinity (negatively). Additionally, the BIOENV analysis showed that the majority of the variability in the abundance of the total species was explained for the alkalinity. The correlation analysis showed differential vulnerabilities of different species, especially Cyathura carinata and a non-calcifier species as Hediste diversicolor. Nevertheless, these results showed the importance of taking into account the indirect effect associated with acidification processes, as metal release from sediment. PMID:26021290

  20. Soil acidification occurs under ambient conditions but is retarded by repeated drought: results of a field-scale climate manipulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Kopittke, G R; Tietema, A; Verstraten, J M

    2012-11-15

    Acid atmospheric emissions within Europe and North America have decreased strongly since 1985 and most recent acidification studies have focused on the changes occurring within ecosystems as a result of this decreased deposition. This current study documents a soil acidification trend under ambient N deposition conditions over a 13 year period, suggesting that acidification continues to be a process of concern at this Calluna vulgaris dominated heathland with an acidic sandy soil. The annual manipulation of climatic conditions on this heathland simulated the predicted summer rainfall reduction (drought) and resulted in a long term retardation of the soil acidification trend. The pH of the soil solution significantly decreased over the course of the trial for both treatments, however, in the final 2 years the decline continued only in the Control treatment. This retardation is primarily associated with the reduction in rainfall leading to lower drainage rates, reduced loss of cations and therefore reduced lowering of the soil acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). However, a change in the underlying mechanisms also indicated that N transformations became less important in the Drought treatment. This change corresponded to an increase in groundcover of an air-pollution tolerant moss species and it is hypothesized that this increasing moss cover filtered an increasing quantity of deposited N, thus reducing the N available for transformation. A soil acidification lag time is expected to increase between the two treatments due to the cumulative disparity in cation retention and rates of proton formation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which such acidification trends have been demonstrated in a field-scale climate manipulation experiment. PMID:23103759

  1. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ramajo, Laura; Pérez-León, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E.; Marbà, Núria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K.; Blicher, Martin E.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Olsen, Ylva S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification. PMID:26778520

  2. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ramajo, Laura; Pérez-León, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E; Marbà, Núria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K; Blicher, Martin E; Lagos, Nelson A; Olsen, Ylva S; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification. PMID:26778520

  3. Decoupled response of ocean acidification to variations in climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; McNeil, B.

    2013-12-01

    It is now well understood that the global surface ocean, whose pH has been reduced by ~0.1 in response to rising atmospheric CO2 since industrialization, will continue to become more acidic as fossil fuel CO2 emissions escalate. However, it is unclear how uncertainties in climate sensitivity to future CO2 emissions will alter the manifestation of ocean acidification. Using an earth system model of intermediate complexity, we perform a set of simulations that varies equilibrium climate sensitivity by 1.0 to 4.5°C for a given CO2 emissions scenario and find two unexpected and decoupled responses. Firstly, the greater the climate sensitivity, the larger the surface mixed layer acidification signal but the smaller the subsurface acidification. However, taken throughout the ocean, highest climate sensitivity will paradoxically cause greater global warming while buffering whole-ocean pH by up to 24% on centennial time-scales. Secondly, we find a large decoupling between pH and carbonate ion concentration in surface waters whereby these chemical properties show opposite effects under variable climate sensitivity. For every 1°C increase in climate sensitivity, the surface ocean pH reduction grows by 4%, while surface ocean carbonate ion reduction shrinks by 2%. The chemical and spatial decoupling found here highlights the importance of distinguishing the biological impacts of pH and aragonite saturation and understanding the spatial extent of important calcifying biomes so as to truly understand the long-term impacts of ocean acidification.

  4. Ocean Acidification Accelerates the Growth of Two Bloom-Forming Macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig S; Gobler, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    While there is growing interest in understanding how marine life will respond to future ocean acidification, many coastal ecosystems currently experience intense acidification in response to upwelling, eutrophication, or riverine discharge. Such acidification can be inhibitory to calcifying animals, but less is known regarding how non-calcifying macroalgae may respond to elevated CO2. Here, we report on experiments performed during summer through fall with North Atlantic populations of Gracilaria and Ulva that were grown in situ within a mesotrophic estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA) or exposed to normal and elevated, but environmentally realistic, levels of pCO2 and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In nearly all experiments, the growth rates of Gracilaria were significantly increased by an average of 70% beyond in situ and control conditions when exposed to elevated levels of pCO2 (p<0.05), but were unaffected by nutrient enrichment. In contrast, the growth response of Ulva was more complex as this alga experienced significantly (p<0.05) increased growth rates in response to both elevated pCO2 and elevated nutrients and, in two cases, pCO2 and nutrients interacted to provide a synergistically enhanced growth rate for Ulva. Across all experiments, elevated pCO2 significantly increased Ulva growth rates by 30% (p<0.05), while the response to nutrients was smaller (p>0.05). The δ13C content of both Gracilaria and Ulva decreased two-to-three fold when grown under elevated pCO2 (p<0.001) and mixing models demonstrated these macroalgae experienced a physiological shift from near exclusive use of HCO3- to primarily CO2 use when exposed to elevated pCO2. This shift in carbon use coupled with significantly increased growth in response to elevated pCO2 suggests that photosynthesis of these algae was limited by their inorganic carbon supply. Given that eutrophication can yield elevated levels of pCO2, this study suggests that the overgrowth of macroalgae in eutrophic

  5. Ocean Acidification Accelerates the Growth of Two Bloom-Forming Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Young, Craig S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    While there is growing interest in understanding how marine life will respond to future ocean acidification, many coastal ecosystems currently experience intense acidification in response to upwelling, eutrophication, or riverine discharge. Such acidification can be inhibitory to calcifying animals, but less is known regarding how non-calcifying macroalgae may respond to elevated CO2. Here, we report on experiments performed during summer through fall with North Atlantic populations of Gracilaria and Ulva that were grown in situ within a mesotrophic estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA) or exposed to normal and elevated, but environmentally realistic, levels of pCO2 and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In nearly all experiments, the growth rates of Gracilaria were significantly increased by an average of 70% beyond in situ and control conditions when exposed to elevated levels of pCO2 (p<0.05), but were unaffected by nutrient enrichment. In contrast, the growth response of Ulva was more complex as this alga experienced significantly (p<0.05) increased growth rates in response to both elevated pCO2 and elevated nutrients and, in two cases, pCO2 and nutrients interacted to provide a synergistically enhanced growth rate for Ulva. Across all experiments, elevated pCO2 significantly increased Ulva growth rates by 30% (p<0.05), while the response to nutrients was smaller (p>0.05). The δ13C content of both Gracilaria and Ulva decreased two-to-three fold when grown under elevated pCO2 (p<0.001) and mixing models demonstrated these macroalgae experienced a physiological shift from near exclusive use of HCO3- to primarily CO2 use when exposed to elevated pCO2. This shift in carbon use coupled with significantly increased growth in response to elevated pCO2 suggests that photosynthesis of these algae was limited by their inorganic carbon supply. Given that eutrophication can yield elevated levels of pCO2, this study suggests that the overgrowth of macroalgae in eutrophic

  6. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  7. Sensitivities of extant animal taxa to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Astrid C.; Pörtner, Hans-O.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans, causing a progressive increase in ocean inorganic carbon concentrations and resulting in decreased water pH and calcium carbonate saturation. This phenomenon, called ocean acidification, is in addition to the warming effects of CO2 emissions. Ocean acidification has been reported to affect ocean biota, but the severity of this threat to ocean ecosystems (and humans depending on these ecosystems) is poorly understood. Here we evaluate the scale of this threat in the context of widely used representative concentration pathways (RCPs) by analysing the sensitivities of five animal taxa (corals, echinoderms, molluscs, crustaceans and fishes) to a wide range of CO2 concentrations. Corals, echinoderms and molluscs are more sensitive to RCP8.5 (936 ppm in 2100) than are crustaceans. Larval fishes may be even more sensitive than the lower invertebrates, but taxon sensitivity on evolutionary timescales remains obscure. The variety of responses within and between taxa, together with observations in mesocosms and palaeo-analogues, suggest that ocean acidification is a driver for substantial change in ocean ecosystems this century, potentially leading to long-term shifts in species composition.

  8. Risk maps for Antarctic krill under projected Southern Ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Ishida, A.; King, R.; Raymond, B.; Waller, N.; Constable, A.; Nicol, S.; Wakita, M.; Ishimatsu, A.

    2013-09-01

    Marine ecosystems of the Southern Ocean are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; hereafter krill) is the key pelagic species of the region and its largest fishery resource. There is therefore concern about the combined effects of climate change, ocean acidification and an expanding fishery on krill and ultimately, their dependent predators--whales, seals and penguins. However, little is known about the sensitivity of krill to ocean acidification. Juvenile and adult krill are already exposed to variable seawater carbonate chemistry because they occupy a range of habitats and migrate both vertically and horizontally on a daily and seasonal basis. Moreover, krill eggs sink from the surface to hatch at 700-1,000m (ref. ), where the carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in sea water is already greater than it is in the atmosphere. Krill eggs sink passively and so cannot avoid these conditions. Here we describe the sensitivity of krill egg hatch rates to increased CO2, and present a circumpolar risk map of krill hatching success under projected pCO2 levels. We find that important krill habitats of the Weddell Sea and the Haakon VII Sea to the east are likely to become high-risk areas for krill recruitment within a century. Furthermore, unless CO2 emissions are mitigated, the Southern Ocean krill population could collapse by 2300 with dire consequences for the entire ecosystem.

  9. U.S. ocean acidification researchers: First national meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Kleypas, Joan; Benway, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program Ocean Acidification Principal Investigators' Meeting; Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 22-24 March 2011 ; Ocean acidification (OA) is the progressive decrease in seawater pH and change in inorganic carbon chemistry caused by uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). Marine species respond to OA in multiple ways that could profoundly alter ocean ecosystems and the goods and services they provide to human communities. With major support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and additional support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Naval Postgraduate School, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Project Office and Ocean Acidification Subcommittee (http://www.us-ocb.org/about/subcommittees.html) held the first multidisciplinary workshop for U.S. OA researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The 112 attendees included ecologists, paleoceanographers, instrumentation specialists, chemists, biologists, economists, ocean and ecosystem modelers, and communications specialists.

  10. Differential response to ocean acidification in physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardies, Marco A.; Arias, María Belén; Poupin, María Josefina; Manríquez, Patricio H.; Torres, Rodrigo; Vargas, Cristian A.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Lagos, Nelson A.

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic adaptation to environmental fluctuations frequently occurs by preexisting plasticity and its role as a major component of variation in physiological diversity is being widely recognized. Few studies have considered the change in phenotypic flexibility among geographic populations in marine calcifiers to ocean acidification projections, despite the fact that this type of study provides understanding about how the organism may respond to this chemical change in the ocean. We examined the geographic variation in CO2 seawater concentrations in the phenotype and in the reaction norm of physiological traits using a laboratory mesocosm approach with short-term acclimation in two contrasting populations (Antofagasta and Calfuco) of the intertidal snail Concholepas concholepas. Our results show that elevated pCO2 conditions increase standard metabolic rates in both populations of the snail juveniles, likely due to the higher energy cost of homeostasis. Juveniles of C. concholepas in the Calfuco (southern) population showed a lower increment of metabolic rate in high-pCO2 environments concordant with a lesser gene expression of a heat shock protein with respect to the Antofagasta (northern) population. Combined these results indicate a negative effect of ocean acidification on whole-organism functioning of C. concholepas. Finally, the significant Population × pCO2 level interaction in both studied traits indicates that there is variation between populations in response to high-pCO2 conditions.

  11. Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, M; Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Tambutté, S; Allemand, D; Trotter, J; McCulloch, M

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification. PMID:24903088

  12. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Junying

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  13. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  14. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  15. How much acidification has occurred in Adirondack region lakes (New York, USA) since preindustrial times

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, B.F.; Smol, J.P.; Kingston, J.C.; Charles, D.F.; Birks, H.J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Preindustrial and present-day lake water pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), total monomeric aluminum Al(sub m), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were inferred from the species composition of diatom and chrysophyte microfossils in the tops (present-day inferences) and bottoms (pre-1850 inferences) of sediment cores collected from a statistically selected set of Adirondack lakes. Results from the study lakes were extrapolated to a predefined target population of 675 low-alkalinity Adirondack region lakes. Estimates of preindustrial to present-day changes in lake water chemistry show that approximately 25-35% of the target population has acidified. The magnitude of acidification was greatest in the low-alkalinity lakes of the southwestern Adirondacks, an area with little geological ability to neutralize acidic deposition and receives the highest annual average rainfall in the region. The authors estimate that approximately 80% of the target population lakes with present-day measured pH = or < 5.2 and 30-45% of lakes with pH between 5.2 and 6.0 have undergone large declines in pH and ANC, and concomitant increases in Al(sub m). Estimated changes in (DOC) were small and show no consistent pattern in the acidified lakes. The study provides the first statistically based regional evaluation of the extent of lake acidification in the Adirondacks.

  16. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The potential effects of high CO2 and associated ocean acidification (OA) in marine fishes and other non-calcified organisms are less well understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of early life stages (ELS) of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to a series of experimental manipulation of CO2 levels. Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and pH 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, or heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in the pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in the control treatment. There is no significant difference between the left and right otolith areas in each treatment. However, the average otolith area of larvae in the pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control. Such alterations in the developmental abnormalities and otolith size of marine medaka larvae due to elevated-CO2 levels suggests that this species will be increasingly challenged by future OA. Further studies of the impacts of OA on marine fish to assess whether or not the environmental influence in one generation can affect the later life history and the phenotype of subsequent generations are needed.

  17. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:23437650

  18. Effects of ocean acidification on immune responses of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Cao, Ruiwen; Ning, Xuanxuan; You, Liping; Mu, Changkao; Wang, Chunlin; Wei, Lei; Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Zhao, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), caused by anthropogenic CO2emissions, has been proposed as one of the greatest threats in marine ecosystems. A growing body of evidence shows that ocean acidification can impact development, survival, growth and physiology of marine calcifiers. In this study, the immune responses of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated after elevated pCO2 exposure for 28 days. The results demonstrated that OA caused an increase of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes. Moreover, elevated pCO2 had an inhibitory effect on some antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased the GSH level in digestive gland. However, the mRNA expression pattern of several immune related genes varied depending on the exposure time and tissues. After exposure to pCO2 at ∼2000 ppm for 28 days, the mRNA expressions of almost all tested genes were significantly suppressed in gills and stimulated in hemocytes. Above all, our study demonstrated that elevated pCO2 have a significant impact on the immune systems of the Pacific oyster, which may constitute as a potential threat to increased susceptibility of bivalves to diseases. PMID:26706224

  19. Evaluation the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen waste by pH regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaya; Zang, Bing; Li, Guoxue; Liu, Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the composition and characteristic of kitchen waste (KW) from closed cleaning station of Chaoyang District, Beijing. It was featured by high vegetables and peels contents. This study investigated effect of pH regulation and uncontrolled pH (CK) on the lab-scale anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of KW. The optimal adjusting mode by NaOH (including dosage and frequency) was evaluated according to indexes of pH, VFAs, NH4(+)-N, TS, VS, TS/VS, TS and VS removal rate. The treatment 4 as first two days adjusting per 16h and then one time per day at pH 7 was chosen as the optimal mode with high VFAs content(47.31g/L), TS and VS removal rate (42.95% and 54.01%, respectively), low adjusting frequency, fewer dosage and practical operability. Thus, adjusting mode of treatment 4 could be considered using in anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage on engineering. PMID:27156363

  20. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  1. Addition of 2-deoxyglucose enhances growth inhibition but reverses acidification in colon cancer cells treated with phenformin.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael A; Chacko, Jerel; Bolikal, Sandhya; Hong, Ji Y; Chung, Ryan; Ortega, Andres; desbordes, Charles

    2011-02-01

    A report that effects of butyrate on some cells may be mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) prompted this study which examines if other AMPK activators can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of colon cancer cells in a manner similar to butyrate. Using induction of alkaline phosphatase as a marker, it was observed that compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, is able to reduce the differentiating effect of butyrate on SW1116 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. Metformin was observed to be less effective than butyrate in the induction of alkaline phosphatase but was more effective as a growth inhibitor. Phenformin was found to be a more potent growth inhibitor than metformin and both compounds cause acidification of the medium when incubated with colon cancer cells. Combined incubation of 2-deoxyglucose with either of the biguanides prevented the acidification of the medium but enhanced the growth inhibitory effects. PMID:21378320

  2. Coping with seawater acidification and the emerging contaminant diclofenac at the larval stage: A tale from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Munari, Marco; Chemello, Giulia; Finos, Livio; Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Marin, Maria G

    2016-10-01

    Seawater acidification could alter the susceptibility of marine organisms to emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals. In this study, the combined effects of seawater acidification and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac on survival, growth and oxidative stress-related parameters (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) in the larvae of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated for the first time. An experimental flow-through system was set up to carry out a 96-h exposure of clam larvae. Two pH levels (pH 8.0, the control, and pH 7.8, the predicted pH by the end of this century) were tested with and without diclofenac (0.5 μg/L). After 4 days, mortality was dramatically higher under reduced pH, particularly in the presence of diclofenac (62% of the larvae dead). Shell morphology was negatively affected by both acidification and diclofenac from the first day of exposure. The percentage of abnormal larvae was always higher at pH 7.8 than in controls, peaking at 98% in the presence of diclofenac after 96 h. Instead, shell length, shell height or the ratio of these values were only negatively influenced by reduced pH throughout the whole experiment. After 96 h, catalase activity was significantly increased in all larvae kept at pH 7.8, whereas no significant difference in lipid peroxidation was found among the treatments. This study demonstrates a high susceptibility of R. philippinarum larvae to a slight reduction in seawater pH. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight that acidification enhances the sensitivity of clam larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of diclofenac. PMID:27391052

