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Sample records for acidophilic microbial community

  1. Cultivation and quantitative proteomic analyses of acidophilic microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Belnap, Christopher P.; Pan, Chongle; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Power, Mary E.; Samatova, Nagiza F; Carver, Rudolf L.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an extreme environment characterized by low pH and high metal concentrations, can support dense acidophilic microbial biofilm communities that rely on chemoautotrophic production based on iron oxidation. Field determined production rates indicate that, despite the extreme conditions, these communities are sufficiently well adapted to their habitats to achieve primary production rates comparable to those of microbial communities occurring in some non-extreme environments. To enable laboratory studies of growth, production and ecology of AMD microbial communities, a culturing system was designed to reproduce natural biofilms, including organisms recalcitrant to cultivation. A comprehensive metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to verify that natural and laboratory communities were comparable at the functional level. Results confirmed that the composition and core metabolic activities of laboratory-grown communities were similar to a natural community, including the presence of active, low abundance bacteria and archaea that have not yet been isolated. However, laboratory growth rates were slow compared with natural communities, and this correlated with increased abundance of stress response proteins for the dominant bacteria in laboratory communities. Modification of cultivation conditions reduced the abundance of stress response proteins and increased laboratory community growth rates. The research presented here represents the first description of the application of a metabolic labeling-based quantitative proteomic analysis at the community level and resulted in a model microbial community system ideal for testing physiological and ecological hypotheses.

  2. Quantitative proteomic analyses of the response of acidophilic microbial communities to different pH conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Belnap, Christopher P.; Pan, Chongle; Denef, Vincent; Samatova, Nagiza F; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive genomic characterization of multi-species acid mine drainage microbial consortia combined with laboratory cultivation has enabled the application of quantitative proteomic analyses at the community level. In this study, quantitative proteomic comparisons were used to functionally characterize laboratory-cultivated acidophilic communities sustained in pH 1.45 or 0.85 conditions. The distributions of all proteins identified for individual organisms indicated biases for either high or low pH, and suggests pH-specific niche partitioning for low abundance bacteria and archaea. Although the proteome of the dominant bacterium, Leptospirillum group II, was largely unaffected by pH treatments, analysis of functional categories indicated proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as cell membrane/envelope biogenesis were overrepresented at high pH. Comparison of specific protein abundances indicates higher pH conditions favor Leptospirillum group III, whereas low pH conditions promote the growth of certain archaea. Thus, quantitative proteomic comparisons revealed distinct differences in community composition and metabolic function of individual organisms during different pH treatments. Proteomic analysis revealed other aspects of community function. Different numbers of phage proteins were identified across biological replicates, indicating stochastic spatial heterogeneity of phage outbreaks. Additionally, proteomic data were used to identify a previously unknown genotypic variant of Leptospirillum group II, an indication of selection for a specific Leptospirillum group II population in laboratory communities. Our results confirm the importance of pH and related geochemical factors in fine-tuning acidophilic microbial community structure and function at the species and strain level, and demonstrate the broad utility of proteomics in laboratory community studies.

  3. Biochemistry and Ecology of Novel Cytochromes Catalyzing Fe(II) Oxidation by an Acidophilic Microbial Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. W.; Jeans, C. J.; Thelen, M. P.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Hettich, R. C.; Chan, C. S.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    An acidophilic microbial community found in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA forms abundant biofilms in extremely acidic (pH<1) and toxic metal conditions. In this ecosystem, biological Fe(II) oxidation is critical to the metabolic functioning of the community, and in turn this process generates acid mine drainage, causing an environmental catastrophe. Two conspicuous novel proteins isolated from these biofilms were identified as gene products of Leptospirillum group II and were characterized as cytochromes with unique properties. Sulfuric acid extraction of biofilm samples liberated one of these proteins, a 16 kDa cytochrome with an unusual alpha-band absorption at 579 (Cyt579). Genomic sequencing of multiple biofilms indicated that several variants of Cyt579 were present in Leptospirillum strains. Intact protein MS analysis identified the dominant variants in each biofilm and documented multiple N-terminal cleavage sites for Cyt579. By combining biochemical, geochemical and microbiological data, we established that the sequence variation and N-terminal processing of Cyt579 are selected by ecological conditions. In addition to the soluble Cyt579, the second cytochrome appears as a much larger protein complex of ~210 kDa predominant in the biofilm membrane fraction, and has an alpha-band absorption at 572 nm. The 60 kDa cytochrome subunit, Cyt572, resides in the outer membrane of LeptoII, and readily oxidizes Fe(II) at low pH (0.95 - 3.0). Several genes encoding Cyt572 were localized within a recombination hotspot between two strains of LeptoII, causing a large range of variation in the sequences. Genomic sequencing and MS proteomic studies established that the variants were also selected by ecological conditions. A general mechanistic model for Fe(II) oxidation has been developed from these studies. Initial Fe(II) oxidation by Cyt572 occurs at the outer membrane. Cyt572 then transfers electrons to Cyt579, perhaps representing an initial step in energy flow

  4. Community transcriptomics reveals unexpected high microbial diversity in acidophilic biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Aliaga Goltsman, Daniela S; Comolli, Luis R; Thomas, Brian C; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-04-01

    A fundamental question in microbial ecology relates to community structure, and how this varies across environment types. It is widely believed that some environments, such as those at very low pH, host simple communities based on the low number of taxa, possibly due to the extreme environmental conditions. However, most analyses of species richness have relied on methods that provide relatively low ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sampling depth. Here we used community transcriptomics to analyze the microbial diversity of natural acid mine drainage biofilms from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, California. Our analyses target deep pools of rRNA gene transcripts recovered from both natural and laboratory-grown biofilms across varying developmental stages. In all, 91.8% of the ∼ 254 million Illumina reads mapped to rRNA genes represented in the SILVA database. Up to 159 different taxa, including Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes, were identified. Diversity measures, ordination and hierarchical clustering separate environmental from laboratory-grown biofilms. In part, this is due to the much larger number of rare members in the environmental biofilms. Although Leptospirillum bacteria generally dominate biofilms, we detect a wide variety of other Nitrospira organisms present at very low abundance. Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum were also detected. The results indicate that the primary characteristic that has enabled prior extensive cultivation-independent 'omic' analyses is not simplicity but rather the high dominance by a few taxa. We conclude that a much larger variety of organisms than previously thought have adapted to this extreme environment, although only few are selected for at any one time. PMID:25361394

  5. Community transcriptomics reveals unexpected high microbial diversity in acidophilic biofilm communities

    PubMed Central

    Aliaga Goltsman, Daniela S; Comolli, Luis R; Thomas, Brian C; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in microbial ecology relates to community structure, and how this varies across environment types. It is widely believed that some environments, such as those at very low pH, host simple communities based on the low number of taxa, possibly due to the extreme environmental conditions. However, most analyses of species richness have relied on methods that provide relatively low ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sampling depth. Here we used community transcriptomics to analyze the microbial diversity of natural acid mine drainage biofilms from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, California. Our analyses target deep pools of rRNA gene transcripts recovered from both natural and laboratory-grown biofilms across varying developmental stages. In all, 91.8% of the ∼254 million Illumina reads mapped to rRNA genes represented in the SILVA database. Up to 159 different taxa, including Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes, were identified. Diversity measures, ordination and hierarchical clustering separate environmental from laboratory-grown biofilms. In part, this is due to the much larger number of rare members in the environmental biofilms. Although Leptospirillum bacteria generally dominate biofilms, we detect a wide variety of other Nitrospira organisms present at very low abundance. Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum were also detected. The results indicate that the primary characteristic that has enabled prior extensive cultivation-independent ‘omic' analyses is not simplicity but rather the high dominance by a few taxa. We conclude that a much larger variety of organisms than previously thought have adapted to this extreme environment, although only few are selected for at any one time. PMID:25361394

  6. Proteogenomic basis for ecological divergence of closely related bacteria in natural acidophilic microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Denef, Vincent; Kalnejals, Linda; Muller, R; Wilmes, P; Baker, Brett J.; Thomas, Brian; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial species concepts are controversial. More widely accepted is the need to understand how differences in gene content and sequence lead to ecological divergence. To address this relationship in ecosystem context, we investigated links between genotype and ecology of two genotypic groups of Leptospirillumgroup II bacteria in comprehensively characterized, natural acidophilic biofilm communities. These groups share 99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and 95% average amino acid identity between their orthologs. One genotypic group predominates during early colonization, and the other group typically proliferates in later successional stages, forming distinct patches tens to hundreds of micrometers in diameter. Among early colonizing populations, we observed dominance of five genotypes that differed from each other by the extent of recombination with the late colonizing type. Our analyses suggest that the specific recombinant variant within the early colonizing group is selected for by environmental parameters such as temperature, consistent with recombination as a mechanism for ecological fine tuning. Evolutionary signatures, and strain-resolved expression patterns measured via mass spectrometry based proteomics, indicate increased cobalamin biosynthesis, (de)methylation, and glycine cleavage in the late colonizer. This may suggest environmental changes within the biofilm during development, accompanied by redirection of compatible solutes from osmoprotectants toward metabolism. Across 27 communities, comparative proteogenomic analyses show that differential regulation of shared genes and expression of a small subset of the 15% of genes unique to each genotype are involved in niche partitioning. In summary, the results show how subtle genetic variations can lead to distinct ecological strategies.

  7. Proteogenomic basis for ecological divergence of closely related bacteria in natural acidophilic microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Denef, Vincent J.; Kalnejais, Linda H.; Mueller, Ryan S.; Wilmes, Paul; Baker, Brett J.; Thomas, Brian C.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial species concepts are controversial. More widely accepted is the need to understand how differences in gene content and sequence lead to ecological divergence. To address this relationship in ecosystem context, we investigated links between genotype and ecology of two genotypic groups of Leptospirillum group II bacteria in comprehensively characterized, natural acidophilic biofilm communities. These groups share 99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and 95% average amino acid identity between their orthologs. One genotypic group predominates during early colonization, and the other group typically proliferates in later successional stages, forming distinct patches tens to hundreds of micrometers in diameter. Among early colonizing populations, we observed dominance of five genotypes that differed from each other by the extent of recombination with the late colonizing type. Our analyses suggest that the specific recombinant variant within the early colonizing group is selected for by environmental parameters such as temperature, consistent with recombination as a mechanism for ecological fine tuning. Evolutionary signatures, and strain-resolved expression patterns measured via mass spectrometry–based proteomics, indicate increased cobalamin biosynthesis, (de)methylation, and glycine cleavage in the late colonizer. This may suggest environmental changes within the biofilm during development, accompanied by redirection of compatible solutes from osmoprotectants toward metabolism. Across 27 communities, comparative proteogenomic analyses show that differential regulation of shared genes and expression of a small subset of the ∼15% of genes unique to each genotype are involved in niche partitioning. In summary, the results show how subtle genetic variations can lead to distinct ecological strategies. PMID:20133593

  8. Cytochrome 572 is a conspicuous membrane protein with iron oxidation activity purified directly from a natural acidophilic microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Singer, Steven; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered and characterized a novel membrane cytochrome of an iron oxidizing microbial biofilm obtained from the surface of extremely acidic mine water. This protein was initially identified through proteogenomic analysis as one of many novel gene products of Leptospirillum group II, the dominant bacterium of this community (Ram et al, 2005, Science 308, 1915-20). Extraction of proteins directly from environmental biofilm samples followed by membrane fractionation, detergent solubilization and gel filtration chromatography resulted in the purification of an abundant yellow-red protein. Covalently bound to heme, the purified cytochrome has a unique spectral signature at 572 nm and is thus called Cyt572. It readily oxidizes Fe2+ even in the presence of Fe3+ over a pH range from 0.95 to 3.4. Independent experiments involving 2D blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and chemical crosslinking establish a homotetrameric structure for Cyt572. Also, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that the protein is largely beta-stranded, consistent with an outer membrane location. Although no significant sequence homology to the full-length cytochrome is detected in protein databases, environmental DNA sequences from both Leptospirillum groups II and III reveal at least 17 strain variants of Cyt572. Due to its abundance, cellular location and Fe2+ oxidation activity, we propose Cyt572 is the iron oxidase of the Leptospirillum bacteria, providing a critical function for fitness within the ecological niche of this acidophilic microbial community.

  9. [Effect of temperature on the rate of oxidation of pyrrhotite-rich sulfide ore flotation concentrate and the structure of the acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic microbial community].

    PubMed

    Moshchanetskii, P V; Pivovarova, T A; Belyi, A V; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of flotation concentrate of a pyrrhotite-rich sulfide ore by acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities at 35, 40, and 45 degrees C was investigated. According to the physicochemical parameters of the liquid phase of the pulp, as well as the results of analysis of the solid residue after biooxidation and cyanidation, the community developed at 40 degrees C exhibited the highest rate of oxidation. The degree of gold recovery at 35, 40, and 45 degrees C was 89.34, 94.59, and 83.25%, respectively. At 40 degrees C, the highest number of microbial cells (6.01 x 10(9) cells/mL) was observed. While temperature had very little effect on the species composition of microbial communities, except for the absence of Leptospirillum ferriphilum at 35 degrees C, the shares of individual species in the communities varied with temperature. Relatively high numbers of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, the organism oxidizing iron and elemental sulfur at higher rates than other acidophilic chemolithotrophic species, were observed at 40 degrees C. PMID:25844443

  10. Genome-directed isolation of the key nitrogen fixer Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum sp. nov. from an acidophilic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Gene W; Lo, Ian; Baker, Brett J; Allen, Eric E; Hugenholtz, Philip; Banfield, Jillian F

    2005-10-01

    Analysis of assembled random shotgun sequence data from a low-diversity, subsurface acid mine drainage (AMD) biofilm revealed a single nif operon. This was found on a genome fragment belonging to a member of Leptospirillum group III, a lineage in the Nitrospirae phylum with no cultivated representatives. Based on the prediction that this organism is solely responsible for nitrogen fixation in the community, we pursued a selective isolation strategy to obtain the organism in pure culture. An AMD biofilm sample naturally abundant in Leptospirillum group III cells was homogenized, filtered, and serially diluted into a nitrogen-free liquid medium. The resulting culture in the terminal dilution grew autotrophically to a maximum cell density of approximately 10(6) cells/ml, oxidizing ferrous iron as the sole energy source. 16S rRNA-internal transcribed spacer region clone library analysis confirmed that the isolate is a member of Leptospirillum group III and that the culture is axenic. We propose the name Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum sp. nov. for this iron-oxidizing, free-living diazotroph. This study highlights how environmental sequence data can provide insights for culturing previously uncultured microorganisms. PMID:16204553

  11. Electricity generation from tetrathionate in microbial fuel cells by acidophiles.

    PubMed

    Sulonen, Mira L K; Kokko, Marika E; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2015-03-01

    Inorganic sulfur compounds, such as tetrathionate, are often present in mining process and waste waters. The biodegradation of tetrathionate was studied under acidic conditions in aerobic batch cultivations and in anaerobic anodes of two-chamber flow-through microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All four cultures originating from biohydrometallurgical process waters from multimetal ore heap bioleaching oxidized tetrathionate aerobically at pH below 3 with sulfate as the main soluble metabolite. In addition, all cultures generated electricity from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5 with ferric iron as the terminal cathodic electron acceptor. The maximum current and power densities during MFC operation and in the performance analysis were 79.6 mA m(-2) and 13.9 mW m(-2) and 433 mA m(-2) and 17.6 mW m(-2), respectively. However, the low coulombic efficiency (below 5%) indicates that most of the electrons were directed to other processes, such as aerobic oxidation of tetrathionate and unmeasured intermediates. The microbial community analysis revealed that the dominant species both in the anolyte and on the anode electrode surface of the MFCs were Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. This study provides a proof of concept that tetrathionate serves as electron donor for biological electricity production in the pH range of 1.2-2.5. PMID:25463232

  12. A microbial fuel cell operating at low pH using an acidophile, Acidiphilium cryptum.

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Cesar, Scott A; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Tsouris, Costas

    2008-01-01

    A microbial fuel cell using an acidophilic microorganism, Acidiphilium cryptum, as the anode biocatalyst was investigated. The mode of electron transfer by this organism to the electrode was studied. Electricity production in the presence of a mediator was demonstrated using its natural electron acceptor, iron, as well as phenosafranin as the electron mediating agent. Production of Fe(II), as a result of iron reduction, at a pH of 4.0 or below was found to support electricity production. Accumulation of the oxidized iron, Fe(III) as a result of electron donation to the electrode, however, restricted higher current output. Addition of nitrilotriacetic acid helped resolve the problem by redissolution of deposited Fe(III). Further, use of phenosafranin as a secondary mediator resulted in improvement in power output. At a cell loading equivalent to OD600 of 1.0, a power output of 12.7 mW/m2 was obtained in a two-chamber air-sparged fuel cell. Potential for direct electron transfer was also investigated but not detected under the conditions studied.

  13. Why Microbial Communities?

    ScienceCinema

    Fredrickson, Jim (PNNL)

    2012-02-29

    The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Fredrickson introduces the symposium by defining microbial communities and describing their scientific relevance as they relate to solving problems in energy, climate, and sustainability.

  14. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, E.S.; King, S.; Tomberlin, J.K.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Barkay, T.; Geesey, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH ??? 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg +), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l -1) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g-1 dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg + in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg+ enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg+ was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg+ biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg+ to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; King, Susan; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Krabbenhoft, David P; Barkay, Tamar; Geesey, Gill G

    2009-04-01

    Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH approximately 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg(+)), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l(-1)) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g(-1) dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg(+) in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg(+) enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg(+) was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg(+) biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg(+) to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP. PMID:19170726

  16. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  17. Microbial population Diversity of indigenous acidophilic bacteria for recovering the valuable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Cho, K.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    A taxon- or group-specific PCR primer serves as a valuable tool for studying the bioleaching mechanisms of a particular group of microorganisms. Especially for an uncultured (or very difficult to isolate from their environments) group of microorganisms, the group-specific PCR primer is essential for the investigation of distribution patterns and the estimation of genetic diversity of the target microorganisms. This study investigated the Biodiversity through molecular biology method using the three different indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea and acidic hot spring in Hatchnobaru, Japan. We performed the optical analysis (phase-contrast microscope and SEM), base sequencing. In the phase-contrast microscope(X 4,000) and SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed. The results of base sequencing using EzTaxon server data revealed Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (Go-seong - 97.79%, Yeon-hwa - 97.90% and Hatchnobaru - 97.97%)

  18. Archean Microbial Mat Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Michael M.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pope, Michael C.; Olszewski, Thomas D.; Gong, Jian

    2011-05-01

    Much of the Archean record of microbial communities consists of fossil mats and stromatolites. Critical physical emergent properties governing the evolution of large-scale (centimeters to meters) topographic relief on the mat landscape are (a) mat surface roughness relative to the laminar sublayer and (b) cohesion. These properties can be estimated for fossil samples under many circumstances. A preliminary analysis of Archean mat cohesion suggests that mats growing in shallow marine environments from throughout this time had cohesions similar to those of modern shallow marine mats. There may have been a significant increase in mat strength at the end of the Archean.

  19. Quantitative Microbial Community Analysis of Three Different Sulfidic Mine Tailing Dumps Generating Acid Mine Drainage▿

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 109 cells g−1 dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general. PMID:18586975

  20. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general. PMID:18586975

  1. High-Resolution Microbial Community Succession of Microbially Induced Concrete Corrosion in Working Sanitary Manholes

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Alison L.; Robertson, Charles E.; Harris, J. Kirk; Frank, Daniel N.; Kotter, Cassandra V.; Stevens, Mark J.; Pace, Norman R.; Hernandez, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Microbially-induced concrete corrosion in headspaces threatens wastewater infrastructure worldwide. Models for predicting corrosion rates in sewer pipe networks rely largely on information from culture-based investigations. In this study, the succession of microbes associated with corroding concrete was characterized over a one-year monitoring campaign using rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic methods. New concrete specimens were exposed in two highly corrosive manholes (high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gas) on the Colorado Front Range for up to a year. Community succession on corroding surfaces was assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA amplicons and Sanger sequencing of 16S universal rRNA clones. Microbial communities associated with corrosion fronts presented distinct succession patterns which converged to markedly low α-diversity levels (< 10 taxa) in conjunction with decreasing pH. The microbial community succession pattern observed in this study agreed with culture-based models that implicate acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus spp. in advanced communities, with two notable exceptions. Early communities exposed to alkaline surface pH presented relatively high α-diversity, including heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing, and sulfur-oxidizing genera, and one community exposed to neutral surface pH presented a diverse transition community comprised of less than 20% sulfur-oxidizers. PMID:25748024

  2. High-resolution microbial community succession of microbially induced concrete corrosion in working sanitary manholes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Alison L; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Frank, Daniel N; Kotter, Cassandra V; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R; Hernandez, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Microbially-induced concrete corrosion in headspaces threatens wastewater infrastructure worldwide. Models for predicting corrosion rates in sewer pipe networks rely largely on information from culture-based investigations. In this study, the succession of microbes associated with corroding concrete was characterized over a one-year monitoring campaign using rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic methods. New concrete specimens were exposed in two highly corrosive manholes (high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gas) on the Colorado Front Range for up to a year. Community succession on corroding surfaces was assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA amplicons and Sanger sequencing of 16S universal rRNA clones. Microbial communities associated with corrosion fronts presented distinct succession patterns which converged to markedly low α-diversity levels (< 10 taxa) in conjunction with decreasing pH. The microbial community succession pattern observed in this study agreed with culture-based models that implicate acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus spp. in advanced communities, with two notable exceptions. Early communities exposed to alkaline surface pH presented relatively high α-diversity, including heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing, and sulfur-oxidizing genera, and one community exposed to neutral surface pH presented a diverse transition community comprised of less than 20% sulfur-oxidizers. PMID:25748024

  3. Biomineralization of Acidophilic Eukaryotes in Iron-rich Environments: Implications in Microbial Fossil Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza-Egipsy, V.; Aguilera, A.

    2005-12-01

    This study focus on the influence of eukaryotic microorganisms on the formation of iron-rich deposits in an extreme acidic environment, Rio Tinto, Spain. The cell walls of microscopic algae (Cyanidium, Chlorella, Mesotaenium, Nitzschia) and some protist as Euglena mutabilis have been described as sites of nucleation of iron-rich minerals. Combined scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) with non-destructive microanalytical techniques (EDS) have been used in order to determine the microorganisms ultrastructure preservation related to biominealization mechanisms, and the nature of the minerals in the sediments. The presence of microorganisms forming biofilms on the riverbed influence the precipitation of minerals and the final texture of the layered sediments. In some cases, silica permineralization of the cell walls leads to the formation of cell-shaped structures that may be considered as biomarkers. In other cases, the epicellular deposition of minerals preserved the texture of the biofilm in the sediments. In the case of soft cell wall microorganisms as Euglena mutabilis the biomineralization mechanisms include the intracellular sequestration of Fe, leading to the preservation of cytoplasmic structures. The process of biomineralization in eukaryotic microorganisms has permited the preservation of microfossils in a very oxidizing environment where organic compounds are unlikely to be preserved within sediments. Studies of mechanisms of microbial fossil formation in modern extreme environments that support microbial comunities are necessary to develop criteria for identifying inorganic traces of microbial life.

  4. Significance of Microbial Communities and Interactions in Safeguarding Reactive Mine Tailings by Ecological Engineering▿†

    PubMed Central

    N̆ancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2011-01-01

    Pyritic mine tailings (mineral waste generated by metal mining) pose significant risk to the environment as point sources of acidic, metal-rich effluents (acid mine drainage [AMD]). While the accelerated oxidative dissolution of pyrite and other sulfide minerals in tailings by acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes has been widely reported, other acidophiles (heterotrophic bacteria that catalyze the dissimilatory reduction of iron and sulfur) can reverse the reactions involved in AMD genesis, and these have been implicated in the “natural attenuation” of mine waters. We have investigated whether by manipulating microbial communities in tailings (inoculating with iron- and sulfur-reducing acidophilic bacteria and phototrophic acidophilic microalgae) it is possible to mitigate the impact of the acid-generating and metal-mobilizing chemolithotrophic prokaryotes that are indigenous to tailing deposits. Sixty tailings mesocosms were set up, using five different microbial inoculation variants, and analyzed at regular intervals for changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters for up to 1 year. Differences between treatment protocols were most apparent between tailings that had been inoculated with acidophilic algae in addition to aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and those that had been inoculated with only pyrite-oxidizing chemolithotrophs; these differences included higher pH values, lower redox potentials, and smaller concentrations of soluble copper and zinc. The results suggest that empirical ecological engineering of tailing lagoons to promote the growth and activities of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria could minimize their risk of AMD production and that the heterotrophic populations could be sustained by facilitating the growth of microalgae to provide continuous inputs of organic carbon. PMID:21965397

  5. [Oxidation of sulfur-containing substrates by aboriginal and experimentally designed microbial communities].

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, T A; Bulaev, A G; Roshchupko, P V; Belyĭ, A V; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and experimental (constructed of pure microbial cultures) communities of acidophilic chemolithotrophs have been studied. The oxidation of elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate, and potassium tetrathionate as sole sources of energy has been monitored. The oxidation rate of the experimental community is higher as compared to the aboriginal community isolated from a flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore. The degree of oxidation of the mentioned S substrates amounts to 17.91, 68.30, and 93.94% for the experimental microbial community and to 10.71, 56.03, and 79.50% for the aboriginal community, respectively. The degree of oxidation of sulfur sulfide forms in the ore flotation concentrate is 59.15% by the aboriginal microbial community and 49.40% by the experimental microbial community. Despite a higher rate of oxidation of S substrates as a sole source of energy by the experimental microbial community, the aboriginal community oxidizes S substrates at a higher rate in the flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore, from which it was isolated. Bacterial-chemical oxidation of the flotation concentrate by the aboriginal microbial community allows for the extraction of an additional 32.3% of gold from sulfide minerals, which is by 5.7% larger compared to the yield obtained by the experimental microbial community. PMID:23330391

  6. Interchange of entire communities: microbial community coalescence.

    PubMed

    Rillig, Matthias C; Antonovics, Janis; Caruso, Tancredi; Lehmann, Anika; Powell, Jeff R; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Verbruggen, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Microbial communities are enigmatically diverse. We propose a novel view of processes likely affecting microbial assemblages, which could be viewed as the Great American Interchange en miniature: the wholesale exchange among microbial communities resulting from moving pieces of the environment containing entire assemblages. Incidental evidence for such 'community coalescence' is accumulating, but such processes are rarely studied, likely because of the absence of suitable terminology or a conceptual framework. We provide the nucleus for such a conceptual foundation for the study of community coalescence, examining factors shaping these events, links to bodies of ecological theory, and we suggest modeling approaches for understanding coalescent communities. We argue for the systematic study of community coalescence because of important functional and applied consequences. PMID:26111582

  7. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  8. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Microbial Community in the Tailings of a Pb-Zn Mine Generating Acidic Drainage ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Nan; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Wan, Cai-Yun; Li, Jie; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the microbial community in the abandoned tailings impoundment of a Pb-Zn mine revealed distinct microbial populations associated with the different oxidation stages of the tailings. Although Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. were consistently present in the acidic tailings, acidophilic archaea, mostly Ferroplasma acidiphilum, were predominant in the oxidized zones and the oxidation front, indicating their importance to generation of acid mine drainage. PMID:21705549

  10. Synthetic networks in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suel, Gurol

    2015-03-01

    While bacteria are single celled organisms, they predominantly reside in structured communities known as biofilms. Cells in biofilms are encapsulated and protected by the extracellular matrix (ECM), which also confines cells in space. During biofilm development, microbial cells are organized in space and over time. Little is known regarding the processes that drive the spatio-temporal organization of microbial communities. Here I will present our latest efforts that utilize synthetic biology approaches to uncover the organizational principles that drive biofilm development. I will also discuss the possible implications of our recent findings in terms of the cost and benefit to biofilm cells.

  11. Uncovering a microbial enigma: isolation and characterization of the streamer-generating, iron-oxidizing, acidophilic bacterium "Ferrovum myxofaciens".

    PubMed

    Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B; Hedrich, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    A betaproteobacterium, shown by molecular techniques to have widespread global distribution in extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4) ferruginous mine waters and also to be a major component of "acid streamer" growths in mine-impacted water bodies, has proven to be recalcitrant to enrichment and isolation. A modified "overlay" solid medium was devised and used to isolate this bacterium from a number of mine water samples. The physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of a pure culture of an isolate from an abandoned copper mine ("Ferrovum myxofaciens" strain P3G) have been elucidated. "F. myxofaciens" is an extremely acidophilic, psychrotolerant obligate autotroph that appears to use only ferrous iron as an electron donor and oxygen as an electron acceptor. It appears to use the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway to fix CO2 and is diazotrophic. It also produces copious amounts of extracellular polymeric materials that cause cells to attach to each other (and to form small streamer-like growth in vitro) and to different solid surfaces. "F. myxofaciens" can catalyze the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and, like many other acidophiles, is tolerant of many (cationic) transition metals. "F. myxofaciens" and related clone sequences form a monophyletic group within the Betaproteobacteria distantly related to classified orders, with genera of the family Nitrosomonadaceae (lithoautotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing neutrophiles) as the closest relatives. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences of "F. myxofaciens" and other Betaproteobacteria, a new family, "Ferrovaceae," and order, "Ferrovales," within the class Betaproteobacteria are proposed. "F. myxofaciens" is the first extreme acidophile to be described in the class Betaproteobacteria. PMID:24242243

  12. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  13. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  14. Microbial Communities in Biofilms of an Acid Mine Drainage Site Determined by Phospholipid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, S.; Fang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Phospholipids were extracted to determine the microbial biomass and community structure of biofims from an acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Green Valley coal mine site (GVS) in western Indiana. The distribution of specific biomarkers indicated the presence of a variety of microorganisms. Phototrophic microeukaryotes, which include Euglena mutabilis, algae, and cyanobacteria were the most dominant organisms, as indicated by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The presence of terminally methyl branched fatty acids suggests the presence of Gram-positive bacteria, and the mid-methyl branched fatty acids indicates the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Fungi appear to also be an important part of the AMD microbial communities as suggested by the presence of 18:2 fatty acid. The acidophilic microeukaryotes Euglena dominated the biofilm microbial communities. These microorganisms appear to play a prominent role in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and in releasing oxygen to the atmosphere by oxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the AMD environment comprises a host of microorganisms spreading out within the phylogenetic tree of life. Novel insights on the roles of microbial consortia in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and the production of oxygen through photosynthesis in AMD systems may have significance in the understanding of the interaction of Precambrian microbial communities in environments that produced microbially-mediated sedimentary structures and that caused oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere.

  15. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  16. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms. PMID:25605537

  17. Fundamentals of Microbial Community Resistance and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; Peter, Hannes; Allison, Steven D.; Baho, Didier L.; Berga, Mercè; Bürgmann, Helmut; Huber, David H.; Langenheder, Silke; Lennon, Jay T.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Handelsman, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the heart of all ecosystems, and yet microbial community behavior in disturbed environments remains difficult to measure and predict. Understanding the drivers of microbial community stability, including resistance (insensitivity to disturbance) and resilience (the rate of recovery after disturbance) is important for predicting community response to disturbance. Here, we provide an overview of the concepts of stability that are relevant for microbial communities. First, we highlight insights from ecology that are useful for defining and measuring stability. To determine whether general disturbance responses exist for microbial communities, we next examine representative studies from the literature that investigated community responses to press (long-term) and pulse (short-term) disturbances in a variety of habitats. Then we discuss the biological features of individual microorganisms, of microbial populations, and of microbial communities that may govern overall community stability. We conclude with thoughts about the unique insights that systems perspectives – informed by meta-omics data – may provide about microbial community stability. PMID:23267351

  18. Predicting taxonomic and functional structure of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jialiang; Huang, Linan; He, Zhili; Chen, Linxing; Hua, Zhengshuang; Jia, Pu; Li, Shengjin; Liu, Jun; Li, Jintian; Zhou, Jizhong; Shu, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    acidophilic microbial communities. PMID:26943622

  19. Molecular Survey of Concrete Biofilm Microbial Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although several studies have shown that bacteria can deteriorate concrete structures, there is very little information on the composition of concrete microbial communities. To this end, we studied different microbial communities associated with concrete biofilms using 16S rRNA g...

  20. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  1. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  2. Modeling microbial communities: current, developing, and future technologies for predicting microbial community interaction.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Hamada, Yuki; Gilbert, Jack

    2012-07-31

    Never has there been a greater opportunity for investigating microbial communities. Not only are the profound effects of microbial ecology on every aspect of Earth's geochemical cycles beginning to be understood, but also the analytical and computational tools for investigating microbial Earth are undergoing a rapid revolution. This environmental microbial interactome, the system of interactions between the microbiome and the environment, has shaped the planet's past and will undoubtedly continue to do so in the future. We review recent approaches for modeling microbial community structures and the interactions of microbial populations with their environments. Different modeling approaches consider the environmental microbial interactome from different aspects, and each provides insights to different facets of microbial ecology. We discuss the challenges and opportunities for the future of microbial modeling and describe recent advances in microbial community modeling that are extending current descriptive technologies into a predictive science. PMID:22465599

  3. Patterns and Processes of Microbial Community Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Steven K.; Fukami, Tadashi; O'Neill, Sean P.; Bilinski, Teresa M.; Stanish, Lee F.; Knelman, Joseph E.; Darcy, John L.; Lynch, Ryan C.; Wickey, Phillip; Ferrenberg, Scott

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent research has expanded our understanding of microbial community assembly. However, the field of community ecology is inaccessible to many microbial ecologists because of inconsistent and often confusing terminology as well as unnecessarily polarizing debates. Thus, we review recent literature on microbial community assembly, using the framework of Vellend (Q. Rev. Biol. 85:183–206, 2010) in an effort to synthesize and unify these contributions. We begin by discussing patterns in microbial biogeography and then describe four basic processes (diversification, dispersal, selection, and drift) that contribute to community assembly. We also discuss different combinations of these processes and where and when they may be most important for shaping microbial communities. The spatial and temporal scales of microbial community assembly are also discussed in relation to assembly processes. Throughout this review paper, we highlight differences between microbes and macroorganisms and generate hypotheses describing how these differences may be important for community assembly. We end by discussing the implications of microbial assembly processes for ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24006468

  4. Microbial interactions in building of communities

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christopher J.; Burns, Logan H.; Jack, Alison A.; Back, Catherine R.; Dutton, Lindsay C.; Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Establishment of a community is considered to be essential for microbial growth and survival in the human oral cavity. Biofilm communities have increased resilience to physical forces, antimicrobial agents, and nutritional variations. Specific cell-to-cell adherence processes, mediated by adhesin-receptor pairings on respective microbial surfaces, are able to direct community development. These interactions co-localize species in mutually beneficial relationships, such as streptococci, veillonellae, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans. In transition from the planktonic mode of growth to a biofilm community, microorganisms undergo major transcriptional and proteomic changes. These occur in response to sensing of diffusible signals, such as autoinducer molecules, and to contact with host tissues or other microbial cells. Underpinning many of these processes are intracellular phosphorylation events that regulate a large number of microbial interactions relevant to community formation and development. PMID:23253299

  5. Resistance, resilience, and redundancy in microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Steven D.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that plant community composition is key for predicting rates of ecosystem processes in the face of global change, microbial community composition is often ignored in ecosystem modeling. To address this issue, we review recent experiments and assess whether microbial community composition is resistant, resilient, or functionally redundant in response to four different disturbances. We find that the composition of most microbial groups is sensitive and not immediately resilient to disturbance, regardless of taxonomic breadth of the group or the type of disturbance. Other studies demonstrate that changes in composition are often associated with changes in ecosystem process rates. Thus, changes in microbial communities due to disturbance may directly affect ecosystem processes. Based on these relationships, we propose a simple framework to incorporate microbial community composition into ecosystem process models. We conclude that this effort would benefit from more empirical data on the links among microbial phylogeny, physiological traits, and disturbance responses. These relationships will determine how readily microbial community composition can be used to predict the responses of ecosystem processes to global change. PMID:18695234

  6. Seasonal variation of postmortem microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Bibat, Alexander; Knight, Rob

    2015-06-01

    Body-associated microbes were recently shown to change significantly during decomposition, undergoing an ecological succession in experimental conditions using rodent and swine models. We investigated microbial succession in soils associated with swine carcasses under experimental field conditions in summer and winter. We demonstrate that these postmortem microbial communities change in a specific, reproducible fashion, and that soil microbes represent a significant component of the postmortem microbial community, contrary to widespread belief in forensic science. However, the effects of decomposition on soil microbial communities were different in summer and winter. We suggest that the microbial ecological succession will be useful in medicolegal death investigation; however, observations in winter might not be applicable to summer, which indicates a need for a greater understanding of the seasonality of decomposition. PMID:25737335

  7. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Matthew B.; Medlock, Gregory L.; Kolling, Glynis L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions and constraint-based analysis are powerful methods that have the potential to make functional predictions about microbial communities. Current use of genome-scale metabolic networks to characterize the metabolic functions of microbial communities includes species compartmentalization, separating species-level and community-level objectives, dynamic analysis, the “enzyme-soup” approach, multi-scale modeling, and others. There are many challenges inherent to the field, including a need for tools that accurately assign high-level omics signals to individual community members, new automated reconstruction methods that rival manual curation, and novel algorithms for integrating omics data and engineering communities. As technologies and modeling frameworks improve, we expect that there will be proportional advances in the fields of ecology, health science, and microbial community engineering. PMID:26109480

  8. Two-stage microbial community experimental design.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Timothy L; Segata, Nicola; Waldron, Levi; Weingart, Uri; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Microbial community samples can be efficiently surveyed in high throughput by sequencing markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Often, a collection of samples is then selected for subsequent metagenomic, metabolomic or other follow-up. Two-stage study design has long been used in ecology but has not yet been studied in-depth for high-throughput microbial community investigations. To avoid ad hoc sample selection, we developed and validated several purposive sample selection methods for two-stage studies (that is, biological criteria) targeting differing types of microbial communities. These methods select follow-up samples from large community surveys, with criteria including samples typical of the initially surveyed population, targeting specific microbial clades or rare species, maximizing diversity, representing extreme or deviant communities, or identifying communities distinct or discriminating among environment or host phenotypes. The accuracies of each sampling technique and their influences on the characteristics of the resulting selected microbial community were evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Specifically, all criteria were able to identify samples whose properties were accurately retained in 318 paired 16S amplicon and whole-community metagenomic (follow-up) samples from the Human Microbiome Project. Some selection criteria resulted in follow-up samples that were strongly non-representative of the original survey population; diversity maximization particularly undersampled community configurations. Only selection of intentionally representative samples minimized differences in the selected sample set from the original microbial survey. An implementation is provided as the microPITA (Microbiomes: Picking Interesting Taxa for Analysis) software for two-stage study design of microbial communities. PMID:23949665

  9. Environmental Regulation of Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Leslie; DesMarais, D.; Heyenga, G.; Nelson, F.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Most naturally occurring microbes live in complex microbial communities consisting of thousands of phylotypes of microorganisms living in close proximity. Each of these draws nutrients from the environment and releases metabolic waste products, which may in turn serve as substrates for other microbial groups. Gross environmental changes, such as irradiance level, hydrodynamic flow regime, temperature or water chemistry can directly affect the productivity of some community members, which in turn will affect other dependent microbial populations and rate processes. As a first step towards the development of "standard" natural communities of microorganisms for a variety of potential NASA applications, we are measuring biogeochemical cycling in artificially structured communities of microorganisms, created using natural microbial mat communities as inoculum. The responses of these artificially assembled communities of microorganisms to controlled shifts in ecosystem incubation conditions is being determined. This research requires close linking of environmental monitoring, with community composition in a closed and controlled incubation setting. We are developing new incubation chamber designs to allow for this integrated approach to examine the interplay between environmental conditions, microbial community composition and biogeochemical processes.