  3. Extracellular Acidification Acts as a Key Modulator of Neutrophil Apoptosis and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shannan; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Haiyan; Gong, Haiyan; Yao, Jianfeng; Sun, Yawei; Geng, Guangfeng; Wang, Tong; Feng, Sizhou; Han, Mingzhe; Zhou, Jiaxi; Xu, Yuanfu

    2015-01-01

    In human pathological conditions, the acidification of local environment is a frequent feature, such as tumor and inflammation. As the pH of microenvironment alters, the functions of immune cells are about to change. It makes the extracellular acidification a key modulator of innate immunity. Here we detected the impact of extracellular acidification on neutrophil apoptosis and functions, including cell death, respiratory burst, migration and phagocytosis. As a result, we found that under the acid environment, neutrophil apoptosis delayed, respiratory burst inhibited, polarization augmented, chemotaxis differed, endocytosis enhanced and bacteria killing suppressed. These findings suggested that extracellular acidification acts as a key regulator of neutrophil apoptosis and functions. PMID:26340269

  4. Trajectories of zooplankton recovery in the Little Rock Lake whole-lake acidification experiment.

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas M; Fischer, Janet M; Klug, Jennifer L; Arnott, Shelley E; Montz, Pamela K

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the factors that affect biological recovery from environmental stressors such as acidification is an important challenge in ecology. Here we report on zooplankton community recovery following the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, USA. One decade following cessation of acid additions to the northern basin of Little Rock Lake (LRL), recovery of the zooplankton community was complete. Approximately 40% of zooplankton species in the lake exhibited a recovery lag in which biological recovery to reference basin levels was delayed by 1-6 yr after pH recovered to the level at which the species originally responded. Delays in recovery such as those we observed in LRL may be attributable to "biological resistance" wherein establishment of viable populations of key acid-sensitive species following water quality improvements is prevented by other components of the community that thrived during acidification. Indeed, we observed that the recovery of species that thrived during acidification tended to precede recovery of species that declined during acidification. In addition, correspondence analysis indicated that the zooplankton community followed different pathways during acidification and recovery, suggesting that there is substantial hysteresis in zooplankton recovery from acidification. By providing an example of a relatively rapid recovery from short-term acidification, zooplankton community recovery from experimental acidification in LRL generally reinforces the positive outlook for recovery reported for other acidified lakes. PMID:16705985

  5. Variability of the carbonate chemistry in a shallow, seagrass-dominated ecosystem: implications for ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Challener, Roberta; Robbins, Lisa L.; Mcclintock, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Open ocean observations have shown that increasing levels of anthropogenically derived atmospheric CO2 are causing acidification of the world's oceans. Yet little is known about coastal acidification and studies are just beginning to characterise the carbonate chemistry of shallow, nearshore zones where many ecologically and economically important organisms occur. We characterised the carbonate chemistry of seawater within an area dominated by seagrass beds (Saint Joseph Bay, Florida) to determine the extent of variation in pH and pCO2 over monthly and daily timescales. Distinct diel and seasonal fluctuations were observed at daily and monthly timescales respectively, indicating the influence of photosynthetic and respiratory processes on the local carbonate chemistry. Over the course of a year, the range in monthly values of pH (7.36-8.28), aragonite saturation state (0.65-5.63), and calculated pCO2 (195-2537 μatm) were significant. When sampled on a daily basis the range in pH (7.70-8.06), aragonite saturation state (1.86-3.85), and calculated pCO2 (379-1019 μatm) also exhibited significant range and indicated variation between timescales. The results of this study have significant implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments where nearshore species are utilised and indicate that coastal species are experiencing far greater fluctuations in carbonate chemistry than previously thought.

  6. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  7. Availability of Amino Acids Extends Chronological Lifespan by Suppressing Hyper-Acidification of the Environment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the duration of cell survival in the postdiauxic and stationary phases. Using a prototrophic strain derived from the standard auxotrophic laboratory strain BY4742, we showed that supplementation of non-essential amino acids to a synthetic defined (SD) medium increases maximal cell growth and extends the chronological lifespan. The positive effects of amino acids can be reproduced by modulating the medium pH, indicating that amino acids contribute to chronological longevity in a cell-extrinsic manner by alleviating medium acidification. In addition, we showed that the amino acid-mediated effects on extension of chronological longevity are independent of those achieved through a reduction in the TORC1 pathway, which is mediated in a cell-intrinsic manner. Since previous studies showed that extracellular acidification causes mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to cell death, our results provide a path to premature chronological aging caused by differences in available nitrogen sources. Moreover, acidification of culture medium is generally associated with culture duration and cell density; thus, further studies are required on cell physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains during the stationary phase because an insufficient supply of essential amino acids may cause alterations in environmental conditions. PMID:26991662

  8. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  9. Effects of stream acidification and habitat on fish populations of a North American river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    Water quality, physical habitat, and fisheries at sixteen reaches in the Neversink River Basin were studied during 1991-95 to identify the effects of acidic precipitation on stream-water chemistry and on selected fish-species populations, and to test the hypothesis that the degree of stream acidification affected the spatial distribution of each fish-species population. Most sites on the East Branch Neversink were strongly to severely acidified, whereas most sites on the West Branch were minimally to moderately acidified. Mean density of fish populations ranged from 0 to 2.15 fish/m2; biomass ranged from 0 to 17.5 g/m2. Where brook trout were present, their population density ranged from 0.04 to 1.09 fish/m2, biomass ranged from 0.76 to 12.2 g/m2, and condition (K) ranged from 0.94 to 1.07. Regression analyses revealed strong relations (r2 ?? 0.41 to 0.99; p ??? 0.05) between characteristics of the two most common species (brook trout and slimy sculpin) populations and mean concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), pH, Si, K+, NO3/-, NH4/+, DOC, Ca2+, and Na+; acid neutralizing capacity (ANC); and water temperature. Stream acidification may have adversely affected fish populations at most East Branch sites, but in other parts of the Neversink River Basin these effects were masked or mitigated by other physical habitat, geochemical, and biological factors.

  10. Calcification of a common Caribbean coral under extreme conditions of natural acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, E. D.; Cohen, A. L.; Hernandez-Terrones, L.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Paytan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are currently threatened by anthropogenic loading of CO2 to the atmosphere and global surface oceans. Model predictions and laboratory experiments indicate that as the pH of the oceans drops, the ability of calcifying corals to build their carbonate skeletons will be significantly reduced. Here, we investigate coral calcification under extreme conditions of natural ocean acidification in a reef lagoon at Puerto Morelos, Mexico. The lagoon experiences highly localized drops in pH (6.8 to 7.6) and its close proximity to organisms living under ambient conditions provides a unique opportunity to study the impacts of ocean acidification on calcification. 3D CT scanning and image analysis were used to precisely measure the linear extension, density, and calcification of 14 Porites astreoides cores. Importantly, corals are still able to calcify under extreme (undersaturated) conditions, and normal rates of linear extension are maintained. However, the total amount of calcium carbonate produced by the corals declines with decreasing aragonite saturation state. Thus, while linear extension does not significantly vary, skeletal density declines by approximately 34%, resulting in an approximate calcification decrease of 38%. As a result, skeletons accreted under acidic conditions are fragile and more prone to breakage and boring by sponges and bivalve mollusks. We address the importance of these implications for the integrity of coral colonies and reefs as a whole.

  11. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J T; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M; Monette, M Y; Hawkes, J P; Nislow, K H; McCormick, S D

    2015-11-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region. PMID:26399385

  12. Disentangling who is who during rhizosphere acidification in root interactions: combining fluorescence with optode techniques.

    PubMed

    Faget, Marc; Blossfeld, Stephan; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Schurr, Ulrich; Temperton, Vicky M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil interactions can strongly influence root growth in plants. There is now increasing evidence that root-root interactions can also influence root growth, affecting architecture and root traits such as lateral root formation. Both when species grow alone or in interaction with others, root systems are in turn affected by as well as affect rhizosphere pH. Changes in soil pH have knock-on effects on nutrient availability. A limitation until recently has been the inability to assign species identity to different roots in soil. Combining the planar optode technique with fluorescent plants enables us to distinguish between plant species grown in natural soil and in parallel study pH dynamics in a non-invasive way at the same region of interest (ROI). We measured pH in the rhizosphere of maize and bean in rhizotrons in a climate chamber, with ROIs on roots in proximity to the roots of the other species as well as not-close to the other species. We found clear dynamic changes of pH over time and differences between the two species in rhizosphere acidification. Interestingly, when roots of the two species were interacting, the degree of acidification or alkalization compared to bulk soil was less strong then when roots were not growing in the vicinity of the other species. This cutting-edge approach can help provide a better understanding of plant-plant and plant-soil interactions. PMID:24137168

  13. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. PMID:25694619

  14. Mountain lakes of Russian subarctic as markers of air pollution: Acidification, metals and paleoecology

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, T.I.; Dauvalter, V.A.; Kagan, L.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Kola Peninsula mountain lakes reflect a real situation not only of the local air pollution but also polluted transborder emissions from Europe to Arctic and they are of interest for early detection and monitoring for acidification and pollution by heavy metals. Two monitoring mountain lakes had a discrepancy by their resistance to acidification: the Chuna lake is vulnerable and the Chibiny one is not, respectively. Despite the Chuna and Chibiny lakes are close tone of the main heavy metal pollution sources of the Kola Peninsula - smelters of the Severonickel Company, local emissions very slightly affect the mountain lakes, because heavily polluted air masses do not rise in altitude. Sulfur deposition on the Chuna lake catchment is 0.4 gSm{sup -2}, Chibiny lake is 0.6 gSm{sup -2}. In comparison with area at the foot of the mountain (less than 200 m above the sea level) sulfur deposition is 1.0-1.5 gSm{sup -2}. Water quality, sediment chemistry, and diatoms in sediment cores were studied.

  15. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  16. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: Effects on fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, J.P.; Van Sickle, J.; Gagen, C.J.; DeWalle, David R.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Bath, D.W.; Kretser, W.A.; Simonin, H.A.; Wigington, P.J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Episodic Response Project (ERP), we studied the effects of episodic acidification on fish in 13 small streams in the northeastern United States: four streams in the Adirondack region of New York, four streams in the Catskills, New York, and five streams in the northern Appalachian Plateau, Pennsylvania. In situ bioassays with brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and a forage fish species (blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus], mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), or slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), depending on the region) measured direct toxicity. Movements of individual brook trout, in relation to stream chemistry, were monitored using radiotelemetry. Electrofishing surveys assessed fish community status and the density and biomass of brook trout in each stream. During low flow, all streams except one had chemical conditions considered suitable for the survival and reproduction of most fish species (median pH 6.0-7.2 during low flow; inorganic Al 100-200 ??g/L. We conclude that episodic acidification can have long-term effects on fish communities in small streams.

  17. Acidification and recovery of a Spodosol BS horizon from acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.; McAvoy, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. A mechanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40, 100, or 160 micromol/L SO4(2-). Following 44 d of leaching, all treatments were decreased to the 40 micromol/L SO4(2-) level to examine recovery from acidification. Acidic additions were initially neutralized by release of basic cations and sulfate adsorption. Following attainment of steady state conditions for basic cations and SO4(2-) with respect to the soil adsorption complex, Al dissolution was the primary neutralization mechanism. Aqueous Al activities appeared to be regulated by equilibrium with an Al(OH)3 mineral phase. Following decreases in acid loadings, recovery was rapid resulting in retention of basic cations, reversible release of SO4(2-) and a marked reduction in the concentrations of soluble Al.

  18. Acidification and recovery of a spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.; McAvoy, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T. )

    1990-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine acidification and recovery of a Spodosol Bs horizon from acidic deposition in the Bear Brook Watershed (BBW) in central Maine. A mechanical vacuum extractor was used to draw solutions through a soil column at three treatments containing 40, 100, or 160 {mu}mol/L SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Following 44 days of leaching, all treatments were decreased to the 40 {mu}mol/L SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} level to examine recovery from acidification. Acid additions were initially neutralized by release of basic cations and sulfate adsorption. Following attainment of steady-state conditions for basic cations and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} with respect to the soil adsorption complex, Al dissolution was the primary neutralization mechanism. Aqueous Al activities appeared to be regulated by equilibrium with an Al(OH){sub 3} mineral phase. Following decreases in acid loadings, recovery was rapid resulting in retention of basic cations, reversible release of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, and a marked reduction in the concentrations of soluble Al.

  19. Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Marco; Cattano, Carlo; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Foggo, Andrew; Gristina, Michele; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Sinopoli, Mauro; Spatafora, Davide; Stiver, Kelly A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2016-07-27

    Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ between sites with ambient versus elevated CO2 concentrations. Dominant males did, however, experience significantly lower rates of pair spawning at elevated CO2 levels. Despite the higher risk of sperm competition found at elevated CO2, we also found a trend of lower satellite and sneaker male paternity at elevated CO2 Given the importance of fish for food security and ecosystem stability, this study highlights the need for targeted research into the effects of rising CO2 levels on patterns of reproduction in wild fish. PMID:27466451

  20. Glycoprotein-Dependent Acidification of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Enhances Release of Matrix Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Mire, Chad E.; Dube, Derek; Delos, Sue E.; White, Judith M.; Whitt, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    To study vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) entry and uncoating, we generated a recombinant VSV encoding a matrix (M) protein containing a C-terminal tetracysteine Lumio tag (rVSV-ML) that could be fluorescently labeled using biarsenical compounds. Quantitative confocal microscopy showed that there is a transient loss of fluorescence at early times after the initiation of endocytosis of rVSV-ML-Green (rVSV-MLG) virions, which did not occur when cells were treated with bafilomycin A1. The reduction in fluorescence occurred 5 to 10 min postentry, followed by a steady increase in fluorescence intensity from 15 to 60 min postentry. A similar loss of fluorescence was observed in vitro when virions were exposed to acidic pH. The reduction in fluorescence required G protein since “bald” ΔG-MLG particles did not show a similar loss of fluorescence at low pH. Based on the pH-dependent fluorescence properties of Lumio Green, we hypothesize that the loss of fluorescence of rVSV-MLG virions during virus entry is due to a G ectodomain-dependent acidification of the virion interior. Biochemical analysis indicated that low pH also resulted in an enhancement of M protein dissociation from partially permeabilized, but otherwise intact, wild-type virions. From these data we propose that low-pH conformational changes in G protein promote acidification of the virus interior, which facilitates the release of M from ribonucleoprotein particles during uncoating. PMID:19776119

  1. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of elevated CO2 level and reduced carbonate saturation state in marine environment on fishes and other non-calcified organisms are still poorly known. In present study, we investigated the effects of ocean acidification on embryogenesis and organogenesis of newly hatched larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after 21 d exposure of eggs to different artificially acidified seawater (pH 7.6 and 7.2, respectively), and compared with those in control group (pH 8.2). Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, and heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in control treatment. The left and right sagitta areas did not differ significantly from each other in each treatment. However, the mean sagitta area of larvae in pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control (p = 0.024). These results suggest that although marine medaka might be more tolerant of elevated CO2 than some other fishes, the effect of elevated CO2 level on the calcification of otolith is likely to be the most susceptibly physiological process of pH regulation in early life stage of marine medaka.

  2. Technical Note: Maximising accuracy and minimising cost of a potentiometrically regulated ocean acidification simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. D.; Doyle, H. L.; Currie, K. I.

    2014-05-01

    This article describes a potentiometric ocean acidification simulation system which automatically regulates pH through the injection of 100% CO2 gas into temperature-controlled seawater. The system is ideally suited to long-term experimental studies of the effect of acidification on biological processes involving small-bodied (10-20 mm) calcifying or non-calcifying organisms. Using hobbyist grade equipment, the system was constructed for approximately USD 1200 per treatment unit (tank, pH regulation apparatus, chiller, pump/filter unit). An overall accuracy of ±0.05 pHT units (SD) was achieved over 90 days in two acidified treatments (7.60 and 7.40) at 12 °C using glass electrodes calibrated with salt water buffers, thereby preventing liquid junction error. The accuracy of the system was validated through the independent calculation of pHT (12 °C) using dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT) data taken from discrete acidified seawater samples. The system was used to compare the shell growth of the marine gastropod Zeacumantus subcarinatus infected with the trematode parasite Maritrema novaezealandensis with that of uninfected snails, at pH levels of 7.4, 7.6, and 8.1.

  3. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phil; Capone, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids. PMID:23751119

  4. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  5. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, P.S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  6. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. PMID:25694619

  7. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  8. Technical Note: Maximising accuracy and minimising cost of a potentiometrically regulated ocean acidification simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. D.; Doyle, H. L.; Currie, K. I.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes a potentiometric ocean acidification simulation system which automatically regulates pH through the injection of 100% CO2 gas into temperature-controlled seawater. The system is ideally suited to long-term experimental studies of the effect of acidification on biological processes involving small-bodied (10-20 mm) calcifying or non-calcifying organisms. Using hobbyist-grade equipment, the system was constructed for approximately USD 1200 per treatment unit (tank, pH regulation apparatus, chiller, pump/filter unit). An overall tolerance of ±0.05 pHT units (SD) was achieved over 90 days in two acidified treatments (7.60 and 7.40) at 12 °C using glass electrodes calibrated with synthetic seawater buffers, thereby preventing liquid junction error. The performance of the system was validated through the independent calculation of pHT (12 °C) using dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity data taken from discrete acidified seawater samples. The system was used to compare the shell growth of the marine gastropod Zeacumantus subcarinatus infected with the trematode parasite Maritrema novaezealandensis with that of uninfected snails at pH levels of 7.4, 7.6, and 8.1.

  9. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronan, C.S.; Aiken, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 ??eq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon. ?? 1985.

  10. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronan, Christopher S.; Aiken, George R.

    1985-08-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 μeq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon.

  11. Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

  12. A Water Framework Directive-compatible metric for assessing acidification in UK and Irish rivers using diatoms.

    PubMed

    Juggins, Steve; Kelly, Martyn; Allott, Tim; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Monteith, Don

    2016-10-15

    Freshwater acidification continues to be a major problem affecting large areas of Europe, and while there is evidence for chemical recovery, similar evidence for biological recovery of freshwaters is sparse. The need for a methodology to identify waterbodies impacted acidification and to assess the extent of biological recovery is relevant to the EU Water Framework Directive, which requires methods to quantify differences in biology between impacted and unimpacted or reference sites. This study presents a new WFD-compliant metric based on diatoms (Diatom Acidification Metric: DAM) for assessing the acidification status of rivers. A database of 558 benthic diatom samples and associated water chemistry data was assembled. Diatom taxa were assigned to one of 5 indicator classes on the basis of their pH optimum, assessed using Gaussian logistic regression, and these indicator values used to calculate a DAM score for each site using weighted averaging. Reference sites were selected on the basis of their acid neutralising capacity (ANC) and calcium concentration, and a regression model developed to predict expected DAM for each site using pH and total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. Site-specific DAM scores were used to calculate ecological quality ratios ranging from ≥1, where the diatom assemblage showed no impact, to (theoretically) 0, when the diatom assemblage was indicative of major anthropogenic activities. The boundary between 'high' and 'good' status was defined as the 25th percentile of Ecological Quality Ratios (EQRs) of all reference sites. The boundary between 'good' and 'moderate' status was set at the point at which nutrient-sensitive and nutrient-tolerant taxa were present in equal relative abundance. The methodology was evaluated using long-term data from 11 sites from the UK Uplands Waters Monitoring Network and is shown to perform well in discriminating naturally acid from acidified sites. PMID:26970666

  13. Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Perturbs Acquisition of Lysosomal Enzymes and Requires Phagosomal Acidification for Survival inside Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tranchemontagne, Zachary R.; Camire, Ryan B.; O'Donnell, Vanessa J.; Baugh, Jessfor

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes invasive, drug-resistant skin and soft tissue infections. Reports that S. aureus bacteria survive inside macrophages suggest that the intramacrophage environment may be a niche for persistent infection; however, mechanisms by which the bacteria might evade macrophage phagosomal defenses are unclear. We examined the fate of the S. aureus-containing phagosome in THP-1 macrophages by evaluating bacterial intracellular survival and phagosomal acidification and maturation and by testing the impact of phagosomal conditions on bacterial viability. Multiple strains of S. aureus survived inside macrophages, and in studies using the MRSA USA300 clone, the USA300-containing phagosome acidified rapidly and acquired the late endosome and lysosome protein LAMP1. However, fewer phagosomes containing live USA300 bacteria than those containing dead bacteria associated with the lysosomal hydrolases cathepsin D and β-glucuronidase. Inhibiting lysosomal hydrolase activity had no impact on intracellular survival of USA300 or other S. aureus strains, suggesting that S. aureus perturbs acquisition of lysosomal enzymes. We examined the impact of acidification on S. aureus intramacrophage viability and found that inhibitors of phagosomal acidification significantly impaired USA300 intracellular survival. Inhibition of macrophage phagosomal acidification resulted in a 30-fold reduction in USA300 expression of the staphylococcal virulence regulator agr but had little effect on expression of sarA, saeR, or sigB. Bacterial exposure to acidic pH in vitro increased agr expression. Together, these results suggest that S. aureus survives inside macrophages by perturbing normal phagolysosome formation and that USA300 may sense phagosomal conditions and upregulate expression of a key virulence regulator that enables its intracellular survival. PMID:26502911

  14. ACIDIFICATION TRENDS AND THE EVOLUTION OF NEUTRALIZATION MECHANISMS THROUGH TIME AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE (BBWM), U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paired catchment study at the forested Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) U.S.A. documents interactions among short- to long-term processes of acidification. In 1987-1989, runoff from the two catchments was nearly identical in quality and quantity. Ammonium sulfate has been...

  15. Effects of short-term hypoxia and seawater acidification on hemocyte responses of the mussel Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanming; Kong, Hui; Shang, Yueyong; Huang, Xizhi; Wu, FangLi; Hu, Menghong; Lin, Daohui; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2016-07-15

    Hypoxia often intensifies with rising dissolved CO2, but the concurrent effects of hypoxia and acidification on bivalves are largely unknown. In this study, immune responses of hemocytes in the mussel Mytilus coruscus were examined under six combinations of pH (7.3, 7.7 and 8.1) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (2mgL(-1), 6mgL(-1)) for 72h. Generally, total hemocyte account, phagocytosis, esterase and lysosomal content were reduced under low DO and pH conditions, whereas hemocyte mortality and reactive oxygen species production increased under low DO and pH. Both hypoxia and low pH have negative effects on mussels, but the effects of pH are not as strong as DO. Moreover, significant interactions between DO and pH occurred. However, acidification generally doesn't aggravate the effects induced by hypoxia. Acidification and hypoxia may increase disease risk and impact the aquaculture of this species. PMID:27207025

  16. Acidification of In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process to reduce ammonia volatilization: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Madani-Hosseini, Mahsa; Mulligan, Catherine N; Barrington, Suzelle

    2016-06-01

    In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is an ambient temperature treatment system for wastewaters stored for over 100days under temperate climates, which produces a nitrogen rich digestate susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Present acidification techniques reducing NH3 volatilization are not only expensive and with secondary environmental effects, but do not apply to ISPAD relying on batch-to-batch inoculation. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate sequential organic loading (OL) strategies producing imbalances in acidogen and methanogen growth, acidifying ISPAD content one week before emptying to a pH of 6, while also preserving the inoculation potential. This acidification process is challenging as wastewaters often offer a high buffering capacity and ISPAD operational practices foster low microbial populations. A model simulating the ISPAD pH regime was used to optimize 3 different sequential OLs to decrease the ISPAD pH to 6.0. All 3 strategies were compared in terms of biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, microbial activity, glucose consumption, and pH decrease. Laboratory validation of the model outputs confirmed that a sequential OL of 13kg glucose/m(3) of ISPAD content over 4days could indeed reduce the pH to 6.0. Such OL competes feasibly with present acidification techniques. Nevertheless, more research is required to explain the 3-day lag between the model results and the experimental data. PMID:27060886

  17. V-ATPase-mediated phagosomal acidification is impaired by Streptococcus pyogenes through Mga-regulated surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Pontus; Grinstein, Sergio; Björck, Lars; Tapper, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a significant bacterial pathogen in humans, interferes with the membrane traffic of human neutrophils and survives following phagocytosis. The mechanism(s) behind this property is not known, but in contrast to wild-type bacteria, mutant bacteria lacking virulence factors regulated by the transcriptional regulator Mga, are phagocytosed and killed. In the present work we investigated whether differences in phagosomal acidification may contribute to this difference. Phagosomal pH in neutrophil-differentiated HL-60 cells was studied by fluorescence ratio imaging, and phagosomes containing wild-type S. pyogenes bacteria of the M1 serotype exhibited little or no acidification, whereas Mga mutant bacteria were found in more acidic phagosomes. With phagosomes containing these bacteria, proton delivery was inhibited by adding folimycin, a vacuolar-type adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) inhibitor. This inhibitor had no effect on phagosomes containing wild-type bacteria, indicating either inactivation or removal of V-ATPases by the bacteria. Analysis of isolated bacteria-containing phagosomes confirmed the latter scenario and showed a more efficient delivery of V-ATPases to phagosomes containing Mga mutant bacteria. The results demonstrate that V-ATPase-mediated phagosomal proton delivery is reduced during phagocytosis of wild-type S. pyogenes, leading to impaired acidification, and that surface proteins of the mga regulon are responsible for this effect. PMID:22981599

  18. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguang; He, Maoxian

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH, a process known as "ocean acidification". The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China. We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance, respiration, and excretion rates in these three species. The ammals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control), 7.7, or 7.4. The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P. fucata and at pH 8.1 for C. nobilis and P. viridis. The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P. fucata and P. viridis. In contrast, the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C. nobilis. The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species. The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves. Different species respond differently to seawater acidification. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechamsms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  19. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms

    PubMed Central

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a “business-as-usual” emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m3 each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments. PMID:26601292

  20. The production of freeze-dried immobilized cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and their acidification properties in milk.

    PubMed

    Champagne, C P; Gardner, N J; Soulignac, L; Innocent, J P

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare alginate-immobilized freeze-dried cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and to compare the acidifying activities of these rehydrated cultures with classical free cell liquid inoculants. Streptococcus thermophilus BT1 grew in alginate beads and the population reached 10(10) cfu g(-1) after 6 h incubation. Re-inoculation of the beads in fresh medium with a further 6 h incubation did not improve the biomass level, but extending the incubation at 42 degrees C to 24 h caused significant death. The rehydrated immobilized cell technology (ICT) starter contained 13% free cells. In acidifying activity tests, the ICT culture had a similar acidification curve to that of a classical milk-grown free cell culture, except that it reached lower final pH values. Although the differences between the ICT and liquid cultures were not important, there were significant effects of inoculation level on lag time, maximum acidification rate and on the pH and time at which the acidification rate was at its highest. PMID:10735251

  1. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms.

    PubMed

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a "business-as-usual" emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m(3) each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments. PMID:26601292

  2. Effects on the mobility of metals from acidification caused by possible CO₂ leakage from sub-seabed geological formations.

    PubMed

    de Orte, Manoela Romanó; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Basallote, Maria Dolores; Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Riba, Inmaculada; Delvalls, Angel

    2014-02-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in submarine geological formations has been proposed as a mitigation measure for the prevention of global warming. However, leakage of CO2 to overlying sediments may occur over time, leading to various effects on ecosystems. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed, involving direct release of carbon dioxide into sediment, inside non-pressurized chambers, in order to provide data on the possible effects of CO2 leakage from geological storage sites on the fate of several metals. Marine sediments from three sites with different levels of contamination were sampled and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection. The experiment lasted 10 days and sediment samples were collected at the beginning and end of the experiment and pore water was extracted for metal analysis. The results revealed that mobility of metals from sediment to pore water depends on the site, metal and length of time exposed. Mobilization of the metals Al, Fe, Zn, Co, Pb and Cu increases with acidification, and this response generally increases with time of exposure to CO2 injection. The geochemical model applied suggests that acidification also influences the speciation of metals, transforming metals and metalloids, like As, into species much more toxic to biota. The data obtained from this study will be useful for calculating the potential risk of CCS activities to the marine environment. PMID:24144940

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on learning in coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Maud C O; Manassa, Rachel P; Dixson, Danielle L; Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G; Sih, Andrew; Chivers, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has the potential to cause dramatic changes in marine ecosystems. Larval damselfish exposed to concentrations of CO(2) predicted to occur in the mid- to late-century show maladaptive responses to predator cues. However, there is considerable variation both within and between species in CO(2) effects, whereby some individuals are unaffected at particular CO(2) concentrations while others show maladaptive responses to predator odour. Our goal was to test whether learning via chemical or visual information would be impaired by ocean acidification and ultimately, whether learning can mitigate the effects of ocean acidification by restoring the appropriate responses of prey to predators. Using two highly efficient and widespread mechanisms for predator learning, we compared the behaviour of pre-settlement damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis that were exposed to 440 µatm CO(2) (current day levels) or 850 µatm CO(2), a concentration predicted to occur in the ocean before the end of this century. We found that, regardless of the method of learning, damselfish exposed to elevated CO(2) failed to learn to respond appropriately to a common predator, the dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus. To determine whether the lack of response was due to a failure in learning or rather a short-term shift in trade-offs preventing the fish from displaying overt antipredator responses, we conditioned 440 or 700 µatm-CO(2) fish to learn to recognize a dottyback as a predator using injured conspecific cues, as in Experiment 1. When tested one day post-conditioning, CO(2) exposed fish failed to respond to predator odour. When tested 5 days post-conditioning, CO(2) exposed fish still failed to show an antipredator response to the dottyback odour, despite the fact that both control and CO(2)-treated fish responded to a general risk cue (injured conspecific cues). These results indicate that exposure to CO(2) may alter the cognitive ability of juvenile fish and render learning

  4. Was ocean acidification responsible for history's greatest extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-11-01

    Two hundred fifty million years ago, the world suffered the greatest recorded extinction of all time. More than 90% of marine animals and a majority of terrestrial species disappeared, yet the cause of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) dieoff remains unknown. Various theories abound, with most focusing on rampant Siberian volcanism and its potential consequences: global warming, carbon dioxide poisoning, ocean acidification, or the severe drawdown of oceanic dissolved oxygen levels, also known as anoxia. To narrow the range of possible causes, Montenegro et al. ran climate simulations for PTB using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, a carbon cycle-climate coupled general circulation model.

  5. Is the perceived resiliency of fish larvae to ocean acidification masking more subtle effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2s (400 and 750 μatm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. These results suggest that D. labrax larvae are resilient to near-future oceanic conditions. However, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 750 μatm pCO2 were significantly heavier and exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and 400 μatm. Most other studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. We propose the durations of these other studies may be insufficient for more subtle effects, such as those observed in this study, to become apparent. These findings may have important implications for both sea bass in a changing ocean and also for the interpretation of results from other studies that have shown resiliency in marine teleosts exposed to higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  6. Cruise-based Multi-factorial Investigation of the Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Pelagic Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. R.; Tyrell, T.

    2012-12-01

    The pelagic ecosystem is a critical component of the earth's biosphere and biogeochemistry. It is also, however, a complex and in many respects poorly understood system. In consequence predicting the likely impact of ocean acidification on the pelagic realm is problematic and predicting the possible secondary biogeochemical effects of these impacts is "challenging". Nonetheless there is a major societal need to predict these impacts and outcomes. Within the UK Ocean Acidification Programme our consortium is tasked with "improving the understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on surface ocean biology, community structure, biogeochemistry and on feedbacks to the climate." To ensure complimentarity with other programmes we have adopted a cruise-based approach. Two cruises have been undertaken; Cruise D366 in summer 2011 around the north west european shelf and Cruise JR271 summer 2012 to the Arctic Ocean. A final cruise, to the Antarctic will be undertaken in January/February 2013. On each cruise we are combining extensive environmental observations, with deck-board incubation experiments. The environmental observations are being made with both continuous sampling techniques and CTD sampling. The cruise tracks have been designed to cross environmental gradients in ocean chemistry and especially in carbonate chemistry. The objective here is to produce a high quality matrix of multiple environmental parameters including fully characterised carbonate chemistry (pH, CO2, DIC and alkalinity are all measured), nutrient chemistry, trace elements, climatically active gases, and TEP, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and biocalcification. The biocalcification studies include microfabric study of pteropods, in situ calcification rates and integrated morphometric and assemblage composition analysis of coccolithophores. The incubation experiments are being conducted using a dedicated culture facility constructed in a shipping-container lab. This allows large

  7. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Liffe Cycle and Fitness of Opossum Shrimp Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known se...

  8. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Life Cycle and fitness of Opossum Shrimp Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known ph...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms and Regulation of Urinary Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    The H+ concentration in human blood is kept within very narrow limits, ~ 40 nM, despite the fact that dietary metabolism generates acid and base loads that are added to the systemic circulation throughout the life of mammals. One of the primary functions of the kidney is to maintain the constancy of systemic acid-base chemistry. The kidney has evolved the capacity to regulate blood acidity by performing three key functions: 1) reabsorb HCO3− that is filtered through the glomeruli to prevent its excretion in the urine; 2) generate a sufficient quantity of new HCO3− to compensate for the loss of HCO3− resulting from dietary metabolic H+ loads and loss of HCO3− in the urea cycle; and 3) excrete HCO3− (or metabolizable organic anions) following a systemic base load. The ability of the kidney to perform these functions requires that various cell types throughout the nephron respond to changes in acid-base chemistry by modulating specific ion transport and/or metabolic processes in a coordinated fashion such that the urine and renal vein chemistry is altered appropriately. The purpose of the article is to provide the interested reader with a broad review of a field that began historically ~ 60 years ago with whole animal studies, and has evolved to where we are currently addressing questions related to kidney acid-base regulation at the single protein structure/function level. PMID:25428859

  10. Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Kimmaree M.; Castillo, Karl D.; Armstrong, Pualani; Westfield, Isaac T.; Courtney, Travis; Ries, Justin B.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to rise from 400 to 900 ppm by year 2100, causing seawater temperature to increase by 1–4 °C and pH to decrease by 0.1–0.3. Sixty-day experiments were conducted to investigate the independent and combined impacts of acidification (pCO2 = 424–426, 888–940 ppm-v) and warming (T = 28, 32 °C) on calcification rate and skeletal morphology of the abundant and widespread Caribbean reef-building scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects modelling reveals that coral calcification rate was negatively impacted by both warming and acidification, with their combined effects yielding the most deleterious impact. Negative effects of warming (32 °C/424 ppm-v) and high-temperature acidification (32 °C/940 ppm-v) on calcification rate were apparent across both 30-day intervals of the experiment, while effects of low-temperature acidification (28 °C/888 ppm-v) were not apparent until the second 30-day interval—indicating delayed onset of acidification effects at lower temperatures. Notably, two measures of coral skeletal morphology–corallite height and corallite infilling–were negatively impacted by next-century acidification, but not by next-century warming. Therefore, while next-century ocean acidification and warming will reduce the rate at which corals build their skeletons, next-century acidification will also modify the morphology and, potentially, function of coral skeletons. PMID:27470426

  11. Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Kimmaree M; Castillo, Karl D; Armstrong, Pualani; Westfield, Isaac T; Courtney, Travis; Ries, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to rise from 400 to 900 ppm by year 2100, causing seawater temperature to increase by 1-4 °C and pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3. Sixty-day experiments were conducted to investigate the independent and combined impacts of acidification (pCO2 = 424-426, 888-940 ppm-v) and warming (T = 28, 32 °C) on calcification rate and skeletal morphology of the abundant and widespread Caribbean reef-building scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects modelling reveals that coral calcification rate was negatively impacted by both warming and acidification, with their combined effects yielding the most deleterious impact. Negative effects of warming (32 °C/424 ppm-v) and high-temperature acidification (32 °C/940 ppm-v) on calcification rate were apparent across both 30-day intervals of the experiment, while effects of low-temperature acidification (28 °C/888 ppm-v) were not apparent until the second 30-day interval-indicating delayed onset of acidification effects at lower temperatures. Notably, two measures of coral skeletal morphology-corallite height and corallite infilling-were negatively impacted by next-century acidification, but not by next-century warming. Therefore, while next-century ocean acidification and warming will reduce the rate at which corals build their skeletons, next-century acidification will also modify the morphology and, potentially, function of coral skeletons. PMID:27470426

  12. Differential Effects of Ocean Acidification on Coral Calcification: Insights from Geochemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, M.; Decarlo, T. M.; Venn, A.; Tambutte, E.; Gaetani, G. A.; Tambutte, S.; Allemand, D.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Although ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying animals due to the formation of CaCO3 becoming less favorable, experimental evidence is mixed. Corals have received considerable attention in this regard; laboratory culture experiments show there to be a wide array of calcification responses to acidification. Here we will show how relationships for the incorporation of various trace elements and boron isotopes into synthetic aragonite can be used to reconstruct carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification. In turn the chemistry at the site of calcification can be determined under different ocean acidification scenarios and differences in the chemistry at the site of calcification linked to different calcification responses to acidification. Importantly we will show that the pH of the calcifying fluid alone is insufficient to estimate calcification responses, thus a multi-proxy approach using multiple trace elements and isotopes is required to understand how the site of calcification is affected by ocean acidification.