  10. Microbial community modeling using reliability theory.

    PubMed

    Zilles, Julie L; Rodríguez, Luis F; Bartolerio, Nicholas A; Kent, Angela D

    2016-08-01

    Linking microbial community composition with the corresponding ecosystem functions remains challenging. Because microbial communities can differ in their functional responses, this knowledge gap limits ecosystem assessment, design and management. To develop models that explicitly incorporate microbial populations and guide efforts to characterize their functional differences, we propose a novel approach derived from reliability engineering. This reliability modeling approach is illustrated here using a microbial ecology dataset from denitrifying bioreactors. Reliability modeling is well-suited for analyzing the stability of complex networks composed of many microbial populations. It could also be applied to evaluate the redundancy within a particular biochemical pathway in a microbial community. Reliability modeling allows characterization of the system's resilience and identification of failure-prone functional groups or biochemical steps, which can then be targeted for monitoring or enhancement. The reliability engineering approach provides a new perspective for unraveling the interactions between microbial community diversity, functional redundancy and ecosystem services, as well as practical tools for the design and management of engineered ecosystems. PMID:26882268

  11. Assessing impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on microbial communities in headwater stream ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Ryan; Solomon, Caroline; Brislawn, Colin J; Wright, Justin R; Rosenberger, Abigail; McClure, Erin E; Grube, Alyssa M; Peterson, Mark P; Keddache, Mehdi; Mason, Olivia U; Hazen, Terry C; Grant, Christopher J; Lamendella, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale formations. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity. For example, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA- sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25408683

  12. Assessing impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on microbial communities in headwater stream ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Ryan; Solomon, Caroline; Brislawn, Colin J.; Wright, Justin R.; Rosenberger, Abigail; McClure, Erin E.; Grube, Alyssa M.; Peterson, Mark P.; Keddache, Mehdi; Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Grant, Christopher J.; Lamendella, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale formations. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity. For example, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA− sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25408683

  13. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling.

    PubMed

    Singer, Esther; Bushnell, Brian; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Bowers, Robert M; Levy, Asaf; Gies, Esther A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hallam, Steven J; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, high-throughput short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has eclipsed clone-dependent long-read Sanger sequencing for microbial community profiling. The transition to new technologies has provided more quantitative information at the expense of taxonomic resolution with implications for inferring metabolic traits in various ecosystems. We applied single-molecule real-time sequencing for microbial community profiling, generating full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences at high throughput, which we propose to name PhyloTags. We benchmarked and validated this approach using a defined microbial community. When further applied to samples from the water column of meromictic Sakinaw Lake, we show that while community structures at the phylum level are comparable between PhyloTags and Illumina V4 16S rRNA gene sequences (iTags), variance increases with community complexity at greater water depths. PhyloTags moreover allowed less ambiguous classification. Last, a platform-independent comparison of PhyloTags and in silico generated partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated significant differences in community structure and phylogenetic resolution across multiple taxonomic levels, including a severe underestimation in the abundance of specific microbial genera involved in nitrogen and methane cycling across the Lake's water column. Thus, PhyloTags provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to cost-effective iTags, enabling more accurate phylogenetic resolution of microbial communities and predictions on their metabolic potential. PMID:26859772

  14. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.

  15. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  16. Interspecies Interactions within Oral Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kuramitsu, Howard K.; He, Xuesong; Lux, Renate; Anderson, Maxwell H.; Shi, Wenyuan

    2007-01-01

    Summary: While reductionism has greatly advanced microbiology in the past 400 years, assembly of smaller pieces just could not explain the whole! Modern microbiologists are learning “system thinking” and “holism.” Such an approach is changing our understanding of microbial physiology and our ability to diagnose/treat microbial infections. This review uses oral microbial communities as a focal point to describe this new trend. With the common name “dental plaque,” oral microbial communities are some of the most complex microbial floras in the human body, consisting of more than 700 different bacterial species. For a very long time, oral microbiologists endeavored to use reductionism to identify the key genes or key pathogens responsible for oral microbial pathogenesis. The limitations of reductionism forced scientists to begin adopting new strategies using emerging concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, polymicrobial disease, etc. These new research directions indicate that the whole is much more than the simple sum of its parts, since the interactions between different parts resulted in many new physiological functions which cannot be observed with individual components. This review describes some of these interesting interspecies-interaction scenarios. PMID:18063722

  17. Nutrient Addition Dramatically Accelerates Microbial Community Succession

    PubMed Central

    Knelman, Joseph E.; Schmidt, Steven K.; Lynch, Ryan C.; Darcy, John L.; Castle, Sarah C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Nemergut, Diana R.

    2014-01-01

    The ecological mechanisms driving community succession are widely debated, particularly for microorganisms. While successional soil microbial communities are known to undergo predictable changes in structure concomitant with shifts in a variety of edaphic properties, the causal mechanisms underlying these patterns are poorly understood. Thus, to specifically isolate how nutrients – important drivers of plant succession – affect soil microbial succession, we established a full factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization plot experiment in recently deglaciated (∼3 years since exposure), unvegetated soils of the Puca Glacier forefield in Southeastern Peru. We evaluated soil properties and examined bacterial community composition in plots before and one year after fertilization. Fertilized soils were then compared to samples from three reference successional transects representing advancing stages of soil development ranging from 5 years to 85 years since exposure. We found that a single application of +NP fertilizer caused the soil bacterial community structure of the three-year old soils to most resemble the 85-year old soils after one year. Despite differences in a variety of soil edaphic properties between fertilizer plots and late successional soils, bacterial community composition of +NP plots converged with late successional communities. Thus, our work suggests a mechanism for microbial succession whereby changes in resource availability drive shifts in community composition, supporting a role for nutrient colimitation in primary succession. These results suggest that nutrients alone, independent of other edaphic factors that change with succession, act as an important control over soil microbial community development, greatly accelerating the rate of succession. PMID:25050551

  18. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of the Microbial Community Structure of Pastoruri Glacier Area (Huascarán National Park, Perú), a Natural Extreme Acidic Environment.

    PubMed

    González-Toril, Elena; Santofimia, Esther; Blanco, Yolanda; López-Pamo, Enrique; Gómez, Manuel J; Bobadilla, Miguel; Cruz, Rolando; Palomino, Edwin Julio; Aguilera, Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The exposure of fresh sulfide-rich lithologies by the retracement of the Nevado Pastoruri glacier (Central Andes, Perú) is increasing the presence of heavy metals in the water as well as decreasing the pH, producing an acid rock drainage (ARD) process in the area. We describe the microbial communities of an extreme ARD site in Huascarán National Park as well as their correlation with the water physicochemistry. Microbial biodiversity was analyzed by FLX 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The suggested geomicrobiological model of the area distinguishes three different zones. The proglacial zone is located in the upper part of the valley, where the ARD process is not evident yet. Most of the OTUs detected in this area were related to sequences associated with cold environments (i.e., psychrotolerant species of Cyanobacteria or Bacteroidetes). After the proglacial area, an ARD-influenced zone appeared, characterized by the presence of phylotypes related to acidophiles (Acidiphilium) as well as other species related to acidic and cold environments (i.e., acidophilic species of Chloroflexi, Clostridium and Verrumicrobia). Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) were also identified. The post-ARD area was characterized by the presence of OTUs related to microorganisms detected in soils, permafrost, high mountain environments, and deglaciation areas (Sphingomonadales, Caulobacter or Comamonadaceae). PMID:26045157

  19. Microbial Biomass and Community Structure of a Stromatolite from an Acid Mine Drainage System in Western Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Das Gupta, S.; Brake, S. S.; Bazylinski, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Lipids extracted to determine the microbial biomass and community structure of an Fe-rich stromatolite from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Green Valley coal mine site (GVS) in western Indiana correlate well with layers in the laminated stromatolite. The biomass of the top layer of the stromatolite was dominated by phototrophic organisms constituting 83% of the total biomass. Biomass of the lower layers was dominated by prokaryotic microorganisms. The presence of terminal methyl-branched fatty acids and mid methyl-branched fatty acids suggests the presence of Gram-positive and sulfate-reducing bacteria, respectively. Fungi appear to also be an important part of the AMD microbial communities as suggested by sterol profiles and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and C19 cyclopropane fatty acids were also detected and likely originated from acid-producing, acidophilic bacteria. The presence of Archaea is indicated by abundant phospholipid ether-linked isoprenoid hydrocarbons (phytane and phytadienes). The AMD Fe-rich stromatolites at GVS, thus, appear to be formed by interactions of microbial communities composed of all three domains of life; Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Identification of microeukaryote-dominated stromatolites verifies the prominent role these organisms play in the formation and preservation of these structures. In addition, the production of oxygen through photosynthesis by these organisms in AMD systems may be important for retrodicting the interaction of microbial communities in Precambrian environments in the production of microbially mediated sedimentary structures and oxygenation of Earth's early atmosphere.

  20. Metabolic interactions and dynamics in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segre', Daniel

    Metabolism, in addition to being the engine of every living cell, plays a major role in the cell-cell and cell-environment relations that shape the dynamics and evolution of microbial communities, e.g. by mediating competition and cross-feeding interactions between different species. Despite the increasing availability of metagenomic sequencing data for numerous microbial ecosystems, fundamental aspects of these communities, such as the unculturability of many isolates, and the conditions necessary for taxonomic or functional stability, are still poorly understood. We are developing mechanistic computational approaches for studying the interactions between different organisms based on the knowledge of their entire metabolic networks. In particular, we have recently built an open source platform for the Computation of Microbial Ecosystems in Time and Space (COMETS), which combines metabolic models with convection-diffusion equations to simulate the spatio-temporal dynamics of metabolism in microbial communities. COMETS has been experimentally tested on small artificial communities, and is scalable to hundreds of species in complex environments. I will discuss recent developments and challenges towards the implementation of models for microbiomes and synthetic microbial communities.

  1. Gut microbial communities of social bees.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiota can have profound effects on hosts, but the study of these relationships in humans is challenging. The specialized gut microbial community of honey bees is similar to the mammalian microbiota, as both are mostly composed of host-adapted, facultatively anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. However, the microbial community of the bee gut is far simpler than the mammalian microbiota, being dominated by only nine bacterial species clusters that are specific to bees and that are transmitted through social interactions between individuals. Recent developments, which include the discovery of extensive strain-level variation, evidence of protective and nutritional functions, and reports of eco-physiological or disease-associated perturbations to the microbial community, have drawn attention to the role of the microbiota in bee health and its potential as a model for studying the ecology and evolution of gut symbionts. PMID:27140688

  2. Principles for designing synthetic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Johns, Nathan I; Blazejewski, Tomasz; Gomes, Antonio Lc; Wang, Harris H

    2016-06-01

    Advances in synthetic biology to build microbes with defined and controllable properties are enabling new approaches to design and program multispecies communities. This emerging field of synthetic ecology will be important for many areas of biotechnology, bioenergy and bioremediation. This endeavor draws upon knowledge from synthetic biology, systems biology, microbial ecology and evolution. Fully realizing the potential of this discipline requires the development of new strategies to control the intercellular interactions, spatiotemporal coordination, robustness, stability and biocontainment of synthetic microbial communities. Here, we review recent experimental, analytical and computational advances to study and build multi-species microbial communities with defined functions and behavior for various applications. We also highlight outstanding challenges and future directions to advance this field. PMID:27084981

  3. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  4. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  5. Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, C. G.; Vestal, J. R.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community.

  6. Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?

    PubMed

    Johnston, C G; Vestal, J R

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community. PMID:11538332

  7. Effect of Phospholipid on Pyrite Oxidation and Microbial Communities under Simulated Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pierre Louis, Andro-Marc; Yu, Hui; Shumlas, Samantha L; Van Aken, Benoit; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    The effect of phospholipid on the biogeochemistry of pyrite oxidation, which leads to acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry in the environment, was investigated. Metagenomic analyses were carried out to understand how the microbial community structure, which developed during the oxidation of pyrite-containing coal mining overburden/waste rock (OWR), was affected by the presence of adsorbed phospholipid. Using columns packed with OWR (with and without lipid adsorption), the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and soluble iron (FeTot) was investigated. Exposure of lipid-free OWR to flowing pH-neutral water resulted in an acidic effluent with a pH range of 2-4.5 over a 3-year period. The average concentration of FeTot and SO4(2-) in the effluent was ≥20 and ≥30 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, in packed-column experiments where OWR was first treated with phospholipid, the effluent pH remained at ∼6.5 and the average concentrations of FeTot and SO4(2-) were ≤2 and l.6 mg/L, respectively. 16S rDNA metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities associated with OWR samples revealed the development of AMD-like communities dominated by acidophilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria on untreated OWR samples, but not on refuse pretreated with phospholipid. PMID:26018867

  8. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  9. Microbial communities evolve faster in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jin; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Huang, Li-Nan; Li, Jie; Shi, Su-Hua; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting extreme habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from extreme habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to extreme environments. PMID:25158668

  10. Uncovering a Microbial Enigma: Isolation and Characterization of the Streamer-Generating, Iron-Oxidizing, Acidophilic Bacterium “Ferrovum myxofaciens”

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Kevin B.; Hedrich, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    A betaproteobacterium, shown by molecular techniques to have widespread global distribution in extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4) ferruginous mine waters and also to be a major component of “acid streamer” growths in mine-impacted water bodies, has proven to be recalcitrant to enrichment and isolation. A modified “overlay” solid medium was devised and used to isolate this bacterium from a number of mine water samples. The physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of a pure culture of an isolate from an abandoned copper mine (“Ferrovum myxofaciens” strain P3G) have been elucidated. “F. myxofaciens” is an extremely acidophilic, psychrotolerant obligate autotroph that appears to use only ferrous iron as an electron donor and oxygen as an electron acceptor. It appears to use the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway to fix CO2 and is diazotrophic. It also produces copious amounts of extracellular polymeric materials that cause cells to attach to each other (and to form small streamer-like growth in vitro) and to different solid surfaces. “F. myxofaciens” can catalyze the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and, like many other acidophiles, is tolerant of many (cationic) transition metals. “F. myxofaciens” and related clone sequences form a monophyletic group within the Betaproteobacteria distantly related to classified orders, with genera of the family Nitrosomonadaceae (lithoautotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing neutrophiles) as the closest relatives. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences of “F. myxofaciens” and other Betaproteobacteria, a new family, “Ferrovaceae,” and order, “Ferrovales,” within the class Betaproteobacteria are proposed. “F. myxofaciens” is the first extreme acidophile to be described in the class Betaproteobacteria. PMID:24242243

  11. Method for analyzing microbial communities

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong [Oak Ridge, TN; Wu, Liyou [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides a method for quantitatively analyzing microbial genes, species, or strains in a sample that contains at least two species or strains of microorganisms. The method involves using an isothermal DNA polymerase to randomly and representatively amplify genomic DNA of the microorganisms in the sample, hybridizing the resultant polynucleotide amplification product to a polynucleotide microarray that can differentiate different genes, species, or strains of microorganisms of interest, and measuring hybridization signals on the microarray to quantify the genes, species, or strains of interest.

  12. Microbial Communities of Pavilion Lake Microbialites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. A.; Biddle, J.; Pointing, S.; Cardman, Z.; Brady, A. L.; Slater, G. F.; Lim, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Fossilized remnants of microbial mat growth, called stromatolites, are found in the rock record and are thought to be some of the earliest evidence for life on Earth. On the modern Earth, living versions of these stromatolites, called microbialites, are found in few environments across the globe. Pavilion Lake in British Columbia was found to host these microbialites, even though conditions are not extreme in the lake and grazers exist amongst the microbial growths. The Pavilion Lake Research Project, funded by NASA, the CSA and others, has developed the lake into an analog research site for the exploration of extraplanetary bodies since 2004. Pavilion Lake began to be explored for microbial ecology in 2007 to attempt to determine how the microbial communities change over time, location and depth to build these microbialite structures. DNA extracted from microbialites at two different locations and 3 depths at each location were analyzed by T-RFLP patterns. Significant differences were seen in the total communities from each location. Additional samples were taken in the summer and budding seasons, and significant differences were seen by season. A survey performed on just the cyanobacterial populations show less differences between taxa between sites, but significant differences with depth above and below the chemocline and between mineralized and non-mineralized mats. Differences were also examined between purple and green nodules, which are thought to be the growth forms of the microbialites. Detailed sequence analysis shows that Pavilion Lake microorganisms are similar, yet different, from microbial communities seen in other microbialite systems. In 2011, the research project moved to Kelly Lake, a lake nearby Pavilion Lake, that also contain microbialite structures. Similar morphologies were seen in Kelly Lake with an approximate 20 ft. offset in the typical depths where morphologies were seen. Continued analysis of Kelly Lake microbialites will be performed

  13. Selective removal of transition metals from acidic mine waters by novel consortia of acidophilic sulfidogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Two continuous‐flow bench‐scale bioreactor systems populated by mixed communities of acidophilic sulfate‐reducing bacteria were constructed and tested for their abilities to promote the selective precipitation of transition metals (as sulfides) present in synthetic mine waters, using glycerol as electron donor. The objective with the first system (selective precipitation of copper from acidic mine water containing a variety of soluble metals) was achieved by maintaining a bioreactor pH of ∼2.2–2.5. The second system was fed with acidic (pH 2.5) synthetic mine water containing 3 mM of both zinc and ferrous iron, and varying concentrations (0.5–30 mM) of aluminium. Selective precipitation of zinc sulfide was possible by operating the bioreactor at pH 4.0 and supplementing the synthetic mine water with 4 mM glycerol. Analysis of the microbial populations in the bioreactors showed that they changed with varying operational parameters, and novel acidophilic bacteria (including one sulfidogen) were isolated from the bioreactors. The acidophilic sulfidogenic bioreactors provided ‘proof of principle’ that segregation of metals present in mine waters is possible using simple online systems within which controlled pH conditions are maintained. The modular units are versatile and robust, and involve minimum engineering complexity. PMID:21895996

  14. Environmental Microbial Community Proteomics: Status, Challenges and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Kong, Ling-Fen; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Zhang-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community proteomics, also termed metaproteomics, is an emerging field within the area of microbiology, which studies the entire protein complement recovered directly from a complex environmental microbial community at a given point in time. Although it is still in its infancy, microbial community proteomics has shown its powerful potential in exploring microbial diversity, metabolic potential, ecological function and microbe-environment interactions. In this paper, we review recent advances achieved in microbial community proteomics conducted in diverse environments, such as marine and freshwater, sediment and soil, activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms and symbiotic communities. The challenges facing microbial community proteomics are also discussed, and we believe that microbial community proteomics will greatly enhance our understanding of the microbial world and its interactions with the environment. PMID:27527164

  15. Environmental Microbial Community Proteomics: Status, Challenges and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Kong, Ling-Fen; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Zhang-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community proteomics, also termed metaproteomics, is an emerging field within the area of microbiology, which studies the entire protein complement recovered directly from a complex environmental microbial community at a given point in time. Although it is still in its infancy, microbial community proteomics has shown its powerful potential in exploring microbial diversity, metabolic potential, ecological function and microbe-environment interactions. In this paper, we review recent advances achieved in microbial community proteomics conducted in diverse environments, such as marine and freshwater, sediment and soil, activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms and symbiotic communities. The challenges facing microbial community proteomics are also discussed, and we believe that microbial community proteomics will greatly enhance our understanding of the microbial world and its interactions with the environment. PMID:27527164

  16. Microbial interactions and community assembly at microscales.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Otto X; Datta, Manoshi S

    2016-06-01

    In most environments, microbial interactions take place within microscale cell aggregates. At the scale of these aggregates (∼100μm), interactions are likely to be the dominant driver of population structure and dynamics. In particular, organisms that exploit interspecific interactions to increase ecological performance often co-aggregate. Conversely, organisms that antagonize each other will tend to spatially segregate, creating distinct micro-communities and increased diversity at larger length scales. We argue that, in order to understand the role that biological interactions play in microbial community function, it is necessary to study microscale spatial organization with enough throughput to measure statistical associations between taxa and possible alternative community states. We conclude by proposing strategies to tackle this challenge. PMID:27232202

  17. Wetland Microbial Community Response to Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been proposed as a potential long-term carbon storage solution, with a goal of engineering geochemical dynamics to accelerate peat accretion and encourage greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration. However, wetland microbial community composition and metabolic rates are poorly understood and their predicted response to wetland restoration is a veritable unknown. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors that shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater tidal marshes to hypersaline ponds in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, coupled with greenhouse gas measurements, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range in salinity and restoration status. Seawater delivers sulfate to wetland ecosystems, encouraging sulfate reduction and discouraging methane production. As expected, we observed the highest rates of methane production in the freshwater wetlands. Recently restored wetlands had significantly higher rates of methane production compared to their historic counterparts that could be attributed to variations in trace metal and organic carbon content in younger wetlands. In contrast, our sequencing results revealed an almost immediate return of the indigenous microbial communities following seasonal flooding and full tidal restoration in saline and hypersaline wetlands and managed ponds. Notably, we found elevated methane production rates in hypersaline ponds, the result of methylotrophic methane production confirmed by sequence data and lab incubations. Our study links belowground microbial communities and their aboveground greenhouse gas production and highlights the inherent complexity in predicting wetland microbial response in the face of both natural and unnatural disturbances.

  18. From microbial communities to cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1985-01-01

    The eukraotic cell, the unit of structure of protoctists, plants, fungi, and animals, is not at all homologous to prokaryotic cells. Instead the eukaryotic cell is homologous to communities of microorganisms such as those of the sulfuretum. This research is based on the hypothesis that at least four different interacting community members entered the original associations that, when stabilized, led to the emergence of eukaryotic cells. These are: (1) host nucleocytoplasm (thermoplasma like archaebacteria); (2) mitochrondria (paracoccus or bdellovibryo like respiring bacteria; and (3) plastids (cyanobacteria) and undulipodia. Tubulin like protein was found in the free living spirochete Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis and in several other spirochetes. The amino acid sequence was to see if the spirochete protein is homologous to the tubulin of undulipodial and mitotic spindle microtubules.

  19. Microbial life in volcanic/geothermal areas: how soil geochemistry shapes microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; D'Alessandro, Walter; Franzetti, Andrea; Parello, Francesco; Tagliavia, Marcello; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Extreme environments, such as volcanic/geothermal areas, are sites of complex interactions between geosphere and biosphere. Although biotic and abiotic components are strictly related, they were separately studied for long time. Nowadays, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are available to explore microbial life thriving in these environments. Pantelleria island (Italy) hosts a high enthalpy geothermal system characterized by high CH4 and low H2S fluxes. Two selected sites, FAV1 and FAV2, located at Favara Grande, the main exhalative area of the island, show similar physical conditions with a surface temperature close to 60° C and a soil gas composition enriched in CH4, H2 and CO2. FAV1 soil is characterized by harsher conditions (pH 3.4 and 12% of H2O content); conversely, milder conditions were recorded at site FAV2 (pH 5.8 and 4% of H2O content). High methanotrophic activity (59.2 nmol g-1 h-1) and wide diversity of methanotrophic bacteria were preliminary detected at FAV2, while no activity was detected at FAV1(1). Our aim was to investigate how the soil microbial communities of these two close geothermal sites at Pantelleria island respond to different geochemical conditions. Bacterial and Archaeal communities of the sites were investigated by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. More than 33,000 reads were obtained for Bacteria and Archaea from soil samples of the two sites. At FAV1 99% of the bacterial sequences were assigned to four main phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi). FAV2 sequences were distributed in the same phyla with the exception of Chloroflexi that was represented below 1%. Results indicate a high abundance of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs in site FAV1 dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (25%), Nitrosococcus halophilus (10%), Alicyclobacillus spp. (7%) and the rare species Ktedonobacter racemifer (11%). The bacterial community at FAV2 soil is dominated by

  20. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Nouhou; Dold, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Holliger, Christof; Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution and diversity of acidophilic bacteria of a tailings impoundment at the La Andina copper mine, Chile, was examined. The tailings have low sulfide (1.7% pyrite equivalent) and carbonate (1.4% calcite equivalent) contents and are stratified into three distinct zones: a surface (0-70-80 cm) 'oxidation zone' characterized by low-pH (2.5-4), a 'neutralization zone' (70-80 to 300-400 cm) and an unaltered 'primary zone' below 400 cm. A combined cultivation-dependent and biomolecular approach (terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA clone library analysis) was used to characterize the indigenous prokaryotic communities in the mine tailings. Total cell counts showed that the microbial biomass was greatest in the top 125 cm of the tailings. The largest numbers of bacteria (10(9) g(-1) dry weight of tailings) were found at the oxidation front (the junction between the oxidation and neutralization zones), where sulfide minerals and oxygen were both present. The dominant iron-/sulfur-oxidizing bacteria identified at the oxidation front included bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum (detected by molecular methods), and Gram-positive iron-oxidizing acidophiles related to Sulfobacillus (identified both by molecular and cultivation methods). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also detected, albeit in relatively small numbers. Heterotrophic acidophiles related to Acidobacterium capsulatum were found by molecular methods, while another Acidobacterium-like bacterium and an Acidiphilium sp. were isolated from oxidation zone samples. A conceptual model was developed, based on microbiological and geochemical data derived from the tailings, to account for the biogeochemical evolution of the Piuquenes tailings impoundment. PMID:17222129

  1. Can transgenic maize affect soil microbial communities?

    PubMed

    Mulder, Christian; Wouterse, Marja; Raubuch, Markus; Roelofs, Willem; Rutgers, Michiel

    2006-09-29

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if temporal variations of belowground activity reflect the influence of the Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize on soil bacteria and, hence, on a regulatory change of the microbial community (ability to metabolize sources belonging to different chemical guilds) and/or a change in numerical abundance of their cells. Litter placement is known for its strong influence on the soil decomposer communities. The effects of the addition of crop residues on respiration and catabolic activities of the bacterial community were examined in microcosm experiments. Four cultivars of Zea mays L. of two different isolines (each one including the conventional crop and its Bacillus thuringiensis cultivar) and one control of bulk soil were included in the experimental design. The growth models suggest a dichotomy between soils amended with either conventional or transgenic maize residues. The Cry1Ab protein appeared to influence the composition of the microbial community. The highly enhanced soil respiration observed during the first 72 h after the addition of Bt-maize residues can be interpreted as being related to the presence of the transgenic crop residues. This result was confirmed by agar plate counting, as the averages of the colony-forming units of soils in conventional treatments were about one-third of those treated with transgenic straw. Furthermore, the addition of Bt-maize appeared to induce increased microbial consumption of carbohydrates in BIOLOG EcoPlates. Three weeks after the addition of maize residues to the soils, no differences between the consumption rate of specific chemical guilds by bacteria in soils amended with transgenic maize and bacteria in soils amended with conventional maize were detectable. Reaped crop residues, comparable to post-harvest maize straw (a common practice in current agriculture), rapidly influence the soil bacterial cells at a functional level. Overall, these data support the existence of short

  2. Can Transgenic Maize Affect Soil Microbial Communities?

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Christian; Wouterse, Marja; Raubuch, Markus; Roelofs, Willem; Rutgers, Michiel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if temporal variations of belowground activity reflect the influence of the Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize on soil bacteria and, hence, on a regulatory change of the microbial community (ability to metabolize sources belonging to different chemical guilds) and/or a change in numerical abundance of their cells. Litter placement is known for its strong influence on the soil decomposer communities. The effects of the addition of crop residues on respiration and catabolic activities of the bacterial community were examined in microcosm experiments. Four cultivars of Zea mays L. of two different isolines (each one including the conventional crop and its Bacillus thuringiensis cultivar) and one control of bulk soil were included in the experimental design. The growth models suggest a dichotomy between soils amended with either conventional or transgenic maize residues. The Cry1Ab protein appeared to influence the composition of the microbial community. The highly enhanced soil respiration observed during the first 72 h after the addition of Bt-maize residues can be interpreted as being related to the presence of the transgenic crop residues. This result was confirmed by agar plate counting, as the averages of the colony-forming units of soils in conventional treatments were about one-third of those treated with transgenic straw. Furthermore, the addition of Bt-maize appeared to induce increased microbial consumption of carbohydrates in BIOLOG EcoPlates. Three weeks after the addition of maize residues to the soils, no differences between the consumption rate of specific chemical guilds by bacteria in soils amended with transgenic maize and bacteria in soils amended with conventional maize were detectable. Reaped crop residues, comparable to post-harvest maize straw (a common practice in current agriculture), rapidly influence the soil bacterial cells at a functional level. Overall, these data support the existence of short

  3. Characterizing microbial communities through space and time

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Antonio; King, Andrew; Robeson, Michael S.; Song, Sejin; Shade, Ashley; Metcalf, Jessica; Knight, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the study of microbial diversity has mainly been limited to descriptive approaches, rather than predictive model-based analyses. The development of advanced analytical tools and decreasing cost of high-throughput multi-omics technologies has made the later approach more feasible. However, consensus is lacking as to which spatial and temporal scales best facilitate understanding of the role of microbial diversity in determining both public and environmental health. Here, we review the potential for combining these new technologies with both traditional and nascent spatio-temporal analysis methods. The fusion of proper spatio-temporal sampling, combined with modern multi-omics and computational tools, will provide insight into the tracking, development and manipulation of microbial communities. PMID:22154467

  4. Carbon flow from volcanic CO2 into soil microbial communities of a wetland mofette.

    PubMed

    Beulig, Felix; Heuer, Verena B; Akob, Denise M; Viehweger, Bernhard; Elvert, Marcus; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-03-01

    Effects of extremely high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on soil microbial communities and associated processes are largely unknown. We studied a wetland area affected by spots of subcrustal CO2 degassing (mofettes) with focus on anaerobic autotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis because the pore gas phase was largely hypoxic. Compared with a reference soil, the mofette was more acidic (ΔpH ∼0.8), strongly enriched in organic carbon (up to 10 times), and exhibited lower prokaryotic diversity. It was dominated by methanogens and subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, which likely thrived under stable hypoxia and acidic pH. Anoxic incubations revealed enhanced formation of acetate and methane (CH4) from hydrogen (H2) and CO2 consistent with elevated CH4 and acetate levels in the mofette soil. (13)CO2 mofette soil incubations showed high label incorporations with ∼512 ng (13)C g (dry weight (dw)) soil(-1) d(-1) into the bulk soil and up to 10.7 ng (13)C g (dw) soil(-1) d(-1) into almost all analyzed bacterial lipids. Incorporation of CO2-derived carbon into archaeal lipids was much lower and restricted to the first 10 cm of the soil. DNA-SIP analysis revealed that acidophilic methanogens affiliated with Methanoregulaceae and hitherto unknown acetogens appeared to be involved in the chemolithoautotrophic utilization of (13)CO2. Subdivision 1 Acidobacteriaceae assimilated (13)CO2 likely via anaplerotic reactions because Acidobacteriaceae are not known to harbor enzymatic pathways for autotrophic CO2 assimilation. We conclude that CO2-induced geochemical changes promoted anaerobic and acidophilic organisms and altered carbon turnover in affected soils. PMID:25216086

  5. Carbon flow from volcanic CO2 into soil microbial communities of a wetland mofette

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beulig, Felix; Heuer, Verena B.; Akob, Denise M.; Viehweger, Bernhard; Elvert, Marcus; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Effects of extremely high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on soil microbial communities and associated processes are largely unknown. We studied a wetland area affected by spots of subcrustal CO2 degassing (mofettes) with focus on anaerobic autotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis because the pore gas phase was largely hypoxic. Compared with a reference soil, the mofette was more acidic (ΔpH ~0.8), strongly enriched in organic carbon (up to 10 times), and exhibited lower prokaryotic diversity. It was dominated by methanogens and subdivision 1Acidobacteria, which likely thrived under stable hypoxia and acidic pH. Anoxic incubations revealed enhanced formation of acetate and methane (CH4) from hydrogen (H2) and CO2 consistent with elevated CH4 and acetate levels in the mofette soil. 13CO2 mofette soil incubations showed high label incorporations with ~512 ng13C g (dry weight (dw)) soil−1 d−1 into the bulk soil and up to 10.7 ng 13C g (dw) soil−1 d−1 into almost all analyzed bacterial lipids. Incorporation of CO2-derived carbon into archaeal lipids was much lower and restricted to the first 10 cm of the soil. DNA-SIP analysis revealed that acidophilic methanogens affiliated withMethanoregulaceae and hitherto unknown acetogens appeared to be involved in the chemolithoautotrophic utilization of 13CO2. Subdivision 1 Acidobacteriaceae assimilated 13CO2 likely via anaplerotic reactions because Acidobacteriaceae are not known to harbor enzymatic pathways for autotrophic CO2 assimilation. We conclude that CO2-induced geochemical changes promoted anaerobic and acidophilic organisms and altered carbon turnover in affected soils.

  6. Carbon flow from volcanic CO2 into soil microbial communities of a wetland mofette

    PubMed Central

    Beulig, Felix; Heuer, Verena B; Akob, Denise M; Viehweger, Bernhard; Elvert, Marcus; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Effects of extremely high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on soil microbial communities and associated processes are largely unknown. We studied a wetland area affected by spots of subcrustal CO2 degassing (mofettes) with focus on anaerobic autotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis because the pore gas phase was largely hypoxic. Compared with a reference soil, the mofette was more acidic (ΔpH ∼0.8), strongly enriched in organic carbon (up to 10 times), and exhibited lower prokaryotic diversity. It was dominated by methanogens and subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, which likely thrived under stable hypoxia and acidic pH. Anoxic incubations revealed enhanced formation of acetate and methane (CH4) from hydrogen (H2) and CO2 consistent with elevated CH4 and acetate levels in the mofette soil. 13CO2 mofette soil incubations showed high label incorporations with ∼512 ng 13C g (dry weight (dw)) soil−1 d−1 into the bulk soil and up to 10.7 ng 13C g (dw) soil−1 d−1 into almost all analyzed bacterial lipids. Incorporation of CO2-derived carbon into archaeal lipids was much lower and restricted to the first 10 cm of the soil. DNA-SIP analysis revealed that acidophilic methanogens affiliated with Methanoregulaceae and hitherto unknown acetogens appeared to be involved in the chemolithoautotrophic utilization of 13CO2. Subdivision 1 Acidobacteriaceae assimilated 13CO2 likely via anaplerotic reactions because Acidobacteriaceae are not known to harbor enzymatic pathways for autotrophic CO2 assimilation. We conclude that CO2-induced geochemical changes promoted anaerobic and acidophilic organisms and altered carbon turnover in affected soils. PMID:25216086

  7. Microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brett J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2003-05-01

    The dissolution of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), and marcasite (FeS2) yields hot, sulfuric acid-rich solutions that contain high concentrations of toxic metals. In locations where access of oxidants to sulfide mineral surfaces is increased by mining, the resulting acid mine drainage (AMD) may contaminate surrounding ecosystems. Communities of autotrophic and heterotrophic archaea and bacteria catalyze iron and sulfur oxidation, thus may ultimately determine the rate of release of metals and sulfur to the environment. AMD communities contain fewer prokaryotic lineages than many other environments. However, it is notable that at least two archaeal and eight bacterial divisions have representatives able to thrive under the extreme conditions typical of AMD. AMD communities are characterized by a very limited number of distinct species, probably due to the small number of metabolically beneficial reactions available. The metabolisms that underpin these communities include organoheterotrophy and autotrophic iron and sulfur oxidation. Other metabolic activity is based on anaerobic sulfur oxidation and ferric iron reduction. Evidence for physiological synergy in iron, sulfur, and carbon flow in these communities is reviewed. The microbial and geochemical simplicity of these systems makes them ideal targets for quantitative, genomic-based analyses of microbial ecology and evolution and community function. PMID:19719632

  8. The dynamic genetic repertoire of microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilmes, Paul; Simmons, Sheri L; Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2009-01-01

    Community genomic data have revealed multiple levels of variation between and within microbial consortia. This variation includes large-scale differences in gene content between ecosystems as well as within-population sequence heterogeneity. In the present review, we focus specifically on how fine-scale variation within microbial and viral populations is apparent from community genomic data. A major unresolved question is how much of the observed variation is due to neutral vs. adaptive processes. Limited experimental data hint that some of this fine-scale variation may be in part functionally relevant, whereas sequence-based and modeling analyses suggest that much of it may be neutral. While methods for interpreting population genomic data are still in their infancy, we discuss current interpretations of existing datasets in the light of evolutionary processes and models. Finally, we highlight the importance of virus–host dynamics in generating and shaping within-population diversity. PMID:19054116

  9. Hydrolytic microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manucharova, Natalia; Chernov, Timofey; Kolcova, Ekaterina; Zelezova, Alena; Lukacheva, Euhenia; Zenova, Galina

    2014-05-01

    Hydrolytic microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems Manucharova N.A., Chernov T.I., Kolcova E.M., Zelezova A.D., Lukacheva E.G. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia Vertical differentiation of terrestrial biogeocenoses is conditioned by the formation of vertical tiers that differ considerably in the composition and structure of microbial communities. All the three tiers, phylloplane, litter and soil, are united by a single flow of organic matter, and are spatially separated successional stages of decomposition of organic substances. Decomposition of organic matter is mainly due to the activity of microorganisms producing enzymes - hydrolase and lyase - which destroy complex organic compounds. Application of molecular biological techniques (FISH) in environmental studies provides a more complete information concerning the taxonomic diversity and potential hydrolytic activity of microbial complexes of terrestrial ecosystems that exist in a wide range of environmental factors (moisture, temperature, redox potential, organic matter). The combination of two molecular biological techniques (FISH and DGGE-analysis of fragments of gene 16S rRNA total amplificate) enables an informative assessment of the differences in the structure of dominant and minor components of hydrolytic complexes formed in different tiers of terrestrial ecosystems. The functional activity of hydrolytic microbial complexes of terrestrial ecosystems is determined by the activity of dominant and minor components, which also have a high gross enzymatic activity. Degradation of biopolymers in the phylloplane is mainly due to the representatives of the Proteobacteria phylogenetic group (classes alpha and beta). In mineral soil horizons, the role of hydrolytic representatives of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria increases. Among the key environmental parameters that determine the functional activity of the hydrolytic (chitinolytic) complex of soil layer (moisture, nutrient supply, successional

  10. ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IMPACTED BY LARGE POULTRY FORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial communities often respond more rapidly and extensively to environmental change than communities of higher organisms. Thus, characterizing shifts in the structure of native bacterial communities as a response to changes in nutrients, antimicrobials, and invading pathogen...

  11. Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsuan-Chao; Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity – instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a “Goldilocks” principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together, our results

  12. Integrating ecological and engineering concepts of resilience in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Renslow, Ryan S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lindemann, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    Many definitions of resilience have been proffered for natural and engineered ecosystems, but a conceptual consensus on resilience in microbial communities is still lacking. We argue that the disconnect largely results from the wide variance in microbial community complexity, which range from simple synthetic consortia to complex natural communities, and divergence between the typical practical outcomes emphasized by ecologists and engineers. Viewing microbial communities as elasto-plastic systems, we argue that this gap between the engineering and ecological definitions of resilience stems from their respective emphases on elastic and plastic deformation, respectively. We propose that the two concepts may be fundamentally united around the resilience of function rather than state in microbial communities and the regularity in the relationship between environmental variation and a community’s functional response. Furthermore, we posit that functional resilience is an intrinsic property of microbial communities, suggesting that state changes in response to environmental variation may be a key mechanism driving resilience in microbial communities.

  13. Microbial Communities in Pre-Columbian Coprolites

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M.; Chanlatte, Luis; Crespo-Torres, Edwin; Toranzos, Gary A.; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an “unaltered” composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the microbial communities were positively correlated with culture, and SIMPER analysis indicated 68.8% dissimilarity between the Huecoid and Saladoid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and methanogens were found in all coprolite samples. Propionebacteria, Shewanella and lactic acid bacteria dominated in the Huecoid samples, while Acidobacteria, and peptococci were dominant in Saladoid samples. Yeasts, including Candida albicans and Crypotococcus spp. were found in all samples. Basidiomycetes were the most notable fungi in Huecoid samples while Ascomycetes predominated in Saladoid samples, suggesting differences in dietary habits. Our study provides an approach for the study of the microbial communities of coprolite samples from various cultures. PMID:23755194

  14. Microbial communities in pre-columbian coprolites.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M; Chanlatte, Luis; Crespo-Torres, Edwin; Toranzos, Gary A; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul J

    2013-01-01

    The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an "unaltered" composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the microbial communities were positively correlated with culture, and SIMPER analysis indicated 68.8% dissimilarity between the Huecoid and Saladoid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and methanogens were found in all coprolite samples. Propionebacteria, Shewanella and lactic acid bacteria dominated in the Huecoid samples, while Acidobacteria, and peptococci were dominant in Saladoid samples. Yeasts, including Candida albicans and Crypotococcus spp. were found in all samples. Basidiomycetes were the most notable fungi in Huecoid samples while Ascomycetes predominated in Saladoid samples, suggesting differences in dietary habits. Our study provides an approach for the study of the microbial communities of coprolite samples from various cultures. PMID:23755194

  15. Functional analysis of natural microbial consortia using community proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Denef, Vincent; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that microbial communities, not individual microorganisms, are the relevant ecological units, yet what we know about metabolic functioning of microbial communities could be written on a postage stamp. The recent developments in comprehensive molecular methods promise to gain a better understanding of how organisms within communities interact and how communities and their populations evolve. Here we highlight recent advances and insights gathered by the application of proteogenomics to microbial communities. We explore the history of how unrelated fields of microbial ecology, genomics, biological mass spectrometry and informatics converge to the development of a new field of metaproteomics.

  16. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  17. Microbial community assembly, theory and rare functions.

    PubMed

    Pholchan, Mujalin K; Baptista, Joana de C; Davenport, Russell J; Sloan, William T; Curtis, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Views of community assembly have traditionally been based on the contrasting perspectives of the deterministic niche paradigm and stochastic neutral models. This study sought to determine if we could use empirical interventions conceived from a niche and neutral perspective to change the diversity and evenness of the microbial community within a reactor treating wastewater and to see if there was any associated change in the removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The systematic removal of EDCs and micropollutants from biological treatment systems is a major challenge for environmental engineers. We manipulated pairs of bioreactors in an experiment in which "niche" (temporal variation in resource concentration and resource complexity) and "neutral" (community size and immigration) attributes were changed and the effect on the detectable diversity and the removal of steroidal estrogens was evaluated. The effects of manipulations on diversity suggested that both niche and neutral processes are important in community assembly. We found that temporal variation in environmental conditions increased diversity but resource complexity did not. Larger communities had greater diversity but attempting to increase immigration by adding soil had the opposite effect. The effects of the manipulations on EDC removal efficiency were complex. Decreases in diversity, which were associated with a decrease in evenness, were associated with an increase in EDC removal. A simple generalized neutral model (calibrated with parameters typical of wastewater treatment plants) showed that decreases in diversity should lead to the increase in abundance of some ostensibly taxa rare. We conclude that neither niche and neutral perspectives nor the effect of diversity on putative rare functions can be properly understood by naïve qualitative observations. Instead, the relative importance of the key microbial mechanisms must be determined and, ideally, expressed mathematically. PMID

  18. Microbial community assembly, theory and rare functions

    PubMed Central

    Pholchan, Mujalin K.; Baptista, Joana de C.; Davenport, Russell J.; Sloan, William T.; Curtis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Views of community assembly have traditionally been based on the contrasting perspectives of the deterministic niche paradigm and stochastic neutral models. This study sought to determine if we could use empirical interventions conceived from a niche and neutral perspective to change the diversity and evenness of the microbial community within a reactor treating wastewater and to see if there was any associated change in the removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The systematic removal of EDCs and micropollutants from biological treatment systems is a major challenge for environmental engineers. We manipulated pairs of bioreactors in an experiment in which “niche” (temporal variation in resource concentration and resource complexity) and “neutral” (community size and immigration) attributes were changed and the effect on the detectable diversity and the removal of steroidal estrogens was evaluated. The effects of manipulations on diversity suggested that both niche and neutral processes are important in community assembly. We found that temporal variation in environmental conditions increased diversity but resource complexity did not. Larger communities had greater diversity but attempting to increase immigration by adding soil had the opposite effect. The effects of the manipulations on EDC removal efficiency were complex. Decreases in diversity, which were associated with a decrease in evenness, were associated with an increase in EDC removal. A simple generalized neutral model (calibrated with parameters typical of wastewater treatment plants) showed that decreases in diversity should lead to the increase in abundance of some ostensibly taxa rare. We conclude that neither niche and neutral perspectives nor the effect of diversity on putative rare functions can be properly understood by naïve qualitative observations. Instead, the relative importance of the key microbial mechanisms must be determined and, ideally, expressed mathematically

  19. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface

  20. Biochar addition impacts soil microbial community in tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Fu, Shenglei; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the effect of biochar on soil microbial activity and community structure in tropical areas are scarce. In this study we report the effect of several types of biochar (sewage sludge biochar, paper mill waste biochar, miscanthus biochar and pinewood biochar) in the soil microbial community of two tropical soils, an Acrisol and an Oxisol. In addition we study the effect of the presence or absence of earthworms in soil microbial community. Soil microbial community was more strongly affected by biochar than by the presence or absence of macrofauna.

  1. Microbial Communities Initiative: Melding Technology, Experimentation, and Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Konopka, Allan

    2012-02-29

    The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Konopka describes PNNLs Microbial Communities Initiative. The MCI will integrate biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities.

  2. Microbial Communities Initiative: Melding Technology, Experimentation, and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-10-09

    The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Konopka describes PNNLs Microbial Communities Initiative. The MCI will integrate biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities.

  3. Instrument development to search for biomarkers on mars: Terrestrial acidophile, iron-powered chemolithoautotrophic communities as model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, V.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Briones, C.; Compostizo, C.; Herrero, P. L.; Vez, E.; Sebastián, E.; Moreno-Paz, M.; García-Villadangos, M.; Fernández-Calvo, P.; González-Toril, E.; Pérez-Mercader, J.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez-Elvira, J.

    2005-06-01

    Recent findings by the MER rover opportunity confirming the presence of iron minerals that can only be formed in the presence of water emphasize the study of analogous environments to Mars on Earth. The study of chemolithoautotrophic communities living in acidic iron-rich habitats is highly relevant in order to identify Mars analog environment-specific biomarkers. Iron oxidizing bacteria like Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have ways of life for which it is feasible to identify a past or present hypothetical niche on Mars. We have developed a strategy for biomarker identification based on: (i) search for biosignatures on acid and metal-rich environments; (ii) development of an immunosensor microarray; and (iii) integration into an instrument for autonomous and remote operation. The instrument that we have built, called Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID), is capable of processing a variety of samples for the detection of specific biomarkers. Antibodies against several bacterial strains have been developed and tested in a microarray biosensor on SOLID. Tests with field samples have been successfully performed, allowing the detection of L. ferrooxidans, A. ferrooxidans present in sediment samples.

  4. The aerobic respiratory chain of the acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum: A membrane-bound complex oxidizing ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Castelle, Cindy J; Roger, Magali; Bauzan, Marielle; Brugna, Myriam; Lignon, Sabrina; Nimtz, Manfred; Golyshina, Olga V; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Guiral, Marianne

    2015-08-01

    The extremely acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum is found in iron-rich biomining environments and is an important micro-organism in naturally occurring microbial communities in acid mine drainage. F. acidiphilum is an iron oxidizer that belongs to the order Thermoplasmatales (Euryarchaeota), which harbors the most extremely acidophilic micro-organisms known so far. At present, little is known about the nature or the structural and functional organization of the proteins in F. acidiphilum that impact the iron biogeochemical cycle. We combine here biochemical and biophysical techniques such as enzyme purification, activity measurements, proteomics and spectroscopy to characterize the iron oxidation pathway(s) in F. acidiphilum. We isolated two respiratory membrane protein complexes: a 850 kDa complex containing an aa3-type cytochrome oxidase and a blue copper protein, which directly oxidizes ferrous iron and reduces molecular oxygen, and a 150 kDa cytochrome ba complex likely composed of a di-heme cytochrome and a Rieske protein. We tentatively propose that both of these complexes are involved in iron oxidation respiratory chains, functioning in the so-called uphill and downhill electron flow pathways, consistent with autotrophic life. The cytochrome ba complex could possibly play a role in regenerating reducing equivalents by a reverse ('uphill') electron flow. This study constitutes the first detailed biochemical investigation of the metalloproteins that are potentially directly involved in iron-mediated energy conservation in a member of the acidophilic archaea of the genus Ferroplasma. PMID:25896560

  5. Soil microbial community changes as a result of long-term exposure to a natural CO 2 vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, B. I.; Michaelis, W.; Blumenberg, M.; Frerichs, J.; Schulz, H. M.; Schippers, A.; Beaubien, S. E.; Krüger, M.

    2010-05-01

    The capture and geological storage of CO 2 can be used to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. To assess the environmental impact of potential CO 2 leakage from deep storage reservoirs on the abundance and functional diversity of microorganisms in near-surface terrestrial environments, a natural CO 2 vent (>90% CO 2 in the soil gas) was studied as an analogue. The microbial communities were investigated using lipid biomarkers combined with compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses, the determination of microbial activities, and the use of quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCR). With this complementary set of methods, significant differences between the CO 2-rich vent and a reference site with a normal CO 2 concentration were detected. The δ 13C values of the plant and microbial lipids within the CO 2 vent demonstrate that substantial amounts of geothermal CO 2 were incorporated into the microbial, plant, and soil carbon pools. Moreover, the numbers of Archaea and Bacteria were highest at the reference site and substantially lower at the CO 2 vent. Lipid biomarker analyses, Q-PCR, and the determination of microbial activities showed the presence of CO 2-utilising methanogenic Archaea, Geobacteraceae, and sulphate-reducing Bacteria (SRB) mainly at the CO 2 vent, only minor quantities were found at the reference site. Stable carbon isotopic analyses revealed that the methanogenic Archaea and SRB utilised the vent-derived CO 2 for assimilatory biosynthesis. Our results show a shift in the microbial community towards anaerobic and acidophilic microorganisms as a consequence of the long-term exposure of the soil environment to high CO 2 concentrations.

  6. Microbial communities and SOM dynamics along a precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, Lisa; Billings, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Many microbial communities are not resistant to changes in their environment, and the subsequently new and structurally distinct communities are not always functionally redundant with their predecessors. As a result, environmental change can lead to long-term changes in microbially-mediated ecosystem processes. More specifically, changes in soil moisture regimes can alter microbial physiology and resource demands, and therefore alter how microbes process soil organic matter (SOM). To better understand how current and future precipitation regimes can influence microbial communities and SOM transformations, we assessed microbial community structure and activity in soils reciprocally transplanted across four sites within a grassland precipitation gradient of 485 to 1003 mm y-1. We show that the soil microbial communities residing at these sites are compositionally distinct from each other, and C mineralization rates and microbial biomass C are highly correlated with contemporary site soil moisture. After sols had been subjected to altered precipitation regimes for1.5 and 2.5 years, microbial community structure shifted. Copiotrophs were more abundant relative to oligotrophs in soils experiencing the largest shifts from their native precipitation regimes, and oligotrophs were more dominant in the soils under the most severe soil moisture stress. In general, microbial community structure, in soils from the driest site, was more resistant to change when subjected to novel precipitation regimes. SOM processing rates were distinct in all transplanted soils from their native controls. These changes were dependent on a significant interaction between the initial microbial community structure and the degree of change in precipitation regime, suggesting the importance of initial microbial community structure as a determinant of future structural trajectories, which can drive SOM transformations. Soils transplanted to drier sites with more variable precipitation exhibited lower

  7. Community structure and metabolism through reconstruction of microbial genomes from the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, Gene W.; Chapman, Jarrod; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Allen, Eric E.; Rachna, Ram J.; Richardson, Paul M.; Solovyev, Victor V.; Rubin, Edward M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial communities are vital in the functioning of all ecosystems; however, most microorganisms are uncultivated, and their roles in natural systems are unclear. Here, using random shotgun sequencing of DNA from a natural acidophilic biofilm, we report reconstruction of near-complete genomes of Leptospirillum group II and Ferroplasma type II, and partial recovery of three other genomes. This was possible because the biofilm was dominated by a small number of species populations and the frequency of genomic rearrangements and gene insertions or deletions was relatively low. Because each sequence read came from a different individual, we could determine that single-nucleotide polymorphisms are the predominant form of heterogeneity at the strain level. The Leptospirillum group II genome had remarkably few nucleotide polymorphisms, despite the existence of low-abundance variants. The Ferroplasma type II genome seems to be a composite from three ancestral strains that have undergone homologous recombination to form a large population of mosaic genomes. Analysis of the gene complement for each organism revealed the pathways for carbon and nitrogen fixation and energy generation, and provided insights into survival strategies in an extreme environment.

  8. Correlative microscopy for phylogenetic and ultrastructural characterization of microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Knierim, Bernhard; Luef, Birgit; Wilmes, Paul; Webb, Richard I.; Auer, Manfred; Comolli, Luis R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide ultrastructural information for cells in microbial community samples and phylogenetic information can be recovered via molecular surveys. Here we report an approach to link these datasets by coupling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with either conventional biological or cryogenic TEM. The method could revolutionize understanding of the organization and functioning of microbial communities in natural systems. PMID:23757227

  9. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  10. Response of soil microbial communities during changes in land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of soil microbial communities to restoration following disturbances is poorly understood. We studied the soil microbial communities in a forest disturbance-restoration series comprising a native deciduous forest (DF), conventionally tilled cropland (CT) and mid-succession forest (SF) re...

  11. Soil amendments yield persisting changes in the microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are sensitive to carbon amendments and largely control the decomposition and accumulation of soil organic matter. In this study, we evaluated whether the type of carbon amendment applied to wheat-cropped or fallow soil imparted lasting effects on the microbial community w...

  12. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface

  13. Community history affects the predictability of microbial ecosystem development

    PubMed Central

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Strathdee, Fiona; Spears, Bryan M; Cates, Michael E; Allen, Rosalind J; Free, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate crucial biogeochemical, biomedical and biotechnological processes, yet our understanding of their assembly, and our ability to control its outcome, remain poor. Existing evidence presents conflicting views on whether microbial ecosystem assembly is predictable, or inherently unpredictable. We address this issue using a well-controlled laboratory model system, in which source microbial communities colonize a pristine environment to form complex, nutrient-cycling ecosystems. When the source communities colonize a novel environment, final community composition and function (as measured by redox potential) are unpredictable, although a signature of the community's previous history is maintained. However, when the source communities are pre-conditioned to their new habitat, community development is more reproducible. This situation contrasts with some studies of communities of macro-organisms, where strong selection under novel environmental conditions leads to reproducible community structure, whereas communities under weaker selection show more variability. Our results suggest that the microbial rare biosphere may have an important role in the predictability of microbial community development, and that pre-conditioning may help to reduce unpredictability in the design of microbial communities for biotechnological applications. PMID:23985743

  14. Community proteomics of a natural microbial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Ram, Rachna J; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Thelen, Michael P; Tyson, Gene W; Baker, Brett J; Blake, Robert C; Shah, Manesh; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2005-06-24

    Using genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods, we evaluated gene expression, identified key activities, and examined partitioning of metabolic functions in a natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilm community. We detected 2033 proteins from the five most abundant species in the biofilm, including 48% of the predicted proteins from the dominant biofilm organism, Leptospirillum group II. Proteins involved in protein refolding and response to oxidative stress appeared to be highly expressed, which suggests that damage to biomolecules is a key challenge for survival. We validated and estimated the relative abundance and cellular localization of 357 unique and 215 conserved novel proteins and determined that one abundant novel protein is a cytochrome central to iron oxidation and AMD formation. PMID:15879173

  15. Community Proteomics of a Natural Microbial Biofilm

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Rachna J.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Thelen, Michael P.; Tyson, Gene W.; Baker, Brett J.; Shah, Manesh B; BlakeII, Robert C.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2005-06-01

    Using genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods, we evaluated gene expression, identified key activities, and examined partitioning of metabolic functions in a natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilm community. We detected 2033 proteins from the five most abundant species in the biofilm, including 48% of the predicted proteins from the dominant biofilm organism, Leptospirillum group II. Proteins involved in protein refolding and response to oxidative stress appeared to be highly expressed, which suggests that damage to biomolecules is a key challenge for survival. We validated and estimated the relative abundance and cellular localization of 357 unique and 215 conserved novel proteins and determined that one abundant novel protein is a cytochrome central to iron oxidation and AMD formation.

  16. Characterization Of Sponge-Associated Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, K. L.; Weisz, J.; Lindquist, N.

    2004-12-01

    To more fully understand the endosymbiotic relationship between sponges and microorganisms, it is necessary to characterize the microbial communities of the sponges. In this study, DNA was extracted from each of three individual sponges from four sponge species collected in a shallow mangrove cut in Florida Bay near Key Largo, Florida. A fragment of the 16S rRNA gene from sponge-associated bacteria was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which separates DNA fragments based on their sequence differences. Some 16S sequences appeared to be shared by each of the four sponge species, while other fragments found in only particular species likely represent unique bacterial strains that play a role in sponge nutrition.

  17. Controls on soil microbial community stability under climate change

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Shade, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are intricately linked to ecosystem functioning because they play important roles in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Still, we know little about how soil microbial communities will be affected by disturbances expected with climate change. This is a significant gap in understanding, as the stability of microbial communities, defined as a community's ability to resist and recover from disturbances, likely has consequences for ecosystem function. Here, we propose a framework for predicting a community's response to climate change, based on specific functional traits present in the community, the relative dominance of r- and K-strategists, and the soil environment. We hypothesize that the relative abundance of r- and K-strategists will inform about a community's resistance and resilience to climate change associated disturbances. We also propose that other factors specific to soils, such as moisture content and the presence of plants, may enhance a community's resilience. For example, recent evidence suggests microbial grazers, resource availability, and plant roots each impact on microbial community stability. We explore these hypotheses by offering three vignettes of published data that we re-analyzed. Our results show that community measures of the relative abundance of r- and K-strategists, as well as environmental properties like resource availability and the abundance and diversity of higher trophic levels, can contribute to explaining the response of microbial community composition to climate change-related disturbances. However, further investigation and experimental validation is necessary to directly test these hypotheses across a wide range of soil ecosystems. PMID:24032030

  18. Microbial Community Functional Change during Vertebrate Carrion Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Pechal, Jennifer L.; Crippen, Tawni L.; Tarone, Aaron M.; Lewis, Andrew J.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms play a critical role in the decomposition of organic matter, which contributes to energy and nutrient transformation in every ecosystem. Yet, little is known about the functional activity of epinecrotic microbial communities associated with carrion. The objective of this study was to provide a description of the carrion associated microbial community functional activity using differential carbon source use throughout decomposition over seasons, between years and when microbial communities were isolated from eukaryotic colonizers (e.g., necrophagous insects). Additionally, microbial communities were identified at the phyletic level using high throughput sequencing during a single study. We hypothesized that carrion microbial community functional profiles would change over the duration of decomposition, and that this change would depend on season, year and presence of necrophagous insect colonization. Biolog EcoPlates™ were used to measure the variation in epinecrotic microbial community function by the differential use of 29 carbon sources throughout vertebrate carrion decomposition. Pyrosequencing was used to describe the bacterial community composition in one experiment to identify key phyla associated with community functional changes. Overall, microbial functional activity increased throughout decomposition in spring, summer and winter while it decreased in autumn. Additionally, microbial functional activity was higher in 2011 when necrophagous arthropod colonizer effects were tested. There were inconsistent trends in the microbial function of communities isolated from remains colonized by necrophagous insects between 2010 and 2011, suggesting a greater need for a mechanistic understanding of the process. These data indicate that functional analyses can be implemented in carrion studies and will be important in understanding the influence of microbial communities on an essential ecosystem process, carrion decomposition. PMID:24265741

  19. Alpine Microbial Community Responses to Summer Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, B. B.; Baron, J.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Remote alpine ecosystems of the western US are vulnerable to anthropogenic drivers of change. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and a changing climate introduce nutrients, alter hydrological processes, and expose soils to novel temperature regimes. We asked whether terrestrial microbes, specifically nitrifiers that may contribute to already high lake and stream NO3- concentrations, may be responding to changes in important controls of community development and activity associated with a changing climate, namely temperature and moisture. In August 2010 we sampled three soils from the Loch Vale Watershed in Rocky Mountain National Park which fell along a gradient of succession commonly represented in deglaciated alpine catchments. These included well-developed meadow soils, poorly vegetated talus substrate, and newly-exposed glacial outwash. Outwash, talus, and meadow samples were all N-rich and contained NH4-N concentrations ~7 times higher than NO3-N. Soils were incubated for 45 days at 2.5, 10, and 25oC and three moisture levels based on initial field conditions. Nitrifier concentrations were greatest in outwash, intermediate in talus, and lowest in meadow samples. Bacterial nitrifier abundance greatly surpassed archaeal nitrifier levels. Net nitrification was also greatest in outwash, followed by meadow and talus respectively. Moisture, rather than temperature, was a dominant control over both nitrifier abundance and activity. Linking the influence of temperature and moisture on alpine microbial communities will provide insight into control thresholds, optima, and synergistic interactions. This research is part of a larger study of controls on headwater stream and lake NO3-. Characterizing microbial NO3- production in the alpine will help us evaluate the importance of biological, as opposed to physical, sources of stream NO3-. It will also inform our ability to forecast and mitigate consequences of anthropogenic drivers of change on these systems.

  20. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    SciTech Connect

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-20

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum 'TM7' as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L{sup −1} was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  1. Culture-independent detection of "TM7" bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-01

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum "TM7" as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L-1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  2. Reciprocal influences of microbial community and hydrogeomorphology in sandy streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Lera, C.; Federlein, L. L.; Frossard, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Knie, M.; Mutz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stream hydrogeomorphology is a strong determinant of streambed microbial community activity, which in turn influences stream biogeochemistry. Whether this influence is unidirectional or whether microbial communities can also modulate biogeochemical processes by affecting hydrogeomorphology is an emerging question in research on sediment-water interfaces. Using experimental flumes simulating sandy streams, we tested whether such influences can occur through altered water exchange across the sediment-water interface. Results show that microbial communities in sandy streambeds can indeed affect hydrogeomorphology by producing gas bubbles. Specifically, gas bubbles accumulating in microbial biofilms can alter the water exchange by (i) reducing sediment pore space or (ii) provoking the detachment of the microbial biofilm detachment and thus altering streambed topography. Additionally, results indicate that water exchange is the major for the structure and activity of the microbial community. Our data also indicate that the potential of microbial communities to influence water exchange can be modulated by factors such as light intensity and discharge fluctuations. These biological-physical interactions and their effects on the influence of microbial communities on hydrogeomorphology is a source of spatiotemporal variability in water exchange across the sediment-water interface. Heterogeneity in water exchange is known to increase biogeochemical pathways and, thus, ecosystem functions. These results suggest that a holistic understanding of vertical connectivity in running waters requires consideration of biological-physical interactions at the water-sediment interface.

  3. Composition and Diversity of Microbial Communities Recovered from Surrogate Minerals Incubated in an Acidic Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Catherine L.; Cummings, David E.; Petzke, Lynn M.; Kinsall, Barry L.; Watson, David B.; Peyton, Brent M.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2004-01-01

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. In this study, surrogate geological media contained in a porous receptacle were incubated in a well within the saturated zone of a pristine region of an aquifer to capture populations from the extant communities. After an 8-week incubation, the media were recovered, and the microbial community that developed on each medium was compared to the community recovered from groundwater and native sediments from the same region of the aquifer, using 16S DNA coding for rRNA (rDNA)-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The groundwater and sediment communities were highly distinct from one another, and the communities that developed on the various media were more similar to groundwater communities than to sediment communities. 16S rDNA clone libraries of communities that developed on particles of a specular hematite medium incubated in the same well as the media used for T-RFLP analysis were compared with those obtained from an acidic, uranium-contaminated region of the same aquifer. The hematite-associated community formed in the pristine area was highly diverse at the species level, with 25 distinct phylotypes identified, the majority of which (73%) were affiliated with the β-Proteobacteria. Similarly, the hematite-associated community formed in the contaminated area was populated in large part by β-Proteobacteria (62%); however, only 13 distinct phylotypes were apparent. The three numerically dominant clones from the hematite-associated community from the contaminated site were affiliated with metal- and radionuclide-tolerant or acidophilic taxa, consistent with the environmental conditions. Only two populations were common to both sites. PMID:15466548

  4. Genetic transfer in acidophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, F.F.; Glenn, A.W.; Bulmer, D.; Ward, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of microorganisms to recover metals from ores, as well as to remove sulfur from coal. These so-called bioleaching processes are mediated by a number of bacteria. The best-studied of these organisms are acidophiles including Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species. Our laboratory has focused on developing genetic strategies to allow the manipulation of acidophilic bacteria to improve and augment their utility in large scale operations. We have recently been successful in employing conjugation for interbacterial transfer of genetic information, as well as in directly transforming Acidiphilium by use of electroporation. We are now testing the properties of IncPl, IncW and IncQ plasmid vectors in Acidiphilium to determine their relative usefulness in routine manipulation of acidophiles and transfer between organisms. This study also allows us to determine the natural ability of these bacteria to transfer genetic material amongst themselves in their particular environment. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Comparative Metagenomics of Freshwater Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Hemme, Chris; Deng, Ye; Tu, Qichao; Fields, Matthew; Gentry, Terry; Wu, Liyou; Tringe, Susannah; Watson, David; He, Zhili; Hazen, Terry; Tiedje, James; Rubin, Eddy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Previous analyses of a microbial metagenome from uranium and nitric-acid contaminated groundwater (FW106) showed significant environmental effects resulting from the rapid introduction of multiple contaminants. Effects include a massive loss of species and strain biodiversity, accumulation of toxin resistant genes in the metagenome and lateral transfer of toxin resistance genes between community members. To better understand these results in an ecological context, a second metagenome from a pristine groundwater system located along the same geological strike was sequenced and analyzed (FW301). It is hypothesized that FW301 approximates the ancestral FW106 community based on phylogenetic profiles and common geological parameters; however, even if is not the case, the datasets still permit comparisons between healthy and stressed groundwater ecosystems. Complex carbohydrate metabolism has been almost entirely lost in the stressed ecosystem. In contrast, the pristine system encodes a wide diversity of complex carbohydrate metabolism systems, suggesting that carbon turnover is very rapid and less leaky in the healthy groundwater system. FW301 encodes many (~;;160+) carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes while FW106 encodes none. This result suggests that the community is frequently exposed to oxygen from aerated rainwater percolating into the subsurface, with a resulting high rate of carbon metabolism and CO production. When oxygen levels fall, the CO then serves as a major carbon source for the community. FW301 appears to be capable of CO2 fixation via the reductive carboxylase (reverse TCA) cycle and possibly acetogenesis, activities; these activities are lacking in the heterotrophic FW106 system which relies exclusively on respiration of nitrate and/or oxygen for energy production. FW301 encodes a complete set of B12 biosynthesis pathway at high abundance suggesting the use of sodium gradients for energy production in the healthy groundwater community. Overall

  6. Geochemical characteristics and microbial community composition in toxic metal-rich sediments contaminated with Au-Ag mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Seunghak; Lee, Giehyeon; Ham, Baknoon; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M; O'Loughlin, Edward J

    2015-10-15

    The effects of extreme geochemical conditions on microbial community composition were investigated for two distinct sets of sediment samples collected near weathered mine tailings. One set (SCH) showed extraordinary geochemical characteristics: As (6.7-11.5%), Pb (1.5-2.1%), Zn (0.1-0.2%), and pH (3.1-3.5). The other set (SCL) had As (0.3-1.2%), Pb (0.02-0.22%), and Zn (0.01-0.02%) at pH 2.5-3.1. The bacterial communities in SCL were clearly different from those in SCH, suggesting that extreme geochemical conditions affected microbial community distribution even on a small spatial scale. The clones identified in SCL were closely related to acidophilic bacteria in the taxa Acidobacterium (18%), Acidomicrobineae (14%), and Leptospirillum (10%). Most clones in SCH were closely related to Methylobacterium (79%) and Ralstonia (19%), both well-known metal-resistant bacteria. Although total As was extremely high, over 95% was in the form of scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O). Acid-extractable As was only ∼118 and ∼14 mg kg(-1) in SCH and SCL, respectively, below the level known to be toxic to bacteria. Meanwhile, acid-extractable Pb and Zn in SCH were above toxic concentrations. Because As was present in an oxidized, stable form, release of Pb and/or Zn (or a combination of toxic metals in the sediment) from the sediment likely accounts for the differences in microbial community structure. The results also suggest that care should be taken when investigating mine tailings, because large differences in chemical/biological properties can occur over small spatial scales. PMID:25917692

  7. Mangrove succession enriches the sediment microbial community in South China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Jing; Jian, Shuguang; Ren, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession. PMID:27265262

  8. Mangrove succession enriches the sediment microbial community in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Jing; Jian, Shuguang; Ren, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession. PMID:27265262

  9. Integrating Ecological and Engineering Concepts of Resilience in Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Renslow, Ryan S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lindemann, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Many definitions of resilience have been proffered for natural and engineered ecosystems, but a conceptual consensus on resilience in microbial communities is still lacking. We argue that the disconnect largely results from the wide variance in microbial community complexity, which range from compositionally simple synthetic consortia to complex natural communities, and divergence between the typical practical outcomes emphasized by ecologists and engineers. Viewing microbial communities as elasto-plastic systems that undergo both recoverable and unrecoverable transitions, we argue that this gap between the engineering and ecological definitions of resilience stems from their respective emphases on elastic and plastic deformation, respectively. We propose that the two concepts may be fundamentally united around the resilience of function rather than state in microbial communities and the regularity in the relationship between environmental variation and a community's functional response. Furthermore, we posit that functional resilience is an intrinsic property of microbial communities and suggest that state changes in response to environmental variation may be a key mechanism driving functional resilience in microbial communities. PMID:26648912

  10. Response of microbial community structure to microbial plugging in a mesothermic petroleum reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue Hui; Ma, Sha Sha; Hu, Ji Ming; Banat, Ibrahim M; Hou, Du Jie

    2010-12-01

    Microbial plugging, a microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) technique, has been applied in a candidate oil reservoir of Daqing Oil Field (China). The goal of this study is to monitor the survival of injected bacteria and reveal the response of microbial communities in field trial of microbial plugging through injection of selected microbial culture broth and nutrients. Culture-dependent enrichment and culture-independent 16S rDNA clone library methods were used. The results show that it was easy to activate targeted biopolymer-producing bacteria in a laboratory environment, and it was difficult for injected exogenous bacteria to survive. In addition, microbial communities in the oil reservoir also changed before and after the field trial. However, microbial communities, activated by fermentative medium for biopolymer-producing bacteria, appeared to show greater differences in the laboratory than in the natural reservoir. It was concluded that microbial populations monitoring was important to MEOR; results of response of microbial communities could provide a guide for the future field trials. PMID:20803140

  11. A trait-based approach for examining microbial community assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prest, T. L.; Nemergut, D.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms regulate all of Earth's major biogeochemical cycles and an understanding of how microbial communities assemble is a key part in evaluating controls over many types of ecosystem processes. Rapid advances in technology and bioinformatics have led to a better appreciation for the variation in microbial community structure in time and space. Yet, advances in theory are necessary to make sense of these data and allow us to generate unifying hypotheses about the causes and consequences of patterns in microbial biodiversity and what they mean for ecosystem function. Here, I will present a metaanalysis of microbial community assembly from a variety of successional and post-disturbance systems. Our analysis shows various distinct patterns in community assembly, and the potential importance of nutrients and dispersal in shaping microbial community beta diversity in these systems. We also used a trait-based approach to generate hypotheses about the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and the implications for function. Our work reveals the importance of rRNA operon copy number as a community aggregated trait in helping to reconcile differences in community dynamics between distinct types of successional and disturbed systems. Specifically, our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number can be a common feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession, supporting a transition from an r-selected to a K-selected community. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, from cells to populations and communities, and has implications for both ecology and evolution. Trait-based approaches are an important next step to generate and test hypotheses about the forces structuring microbial communities and the subsequent consequences for ecosystem function.

  12. Marine microbial community dynamics and their ecological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Jed A; Cram, Jacob A; Needham, David M

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in studying the dynamics of marine microbial communities have shown that the composition of these communities follows predictable patterns and involves complex network interactions, which shed light on the underlying processes regulating these globally important organisms. Such 'holistic' (or organism- and system-based) studies of these communities complement popular reductionist, often culture-based, approaches for understanding organism function one gene or protein at a time. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of marine microbial community dynamics at various scales, from hours to decades. We also explain how the data illustrate community resilience and seasonality, and reveal interactions among microorganisms. PMID:25659323

  13. Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731

  14. Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731

  15. Integrating ecological and engineering concepts of resilience in microbial communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Hyun -Seob; Renslow, Ryan S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lindemann, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    We note that many definitions of resilience have been proffered for natural and engineered ecosystems, but a conceptual consensus on resilience in microbial communities is still lacking. Here, we argue that the disconnect largely results from the wide variance in microbial community complexity, which range from simple synthetic consortia to complex natural communities, and divergence between the typical practical outcomes emphasized by ecologists and engineers. Viewing microbial communities as elasto-plastic systems, we argue that this gap between the engineering and ecological definitions of resilience stems from their respective emphases on elastic and plastic deformation, respectively. We propose that the twomore » concepts may be fundamentally united around the resilience of function rather than state in microbial communities and the regularity in the relationship between environmental variation and a community’s functional response. Furthermore, we posit that functional resilience is an intrinsic property of microbial communities, suggesting that state changes in response to environmental variation may be a key mechanism driving resilience in microbial communities.« less

  16. Integrating ecological and engineering concepts of resilience in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun -Seob; Renslow, Ryan S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lindemann, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    We note that many definitions of resilience have been proffered for natural and engineered ecosystems, but a conceptual consensus on resilience in microbial communities is still lacking. Here, we argue that the disconnect largely results from the wide variance in microbial community complexity, which range from simple synthetic consortia to complex natural communities, and divergence between the typical practical outcomes emphasized by ecologists and engineers. Viewing microbial communities as elasto-plastic systems, we argue that this gap between the engineering and ecological definitions of resilience stems from their respective emphases on elastic and plastic deformation, respectively. We propose that the two concepts may be fundamentally united around the resilience of function rather than state in microbial communities and the regularity in the relationship between environmental variation and a community’s functional response. Furthermore, we posit that functional resilience is an intrinsic property of microbial communities, suggesting that state changes in response to environmental variation may be a key mechanism driving resilience in microbial communities.

  17. Which Microbial Communities Are Present? Sequence-Based Metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffrey, Sean M.

    The use of metagenomic methods that directly sequence environmental samples has revealed the extraordinary microbial diversity missed by traditional culture-based methodologies. Therefore, to develop a complete and representative model of an environment's microbial community and activities, metagenomic analysis is an essential tool.

  18. Soil microbial community successional patterns during forest ecosystem restoration.

    PubMed

    Banning, Natasha C; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Grigg, Andrew H; Grant, Carl D; Andersen, Gary L; Brodie, Eoin L; Murphy, D V

    2011-09-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mining (up to 18 years old), to examine changes in soil bacterial and fungal community structures (by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [ARISA]) and changes in specific soil bacterial phyla by 16S rRNA gene microarray analysis. This study demonstrated that mining in these ecosystems significantly altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. The hypothesis that the soil microbial community structures would become more similar to those of the surrounding nonmined forest with rehabilitation age was broadly supported by shifts in the bacterial but not the fungal community. Microarray analysis enabled the identification of clear successional trends in the bacterial community at the phylum level and supported the finding of an increase in similarity to nonmined forest soil with rehabilitation age. Changes in soil microbial community structure were significantly related to the size of the microbial biomass as well as numerous edaphic variables (including pH and C, N, and P nutrient concentrations). These findings suggest that soil bacterial community dynamics follow a pattern in developing ecosystems that may be predictable and can be conceptualized as providing an integrated assessment of numerous edaphic variables. PMID:21724890

  19. Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

  20. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neill, K.; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  1. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems. PMID:26509157

  2. Effect of warming and drought on grassland microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Cody S; Beasley, William Howard; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Krumholz, Lee R

    2011-10-01

    The soil microbiome is responsible for mediating key ecological processes; however, little is known about its sensitivity to climate change. Observed increases in global temperatures and alteration to rainfall patterns, due to anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, will likely have a strong influence on soil microbial communities and ultimately the ecosystem services they provide. Therefore, it is vital to understand how soil microbial communities will respond to future climate change scenarios. To this end, we surveyed the abundance, diversity and structure of microbial communities over a 2-year period from a long-term in situ warming experiment that experienced a moderate natural drought. We found the warming treatment and soil water budgets strongly influence bacterial population size and diversity. In normal precipitation years, the warming treatment significantly increased microbial population size 40-150% but decreased diversity and significantly changed the composition of the community when compared with the unwarmed controls. However during drought conditions, the warming treatment significantly reduced soil moisture thereby creating unfavorable growth conditions that led to a 50-80% reduction in the microbial population size when compared with the control. Warmed plots also saw an increase in species richness, diversity and evenness; however, community composition was unaffected suggesting that few phylotypes may be active under these stressful conditions. Our results indicate that under warmed conditions, ecosystem water budget regulates the abundance and diversity of microbial populations and that rainfall timing is critical at the onset of drought for sustaining microbial populations. PMID:21451582

  3. Microbial community transitions across the deep sediment-basement interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonté, J.; Lever, M. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of microbial abundance and geochemistry in deep marine sediments indicate a stimulation of microbial activity near the sediment-basement interface; yet, the extent to which microbial communities in bottom sediments and underlying crustal habitats interact is unclear. We conducted tag pyrosequencing on DNA extracted from a spectrum of deep sediment-basement samples to try to identify patterns in microbial community shifts across sediment-basement interfaces, focusing on samples from the subsurface of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (IODP Expedition 327). Our results demonstrate that sediment and the basaltic crust harbor microbial communities that are phylogenetically connected, but the eveness is characteristic of the environment. We will discuss the microbial community transitions that occur horizontally along fluid flow pathways and vertically across the sediment basement interface, as well as the possible implications regarding the controls of microbial community composition along deep sediment-basement interfaces in hydrothermal systems. We will also highlight efforts to overcome sample contamination in crustal subsurface samples.