  13. The impacts of pharmaceutical drugs under ocean acidification: New data on single and combined long-term effects of carbamazepine on Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosa; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Schneider, Rudolf J; Esteves, Valdemar I; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-01-15

    Ocean acidification and increasing discharges of pharmaceutical contaminants into aquatic systems are among key and/or emerging drivers of environmental change affecting marine ecosystems. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that ocean acidification can have direct and indirect impacts on marine organisms although combined effects with other stressors, namely with pharmaceuticals, have received very little attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the pharmaceutical drug Carbamazepine and pH 7.1, acting alone and in combination, on the clam Scrobicularia plana. For this, a long-term exposure (28 days)was conducted and a set of oxidative stress markers was investigated. The results obtained showed that S. plana was able to develop mechanisms to prevent oxidative damage when under low pH for a long period, presenting higher survival when exposed to this stressor compared to CBZ or the combination of CBZ with pH 7.1. Furthermore, the toxicity of CBZ on S. plana was synergistically increased under ocean acidification conditions (CBZ + pH 7.1): specimens survival was reduced and oxidative stress was enhanced when compared to single exposures. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that ocean acidification will act to increase the toxicity of CBZ to marine organisms,which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic pollution from pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:26473700

  14. Rapid Structural Changes and Acidification of Guard Cell Vacuoles during Stomatal Closure Require Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-01-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)–induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H+-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H+-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  15. Restructuring of the sponge microbiome favors tolerance to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ribes, M; Calvo, E; Movilla, J; Logares, R; Coma, R; Pelejero, C

    2016-08-01

    Ocean acidification is increasing and affects many marine organisms. However, certain sponge species can withstand low-pH conditions. This may be related to their complex association with microbes. We hypothesized that species with greater microbial diversity may develop functional redundancy that could enable the holobiont to survive even if particular microbes are lost at low-pH conditions. We evaluated the effects of acidification on the growth and associated microbes of three ubiquitous Mediterranean sponges by exposing them to the present pH level and that predicted for the year 2100. We found marked differences among the species in the acquisition of new microbes, being high in Dysidea avara, moderate in Agelas oroides and null in Chondrosia reniformis; however, we did not observe variation in the overall microbiome abundance, richness or diversity. The relative abilities to alter the microbiomes contributes to survivorship in an OA scenario as demonstrated by lowered pH severely affecting the growth of C. reniformis, halving that of A. oroides, and unaffecting D. avara. Our results indicate that functional stability of the sponge holobiont to withstand future OA is species-specific and is linked to the species' ability to use horizontal transmission to modify the associated microbiome to adapt to environmental change. PMID:27264698

  16. Ocean Acidification Reduces Growth and Calcification in a Marine Dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii. PMID:23776586

  17. Acidification of the intimal fluid: the perfect storm for atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Öörni, Katariina; Rajamäki, Kristiina; Nguyen, Su Duy; Lähdesmäki, Katariina; Plihtari, Riia; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are often hypoxic and exhibit elevated lactate concentrations and local acidification of the extracellular fluids. The acidification may be a consequence of the abundant accumulation of lipid-scavenging macrophages in the lesions. Activated macrophages have a very high energy demand and they preferentially use glycolysis for ATP synthesis even under normoxic conditions, resulting in enhanced local generation and secretion of lactate and protons. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the effects of acidic extracellular pH on three key players in atherogenesis: macrophages, apoB-containing lipoproteins, and HDL particles. Acidic extracellular pH enhances receptor-mediated phagocytosis and antigen presentation by macrophages and, importantly, triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages through activation of the inflammasome pathway. Acidity enhances the proteolytic, lipolytic, and oxidative modifications of LDL and other apoB-containing lipoproteins, and strongly increases their affinity for proteoglycans, and may thus have major effects on their retention and the ensuing cellular responses in the arterial intima. Finally, the decrease in the expression of ABCA1 at acidic pH may compromise cholesterol clearance from atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, acidic extracellular pH amplifies the proatherogenic and proinflammatory processes involved in atherogenesis. PMID:25424004

  18. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Clode, Peta L.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a “business-as-usual” emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100. PMID:26989776

  19. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.

    PubMed

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Clode, Peta L

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100. PMID:26989776

  20. Enhanced weathering strategies for stabilizing climate and averting ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m-2 yr-1) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  1. End-product inhibition and acidification limit biowaste fermentation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Walter, Andreas; Dreschke, Gilbert; Fornasier, Flavio; Pümpel, Thomas; Walde, Janette; Insam, Heribert

    2015-12-01

    Converting waste to resource may mitigate environmental pollution and global resource limitation. The platform chemical lactic acid can be produced from biowaste and its liquid fraction after solid-liquid separation. A fermentation step for lactic acid production prior to the conversion of biowaste to methane and organic fertilizer would increase the biowaste's value. Despite the huge potential and promising results of the treatment procedure, the reasons for efficiency loss observed previously need to be addressed in order to pave the way for an up-scaling of the fermentation process. Therefore, biowaste was fermented applying pH control, acid extraction and glucose addition in order to counteract reasons such as acidification, end-product inhibition and carbon limitation, respectively. The fermentation was competitive compared to other renewable lactic acid production substrates and reached a maximum productivity of >5 g Clactic acidg(-1)Ch(-1) and a concentration exceeding 30 g L(-1). A combination of acidification and end-product inhibition was identified as major obstacle. Lactobacillus crispatus and its closest relatives were identified as key lactic acid producers within the process using Miseq Illumina sequencing. PMID:26433150

  2. The exposure of the Great Barrier Reef to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Mongin, Mathieu; Baird, Mark E.; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard J.; Lenton, Andrew; Herzfeld, Mike; Wild-Allen, Karen; Skerratt, Jenny; Margvelashvili, Nugzar; Robson, Barbara J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Gustafsson, Malin S. M.; Ralph, Peter J.; Steven, Andrew D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is founded on reef-building corals. Corals build their exoskeleton with aragonite, but ocean acidification is lowering the aragonite saturation state of seawater (Ωa). The downscaling of ocean acidification projections from global to GBR scales requires the set of regional drivers controlling Ωa to be resolved. Here we use a regional coupled circulation–biogeochemical model and observations to estimate the Ωa experienced by the 3,581 reefs of the GBR, and to apportion the contributions of the hydrological cycle, regional hydrodynamics and metabolism on Ωa variability. We find more detail, and a greater range (1.43), than previously compiled coarse maps of Ωa of the region (0.4), or in observations (1.0). Most of the variability in Ωa is due to processes upstream of the reef in question. As a result, future decline in Ωa is likely to be steeper on the GBR than currently projected by the IPCC assessment report. PMID:26907171

  3. The exposure of the Great Barrier Reef to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Mongin, Mathieu; Baird, Mark E; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard J; Lenton, Andrew; Herzfeld, Mike; Wild-Allen, Karen; Skerratt, Jenny; Margvelashvili, Nugzar; Robson, Barbara J; Duarte, Carlos M; Gustafsson, Malin S M; Ralph, Peter J; Steven, Andrew D L

    2016-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is founded on reef-building corals. Corals build their exoskeleton with aragonite, but ocean acidification is lowering the aragonite saturation state of seawater (Ωa). The downscaling of ocean acidification projections from global to GBR scales requires the set of regional drivers controlling Ωa to be resolved. Here we use a regional coupled circulation-biogeochemical model and observations to estimate the Ωa experienced by the 3,581 reefs of the GBR, and to apportion the contributions of the hydrological cycle, regional hydrodynamics and metabolism on Ωa variability. We find more detail, and a greater range (1.43), than previously compiled coarse maps of Ωa of the region (0.4), or in observations (1.0). Most of the variability in Ωa is due to processes upstream of the reef in question. As a result, future decline in Ωa is likely to be steeper on the GBR than currently projected by the IPCC assessment report. PMID:26907171

  4. Ocean Acidification: Euphausia Pacifica's Response to Decreasing pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, H. N.; Cooper, H.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing rate of CO2 accumulating in Earth's oceans creates a threat to organisms that can lead to disturbances in their reproduction, survival and growth. Euphausia pacifica is the dominant species of krill in Monterey Bay, CA, and a keystone species in the bay's food web. Previous work on the effects of ocean acidification on the survival, growth and molting of E. pacifica have shown they are fairly tolerant to increased CO2 concentrations. However, less is known about energy costs associated with maintaining their internal pH levels which could affect food consumption, swimming behavior or growth activity. We hypothesized that krill exposed to high CO2 will increase their feeding rate on local species of phytoplankton to account for increased energy costs of pH buffering activity. We exposed experimental E. pacifica to waters of pH 7.6 (the expected pH surface waters in year 2100), and pH 8.0 (control) periods.test for acclimation or longer term stress. Feeding rates were calculated as changes in phytoplankton counts over 24 hours of feeding using Frost's equations (Frost 1972). Understanding the way E. pacifica is affected by ocean acidification is important because of the role they play as the primary food source for a variety of predators necessary to maintain the Pacific's ecology.

  5. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  6. Media acidification by Escherichia coli in the presence of cranberry juice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The inhibition of Escherichia coli growth in the presence of Vaccinium macrocarpon has been extensively described; however, the mechanisms of this activity are not well characterized. Findings Here, E. coli was grown in media spiked with cranberry juice. The growth rate and media pH were monitored over more than 300 generations. The pH of the growth media was found to decrease during cell growth. This result was unique to media spiked with cranberry juice and was not reproduced through the addition of sugars, proanthocyanidins, or metal chelators to growth media. Conclusion This study demonstrated that factors other than sugars or proanthocyanidins in cranberry juice result in acidification of the growth media. Further studies are necessary for a complete understanding of the antimicrobial activity of cranberry products. PMID:19909515

  7. Combined effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes in Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Velez, Catia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Due to human activities, predictions for the coming years indicate increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (rainy and drought periods) and pollution levels, leading to salinity shifts and ocean acidification. Therefore, several authors have assessed the effects of seawater salinity shifts and pH decrease on marine bivalves, but most of these studies evaluated the impacts of both factors independently. Since pH and salinity may act together in the environment, and their impacts may differ from their effects when acting alone, there is an urgent need to increase our knowledge when these environmental changes act in combination. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes, both acting alone and in combination, on the physiological (condition index, Na and K concentrations) and biochemical (oxidative stress related biomarkers) performance of Ruditapes philippinarum. For that, specimens of R. philippinarum were exposed for 28days to the combination of different pH levels (7.8 and 7.3) and salinities (14, 28 and 35). The results obtained showed that under control pH (7.8) and low salinity (14) the physiological status and biochemical performance of clams was negatively affected, revealing oxidative stress. However, under the same pH and at salinities 28 and 35 clams were able to maintain/regulate their physiological status and biochemical performance. Moreover, our findings showed that clams under low pH (7.3) and different salinities were able to maintain their physiological status and biochemical performance, suggesting that the low pH tested may mask the negative effects of salinity. Our results further demonstrated that, in general, at each salinity, similar physiological and biochemical responses were found in clams under both tested pH levels. Also, individuals under low pH (salinities 14, 28 and 25) and exposed to pH 7.8 and salinity 28 (control) tend to present a similar response pattern. These

  8. Responses of Two Scleractinian Corals to Cobalt Pollution and Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Biscéré, Tom; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Lorrain, Anne; Chauvaud, Laurent; Thébault, Julien; Clavier, Jacques; Houlbrèque, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification alone or in combination with warming on coral metabolism have been extensively investigated, whereas none of these studies consider that most coral reefs near shore are already impacted by other natural anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution. It is likely that projected ocean acidification levels will aggravate coral reef health. We first investigated how ocean acidification interacts with one near shore locally abundant metal on the physiology of two major reef-building corals: Stylophora pistillata and Acropora muricata. Two pH levels (pHT 8.02; pCO2 366 μatm and pHT 7.75; pCO2 1140 μatm) and two cobalt concentrations (natural, 0.03 μg L-1 and polluted, 0.2 μg L-1) were tested during five weeks in aquaria. We found that, for both species, cobalt input decreased significantly their growth rates by 28% while it stimulated their photosystem II, with higher values of rETRmax (relative Electron Transport Rate). Elevated pCO2 levels acted differently on the coral rETRmax values and did not affect their growth rates. No consistent interaction was found between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentrations. We also measured in situ the effect of higher cobalt concentrations (1.06 ± 0.16 μg L-1) on A. muricata using benthic chamber experiments. At this elevated concentration, cobalt decreased simultaneously coral growth and photosynthetic rates, indicating that the toxic threshold for this pollutant has been reached for both host cells and zooxanthellae. Our results from both aquaria and in situ experiments, suggest that these coral species are not particularly sensitive to high pCO2 conditions but they are to ecologically relevant cobalt concentrations. Our study reveals that some reefs may be yet subjected to deleterious pollution levels, and even if no interaction between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentration has been found, it is likely that coral metabolism will be weakened if they are subjected to additional threats such as

  9. Responses of two scleractinian corals to cobalt pollution and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Biscéré, Tom; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Lorrain, Anne; Chauvaud, Laurent; Thébault, Julien; Clavier, Jacques; Houlbrèque, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification alone or in combination with warming on coral metabolism have been extensively investigated, whereas none of these studies consider that most coral reefs near shore are already impacted by other natural anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution. It is likely that projected ocean acidification levels will aggravate coral reef health. We first investigated how ocean acidification interacts with one near shore locally abundant metal on the physiology of two major reef-building corals: Stylophora pistillata and Acropora muricata. Two pH levels (pHT 8.02; pCO2 366 μatm and pHT 7.75; pCO2 1140 μatm) and two cobalt concentrations (natural, 0.03 μg L-1 and polluted, 0.2 μg L-1) were tested during five weeks in aquaria. We found that, for both species, cobalt input decreased significantly their growth rates by 28% while it stimulated their photosystem II, with higher values of rETRmax (relative Electron Transport Rate). Elevated pCO2 levels acted differently on the coral rETRmax values and did not affect their growth rates. No consistent interaction was found between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentrations. We also measured in situ the effect of higher cobalt concentrations (1.06 ± 0.16 μg L-1) on A. muricata using benthic chamber experiments. At this elevated concentration, cobalt decreased simultaneously coral growth and photosynthetic rates, indicating that the toxic threshold for this pollutant has been reached for both host cells and zooxanthellae. Our results from both aquaria and in situ experiments, suggest that these coral species are not particularly sensitive to high pCO2 conditions but they are to ecologically relevant cobalt concentrations. Our study reveals that some reefs may be yet subjected to deleterious pollution levels, and even if no interaction between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentration has been found, it is likely that coral metabolism will be weakened if they are subjected to additional threats such as

  10. Effect of heterogeneity on enhanced reductive dechlorination: Analysis of remediation efficiency and groundwater acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, A.; Lacroix, E.; Robinson, C. E.; Gerhard, J.; Holliger, C.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive in situ treatment technology for chlorinated contaminants. The process includes two acid-forming microbial reactions: fermentation of an organic substrate resulting in short-chain fatty acids, and dehalogenation resulting in hydrochloric acid. The accumulation of acids and the resulting drop of groundwater pH are controlled by the mass and distribution of chlorinated solvents in the source zone, type of electron donor, alternative terminal electron acceptors available and presence of soil mineral phases able to buffer the pH (such as carbonates). Groundwater acidification may reduce or halt microbial activity, and thus dehalogenation, significantly increasing the time and costs required to remediate the aquifer. In previous work a detailed geochemical and groundwater flow simulator able to model the fermentation-dechlorination reactions and associated pH change was developed. The model accounts for the main processes influencing microbial activity and groundwater pH, including the groundwater composition, the electron donor used and soil mineral phase interactions. In this study, the model was applied to investigate how spatial variability occurring at the field scale affects dechlorination rates, groundwater pH and ultimately the remediation efficiency. Numerical simulations were conducted to examine the influence of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity on the distribution of the injected, fermentable substrate and on the accumulation/dilution of the acidic products of reductive dehalogenation. The influence of the geometry of the DNAPL source zone was studied, as well as the spatial distribution of soil minerals. The results of this study showed that the heterogeneous distribution of the soil properties have a potentially large effect on the remediation efficiency. For examples, zones of high hydraulic conductivity can prevent the accumulation of acids and alleviate the problem of groundwater acidification. The

  11. Ocean Acidification at High Latitudes: Potential Effects on Functioning of the Antarctic Bivalve Laternula elliptica

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Vonda; Hewitt, Judi; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Currie, Kim; Beard, Samuel; Thrush, Simon; Norkko, Joanna; Barr, Neill; Heath, Philip; Halliday, N. Jane; Sedcole, Richard; Gomez, Antony; McGraw, Christina; Metcalf, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a well recognised threat to marine ecosystems. High latitude regions are predicted to be particularly affected due to cold waters and naturally low carbonate saturation levels. This is of concern for organisms utilising calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to generate shells or skeletons. Studies of potential effects of future levels of pCO2 on high latitude calcifiers are at present limited, and there is little understanding of their potential to acclimate to these changes. We describe a laboratory experiment to compare physiological and metabolic responses of a key benthic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, at pCO2 levels of their natural environment (430 µatm, pH 7.99; based on field measurements) with those predicted for 2100 (735 µatm, pH 7.78) and glacial levels (187 µatm, pH 8.32). Adult L. elliptica basal metabolism (oxygen consumption rates) and heat shock protein HSP70 gene expression levels increased in response both to lowering and elevation of pH. Expression of chitin synthase (CHS), a key enzyme involved in synthesis of bivalve shells, was significantly up-regulated in individuals at pH 7.78, indicating L. elliptica were working harder to calcify in seawater undersaturated in aragonite (ΩAr = 0.71), the CaCO3 polymorph of which their shells are comprised. The different response variables were influenced by pH in differing ways, highlighting the importance of assessing a variety of factors to determine the likely impact of pH change. In combination, the results indicate a negative effect of ocean acidification on whole-organism functioning of L. elliptica over relatively short terms (weeks-months) that may be energetically difficult to maintain over longer time periods. Importantly, however, the observed changes in L. elliptica CHS gene expression provides evidence for biological control over the shell formation process, which may enable some degree of adaptation or acclimation to future ocean acidification scenarios. PMID:21245932

  12. Limacina retroversa's response to combined effects of ocean acidification and sea water freshening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, C.; Morata, N.; Primicerio, R.