  4. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters the Structure of Soil Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Qin, Yujia; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; Roe, Bruce A.; Wiley, Graham; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to examine impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on soil microbial communities from 12 replicates each from ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 settings. The results suggest that the soil microbial community composition and structure significantly altered under conditions of eCO2, which was closely associated with soil and plant properties. PMID:22307288

  5. Metabolically active microbial communities in marine sediment under high-CO2 and low-pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Morono, Yuki; de Beer, Dirk; Haeckel, Matthias; Sunamura, Michinari; Futagami, Taiki; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Terada, Takeshi; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Rehder, Gregor; Boetius, Antje; Inagaki, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Sediment-hosting hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough maintain a large amount of liquid, supercritical and hydrate phases of CO2 in the seabed. The emission of CO2 may critically impact the geochemical, geophysical and ecological characteristics of the deep-sea sedimentary environment. So far it remains unclear whether microbial communities that have been detected in such high-CO2 and low-pH habitats are metabolically active, and if so, what the biogeochemical and ecological consequences for the environment are. In this study, RNA-based molecular approaches and radioactive tracer-based respiration rate assays were combined to study the density, diversity and metabolic activity of microbial communities in CO2-seep sediment at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field of the southern Okinawa Trough. In general, the number of microbes decreased sharply with increasing sediment depth and CO2 concentration. Phylogenetic analyses of community structure using reverse-transcribed 16S ribosomal RNA showed that the active microbial community became less diverse with increasing sediment depth and CO2 concentration, indicating that microbial activity and community structure are sensitive to CO2 venting. Analyses of RNA-based pyrosequences and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization data revealed that members of the SEEP-SRB2 group within the Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2a and -2c) were confined to the top seafloor, and active archaea were not detected in deeper sediments (13–30 cm in depth) characterized by high CO2. Measurement of the potential sulfate reduction rate at pH conditions of 3–9 with and without methane in the headspace indicated that acidophilic sulfate reduction possibly occurs in the presence of methane, even at very low pH of 3. These results suggest that some members of the anaerobic methanotrophs and sulfate reducers can adapt to the CO2-seep sedimentary environment; however, CO2 and p

  6. Metabolically active microbial communities in marine sediment under high-CO(2) and low-pH extremes.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Morono, Yuki; de Beer, Dirk; Haeckel, Matthias; Sunamura, Michinari; Futagami, Taiki; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Terada, Takeshi; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Rehder, Gregor; Boetius, Antje; Inagaki, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Sediment-hosting hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough maintain a large amount of liquid, supercritical and hydrate phases of CO(2) in the seabed. The emission of CO(2) may critically impact the geochemical, geophysical and ecological characteristics of the deep-sea sedimentary environment. So far it remains unclear whether microbial communities that have been detected in such high-CO(2) and low-pH habitats are metabolically active, and if so, what the biogeochemical and ecological consequences for the environment are. In this study, RNA-based molecular approaches and radioactive tracer-based respiration rate assays were combined to study the density, diversity and metabolic activity of microbial communities in CO(2)-seep sediment at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field of the southern Okinawa Trough. In general, the number of microbes decreased sharply with increasing sediment depth and CO(2) concentration. Phylogenetic analyses of community structure using reverse-transcribed 16S ribosomal RNA showed that the active microbial community became less diverse with increasing sediment depth and CO(2) concentration, indicating that microbial activity and community structure are sensitive to CO(2) venting. Analyses of RNA-based pyrosequences and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization data revealed that members of the SEEP-SRB2 group within the Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2a and -2c) were confined to the top seafloor, and active archaea were not detected in deeper sediments (13-30 cm in depth) characterized by high CO(2). Measurement of the potential sulfate reduction rate at pH conditions of 3-9 with and without methane in the headspace indicated that acidophilic sulfate reduction possibly occurs in the presence of methane, even at very low pH of 3. These results suggest that some members of the anaerobic methanotrophs and sulfate reducers can adapt to the CO(2)-seep sedimentary environment; however

  7. Community Analysis of Dynamic Microbial Mat Communities from Actively Erupting Seamounts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R.; Tebo, B.; Moyer, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The actively erupting deep-sea volcanoes NW Rota-1 and W Mata have multiple diffuse low-temperature (Tmax= 20-30 degrees) vent sites which harbor dense populations of microbial mat communities driven by chemoautotrophy. These microbial mats were often composed of white filamentous bacteria growing in close proximity to focused hydrothermal flow. Eight microbial mats were sampled from discrete hydrothermal vents on NW Rota-1 and W Mata volcanoes in 2009. The microbial mat communities were analyzed with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community fingerprinting. All of the sampled microbial mats were dominated by the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The microbial mat at Iceberg Vent contained 13.5% Archaea, while all other microbial mats contained less than 1% Archaea. Bacterial community fingerprints from NW Rota-1 and W Mata formed distinct clusters that were well separated from clusters formed by hydrothermal communities from Axial and Eifuku Seamounts that were also dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria. Iceberg vent communities from NW Rota-1 have transitioned from being dominated by Caminibacter phylotypes to Sulfuimonas group phylotypes since 2004. These data suggest that microbial communities found on actively erupting volcanoes are geographically distinct and provide a natural laboratory to study microbial colonization and community succession at hydrothermal systems.

  8. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Nghikembua, Matti; Maul, Jude E.; Marker, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  9. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, J. S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, A.; Nghikembua, M.; Maul, J. E.; Marker, L.

    2015-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  10. Human and environmental impacts on river sediment microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sean M; Jones, Edwin; Bearquiver, Angelita; Blackwolf, Frederick; Roundstone, Wayne; Scott, Nicole; Hooker, Jeff; Madsen, Robert; Coleman, Maureen L; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Sediment microbial communities are responsible for a majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics in community structure and function across freshwater environments will help us to predict how these ecosystems will change in response to human land-use practices. Here we present a spatiotemporal study of sediments in the Tongue River (Montana, USA), comprising six sites along 134 km of river sampled in both spring and fall for two years. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and shotgun metagenomes revealed that these sediments are the richest (∼ 65,000 microbial 'species' identified) and most novel (93% of OTUs do not match known microbial diversity) ecosystems analyzed by the Earth Microbiome Project to date, and display more functional diversity than was detected in a recent review of global soil metagenomes. Community structure and functional potential have been significantly altered by anthropogenic drivers, including increased pathogenicity and antibiotic metabolism markers near towns and metabolic signatures of coal and coalbed methane extraction byproducts. The core (OTUs shared across all samples) and the overall microbial community exhibited highly similar structure, and phylogeny was weakly coupled with functional potential. Together, these results suggest that microbial community structure is shaped by environmental drivers and niche filtering, though stochastic assembly processes likely play a role as well. These results indicate that sediment microbial communities are highly complex and sensitive to changes in land use practices. PMID:24841417

  11. Human and Environmental Impacts on River Sediment Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Sean M.; Jones, Edwin; Bearquiver, Angelita; Blackwolf, Frederick; Roundstone, Wayne; Scott, Nicole; Hooker, Jeff; Madsen, Robert; Coleman, Maureen L.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment microbial communities are responsible for a majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics in community structure and function across freshwater environments will help us to predict how these ecosystems will change in response to human land-use practices. Here we present a spatiotemporal study of sediments in the Tongue River (Montana, USA), comprising six sites along 134 km of river sampled in both spring and fall for two years. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and shotgun metagenomes revealed that these sediments are the richest (∼65,000 microbial ‘species’ identified) and most novel (93% of OTUs do not match known microbial diversity) ecosystems analyzed by the Earth Microbiome Project to date, and display more functional diversity than was detected in a recent review of global soil metagenomes. Community structure and functional potential have been significantly altered by anthropogenic drivers, including increased pathogenicity and antibiotic metabolism markers near towns and metabolic signatures of coal and coalbed methane extraction byproducts. The core (OTUs shared across all samples) and the overall microbial community exhibited highly similar structure, and phylogeny was weakly coupled with functional potential. Together, these results suggest that microbial community structure is shaped by environmental drivers and niche filtering, though stochastic assembly processes likely play a role as well. These results indicate that sediment microbial communities are highly complex and sensitive to changes in land use practices. PMID:24841417

  12. Cross-Site Soil Microbial Communities under Tillage Regimes: Fungistasis and Microbial Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yrjälä, Kim; Alakukku, Laura; Palojärvi, Ansa

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of soil ecosystem services by agricultural management strategies requires knowledge of microbial communities in different management regimes. Crop cover by no-till management protects the soil surface, reducing the risk of erosion and nutrient leaching, but might increase straw residue-borne and soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi. A cross-site study of soil microbial communities and Fusarium fungistasis was conducted on six long-term agricultural fields with no-till and moldboard-plowed treatments. Microbial communities were studied at the topsoil surface (0 to 5 cm) and bottom (10 to 20 cm) by general bacterial and actinobacterial terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses. Fusarium culmorum soil fungistasis describing soil receptivity to plant-pathogenic fungi was explored by using the surface layer method. Soil depth had a significant impact on general bacterial as well as actinobacterial communities and PLFA profiles in no-till treatment, with a clear spatial distinction of communities (P < 0.05), whereas the depth-related separation of microbial communities was not observed in plowed fields. The fungal biomass was higher in no-till surface soil than in plowed soil (P < 0.07). Soil total microbial biomass and fungal biomass correlated with fungistasis (P < 0.02 for the sum of PLFAs; P < 0.001 for PLFA 18:2ω6). Our cross-site study demonstrated that agricultural management strategies can have a major impact on soil microbial community structures, indicating that it is possible to influence the soil processes with management decisions. The interactions between plant-pathogenic fungi and soil microbial communities are multifaceted, and a high level of fungistasis could be linked to the high microbial biomass in soil but not to the specific management strategy. PMID:22983972

  13. Succession in a microbial mat community - A Gaian perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolz, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The contribution of prokaryotes to Gaian control systems is discussed. The survival of the Microcoleus-dominated stratified microbial community at Laguna Figueroa, after heavy rains flooded the evaporite flat with up to 3 m of water and deposited 5-10 cm of allocthonous sediment, demonstrates the resiliency of these communities to short-term perturbations while the microbial fossil record attests to their persistence over geologic time. It is shown that the great diversity of microbial species and their short generation time make them uniquely suited for Gaian mechanisms.

  14. Microbial community assembly and metabolic function during mammalian corpse decomposition.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Weiss, Sophie; Lax, Simon; Van Treuren, Will; Hyde, Embriette R; Song, Se Jin; Amir, Amnon; Larsen, Peter; Sangwan, Naseer; Haarmann, Daniel; Humphrey, Greg C; Ackermann, Gail; Thompson, Luke R; Lauber, Christian; Bibat, Alexander; Nicholas, Catherine; Gebert, Matthew J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Reed, Sasha C; Gilbert, Jack A; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate corpse decomposition provides an important stage in nutrient cycling in most terrestrial habitats, yet microbially mediated processes are poorly understood. Here we combine deep microbial community characterization, community-level metabolic reconstruction, and soil biogeochemical assessment to understand the principles governing microbial community assembly during decomposition of mouse and human corpses on different soil substrates. We find a suite of bacterial and fungal groups that contribute to nitrogen cycling and a reproducible network of decomposers that emerge on predictable time scales. Our results show that this decomposer community is derived primarily from bulk soil, but key decomposers are ubiquitous in low abundance. Soil type was not a dominant factor driving community development, and the process of decomposition is sufficiently reproducible to offer new opportunities for forensic investigations. PMID:26657285

  15. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    PubMed Central

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  16. Microbial community assembly and metabolic function during mammalian corpse decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Weiss, Sophie; Lax, Simon; Van Treuren, Will; Hyde, Embriette R.; Song, Se Jin; Amir, Amnon; Larsen, Peter; Sangwan, Naseer; Haarmann, Daniel; Humphrey, Greg C; Ackermann, Gail; Thompson, Luke R; Lauber, Christian; Bibat, Alexander; Nicholas, Catherine; Gebert, Matthew J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Reed, Sasha C.; Gilbert, Jack A; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate corpse decomposition provides an important stage in nutrient cycling in most terrestrial habitats, yet microbially mediated processes are poorly understood. Here we combine deep microbial community characterization, community-level metabolic reconstruction, and soil biogeochemical assessment to understand the principles governing microbial community assembly during decomposition of mouse and human corpses on different soil substrates. We find a suite of bacterial and fungal groups that contribute to nitrogen cycling and a reproducible network of decomposers that emerge on predictable time scales. Our results show that this decomposer community is derived primarily from bulk soil, but key decomposers are ubiquitous in low abundance. Soil type was not a dominant factor driving community development, and the process of decomposition is sufficiently reproducible to offer new opportunities for forensic investigations.

  17. Environmental transcriptome analysis reveals physiological differences between biofilm and planktonic modes of life of the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. in their natural microbial community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy). Macroscopic biofilms and filaments usually grow on the water-air interface or under the stream attached to solid substrates (streamers). In the Río Tinto (Spain), brown filaments develop under the water stream where the Gram-negative iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptospirillum spp. (L. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are abundant. These microorganisms play a critical role in bioleaching processes for industrial (biominery) and environmental applications (acid mine drainage, bioremediation). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological differences between the free living (planktonic) and the sessile (biofilm associated) lifestyles of Leptospirillum spp. as part of its natural extremely acidophilic community. Results Total RNA extracted from environmental samples was used to determine the composition of the metabolically active members of the microbial community and then to compare the biofilm and planktonic environmental transcriptomes by hybridizing to a genomic microarray of L. ferrooxidans. Genes up-regulated in the filamentous biofilm are involved in cellular functions related to biofilm formation and maintenance, such as: motility and quorum sensing (mqsR, cheAY, fliA, motAB), synthesis of cell wall structures (lnt, murA, murB), specific proteases (clpX/clpP), stress response chaperons (clpB, clpC, grpE-dnaKJ, groESL), etc. Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation (poxB, ackA) were up-regulated in the biofilm. This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. Conclusions Our results indicate that the acidophilic

  18. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  19. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  20. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  1. Segregation of the Anodic Microbial Communities in a Microbial Fuel Cell Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Douglas M.; Smith, Ann; Dahale, Sonal; Stratford, James P.; Li, Jia V.; Grüning, André; Bushell, Michael E.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Avignone Rossa, C.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic interactions within microbial communities are essential for the efficient degradation of complex organic compounds, and underpin natural phenomena driven by microorganisms, such as the recycling of carbon-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing molecules. These metabolic interactions ultimately determine the function, activity and stability of the community, and therefore their understanding would be essential to steer processes where microbial communities are involved. This is exploited in the design of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bioelectrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy present in substrates into electrical energy through the metabolic activity of microorganisms, either single species or communities. In this work, we analyzed the evolution of the microbial community structure in a cascade of MFCs inoculated with an anaerobic microbial community and continuously fed with a complex medium. The analysis of the composition of the anodic communities revealed the establishment of different communities in the anodes of the hydraulically connected MFCs, with a decrease in the abundance of fermentative taxa and a concurrent increase in respiratory taxa along the cascade. The analysis of the metabolites in the anodic suspension showed a metabolic shift between the first and last MFC, confirming the segregation of the anodic communities. Those results suggest a metabolic interaction mechanism between the predominant fermentative bacteria at the first stages of the cascade and the anaerobic respiratory electrogenic population in the latter stages, which is reflected in the observed increase in power output. We show that our experimental system represents an ideal platform for optimization of processes where the degradation of complex substrates is involved, as well as a potential tool for the study of metabolic interactions in complex microbial communities. PMID:27242723

  2. Segregation of the Anodic Microbial Communities in a Microbial Fuel Cell Cascade.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Douglas M; Smith, Ann; Dahale, Sonal; Stratford, James P; Li, Jia V; Grüning, André; Bushell, Michael E; Marchesi, Julian R; Avignone Rossa, C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic interactions within microbial communities are essential for the efficient degradation of complex organic compounds, and underpin natural phenomena driven by microorganisms, such as the recycling of carbon-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing molecules. These metabolic interactions ultimately determine the function, activity and stability of the community, and therefore their understanding would be essential to steer processes where microbial communities are involved. This is exploited in the design of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bioelectrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy present in substrates into electrical energy through the metabolic activity of microorganisms, either single species or communities. In this work, we analyzed the evolution of the microbial community structure in a cascade of MFCs inoculated with an anaerobic microbial community and continuously fed with a complex medium. The analysis of the composition of the anodic communities revealed the establishment of different communities in the anodes of the hydraulically connected MFCs, with a decrease in the abundance of fermentative taxa and a concurrent increase in respiratory taxa along the cascade. The analysis of the metabolites in the anodic suspension showed a metabolic shift between the first and last MFC, confirming the segregation of the anodic communities. Those results suggest a metabolic interaction mechanism between the predominant fermentative bacteria at the first stages of the cascade and the anaerobic respiratory electrogenic population in the latter stages, which is reflected in the observed increase in power output. We show that our experimental system represents an ideal platform for optimization of processes where the degradation of complex substrates is involved, as well as a potential tool for the study of metabolic interactions in complex microbial communities. PMID:27242723

  3. Coupling among Microbial Communities, Biogeochemistry, and Mineralogy across Biogeochemical Facies

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, James C.; Konopka, Allan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Chris; Lin, Xueju; Miller, Micah D.; Kennedy, David W.; Miller, Erin A.; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2016-01-01

    Physical properties of sediments are commonly used to define subsurface lithofacies and these same physical properties influence subsurface microbial communities. This suggests an (unexploited) opportunity to use the spatial distribution of facies to predict spatial variation in biogeochemically relevant microbial attributes. Here, we characterize three biogeochemical facies—oxidized, reduced, and transition—within one lithofacies and elucidate relationships among facies features and microbial community biomass, richness, and composition. Consistent with previous observations of biogeochemical hotspots at environmental transition zones, we find elevated biomass within a biogeochemical facies that occurred at the transition between oxidized and reduced biogeochemical facies. Microbial richness—the number of microbial taxa—was lower within the reduced facies and was well-explained by a combination of pH and mineralogy. Null modeling revealed that microbial community composition was influenced by ecological selection imposed by redox state and mineralogy, possibly due to effects on nutrient availability or transport. As an illustrative case, we predict microbial biomass concentration across a three-dimensional spatial domain by coupling the spatial distribution of subsurface biogeochemical facies with biomass-facies relationships revealed here. We expect that merging such an approach with hydro-biogeochemical models will provide important constraints on simulated dynamics, thereby reducing uncertainty in model predictions. PMID:27469056

  4. Coupling among Microbial Communities, Biogeochemistry, and Mineralogy across Biogeochemical Facies.

    PubMed

    Stegen, James C; Konopka, Allan; McKinley, James P; Murray, Chris; Lin, Xueju; Miller, Micah D; Kennedy, David W; Miller, Erin A; Resch, Charles T; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2016-01-01

    Physical properties of sediments are commonly used to define subsurface lithofacies and these same physical properties influence subsurface microbial communities. This suggests an (unexploited) opportunity to use the spatial distribution of facies to predict spatial variation in biogeochemically relevant microbial attributes. Here, we characterize three biogeochemical facies-oxidized, reduced, and transition-within one lithofacies and elucidate relationships among facies features and microbial community biomass, richness, and composition. Consistent with previous observations of biogeochemical hotspots at environmental transition zones, we find elevated biomass within a biogeochemical facies that occurred at the transition between oxidized and reduced biogeochemical facies. Microbial richness-the number of microbial taxa-was lower within the reduced facies and was well-explained by a combination of pH and mineralogy. Null modeling revealed that microbial community composition was influenced by ecological selection imposed by redox state and mineralogy, possibly due to effects on nutrient availability or transport. As an illustrative case, we predict microbial biomass concentration across a three-dimensional spatial domain by coupling the spatial distribution of subsurface biogeochemical facies with biomass-facies relationships revealed here. We expect that merging such an approach with hydro-biogeochemical models will provide important constraints on simulated dynamics, thereby reducing uncertainty in model predictions. PMID:27469056

  5. Lipid Biomarkers for a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsege; Turk, Kendra A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of lipid biomarkers and their carbon isotopic compositions are valuable tools for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. As witnessed by the stromatolite record, benthic microbial mats grew in shallow water lagoonal environments where microorganisms had virtually no competition apart from the harsh conditions of hypersalinity, desiccation and intense light. Today, the modern counterparts of these microbial ecosystems find appropriate niches in only a few places where extremes eliminate eukaryotic grazers. Answers to many outstanding questions about the evolution of microorganisms and their environments on early Earth are best answered through study of these extant analogs. Lipids associated with various groups of bacteria can be valuable biomarkers for identification of specific groups of microorganisms both in ancient organic-rich sedimentary rocks (geolipids) and contemporary microbial communities (membrane lipids). Use of compound specific isotope analysis adds additional refinement to the identification of biomarker source, so that it is possible to take advantage of the 3C-depletions associated with various functional groups of organisms (i.e. autotrophs, heterotrophs, methanotrophs, methanogens) responsible for the cycling of carbon within a microbial community. Our recent work has focused on a set of hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico which support the abundant growth of Microcoleus-dominated microbial mats. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface.

  6. Coupling among Microbial Communities, Biogeochemistry, and Mineralogy across Biogeochemical Facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegen, James C.; Konopka, Allan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Chris; Lin, Xueju; Miller, Micah D.; Kennedy, David W.; Miller, Erin A.; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2016-07-01

    Physical properties of sediments are commonly used to define subsurface lithofacies and these same physical properties influence subsurface microbial communities. This suggests an (unexploited) opportunity to use the spatial distribution of facies to predict spatial variation in biogeochemically relevant microbial attributes. Here, we characterize three biogeochemical facies—oxidized, reduced, and transition—within one lithofacies and elucidate relationships among facies features and microbial community biomass, richness, and composition. Consistent with previous observations of biogeochemical hotspots at environmental transition zones, we find elevated biomass within a biogeochemical facies that occurred at the transition between oxidized and reduced biogeochemical facies. Microbial richness—the number of microbial taxa—was lower within the reduced facies and was well-explained by a combination of pH and mineralogy. Null modeling revealed that microbial community composition was influenced by ecological selection imposed by redox state and mineralogy, possibly due to effects on nutrient availability or transport. As an illustrative case, we predict microbial biomass concentration across a three-dimensional spatial domain by coupling the spatial distribution of subsurface biogeochemical facies with biomass-facies relationships revealed here. We expect that merging such an approach with hydro-biogeochemical models will provide important constraints on simulated dynamics, thereby reducing uncertainty in model predictions.

  7. ADAPTATION OF AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES TO HG(2+) STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism of adaptation to Hg(2+) in four aquatic habitats was studied by correlating microbially mediated Hg(2+) volatilization with the adaptive state of the exposed communities. Structural and functional parameters indicated that adaptation of all four communities was stim...

  8. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC EXPLORATIONS OF NATURAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative sequence analysis of ribosomal RNA molecules has let to a phylogenetic-based approach to characterize natural microbial communities. he approach has been applied to study natural communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria, hybridization probes were used to measure relat...

  9. Succession in a microbial mat community: a gaian perspective.

    PubMed

    Stolz, J F

    1984-01-01

    The Gaia hypothesis originally proposed by James E. Lovelock states that the composition, oxidation-reduction state and temperature of the troposphere are actively regulated by the activities of the biota. The gaian concept has been extrapolated to include the composition of surface sediments through the process of biomineralization. The stratified microbial community dominated by the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes is actively involved in the deposition of laminated sediments at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico. Unusually heavy rains in the winters of 1979 and 1980 flooded the evaporite flat with up to 3 meters of meteoric water and deposited 5-10 cm of allocthonous sediment. The composition of the microbial community changed as a succession of dominating microbial species ensued, ultimately leading to the recolonization of the surface sediment by the original Microcoleus-dominated community. The resiliency of bacterial communities is suggested to be an important mechanism of gaian control systems. PMID:11537776

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Microbial Community Dynamics: A Methodological Review

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Cannon, William R.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan

    2014-10-17

    Microorganisms in nature form diverse communities that dynamically change in structure and function in response to environmental variations. As a complex adaptive system, microbial communities show higher-order properties that are not present in individual microbes, but arise from their interactions. Predictive mathematical models not only help to understand the underlying principles of the dynamics and emergent properties of natural and synthetic microbial communities, but also provide key knowledge required for engineering them. In this article, we provide an overview of mathematical tools that include not only current mainstream approaches, but also less traditional approaches that, in our opinion, can be potentially useful. We discuss a broad range of methods ranging from low-resolution supra-organismal to high-resolution individual-based modeling. Particularly, we highlight the integrative approaches that synergistically combine disparate methods. In conclusion, we provide our outlook for the key aspects that should be further developed to move microbial community modeling towards greater predictive power.

  11. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to metal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Teixeira, Catarina; Reis, Izabela; Magalhães, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.

    2013-09-01

    Salt marshes are important sinks for contaminants, namely metals that tend to accumulate around plant roots and could eventually be taken up in a process known as phytoremediation. On the other hand, microbial communities display important roles in the salt marsh ecosystems, such as recycling of nutrients and/or degradation of organic contaminants. Thus, plants can benefit from the microbial activity in the phytoremediation process. Nevertheless, above certain levels, metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, fact that can eventually compromise their ecological functions. In this vein, the aim of present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the effect of selected metals (Cd, Cu and Pb) on the microbial communities associated to the roots of two salt marsh plants. Sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis were collected in the River Lima estuary (NW Portugal), and spiked with each of the metals at three different Effects Range-Median (ERM) concentrations (1, 10×, 50×), being ERM the sediment quality guideline that indicates the concentration above which adverse biological effects may frequently occur. Spiked sediments were incubated with a nutritive saline solution, being left in the dark under constant agitation for 7 days. The results showed that, despite the initial sediments colonized by J. maritimus and P. australis displayed significant (p < 0.05) differences in terms of microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA), they presented similar microbial abundances (estimated by DAPI). Also, in terms of microbial abundance, both sediments showed a similar response to metal addition, with a decrease in number of cells only observed for the higher addition of Cu. Nevertheless, both Cu and Pb, at intermediate metals levels promote a shift in the microbial community structure, with possibly effect on the ecological function of these microbial communities in salt marshes. These changes may affect plants phytoremediation

  12. Correlation between microbial community structure and biofouling as determined by analysis of microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuechao; Miao, Yu; Wu, Bing; Ye, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Su; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Three lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were continuously operated to treat saline wastewater under 0%, 0.75% and 1.5% NaCl stress. 0.75% and 1.5% NaCl reduced the COD and NH4(+)-N removal at the beginning, while the removal efficiencies could be recovered along with the operation of MBRs. Also, the polysaccharide in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) played an important role in the membrane fouling. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that the increasing level of salinity reduced the diversity of the microbial community, and a higher salinity stimulated the growth of Bacteroidetes. At genus level, Flavobacterium, Aequorivita, Gelidibacter, Microbacterium, and Algoriphagus increased with the increase of salinity, which are shown to be highly salt tolerant. The strength of salinity or the duration of salinity could stimulate the microorganisms with similar functions, and the changes of polysaccharide in EPS and SMP were closely related to the membrane fouling rate as well as correlated with some saline-resistance genera. PMID:26318928

  13. Microbial communities within saltmarsh sediments: Composition, abundance and pollution constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Ana; Magalhães, Catarina; Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2012-03-01

    The influence of the saltmarsh plant Halimione portucaloides and the level of sediment metal contamination on the distribution of microbial communities were investigated in two Portuguese estuarine systems with different degrees of metal contamination: the Cavado (41.5 N; 8.7 W) and Sado estuaries. In the Sado, two saltmarshes were studied: Lisnave (38.4 N; 8.7 W) and Comporta (38.4 N; 8.8 W). A PCR rDNA-DGGE approach and direct microscopic counts of DAPI-stained cells were applied to study the biodiversity and abundance of prokaryotic communities. Sediment characteristics and metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) were also evaluated to identify possible environmental pollution constraints on spatial and temporal microbial dynamics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the Lisnave saltmarsh microbial community was usually associated with a higher degree of metal contamination, especially the metal Pb. In clear contrast, the Cavado estuary microbial assemblage composition was associated with low metal concentrations but higher organic matter content. The Comporta saltmarsh bacterial community clustered in a separate branch, and was associated with higher levels of different metals, such as Ni, Cr and Zn. Additionally, the microbial community structure of the Lisnave and Cavado showed a seasonal pattern. Moreover, microbial abundance correlated negatively with metal concentrations, being higher at the Cavado estuarine site and with general higher counts in the rhizosediment. These findings suggest that increased metal concentrations negatively affect the abundance of prokaryotic cells and that saltmarsh plants may have a pivotal role in shaping the microbial community structure.

  14. Direct Evidence Linking Soil Organic Matter Development to Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, C.; Grandy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Despite increasing recognition of microbial contributions to soil organic matter (SOM) formation there is little experimental evidence linking microbial processes to SOM development and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Specifically, if stable SOM is largely comprised of microbial products, we need to better understand the soil conditions that influence microbial biomass production and ultimately its stability. Microbial physiology, such as microbial growth efficiency (MGE) and rate (MGR) have direct influences on microbial biomass production and are highly sensitive to resource quality. Therefore, the importance of resource quality on SOM is not necessarily a function of resistance to decay but the degree to which it optimizes microbial biomass production. While resource quality may have an indirect effect on SOM abundance via its influence on microbial physiology, SOM stabilization of labile microbial products may rely heavily on a soil's capacity to form organo-mineral interactions. To examine the relative importance of soil microbial community function, resource quality and mineralogy on direct microbial contributions to SOM formation and stability, an ongoing 15-mo incubation experiment was set up using artificial, initially C- and microbial-free soils. Soil microcosms were constructed by mixing sand with either kaolinite or montmorillonite clays followed with a natural soil microbial inoculum. For both soil mineral treatments, weekly additions of glucose, cellobiose, or syringol are carried out, with an additional treatment of plant leachate to serve as a reference. This simplified system allows us to determine if, in the absence of plant-derived C, microbial products using simple substrates can result in chemically complex SOM similar to natural soils. Over the course of the incubation, MGE, MGR, microbial activity, and SOM accumulation rates are monitored. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is used to track the microbial

  15. Microbial Inoculants and Their Impact on Soil Microbial Communities: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the survival of inoculated fungal and bacterial strains in field and the effects of their release on the indigenous microbial communities has been of great interest since the practical use of selected natural or genetically modified microorganisms has been developed. Soil inoculation or seed bacterization may lead to changes in the structure of the indigenous microbial communities, which is important with regard to the safety of introduction of microbes into the environment. Many reports indicate that application of microbial inoculants can influence, at least temporarily, the resident microbial communities. However, the major concern remains regarding how the impact on taxonomic groups can be related to effects on functional capabilities of the soil microbial communities. These changes could be the result of direct effects resulting from trophic competitions and antagonistic/synergic interactions with the resident microbial populations, or indirect effects mediated by enhanced root growth and exudation. Combination of inoculants will not necessarily produce an additive or synergic effect, but rather a competitive process. The extent of the inoculation impact on the subsequent crops in relation to the buffering capacity of the plant-soil-biota is still not well documented and should be the focus of future research. PMID:23957006

  16. Microbial Community Degradation of Widely Used Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seungdae; Kurt, Zohre; Tsementzi, Despina; Weigand, Michael R.; Kim, Minjae; Hatt, Janet K.; Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Spain, Jim C.

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and they are frequently detected in nontarget environments, such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in nontarget environments as well as compromising disinfectant efficacy in target environments. However, how natural microbial communities respond to BAC exposure and what genes underlie BAC biodegradation remain elusive. Our previous metagenomic analysis of a river sediment microbial community revealed that BAC exposure selected for a low-diversity community, dominated by several members of the Pseudomonas genus that quickly degraded BACs. To elucidate the genetic determinants of BAC degradation, we conducted time-series metatranscriptomic analysis of this microbial community during a complete feeding cycle with BACs as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. Metatranscriptomic profiles revealed a candidate gene for BAC dealkylation, the first step in BAC biodegradation that results in a product 500 times less toxic. Subsequent biochemical assays and isolate characterization verified that the putative amine oxidase gene product was functionally capable of initiating BAC degradation. Our analysis also revealed cooperative interactions among community members to alleviate BAC toxicity, such as the further degradation of BAC dealkylation by-products by organisms not encoding amine oxidase. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of BAC aerobic biodegradation and provide genetic biomarkers to assess the critical first step of this process in nontarget environments. PMID:24951783

  17. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  18. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production. PMID:26841839

  19. Stochastic assembly leads to alternative communities with distinct functions in a bioreactor microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; Liu, Wenzong; Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Wang, Aijie

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The processes and mechanisms of community assembly and its relationships to community functioning are central issues in ecology. Both deterministic and stochastic factors play important roles in shaping community composition and structure, but the connection between community assembly and ecosystem functioning remains elusive, especially in microbial communities. Here, we used microbial electrolysis cell reactors as a model system to examine the roles of stochastic assembly in determining microbial community structure and functions. Under identical environmental conditions with the same source community, ecological drift (i.e., initial stochastic colonization) and subsequent biotic interactions created dramatically different communities with little overlap among 14 identical reactors, indicating that stochastic assembly played dominant roles in determining microbial community structure. Neutral community modeling analysis revealed that deterministic factors also played significant roles in shaping microbial community structure in these reactors. Most importantly, the newly formed communities differed substantially in community functions (e.g., H2 production), which showed strong linkages to community structure. This study is the first to demonstrate that stochastic assembly plays a dominant role in determining not only community structure but also ecosystem functions. Elucidating the links among community assembly, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, biodiversity preservation, and ecosystem management. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms are the most diverse group of life known on earth. Although it is well documented that microbial natural biodiversity is extremely high, it is not clear why such high diversity is generated and maintained. Numerous studies have established the roles of niche-based deterministic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and salt) in shaping microbial biodiversity, the importance of

  20. Microbial Communities and a Novel Symbiotic Interaction in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage at Iron Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, B. J.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    symbiont and its host is discussed. This is the first report of a prokaryotic/eukaryotic symbiosis in an AMD microbial community. These endosymbionts add to the metabolic repertoire and provide pathways for lateral gene transfer between neutrophilic and acidophilic lineages.

  1. Stable microbial community composition on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Michaela; Tranter, Martyn; Bennett, Sarah A; Wadham, Jemma; Anesio, Alexandre M

    2015-01-01

    The first molecular-based studies of microbes in snow and on glaciers have only recently been performed on the vast Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Aeolian microbial seeding is hypothesized to impact on glacier surface community compositions. Localized melting of glacier debris (cryoconite) into the surface ice forms cryoconite holes, which are considered 'hot spots' for microbial activity on glaciers. To date, few studies have attempted to assess the origin and evolution of cryoconite and cryoconite hole communities throughout a melt season. In this study, a range of experimental approaches was used for the first time to study the inputs, temporal and structural transformations of GrIS microbial communities over the course of a whole ablation season. Small amounts of aeolian (wind and snow) microbes were potentially seeding the stable communities that were already present on the glacier (composed mainly of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria). However, the dominant bacterial taxa in the aeolian samples (Firmicutes) did not establish themselves in local glacier surface communities. Cryoconite and cryoconite hole community composition remained stable throughout the ablation season following the fast community turnover, which accompanied the initial snow melt. The presence of stable communities in cryoconite and cryoconite holes on the GrIS will allow future studies to assess glacier surface microbial diversity at individual study sites from sampling intervals of short duration only. Aeolian inputs also had significantly different organic δ(13)C values (-28.0 to -27.0‰) from the glacier surface values (-25.7 to -23.6‰), indicating that in situ microbial processes are important in fixing new organic matter and transforming aeolian organic carbon. The continuous productivity of stable communities over one melt season makes them important contributors to biogeochemical nutrient cycling on glaciers. PMID:25852658

  2. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  3. Multilevel Samplers to Assess Microbial Community Response to Biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, B. R.; McKinley, J. P.; Peacock, A. D.; Park, M.; Ogles, D.; Istok, J. D.; Resch, C. T.; White, D. C.

    2006-05-01

    Passive multilevel samplers (MLS) containing a solid matrix for microbial colonization were used in conjunction with a push-pull biostimulation experiment designed to promote biological U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction. MLS were deployed at 24 elevations in the injection well and two down gradient wells to investigate the spatial variability in microbial community composition and growth prior to and following biostimulation. The microbial community was characterized by real-time PCR (Q-PCR) quantification of eubacteria, NO3- reducing bacteria (nirS and nirK), δ-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens (mcrA). Pretest cell densities were low overall but varied substantially with significantly greater eubacterial populations detected at circumneutral pH (T-test, α=0.05) suggesting carbon substrate and low pH limitation of microbial activity. Although pretest cell densities were low, denitrifying bacteria were dominant members of the microbial community. Biostimulation with an ethanol amended groundwater resulted in concurrent NO3- and Tc(VII) reduction followed by U(VI) reduction. Q-PCR analysis of MLS revealed significant (1-2 orders of magnitude, T-test, α=0.05) increases in cell densities of eubacteria, denitrifiers, δ- proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens in response to biostimulation. Traditionally characterization of sediment samples has been used to investigate the microbial community response to biostimulation, however, collection of sediment samples is expensive and not conducive to deep aquifers or temporal studies. The results presented demonstrate that push-pull tests with passive MLS provide an inexpensive approach to determine the effect of biostimulation on contaminant concentrations, geochemical conditions, and the microbial community composition and function.

  4. Quantitative Tracking of Isotope Flows in Proteomes of Microbial Communities*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chongle; Fischer, Curt R.; Hyatt, Doug; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) has been used to track nutrient flows in microbial communities, but existing protein-based SIP methods capable of quantifying the degree of label incorporation into peptides and proteins have been demonstrated only by targeting usually less than 100 proteins per sample. Our method automatically (i) identifies the sequence of and (ii) quantifies the degree of heavy atom enrichment for thousands of proteins from microbial community proteome samples. These features make our method suitable for comparing isotopic differences between closely related protein sequences, and for detecting labeling patterns in low-abundance proteins or proteins derived from rare community members. The proteomic SIP method was validated using proteome samples of known stable isotope incorporation levels at 0.4%, ∼50%, and ∼98%. The method was then used to monitor incorporation of 15N into established and regrowing microbial biofilms. The results indicate organism-specific migration patterns from established communities into regrowing communities and provide insights into metabolism during biofilm formation. The proteomic SIP method can be extended to many systems to track fluxes of 13C or 15N in microbial communities. PMID:21285414

  5. Phylogenetic & Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities of Contaminated Soils/Sediments: Identifying Microbial consortia...

    SciTech Connect

    Terence L. Marsh

    2004-05-26

    The goals of this study were: (1) survey the microbial community in soil samples from a site contaminated with heavy metals using new rapid molecular techniques that are culture-independent; (2) identify phylogenetic signatures of microbial populations that correlate with metal ion contamination; and (3) cultivate these diagnostic strains using traditional as well as novel cultivation techniques in order to identify organisms that may be of value in site evaluation/management or bioremediation.

  6. METABOLISM OF FENTHION BY AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial metabolism of the mosquito control agent, fenthion, has been studied in shake flask systems containing water and sediment from a salt marsh. The usefulness of this information in describing the fate of fenthion in microcosms and in a field dosing experiment was dete...