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions induce ocean acidification, thereby reducing carbonate ion concentration, which may affect the ability of calcifying organisms to build shells. Pteropods, the main planktonic producers of aragonite in the worlds' oceans, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in sea water chemistry. The negative effects are expected to be most severe at high-latitudes, where natural carbonate ion concentrations are low. In this study we investigated the combined effects of ocean acidification and freshening on Limacina retroversa, the dominant pteropod in sub polar areas. Living L. retroversa, collected in Northern Norwegian Sea, were exposed to four different pH values ranging from the pre-industrial level to the forecasted end of century ocean acidification scenario. Since over the past half-century the Norwegian Sea has experienced a progressive freshening with time, each pH level was combined with a salinity gradient in two factorial, randomized experiments investigating shell degradation, swimming behavior and survival. In addition, to investigate shell degradation without any physiologic influence, one perturbation experiments using only shells of dead pteropods was performed. Lower pH reduced shell mass whereas shell dissolution increased with pCO2. Interestingly, shells of dead organisms had a higher degree of dissolution than shells of living individuals. Mortality of Limacina retroversa was strongly affected only when both pH and salinity reduced simultaneously. The combined effects of lower salinity and lower pH also affected negatively the ability of pteropods to swim upwards. Results suggest that the energy cost of maintaining ion balance and avoiding sinking (in low salinity scenario) combined with the extra energy cost necessary to counteract shell dissolution (in high pCO2 scenario), exceed the available energy budget of this organism causing the pteropods to change swimming behavior and begin to collapse. Since L

  13. Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Rachael M; Grosell, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Most fish studied to date efficiently compensate for a hypercapnic acid-base disturbance; however, many recent studies examining the effects of ocean acidification on fish have documented impacts at CO2 levels predicted to occur before the end of this century. Notable impacts on neurosensory and behavioral endpoints, otolith growth, mitochondrial function, and metabolic rate demonstrate an unexpected sensitivity to current-day and near-future CO2 levels. Most explanations for these effects seem to center on increases in Pco2 and HCO3- that occur in the body during pH compensation for acid-base balance; however, few studies have measured these parameters at environmentally relevant CO2 levels or directly related them to reported negative endpoints. This compensatory response is well documented, but noted variation in dynamic regulation of acid-base transport pathways across species, exposure levels, and exposure duration suggests that multiple strategies may be utilized to cope with hypercapnia. Understanding this regulation and changes in ion gradients in extracellular and intracellular compartments during CO2 exposure could provide a basis for predicting sensitivity and explaining interspecies variation. Based on analysis of the existing literature, the present review presents a clear message that ocean acidification may cause significant effects on fish across multiple physiological systems, suggesting that pH compensation does not necessarily confer tolerance as downstream consequences and tradeoffs occur. It remains difficult to assess if acclimation responses during abrupt CO2 exposures will translate to fitness impacts over longer timescales. Nonetheless, identifying mechanisms and processes that may be subject to selective pressure could be one of many important components of assessing adaptive capacity. PMID:25163920

  14. Water quality of selected lakes in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, with respect to lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, G.L.; Dion, N.P.; Sumioka, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent, Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golfen group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform. Exceptions to general water quality patterns were observed in three lakes. Allen Lake had a specific conductance value of 58 Microsiemens/cm. The lake of the Golfen group was anaerobic at the bottom and had relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and a lower light transmission than the other lakes studied. One of the unnamed lakes had relatively high concentrations of phytoplankton and dissolved organic carbon and relatively low levels of light transmission. Comparisons of lake data to acid-sensitivity thresholds for specific conductance and alkalinity indicated that all of the lakes except Allen would be sensitive to acidic precipitation. The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. None of the lakes in this study appeared to be presently acidified.

  15. Colony-specific calcification and mortality under ocean acidification in the branching coral Montipora digitata.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Javid; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying marine organisms including reef-building corals. In this study, we examined the OA responses of individual colonies of the branching scleractinian coral Montipora digitata. We exposed nubbins of unique colonies (n = 15) to ambient or elevated pCO2 under natural light and temperature regimes for 110 days. Although elevated pCO2 exposure on average reduced calcification, individual colonies showed unique responses ranging from declines in positive calcification to negative calcification (decalcification) to no change. Similarly, mortality was greater on average in elevated pCO2, but also showed colony-specific patterns. High variation in colony responses suggests the possibility that ongoing OA may lead to natural selection of OA-tolerant colonies within a coral population. PMID:27290618

  16. Pre-alcoholic fermentation acidification of red grape must using Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Onetto, Cristóbal A; Bordeu, Edmundo

    2015-12-01

    Red grape musts from overripe grapes are characterised by high pH and sugar concentration. Corrections with organic acids are commonly used to secure the alcoholic fermentation and improve the organoleptic characteristics of the wine. In this study we test an alternative biological acidification method using the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum to produce high concentrations of lactic acid. The time course of sugars, organic acids and pH were measured. Available sugars were consumed by L. plantarum producing up to 8.3 g L(-1) of lactic acid. Lactic acid changed the pH from 3.9 to 3.4 after 14 days post-inoculation without yielding a relevant concentration of acetic acid (0.34 g L(-1)). PMID:26437637

  17. Negative effects of ocean acidification on two crustose coralline species using genetically homogeneous samples.

    PubMed

    Kato, Aki; Hikami, Mana; Kumagai, Naoki H; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated acidification effects on two crustose coralline algal species common to Pacific coral reefs, Lithophyllum kotschyanum and Hydrolithon samoense. We used genetically homogeneous samples of both species to eliminate misidentification of species. The growth rates and percent calcification of the walls of the epithallial cells (thallus surface cells) of both species decreased with increasing pCO₂. However, elevated pCO₂ more strongly inhibited the growth of L. kotschyanum versus H. samoense. The trend of decreasing percent calcification of the cell wall did not differ between these species, although intercellular calcification of the epithallial cells in L. kotschyanum was apparently reduced at elevated pCO₂, a result that might indicate that there are differences in the solubility or density of the calcite skeletons of these two species. These results can provide knowledge fundamental to future studies of the physiological and genetic mechanisms that underlie the response of crustose coralline algae to environmental stresses. PMID:24239067

  18. Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: warming mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated environmental stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), warming and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). Warming (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which warming had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions. PMID:26820060

  19. Reduced resilience of a globally distributed coccolithophore to ocean acidification: Confirmed up to 2000 generations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Gao, Kunshan

    2016-02-15

    Ocean acidification (OA), induced by rapid anthropogenic CO2 rise and its dissolution in seawater, is known to have consequences for marine organisms. However, knowledge on the evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to OA has been poorly studied. Here we examined the coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica, while growing it for 2000 generations under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. While OA stimulated growth in the earlier selection period (from generations ~700 to ~1550), it reduced it in the later selection period up to 2000 generations. Similarly, stimulated production of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen reduced with increasing selection period and decreased under OA up to 2000 generations. The specific adaptation of growth to OA disappeared in generations 1700 to 2000 when compared with that at 1000 generations. Both phenotypic plasticity and fitness decreased within selection time, suggesting that the species' resilience to OA decreased after 2000 generations under high CO2 selection. PMID:26746379

  20. A developmental and energetic basis linking larval oyster shell formation to acidification sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldbusser, George G.; Brunner, Elizabeth L.; Haley, Brian A.; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Christopher J.; Prahl, Frederick G.

    2013-05-01

    Acidified waters are impacting commercial oyster production in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, and favorable carbonate chemistry conditions are predicted to become less frequent. Within 48 h of fertilization, unshelled Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae precipitate roughly 90% of their body weight as calcium carbonate. We measured stable carbon isotopes in larval shell and tissue and in algal food and seawater dissolved inorganic carbon in a longitudinal study of larval development and growth. Using these data and measured biochemical composition of larvae, we show that sensitivity of initial shell formation to ocean acidification results from diminished ability to isolate calcifying fluid from surrounding seawater, a limited energy budget and a strong kinetic demand for calcium carbonate precipitation. Our results highlight an important link between organism physiology and mineral kinetics in larval bivalves and suggest the consideration of mineral kinetics may improve understanding winners and losers in a high CO2 world.

  1. Narratives can motivate environmental action: the Whiskey Creek ocean acidification story.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Cooley, Sarah R; Klinger, Terrie

    2014-09-01

    Even when environmental data quantify the risks and benefits of delayed responses to rapid anthropogenic change, institutions rarely respond promptly. We propose that narratives complementing environmental datasets can motivate responsive environmental policy. To explore this idea, we relate a case study in which a narrative of economic loss due to regionally rapid ocean acidification-an anthropogenic change-helped connect knowledge with action. We pose three hypotheses to explain why narratives might be particularly effective in linking science to environmental policy, drawing from the literature of economics, environmental policy, and cognitive psychology. It seems that yet-untold narratives may hold similar potential for strengthening the feedback between environmental data and policy and motivating regional responses to other environmental problems. PMID:24081705

  2. Historical and 21st century projection of ocean acidification, its impacts on aragonite and calcite cycling and subsequent feedbacks in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    We assess the ocean's present and future ability to take up anthropogenic carbon and the impact of this ocean acidification in the fully coupled biogeochemical context using NOAA/GFDL's earth system model (ESM2M). The ocean biogeochemical component of ESM2M includes representations of pelagic calcite cycling as a function of supersaturation and small phytoplankton grazing, pelagic aragonite cycling as a function of supersaturation and large phytoplankton grazing, and sediment calcite cycling based on a box model representation of bottom water saturation state and the incoming fluxes of calcitic, organic and lithogenic material. The model was forced with historical and future projections of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of radiatively active gases as part of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Consistent with observations, the ESM2M ocean takes up 2.1 PgC a^-^1 at the end of the 20th century. Under the highest emissions scenario of an 8.5 W m^-^2 targeted radiative forcing with CO2 concentrations of 936 ppm by 2100 (RCP8.5), ESM2M takes up 6.1 PgC a^-^1 at the end of the 21^s^t century. We describe the geographical and vertical extent of ocean acidification and depression of aragonite and calcite saturation states that result in this model. In global comparison with preindustrial conditions, ESM2M suggests severe ecological consequences of acidification under the RCP8.5 scenario with aragonite production being depressed by 17% at the end of the 20^t^h century and 72% at the end of the 21^s^t Century and calcite production being depressed by 16% at the end of the 20^t^h century and 67% at the end of the 21^s^t Century. These results are consistent with previous studies that have similarly assumed linear dependence of aragonite and calcite production with the degree of supersaturation. In terms of acidification mitigation feedbacks, these responses combine to provide additional acid neutralizing capacity in the surface ocean of 0.23 PgC a

  3. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields. PMID:26217884

  4. Acidification of floodplains due to river level decline during drought.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Luke M; Palmer, David; Leyden, Emily; Cook, Freeman; Zammit, Benjamin; Shand, Paul; Baker, Andrew; W Fitzpatrick, Rob

    2014-06-01

    A severe drought from 2007 to 2010 resulted in the lowest river levels (1.75 m decline from average) in over 90 years of records at the end of the Murray-Darling Basin in South Australia. Due to the low river level and inability to apply irrigation, the groundwater depth on the adjacent agricultural flood plain also declined substantially (1-1.5 m) and the alluvial clay subsoils dried and cracked. Sulfidic material (pH>4, predominantly in the form of pyrite, FeS2) in these subsoils oxidised to form sulfuric material (pH<4) over an estimated 3300 ha on 13 floodplains. Much of the acidity in the deeply cracked contaminated soil layers was in available form (in pore water and on cation exchange sites), with some layers having retained acidity (iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite). Post drought, the rapid raising of surface and ground water levels mobilised acidity in acid sulfate soil profiles to the floodplain drainage channels and this was transported back to the river via pumping. The drainage water exhibited low pH (2-5) with high soluble metal (Al, Co, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) concentrations, in exceedance of guidelines for ecosystem protection. Irrigation increased the short-term transport of acidity, however loads were generally greater in the non-irrigation (winter) season when rainfall is highest (0.0026 tonnes acidity/ha/day) than in the irrigation (spring-summer) season (0.0013 tonnes acidity/ha/day). Measured reductions in groundwater acidity and increases in pH have been observed over time but severe acidification persisted in floodplain sediments and waters for over two years post-drought. Results from 2-dimensional modelling of the river-floodplain hydrological processes were consistent with field measurements during the drying phase and illustrated how the declining river levels led to floodplain acidification. A modelled management scenario demonstrated how river level stabilisation and limited irrigation could have prevented, or greatly lessened

  5. Acidification of floodplains due to river level decline during drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley, Luke M.; Palmer, David; Leyden, Emily; Cook, Freeman; Zammit, Benjamin; Shand, Paul; Baker, Andrew; W. Fitzpatrick, Rob

    2014-06-01

    A severe drought from 2007 to 2010 resulted in the lowest river levels (1.75 m decline from average) in over 90 years of records at the end of the Murray-Darling Basin in South Australia. Due to the low river level and inability to apply irrigation, the groundwater depth on the adjacent agricultural flood plain also declined substantially (1-1.5 m) and the alluvial clay subsoils dried and cracked. Sulfidic material (pH > 4, predominantly in the form of pyrite, FeS2) in these subsoils oxidised to form sulfuric material (pH < 4) over an estimated 3300 ha on 13 floodplains. Much of the acidity in the deeply cracked contaminated soil layers was in available form (in pore water and on cation exchange sites), with some layers having retained acidity (iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite). Post drought, the rapid raising of surface and ground water levels mobilised acidity in acid sulfate soil profiles to the floodplain drainage channels and this was transported back to the river via pumping. The drainage water exhibited low pH (2-5) with high soluble metal (Al, Co, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) concentrations, in exceedance of guidelines for ecosystem protection. Irrigation increased the short-term transport of acidity, however loads were generally greater in the non-irrigation (winter) season when rainfall is highest (0.0026 tonnes acidity/ha/day) than in the irrigation (spring-summer) season (0.0013 tonnes acidity/ha/day). Measured reductions in groundwater acidity and increases in pH have been observed over time but severe acidification persisted in floodplain sediments and waters for over two years post-drought. Results from 2-dimensional modelling of the river-floodplain hydrological processes were consistent with field measurements during the drying phase and illustrated how the declining river levels led to floodplain acidification. A modelled management scenario demonstrated how river level stabilisation and limited irrigation could have prevented, or greatly

  6. Ocean Warming and CO₂-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod.

    PubMed

    Valles-Regino, Roselyn; Tate, Rick; Kelaher, Brendan; Savins, Dale; Dowell, Ashley; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO₂-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52%) with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO₂ on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO₂ acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted. PMID:26404318

  7. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, Anna-Karin; Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Bach, Lennart; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Furuhagen, Sara; Paul, Allanah; Bermúdez, J. Rafael; Riebesell, Ulf; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during 4 consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration and dinoflagellate biomass, had a positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females was reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  8. Combined effects of temperature and ocean acidification on the juvenile individuals of the mussel Mytilus chilensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C.; Navarro, J. M.; Acuña, K.; Torres, R.; Manríquez, P. H.; Lardies, M. A.; Vargas, C. A.; Lagos, N. A.; Aguilera, V.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions have led to increasing global mean temperatures (a process called global warming) and ocean acidification. Because both processes are occurring simultaneously, to better understand their consequences on marine species their combined effects must be experimentally evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and water temperature increase on the total calcification rate, growth rate and survival of juvenile individuals of the mytilid mussel Mytilus chilensis (Hupe). Two temperature levels (12 and 16 °C) and three nominal CO2 concentrations (390, 700 and 1000 ppm of CO2) were used. We found that the net rate of calcium deposition and total weight were not significantly affected by temperature, but were negatively affected by the levels of CO2. The interactive effects of temperature and CO2 levels affected only the shell dissolution, but this process was not important for the animal's net calcification. These results suggest that individuals of M. chilensis are able to overcome increased temperatures, but not increments of CO2 levels. It is well known that mussels influence their physical and biological surroundings. Therefore, the negative effects of a CO2 increase could have significant ecological consequences, mainly in those habitats where this group is dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. Finally, taking into account that this species inhabit a wide geographic range, with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity and, pH), further studies are needed to evaluate the intraspecific variability in the responses of this species to different environmental stressors.