  7. Linking Microbial Community Structure to Function in Representative Simulated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Ian M.; Wilder, Hailey A.; Quazi, Shanin J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria are generally studied as a single strain under ideal growing conditions, although these conditions are not the norm in the environments in which pathogens typically proliferate. In this investigation, a representative microbial community along with Escherichia coli O157:H7, a model pathogen, was studied in three environments in which such a pathogen could be found: a human colon, a septic tank, and groundwater. Each of these systems was built in the lab in order to retain the physical/chemical and microbial complexity of the environments while maintaining control of the feed into the models. The microbial community in the colon was found to have a high percentage of bacteriodetes and firmicutes, while the septic tank and groundwater systems were composed mostly of proteobacteria. The introduction of E. coli O157:H7 into the simulated systems elicited a shift in the structures and phenotypic cell characteristics of the microbial communities. The fate and transport of the microbial community with E. coli O157:H7 were found to be significantly different from those of E. coli O157:H7 studied as a single isolate, suggesting that the behavior of the organism in the environment was different from that previously conceived. The findings in this study clearly suggest that to gain insight into the fate of pathogens, cells should be grown and analyzed under conditions simulating those of the environment in which the pathogens are present. PMID:23396331

  8. Community structure of a microbial mat: the phylogenetic dimension.

    PubMed Central

    Risatti, J B; Capman, W C; Stahl, D A

    1994-01-01

    Traditional studies of microbial communities are incomplete because of the inability to identify and quantify all contributing populations. In the present study, we directly determine the abundance and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in a microbial mat community by using hybridization probes complementary to the 16S-like rRNAs of major phylogenetic groups. Most of the major groups were found in this single community, distributed for the most part in nonoverlapping depth intervals of the mat. The reflection of the phylogenetic structure in the community structure suggests that those species making up the major phylogenetic groups perform specific interrelated metabolic functions in the community. Comparison of population profiles to previously observed rates of sulfate reduction suggests there are additional populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria both within the photooxic zone and deeper in the mat. Images PMID:7937858

  9. Community structure of a microbial mat: The phylogenetic dimension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risatti, J.B.; Capman, W.C.; Stahl, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional studies of microbial communities are incomplete because of the inability to identify and quantify all contributing populations. In the present study, we directly determine the abundance and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in a microbial mat community by using hybridization probes complementary to the 16S-like rRNAs of major phylogenetic groups. Most of the major groups were found in this single community, distributed for the most part in nonoverlapping depth intervals of the mat. The reflection of the phylogenetic structure in the community structure suggests that those species making up the major phylogenetic groups perform specific interrelated metabolic functions in the community. Comparison of population profiles to previously observed rates of sulfate reduction suggests there are additional populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria both within the photooxic zone and deeper in the mat.

  10. Community structure of a microbial mat: the phylogenetic dimension.

    PubMed

    Risatti, J B; Capman, W C; Stahl, D A

    1994-10-11

    Traditional studies of microbial communities are incomplete because of the inability to identify and quantify all contributing populations. In the present study, we directly determine the abundance and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in a microbial mat community by using hybridization probes complementary to the 16S-like rRNAs of major phylogenetic groups. Most of the major groups were found in this single community, distributed for the most part in nonoverlapping depth intervals of the mat. The reflection of the phylogenetic structure in the community structure suggests that those species making up the major phylogenetic groups perform specific interrelated metabolic functions in the community. Comparison of population profiles to previously observed rates of sulfate reduction suggests there are additional populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria both within the photooxic zone and deeper in the mat. PMID:7937858

  11. Microbial Communities Model Parameter Calculation for TSPA/SR

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2001-07-16

    This calculation has several purposes. First the calculation reduces the information contained in ''Committed Materials in Repository Drifts'' (BSC 2001a) to useable parameters required as input to MING V1.O (CRWMS M&O 1998, CSCI 30018 V1.O) for calculation of the effects of potential in-drift microbial communities as part of the microbial communities model. The calculation is intended to replace the parameters found in Attachment II of the current In-Drift Microbial Communities Model revision (CRWMS M&O 2000c) with the exception of Section 11-5.3. Second, this calculation provides the information necessary to supercede the following DTN: M09909SPAMING1.003 and replace it with a new qualified dataset (see Table 6.2-1). The purpose of this calculation is to create the revised qualified parameter input for MING that will allow {Delta}G (Gibbs Free Energy) to be corrected for long-term changes to the temperature of the near-field environment. Calculated herein are the quadratic or second order regression relationships that are used in the energy limiting calculations to potential growth of microbial communities in the in-drift geochemical environment. Third, the calculation performs an impact review of a new DTN: M00012MAJIONIS.000 that is intended to replace the currently cited DTN: GS9809083 12322.008 for water chemistry data used in the current ''In-Drift Microbial Communities Model'' revision (CRWMS M&O 2000c). Finally, the calculation updates the material lifetimes reported on Table 32 in section 6.5.2.3 of the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000c) based on the inputs reported in BSC (2001a). Changes include adding new specified materials and updating old materials information that has changed.

  12. Taxonomical and functional microbial community selection in soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Lucas W; Kuramae, Eiko E; Navarrete, Acácio A; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2014-08-01

    This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors. PMID:24553468

  13. Taxonomical and functional microbial community selection in soybean rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Lucas W; Kuramae, Eiko E; Navarrete, Acácio A; van Veen, Johannes A; Tsai, Siu M

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors. PMID:24553468

  14. Mineralogical controls on surface colonization by sulfur-metabolizing microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2012-12-01

    When characterizing microbial diversity and the microbial ecosystem of the shallow subsurface the mineral matrix is generally assumed to be homogenous and unreactive. We report here experimental evidence that microorganisms colonize rock surfaces according to the rock's chemistry and the organism's metabolic requirements and tolerances. We investigated this phenomenon using laboratory biofilm reactors with both a pure culture of sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix unzii and a mixed environmental sulfur-metabolizing community from Lower Kane, Cave, WY, USA. Reactors contained rock and mineral chips (calcite, albite, microcline, quartz, chert, Madison Limestone (ML), Madison Dolostone (MD), and basalt) amended with one of the two inoculants. Biomass of attached microorganisms on each mineral surface was quantified. The 16S rRNA of attached microbial communities were compared using Roche FLX and Titanium 454 next generation pyrosequencing. A primary controlling factor on taxonomy of attached microorganisms in both pure and mixed culture experiments was mineral buffering capacity. In mixed culture experiments acid-buffering carbonates were preferentially colonized by neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms (~18% to ~27% of microorganisms), while acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms colonized non-buffering quartz exclusively (~46% of microorganisms). The nutrient content of the rock was a controlling factor on biomass accumulation, with neutrophilic organisms selecting between carbonate surfaces of equivalent buffer capacities according to the availability of phosphate. Dry biomass on ML was 17.8 ± 2.3 mg/cm2 and MD was 20.6 ± 6.8 mg/cm2; while nutrient poor calcite accumulated 2.4 ± 0.3 mg/cm2. Biomass accumulation was minimal on non-buffering nutrient-limited surfaces. These factors are countered by the competitive exclusion of some populations. A pure culture of T. unzii preferentially colonizes carbonates while a very closely related Thiothrix spp is excluded

  15. Manipulating soil microbial communities in extensive green roof substrates.

    PubMed

    Molineux, Chloe J; Connop, Stuart P; Gange, Alan C

    2014-09-15

    There has been very little investigation into the soil microbial community on green roofs, yet this below ground habitat is vital for ecosystem functioning. Green roofs are often harsh environments that would greatly benefit from having a healthy microbial system, allowing efficient nutrient cycling and a degree of drought tolerance in dry summer months. To test if green roof microbial communities could be manipulated, we added mycorrhizal fungi and a microbial mixture ('compost tea') to green roof rootzones, composed mainly of crushed brick or crushed concrete. The study revealed that growing media type and depth play a vital role in the microbial ecology of green roofs. There are complex relationships between depth and type of substrate and the biomass of different microbial groups, with no clear pattern being observed. Following the addition of inoculants, bacterial groups tended to increase in biomass in shallower substrates, whereas fungal biomass change was dependent on depth and type of substrate. Increased fungal biomass was found in shallow plots containing more crushed concrete and deeper plots containing more crushed brick where compost tea (a live mixture of beneficial bacteria) was added, perhaps due to the presence of helper bacteria for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Often there was not an additive affect of the microbial inoculations but instead an antagonistic interaction between the added AM fungi and the compost tea. This suggests that some species of microbes may not be compatible with others, as competition for limited resources occurs within the various substrates. The overall results suggest that microbial inoculations of green roof habitats are sustainable. They need only be done once for increased biomass to be found in subsequent years, indicating that this is a novel and viable method of enhancing roof community composition. PMID:24992459

  16. Seasonal dynamics of microbial community composition and function in oak canopy and open grassland soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are closely associated with aboveground plant communities, with multiple potential drivers of this relationship. Plants can affect available soil carbon, temperature, and water content, which each have the potential to affect microbial community composition and function. These same variables change seasonally, and thus plant control on microbial community composition may be modulated or overshadowed by annual climatic patterns. We examined microbial community composition, C cycling processes, and environmental data in California annual grassland soils from beneath oak canopies and in open grassland areas to distinguish factors controlling microbial community composition and function seasonally and in association with the two plant overstory communities. Every 3 months for up to 2 years, we monitored microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, microbial biomass, respiration rates, microbial enzyme activities, and the activity of microbial groups using isotope labeling of PLFA biomarkers (13C-PLFA) . Distinct microbial communities were associated with oak canopy soils and open grassland soils and microbial communities displayed seasonal patterns from year to year. The effects of plant species and seasonal climate on microbial community composition were similar in magnitude. In this Mediterranean ecosystem, plant control of microbial community composition was primarily due to effects on soil water content, whereas the changes in microbial community composition seasonally appeared to be due, in large part, to soil temperature. Available soil carbon was not a significant control on microbial community composition. Microbial community composition (PLFA) and 13C-PLFA ordination values were strongly related to intra-annual variability in soil enzyme activities and soil respiration, but microbial biomass was not. In this Mediterranean climate, soil microclimate appeared to be the master variable controlling

  17. Temperature sensitivity of soil microbial communities: An application of macromolecular rate theory to microbial respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alster, Charlotte J.; Koyama, Akihiro; Johnson, Nels G.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Fischer, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    There is compelling evidence that microbial communities vary widely in their temperature sensitivity and may adapt to warming through time. To date, this sensitivity has been largely characterized using a range of models relying on versions of the Arrhenius equation, which predicts an exponential increase in reaction rate with temperature. However, there is growing evidence from laboratory and field studies that observe nonmonotonic responses of reaction rates to variation in temperature, indicating that Arrhenius is not an appropriate model for quantitatively characterizing temperature sensitivity. Recently, Hobbs et al. (2013) developed macromolecular rate theory (MMRT), which incorporates thermodynamic temperature optima as arising from heat capacity differences between isoenzymes. We applied MMRT to measurements of respiration from soils incubated at different temperatures. These soils were collected from three grassland sites across the U.S. Great Plains and reciprocally transplanted, allowing us to isolate the effects of microbial community type from edaphic factors. We found that microbial community type explained roughly 30% of the variation in the CO2 production rate from the labile C pool but that temperature and soil type were most important in explaining variation in labile and recalcitrant C pool size. For six out of the nine soil × inoculum combinations, MMRT was superior to Arrhenius. The MMRT analysis revealed that microbial communities have distinct heat capacity values and temperature sensitivities sometimes independent of soil type. These results challenge the current paradigm for modeling temperature sensitivity of soil C pools and understanding of microbial enzyme dynamics.

  18. Carbon Accumulation and Microbial Community Structure in Reclaimed Mine Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, S. M.; Palumbo, A. V.; Tarver, J. D.; Fisher, S.; Cantu, J.; Brandt, C. C.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential for soil amendments to increase accumulation of carbon in reclaimed soils and the relationship between carbon and microbial community structure. Changes in community structure were determined by signature lipid biomarkers (SLBs) or phospholipid fatty acid methyl esters. PLFA provide estimates of the viable biomass, diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity, and indications of physiological stress to the microbial community. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis has been used to examine the relationship between microbial community structure and soil geochemistry. It was hypothesized that (1) soil amendments would cause changes in the structure of the microbial community and carbon content (2) changes in the structure of the microbial community would be vary between the types of amendments, and (3) analysis of the SLB with an artificial neural network (ANN) would distinguish treatment and provide a insight in to the relationship between changes in soil geochemistry and microbial community. Twenty soils samples from different field plots and at different soil horizon depths were analyzed. Biomass as estimated by PLFA analysis, ranged from 1.9 to 265 nmol/g, which corresponded to cell densities of 4.8 x107 to 6.6 x109 cells/g. In the Wall's Farm and Jenkin's Farm samples the microbial biomass decreased with depth. A horizon soils had biomass values of greater or equal to 120 nmol/g, followed by the A2 horizon,(70 to 100 nmol/g) and the weak B horizon at and (40 to 80 nmo/g). The A2 and B horizon samples showed higher relative abundance of mid-chain branched saturates that are indicative of gram positive prokaryotes and actinomycetes. At Well's Farm, the polyunsaturates indicative of eukaryotes were observed at higher abundances. These changes were related to both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic influences in the microbial community in response to the soil amendments. The correlation between

  19. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  20. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  1. Quantitative tracking of isotope flows in proteomes of microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Curt; Hyatt, Philip Douglas; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) has been used to track nutrient flows in microbial communities, but existing protein-based SIP methods capable of quantifying the degree of label incorporation into peptides and proteins have been demonstrated only by targeting usually less than 100 proteins per sample. Our method automatically (i) identifies the sequence of and (ii) quantifies the degree of heavy atom enrichment for thousands of proteins from microbial community proteome samples. These features make our method suitable for comparing isotopic differences between closely related protein sequences, and for detecting labeling patterns in low-abundance proteins or proteins derived from rare community members. The proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) method was validated using proteome samples of known stable isotope incorporation levels at 0.4%, {approx}50%, and {approx}98%. The method was then used to monitor incorporation of 15N into established and regrowing microbial biofilms. The results indicate organism-specific migration patterns from established into regrowing communities and provides insight into metabolism during biofilm formation. The SIP-proteomics method can be extended to many systems to track fluxes of 13C or 15N in microbial communities.

  2. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  3. Stochastic and Deterministic Assembly Processes in Subsurface Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-03-29

    A major goal of microbial community ecology is to understand the forces that structure community composition. Deterministic selection by specific environmental factors is sometimes important, but in other cases stochastic or ecologically neutral processes dominate. Lacking is a unified conceptual framework aiming to understand why deterministic processes dominate in some contexts but not others. Here we work towards such a framework. By testing predictions derived from general ecological theory we aim to uncover factors that govern the relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes. We couple spatiotemporal data on subsurface microbial communities and environmental parameters with metrics and null models of within and between community phylogenetic composition. Testing for phylogenetic signal in organismal niches showed that more closely related taxa have more similar habitat associations. Community phylogenetic analyses further showed that ecologically similar taxa coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. Environmental filtering thus deterministically governs subsurface microbial community composition. More importantly, the influence of deterministic environmental filtering relative to stochastic factors was maximized at both ends of an environmental variation gradient. A stronger role of stochastic factors was, however, supported through analyses of phylogenetic temporal turnover. While phylogenetic turnover was on average faster than expected, most pairwise comparisons were not themselves significantly non-random. The relative influence of deterministic environmental filtering over community dynamics was elevated, however, in the most temporally and spatially variable environments. Our results point to general rules governing the relative influences of stochastic and deterministic processes across micro- and macro-organisms.

  4. The social structure of microbial community involved in colonization resistance.

    PubMed

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S; Guo, Lihong; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that host-associated microbial communities can interfere with the colonization and establishment of microbes of foreign origins, a phenomenon often referred to as bacterial interference or colonization resistance. However, due to the complexity of the indigenous microbiota, it has been extremely difficult to elucidate the community colonization resistance mechanisms and identify the bacterial species involved. In a recent study, we have established an in vitro mice oral microbial community (O-mix) and demonstrated its colonization resistance against an Escherichia coli strain of mice gut origin. In this study, we further analyzed the community structure of the O-mix by using a dilution/regrowth approach and identified the bacterial species involved in colonization resistance against E. coli. Our results revealed that, within the O-mix there were three different types of bacterial species forming unique social structure. They act as 'Sensor', 'Mediator' and 'Killer', respectively, and have coordinated roles in initiating the antagonistic action and preventing the integration of E. coli. The functional role of each identified bacterial species was further confirmed by E. coli-specific responsiveness of the synthetic communities composed of different combination of the identified players. The study reveals for the first time the sophisticated structural and functional organization of a colonization resistance pathway within a microbial community. Furthermore, our results emphasize the importance of 'Facilitation' or positive interactions in the development of community-level functions, such as colonization resistance. PMID:24088624

  5. Assembly-Driven Community Genomics of a Hypersaline Microbial Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Podell, Sheila; Ugalde, Juan A.; Narasingarao, Priya; Banfield, Jillian F.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Allen, Eric E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial populations inhabiting a natural hypersaline lake ecosystem in Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, Australia, have been characterized using deep metagenomic sampling, iterative de novo assembly, and multidimensional phylogenetic binning. Composite genomes representing habitat-specific microbial populations were reconstructed for eleven different archaea and one bacterium, comprising between 0.6 and 14.1% of the planktonic community. Eight of the eleven archaeal genomes were from microbial species without previously cultured representatives. These new genomes provide habitat-specific reference sequences enabling detailed, lineage-specific compartmentalization of predicted functional capabilities and cellular properties associated with both dominant and less abundant community members, including organisms previously known only by their 16S rRNA sequences. Together, these data provide a comprehensive, culture-independent genomic blueprint for ecosystem-wide analysis of protein functions, population structure, and lifestyles of co-existing, co-evolving microbial groups within the same natural habitat. The “assembly-driven” community genomic approach demonstrated in this study advances our ability to push beyond single gene investigations, and promotes genome-scale reconstructions as a tangible goal in the quest to define the metabolic, ecological, and evolutionary dynamics that underpin environmental microbial diversity. PMID:23637883

  6. Systems approaches to microbial communities and their functioning.

    PubMed

    Röling, Wilfred F M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2010-08-01

    Recent advances in molecular microbial ecology and systems biology enhance insight into microbial community structure and functioning. They provide conceptual and technical bases for the translation of species-data and community-data into a model framework accounting for the functioning of and interactions between metabolic networks of species in multispecies environments. Function-directed and single cell-directed approaches supplement and improve metagenomics-derived community information. The topology of the metabolic network, reconstructed from a species' genome sequence, provides insight into its metabolic environments and interactions with other microorganisms. Progress in the theoretical and experimental analysis of flux through metabolic networks paves the way for their application at the community level, contributing to understanding of material flows between and within species and their resilience toward perturbations. PMID:20637597

  7. Mining the Metabiome: Identifying Novel Natural Products from Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Milshteyn, Aleksandr; Schneider, Jessica S.; Brady, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Microbial-derived natural products provide the foundation for most of the chemotherapeutic arsenal available to contemporary medicine. In the face of a dwindling pipeline of new lead structures identified by traditional culturing techniques and an increasing need for new therapeutics, surveys of microbial biosynthetic diversity across environmental metabiomes have revealed enormous reservoirs of as yet untapped natural products chemistry. In this review we touch on the historical context of microbial natural product discovery and discuss innovations and technological advances that are facilitating culture-dependent and culture-independent access to new chemistry from environmental microbiomes with the goal of re-invigorating the small molecule therapeutics discovery pipeline. We highlight the successful strategies that have emerged and some of the challenges that must be overcome to enable the development of high-throughput methods for natural product discovery from complex microbial communities. PMID:25237864

  8. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  9. Modeled carbon respiration of microbial communities with explicit enzyme representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Allison, S. D.

    2009-12-01

    Most carbon cycling models do not represent microbial biomass and extracellular enzymes directly. We previously introduced a partial differential equation and agent-based model to investigate dynamics of microbial decomposers and carbon respiration. In this model we explored the respiration rate of a microbial community comprised of producers (microbes that secrete foraging enzymes) and cheaters (microbes that do not secrete enzymes but benefit from them) The inclusion of cheaters reduced the producer population, which in turn reduced the amount of enzyme in the system and slowed the conversion of substrate into product. This limited the overall biomass and reduced the amount of CO2 released by the system. Here we introduce an analogous ordinary differential equation model for well-mixed systems, such as chemostats and aquatic or marine environments. We tested this model against experimental data from communities of Pseudomonas bacteria that produce protease enzymes. We found that the new model matches the experimental data and hypothesize that diffusion would reduce the expected respiration rate in diffusion-limited systems, such as soils or agar plates,. Our models suggest that enzyme producers grow more slowly due to the added energetic burden of enzyme production. Furthermore, mixed cheater/producer communities are less efficient at mineralizing carbon substrates than pure producer populations. Diffusion of enzymes through the system plays a key role in reducing the overall respiration rate. These results have potential implications for soil and aquatic carbon models, suggesting that both microbial biomass and community composition should be explicitly represented. If community composition is ignored, then there could be a systematic overestimation of the carbon respired from the system. Our results emphasize that mechanistic modeling of microbial communities can improve prediction of carbon cycling under varying environmental conditions.

  10. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  11. Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; He, Jinzhi; Xue, Jing; Wang, Yan; Li, Kun; Zhang, Keke; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Xianghong; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Li, Yan; Shi, Wenyuan; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-03-01

    Microbes colonize human oral surfaces within hours after delivery. During postnatal development, physiological changes, such as the eruption of primary teeth and replacement of the primary dentition with permanent dentition, greatly alter the microbial habitats, which, in return, may lead to community composition shifts at different phases in people's lives. By profiling saliva, supragingival and mucosal plaque samples from healthy volunteers at different ages and dentition stages, we observed that the oral cavity is a highly heterogeneous ecological system containing distinct niches with significantly different microbial communities. More importantly, the phylogenetic microbial structure varies with ageing. In addition, only a few taxa were present across the whole populations, indicating a core oral microbiome should be defined based on age and oral niches. PMID:24800728

  12. Investigating the Response of Microbial Communities to Cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, N.; Slater, G.; Smith, J.

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have found applications of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) to be highly effective in removing DDT from soils in situ. However, the persistence of HPβCD within the soil and its impact on soil microbial communities is still unclear. It has been suggested that cyclodextrin might provide a substrate for microbial communities resulting in changes in the ongoing effectiveness of remediation and/or soil hydraulic properties. The potential exists that stimulation of the soil microbial community may contribute to removal of DDT, along with the solubilization effects normally associated with cyclodextrin treatment. This study investigated the response of soil microbial communities from a site undergoing remediation of DDT with HPβCD through microcosm and bench scale column studies. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and their natural abundance 13C signatures can be used to identify in situ microbial metabolism of HPβCD. Heterotrophic organisms have PLFA with 13C signatures 3 to 6‰ depleted from their carbon source. Cyclodextrin was found to have a δ13C of -16‰ resulting from its formation via enzymatic degradation of cornstarch. In contrast, soil organic matter, had a predominantly C3 plant derived signature and a δ13C of -25‰. Incorporation of HPβCD by soil microbial communities would therefore cause a shift to a more enriched isotopic value. While microcosm studies demonstrated no noticeable change in biomass and few changes in PLFA distribution, column studies treated with a 10% solution of HPβCD demonstrated an approximate doubling of microbial biomass after 6 weeks of application based on PLFA concentrations. Concurrent changes in PLFA distribution further indicated a response to cyclodextrin. Changes in PLFA concentration and distribution were concurrent with isotopic enrichment of PLFA in treated columns. This isotopic enrichment provided direct evidence for microbial consumption of cyclodextrin. Incorporation of 13C enriched

  13. Characterization of fatty acid-producing wastewater microbial communities using next generation sequencing technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    While wastewater represents a viable source of bacterial biodiesel production, very little is known on the composition of these microbial communities. We studied the taxonomic diversity and succession of microbial communities in bioreactors accumulating fatty acids using 454-pyro...

  14. Effects of biochar blends on microbial community composition in two coastal plain soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amendment of soil with biochar has been demonstrated to have an effect not only on the soil physicochemical properties, but also on soil microbial community composition and activity. Previous reports have demonstrated significant impacts on soil microbial community structure....

  15. HPMCD: the database of human microbial communities from metagenomic datasets and microbial reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Forster, Samuel C; Browne, Hilary P; Kumar, Nitin; Hunt, Martin; Denise, Hubert; Mitchell, Alex; Finn, Robert D; Lawley, Trevor D

    2016-01-01

    The Human Pan-Microbe Communities (HPMC) database (http://www.hpmcd.org/) provides a manually curated, searchable, metagenomic resource to facilitate investigation of human gastrointestinal microbiota. Over the past decade, the application of metagenome sequencing to elucidate the microbial composition and functional capacity present in the human microbiome has revolutionized many concepts in our basic biology. When sufficient high quality reference genomes are available, whole genome metagenomic sequencing can provide direct biological insights and high-resolution classification. The HPMC database provides species level, standardized phylogenetic classification of over 1800 human gastrointestinal metagenomic samples. This is achieved by combining a manually curated list of bacterial genomes from human faecal samples with over 21000 additional reference genomes representing bacteria, viruses, archaea and fungi with manually curated species classification and enhanced sample metadata annotation. A user-friendly, web-based interface provides the ability to search for (i) microbial groups associated with health or disease state, (ii) health or disease states and community structure associated with a microbial group, (iii) the enrichment of a microbial gene or sequence and (iv) enrichment of a functional annotation. The HPMC database enables detailed analysis of human microbial communities and supports research from basic microbiology and immunology to therapeutic development in human health and disease. PMID:26578596

  16. Microbial Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Breidenbach, Björn; Pump, Judith; Dumont, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized at four plant growth stages using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis and compared to that of unplanted bulk soil. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes in the rice rhizosphere were on average twice that of unplanted bulk soil, indicating a stimulation of microbial growth in the rhizosphere. Soil environment type (i.e., rhizosphere versus bulk soil) had a greater effect on the community structure than did time (e.g., plant growth stage). Numerous phyla were affected by the presence of rice plants, but the strongest effects were observed for Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. With respect to functional groups of microorganisms, potential iron reducers (e.g., Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter) and fermenters (e.g., Clostridiaceae, Opitutaceae) were notably enriched in the rhizosphere environment. A Herbaspirillum species was always more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and was enriched in the rhizosphere during the early stage of plant growth. PMID:26793175

  17. Microbial community functional change during vertebrate carrion decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms play a critical role in the decomposition of organic matter, which contributes to energy and nutrient transformation in every ecosystem, yet little is known about the functional activity of epinecrotic microbial communities associated with carrion. The objective of this study was to ...

  18. Bacterial Invasion Dynamics in Zebrafish Gut Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Savannah; Jemielita, Matthew; Wiles, Travis; Schlomann, Brandon; Hammer, Brian; Guillemin, Karen; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    Microbial communities residing in the vertebrate intestine play an important role in host development and health. These communities must be in part shaped by interactions between microbial species as they compete for resources in a physically constrained system. To better understand these interactions, we use light sheet microscopy and zebrafish as a model organism to image established gut microbial communities as they are invaded by robustly-colonizing challengers. We demonstrate that features of the challenger, including motility and spatial distribution, impact success in invasion and in outcompeting the original community. We also show that physical characteristics of the host, such as the motility of the gut, play important roles in mediating inter-species competition. Finally, we examine the influence of the contact-dependent type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is used by specific bacteria to cause cell lysis by injecting toxic effector proteins into competitors. Our findings provide insights into the determinants of microbial success in the complex ecosystems found in the gut.

  19. Spatial patterns of microbial community composition within Lake Erie sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Erie is a large freshwater ecosystem with three distinct basins that exhibit an east-west gradient of increasing productivity, as well as allochthonous inputs of nutrients and xenobiotics. To evaluate microbial community composition throughout this ecosystem, 435 16S rDNA environmental clones w...

  20. MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN SEMIARID AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of management on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of three semiarid soils from Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in cotton -peanut (Arachis h...

  1. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Methods and Results: Individual feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) gain were determined from animals fed the same ration, within two contemporary groups of steers. BW gain was regressed on F...

  2. Development of soil microbial communities during tallgrass prairie restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities were examined in a chronosequence of four different land-use treatments at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas. The time series comprised a conventionally tilled cropland (CTC) developed on former prairie soils, two restored grasslands that were initiated on forme...

  3. Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure with Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding disturbs both above- and below-ground ecosystem processes. Although often ignored, changes in below-ground environments are no less important than those that occur above-ground. Shifts in soil microbial community structure are expected when anaerobic conditions develop from flooding. The ...

  4. Post fumigation recovery of soil microbial community structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigants have been extensively used to control target soil-borne pathogens and weeds for the past few decades. It is known that the fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms, but the recovery of soil microbial communities are unknown until rece...

  5. Effect of Increasing Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shengmu; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; VanNostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Jianshe; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure impact soil microbial communities, 12 samples were collected from the BioCON plots in which nitrogenous fertilizer was added to simulate the effect of increasing nitrogen deposition and 12 samples from without added fertilizer. DNA from the 24 samples was extracted using a freeze-grind protocol, amplified, labeled with a fluorescent dye, and then hybridized to GeoChip, a functional gene array containing probes for genes involved in N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all genes detected was performed to analyze microbial community patterns. The first two axes accounted for 23.5percent of the total variation. The samples fell into two major groups: fertilized and non-fertilized, suggesting that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure and diversity. The functional gene numbers detected in fertilized samples was less that detected in non-fertilizer samples. Functional genes involving in the N cycling were mainly discussed.

  6. Molecular Survey of Concrete Sewer Biofilm Microbial Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although bacteria are implicated in deteriorating concrete structures, there is very little information on the composition of concrete microbial communities. To this end, we studied different concrete biofilms by performing sequence analysis of 16S rDNA concrete clone libraries. ...

  7. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the grazing value of the land and hence the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil at a chronose...

  8. Microbial communities and exopolysaccharides from Polynesian mats.

    PubMed

    Rougeaux, H; Guezennec, M; Che, L M; Payri, C; Deslandes, E; Guezennec, J

    2001-03-01

    Microbial mats present in two shallow atolls of French Polynesia were characterized by high amounts of exopolysaccharides associated with cyanobacteria as the predominating species. Cyanobacteria were found in the first centimeters of the gelatinous mats, whereas deeper layers showing the occurrence of the sulfate reducers Desulfovibrio and Desulfobacter species as determined by the presence of specific biomarkers. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from these mats and partially characterized. All fractions contained both neutral sugars and uronic acids with a predominance of the former. The large diversity in monosaccharides can be interpreted as the result of exopolymer biosynthesis by either different or unidentified cyanobacterial species. PMID:14961381

  9. Development of a Screening Assay for Microbial Community Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracle, A. L.; Tilton, F.; Bonheyo, G. T.; McDermott, J.

    2010-12-01

    Remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes has been challenging in the aspects of site characterization, design for treatability, and monitoring of treatment efficacy, to name a few. Characterization of physical and geochemical properties can be achieved through advances in sensor technologies, modeling, and well placement. However, the biotic composition within the subsurface is also an important component that adds an additional biochemical contribution that is not currently being assessed. Changes in the environment have impacts to the composition of microbial communities at this solid/fluid phase interface. The introduction of a remediative treatment may provide an abundant food source for microorganisms in the subsurface and alter the community dynamics. Such changes to the microbial community composition may have dramatic effects on bulk community biochemistry, which in turn may affect the quality of the remediative treatment in terms of effectiveness and transport through alteration of the environment. A screening array is being developed based on DNA sequence information from indigenous microorganisms within target sediments to be used to assess microbial community changes throughout remediative treatments and through time. Integration of physical, chemical, and biotic community information will be assessed to determine efficacy of treatment before, during, and after treatment to assess success of treatment, and measure any post-treatment changes.

  10. Geological Sources of Hydrogen for Subsurface Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Subsurface microbial communities can be conveniently divided into two general types: heterotrophic communities that rely primarily on input of photosynthetically derived organic matter, and autotrophic communities that rely on inorganic chemical sources of energy. In situ production of H2 has been proposed to support subsurface autotrophic microbial communities within basalts and ultramafic rocks in both subaerial and submarine settings. The extent and activity of such communities, and even their very ability to inhabit subsurface environments, depends largely on the balance between the supply of H2 for metabolic energy and the energetic costs of existence (T. Hoehler, Geobiology, 2004). As a consequence, the capacity for H2 generation in basaltic and ultramafic environments places significant constraints on the distribution and productivity of microbial populations. At present, however, geochemical reactions that might generate H2 in basaltic and ultramafic systems at temperatures sufficiently low to allow life to exist (<~150 ° C) remain very poorly known. I will summarize the currently available experimental data on H2 production during low-temperature alteration of basaltic and ultramfic rocks, including ongoing laboratory studies to refine the chemical reactions responsible for H2 generation. In addition, potential thermodynamic constraints on H2 production will be considered. Overall, the presently available data indicate that H2-based communities are likely to be considerably more productive in basaltic than ultramafic systems.

  11. Succession of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Microbial Community on Corroding Concrete in Sewer Systems† ▿

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques. Results revealed that at least six phylotypes of SOB species were involved in the MICC process, and the predominant SOB species shifted in the following order: Thiothrix sp., Thiobacillus plumbophilus, Thiomonas intermedia, Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Acidiphilium acidophilum, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. thiooxidans, a hyperacidophilic SOB, was the most dominant (accounting for 70% of EUB338-mixed probe-hybridized cells) in the heavily corroded concrete after 1 year. This succession of SOB species could be dependent on the pH of the concrete surface as well as on trophic properties (e.g., autotrophic or mixotrophic) and on the ability of the SOB to utilize different sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S, S0, and S2O32−). In addition, diverse heterotrophic bacterial species (e.g., halo-tolerant, neutrophilic, and acidophilic bacteria) were associated with these SOB. The microbial succession of these microorganisms was involved in the colonization of the concrete and the production of sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of microbial community members revealed that A. thiooxidans was the most dominant throughout the heavily corroded concrete (gypsum) layer and that A. thiooxidans was most abundant at the highest surface (1.5-mm) layer and decreased logarithmically with depth because of oxygen and H2S transport limitations. This suggested that the production of sulfuric acid by A. thiooxidans occurred mainly on the concrete surface and the

  12. Characterization of the microbial acid mine drainage microbial community using culturing and direct sequencing techniques.

    PubMed

    Auld, Ryan R; Myre, Maxine; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Leduc, Leo G; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2013-05-01

    We characterized the bacterial community from an AMD tailings pond using both classical culturing and modern direct sequencing techniques and compared the two methods. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is produced by the environmental and microbial oxidation of minerals dissolved from mining waste. Surprisingly, we know little about the microbial communities associated with AMD, despite the fundamental ecological roles of these organisms and large-scale economic impact of these waste sites. AMD microbial communities have classically been characterized by laboratory culturing-based techniques and more recently by direct sequencing of marker gene sequences, primarily the 16S rRNA gene. In our comparison of the techniques, we find that their results are complementary, overall indicating very similar community structure with similar dominant species, but with each method identifying some species that were missed by the other. We were able to culture the majority of species that our direct sequencing results indicated were present, primarily species within the Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium genera, although estimates of relative species abundance were only obtained from direct sequencing. Interestingly, our culture-based methods recovered four species that had been overlooked from our sequencing results because of the rarity of the marker gene sequences, likely members of the rare biosphere. Further, direct sequencing indicated that a single genus, completely missed in our culture-based study, Legionella, was a dominant member of the microbial community. Our results suggest that while either method does a reasonable job of identifying the dominant members of the AMD microbial community, together the methods combine to give a more complete picture of the true diversity of this environment. PMID:23485423

  13. Metabarcoding of the kombucha microbial community grown in different microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Reva, Oleg N; Zaets, Iryna E; Ovcharenko, Leonid P; Kukharenko, Olga E; Shpylova, Switlana P; Podolich, Olga V; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Kozyrovska, Natalia O

    2015-12-01

    Introducing of the DNA metabarcoding analysis of probiotic microbial communities allowed getting insight into their functioning and establishing a better control on safety and efficacy of the probiotic communities. In this work the kombucha poly-microbial probiotic community was analysed to study its flexibility under different growth conditions. Environmental DNA sequencing revealed a complex and flexible composition of the kombucha microbial culture (KMC) constituting more bacterial and fungal organisms in addition to those found by cultural method. The community comprised bacterial and yeast components including cultured and uncultivable microorganisms. Culturing the KMC under different conditions revealed the core part of the community which included acetobacteria of two genera Komagataeibacter (former Gluconacetobacter) and Gluconobacter, and representatives of several yeast genera among which Brettanomyces/Dekkera and Pichia (including former Issatchenkia) were dominant. Herbaspirillum spp. and Halomonas spp., which previously had not been described in KMC, were found to be minor but permanent members of the community. The community composition was dependent on the growth conditions. The bacterial component of KMC was relatively stable, but may include additional member-lactobacilli. The yeast species composition was significantly variable. High-throughput sequencing showed complexity and variability of KMC that may affect the quality of the probiotic drink. It was hypothesized that the kombucha core community might recruit some environmental bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, which potentially may contribute to the fermentative capacity of the probiotic drink. As many KMC-associated microorganisms cannot be cultured out of the community, a robust control for community composition should be provided by using DNA metabarcoding. PMID:26061774

  14. Microbial communities in paleosoils of Southern Russian steppes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T.; Demkina, T.; Kashirskaya, N.; Demkin, V.

    2009-04-01

    Ground monuments (kurgans) emerged about 6000 yr ago in the steppes of Eurasia; the funeral ceremony of erecting kurgans existed till XVth century. Today they have become an integral part of steppe landscape. Excavations of kurgans provide information about culture of steppe inhabitants and also open paleosoils buried (conserved) beneath from the time of kurgans erecting. Paleosoils in situ buried beneath kurgans and excluded from the further soil-forming process, imprint the conditions of past environment in a number of their properties, in carbonate, gypsum and salt profiles, etc. Among important indicators characterization of soil microbial communities is a promising and yet undeveloped field. The adaptive strategy of microorganisms, which allow them long withstand stressful conditions, is transformation to a resting state. We suggest that despite of possible time-connected changes, microbial communities from dry environments conserved within the paleosoils, might maintain some features of their structure from the time of paleosoil burial. The aim of the work was to trace the amount and composition of microbial communities in paleosoils buried under kurgans of different ages located in southern Russia steppes in connection to the dynamics of environmental conditions. We estimated total and alive (dormant) microbial biomass, the morphological peculiarities of microbial cells, the diversity and relative abundance of microorganisms of different trophic groups. It was shown that the number of microorganisms in A1 horizon of the buried paleosoils is an order higher than in the kurgan embankments that points to the integrity of microbial society from the moment of the kurgan erection. Within the paleosoil profiles the parameters studied did not decrease monotonously with the age of burial but had a specific dynamics. The microbial biomass from different horizons of under-kurgan paleosoils ranged in 600-1700 g C/g soil, while the share of microbes able to reactivate

  15. Environmental microarray analyses of Antarctic soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A; Brodie, Eoin L; Déjean, Sébastien; DeSantis, Todd Z; Gonçalves, Olivier; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-03-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are fascinating in their limited trophic complexity, with decomposition and nutrient cycling functions being dominated by microbial activities. Not only are Antarctic habitats exposed to extreme environmental conditions, the Antarctic Peninsula is also experiencing unequalled effects of global warming. Owing to their uniqueness and the potential impact of global warming on these pristine systems, there is considerable interest in determining the structure and function of microbial communities in the Antarctic. We therefore utilized a recently designed 16S rRNA gene microarray, the PhyloChip, which targets 8741 bacterial and archaeal taxa, to interrogate microbial communities inhabiting densely vegetated and bare fell-field soils along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 51 degrees S (Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (Coal Nunatak). Results indicated a clear decrease in diversity with increasing latitude, with the two southernmost sites harboring the most distinct Bacterial and Archaeal communities. The microarray approach proved more sensitive in detecting the breadth of microbial diversity than polymerase chain reaction-based bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of modest size ( approximately 190 clones per library). Furthermore, the relative signal intensities summed for phyla and families on the PhyloChip were significantly correlated with the relative occurrence of these taxa in clone libraries. PhyloChip data were also compared with functional gene microarray data obtained earlier, highlighting numerous significant relationships and providing evidence for a strong link between community composition and functional gene distribution in Antarctic soils. Integration of these PhyloChip data with other complementary methods provides an unprecedented understanding of the microbial diversity and community structure of terrestrial Antarctic habitats. PMID:19020556

  16. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome. PMID:27243446

  17. Effect of electricity on microbial community of microbial fuel cell simultaneously treating sulfide and nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Xing, Yajuan; Qaisar, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    The effect of electric current on microbial community is explored in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) simultaneously treating sulfide and nitrate. The MFCs are operated under four different conditions which exhibited different characteristics of electricity generation. In batch mode, MFCs generate intermittently high current pulses in the beginning, and the current density is instable subsequently, while the current density of MFCs in continuous mode is relatively stable. All operational parameters show good capacity for substrate removal, and nitrogen and sulfate were the main reaction products. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis is employed to obtain profiles of the bacterial communities present in inoculum and suspension of four MFCs. Based on the community diversity indices and Spearman correlation analyses, significant correlation exists between Richness of the community of anode chamber and the electricity generated, while no strong correlation is evident between other indexes (Shannon index, Simpson index and Equitability index) and the electricity. Additionally, the results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that MFCs suffering from current shock have similar suspension communities, while the others have diverse microbial communities.

  18. Prevention of microbial communities: novel approaches based natural products.

    PubMed

    Mogosanu, George D; Grumezescu, Alexandru M; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Bejenaru, Ludovic E; Bejenaru, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Firmly attached to different living or non-living, solid or fluid surfaces rich in nutrients and moisture, microbial biofilm is a matter of great interest due to its major importance for the healthcare community. Depending on common strategies such as mutual protection and hibernation (quiescent bacteria), the resistance, survival and virulence of microbial communities have large implications for human pathology, clinical environment and biomedical devices. The microbial biofilm is continuously changing, stimulating inflammation, increasing vascular permeability and preventing the action of macrophages. About 80% of human infections affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory systems, oral mucosa and teeth, eyes, middle ear and skin are caused by biofilm-associated microorganisms. Therefore, the search for modern strategies is even more important as microbial biofilms resistant to conventional antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are involved in the frequent treatment failures of some chronic inflammatory diseases and wounds. Natural products containing secondary metabolites, such as aromatic compounds, sulphurated derivatives, terpenoids (essential oils) and alkaloids as quorum-sensing inhibitors and biofilm disruptors, are promising alternatives for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic infections. Surface modification of medical devices with non-polar functionalized nanoparticles stabilizes the natural compounds antibiofilm activity and inhibits microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and growth for a longer period of time. In this regard, an interdisciplinary approach is needed due to the large number of natural derivatives alone or in combination with biocompatible and biodegradable micro-/ nano-engineered materials. PMID:25594287

  19. Utilization of alternate chirality enantiomers in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-09-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers - L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growthinhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  20. Utilization of Alternate Chirality Enantiomers in Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers -- L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growth-inhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  1. The microbial community structure of the cotton rat nose.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Oxley, Andrew P A; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat nose is commonly used as a model for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as it is both physiologically and anatomically comparable to the human nares and can be easily colonized by this organism. However, while the colonization of the human anterior nares has been extensively studied, the microbial community structure of cotton rat noses has not been reported so far. We describe here the microbial community structure of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) nose through next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons covering the V1-V2 region and the analysis of nearly full length 16S rRNA genes of the major phylotypes. Roughly half of the microbial community was composed of two undescribed species of the genus Campylobacter, with phylotypes belonging to the genera Catonella, Acholeplasma, Streptobacillus and Capnocytophaga constituting the predominant community members. Thus, the nasal community of the cotton rat is uniquely composed of several novel bacterial species and may not reflect the complex interactions that occur in human anterior nares. Mammalian airway microbiota may, however, be a rich source of hitherto unknown microbes. PMID:26306992

  2. Microbial communities in streambed sediments recovering from desiccation.

    PubMed

    Marxsen, Jürgen; Zoppini, Annamaria; Wilczek, Sabine

    2010-03-01

    Climate change affects running waters not only by increasing temperatures but also by increasing discharge variability as more frequent and severe floods and more frequent and longer droughts occur, especially in upper reaches. Mediterranean streams are known to experience droughts, but Central European headwaters are also beginning to be affected. The development of bacterial communities (abundance, composition) and the recovery of microbial functions (bacterial production, extracellular enzyme activity) were explored after rewetting desiccated streambed sediments via a sediment core perfusion technique. The bacterial community composition changed only slightly in the sediments from the Central European stream Breitenbach (Germany), but distinctly in the Mediterranean Mulargia River (Sardinia, Italy) during 4 days of experimental rewetting. Breitenbach sediments probably enabled survival of bacterial communities more similar to indigenous streambed communities, because they were less dry. High activity of enzymes involved in polymer degradation at the beginning of rewetting in both sediments indicated the persistence of extracellular enzymes during drought. After 4 days, nearly all microbial activities reached a level similar to unaffected sediments for the Breitenbach, but not for Mulargia. Here, much more intense drying resulted in a more distinct change and reduction of the microbial community, responsible for slower recovery of structure and functions. PMID:20041952

  3. Bioengineering microbial communities: Their potential to help, hinder and disgust.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramaniam, Diane; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-04-01

    The bioengineering of individual microbial organisms or microbial communities has great potential in agriculture, bioremediation and industry. Understanding community level drivers can improve community level functions to enhance desired outcomes in complex environments, whereas individual microbes can be reduced to a programmable biological unit for specific output goals. While understanding the bioengineering potential of both approaches leads to a wide range of potential uses, public acceptance of such technology may be the greatest hindrance to its application. Public perceptions and expectations of "naturalness," as well as notions of disgust and dread, may delay the development of such technologies to their full benefit. We discuss these bioengineering approaches and draw on the psychological literature to suggest strategies that scientists can use to allay public concerns over the implementation of this technology. PMID:27221461

  4. Rooting Theories of Plant Community Ecology in Microbial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bever, James D.; Dickie, Ian A.; Facelli, Evelina; Facelli, Jose M.; Klironomos, John; Moora, Mari; Rillig, Matthias C.; Stock, William D.; Tibbett, Mark; Zobel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Predominant frameworks for understanding plant ecology have an aboveground bias that neglects soil micro-organisms. This is inconsistent with recent work illustrating the importance of soil microbes in terrestrial ecology. Microbial effects have been incorporated into plant community dynamics using ideas of niche modification and plant-soil community feedbacks. Here, we expand and integrate qualitative conceptual models of plant niche and feedback to explore implications of microbial interactions for understanding plant community ecology. At the same time we review the empirical evidence for these processes. We also consider common mycorrhizal networks, and suggest these are best interpreted within the feedback framework. Finally, we apply our integrated model of niche and feedback to understanding plant coexistence, monodominance, and invasion ecology. PMID:20557974

  5. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Maphosa, Farai; Lieten, Shakti H.; Dinkla, Inez; Stams, Alfons J.; Smidt, Hauke; Fennell, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respiring bacteria and also via hydrolytic, oxygenic, and reductive mechanisms by aerobic bacteria. Microbial ecogenomics has enabled us to not only study the microbiology involved in these complex processes but also develop tools to better monitor and assess these sites during bioremediation. Microbial ecogenomics have capitalized on recent advances in high-throughput and -output genomics technologies in combination with microbial physiology studies to address these complex bioremediation problems at a system level. Advances in environmental metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have provided insights into key genes and their regulation in the environment. They have also given us clues into microbial community structures, dynamics, and functions at contaminated sites. These techniques have not only aided us in understanding the lifestyles of common organohalide respirers, for example Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, and Desulfitobacterium, but also provided insights into novel and yet uncultured microorganisms found in organohalide respiring consortia. In this paper, we look at how ecogenomic studies have aided us to understand the microbial structures and functions in response to environmental stimuli such as the presence of chlorinated pollutants. PMID:23060869

  6. Quantitative phylogenetic assessment of microbial communities indiverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    von Mering, C.; Hugenholtz, P.; Raes, J.; Tringe, S.G.; Doerks,T.; Jensen, L.J.; Ward, N.; Bork, P.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of environmental communities is an important indicator of their ecology and function. Here, we use a set of protein-coding marker genes, extracted from large-scale environmental shotgun sequencing data, to provide a more direct, quantitative and accurate picture of community composition than traditional rRNA-based approaches using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By mapping marker genes from four diverse environmental data sets onto a reference species phylogeny, we show that certain communities evolve faster than others, determine preferred habitats for entire microbial clades, and provide evidence that such habitat preferences are often remarkably stable over time.

  7. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  8. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  9. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  10. Unravelling Microbial Communities with DNA-Microarrays: Challengesand Future Directions.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Michael; Smidt, Hauke; Loy, Alexander; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-03-08

    High-throughput technologies are urgently needed formonitoring the formidable biodiversity and functional capabilities ofmicroorganisms in the environment. Ten years ago, DNA microarrays,miniaturized platforms for highly parallel hybridization reactions, foundtheir way into environmental microbiology and raised great expectationsamong researchers in the field. In this article, we briefly summarize thestate-of-the-art of microarray approaches in microbial ecology researchand discuss in more detail crucial problems and promising solutions.Finally, we outline scenarios for an innovative combination ofmicroarrays with other molecular tools for structure-function analysis ofcomplex microbial communities.

  11. Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Carmody K; Woodcroft, Ben J; Hodgkins, Suzanne B; Wehr, Richard A; Kim, Eun-Hae; Mondav, Rhiannon; Crill, Patrick M; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Rich, Virginia I; Tyson, Gene W; Saleska, Scott R

    2014-10-23

    Permafrost contains about 50% of the global soil carbon. It is thought that the thawing of permafrost can lead to a loss of soil carbon in the form of methane and carbon dioxide emissions. The magnitude of the resulting positive climate feedback of such greenhouse gas emissions is still unknown and may to a large extent depend on the poorly understood role of microbial community composition in regulating the metabolic processes that drive such ecosystem-scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we show that changes in vegetation and increasing methane emissions with permafrost thaw are associated with a switch from hydrogenotrophic to partly acetoclastic methanogenesis, resulting in a large shift in the δ(13)C signature (10-15‰) of emitted methane. We used a natural landscape gradient of permafrost thaw in northern Sweden as a model to investigate the role of microbial communities in regulating methane cycling, and to test whether a knowledge of community dynamics could improve predictions of carbon emissions under loss of permafrost. Abundance of the methanogen Candidatus 'Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis' is a key predictor of the shifts in methane isotopes, which in turn predicts the proportions of carbon emitted as methane and as carbon dioxide, an important factor for simulating the climate feedback associated with permafrost thaw in global models. By showing that the abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, we establish a basis for scaling changing microbial communities to ecosystem isotope dynamics. Our findings indicate that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change. PMID:25341787

  12. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Myer, P R; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C

    2015-11-01

    Apart from the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding the structure and function of bacterial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and their association with beef cattle feed efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Within 2 contemporary groups of steers, individual feed intake and BW gain were determined from animals fed the same diet. Within both of 2 contemporary groups, BW was regressed on feed intake and 4 steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled ( = 16/group). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the cecal content using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were detected among quadrants, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any differences among quadrants for microbial communities within the cecum. The relative abundances of microbial populations and operational taxonomic units revealed significant differences among feed efficiency groups ( < 0.05). Firmicutes was the dominant cecal phylum in all groups and accounted for up to 81% of the populations among samples. Populations were also dominated by families Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Clostridiaceae, with significant shifts in the relative abundance of taxa among feed efficiency groups, including families Ruminococcaceae ( = 0.040), Lachnospiraceae ( = 0.020), Erysipelotrichaceae ( = 0.046), and Clostridiaceae ( = 0.043) and genera ( = 0.049), ( = 0.044), ( = 0.042), ( = 0.040), ( = 0.042), and ( = 0.042). The study identified cecal microbial associations with feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This study suggests an association of the cecum microbial community with bovine feed efficiency at the 16S level. PMID:26641052

  13. Mechanisms Controlling the Plant Diversity Effect on Soil Microbial Community Composition and Soil Microbial Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado Vázquez, P. G.; Lange, M.; Griffiths, R.; Malik, A.; Ravenek, J.; Strecker, T.; Eisenhauer, N.; Gleixner, G.

    2015-12-01

    Soil microorganisms are the main drivers of soil organic matter cycling. Organic matter input by living plants is the major energy and matter source for soil microorganisms, higher organic matter inputs are found in highly diverse plant communities. It is therefore relevant to understand how plant diversity alters the soil microbial community and soil organic matter. In a general sense, microbial biomass and microbial diversity increase with increasing plant diversity, however the mechanisms driving these interactions are not fully explored. Working with soils from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment), we investigated how changes in the soil microbial dynamics related to plant diversity were explained by biotic and abiotic factors. Microbial biomass quantification and differentiation of bacterial and fungal groups was done by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis; terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the bacterial diversity. Gram negative (G-) bacteria predominated in high plant diversity; Gram positive (G+) bacteria were more abundant in low plant diversity and saprotrophic fungi were independent from plant diversity. The separation between G- and G+ bacteria in relation to plant diversity was governed by a difference in carbon-input related factors (e.g. root biomass and soil moisture) between plant diversity levels. Moreover, the bacterial diversity increased with plant diversity and the evenness of the PLFA markers decreased. Our results showed that higher plant diversity favors carbon-input related factors and this in turn favors the development of microbial communities specialized in utilizing new carbon inputs (i.e. G- bacteria), which are contributing to the export of new C from plants to soils.

  14. The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Aaron L.

    2000-01-01

    To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.

  15. Metabolic modeling of a mutualistic microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Stolyar, Sergey; Van Dien, Steve; Hillesland, Kristina Linnea; Pinel, Nicolas; Lie, Thomas J; Leigh, John A; Stahl, David A

    2007-01-01

    The rate of production of methane in many environments depends upon mutualistic interactions between sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens. To enhance our understanding of these relationships, we took advantage of the fully sequenced genomes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludis to produce and analyze the first multispecies stoichiometric metabolic model. Model results were compared to data on growth of the co-culture on lactate in the absence of sulfate. The model accurately predicted several ecologically relevant characteristics, including the flux of metabolites and the ratio of D. vulgaris to M. maripaludis cells during growth. In addition, the model and our data suggested that it was possible to eliminate formate as an interspecies electron shuttle, but hydrogen transfer was essential for syntrophic growth. Our work demonstrated that reconstructed metabolic networks and stoichiometric models can serve not only to predict metabolic fluxes and growth phenotypes of single organisms, but also to capture growth parameters and community composition of simple bacterial communities. PMID:17353934

  16. Microbial Population and Community Dynamics on Plant Roots and Their Feedbacks on Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bever, James D.; Platt, Thomas G.; Morton, Elise R.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the soil microbial community can be altered dramatically due to association with individual plant species, and these effects on the microbial community can have important feedbacks on plant ecology. Negative plant-soil feedback plays primary roles in maintaining plant community diversity, whereas positive plant-soil feedback may cause community conversion. Host-specific differentiation of the microbial community results from the trade-offs associated with overcoming plant defense and the specific benefits associated with plant rewards. Accumulation of host-specific pathogens likely generates negative feedback on the plant, while changes in the density of microbial mutualists likely generate positive feedback. However, the competitive dynamics among microbes depends on the multidimensional costs of virulence and mutualism, the fine-scale spatial structure within plant roots, and active plant allocation and localized defense. Because of this, incorporating a full view of microbial dynamics is essential to explaining the dynamics of plant-soil feedbacks and therefore plant community ecology. PMID:22726216

  17. Mechanistic links between gut microbial community dynamics, microbial functions and metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Connie WY; Lam, Yan Y; Holmes, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes comprise a high density, biologically active community that lies at the interface of an animal with its nutritional environment. Consequently their activity profoundly influences many aspects of the physiology and metabolism of the host animal. A range of microbial structural components and metabolites directly interact with host intestinal cells and tissues to influence nutrient uptake and epithelial health. Endocrine, neuronal and lymphoid cells in the gut also integrate signals from these microbial factors to influence systemic responses. Dysregulation of these host-microbe interactions is now recognised as a major risk factor in the development of metabolic dysfunction. This is a two-way process and understanding the factors that tip host-microbiome homeostasis over to dysbiosis requires greater appreciation of the host feedbacks that contribute to regulation of microbial community composition. To date, numerous studies have employed taxonomic profiling approaches to explore the links between microbial composition and host outcomes (especially obesity and its comorbidities), but inconsistent host-microbe associations have been reported. Available data indicates multiple factors have contributed to discrepancies between studies. These include the high level of functional redundancy in host-microbiome interactions combined with individual variation in microbiome composition; differences in study design, diet composition and host system between studies; and inherent limitations to the resolution of rRNA-based community profiling. Accounting for these factors allows for recognition of the common microbial and host factors driving community composition and development of dysbiosis on high fat diets. New therapeutic intervention options are now emerging. PMID:25469018

  18. Mechanistic links between gut microbial community dynamics, microbial functions and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Ha, Connie W Y; Lam, Yan Y; Holmes, Andrew J

    2014-11-28

    Gut microbes comprise a high density, biologically active community that lies at the interface of an animal with its nutritional environment. Consequently their activity profoundly influences many aspects of the physiology and metabolism of the host animal. A range of microbial structural components and metabolites directly interact with host intestinal cells and tissues to influence nutrient uptake and epithelial health. Endocrine, neuronal and lymphoid cells in the gut also integrate signals from these microbial factors to influence systemic responses. Dysregulation of these host-microbe interactions is now recognised as a major risk factor in the development of metabolic dysfunction. This is a two-way process and understanding the factors that tip host-microbiome homeostasis over to dysbiosis requires greater appreciation of the host feedbacks that contribute to regulation of microbial community composition. To date, numerous studies have employed taxonomic profiling approaches to explore the links between microbial composition and host outcomes (especially obesity and its comorbidities), but inconsistent host-microbe associations have been reported. Available data indicates multiple factors have contributed to discrepancies between studies. These include the high level of functional redundancy in host-microbiome interactions combined with individual variation in microbiome composition; differences in study design, diet composition and host system between studies; and inherent limitations to the resolution of rRNA-based community profiling. Accounting for these factors allows for recognition of the common microbial and host factors driving community composition and development of dysbiosis on high fat diets. New therapeutic intervention options are now emerging. PMID:25469018

  19. Succession in a microbial mat community: A gaian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.

    The Gaia hypothesis originally proposed by James E. Lovelock states that the composition, oxidation-reduction state and temperature of the troposphere are actively regulated by the activities of the biota. The gaian concept has been extrapolated to include the composition of surface sediments through the process of biomineralization. The stratified microbial community dominated by the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes is actively involved in the deposition of laminated sediments at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico. Unusually heavy rains in the winters of 1979 and 1980 flooded the evaporite flat with up to 3 meters of meteoric water and deposited 5 - 10 cm of allocthonous sediment. The composition of the microbial community changed as a succession of dominating microbial species ensued, ultimately leading to the recolonization of the surface sediment by the original Microcoleus-dominated community. The resiliency of bacterial communities is suggested to be an important mechanism of gaian control systems. Present address: Control and Energy Conversion Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A.

  20. Microbial Communities in a High Arctic Polar Desert Landscape

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Clare M.; Wade, Matthew J.; Gray, Neil D.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Hubert, Casey R. J.; Graham, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of microbial communities in polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla dominated the soils and accounted for 95% of all sequences, with the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi being the major lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, relative Acidobacterial abundances were found to be very low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to characteristic circumneutral soil pHs in this region, which has resulted from the weathering of underlying carbonate bedrock. In addition, we compared previously measured geochemical conditions as possible controls on soil microbial communities. Phosphorus, pH, nitrogen, and calcium levels all significantly correlated with β-diversity, indicating landscape-scale lithological control of available nutrients, which in turn, significantly influenced soil community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α-diversity, particularly with the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices. PMID:27065980

  1. Microbial Communities in a High Arctic Polar Desert Landscape.

    PubMed

    McCann, Clare M; Wade, Matthew J; Gray, Neil D; Roberts, Jennifer A; Hubert, Casey R J; Graham, David W

    2016-01-01

    The High Arctic is dominated by polar desert habitats whose microbial communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to describe the α- and β-diversity of microbial communities in polar desert soils from the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard. Ten phyla dominated the soils and accounted for 95% of all sequences, with the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi being the major lineages. In contrast to previous investigations of Arctic soils, relative Acidobacterial abundances were found to be very low as were the Archaea throughout the Kongsfjorden polar desert landscape. Lower Acidobacterial abundances were attributed to characteristic circumneutral soil pHs in this region, which has resulted from the weathering of underlying carbonate bedrock. In addition, we compared previously measured geochemical conditions as possible controls on soil microbial communities. Phosphorus, pH, nitrogen, and calcium levels all significantly correlated with β-diversity, indicating landscape-scale lithological control of available nutrients, which in turn, significantly influenced soil community composition. In addition, soil phosphorus and pH significantly correlated with α-diversity, particularly with the Shannon diversity and Chao 1 richness indices. PMID:27065980

  2. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity1-8, and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist9-15. While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments9-11, coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma12,16. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on 3-way interactions where an antibiotic degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These 3-way interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by “cheating” species that cease producing or degrading antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamical behaviors ranging from stable fixed-points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatial and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity. PMID:25992546

  3. Probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of migrating microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joanna L; Lunn, Mary; Pinto, Ameet J; Raskin, Lutgarde; Sloan, William T

    2015-01-01

    In all but the most sterile environments bacteria will reside in fluid being transported through conduits and some of these will attach and grow as biofilms on the conduit walls. The concentration and diversity of bacteria in the fluid at the point of delivery will be a mix of those when it entered the conduit and those that have become entrained into the flow due to seeding from biofilms. Examples include fluids through conduits such as drinking water pipe networks, endotracheal tubes, catheters and ventilation systems. Here we present two probabilistic models to describe changes in the composition of bulk fluid microbial communities as they are transported through a conduit whilst exposed to biofilm communities. The first (discrete) model simulates absolute numbers of individual cells, whereas the other (continuous) model simulates the relative abundance of taxa in the bulk fluid. The discrete model is founded on a birth-death process whereby the community changes one individual at a time and the numbers of cells in the system can vary. The continuous model is a stochastic differential equation derived from the discrete model and can also accommodate changes in the carrying capacity of the bulk fluid. These models provide a novel Lagrangian framework to investigate and predict the dynamics of migrating microbial communities. In this paper we compare the two models, discuss their merits, possible applications and present simulation results in the context of drinking water distribution systems. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of stochastic dynamics on the composition of non-stationary microbial communities that are exposed to biofilms and provides a new avenue for modelling microbial dynamics in systems where fluids are being transported. PMID:25803866

  4. Dynamic flux balance analysis for synthetic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Henson, Michael A; Hanly, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) is an extension of classical flux balance analysis that allows the dynamic effects of the extracellular environment on microbial metabolism to be predicted and optimised. Recently this computational framework has been extended to microbial communities for which the individual species are known and genome-scale metabolic reconstructions are available. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the emerging DFBA approach with a focus on two case studies involving the conversion of mixed hexose/pentose sugar mixtures by synthetic microbial co-culture systems. These case studies illustrate the key requirements of the DFBA approach, including the incorporation of individual species metabolic reconstructions, formulation of extracellular mass balances, identification of substrate uptake kinetics, numerical solution of the coupled linear program/differential equations and model adaptation for common, suboptimal growth conditions and identified species interactions. The review concludes with a summary of progress to date and possible directions for future research. PMID:25257022

  5. Reaction Progress and the Changing Diversity of Chemolithotrophic Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.; Boyd, E.

    2012-12-01

    Is there a correlation between the abundance and diversity of geochemical energy sources and the diversity of chemolithotrophic microbial communities? The available data are suggestive, but not yet conclusive owing to a general lack of models and sampling strategies that integrate microbial, molecular, and geochemical data from microbially dominated ecosystems. While improvements are being made in sampling and analytical strategies, there is an opportunity to examine the underlying thermodynamic framework and generate hypotheses that can lead to quantitate tests of how reaction progress drives microbial diversity. Such quantitative approaches would allow accurate forecasts of the response of microbial communities, the base of all food webs, to environmental change, and development of strategies to deal with shifts in ecosystem function. As a first order consideration, chemolithotrophs require sources of chemical energy, which are provided by oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions that are far from equilibrium. Larger energy supplies can be expected to support larger populations of microbes unless nutrient supply (e.g., phosphate limitation) or other physiological limitations (e.g., thermal limits) are encountered. In geochemical systems, the magnitudes of disequilibria can be evaluated by quantifying how far from equilibrium individual reactions are. As reactions progress, fluctuations in disequilibria can be monitored by explicitly assessing values of reaction-progress variables. Such approaches are commonly used to develop dynamic models of weathering, diagenesis, hydrothermal alteration, and other geochemical processes involving mass transfer. The same framework applied to overall reactions capable of supporting chemolithotrophic populations enables dynamic predictions of changes in the predominant metabolic strategies capable of supporting microbial communities during geochemical processes. These predictions are not limited to changes in microbial biomass and

  6. Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowlin, Emily M.; Klaus, James S.; Foster, Jamie S.; Andres, Miriam S.; Custals, Lillian; Reid, R. Pamela

    2012-07-01

    Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and Phormidium mats). Cycling of these communities create laminae with distinct microstructures. Subsurface laminae thus represent a chronology of former surface mats. The present study documents the effects of environmental factors on surface microbial communities of modern marine stromatolites and identifies potential causes of microbial mat cycling. Mat type and burial state at 43 markers along a stromatolitic reef on the margin of Highborne Cay were monitored over a two-year period (2005-2006). Key environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, light, wind, water chemistry) were also monitored. Results indicated that the composition of stromatolite surface mats and transitions from one mat type to another are controlled by both seasonal and stochastic events. All six stromatolite mat communities at Highborne Cay showed significant correlations with water temperature. Heterotrophic biofilms, Solentia, stalked diatom and Phormidium mats showed positive correlations with temperature, whereas Schizothrix and tube diatom communities showed negative correlations. A significant correlation with light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) was detected only for the heterotrophic biofilm community. No significant correlations were found between mat type and the monitored wind intensity data, but field observations indicated that wind-related events such as storms and sand abrasion play important roles in the transitions from one mat type to another. An integrated model of stromatolite mat community cycling is developed that includes both predictable seasonal

  7. Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.

    2002-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (<20 yrs old) from six different sites along the ridge axis at 9°N, East Pacific Rise were examined for microbial life. Total DNA was extracted from the basalt glass and screened for the presence of both bacteria and archaea using the PCR. Repeated attempts with different primer sets yielded no bacterial genes, whereas archaeal genes were quite abundant. A genetic fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to compare the archaeal community compositions among the six different basalts. Filtered deep-sea water samples (~15 L) were examined in parallel to identify any overlap between rock- and seawater-associated archaea. The six rock community profiles were quite similar to each other, and the background water communities were also similar, respectively. Both the rock and water communities shared the same dominant peak. To identify the T-RFLP peaks corresponding to the individual members of the rock and seawater communities, clone libraries of the archaeal

  8. Metagenome of an Anaerobic Microbial Community Decomposing Poplar Wood Chips

    SciTech Connect

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L. L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to

  9. Microbial community potentially responsible for acid and metal release from an Ostrobothnian acid sulfate soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofen; Lim Wong, Zhen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark; Nakatsu, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Soils containing an approximately equal mixture of metastable iron sulfides and pyrite occur in the boreal Ostrobothnian coastal region of Finland, termed ‘potential acid sulfate soil materials’. If the iron sulfides are exposed to air, oxidation reactions result in acid and metal release to the environment that can cause severe damage. Despite that acidophilic microorganisms catalyze acid and metal release from sulfide minerals, the microbiology of acid sulfate soil (ASS) materials has been neglected. The molecular phylogeny of a depth profile through the plough and oxidized ASS layers identified several known acidophilic microorganisms and environmental clones previously identified from acid- and metal-contaminated environments. In addition, several of the 16S rRNA gene sequences were more similar to sequences previously identified from cold environments. Leaching of the metastable iron sulfides and pyrite with an ASS microbial enrichment culture incubated at low pH accelerated metal release, suggesting microorganisms capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation were present. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the presence of species similar to Acidocella sp. and other clones identified from acid mine environments. These data support that acid and metal release from ASSs was catalyzed by indigenous microorganisms adapted to low pH. PMID:23369102

  10. Simulating microbial community patterning using Biocellion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seunghwa; Kahan, Simon; Momeni, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and computer simulation are important tools for understanding complex interactions between cells and their biotic and abiotic environment: similarities and differences between modeled and observed behavior provide the basis for hypothesis formation. Momeni et al. (Elife 2:e00230, 2013) investigated pattern formation in communities of yeast strains engaging in different types of ecological interactions, comparing the predictions of mathematical modeling, and simulation to actual patterns observed in wet-lab experiments. However, simulations of millions of cells in a three-dimensional community are extremely time consuming. One simulation run in MATLAB may take a week or longer, inhibiting exploration of the vast space of parameter combinations and assumptions. Improving the speed, scale, and accuracy of such simulations facilitates hypothesis formation and expedites discovery. Biocellion is a high-performance software framework for accelerating discrete agent-based simulation of biological systems with millions to trillions of cells. Simulations of comparable scale and accuracy to those taking a week of computer time using MATLAB require just hours using Biocellion on a multicore workstation. Biocellion further accelerates large scale, high resolution simulations using cluster computers by partitioning the work to run on multiple compute nodes. Biocellion targets computational biologists who have mathematical modeling backgrounds and basic C++ programming skills. This chapter describes the necessary steps to adapt the original Momeni et al.'s model to the Biocellion framework as a case study. PMID:24838890

  11. Simulating Microbial Community Patterning Using Biocellion

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Seung-Hwa; Kahan, Simon H.; Momeni, Babak

    2014-04-17

    Mathematical modeling and computer simulation are important tools for understanding complex interactions between cells and their biotic and abiotic environment: similarities and differences between modeled and observed behavior provide the basis for hypothesis forma- tion. Momeni et al. [5] investigated pattern formation in communities of yeast strains engaging in different types of ecological interactions, comparing the predictions of mathematical modeling and simulation to actual patterns observed in wet-lab experiments. However, simu- lations of millions of cells in a three-dimensional community are ex- tremely time-consuming. One simulation run in MATLAB may take a week or longer, inhibiting exploration of the vast space of parameter combinations and assumptions. Improving the speed, scale, and accu- racy of such simulations facilitates hypothesis formation and expedites discovery. Biocellion is a high performance software framework for ac- celerating discrete agent-based simulation of biological systems with millions to trillions of cells. Simulations of comparable scale and accu- racy to those taking a week of computer time using MATLAB require just hours using Biocellion on a multicore workstation. Biocellion fur- ther accelerates large scale, high resolution simulations using cluster computers by partitioning the work to run on multiple compute nodes. Biocellion targets computational biologists who have mathematical modeling backgrounds and basic C++ programming skills. This chap- ter describes the necessary steps to adapt the original Momeni et al.'s model to the Biocellion framework as a case study.

  12. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S; Castro, Hector F; Fortney, Julian L; Techtmann, Stephen M; Joyner, Dominique C; Paradis, Charles J; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  13. Computational meta'omics for microbial community studies

    PubMed Central

    Segata, Nicola; Boernigen, Daniela; Tickle, Timothy L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Garrett, Wendy S; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Complex microbial communities are an integral part of the Earth's ecosystem and of our bodies in health and disease. In the last two decades, culture-independent approaches have provided new insights into their structure and function, with the exponentially decreasing cost of high-throughput sequencing resulting in broadly available tools for microbial surveys. However, the field remains far from reaching a technological plateau, as both computational techniques and nucleotide sequencing platforms for microbial genomic and transcriptional content continue to improve. Current microbiome analyses are thus starting to adopt multiple and complementary meta'omic approaches, leading to unprecedented opportunities to comprehensively and accurately characterize microbial communities and their interactions with their environments and hosts. This diversity of available assays, analysis methods, and public data is in turn beginning to enable microbiome-based predictive and modeling tools. We thus review here the technological and computational meta'omics approaches that are already available, those that are under active development, their success in biological discovery, and several outstanding challenges. PMID:23670539

  14. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S.; Castro, Hector F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Paradis, Charles J.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  15. Sampling microbial communities in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. E.; Parnell, J.; Powell, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform to enable the community to assess impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function at regional and continental scales. The NEON Observatory will collect data on aquatic organisms over 30 years in 36 sites across the United States, including Alaska and Puerto Rico as well as terrestrial organisms at 60 sites including Hawaii. Included in the biological measurements are microbial measurements in terrestrial and aquatic environments, including small, wadeable streams and shallow lakes. Microbial sampling in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats is being planned to coincide with biogeochemical sampling due to similarity of time scale and influence of external drivers. Aquatic sampling is geared toward species diversity and function. Terrestrial sampling aims to collect data on diversity, function, and spatial distribution dynamics. We are in the process of prioritizing data products, so that the most dynamic processes such as enzymatic activity will be measured more frequently and more intensive measures such as metagenome sequence data will be measured on a periodic basis. Here we present our initial microbial sampling strategy and invite the community to provide comment on the design and learn about microbial data products from the Observatory.

  16. Principal methods for isolation and identification of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Stefanis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Athanasios; Voidarou, Chrissa; Vavias, Stavros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial populations play crucial role in soil properties and influence below-ground ecosystem processes. Microbial composition and functioning changes the soil quality through decomposition of organic matter, recycling of nutrients, and biological control of parasites of plants. Moreover, the discovery that soil microbes may translate into benefits for biotechnology, management of agricultural, forest, and natural ecosystems, biodegradation of pollutants, and waste treatment systems maximized the need of scientists for the isolation and their characterization. Operations such as the production of antibiotics and enzymic activities from microorganisms of soil constitute objectives of industry in her effort to cope with the increase of population of earth and disturbance of environment and may ameliorate the effects of global climate change. In the past decades, new biochemical and molecular techniques have been developed in our effort to identify and classify soil bacteria. The goal of measuring the soil microbial diversity is difficult because of the limited knowledge about bacteria species and classification through families and orders. Molecular techniques extend our knowledge about microbial diversity and help the taxonomy of species. Measuring and monitoring soil microbial communities can lead us to better understanding of their composition and function in many ecosystem processes. PMID:22791233

  17. Cheese rind communities provide tractable systems for in situ and in vitro studies of microbial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Benjamin E.; Button, Julie E.; Santarelli, Marcela; Dutton, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tractable microbial communities are needed to bridge the gap between observations of patterns of microbial diversity and mechanisms that can explain these patterns. We developed cheese rinds as model microbial communities by characterizing in situ patterns of diversity and by developing an in vitro system for community reconstruction. Sequencing of 137 different rind communities across 10 countries revealed 24 widely distributed and culturable genera of bacteria and fungi as dominant community members. Reproducible community types formed independent of geographic location of production. Intensive temporal sampling demonstrated that assembly of these communities is highly reproducible. Patterns of community composition and succession observed in situ can be recapitulated in a simple in vitro system. Widespread positive and negative interactions were identified between bacterial and fungal community members. Cheese rind microbial communities represent an experimentally tractable system for defining mechanisms that influence microbial community assembly and function. PMID:25036636

  18. Metabolic modeling of a mutualistic microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, Sergey; Van Dien, Steve; Hillesland, Kristina Linnea; Pinel, Nicolas; Lie, Thomas J.; Leigh, John A.; Stahl, David A.

    2007-03-13

    The rate of production of methane in many environmentsdepends upon mutualistic interactions between sulfate-reducing bacteriaand methanogens. To enhance our understanding of these relationships, wetook advantage of the fully sequenced genomes of Desulfovibrio vulgarisand Methanococcus maripaludis to produce and analyze the firstmultispecies stoichiometric metabolic model. Model results were comparedto data on growth of the co-culture on lactate in the absence of sulfate.The model accurately predicted several ecologically relevantcharacteristics, including the flux of metabolites and the ratio of D.vulgaris to M. maripaludis cells during growth. In addition, the modeland our data suggested that it was possible to eliminate formate as aninterspecies electron shuttle, but hydrogen transfer was essential forsyntrophic growth. Our work demonstrated that reconstructed metabolicnetworks and stoichiometric models can serve not only to predictmetabolic fluxes and growth phenotypes of single organisms, but also tocapture growth parameters and community composition of simple bacterialcommunities.

  19. Acidophil bodies in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Matthew M; Belt, Patricia; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Kowdley, Kris V; Wilson, Laura A; Ferrell, Linda

    2016-06-01

    The significance of the quantity of acidophil bodies (AB) in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not certain. We quantified AB in liver biopsies and examined the association with the diagnosis of NASH and other histologic features. We reviewed 157 liver biopsies from the NASH Clinical Research Network Database collected in 2006. One hundred twenty-seven biopsies were from adult patients. Diagnoses were 94 definite NASH, 40 borderline NASH, and 23 definitely not NASH. The total length and average width of the core biopsies were measured, and the biopsy areas were calculated (mm(2)). Total AB were counted, and mean AB count per mm(2) was calculated (AB/mm(2)) to derive acidophil body index (ABI). ABI was 0.04 (±0.08) in definite NASH and 0.02 (±0.05) in borderline/definitely not NASH groups combined (P = .02) in all 157 biopsies; similar findings were present in the 127 adult-only biopsies (0.04 ± 0.05 and 0.02 ± 0.05, respectively; P = .05). In all 157 biopsies, increased ABI was associated with greater lobular inflammation (P = .01) and many ballooned hepatocytes (P = .048). There was a positive relationship between ABI and high nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, but this association was not statistically significant. There was no association between ABI and steatosis or fibrosis stage either in the entire cohorts or in the subset of adult patients. In conclusion, the density of AB is associated with lobular inflammation, ballooned hepatocytes, and the diagnosis of NASH in adult and pediatric liver biopsies, suggesting the implication of the apoptotic pathway in NASH-associated liver cell injury. PMID:26980020

  20. Microbial Community Acquisition of Nutrients from Mineral Surfaces. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hochella, M. F.

    2003-06-03

    Minerals and microbes undergo complex interactions in nature that impact broad aspects of near-surface Earth chemistry. Our primary objective in this project was to gain insight into how microbial species and communities acquire critical but tightly held nutrients residing on or within minerals common in rocks and soils, and to quantitatively study related microbe-mineral interactions including cell adhesion, electron transfer, and siderophore-mineral interaction processes.

  1. Using Artificial Neural Networks to Assess Changes in Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.C.; Macnaughton, S.; Palumbo, A.V.; Pfiffner, S.M.; Schryver, J.C.

    1999-04-19

    We evaluated artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a technique for assessing changes in soil microbial communities following exposure to metals. We analyzed signature lipid biomarker (SLB) data collected from two soil microcosm experiments using traditional statistical techniques and ANN. Two phases of data analysis were done; pattern recognition and prediction. In general, the ANNs were better able to detect patterns and relationships in the SLB data than were the traditional statistical techniques.