  9. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, A.-K.; Vehmaa, A.; Brutemark, A.; Bach, L.; Lischka, S.; Stuhr, A.; Furuhagen, S.; Paul, A.; Bermúdez, R.; Riebesell, U.; Engström-Öst, J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during four consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration, had a strong positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females were reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  10. Reduced ammonia emissions from slurry after self-acidification with organic supplements.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J; Bergmann, S; Vandré, R

    2002-04-01

    Ammonia volatilisation from field applied slurries causes environmental hazards and loss of fertilizer value. Acidification of slurry, usually with inorganic or organic acids has previously been used to reduce NH3 emissions. In this study, we present an alternative technique for the acidification of slurry, namely the use of fermentation by endogenous microbes to form organic acids from readily degradable organic compounds. In laboratory experiments, the addition of different sugars (sucrose in dosages of 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mol l(-1), glucose in dosages of 0.05 and 0.1 mol l(-1)) and organic residues (sugar beet residues in dosages of 33 and 330 g fresh weight l(-1), biowaste at 50 g fresh weight l(-1)) to cattle slurry resulted in a considerable decrease in pH, with a minimum pH of 4.7. A subsequent pH increase indicated that the organic acids were probably further degraded with a resultant loss of acidity in the slurry. In a field study, the NH3 emissions from untreated and acidified (pH = 6) slurries were compared after field application (20 m3 ha(-1)). During the first 20 hours, the acidified slurry showed NH3 emissions of less than 5% of the applied ammonia compared to a 26% loss from the untreated slurry. The total emissions of NH4+-N were 32% for acidified and 54% for untreated slurry. Easily degradable organic amendments therefore have the potential to effectively reduce NH3 emissions from slurries and may be an alternative for the use of acids. PMID:12088370

  11. Ocean Warming and CO2-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Valles-Regino, Roselyn; Tate, Rick; Kelaher, Brendan; Savins, Dale; Dowell, Ashley; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO2-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52%) with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO2 on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO2 acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted. PMID:26404318

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on growth and otolith condition of juvenile scup, Stenotomus chrysops.

    PubMed

    Perry, Dean M; Redman, Dylan H; Widman, James C; Meseck, Shannon; King, Andrew; Pereira, Jose J

    2015-09-01

    Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbonate chemistry, resulting in a reduction in pH, a process termed "ocean acidification." It is important to determine which species are sensitive to elevated levels of CO2 because of potential impacts to ecosystems, marine resources, biodiversity, food webs, populations, and effects on economies. Previous studies with marine fish have documented that exposure to elevated levels of CO2 caused increased growth and larger otoliths in some species. This study was conducted to determine whether the elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) would have an effect on growth, otolith (ear bone) condition, survival, or the skeleton of juvenile scup, Stenotomus chrysops, a species that supports both important commercial and recreational fisheries. Elevated levels of pCO2 (1200-2600 μatm) had no statistically significant effect on growth, survival, or otolith condition after 8 weeks of rearing. Field data show that in Long Island Sound, where scup spawn, in situ levels of pCO2 are already at levels ranging from 689 to 1828 μatm due to primary productivity, microbial activity, and anthropogenic inputs. These results demonstrate that ocean acidification is not likely to cause adverse effects on the growth and survivability of every species of marine fish. X-ray analysis of the fish revealed a slightly higher incidence of hyperossification in the vertebrae of a few scup from the highest treatments compared to fish from the control treatments. Our results show that juvenile scup are tolerant to increases in seawater pCO2, possibly due to conditions this species encounters in their naturally variable environment and their well-developed pH control mechanisms. PMID:26442471

  13. The subtle effects of sea water acidification on the amphipod Gammarus locusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauton, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Williams, J.

    2009-08-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the survival, growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three different levels of pH in nominal range 8.1-7.6. Growth rate was estimated from weekly measures of body length. At sexual maturity the amphipods were sacrificed and assayed for changes in the expression of genes coding for a heat shock protein (hsp70 gene) and the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh gene). The data show that the growth and survival of this species is not significantly impacted by a decrease in sea water pH of up to 0.5 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of growth in acidified sea water on the sustained expression of the hsp70 gene. There was a consistent and significant increase in the expression of the gapdh gene at a pH of ~7.5 which, when combined with observations from other workers, suggests that metabolic changes may occur in response to acidification. It is concluded that sensitive assays of tissue physiology and molecular biology should be routinely employed in future studies of the impacts of sea water acidification as subtle effects on the physiology and metabolism of coastal marine species may be overlooked in conventional gross "end-point" studies of organism growth or mortality.

  14. Ocean Acidification May Aggravate Social-Ecological Trade-Offs in Coastal Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Kapaun, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) will influence marine ecosystems by changing species abundance and composition. Major effects are described for calcifying organisms, which are significantly impacted by decreasing pH values. Direct effects on commercially important fish are less well studied. The early life stages of fish populations often lack internal regulatory mechanisms to withstand the effects of abnormal pH. Negative effects can be expected on growth, survival, and recruitment success. Here we study Norwegian coastal cod, one of the few stocks where such a negative effect was experimentally quantified, and develop a framework for coupling experimental data on OA effects to ecological-economic fisheries models. In this paper, we scale the observed physiological responses to the population level by using the experimentally determined mortality rates as part of the stock-recruitment relationship. We then use an ecological-economic optimization model, to explore the potential effect of rising CO2 concentration on ecological (stock size), economic (profits), consumer-related (harvest) and social (employment) indicators, with scenarios ranging from present day conditions up to extreme acidification. Under the assumptions of our model, yields and profits could largely be maintained under moderate OA by adapting future fishing mortality (and related effort) to changes owing to altered pH. This adaptation comes at the costs of reduced stock size and employment, however. Explicitly visualizing these ecological, economic and social tradeoffs will help in defining realistic future objectives. Our results can be generalized to any stressor (or stressor combination), which is decreasing recruitment success. The main findings of an aggravation of trade-offs will remain valid. This seems to be of special relevance for coastal stocks with limited options for migration to avoid unfavorable future conditions and subsequently for coastal fisheries, which are often small scale local

  15. Ocean acidification may aggravate social-ecological trade-offs in coastal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jörn O; Kapaun, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) will influence marine ecosystems by changing species abundance and composition. Major effects are described for calcifying organisms, which are significantly impacted by decreasing pH values. Direct effects on commercially important fish are less well studied. The early life stages of fish populations often lack internal regulatory mechanisms to withstand the effects of abnormal pH. Negative effects can be expected on growth, survival, and recruitment success. Here we study Norwegian coastal cod, one of the few stocks where such a negative effect was experimentally quantified, and develop a framework for coupling experimental data on OA effects to ecological-economic fisheries models. In this paper, we scale the observed physiological responses to the population level by using the experimentally determined mortality rates as part of the stock-recruitment relationship. We then use an ecological-economic optimization model, to explore the potential effect of rising CO2 concentration on ecological (stock size), economic (profits), consumer-related (harvest) and social (employment) indicators, with scenarios ranging from present day conditions up to extreme acidification. Under the assumptions of our model, yields and profits could largely be maintained under moderate OA by adapting future fishing mortality (and related effort) to changes owing to altered pH. This adaptation comes at the costs of reduced stock size and employment, however. Explicitly visualizing these ecological, economic and social tradeoffs will help in defining realistic future objectives. Our results can be generalized to any stressor (or stressor combination), which is decreasing recruitment success. The main findings of an aggravation of trade-offs will remain valid. This seems to be of special relevance for coastal stocks with limited options for migration to avoid unfavorable future conditions and subsequently for coastal fisheries, which are often small scale local

  16. Understanding ocean acidification impacts on organismal to ecological scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersson, Andreas J; Kline, David I; Edmunds, Peter J; Archer, Stephen D; Bednaršek, Nina; Carpenter, Robert C; Chadsey, Meg; Goldstein, Philip; Grottoli, Andrea G.; Hurst, Thomas P; King, Andrew L; Kübler, Janet E.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Mackey, Katherine R M; Menge, Bruce A.; Paytan, Adina; Riebesell, Ulf; Schnetzer, Astrid; Warner, Mark E; Zimmerman, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) research seeks to understand how marine ecosystems and global elemental cycles will respond to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry in combination with other environmental perturbations such as warming, eutrophication, and deoxygenation. Here, we discuss the effectiveness and limitations of current research approaches used to address this goal. A diverse combination of approaches is essential to decipher the consequences of OA to marine organisms, communities, and ecosystems. Consequently, the benefits and limitations of each approach must be considered carefully. Major research challenges involve experimentally addressing the effects of OA in the context of large natural variability in seawater carbonate system parameters and other interactive variables, integrating the results from different research approaches, and scaling results across different temporal and spatial scales.

  17. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change

    PubMed Central

    O’Dea, Sarah A.; Gibbs, Samantha J.; Bown, Paul R.; Young, Jeremy R.; Poulton, Alex J.; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change. PMID:25399967

  18. Inhibition of superoxide anion production by extracellular acidification in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Murata, Naoya; Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Tomura, Hideaki; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular acidification inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe- or C5a-induced superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production in differentiated HL-60 neutrophil-like cells and human neutrophils. A cAMP-increasing agonist, prostaglandin E(1), also inhibited the formyl peptide-induced O(2)(-) production. The inhibitory action on the O(2)(-) production by extracellular acidic pH was associated with cAMP accumulation and partly attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. A significant amount of mRNAs for T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) and other proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1)-family receptors is expressed in these cells. These results suggest that cAMP/protein kinase A, possibly through proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, may be involved in extracellular acidic pH-induced inhibition of O(2)(-) production. PMID:19539899

  19. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ζ potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ζ potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  20. Different dimerisation mode for TLR4 upon endosomal acidification?

    PubMed Central

    Gangloff, Monique

    2012-01-01

    TLR4 is unique among pathogen-recognition receptors in that it initiates different pathways in different cellular locations. Binding of a bridging factor, Mal, allows recruitment of an adapter protein, MyD88, at the plasma membrane, which leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Upon internalization, TLR4 uses a different bridging factor, TRAM, to activate a MyD88-independent pathway that results in type I interferon expression. Interestingly, both Mal and TRAM are localised initially at the plasma membrane. In this Opinion, I suggest a possible mechanism by which endosomal acidification triggers the differential adaptor usage of TLR4. I discuss the evidence of the pH sensitivity of TLR4 and propose a new dimerisation mode for TLR4 based on the crystal structure of the related receptor TLR3 bound to its ligand, double-stranded RNA. PMID:22196451

  1. Different dimerisation mode for TLR4 upon endosomal acidification?

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Monique

    2012-03-01

    TLR4 is unique among pathogen-recognition receptors in that it initiates different pathways in different cellular locations. Binding of a bridging factor, Mal, allows recruitment of an adapter protein, MyD88, at the plasma membrane, which leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Upon internalization, TLR4 uses a different bridging factor, TRAM, to activate a MyD88-independent pathway that results in type I interferon expression. Interestingly, both Mal and TRAM are localised initially at the plasma membrane. In this Opinion, I suggest a possible mechanism by which endosomal acidification triggers the differential adaptor usage of TLR4. I discuss the evidence of the pH sensitivity of TLR4 and propose a new dimerisation mode for TLR4 based on the crystal structure of the related receptor TLR3 bound to its ligand, double-stranded RNA. PMID:22196451

  2. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering

  3. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Sarah A; Gibbs, Samantha J; Bown, Paul R; Young, Jeremy R; Poulton, Alex J; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change. PMID:25399967

  4. Involvement of tumor acidification in brain cancer pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Honasoge, Avinash; Sontheimer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas, primary brain cancers, are characterized by remarkable invasiveness and fast growth. While they share many qualities with other solid tumors, gliomas have developed special mechanisms to convert the cramped brain space and other limitations afforded by the privileged central nervous system into pathophysiological advantages. In this review we discuss gliomas and other primary brain cancers in the context of acid-base regulation and interstitial acidification; namely, how the altered proton (H+) content surrounding these brain tumors influences tumor development in both autocrine and paracrine manners. As proton movement is directly coupled to movement of other ions, pH serves as both a regulator of cell activity as well as an indirect readout of other cellular functions. In the case of brain tumors, these processes result in pathophysiology unique to the central nervous system. We will highlight what is known about pH-sensitive processes in brain tumors in addition to gleaning insight from other solid tumors. PMID:24198789

  5. Episodic acidification and changes in fish diversity in Pennsylvania headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heard, R.M.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F.; Kimmel, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Current water chemistry and fish communities in 70 Pennsylvania streams were compared with historical records to determine whether fish species richness had declined and, if so, the possible role of acidification. First-, second-, and third-order streams were selected, and stream sites sampled during the 1961-1971 survey were resampled during May and June 1994 in the Appalachian Plateaus province and during June 1995 in the Valley and Ridge province. Stream-flow was measured and a habitat assessment was completed at each site. Dominant bedrock types influencing the stream sampling site were determined for the Appalachian Plateaus streams. Episodic water chemistry was collected for 39 of the 50 Appalachian Plateaus streams and 14 of the 20 Valley and Ridge streams during the winter and spring of 1996. Thirty-eight (76%) streams of the Appalachian Plateaus province and 13 (65%) streams in the Valley and Ridge province had a loss of fish species since the 1961-1971 sampling period. Habitat scores were not related to losses of fish species. Of the 53 streams sampled during runoff episodes 22 (42%) increased in total dissolved aluminum by more than 50 ??g/L, and 31 (58%) streams decreased in pH by 0.5 units or more. Minnows (Cyprinidae) and darters (Percidae) are sensitive to acidity and were the species most often lost. Streams draining watersheds of the Appalachian Plateaus province dominated by Pottsville bedrock had more acidic water quality during base flow and storm flow sampling periods than streams dominated by Pocono bedrock. The results of this study indicate that many Pennsylvania streams have undergone an alarming reduction in fish diversity during the past 25-34 years. In many of these streams the loss in fish diversity may be attributed to episodic acidification.

  6. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

  7. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

  8. The chemistry of negotiation: Rhythmic, glycan-driven acidification in a symbiotic conversation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzman, Julia A.; Koch, Eric; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; Zhou, Lawrence; Kremer, Natacha; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Glycans have emerged as critical determinants of immune maturation, microbial nutrition, and host health in diverse symbioses. In this study, we asked how cyclic delivery of a single host-derived glycan contributes to the dynamic stability of the mutualism between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its specific, bioluminescent symbiont, Vibrio fischeri. V. fischeri colonizes the crypts of a host organ that is used for behavioral light production. E. scolopes synthesizes the polymeric glycan chitin in macrophage-like immune cells called hemocytes. We show here that, just before dusk, hemocytes migrate from the vasculature into the symbiotic crypts, where they lyse and release particulate chitin, a behavior that is established only in the mature symbiosis. Diel transcriptional rhythms in both partners further indicate that the chitin is provided and metabolized only at night. A V. fischeri mutant defective in chitin catabolism was able to maintain a normal symbiont population level, but only until the symbiotic organ reached maturity (∼4 wk after colonization); this result provided a direct link between chitin utilization and symbiont persistence. Finally, catabolism of chitin by the symbionts was also specifically required for a periodic acidification of the adult crypts each night. This acidification, which increases the level of oxygen available to the symbionts, enhances their capacity to produce bioluminescence at night. We propose that other animal hosts may similarly regulate the activities of epithelium-associated microbial communities through the strategic provision of specific nutrients, whose catabolism modulates conditions like pH or anoxia in their symbionts’ habitat. PMID:25550509

  9. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, John T; Lerner, Darrren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.; Monette, Michelle Y.; Hawkes, J.P.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  10. Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. PMID:23893528

  11. Detecting Emergence of Acidification and Warming as Stressors for Coral Reef Regions using Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems rely on complex interactions between biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes to ensure their survival and resilience. However, both human interaction and anthropogenic climate change have negatively impacted the prosperity of these regions, resulting in a crucial need to understand and predict the future of important biogeochemical and physical stressors. Contemporary changes to these relationships and environmental conditions in coral reef ecosystems are a mixture of anthropogenic contributions and natural variability (e.g. ENSO) of the climate system. To better quantify the uncertainty in future projections, it is exceedingly necessary to differentiate between these two contributors. In this study we look at acidification and warming stressors in the Galapagos, Coral Triangle, and Hawaiian islands regions. We use a suite of hindcast simulations (a 30-member large initial condition ensemble) done with an Earth Systems Model (GFDL-ESM2M) in order quantify the degree to which natural variability alters the emergence time-scales of anthropogenically-induced changes to ecosystem drivers such as pH, ΩArag, and SST. A comparison of output from a suit of CMIP5 models will be used to evaluate model uncertainty for the same regions. Simulated trends and variability in these ecosystem drivers were then compared to observed trends over the three Pacific regions. Evidently the models and observed trends proved invaluable for testing the hypothesis addressing the presence of a temporal hierarchy between emergence, defined by a signal-to-noise ratio, of acidification stressors and temperature as a stressor. Furthermore, challenges in deconvolving anthropogenic and natural contributions to stressor trends will be discussed for each of the three sites.

  12. Effects of lake acidification and recovery on the stability of zooplankton food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, A. ); Sprules, W.G. )

    1994-03-01

    The effect of food web structure on community stability and resilience has rarely been examined using empirical data. Yet there is a practical application for such studies insofar as resistance stability determines the ability of a system to adsorb' anthropogenic stress and adjustment stability determines the reversibility of resulting damage. The stability of zooplankton food webs in 46 Precambrian Shield lakes was examined using data collected in the 1970s, when pH ranged from 3.8 to 7.0, and in 1990, when pH had increased by up to two units in some lakes. Acidification overcame resistance stability at pH <5.0, as evidenced by decreases in species richness, numbers of predatory and competitive links, directed connectance, predator generalization, and linkage density, identified by analysis of variance. Adjustment stability was demonstrated by changes in food web attributes in lakes with higher pH in 1990 than in the 1970s. Species richness, numbers of predatory and competitive links, linkage density, and predator generalization all increased relative to the 1970s values. Food web attributes of recovering' lakes were statistically indistinguishable from those of lakes of similar pH that had not been more acidic in the 1970s. Similar trajectors of food web change were followed during environmental degradation and recovery. Planktonic food webs of anthropogenically acidified lakes may eventually recover to resemble their pre-acidification condition, given sufficient time without acidic inputs. Whether adjustment stability is a general feature of anthropogenically stressed systems remains to be determined. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Ocean acidification alters the calcareous microstructure of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Hofmann, Laurie C.; Wild, Christian; Westphal, Hildegard

    2015-09-01

    Decreases in seawater pH and carbonate saturation state ( Ω) following the continuous increase in atmospheric CO2 represent a process termed ocean acidification, which is predicted to become a main threat to marine calcifiers in the near future. Segmented, tropical, marine green macro-algae of the genus Halimeda form a calcareous skeleton that involves biotically initiated and induced calcification processes influenced by cell physiology. As Halimeda is an important habitat provider and major carbonate sediment producer in tropical shallow areas, alterations of these processes due to ocean acidification may cause changes in the skeletal microstructure that have major consequences for the alga and its environment, but related knowledge is scarce. This study used scanning electron microscopy to examine changes of the CaCO3 segment microstructure of Halimeda opuntia specimens that had been exposed to artificially elevated seawater pCO2 of ~650 µatm for 45 d. In spite of elevated seawater pCO2, the calcification of needles, located at the former utricle walls, was not reduced as frequent initiation of new needle-shaped crystals was observed. Abundance of the needles was ~22 % µm-2 higher and needle crystal dimensions ~14 % longer. However, those needles were ~42 % thinner compared with the control treatment. Moreover, lifetime cementation of the segments decreased under elevated seawater pCO2 due to a loss in micro-anhedral carbonate as indicated by significantly thinner calcified rims of central utricles (35-173 % compared with the control treatment). Decreased micro-anhedral carbonate suggests that seawater within the inter-utricular space becomes CaCO3 undersaturated ( Ω < 1) during nighttime under conditions of elevated seawater pCO2, thereby favoring CaCO3 dissolution over micro-anhedral carbonate accretion. Less-cemented segments of H. opuntia may impair the environmental success of the alga, its carbonate sediment contribution, and the temporal storage of

  14. Increased temperature mitigates the effects of ocean acidification in calcified green algae ( Halimeda spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Justin E.; Fisch, Jay; Langdon, Chris; Paul, Valerie J.

    2016-03-01

    The singular and interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature on the physiology of calcified green algae ( Halimeda incrassata, H. opuntia, and H. simulans) were investigated in a fully factorial, 4-week mesocosm experiment. Individual aquaria replicated treatment combinations of two pH levels (7.6 and 8.0) and two temperatures (28 and 31 °C). Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured for all species both prior to and after treatment exposure. Pre-treatment measurements revealed that H. incrassata displayed higher biomass-normalized rates of photosynthesis and calcification (by 55 and 81 %, respectively) relative to H. simulans and H. opuntia. Furthermore, prior to treatment exposure, photosynthesis was positively correlated to calcification, suggesting that the latter process may be controlled by photosynthetic activity in this group. After treatment exposure, net photosynthesis was unaltered by pH, yet significantly increased with elevated temperature by 58, 38, and 37 % for H. incrassata, H. simulans, and H. opuntia, respectively. Both pH and temperature influenced calcification, but in opposing directions. On average, calcification declined by 41 % in response to pH reduction, but increased by 49 % in response to elevated temperature. Within each pH treatment, elevated temperature increased calcification by 23 % (at pH 8.0) and 74 % (at pH 7.6). Interactions between pH, temperature, and/or species were not observed. This work demonstrates that, in contrast to prior studies, increased temperature may serve to enhance the metabolic performance (photosynthesis and calcification) of some marine calcifiers, despite elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Thus, in certain cases, ocean warming may mitigate the negative effects of acidification.

  15. [Nutrient leaching and acidification of Southern China coniferous forest red soil under stimulated N deposition].

    PubMed

    Sun, Benhua; Hu, Zhengyi; Lü, Jialong; Zhou, Lina; Xu, Chengkai

    2006-10-01

    In an eight months interval leaching experiment with soil column (10 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height) at 20 degrees C, this paper studied the effects of N deposition on the leaching losses of soil NO -, NH4+ , H+, Ca2+, Mg2+ , K+, and Na+ , and on soil acidification. Soil columns were taken from the coniferous forest experimental plot at the Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Southern China, and the N deposition loads were 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) x column (-1) , respectively. The results indicated that the leaching losses of total exchangeable cations, Ca2+ , and Mg2+ increased with increasing N deposition loads, but K+ and Na+ were little affected. The proportion of net cations leaching loss (difference of cations in eluate and leachate) to total exchangeable cations was 13.9% , 18.6% , 31.8% and 57.9% under 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) column (-1) deposition loads, respectively, and that for exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ was 19. 6%, 25.8% , 45. 3% and 84.8% , and 4.4% , 6.1% , 10. 9% and 17.1% , respectively. The leaching losses of inorganic N, NO3- and H+ also increased with increasing N deposition loads. Topsoil pH decreased with increasing N deposition loads, being 3.85, 3.84, 3.80 and 3.75 under 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) x column(-1) N deposition loads, respectively. N deposition could increase the apparent mineralization rate of soil organic nitrogen, and accelerate the nutrient losses and acidification of coniferous forest red soil. PMID:17209377

  16. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  17. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-03-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated pCO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph of fish exposed to elevated pCO2 can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  18. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

    2011-12-01

    Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  19. Imaging chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects following tumor-selective acidification using lonidamine.

    PubMed

    McVicar, Nevin; Li, Alex X; Meakin, Susan O; Bartha, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Increased lactate production through glycolysis in aerobic conditions is a hallmark of cancer. Some anticancer drugs have been designed to exploit elevated glycolysis in cancer cells. For example, lonidamine (LND) inhibits lactate transport, leading to intracellular acidification in cancer cells. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel MRI contrast mechanism that is dependent on intracellular pH. Amine and amide concentration-independent detection (AACID) and apparent amide proton transfer (APT*) represent two recently developed CEST contrast parameters that are sensitive to pH. The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity of AACID and APT* for the detection of tumor-selective acidification after LND injection. Using a 9.4-T MRI scanner, CEST data were acquired in mice approximately 14 days after the implantation of 10(5) U87 human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells in the brain, before and after the administration of LND (dose, 50 or 100 mg/kg). Significant dose-dependent LND-induced changes in the measured CEST parameters were detected in brain regions spatially correlated with implanted tumors. Importantly, no changes were observed in T1- and T2-weighted images acquired before and after LND treatment. The AACID and APT* contrast measured before and after LND injection exhibited similar pH sensitivity. Interestingly, LND-induced contrast maps showed increased heterogeneity compared with pre-injection CEST maps. These results demonstrate that CEST contrast changes after the administration of LND could help to localize brain cancer and monitor tumor response to chemotherapy within 1 h of treatment. The LND CEST experiment uses an anticancer drug to induce a metabolic change detectable by endogenous MRI contrast, and therefore represents a unique cancer detection paradigm which differs from other current molecular imaging techniques that require the injection of an imaging contrast agent or tracer. PMID:25808190

  20. Effects of acute and chronic acidification on three larval amphibians that breed in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, C.L.; Sadinski, W.J.; Dunson, W.A. )

    1992-10-01

    This study explored the effects of acute (7 days) and chronic (4 months) exposure to pH 4.2 on three species of larval amphibians, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma maculatum, and Rana sylvatica. Acute tests were conducted in 24 impermeable enclosures in three temporary ponds. Total dissolved aluminum was higher in acidified enclosures in comparison with controls (pH 4.2, [Al] approximately 10-30 microM and pH greater than 4.7, [Al] approximately 5-15 microM, respectively). Greater mortality of A. jeffersonianum occurred at pH 4.2 than at pH greater than 4.7, whereas survival of A. maculatum and R. sylvatica were unaffected by pH. Mean wet masses of R. sylvatica were significantly lower at pH 4.2 than at pH greater than 4.7, but mean wet masses of surviving A. jeffersonianum and A. maculatum were not influenced by pH. There were no pH-related differences in body sodium concentration in larval R. sylvatica. Chronic acidification of mesocosms to pH 4.2 ([Al] approximately 16 microM) (controls = pH greater than 6, [Al] approximately 0.1 microM) resulted in total mortality of A. jeffersonianum. Survival of A. maculatum and R. sylvatica were not associated with pH, but survival of A. maculatum was low at both pH levels. Time to metamorphosis was longer for R. sylvatica maintained at pH 4.2, but not for A. maculatum. No differences in wet masses at metamorphosis were observed for R. sylvatica or A. maculatum. These results indicate that short and long term acidification of temporary wetlands could dramatically affect amphibians which rely upon them as breeding sites, either by causing mortality or by decreasing growth rates.

  1. Stress-tolerant corals of Florida Bay are vulnerable to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, R. R.; Swart, P. K.; Langdon, C.

    2013-09-01

    In situ calcification measurements tested the hypothesis that corals from environments (Florida Bay, USA) that naturally experience large swings in pCO2 and pH will be tolerant or less sensitive to ocean acidification than species from laboratory experiments with less variable carbonate chemistry. The pCO2 in Florida Bay varies from summer to winter by several hundred ppm roughly comparable to the increase predicted by the end of the century. Rates of net photosynthesis and calcification of two stress-tolerant coral species, Siderastrea radians and Solenastrea hyades, were measured under the prevailing ambient chemical conditions and under conditions amended to simulate a pH drop of 0.1-0.2 units at bimonthly intervals over a 2-yr period. Net photosynthesis was not changed by the elevation in pCO2 and drop in pH; however, calcification declined by 52 and 50 % per unit decrease in saturation state, respectively. These results indicate that the calcification rates of S. radians and S. hyades are just as sensitive to a reduction in saturation state as coral species that have been previously studied. In other words, stress tolerance to temperature and salinity extremes as well as regular exposure to large swings in pCO2 and pH did not make them any less sensitive to ocean acidification. These two species likely survive in Florida Bay in part because they devote proportionately less energy to calcification than most other species and the average saturation state is elevated relative to that of nearby offshore water due to high rates of primary production by seagrasses.

  2. Response of Halimeda to ocean acidification: Field and laboratory evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, L.L.; Knorr, P.O.; Hallock, P.

    2009-01-01

    Rising atmospheric pCO2 levels are changing ocean chemistry more dramatically now than in the last 20 million years. In fact, pHvalues of the open ocean have decreased by 0.1 since the 1800s and are predicted to decrease 0.1-0.4 globally in the next 90 years. Ocean acidification will affect fundamental geochemical and biological processes including calcification and carbonate sediment production. The west Florida shelf is a natural laboratory to examine the effects of ocean acidification on aragonite production by calcareous green algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of crystal morphology of calcifying organisms reveals ultrastructural details of calcification that occurred at different saturation states. Comparison of archived and recent specimens of calcareous green alga Halimeda spp. from the west Florida shelf, demonstrates crystal changes in shape and abundance over a 40+ year time span. Halimeda crystal data from apical sections indicate that increases in crystal concentration and decreases in crystal width occurred over the last 40+ years. Laboratory experiments using living specimens of Halimeda grown in environments with known pH values were used to constrain historical observations. Percentages of organic and inorganic carbon per sample weight of pooled species did not significantly change. However, individual species showed decreased inorganic carbon and increased organic carbon in more recent samples, although the sample sizes were limited. These results indicate that the effect of increased pCO 2 and decreased pH on calcification is reflected in the crystal morphology of this organism. More data are needed to confirm the observed changes in mass of crystal and organic carbon. ?? Author(s) 2009.

  3. Historical reconstruction of ocean acidification in the Australian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Andrew; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard J.; Sasse, Tristan P.; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2016-03-01

    The ocean has become more acidic over the last 200 years in response increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Documenting how the ocean has changed is critical for assessing how these changes impact marine ecosystems and for the management of marine resources. Here we use present-day ocean carbon observations, from shelf and offshore waters around Australia, combined with neural network mapping of CO2, sea surface temperature, and salinity to estimate the current seasonal and regional distributions of carbonate chemistry (pH and aragonite saturation state). The observed changes in atmospheric CO2 and sea surface temperature (SST) and climatological salinity are then used to reconstruct pH and aragonite saturation state changes over the last 140 years (1870-2013). The comparison with data collected at Integrated Marine Observing System National Reference Station sites located on the shelf around Australia shows that both the mean state and seasonality in the present day are well represented, with the exception of sites such as the Great Barrier Reef. Our reconstruction predicts that since 1870 decrease in aragonite saturation state of 0.48 and of 0.09 in pH has occurred in response to increasing oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. Large seasonal variability in pH and aragonite saturation state occur in southwestern Australia driven by ocean dynamics (mixing) and in the Tasman Sea by seasonal warming (in the case of the aragonite saturation state). The seasonal and historical changes in aragonite saturation state and pH have different spatial patterns and suggest that the biological responses to ocean acidification are likely to be non-uniform depending on the relative sensitivity of organisms to shifts in pH and saturation state. This new historical reconstruction provides an important link to biological observations that will help to elucidate the consequences of ocean acidification.

  4. Historical reconstruction of ocean acidification in the Australian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, A.; Tilbrook, B.; Matear, R. J.; Sasse, T.; Nojiri, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 200 years has caused an increase in ocean acidity levels. Documenting how the ocean has changed is critical for assessing how these changes could impact marine ecosystems and for the management of marine resources. We use present day ocean carbon observations from shelf and offshore waters around Australia, combined with neural network mapping of CO2, to estimate the current seasonal and regional distributions of carbonate chemistry (pH and aragonite saturation state). These predicted changes in carbonate chemistry are combined with atmospheric CO2 concentration changes since to reconstruct pH and aragonite saturation state changes over the last 140 years (1870-2013). The comparison with data collected at Integrated Marine Observing System National Reference Station sites located on the shelf around Australia shows both the mean state and seasonality for the present day is well represented by our reconstruction, with the exception of sites such as the Great Barrier Reef. Our reconstruction predicts that since 1870 an average decrease in aragonite saturation state of 0.48 and of 0.09 in pH has occurred in response to increasing oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. Our reconstruction shows that seasonality is the dominant mode of variability, with only small interannual variability present. Large seasonal variability in pH and aragonite saturation state occur in Southwestern Australia driven by ocean dynamics (mixing) and in the Tasman Sea by seasonal warming (in the case of aragonite saturation state). The seasonal and historical changes in aragonite saturation state and pH have different spatial patterns and suggest that the biological responses to ocean acidification are likely to be non-uniform depending on the relative sensitivity of organisms to shifts in pH and saturation state. This new historical reconstruction provides an important to link to biological observations to help elucidate the consequences

  5. Ocean Warming–Acidification Synergism Undermines Dissolved Organic Matter Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Anaya, Jesse M.; Chen, Eric Y-T; Farr, Erik; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors—warming and acidification—threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow— even hinder—the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2), and disperse existing gels (35°C). We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming–acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected. PMID:25714090

  6. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on reproduction in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Megan J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-06-01

    Differences in the sensitivity of marine species to ocean acidification will influence the structure of marine communities in the future. Reproduction is critical for individual and population success, yet is energetically expensive and could be adversely affected by rising CO2 levels in the ocean. We investigated the effects of projected future CO2 levels on reproductive output of two species of coral reef damselfish, Amphiprion percula and Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Adult breeding pairs were maintained at current-day control (446 μatm), moderate (652 μatm) or high CO2 (912 μatm) for a 9-month period that included the summer breeding season. The elevated CO2 treatments were consistent with CO2 levels projected by 2100 under moderate (RCP6) and high (RCP8) emission scenarios. Reproductive output increased in A. percula, with 45-75 % more egg clutches produced and a 47-56 % increase in the number of eggs per clutch in the two elevated CO2 treatments. In contrast, reproductive output decreased at high CO2 in Ac. polyacanthus, with approximately one-third as many clutches produced compared with controls. Egg survival was not affected by CO2 for A. percula, but was greater in elevated CO2 for Ac. polyacanthus. Hatching success was also greater for Ac. polyacanthus at elevated CO2, but there was no effect of CO2 treatments on offspring size. Despite the variation in reproductive output, body condition of adults did not differ between control and CO2 treatments in either species. Our results demonstrate different effects of high CO2 on fish reproduction, even among species within the same family. A greater understanding of the variation in effects of ocean acidification on reproductive performance is required to predict the consequences for future populations of marine organisms.