  2. Oceanographic structure drives the assembly processes of microbial eukaryotic communities

    PubMed Central

    Monier, Adam; Comte, Jérôme; Babin, Marcel; Forest, Alexandre; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Arctic Ocean microbial eukaryote phytoplankton form subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), where much of the annual summer production occurs. This SCM is particularly persistent in the Western Arctic Ocean, which is strongly salinity stratified. The recent loss of multiyear sea ice and increased particulate-rich river discharge in the Arctic Ocean results in a greater volume of fresher water that may displace nutrient-rich saltier waters to deeper depths and decrease light penetration in areas affected by river discharge. Here, we surveyed microbial eukaryotic assemblages in the surface waters, and within and below the SCM. In most samples, we detected the pronounced SCM that usually occurs at the interface of the upper mixed layer and Pacific Summer Water (PSW). Poorly developed SCM was seen under two conditions, one above PSW and associated with a downwelling eddy, and the second in a region influenced by the Mackenzie River plume. Four phylogenetically distinct communities were identified: surface, pronounced SCM, weak SCM and a deeper community just below the SCM. Distance–decay relationships and phylogenetic structure suggested distinct ecological processes operating within these communities. In the pronounced SCM, picophytoplanktons were prevalent and community assembly was attributed to water mass history. In contrast, environmental filtering impacted the composition of the weak SCM communities, where heterotrophic Picozoa were more numerous. These results imply that displacement of Pacific waters to greater depth and increased terrigenous input may act as a control on SCM development and result in lower net summer primary production with a more heterotroph dominated eukaryotic microbial community. PMID:25325383

  3. Oceanographic structure drives the assembly processes of microbial eukaryotic communities.

    PubMed

    Monier, Adam; Comte, Jérôme; Babin, Marcel; Forest, Alexandre; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-04-01

    Arctic Ocean microbial eukaryote phytoplankton form subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), where much of the annual summer production occurs. This SCM is particularly persistent in the Western Arctic Ocean, which is strongly salinity stratified. The recent loss of multiyear sea ice and increased particulate-rich river discharge in the Arctic Ocean results in a greater volume of fresher water that may displace nutrient-rich saltier waters to deeper depths and decrease light penetration in areas affected by river discharge. Here, we surveyed microbial eukaryotic assemblages in the surface waters, and within and below the SCM. In most samples, we detected the pronounced SCM that usually occurs at the interface of the upper mixed layer and Pacific Summer Water (PSW). Poorly developed SCM was seen under two conditions, one above PSW and associated with a downwelling eddy, and the second in a region influenced by the Mackenzie River plume. Four phylogenetically distinct communities were identified: surface, pronounced SCM, weak SCM and a deeper community just below the SCM. Distance-decay relationships and phylogenetic structure suggested distinct ecological processes operating within these communities. In the pronounced SCM, picophytoplanktons were prevalent and community assembly was attributed to water mass history. In contrast, environmental filtering impacted the composition of the weak SCM communities, where heterotrophic Picozoa were more numerous. These results imply that displacement of Pacific waters to greater depth and increased terrigenous input may act as a control on SCM development and result in lower net summer primary production with a more heterotroph dominated eukaryotic microbial community. PMID:25325383

  4. Microbial community composition of transiently wetted Antarctic Dry Valley soils

    PubMed Central

    Niederberger, Thomas D.; Sohm, Jill A.; Gunderson, Troy E.; Parker, Alexander E.; Tirindelli, Joëlle; Capone, Douglas G.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Cary, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    During the summer months, wet (hyporheic) soils associated with ephemeral streams and lake edges in the Antarctic Dry Valleys (DVs) become hotspots of biological activity and are hypothesized to be an important source of carbon and nitrogen for arid DV soils. Recent research in the DV has focused on the geochemistry and microbial ecology of lakes and arid soils, with substantially less information being available on hyporheic soils. Here, we determined the unique properties of hyporheic microbial communities, resolved their relationship to environmental parameters and compared them to archetypal arid DV soils. Generally, pH increased and chlorophyll a concentrations decreased along transects from wet to arid soils (9.0 to ~7.0 for pH and ~0.8 to ~5 μg/cm3 for chlorophyll a, respectively). Soil water content decreased to below ~3% in the arid soils. Community fingerprinting-based principle component analyses revealed that bacterial communities formed distinct clusters specific to arid and wet soils; however, eukaryotic communities that clustered together did not have similar soil moisture content nor did they group together based on sampling location. Collectively, rRNA pyrosequencing indicated a considerably higher abundance of Cyanobacteria in wet soils and a higher abundance of Acidobacterial, Actinobacterial, Deinococcus/Thermus, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, and Planctomycetes in arid soils. The two most significant differences at the genus level were Gillisia signatures present in arid soils and chloroplast signatures related to Streptophyta that were common in wet soils. Fungal dominance was observed in arid soils and Viridiplantae were more common in wet soils. This research represents an in-depth characterization of microbial communities inhabiting wet DV soils. Results indicate that the repeated wetting of hyporheic zones has a profound impact on the bacterial and eukaryotic communities inhabiting in these areas. PMID:25674080

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Marco; Zabaloy, María Celina; Gómez, Elena del V

    2015-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. While contrasting results have been observed related with its impact on soil microbial communities, more studies are necessary to elucidate the potential effects of the herbicide. Differences in tolerance detected by Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) approach could reflect these effects. The objective of the present study was to assess the tolerance to glyphosate (the active ingredient and a commercial formulation) of contrasting soils with (H) and without (NH) history of exposure. The hypothesis of a higher tolerance in H soils due to a sustained selection pressure on community structure was tested through the PICT approach. Results indicated that tolerance to glyphosate is not consistent with previous history of exposure to the herbicide either for the active ingredient or for a commercial formulation. Soils of H and NH sites were also characterized in order to determine to what extent they differ in their functional diversity and structure of microbial communities. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) indicated high similarity of Eubacteria profiles as well as no significant differences in abundance, respectively, between H and NH sites. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) indicated some differences in respiration of specific sources but functional diversity was very similar as reflected by catabolic evenness (E). These results support PICT assay, which ideally requires soils with differences in their exposure to the contaminant but minor differences in other characteristics. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of PICT approach with glyphosate examining tolerance at soil microbial community level. PMID:26150308

  6. Dynamics in microbial communities: Unraveling mechanisms to identify principles

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2015-07-01

    Diversity begets higher order properties such as functional stability and robustness in microbial communities, but principles that inform conceptual (and eventually predictive) models of community dynamics are lacking. Recent work has shown that selection as well as dispersal and drift shape communities, but the mechanistic bases for assembly of communities and the forces that maintain their function in the face of environmental perturbation are not well understood. Conceptually, some interactions among community members could generate endogenous dynamics in composition, even in the absence of environmental changes. These endogenous dynamics are further perturbed by exogenous forcing factors to produce a richer network of community interactions, and it is this “system” that is the basis for higher order community properties. Elucidation of principles that follow from this conceptual model requires identifying the mechanisms that (a) optimize diversity within a community and (b) impart community stability. The network of interactions between organisms can be an important element by providing a buffer against disturbance beyond the effect of functional redundancy, as alternative pathways with different combinations of microbes can be recruited to fulfill specific functions.

  7. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  8. Survival of a microbial soil community under Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. A.; Noernberg, P.; Merrison, J.; Lomstein, B. Aa.; Finster, K. W.

    2003-04-01

    Because of the similarities between Earth and Mars early history the hypothesis was forwarded that Mars is a site where extraterrestrial life might have and/or may still occur(red). Sample-return missions are planned by NASA and ESA to test this hypothesis. The enormous economic costs and the logistic challenges of these missions make earth-based model facilities inevitable. The Mars simulation system at University of Aarhus, Denmark allows microbiological experiments under Mars analogue conditions. Thus detailed studies on the effect of Mars environmental conditions on the survival and the activity of a natural microbial soil community were carried out. Changes in the soil community were determined with a suite of different approaches: 1) total microbial respiration activity was investigated with 14C-glucose, 2) the physiological profile was investigated by the EcoLog-system, 3) colony forming units were determined by plate counts and 4) the microbial diversity on the molecular level was accessed with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. The simulation experiments showed that a part of the bacterial community survived Martian conditions corresponding to 9 Sol. These and future simulation experiments will contribute to our understanding of the possibility for extraterrestrial and terrestrial life on Mars.

  9. Assessing the Unseen Bacterial Diversity in Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Ochman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    For both historical and technical reasons, 16S ribosomal RNA has been the most common molecular marker used to analyze the contents of microbial communities. However, its slow rate of evolution hinders the resolution of closely related bacteria—individual 16S-phylotypes, particularly when clustered at 97% sequence identity, conceal vast amounts of species- and strain-level variation. Protein-coding genes, which evolve more quickly, are useful for differentiating among more recently diverged lineages, but their application is complicated by difficulties in designing low-redundancy primers that amplify homologous regions from distantly related taxa. Given the now-common practice of multiplexing hundreds of samples, adopting new genes usually entails the synthesis of large sets of barcoded primers. To circumvent problems associated with use of protein-coding genes to survey microbial communities, we develop an approach—termed phyloTAGs—that offers an automatic solution for primer design and can be easily adapted to target different taxonomic groups and/or different protein-coding regions. We applied this method to analyze diversity within the gorilla gut microbiome and recovered hundreds of strains that went undetected after deep-sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. PhyloTAGs provides a powerful way to recover the fine-level diversity within microbial communities and to study stability and dynamics of bacterial populations. PMID:26615218

  10. Biofouling and microbial communities in membrane distillation and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Giannetto, Michael J; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-11-18

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology that uses low-grade heat to drive water vapor across a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Currently, little is known about the biofilms that grow on MD membranes. In this study, we use estuarine water collected from Long Island Sound in a bench-scale direct contact MD system to investigate the initial stages of biofilm formation. For comparison, we studied biofilm formation in a bench-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system using the same feedwater. These two membrane desalination systems expose the natural microbial community to vastly different environmental conditions: high temperatures with no hydraulic pressure in MD and low temperature with hydraulic pressure in RO. Over the course of 4 days, we observed a steady decline in bacteria concentration (nearly 2 orders of magnitude) in the MD feed reservoir. Even with this drop in planktonic bacteria, significant biofilm formation was observed. Biofilm morphologies on MD and RO membranes were markedly different. MD membrane biofilms were heterogeneous and contained several colonies, while RO membrane biofilms, although thicker, were a homogeneous mat. Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. Bacteria representing the orders Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales were most abundant in the MD biofilms. On the basis of the results, we propose two different regimes for microbial community shifts and biofilm development in RO and MD systems. PMID:25295386

  11. Assessing the Unseen Bacterial Diversity in Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Ochman, Howard

    2015-12-01

    For both historical and technical reasons, 16S ribosomal RNA has been the most common molecular marker used to analyze the contents of microbial communities. However, its slow rate of evolution hinders the resolution of closely related bacteria--individual 16S-phylotypes, particularly when clustered at 97% sequence identity, conceal vast amounts of species- and strain-level variation. Protein-coding genes, which evolve more quickly, are useful for differentiating among more recently diverged lineages, but their application is complicated by difficulties in designing low-redundancy primers that amplify homologous regions from distantly related taxa. Given the now-common practice of multiplexing hundreds of samples, adopting new genes usually entails the synthesis of large sets of barcoded primers. To circumvent problems associated with use of protein-coding genes to survey microbial communities, we develop an approach--termed phyloTAGs--that offers an automatic solution for primer design and can be easily adapted to target different taxonomic groups and/or different protein-coding regions. We applied this method to analyze diversity within the gorilla gut microbiome and recovered hundreds of strains that went undetected after deep-sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. PhyloTAGs provides a powerful way to recover the fine-level diversity within microbial communities and to study stability and dynamics of bacterial populations. PMID:26615218

  12. Metaproteomics of complex microbial communities in biogas plants

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, Robert; Kohrs, Fabian; Reichl, Udo; Benndorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Production of biogas from agricultural biomass or organic wastes is an important source of renewable energy. Although thousands of biogas plants (BGPs) are operating in Germany, there is still a significant potential to improve yields, e.g. from fibrous substrates. In addition, process stability should be optimized. Besides evaluating technical measures, improving our understanding of microbial communities involved into the biogas process is considered as key issue to achieve both goals. Microscopic and genetic approaches to analyse community composition provide valuable experimental data, but fail to detect presence of enzymes and overall metabolic activity of microbial communities. Therefore, metaproteomics can significantly contribute to elucidate critical steps in the conversion of biomass to methane as it delivers combined functional and phylogenetic data. Although metaproteomics analyses are challenged by sample impurities, sample complexity and redundant protein identification, and are still limited by the availability of genome sequences, recent studies have shown promising results. In the following, the workflow and potential pitfalls for metaproteomics of samples from full-scale BGP are discussed. In addition, the value of metaproteomics to contribute to the further advancement of microbial ecology is evaluated. Finally, synergistic effects expected when metaproteomics is combined with advanced imaging techniques, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics are addressed. PMID:25874383

  13. Elevated temperature alters carbon cycling in a model microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, A.; Li, Z.; Thomas, B. C.; Hettich, R. L.; Pan, C.; Banfield, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's climate is regulated by biogeochemical carbon exchanges between the land, oceans and atmosphere that are chiefly driven by microorganisms. Microbial communities are therefore indispensible to the study of carbon cycling and its impacts on the global climate system. In spite of the critical role of microbial communities in carbon cycling processes, microbial activity is currently minimally represented or altogether absent from most Earth System Models. Method development and hypothesis-driven experimentation on tractable model ecosystems of reduced complexity, as presented here, are essential for building molecularly resolved, benchmarked carbon-climate models. Here, we use chemoautotropic acid mine drainage biofilms as a model community to determine how elevated temperature, a key parameter of global climate change, regulates the flow of carbon through microbial-based ecosystems. This study represents the first community proteomics analysis using tandem mass tags (TMT), which enable accurate, precise, and reproducible quantification of proteins. We compare protein expression levels of biofilms growing over a narrow temperature range expected to occur with predicted climate changes. We show that elevated temperature leads to up-regulation of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and protein modification, and down-regulation of proteins involved in growth and reproduction. Closely related bacterial genotypes differ in their response to temperature: Elevated temperature represses carbon fixation by two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation is significantly up-regulated at higher temperature by a third closely related genotypic group. Leptospirillum group III bacteria are more susceptible to viral stress at elevated temperature, which may lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, this proteogenomics approach revealed the effects of climate change on carbon cycling pathways and other

  14. Subglacial Microbial Communities and Their Relationship to Bedrock Lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M. L.; Lanoil, B. D.; Anderson, S. P.; Sharp, M.; Foght, J.; Nealson, K. H.

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of abundant and metabolically active microbial communities in subglacial systems. However, the composition of these communities and the effect that they have on the geochemical dynamics of these systems is unclear. We compared the microbial community composition of samples from two glaciers: the Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA (BG), which overlies Cretaceous metasediments, and the John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, (JEG) which overlies a carbonate/evaporite sequence of Cambrian/Ordovician/Silurian age. Bulk meltwater chemistry indicates that sulfide oxidation and carbonate dissolution account for 90% of the solute flux from BG, whereas gypsum/anhydrite and carbonate dissolution alone accounts for most of the flux from JEG. Microbes are abundant in the subglacial environment (ca. 1-5 x 105 cells ml-1) at both sites based on DAPI direct counts. Furthermore, early season subglacial waters (2002) at BG, have higher counts than both supraglacial and ice marginal environments. These data are consistent with previous findings in other subglacial systems. Two hundred and thirty three 16S rDNA clones were recovered from subglacial samples from the two glaciers in 1999 and grouped by RFLP analysis, followed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences. Interestingly, many (46%) 16S rDNAs from BG were most closely related to organisms that are capable of oxidation of sulfide and/or iron, whereas only a few (7%) of rDNAs from JEG were related to similar groups. The abundance of putative sulfide oxidizers in BG and their scarcity in JEG correlates with the meltwater chemistry of the two systems. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that microbial activity has an important role in contributing to the solute flux from glaciers. Group-specific phylogenetic probes have been developed for rDNAs that are abundant in these clone libraries. These probes are currently being used for quantitative dot

  15. Role of vermicompost chemical composition, microbial functional diversity, and fungal community structure in their microbial respiratory response to three pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Insam, Heribert; Romero, Esperanza; Goberna, Marta

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between vermicompost chemical features, enzyme activities, community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs), fungal community structures, and its microbial respiratory response to pesticides were investigated. Fungal community structure of vermicomposts produced from damaged tomato fruits (DT), winery wastes (WW), olive-mill waste and biosolids (OB), and cattle manure (CM) were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rDNA. MicroResp™ was used for assessing vermicompost CLPPs and testing the microbial response to metalaxyl, imidacloprid, and diuron. Vermicompost enzyme activities and CLPPs indicated that WW, OB, and DT had higher microbial functional diversity than CM. The microbiota of the former tolerated all three pesticides whereas microbial respiration in CM was negatively affected by metalaxyl and imidacloprid. The response of vermicompost microbiota to the fungicide metalaxyl was correlated to its fungal community structure. The results suggest that vermicomposts with higher microbial functional diversity can be useful for the management of pesticide pollution in agriculture. PMID:21865033

  16. Field Evidence for Magnetite Formation by a Methanogenic Microbial Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbach, S.; Beaver, C. L.; Williams, A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lund, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aged, subsurface petroleum spill in Bemidji, Minnesota, has been surveyed with magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements. High MS values were found in the free-product phase around the fluctuating water table. Although we had hypothesized that high MS values are related to the occurrence of the mineral magnetite resulting from the activity of iron-reducing bacteria, our microbial analysis pointed to the presence of a methanogenic microbial community at the locations and depths of the highest MS values. Here, we report on a more detailed microbial analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of sediment samples from four consecutive years. In addition, we provide geochemical data (FeII/FeIII concentrations) to refine our conceptual model of methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation at aged petroleum spills and demonstrate that the microbial induced changes of sediment properties can be monitored with MS. The methanogenic microbial community at the Bemidji site consisted mainly of the syntrophic, hydrocarbon-degrading Smithella and the hydrogenotrophic, methane-generating Methanoregula. There is growing evidence in the literature that not only Bacteria, but also some methanogenic Archaea are able to reduce iron. In fact, a recent study reported that the methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila produced magnetite during the reduction of ferrihydrite in a laboratory experiment when hydrogen was present. Therefore, our finding of high MS values and the presence of magnetite in the methanogenic zone of an aged, subsurface petroleum spill could very well be the first field evidence for magnetite formation during methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation.

  17. Dining local: the microbial diet of a snail that grazes microbial communities is geographically structured.

    PubMed

    O'Rorke, Richard; Cobian, Gerald M; Holland, Brenden S; Price, Melissa R; Costello, Vincent; Amend, Anthony S

    2015-05-01

    Achatinella mustelina is a critically endangered tree snail that subsists entirely by grazing microbes from leaf surfaces of native trees. Little is known about the fundamental aspects of these microbe assemblages: not taxonomic composition, how this varies with host plant or location, nor whether snails selectively consume microbes. To address these questions, we collected 102 snail faecal samples as a proxy for diet, and 102 matched-leaf samples from four locations. We used Illumina amplicon sequencing to determine bacterial and fungal community composition. Microbial community structure was significantly distinct between snail faeces and leaf samples, but the same microbes occurred in both. We conclude that snails are not 'picky' eaters at the microbial level, but graze the surface of whatever plant they are on. In a second experiment, the gut was dissected from non-endangered native tree snails in the same family as Achatinella to confirm that faecal samples reflect gut contents. Over 60% of fungal reads were shared between faeces, gut and leaf samples. Overall, location, sample type (faeces or leaf) and host plant identity all significantly explained the community composition and variation among samples. Understanding the microbial ecology of microbes grazed by tree snails enables effective management when conservation requires captive breeding or field relocation. PMID:25285515

  18. Metagenomic analysis of a stable trichloroethene-degrading microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Vanessa L; West, Kimberlee A; Lee, Patrick KH; Tringe, Susannah G; Brodie, Eoin L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides bacteria are the only organisms known to completely reduce chlorinated ethenes to the harmless product ethene. However, Dehalococcoides dechlorinate these chemicals more effectively and grow more robustly in mixed microbial communities than in isolation. In this study, the phylogenetic composition and gene content of a functionally stable trichloroethene-degrading microbial community was examined using metagenomic sequencing and analysis. For phylogenetic classification, contiguous sequences (contigs) longer than 2500 bp were grouped into classes according to tetranucleotide frequencies and assigned to taxa based on rRNA genes and other phylogenetic marker genes. Classes were identified for Clostridiaceae, Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Methanobacterium, Methanospirillum, as well as a Spirochete, a Synergistete, and an unknown Deltaproteobacterium. Dehalococcoides contigs were also identified based on sequence similarity to previously sequenced genomes, allowing the identification of 170 kb on contigs shorter than 2500 bp. Examination of metagenome sequences affiliated with Dehalococcoides revealed 406 genes not found in previously sequenced Dehalococcoides genomes, including 9 cobalamin biosynthesis genes related to corrin ring synthesis. This is the first time that a Dehalococcoides strain has been found to possess genes for synthesizing this cofactor critical to reductive dechlorination. Besides Dehalococcoides, several other members of this community appear to have genes for complete or near-complete cobalamin biosynthesis pathways. In all, 17 genes for putative reductive dehalogenases were identified, including 11 novel ones, all associated with Dehalococcoides. Genes for hydrogenase components (271 in total) were widespread, highlighting the importance of hydrogen metabolism in this community. PhyloChip analysis confirmed the stability of this microbial community. PMID:22378537

  19. Cellular content of biomolecules in sub-seafloor microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Becker, Kevin W.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biomolecules, typically from the cell envelope, can provide crucial information about distribution, activity, and adaptations of sub-seafloor microbial communities. However, when cells die these molecules can be preserved in the sediment on timescales that are likely longer than the lifetime of their microbial sources. Here we provide for the first time measurements of the cellular content of biomolecules in sedimentary microbial cells. We separated intact cells from sediment matrices in samples from surficial, deeply buried, organic-rich, and organic-lean marine sediments by density centrifugation. Amino acids, amino sugars, muramic acid, and intact polar lipids were analyzed in both whole sediment and cell extract, and cell separation was optimized and evaluated in terms of purity, separation efficiency, taxonomic resemblance, and compatibility to high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for biomolecule analyses. Because cell extracts from density centrifugation still contained considerable amounts of detrital particles and non-cellular biomolecules, we further purified cells from two samples by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Cells from these highly purified cell extracts had an average content of amino acids and lipids of 23-28 fg cell-1 and 2.3 fg cell-1, respectively, with an estimated carbon content of 19-24 fg cell-1. In the sediment, the amount of biomolecules associated with vegetative cells was up to 70-fold lower than the total biomolecule content. We find that the cellular content of biomolecules in the marine subsurface is up to four times lower than previous estimates. Our approach will facilitate and improve the use of biomolecules as proxies for microbial abundance in environmental samples and ultimately provide better global estimates of microbial biomass.

  20. Oxygen-dependent niche formation of a pyrite-dependent acidophilic consortium built by archaea and bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Sibylle; Dolch, Kerstin; Geiger, Katharina; Krause, Susanne; Asskamp, Maximilian; Eusterhues, Karin; Kriews, Michael; Wilhelms-Dick, Dorothee; Goettlicher, Joerg; Majzlan, Juraj; Gescher, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms can provide a number of different ecological niches for microorganisms. Here, a multispecies biofilm was studied in which pyrite-oxidizing microbes are the primary producers. Its stability allowed not only detailed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based characterization of the microbial population in different areas of the biofilm but also to integrate these results with oxygen and pH microsensor measurements conducted before. The O2 concentration declined rapidly from the outside to the inside of the biofilm. Hence, part of the population lives under microoxic or anoxic conditions. Leptospirillum ferrooxidans strains dominate the microbial population but are only located in the oxic periphery of the snottite structure. Interestingly, archaea were identified only in the anoxic parts of the biofilm. The archaeal community consists mainly of so far uncultured Thermoplasmatales as well as novel ARMAN (Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganism) species. Inductively coupled plasma analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra provide further insight in the biofilm characteristics but revealed no other major factors than oxygen affecting the distribution of bacteria and archaea. In addition to catalyzed reporter deposition FISH and oxygen microsensor measurements, microautoradiographic FISH was used to identify areas in which active CO2 fixation takes place. Leptospirilla as well as acidithiobacilli were identified as primary producers. Fixation of gaseous CO2 seems to proceed only in the outer rim of the snottite. Archaea inhabiting the snottite core do not seem to contribute to the primary production. This work gives insight in the ecological niches of acidophilic microorganisms and their role in a consortium. The data provided the basis for the enrichment of uncultured archaea. PMID:23619304

  1. Deep-Subterranean Microbial Habitats in the Hishikari Epithermal Gold Mine: Active Thermophilic Microbial Communities and Endolithic Ancient Microbial Relicts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, H.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.; Horikoshi, K.

    2001-12-01

    Deep subterranean microbial community structures in an epithermal gold-silver deposit, Hishikari gold mine, southern part of Kyusyu Japan, were evaluated through the combined use of enrichment culture methods and culture-independent molecular surveys. The geologic setting of the Hishikari deposit is composed of three lithologies; basement oceanic sediments of the Cretaceous Shimanto Supergroup, Quaternary andesites, and auriferous quartz vein. We studied the drilled core rock of these, and the geothermal hot waters from the basement aquifers collected by means of the dewatering system located at the deepest level in the mining sites. Culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) recovered from drilled cores suggested that the deep-sea oceanic microbial communities were present as ancient indigenous relicts confined in the Shimanto basement. On the other hand, genetic signals of active thermophilic microbial communities, mainly consisting of thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizer within Aquificales, thermophilic methanotroph within g-Proteobacteria and yet-uncultivated bacterium OPB37 within b-Proteobacteria, were detected with these of oceanic relicts from the subterranean geothermal hot aquifers (temp. 70-100ºC). Successful cultivation and FISH analyses strongly supported that these thermophilic lithotrophic microorganisms could be exactly active and they grew using geochemically produced hydrogen and methane gasses as nutrients. Based on these results, the deep-subsurface biosphere occurring in the Hishikari epithermal gold mine was delineated as endolithic ancient microbial relicts and modern habitats raising active lithotrophic thermophiles associated with the geological and geochemical features of the epithermal gold deposit.

  2. Microbial Community Dynamics Associated with Rhizosphere Carbon Flow

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jessica L.; Williams, Mark A.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Myrold, David D.

    2003-01-01

    Root-deposited photosynthate (rhizodeposition) is an important source of readily available carbon (C) for microbes in the vicinity of growing roots. Plant nutrient availability is controlled, to a large extent, by the cycling of this and other organic materials through the soil microbial community. Currently, our understanding of microbial community dynamics associated with rhizodeposition is limited. We used a 13C pulse-chase labeling procedure to examine the incorporation of rhizodeposition into individual phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the bulk and rhizosphere soils of greenhouse-grown annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. Gulf). Labeling took place during a growth stage in transition between active root growth and rapid shoot growth on one set of plants (labeling period 1) and 9 days later during the rapid shoot growth stage on another set of plants (labeling period 2). Temporal differences in microbial community composition were more apparent than spatial differences, with a greater relative abundance of PLFAs from gram-positive organisms (i15:0 and a15:0) in the second labeling period. Although more abundant, gram-positive organisms appeared to be less actively utilizing rhizodeposited C in labeling period 2 than in labeling period 1. Gram-negative bacteria associated with the 16:1ω5 PLFA were more active in utilizing 13C-labeled rhizodeposits in the second labeling period than in the first labeling period. In both labeling periods, however, the fungal PLFA 18:2ω6,9 was the most highly labeled. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of using 13C labeling and PLFA analysis to examine the microbial dynamics associated with rhizosphere C cycling by focusing on the members actively involved. PMID:14602642

  3. Microbial community response during the iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Stefan; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Ramaiah, Nagappa; Amann, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    Iron fertilization experiments in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas are known to induce phytoplankton blooms. However, little is known about the response of the microbial community upon iron fertilization. As part of the LOHAFEX experiment in the southern Atlantic Ocean, Bacteria and Archaea were monitored within and outside an induced bloom, dominated by Phaeocystis-like nanoplankton, during the 38 days of the experiment. The microbial production increased 1.6-fold (thymidine uptake) and 2.1-fold (leucine uptake), while total cell numbers increased only slightly over the course of the experiment. 454 tag pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD FISH) showed that the composition and abundance of the bacterial and archaeal community in the iron-fertilized water body were remarkably constant without development of typical bloom-related succession patterns. Members of groups usually found in phytoplankton blooms, such as Roseobacter and Gammaproteobacteria, showed no response or only a minor response to the bloom. However, sequence numbers and total cell numbers of the SAR11 and SAR86 clades increased slightly but significantly toward the end of the experiment. It seems that although microbial productivity was enhanced within the fertilized area, a succession-like response of the microbial community upon the algal bloom was averted by highly effective grazing. Only small-celled members like the SAR11 and SAR86 clades could possibly escape the grazing pressure, explaining a net increase of those clades in numbers. PMID:23064339

  4. Proteogenomic Approaches for the Molecular Characterization of Natural Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Jillian F.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Thelen, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    At the present time we know little about how microbial communities function in their natural habitats. For example, how do microorganisms interact with each other and their physical and chemical surroundings and respond to environmental perturbations? We might begin to answer these questions if we could monitor the ways in which metabolic roles are partitioned amongst members as microbial communities assemble, determine how resources such as carbon, nitrogen, and energy are allocated into metabolic pathways, and understand the mechanisms by which organisms and communities respond to changes in their surroundings. Because many organisms cannot be cultivated, and given that the metabolisms of those growing in monoculture are likely to differ from those of organisms growing as part of consortia, it is vital to develop methods to study microbial communities in situ. Chemoautotrophic biofilms growing in mine tunnels hundreds of meters underground drive pyrite (FeS2) dissolution and acid and metal release, creating habitats that select for a small number of organism types. The geochemical and microbial simplicity of these systems, the significant biomass, and clearly defined biological-inorganic feedbacks make these ecosystem microcosms ideal for development of methods for the study of uncultivated microbial consortia. Our approach begins with the acquisition of genomic data from biofilms that are sampled over time and in different growth conditions. We have demonstrated that it is possible to assemble shotgun sequence data to reveal the gene complement of the dominant community members and to use these data to confidently identify a significant fraction of proteins from the dominant organisms by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. However, there are technical obstacles currently restricting this type of "proteogenomic" analysis. Composite genomic sequences assembled from environmental data from natural microbial communities do not capture the full range of genetic

  5. Proteogenomic approaches for the molecular characterization of natural microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Banfield, Jillian F; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert L; Thelen, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    At the present time we know little about how microbial communities function in their natural habitats. For example, how do microorganisms interact with each other and their physical and chemical surroundings and respond to environmental perturbations? We might begin to answer these questions if we could monitor the ways in which metabolic roles are partitioned amongst members as microbial communities assemble, determine how resources such as carbon, nitrogen, and energy are allocated into metabolic pathways, and understand the mechanisms by which organisms and communities respond to changes in their surroundings. Because many organisms cannot be cultivated, and given that the metabolisms of those growing in monoculture are likely to differ from those of organisms growing as part of consortia, it is vital to develop methods to study microbial communities in situ. Chemoautotrophic biofilms growing in mine tunnels hundreds of meters underground drive pyrite (FeS(2)) dissolution and acid and metal release, creating habitats that select for a small number of organism types. The geochemical and microbial simplicity of these systems, the significant biomass, and clearly defined biological-inorganic feedbacks make these ecosystem microcosms ideal for development of methods for the study of uncultivated microbial consortia. Our approach begins with the acquisition of genomic data from biofilms that are sampled over time and in different growth conditions. We have demonstrated that it is possible to assemble shotgun sequence data to reveal the gene complement of the dominant community members and to use these data to confidently identify a significant fraction of proteins from the dominant organisms by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. However, there are technical obstacles currently restricting this type of "proteogenomic" analysis. Composite genomic sequences assembled from environmental data from natural microbial communities do not capture the full range of

  6. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  7. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  8. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  9. Spartina alterniflora invasion alters soil microbial community composition and microbial respiration following invasion chronosequence in a coastal wetland of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; Cheng, Xiaoli; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    The role of exotic plants in regulating soil microbial community structure and activity following invasion chronosequence remains unclear. We investigated soil microbial community structure and microbial respiration following Spartina alterniflora invasion in a chronosequence of 6-, 10-, 17-, and 20-year-old by comparing with bare flat in a coastal wetland of China. S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased soil moisture and salinity, the concentrations of soil water-soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), the quantities of total and various types of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), the fungal:bacterial PLFAs ratio and cumulative microbial respiration compared with bare flat. The highest MBC, gram-negative bacterial and saturated straight-chain PLFAs were found in 10-year-old S. alterniflora soil, while the greatest total PLFAs, bacterial and gram-positive bacterial PLFAs were found in 10- and 17-year-old S. alterniflora soils. The monounsaturated:branched PLFAs ratio declined, and cumulative microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFAs increased following S. alterniflora invasion in the chronosequence. Our results suggest that S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased the biomass of soil various microbial groups and microbial respiration compared to bare flat soil by increasing soil available substrate, and modifying soil physiochemical properties. Soil microbial community reached the most enriched condition in the 10-year-old S. alterniflora community. PMID:27241173

  10. Spartina alterniflora invasion alters soil microbial community composition and microbial respiration following invasion chronosequence in a coastal wetland of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; Cheng, Xiaoli; An, Shuqing

    2016-05-01

    The role of exotic plants in regulating soil microbial community structure and activity following invasion chronosequence remains unclear. We investigated soil microbial community structure and microbial respiration following Spartina alterniflora invasion in a chronosequence of 6-, 10-, 17-, and 20-year-old by comparing with bare flat in a coastal wetland of China. S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased soil moisture and salinity, the concentrations of soil water-soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), the quantities of total and various types of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), the fungal:bacterial PLFAs ratio and cumulative microbial respiration compared with bare flat. The highest MBC, gram-negative bacterial and saturated straight-chain PLFAs were found in 10-year-old S. alterniflora soil, while the greatest total PLFAs, bacterial and gram-positive bacterial PLFAs were found in 10- and 17-year-old S. alterniflora soils. The monounsaturated:branched PLFAs ratio declined, and cumulative microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFAs increased following S. alterniflora invasion in the chronosequence. Our results suggest that S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased the biomass of soil various microbial groups and microbial respiration compared to bare flat soil by increasing soil available substrate, and modifying soil physiochemical properties. Soil microbial community reached the most enriched condition in the 10-year-old S. alterniflora community.

  11. Spartina alterniflora invasion alters soil microbial community composition and microbial respiration following invasion chronosequence in a coastal wetland of China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; Cheng, Xiaoli; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    The role of exotic plants in regulating soil microbial community structure and activity following invasion chronosequence remains unclear. We investigated soil microbial community structure and microbial respiration following Spartina alterniflora invasion in a chronosequence of 6-, 10-, 17-, and 20-year-old by comparing with bare flat in a coastal wetland of China. S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased soil moisture and salinity, the concentrations of soil water-soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), the quantities of total and various types of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), the fungal:bacterial PLFAs ratio and cumulative microbial respiration compared with bare flat. The highest MBC, gram-negative bacterial and saturated straight-chain PLFAs were found in 10-year-old S. alterniflora soil, while the greatest total PLFAs, bacterial and gram-positive bacterial PLFAs were found in 10- and 17-year-old S. alterniflora soils. The monounsaturated:branched PLFAs ratio declined, and cumulative microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFAs increased following S. alterniflora invasion in the chronosequence. Our results suggest that S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased the biomass of soil various microbial groups and microbial respiration compared to bare flat soil by increasing soil available substrate, and modifying soil physiochemical properties. Soil microbial community reached the most enriched condition in the 10-year-old S. alterniflora community. PMID:27241173

  12. Distinctive Tropical Forest Variants Have Unique Soil Microbial Communities, But Not Always Low Microbial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Binu M.; Song, Woojin; Slik, J. W. F.; Sukri, Rahayu S.; Jaafar, Salwana; Dong, Ke; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests) due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity. PMID:27092105

  13. Distinctive Tropical Forest Variants Have Unique Soil Microbial Communities, But Not Always Low Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Song, Woojin; Slik, J W F; Sukri, Rahayu S; Jaafar, Salwana; Dong, Ke; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests) due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity. PMID:27092105

  14. Population dynamics of microbial communities in the zebrafish gut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemielita, Matthew; Taormina, Michael; Burns, Adam; Hampton, Jennifer; Rolig, Annah; Wiles, Travis; Guillemin, Karen; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2015-03-01

    The vertebrate intestine is home to a diverse microbial community, which plays a crucial role in the development and health of its host. Little is known about the population dynamics and spatial structure of this ecosystem, including mechanisms of growth and interactions between species. We have constructed an experimental model system with which to explore these issues, using initially germ-free larval zebrafish inoculated with defined communities of fluorescently tagged bacteria. Using light sheet fluorescence microscopy combined with computational image analysis we observe and quantify the entire bacterial community of the intestine during the first 24 hours of colonization, during which time the bacterial population grows from tens to tens of thousands of bacteria. We identify both individual bacteria and clusters of bacteria, and quantify the growth rate and spatial distribution of these distinct subpopulations. We find that clusters of bacteria grow considerably faster than individuals and are located in specific regions of the intestine. Imaging colonization by two species reveals spatial segregation and competition. These data and their analysis highlight the importance of spatial organization in the establishment of gut microbial communities, and can provide inputs to physical models of real-world ecological dynamics.

  15. Community Composition of a Hypersaline Endoevaporitic Microbial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Canfield, Donald E.; Teske, Andreas P.; Oren, Aharon

    2005-01-01

    A hypersaline, endoevaporitic microbial community in Eilat, Israel, was studied by microscopy and by PCR amplification of genes for 16S rRNA from different layers. In terms of biomass, the oxygenic layers of the community were dominated by Cyanobacteria of the Halothece, Spirulina, and Phormidium types, but cell counts (based on 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining) and molecular surveys (clone libraries of PCR-amplified genes for 16S rRNA) showed that oxygenic phototrophs were outnumbered by the other constituents of the community, including chemotrophs and anoxygenic phototrophs. Bacterial clone libraries were dominated by phylotypes affiliated with the Bacteroidetes group and both photo- and chemotrophic groups of α-proteobacteria. Green filaments related to the Chloroflexi were less abundant than reported from hypersaline microbial mats growing at lower salinities and were only detected in the deepest part of the anoxygenic phototrophic zone. Also detected were nonphototrophic γ- and δ-proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, the TM6 group, Firmicutes, and Spirochetes. Several of the phylotypes showed a distinct vertical distribution in the crust, suggesting specific adaptations to the presence or absence of oxygen and light. Archaea were less abundant than Bacteria, their diversity was lower, and the community was less stratified. Detected archaeal groups included organisms affiliated with the Methanosarcinales, the Halobacteriales, and uncultured groups of Euryarchaeota. PMID:16269778

  16. Soil microbial communities respond differently to three chemically defined polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael A; Kreinberg, Allison J; Gonzalez, Javier M; Halvorson, Jonathan J; French, Elizabeth; Bollmann, Annette; Hagerman, Ann E

    2013-11-01

    High molecular weight polyphenols (e.g. tannins) that enter the soil may affect microbial populations, by serving as substrates for microbial respiration or by selecting for certain microbes. In this study we examined how three phenolic compounds that represent some environmentally widespread tannins or their constituent functional groups were respired by soil microorganisms and how the compounds affected the abundance and diversity of soil bacteria and archaea, including ammonia oxidizers. An acidic, silt loam soil from a pine forest was incubated for two weeks with the monomeric phenol methyl gallate, the small polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate, or the large polyphenol oenothein B. Respiration of the polyphenols during the incubation was measured using the Microresp™ system. After incubation, metabolic diversity was determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), and genetic diversity was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis on DNA extracted from the soil samples. Total microbial populations and ammonia-oxidizing populations were measured using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Methyl gallate was respired more efficiently than the higher molecular weight tannins but not as efficiently as glucose. Methyl gallate and epigallocatechin gallate selected for genetically or physiologically unique populations compared to glucose. None of the polyphenols supported microbial growth, and none of the polyphenols affected ammonia-oxidizing bacterial populations or ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Additional studies using both a wider range of polyphenols and a wider range of soils and environments are needed to elucidate the role of polyphenols in determining soil microbiological diversity. PMID:23545181

  17. Microbial community succession in alkaline, saline bauxite residue: a cross-refinery study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, T.; Malcolm, L. I.; Tyson, G. W.; Warren, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bauxite residue, a byproduct of the Bayer process for alumina refining, is an alkaline, saline tailings material that is generally considered to be inhospitable to microbial life. In situ remediation strategies promote soil formation in bauxite residue by enhancing leaching of saline, alkaline pore water, and through incorporation of amendments to boost organic matter content, decrease pH, and improve physical structure. The amelioration of chemical and physical conditions in bauxite residue is assumed to support diversification of microbial communities from narrow, poorly functioning microbial communities towards diverse, well-functioning communities. This study aimed to characterise microbial communities in fresh and remediated bauxite residues from refineries worldwide, to identify (a) whether initial microbial communities differed between refineries; (b) major environmental controls on microbial community composition; and (c) whether remediation successfully shifts the composition of microbial communities in bauxite residue towards those found in reference (desired endpoint) soils. Samples were collected from 16 refineries and characterised using 16S amplicon sequencing to examine microbial community composition and structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analyses. Initial microbial community composition was similar across refineries but partitioned into two major groups. Microbial community composition changes slowly over time and indicates that alkalinity and salinity inhibit diversification. Microbially-based strategies for in situ remediation should consider the initial microbial community composition and whether the pre-treatment of chemical properties would optimise subsequent bioremediation outcomes. During in situ remediation, microbial communities become more diverse and develop wider functional capacity, indicating progression towards communities more commonly observed in natural grassland and forest soils.

  18. DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN UNTREATED WASTEWATER FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC LOCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial sewage communities consist of a combination of human faecal microorganisms and urban infrastructure-derived microbes originating from infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs. Together these different sources of microbial diversity form a unique population struc...

  19. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN HUMAN FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology now allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes, the use of these approaches to discern key genomic differences between natural microbial communities remains prohibitively expensive for mo...

  20. Bioinformatic Approaches Reveal Metagenomic Characterization of Soil Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuofei; Hansen, Martin Asser; Hansen, Lars H.; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2014-01-01

    As is well known, soil is a complex ecosystem harboring the most prokaryotic biodiversity on the Earth. In recent years, the advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has greatly facilitated the progress of soil ecological studies. However, how to effectively understand the underlying biological features of large-scale sequencing data is a new challenge. In the present study, we used 33 publicly available metagenomes from diverse soil sites (i.e. grassland, forest soil, desert, Arctic soil, and mangrove sediment) and integrated some state-of-the-art computational tools to explore the phylogenetic and functional characterizations of the microbial communities in soil. Microbial composition and metabolic potential in soils were comprehensively illustrated at the metagenomic level. A spectrum of metagenomic biomarkers containing 46 taxa and 33 metabolic modules were detected to be significantly differential that could be used as indicators to distinguish at least one of five soil communities. The co-occurrence associations between complex microbial compositions and functions were inferred by network-based approaches. Our results together with the established bioinformatic pipelines should provide a foundation for future research into the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. PMID:24691166

  1. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( < 0.01) correlated for length of storage using quadratic equations, peaking after Week 5 for all headspace gases and most manure chemical characteristics. Microbial community structure and metabolic utilization patterns showed continued change throughout the 13-wk trial. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis species diversity patterns declined significantly ( < 0.01) with time as substrate utilization declined for sugars and certain amino acids, but functionality increased in the utilization of short chain fatty acids as levels of these compounds increased in manure. Studies to assess the effect of swine diet formulations on manure emissions for odor need to be conducted for a minimum of 5 wk. Efforts to determine the impact of diets on greenhouse gas emissions will require longer periods of study (>13 wk). PMID:27380061

  2. Bioinformatic approaches reveal metagenomic characterization of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuofei; Hansen, Martin Asser; Hansen, Lars H; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J

    2014-01-01

    As is well known, soil is a complex ecosystem harboring the most prokaryotic biodiversity on the Earth. In recent years, the advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has greatly facilitated the progress of soil ecological studies. However, how to effectively understand the underlying biological features of large-scale sequencing data is a new challenge. In the present study, we used 33 publicly available metagenomes from diverse soil sites (i.e. grassland, forest soil, desert, Arctic soil, and mangrove sediment) and integrated some state-of-the-art computational tools to explore the phylogenetic and functional characterizations of the microbial communities in soil. Microbial composition and metabolic potential in soils were comprehensively illustrated at the metagenomic level. A spectrum of metagenomic biomarkers containing 46 taxa and 33 metabolic modules were detected to be significantly differential that could be used as indicators to distinguish at least one of five soil communities. The co-occurrence associations between complex microbial compositions and functions were inferred by network-based approaches. Our results together with the established bioinformatic pipelines should provide a foundation for future research into the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. PMID:24691166

  3. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (P<0.05) increased in soils under cotton rotated with sorghum or wheat, and due to conservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  4. Sequencing and beyond: integrating molecular ‘omics for microbial community profiling

    PubMed Central

    Franzosa, Eric A.; Hsu, Tiffany; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Shafquat, Afrah; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Morgan, Xochitl C.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing has proven invaluable for investigating diverse environmental and host-associated microbial communities. In this Review, we discuss emerging strategies for microbial community analysis that complement and expand traditional metagenomic profiling. These include novel DNA sequencing strategies for identifying strain-level microbial variation and community temporal dynamics; measuring additional multi'omic data types that better capture community functional activity, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics; and combining multiple forms of multi'omic data in an integrated framework. We highlight studies in which the multi'omics approach has led to improved mechanistic models of microbial community structure and function. PMID:25915636

  5. Utilization and control of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections and community-based microbial cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth; Amador, Cristina Isabel; Jelsbak, Lotte; Sternberg, Claus; Jelsbak, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activities are most often shaped by interactions between co-existing microbes within mixed-species communities. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms of species interactions within communities is a central issue in microbial ecology, and our ability to engineer and control microbial communities depends, to a large extent, on our knowledge of these interactions. This review highlights the recent advances regarding molecular characterization of microbe-microbe interactions that modulate community structure, activity, and stability, and aims to illustrate how these findings have helped us reach an engineering-level understanding of microbial communities in relation to both human health and industrial biotechnology. PMID:27092245

  6. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  7. Electrosynthesis of Commodity Chemicals by an Autotrophic Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher W.; Ross, Daniel E.; Fichot, Erin B.; Norman, R. Sean

    2012-01-01

    A microbial community originating from brewery waste produced methane, acetate, and hydrogen when selected on a granular graphite cathode poised at −590 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) with CO2 as the only carbon source. This is the first report on the simultaneous electrosynthesis of these commodity chemicals and the first description of electroacetogenesis by a microbial community. Deep sequencing of the active community 16S rRNA revealed a dynamic microbial community composed of an invariant Archaea population of Methanobacterium spp. and a shifting Bacteria population. Acetobacterium spp. were the most abundant Bacteria on the cathode when acetogenesis dominated. Methane was generally the dominant product with rates increasing from <1 to 7 mM day−1 (per cathode liquid volume) and was concomitantly produced with acetate and hydrogen. Acetogenesis increased to >4 mM day−1 (accumulated to 28.5 mM over 12 days), and methanogenesis ceased following the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Traces of hydrogen accumulated during initial selection and subsequently accelerated to >11 mM day−1 (versus 0.045 mM day−1 abiotic production). The hypothesis of electrosynthetic biocatalysis occurring at the microbe-electrode interface was supported by a catalytic wave (midpoint potential of −460 mV versus SHE) in cyclic voltammetry scans of the biocathode, the lack of redox active components in the medium, and the generation of comparatively high amounts of products (even after medium exchange). In addition, the volumetric production rates of these three commodity chemicals are marked improvements for electrosynthesis, advancing the process toward economic feasibility. PMID:23001672

  8. Redox-driven regulation of microbial community morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okegbe, Chinweike; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Dietrich, Lars E.P.

    2014-01-01

    During growth on surfaces, diverse microbial communities display topographies with captivating patterns. The quality and quantity of matrix excreted by resident cells play major roles in determining community architecture. Two current publications indicate that the cellular redox state and respiratory activity are important parameters affecting matrix output in the divergent bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. These and related studies have identified regulatory proteins with the potential to respond to changes in redox state and respiratory electron transport and modulate the activity of the signal transduction pathways that control matrix production. These developments hint at the critical mechanistic links between environmental sensing and community behavior, and provide an exciting new context within which to interpret the molecular details of biofilm structure determination. PMID:24607644

  9. Investigating a lotic microbial community following a severe detergent spill.

    PubMed

    Or, Amitai; Gophna, Uri

    2014-02-01

    A large non-ionic detergent spill affected the Yarqon stream, where water sampling was performed prior to the spill as a part of the stream's routine sampling and during and after the event. Following the spill, a large foam layer was observed for about 3-4 days accompanied by death of all fauna in the stream. Despite a large quantity of freshwater that was introduced to the stream as an emergency measure, a drastic decrease in dissolved oxygen was also observed. A rapid reduction in bacterial diversity and richness, as measured by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, was also evident, as microbial assemblages changes accompanied pollutant exposure. However, this analysis showed that the microbial assemblages of the stream were quick to recover and became similar to pre-spill communities as early as a week after the spill. These findings suggest that bacterial assemblages are much more robust to large anthropogenic disturbances than expected. PMID:24379053

  10. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. PMID:26974565

  11. The Role of Soil Organic Matter, Nutrients, and Microbial Community Structure on the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Dunaj, S. J.; Vallino, J. J.; Hines, M. E.; Gay, M.; Kobyljanec, C.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer the potential for generating electricity, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and bioremediating pollutants through utilization of a plentiful, natural, and renewable resource: soil organic carbon. In the current study, we analyzed microbial community structure, MFC performance, and soil characteristics in different microhabitats (bulk soil, anode, and cathode) within MFCs constructed from agricultural or forest soils in order to determine how soil type and microbial dynamics influence MFC performance. MFCs were constructed with soils from agricultural and hardwood forest sites at Harvard Forest (Petersham, MA). The bulk soil characteristics were analyzed, including polyphenols, short chain fatty acids, total organic C and N, abiotic macronutrients, N and P mineralization rates, CO2 respiration rates, and MFC power output. Microbial community structure of the anodes, cathodes, and bulk soils was determined with molecular fingerprinting methods, which included terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Our results indicated that MFCs constructed from agricultural soil had power output about 17 times that of forest soil-based MFCs and respiration rates about 10 times higher than forest soil MFCs. Agricultural soil MFCs had lower C:N ratios, polyphenol content, and acetate concentrations than forest soil MFCs, suggesting that active agricultural MFC microbial communities were supported by higher quality organic carbon. Microbial community profile data indicate that the microbial communities at the anode of the high power MFCs were less diverse than in low power MFCs and were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, Geobacter, and, to a lesser extent, Clostridia, while low-power MFC anode communities were dominated by Clostridia. These data suggest that the presence of organic carbon substrate (acetate) was not the major limiting factor in selecting for highly electrogenic microbial

  12. Experimental warming effects on the microbial community of a temperate mountain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Schindlbacher, A.; Rodler, A.; Kuffner, M.; Kitzler, B.; Sessitsch, A.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial communities mediate the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The amount of carbon (C) that is respired leaves the soil as CO2 (soil respiration) and causes one of the greatest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. How soil microbial communities will respond to global warming, however, is not well understood. To elucidate the effect of warming on the microbial community we analyzed soil from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, Austria. Soil of a mature spruce forest was warmed by 4 °C during snow-free seasons since 2004. Repeated soil sampling from control and warmed plots took place from 2008 until 2010. We monitored microbial biomass C and nitrogen (N). Microbial community composition was assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of ribosomal RNA genes. Microbial metabolic activity was estimated by soil respiration to biomass ratios and RNA to DNA ratios. Soil warming did not affect microbial biomass, nor did warming affect the abundances of most microbial groups. Warming significantly enhanced microbial metabolic activity in terms of soil respiration per amount of microbial biomass C. Microbial stress biomarkers were elevated in warmed plots. In summary, the 4 °C increase in soil temperature during the snow-free season had no influence on microbial community composition and biomass but strongly increased microbial metabolic activity and hence reduced carbon use efficiency. PMID:21760644

  13. Interspecies interactions are an integral determinant of microbial community dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Fatma A. A.; Suzuki, Kenshi; Ohtaki, Akihiro; Sagegami, Keita; Hirai, Hidetaka; Seno, Jun; Mizuno, Naoko; Inuzuka, Yuma; Saito, Yasuhisa; Tashiro, Yosuke; Hiraishi, Akira; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that determine the dynamics of bacterial communities in a complex system using multidisciplinary methods. Since natural and engineered microbial ecosystems are too complex to study, six types of synthetic microbial ecosystems (SMEs) were constructed under chemostat conditions with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Two to four phenol-degrading, phylogenetically and physiologically different bacterial strains were used in each SME. Phylogeny was based on the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes, while physiologic traits were based on kinetic and growth parameters on phenol. Two indices, J parameter and “interspecies interaction,” were compared to predict which strain would become dominant in an SME. The J parameter was calculated from kinetic and growth parameters. On the other hand, “interspecies interaction,” a new index proposed in this study, was evaluated by measuring the specific growth activity, which was determined on the basis of relative growth of a strain with or without the supernatant prepared from other bacterial cultures. Population densities of strains used in SMEs were enumerated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the gene encoding the large subunit of phenol hydroxylase and were compared to predictions made from J parameter and interspecies interaction calculations. In 4 of 6 SEMs tested the final dominant strain shown by real-time qPCR analyses coincided with the strain predicted by both the J parameter and the interspecies interaction. However, in SMEII-2 and SMEII-3 the final dominant Variovorax strains coincided with prediction of the interspecies interaction but not the J parameter. These results demonstrate that the effects of interspecies interactions within microbial communities contribute to determining the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem. PMID:26539177

  14. Interspecies interactions are an integral determinant of microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Fatma A A; Suzuki, Kenshi; Ohtaki, Akihiro; Sagegami, Keita; Hirai, Hidetaka; Seno, Jun; Mizuno, Naoko; Inuzuka, Yuma; Saito, Yasuhisa; Tashiro, Yosuke; Hiraishi, Akira; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that determine the dynamics of bacterial communities in a complex system using multidisciplinary methods. Since natural and engineered microbial ecosystems are too complex to study, six types of synthetic microbial ecosystems (SMEs) were constructed under chemostat conditions with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Two to four phenol-degrading, phylogenetically and physiologically different bacterial strains were used in each SME. Phylogeny was based on the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes, while physiologic traits were based on kinetic and growth parameters on phenol. Two indices, J parameter and "interspecies interaction," were compared to predict which strain would become dominant in an SME. The J parameter was calculated from kinetic and growth parameters. On the other hand, "interspecies interaction," a new index proposed in this study, was evaluated by measuring the specific growth activity, which was determined on the basis of relative growth of a strain with or without the supernatant prepared from other bacterial cultures. Population densities of strains used in SMEs were enumerated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the gene encoding the large subunit of phenol hydroxylase and were compared to predictions made from J parameter and interspecies interaction calculations. In 4 of 6 SEMs tested the final dominant strain shown by real-time qPCR analyses coincided with the strain predicted by both the J parameter and the interspecies interaction. However, in SMEII-2 and SMEII-3 the final dominant Variovorax strains coincided with prediction of the interspecies interaction but not the J parameter. These results demonstrate that the effects of interspecies interactions within microbial communities contribute to determining the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem. PMID:26539177

  15. Microbial community structures differentiated in a single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell fueled with rice straw hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbial fuel cell represents a novel technology to simultaneously generate electric power and treat wastewater. Both pure organic matter and real wastewater can be used as fuel to generate electric power and the substrate type can influence the microbial community structure. In the present study, rice straw, an important feedstock source in the world, was used as fuel after pretreatment with diluted acid method for a microbial fuel cell to obtain electric power. Moreover, the microbial community structures of anodic and cathodic biofilm and planktonic culturewere analyzed and compared to reveal the effect of niche on microbial community structure. Results The microbial fuel cell produced a maximum power density of 137.6 ± 15.5 mW/m2 at a COD concentration of 400 mg/L, which was further increased to 293.33 ± 7.89 mW/m2 through adjusting the electrolyte conductivity from 5.6 mS/cm to 17 mS/cm. Microbial community analysis showed reduction of the microbial diversities of the anodic biofilm and planktonic culture, whereas diversity of the cathodic biofilm was increased. Planktonic microbial communities were clustered closer to the anodic microbial communities compared to the cathodic biofilm. The differentiation in microbial community structure of the samples was caused by minor portion of the genus. The three samples shared the same predominant phylum of Proteobacteria. The abundance of exoelectrogenic genus was increased with Desulfobulbus as the shared most abundant genus; while the most abundant exoelectrogenic genus of Clostridium in the inoculum was reduced. Sulfate reducing bacteria accounted for large relative abundance in all the samples, whereas the relative abundance varied in different samples. Conclusion The results demonstrated that rice straw hydrolysate can be used as fuel for microbial fuel cells; microbial community structure differentiated depending on niches after microbial fuel cell operation; exoelectrogens were

  16. Microbial Community Structure and Physiological Status of Different Types of Biofilms in an Acid Mine Drainage Site Determined by Phospholipid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.

    2009-12-01

    A unique aspect of the acid mine drainage (AMD) system at the Green Valley coal mine site (GVS) in western Indiana is the abundance of biofims and biolaminates - stromatolites. Three major types of biofilms have been observed from the AMD site: bright green biofilm dominated by the acidophilic, oxygenic photosynthetic protozoan Euglena mutabilis, olive green biofilm of photosynthetic diatom belonging to the genus Nitzschia, and an olive-green to brownish-green filamentous algae-dominated community. These biofilms are either attached to hard substrata of the effluent channel, or floating at the surface of the effluent with abundant oxygen bubbles, with or without encrusted Fe precipitates. We analyzed lipids (hydrocarbons, wax esters, phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids) to determine the microbial biomass, community structure and physiological status of biofims collected from the GVS site. Distinctive lipid compositions were observed. The attached, red-crusted biofilms were characterized by abundant wax esters, monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas the floating biofilms by phytadienes, phytanol, polyunsaturated n-alkenes, polyunsaturated fatty acids. The accumulation of abundant wax esters probably reflects the readily available carbon and limitation of nutrients to the biofilm. Alternatively, the wax esters may be the biochemical relics of the anaerobic past of the Earth and the detection of these compounds has important implications for the evolution of eukaryotes and the paleo-environmental conditions on early Earth. This type of biochemical machine may have allowed early eukaryotes to survive recurrent anoxic conditions on early Earth.

  17. Ferric Iron Reduction by Acidophilic Heterotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D. Barrie; McGinness, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Fifty mesophilic and five moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria were tested for the ability to reduce ferric iron in liquid and solid media under aerobic conditions; about 40% of the mesophiles (but none of the moderate thermophiles) displayed at least some capacity to reduce iron. Both rates and extents of ferric iron reduction were highly strain dependent. No acidophilic heterotroph reduced nitrate or sulfate, and (limited) reduction of manganese(IV) was noted in only one strain (Acidiphilium facilis), an acidophile which did not reduce iron. Insoluble forms of ferric iron, both amorphous and crystalline, were reduced, as well as soluble iron. There was evidence that, in at least some acidophilic heterotrophs, iron reduction was enzymically mediated and that ferric iron could act as a terminal electron acceptor. In anaerobically incubated cultures, bacterial biomass increased with increasing concentrations of ferric but not ferrous iron. Mixed cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and an acidophilic heterotroph (SJH) produced sequences of iron cycling in ferrous iron-glucose media. PMID:16348395

  18. Denitrification and the denitrifier community in coastal microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J

    2015-03-01

    Denitrification was measured in three structurally different coastal microbial mats by using the stable isotope technique. The composition of the denitrifying community was determined by analyzing the nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) genes using clone libraries and the GeoChip. The highest potential rate of denitrification (7.0 ± 1.0 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) was observed during summer at station 1 (supra-littoral). The rates of denitrification were much lower in the stations 2 (marine) and 3 (intermediate) (respectively 0.1 ± 0.05 and 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) and showed less seasonality when compared to station 1. The denitrifying community at station 1 was also more diverse than that at station 2 and 3, which were more similar to each other than either of these stations to station 1. In all three stations, the diversity of both nirS and nirK denitrifiers was higher in summer when compared to winter. The location along the tidal gradient seems to determine the composition, diversity and activity of the denitrifier community, which may be driven by salinity, nitrate/nitrite and organic carbon. Both nirS and nirK denitrifiers are equally present and therefore they are likely to play a role in the denitrification of the microbial mats studied. PMID:25764561

  19. Adaptation of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ventullo, Roy M.; Larson, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-chain (C12 to C18) quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the density, heterotrophic activity, and biodegradation capabilities of heterotrophic bacteria were examined in situ in a lake ecosystem. Monoalkyl and dialkyl substituted QACs were tested over a range of concentrations (0.001 to 10 mg/liter) in both acute (3 h) and chronic (21 day) exposures. In general, none of the QACs tested had significant adverse effects on bacterial densities in either acute or chronic studies. However, significant decreases in bacterial heterotrophic activity were noted in acute studies at QAC concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mg/liter. Chronic exposure of lake microbial communities to a specific monoalkyl QAC resulted in an adaptive response and recovery of heterotrophic activity. No-observable-effect level in the adapted populations was >10 mg/liter. Chronic exposure also resulted in significant increases in the number and activity of bacteria capable of biodegrading the material. The increase in biodegradation capability was observed at low (microgram per liter) concentrations which are approximately the same as realistic environmental levels. In general, our studies indicated that exposure of lake microbial communities to QACs results in the development of adapted communities which are less sensitive to potential toxic effects and more active in the biodegradation of these materials. PMID:16346991

  20. A global comparison of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Arp, Alex; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Crosslin, James M; Trumble, John; Bextine, Blake

    2014-04-01

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc) is an economically important insect pest of solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. Historically, the potato psyllid's range included central United States, Mexico, and California; more recently, populations of this insect have been reported in Central America, the Pacific Northwest, and New Zealand. Like most phytophagous insects, potato psyllids require symbiotic bacteria to compensate for nutritional deficiencies in their diet. Potato psyllids harbor the primary symbiont, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and may also harbor many secondary symbionts such as Wolbachia sp., Sodalis sp., Pseudomonas sp., and others. These secondary symbionts can have an effect on reproduction, nutrition, immune response, and resistances to heat or pesticides. To identify regional differences in potato psyllid bacterial symbionts, 454 pyrosequencing was performed using generic 16S rRNA gene primers. Analysis was performed using the Qiime 1.6.0 software suite, ARB Silva, and R. Operational taxonomic units were then grouped at 97% identity. Representative sequences were classified to genus using the ARB SILVA database. Potato psyllids collected in California contained a less diverse microbial community than those collected in the central United States and Central America. The crop variety, collection year, and haplotype did not seem to affect the microbial community in potato psyllids. The primary difference between psyllids in different regions was the presence and overall bacterial community composition of Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Wolbachia. PMID:24517908

  1. Microbial community structure accompanied with electricity production in a constructed wetland plant microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    This study reveals the complex structure of bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a Canna indica plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) and its electricity production. The PMFC produced a maximum current of 105 mA/m(2) by utilizing rhizodeposits as the sole electron donor without any external nutrient or buffer supplements, which demonstrates the feasibility of PMFCs in practical oligotrophic conditions with low solution conductivity. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the PMFC than non-plant controls or sediment-only controls, and pyrosequencing and clone library reveal that rhizodeposits conversion to current were carried out by syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineaceae) and electrochemically active bacteria (e.g., Geobacter). Denitrifying bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens play a minor role in organics degradation, but abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and thermophilic archaea are likely main electron donor competitors. PMID:26066972

  2. Contribution of eukaryotic microbial communities to the formation of Fe-rich accretions in an extreme acidic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, L.; Valente, T.; Correia, A.; Alves, A.; Foing, B.; Davies, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    In the acid mine drainage of Valdarcas, northern Portugal, Fe-rich tubular and spherical macroaccretions are directly associated with the presence of eukaryotic microorganisms. This raises the question whether they are biogenically-derived or the result of an abiotic process mediated by microeukaryotic phototrophs. The drainage water at Valdarcas is characterized by very low pH values (pH<3.5), high metal solubility and presence of iron colloids. Mineralogical analysis (XRD and SEM) of the precipitates indicates a mixture of goethite, schwertmannite and jarosite. Euglenophyta and Chlorophyta acidophilic algal were previously identified in this site. The spatial distribution of Euglena mutabilis indicated that it has a preference to grow up on schwertmannite-rich precipitates. Field observations demonstrate the existence of oxygenated microenvironments created by algal activity suggesting that algae influence iron minerals precipitation, especially schwertmannite. The mineral-microorganism interactions are relevant to understanding this unique and extreme environment. Further investigations regarding the mineralogical and chemical characterization of these deposits, and the identification of microorganisms involved in the process could be helpful to enhance our knowledge of past Fe formations throughout Earth's primordial environment. It is expectable that this information will contribute to establish a framework for recognition of biosignatures on other planets and extraterrestrial bodies. In this study, results on the chemical and mineralogical composition of the structures are presented. The biological context is characterised based on observations made by optical microscopy complemented with molecular data on the microbial communities obtained by culture independent methods. The results are discussed within the context of two models: the studied Fe-rich stromatolites are microeukaryotic-mediated as described by previous workers from similar environments or are

  3. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-05-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.

  4. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  5. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  6. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE C ISOTOPIC VALUE OF MICROBIAL LIPIDS APPLIED TO DETERMINE C USAGE IN MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combination of compound specific stable isotopic analysis with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFAS) analysis is useful in determining the source of organic carbon used by groups of a microbial community. Determination of the effect of certain environmental parameters is important ...

  7. Diversity of acidophilic prokaryotes at two acid mine drainage sites in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Kay, Catherine Melanie; Mutlu, Mehmet Burçin; Çabuk, Ahmet; Johnson, David Barrie

    2015-04-01

    The biodiversity of acidophilic prokaryotes in two acidic (pH 2.8-3.05) mine drainage (AMD) sites (Balya and Çan) in Turkey was examined using a combined cultivation-based and cultivation-independent approach. The latter included analyzing microbial diversity using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (`T-RFLP), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Numbers of cultivatable heterotrophic acidophilic bacteria were over an order of magnitude greater than those of chemolithotrophic acidophiles in both AMD ponds examined. Isolates identified as strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, Acidiphilium organovorum, and Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum were isolated from the Balya AMD pond, and others identified as strains of Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidicapsa ligni, and Acidiphilium rubrum from Çan AMD. Other isolates were too distantly related (from analysis of their 16S rRNA genes) to be identified at the species level. Archaeal diversity in the two ponds appeared to be far more limited. T-RFLP and qPCR confirmed the presence of Ferroplasma-like prokaryotes, but no archaea were isolated from the two sites. qPCR generated semiquantitative data for genera of some of the iron-oxidizing acidophiles isolated and/or detected, suggesting the order of abundance was Leptospirillum > Ferroplasma > Acidithiobacillus (Balya AMD) and Ferroplasma > Leptospirillum > Acidithiobacillus (Çan AMD). PMID:25380633

  8. Simultaneous sulfate and zinc removal from acid wastewater using an acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wenkai; Liu, Guangli; Luo, Haiping; Zhang, Renduo; Xiang, Yinbo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a novel acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode for treatment of acid wastewater. A biocathode was developed using acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria as the catalyst. Artificial wastewater with 200mgL(-1) sulfate and different Zn concentrations (0, 15, 25, and 40 mg L(-1)) was used as the MEC catholyte. The acidophilic biocathode dominated by Desulfovibrio sp. with an abundance of 66% (with 82% of Desulfovibrio sequences similar to Desulfovibrio simplex) and achieved a considerable sulfate reductive rate of 32 gm(-3)d(-1). With 15 mg L(-1) Zn added, the sulfate reductive rate of MEC improved by 16%. The formation of ZnS alleviated the inhibition from sulfide and sped the sulfate reduction. With 15 and 25 mgL(-1) Zn added, more than 99% of Zn was removed from the wastewater. Dissolved Zn ions in the catholyte were converted into insoluble Zn compounds, such as zinc sulfide and zinc hydroxide, due to the sulfide and elevated pH produced by sulfate reduction. The MEC with acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode can be used as an alternative to simultaneously remove sulfate and metals from acid wastewaters, such as acid mine drainage. PMID:26561748

  9. The viability of native microbial communities in martian environment (model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyova, Elena; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Pavlov, Anatolyi; Vdovina, Mariya; Lomasov, Vladimir

    For today the important direction in astrobiology is the experimental simulation of extraterrestrial habitats with the assessment of survivability of microorganisms in such conditions. A new task is to investigate the resistance of native microbial ecosystems which are well adapted to the environment and develop unique protection mechanisms that enable to ensure biosphere formation. The purpose of this research was to study the viability of microorganisms as well as viability of native microbial communities of arid soils and permafrost under stress conditions simulating space environment and martian regolith environment, estimation of duration of Earth like life in the Martian soil. The experimental data obtained give the proof of the preservation of high population density, biodiversity, and reproduction activity under favorable conditions in the Earth analogues of Martian soil - arid soils (Deserts of Israel and Morocco) and permafrost (East Siberia, Antarctica), after the treatment of samples by ionizing radiation dose up to 100 kGy at the pressure of 1 torr, temperature (- 50oC) and in the presence of perchlorate (5%). It was shown that in simulated conditions close to the parameters of the Martian regolith, the diversity of natural bacterial communities was not decreased, and in some cases the activation of some bacterial populations occurred in situ. Our results allow suggesting that microbial communities like those that inhabit arid and permafrost ecosystems on the Earth, can survive at least 500 thousand years under conditions of near surface layer of the Martian regolith. Extrapolation of the data according to the intensity of ionizing radiation to the open space conditions allows evaluating the potential lifespan of cells inside meteorites as 20-50 thousand years at least. In this work new experimental data have been obtained confirming the occurrence of liquid water and the formation of wet soil layer due to sublimation of ice when the temperature of the

  10. Using Artificial Neural Networks to Assess Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Brand, C.C.; Palumbo, A.V.; Pfiffner, S.M.; Schryver, J.C.

    1998-09-08

    We are evaluating artificial neural networks (ANNs) as tools for assessing changes in soil microbial communities following exposure to metals. We analyzed signature lipid biomarker data collected from two soil microcosm experiments using an autoassociative ANN. In one experiment, the microcosms were exposed to O, 100, or 250 ppm of metals, and in the other experiment the microcosms were exposed to O or 500 ppm of metals. The ANNs were able to distinguish between microcosms exposed and not exposed to metals in both experiments.

  11. Systems modeling approaches for microbial community studies: from metagenomics to inference of the community structure.

    PubMed

    Hanemaaijer, Mark; Röling, Wilfred F M; Olivier, Brett G; Khandelwal, Ruchir A; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities play important roles in health, industrial applications and earth's ecosystems. With current molecular techniques we can characterize these systems in unprecedented detail. However, such methods provide little mechanistic insight into how the genetic properties and the dynamic couplings between individual microorganisms give rise to their dynamic activities. Neither do they give insight into what we call "the community state", that is the fluxes and concentrations of nutrients within the community. This knowledge is a prerequisite for rational control and intervention in microbial communities. Therefore, the inference of the community structure from experimental data is a major current challenge. We will argue that this inference problem requires mathematical models that can integrate heterogeneous experimental data with existing knowledge. We propose that two types of models are needed. Firstly, mathematical models that integrate existing genomic, physiological, and physicochemical information with metagenomics data so as to maximize information content and predictive power. This can be achieved with the use of constraint-based genome-scale stoichiometric modeling of community metabolism which is ideally suited for this purpose. Next, we propose a simpler coarse-grained model, which is tailored to solve the inference problem from the experimental data. This model unambiguously relate to the more detailed genome-scale stoichiometric models which act as heterogeneous data integrators. The simpler inference models are, in our opinion, key to understanding microbial ecosystems, yet until now, have received remarkably little attention. This has led to the situation where the modeling of microbial communities, using only genome-scale models is currently more a computational, theoretical exercise than a method useful to the experimentalist. PMID:25852671

  12. Trajectories of Microbial Community Function in Response to Accelerated Remediation of Subsurface Metal Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Mary

    2015-01-14

    Objectives of proposed research were to; Determine if the trajectories of microbial community composition and function following organic carbon amendment can be related to, and predicted by, key environmental determinants; Assess the relative importance of the characteristics of the indigenous microbial community, sediment, groundwater, and concentration of organic carbon amendment as the major determinants of microbial community functional response and bioremediation capacity; and Provide a fundamental understanding of the microbial community ecology underlying subsurface metal remediation requisite to successful application of accelerated remediation and long-term stewardship of DOE-IFC sites.

  13. Inter-species interconnections in acid mine drainage microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Comolli, Luis R.; Banfield, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic studies are revolutionizing our understanding of microbes in the biosphere. They have uncovered numerous proteins of unknown function in tens of essentially unstudied lineages that lack cultivated representatives. Notably, few of these microorganisms have been visualized, and even fewer have been described ultra-structurally in their essentially intact, physiologically relevant states. Here, we present cryogenic transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM) 2D images and 3D tomographic datasets for archaeal species from natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. Ultrastructural findings indicate the importance of microbial interconnectedness via a range of mechanisms, including direct cytoplasmic bridges and pervasive pili. The data also suggest a variety of biological structures associated with cell-cell interfaces that lack explanation. Some may play roles in inter-species interactions. Interdependences amongst the archaea may have confounded prior isolation efforts. Overall, the findings underline knowledge gaps related to archaeal cell components and highlight the likely importance of co-evolution in shaping microbial lineages. PMID:25120533

  14. Microbial Community Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, M. C.; Valentine, D. L.; Joye, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon on April 22nd, 2010 led to one of the largest oil spills in history. The massive amounts of oil and natural gas leaking into the Gulf of Mexico led to development of distinct microbial communities dominated by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. To track this microbial response, we sampled hydrocarbon-laden surface water and deep plumes (1100-1200 m), as well as samples lacking hydrocarbon exposure. In samples collected in May /June 2010, deepwater plume 16S rRNA clone libraries were dominated by three groups of Gammaproteobacteria: unclassified members of the order Oceanospirillales, close relatives of the genus Colwellia, and relatives of the genus Cycloclasticus. These groups accounted for 90-100% of sequences in nine clone libraries and 50% of sequences in a tenth; this tenth sample was ~1 km from the wellhead and showed no detectable oxygen drawdown. In samples collected from above or below the plume, these three groups accounted for no more than 25% of clones. Surface samples were dominated by organisms most closely related to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Ongoing cultivation and stable isotope probing experiments to identify and characterize the bacteria consuming specific hydrocarbon compounds will further our understanding of the microbial ecology of surface and deepwater hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms.

  15. Nitrogen Cycling Potential of a Grassland Litter Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Adam C.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Because microorganisms have different abilities to utilize nitrogen (N) through various assimilatory and dissimilatory pathways, microbial composition and diversity likely influence N cycling in an ecosystem. Terrestrial plant litter decomposition is often limited by N availability; however, little is known about the microorganisms involved in litter N cycling. In this study, we used metagenomics to characterize the potential N utilization of microbial communities in grassland plant litter. The frequencies of sequences associated with eight N cycling pathways differed by several orders of magnitude. Within a pathway, the distributions of these sequences among bacterial orders differed greatly. Many orders within the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria appeared to be N cycling generalists, carrying genes from most (five or six) of the pathways. In contrast, orders from the Bacteroidetes were more specialized and carried genes for fewer (two or three) pathways. We also investigated how the abundance and composition of microbial N cycling genes differed over time and in response to two global change manipulations (drought and N addition). For many pathways, the abundance and composition of N cycling taxa differed over time, apparently reflecting precipitation patterns. In contrast to temporal variability, simulated global change had minor effects on N cycling potential. Overall, this study provides a blueprint for the genetic potential of N cycle processes in plant litter and a baseline for comparisons to other ecosystems. PMID:26231641

  16. Nitrogen Cycling Potential of a Grassland Litter Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michaeline B; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Adam C; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-10-01

    Because microorganisms have different abilities to utilize nitrogen (N) through various assimilatory and dissimilatory pathways, microbial composition and diversity likely influence N cycling in an ecosystem. Terrestrial plant litter decomposition is often limited by N availability; however, little is known about the microorganisms involved in litter N cycling. In this study, we used metagenomics to characterize the potential N utilization of microbial communities in grassland plant litter. The frequencies of sequences associated with eight N cycling pathways differed by several orders of magnitude. Within a pathway, the distributions of these sequences among bacterial orders differed greatly. Many orders within the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria appeared to be N cycling generalists, carrying genes from most (five or six) of the pathways. In contrast, orders from the Bacteroidetes were more specialized and carried genes for fewer (two or three) pathways. We also investigated how the abundance and composition of microbial N cycling genes differed over time and in response to two global change manipulations (drought and N addition). For many pathways, the abundance and composition of N cycling taxa differed over time, apparently reflecting precipitation patterns. In contrast to temporal variability, simulated global change had minor effects on N cycling potential. Overall, this study provides a blueprint for the genetic potential of N cycle processes in plant litter and a baseline for comparisons to other ecosystems. PMID:26231641

  17. The Ecology of Microbial Communities Associated with Macrocystis pyrifera

    PubMed Central

    Michelou, Vanessa K.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests are characterized by high biodiversity and productivity, and the cycling of kelp-produced carbon is a vital process in this ecosystem. Although bacteria are assumed to play a major role in kelp forest carbon cycling, knowledge of the composition and diversity of these bacterial communities is lacking. Bacterial communities on the surface of Macrocystis pyrifera and adjacent seawater were sampled at the Hopkins Marine Station in Monterey Bay, CA, and further studied using 454-tag pyrosequencing of 16S RNA genes. Our results suggest that M. pyrifera-dominated kelp forests harbor distinct microbial communities that vary temporally. The distribution of sequence tags assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes differed between the surface of the kelp and the surrounding water. Several abundant Rhodobacteraceae, uncultivated Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes-associated tags displayed considerable temporal variation, often with similar trends in the seawater and the surface of the kelp. Bacterial community structure and membership correlated with the kelp surface serving as host, and varied over time. Several kelp-specific taxa were highly similar to other bacteria known to either prevent the colonization of eukaryotic larvae or exhibit antibacterial activities. Some of these kelp-specific bacterial associations might play an important role for M. pyrifera. This study provides the first assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacterial communities associated with M. pyrifera. PMID:23840715

  18. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  19. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth. PMID:25983725

  20. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recentlymore » developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.« less

  1. Hypolithic and soil microbial community assembly along an aridity gradient in the Namib Desert.

    PubMed

    Stomeo, Francesca; Valverde, Angel; Pointing, Stephen B; McKay, Christopher P; Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley A; Tuffin, Marla I; Seely, Mary; Cowan, Don A

    2013-03-01

    The Namib Desert is considered the oldest desert in the world and hyperarid for the last 5 million years. However, the environmental buffering provided by quartz and other translucent rocks supports extensive hypolithic microbial communities. In this study, open soil and hypolithic microbial communities have been investigated along an East-West transect characterized by an inverse fog-rainfall gradient. Multivariate analysis showed that structurally different microbial communities occur in soil and in hypolithic zones. Using variation partitioning, we found that hypolithic communities exhibited a fog-related distribution as indicated by the significant East-West clustering. Sodium content was also an important environmental factor affecting the composition of both soil and hypolithic microbial communities. Finally, although null models for patterns in microbial communities were not supported by experimental data, the amount of unexplained variation (68-