  7. Ocean Acidification Refugia of the Florida Reef Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzello, D.; Enochs, I.; Melo, N.; Gledhill, D. K.; Johns, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to reduce the calcification rates of marine organisms, yet we have little understanding of how OA will manifest within dynamic, real-world systems. Natural CO2, alkalinity, and salinity gradients can significantly alter local carbonate chemistry, and thereby create a range of susceptibility for different ecosystems to OA. As such, there is a need to characterize this natural variability of seawater carbonate chemistry, especially within coastal ecosystems. Since 2009, carbonate chemistry data have been collected on the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). During periods of heightened productivity, there is a net uptake of total CO2 (TCO2) which increases aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) values on inshore patch reefs of the upper FRT. These waters can exhibit greater Ωarag than what has been modeled for the tropical surface ocean during preindustrial times, with mean (± std. error) Ωarag-values in spring = 4.69 (± 0.101). Conversely, Ωarag-values on offshore reefs generally represent oceanic carbonate chemistries consistent with present day tropical surface ocean conditions. This gradient is opposite from what has been reported for other reef environments. We hypothesize this pattern is caused by the photosynthetic uptake of TCO2 mainly by seagrasses and, to a lesser extent, macroalgae in the inshore waters of the FRT. These inshore reef habitats are therefore potential acidification refugia that are defined not only in a spatial sense, but also in time; coinciding with seasonal productivity dynamics. Coral reefs located within or immediately downstream of seagrass beds may find refuge from OA.

  8. Response of Halimeda to ocean acidification: field and laboratory evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, L. L.; Knorr, P. O.; Hallock, P.

    2009-05-01

    Rising atmospheric pCO2 levels are changing ocean chemistry more dramatically now than in the last 20 million years. In fact, pH values of the open ocean have decreased by 0.1 since the 1800s and are predicted to decrease 0.1-0.4 globally in the next 90 years. Ocean acidification will affect fundamental geochemical and biological processes including calcification and carbonate sediment production. The west Florida shelf is a natural laboratory to examine the effects of ocean acidification on aragonite production by calcareous green algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of crystal morphology of calcifying organisms reveals ultrastructural details of calcification that occurred at different saturation states. Comparison of archived and recent specimens of calcareous green alga Halimeda spp. from the west Florida shelf, demonstrates crystal changes in shape and abundance over a 40+ year time span. Halimeda crystal data from apical sections indicate that increases in crystal concentration and decreases in crystal width occurred over the last 40+ years. Laboratory experiments using living specimens of Halimeda grown in environments with known pH values were used to constrain historical observations. Percentages of organic and inorganic carbon per sample weight of pooled species did not significantly change. However, individual species showed decreased inorganic carbon and increased organic carbon in more recent samples, although the sample sizes were limited. These results indicate that the effect of increased pCO2 and decreased pH on calcification is reflected in the crystal morphology of this organism. More data are needed to confirm the observed changes in mass of crystal and organic carbon.

  9. A gender bias in the calcification response to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, M.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of nutrients and pCO2 on zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate colonies of the temperate scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786) were investigated at two different temperatures (16 °C and 24 °C). Corals exposed to elevated pCO2 tended to have lower relative calcification rates, as estimated from changes in buoyant weights. No nutrient effect was observed. At 16 °C, gamete release was not observed, and no gender differences in calcification rate were observed. However, corals grown at 24 °C spawned repeatedly and male and female corals exhibited two different growth rate patterns. Female corals grown at 24 °C and exposed to CO2 had calcification rates 39 % lower than females grown at ambient CO2, while males showed only a 5 % decline in calcification under elevated CO2. At 16 °C, female and male corals showed similar reductions in calcification rates in response to elevated CO2 (15 % and 19 % respectively). At 24 °C, corals spawned repeatedly, while no spawning was observed at 16 °C. The increased sensitivity of females to elevated pCO2 may reflect a greater investment of energy in reproduction (egg production) relative to males (sperm production). These results suggest that both gender and spawning are important factors in determining the sensitivity of corals to ocean acidification and their inclusion in future research may be critical to predicting how the population structures of marine calcifiers will change in response to ocean acidification.

  10. Long-term predictions of ecosystem acidification and recovery.

    PubMed

    Skeffington, Richard A; Cosby, B Jack; Whitehead, Paul G

    2016-10-15

    This paper considers the long-term (500year) consequences of continued acid deposition, using a small forested catchment in S. England as an example. The MAGIC acidification model was calibrated to the catchment using data for the year 2000, and run backwards in time for 200years, and forwards for 500. Validation data for model predictions were provided by various stream and soil measurements made between 1977 and 2013. The model hindcast suggests that pre-industrial stream conditions were very different from those measured in 2000. Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC) was +150μeqL(-1) and pH7.1: there was little nitrate (NO3). By the year 2000, acid deposition had reduced the pH to 4.2 and ANC to c. -100μeqL(-1), and NO3 was increasing in the stream. The future state of the catchment was modelled using actual deposition reductions up to 2013, and then based on current emission reduction commitments. This leads to substantial recovery, to pH6.1, ANC +43μeqL(-1), though it takes c. 250years. Then, however, steady acidification resumes, due to continued N accumulation in the catchment and leaching of NO3. Soil data collected using identical methods in 1978 and 2013 show that MAGIC correctly predicts the direction of change, but the observed data show more extreme changes - reasons for this are discussed. Three cycles of forest growth were modelled - this reduces NO3 output substantially during the active growth phase, and increases stream pH and ANC, but acidifies the soil which continues to accumulate nitrogen. The assumptions behind these results are discussed, and it is concluded that unmanaged ecosystems will not return to a pre-industrial state in the foreseeable future. PMID:27304372

  11. Understanding the importance of episodic acidification on fish predator-prey interactions: does weak acidification impair predator recognition?

    PubMed

    Brown, Grant E; Elvidge, Chris K; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2012-11-15

    The ability of prey to recognize predators is a fundamental prerequisite to avoid being eaten. Indeed, many prey animals learn to distinguish species that pose a threat from those that do not. Once the prey has learned the identity of one predator, it may generalize this recognition to similar predators with which the prey has no experience. The ability to generalize reduces the costs associated with learning and further enhances the ability of the prey to avoid relevant threats. For many aquatic organisms, recognition of predators is based on odor signatures, consequently any anthropogenic alteration in water chemistry has the potential to impair recognition and learning of predators. Here we explored whether episodic acidification could influence the ability of juvenile rainbow trout to learn to recognize an unknown predator and then generalize this recognition to a closely related predator. Trout were conditioned to recognize the odor of pumpkinseed sunfish under circumneutral (~pH 7) conditions, and then tested for recognition of pumpkinseed or longear sunfish under both neutral or weakly acidic (~pH 6) conditions. When tested for a response to pumpkinseed odor, we found no significant effect of predator odor pH: trout responded similarly regardless of pH. Moreover, under neutral conditions, trout were able to generalize their recognition to the odor of longear sunfish. However, the trout could not generalize their recognition of the longear sunfish under acidic conditions. Given the widespread occurrence of anthropogenic acidification, acid-mediated impairment of predator recognition and generalization may be a pervasive problem for freshwater salmonid populations and other aquatic organisms. PMID:23063639

  12. The future of coastal upwelling ecosystems: the impact of potential wind changes on ocean acidification and coastal hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2012-04-01

    The upwelling of deep, low pH, and low oxygen water to the surface makes eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) naturally prone to global change induced perturbations such as ocean acidification and ocean deoxygentation related to decreased ocean ventilation. The severity of these chemical perturbations may further be exacerbated in EBUS by the potential increase in upwelling favorable winds induced by global warming. Here, we explore the impact of upwelling-favorable wind changes on modern and future ocean acidification and coastal hypoxia through a comparative study of the California Current System (California CS) and the Canary Current System (Canary CS). To this end, we undertook a series of idealized wind perturbation studies for present-day and year 2050 conditions with eddy-resolving setups of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System - ROMS- to which a nitrogen-based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Detritus-Zooplankton (NPDZ) biogeochemical model was coupled. Our results show that the increase of upwelling favorable winds leads to a substantial shoaling of the hypoxic boundary in the California CS, while the same wind perturbation results in a reduction of the hypoxic water volume in the Canary CS. This is because coastal hypoxia is driven by local remineralization of organic matter on the shelf in the Canary CS, while it is essentially driven by large-scale advection of low oxygen water in the California CS. The intensification of upwelling tends to acerbate ocean acidification in the surface ocean, but mediates it below it, leading to complex change pattern reflecting the intricate interplay between biologically and physically -driven changes in calcium carbonate saturation state. Additionally, our results reveal differential biogeochemical responses to upwelling intensification in the water column and on the continental shelf with, therefore, contrasting implications for the benthic and the pelagic communities of these ecosystems.

  13. Effects of hyperglycemia on lonidamine-induced acidification and de-energization of human melanoma xenografts and sensitization to melphalan

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Zhou, Rong; Leeper, Dennis B.; Glickson, Jerry D.

    2015-01-01

    We seek to exploit the natural tendency of melanomas and other tumors to convert glucose to lactate as a method for selective intracellular acidification of cancer cells and for potentiating the activity of N-mustard antineoplastic agents. We performed this study to evaluate whether induction of hyperglycemia (26 mM) could enhance the effects of lonidamine (LND, 100 mg/kg; i.p.) on inducing intracellular acidification, bioenergetic decline and potentiation of the activity of melphalan (LPAM) against DB-1 melanoma xenografts in mice. Intracellular pH (pHi), extracellular pH (pHe) and bioenergetics (βNTP/Pi) were reduced by 0.7 units (p<0.001), 0.3 units (p>0.05) and 51.4% (p<0.05), respectively. Therapeutic response to LPAM (7.5 mg/kg; i.v.) + LND (100 mg/kg; i.p.) was reduced by about a factor of 3 under hyperglycemic conditions compared to normoglycemia, producing a growth delay of 7.76 d (tumor doubling time = 5.31 d, cell kill = 64%) compared to LND alone of 1.70 d and LPAM alone of 0.29 d. Under normoglycemic conditions LND plus LPAM produced a growth delay of 17.75 d, corresponding to a cell kill of 90 % at the same doses for each of these agents. The decrease in tumor cell kill under hyperglycemic conditions correlates with an increase in tumor ATP levels resulting from increased glycolytic activity. However, hyperglycemia substantially increases lactic acid production in tumors by a factor of ~6 (p<0.05), but hyperglycemia did not increase the effects of LND on acidification of the tumor most likely because of the strong buffering action of carbon dioxide (the pKa of carbonic acid is 6.4). Therefore, this study demonstrates that addition of glucose during treatment with LND diminishes the activity of this agent. PMID:25702942

  14. Projections of ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C. A.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Patel, P.; Mundra, A.

    2015-12-01

    Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans, potentially having serious consequences for the marine ecosystems. Projections of ocean acidification are primarily determined from prescribed emission pathways within large scale earth system models. Rather than running the cumbersome earth system models, we can use a reduced-form model to quickly emulate the CMIP5 models for projection studies under arbitrary emission pathways and for uncertainty analyses of the marine carbonate system. In this study we highlight the capability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries. Hector is run under historical emissions and a high emissions scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), comparing its output to observations and CMIP5 models that contain ocean biogeochemical cycles. Ocean acidification changes are already taking place, with significant changes projected to occur over the next 300 years. We project a low latitude (> 55°) surface ocean pH decrease from preindustrial conditions by 0.4 units to 7.77 at 2100, and an additional 0.27 units to 7.50 at 2300. Aragonite saturations decrease by 1.85 units to 2.21 at 2100 and an additional 0.80 units to 1.42 at 2300. Under a high emissions scenario, for every 1 °C of future warming we find a 0.107 unit pH decrease and a 0.438 unit decrease in aragonite saturations. Hector reproduces the global historical trends, and future projections with equivalent rates of change over time compared to observations and CMIP5 models. Hector is a robust tool that can be used for quick ocean acidification projections, accurately emulating large scale climate models under multiple emission pathways.

  15. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate

  16. Ocean Acidification: A Major Driver of Coral Bleaching in the 21st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, K.; Eakin, M. C.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2009-05-01

    Heat stress long been known to drive patterns of coral bleaching. Recently, however, it was discovered that ocean acidification can drive coral bleaching independently of temperature. This raises the question: how important will acidification be in driving coral bleaching under climate change? Here, we develop and apply a model that accounts for both thermal stress and ocean acidification in the coral bleaching response. Our analyses, which combine experimental bleaching data under manipulated ocean chemistry and warming with projections of CO2 and SST based on global circulation models, show that ocean acidification will become a key driver of future mass bleaching events within a few decades. Our findings, based on highly conservative assumptions, reveal that coral bleaching alert systems based on warming alone could underestimate coral bleaching by up to 50% during the 21st century. This is a striking result that will affect coral reef management strategies worldwide and has policy implications relating to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  18. GROUP REPORT: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACIDIFICATION ON AQUATIC BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidification affects all components of biological communities in lakes and streams: microbes, algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and other vertebrates that rely on aquatic ecosystems for habitat or food. echanisms of effect are both direct (toxic responses to c...

  19. Diffusion Boundary Layers Ameliorate the Negative Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Temperate Coralline Macroalga Arthrocardia corymbosa

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, Christopher E.; Boyd, Philip W.; McGraw, Christina M.; Hepburn, Christopher D.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Morris, Jaz N.; Smith, Abigail M.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenically-modulated reductions in pH, termed ocean acidification, could pose a major threat to the physiological performance, stocks, and biodiversity of calcifiers and may devalue their ecosystem services. Recent debate has focussed on the need to develop approaches to arrest the potential negative impacts of ocean acidification on ecosystems dominated by calcareous organisms. In this study, we demonstrate the role of a discrete (i.e. diffusion) boundary layer (DBL), formed at the surface of some calcifying species under slow flows, in buffering them from the corrosive effects of low pH seawater. The coralline macroalga Arthrocardia corymbosa was grown in a multifactorial experiment with two mean pH levels (8.05 ‘ambient’ and 7.65 a worst case ‘ocean acidification’ scenario projected for 2100), each with two levels of seawater flow (fast and slow, i.e. DBL thin or thick). Coralline algae grown under slow flows with thick DBLs (i.e., unstirred with regular replenishment of seawater to their surface) maintained net growth and calcification at pH 7.65 whereas those in higher flows with thin DBLs had net dissolution. Growth under ambient seawater pH (8.05) was not significantly different in thin and thick DBL treatments. No other measured diagnostic (recruit sizes and numbers, photosynthetic metrics, %C, %N, %MgCO3) responded to the effects of reduced seawater pH. Thus, flow conditions that promote the formation of thick DBLs, may enhance the subsistence of calcifiers by creating localised hydrodynamic conditions where metabolic activity ameliorates the negative impacts of ocean acidification. PMID:24824089

  20. Impacts of temperature increase and acidification on thickness of the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the Caribbean coral Diploria spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratte, Zoe A.; Richardson, Laurie L.

    2014-06-01

    Coral mechanisms of resilience and resistance to stressors such as increasing sea surface temperature and ocean acidification must first be understood in order to facilitate the survival of coral reefs as we know them. One such mechanism is production of the protective surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML). In this study, we investigated changes in the thickness of the SML in response to increasing temperature and acidification for the three Caribbean scleractinian coral species of the genus Diploria, which have been shown to exhibit differential resilience to disease and bleaching. Among the three species, Diploria strigosa is known to have a higher susceptibility to disease, Diploria labyrinthiformis is known to bleach more quickly, and Diploria clivosa is relatively unstudied. When temperature was increased from 25 to 31 °C over a 1- or 6-week period, the overall thickness of the SML decreased from 33 to 55 % for all three species. Average SML thickness at 25 °C for all three species ranged from 106 to 156 μm, while average thickness at 31 °C ranged from 64 to 86 μm. SML thickness was significantly different among species at 25 °C, but not at 31 °C. D. labyrinthiformis demonstrated lower fragment mortality due to thermal stress when compared to the other Diploria species. Acidification from pH 8.2 to 7.7 over 5 weeks had no effect on SML thickness for any species. The observed decrease in SML thickness in response to increased temperature might be attributed to a decrease in the production of mucus or an increase in the viscosity of the SML. These findings may help to explain the increased prevalence of coral disease during the warmer months, since increased temperature compromises an important aspect of coral innate immunity, as well as differences in disease and bleaching susceptibilities between Diploria species.

  1. Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx, and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Edman, Moa; Claremar, Björn; Rutgersson, Anna

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the effects of historical atmospheric depositions of sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium from land and shipping on the acid-base balance in the Baltic Sea. The modelling considers the 1750-2014 period, when land and ship emissions changed greatly, with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, SOx, NOx, and NHx emissions, and nutrient loads. The present results indicate that Baltic Sea acidification due to the atmospheric deposition of acids peaked around 1980, with a pH cumulative decrease of approximately 10-2 in surface waters. This is one order of magnitude less than the cumulative acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2. The acidification contribution of shipping is one order of magnitude less than that of land emissions. However, the pH trend due to atmospheric acids has started to reverse due to reduced land emissions, though the effect of shipping is ongoing. The effect of strong atmospheric acids on Baltic Sea water depends on the region and period studied. The largest total alkalinity sink per surface area is in the south-western Baltic Sea where shipping is intense. Considering the entire Baltic Sea over the 2001-2010 period, the pH changes are approximately -3×10-3 to -11×10-3 and -4×10-4 to -16×10-4 pH units attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively. The corresponding changes in total alkalinity are approximately -10 to -30 μmol kg-1 and -1 to -4 μmol kg-1 attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively.

  2. Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, C M; Michael, K; Lucassen, M; Jutfelt, F; Motyka, R; Dupont, S; Pörtner, H-O

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3-4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy b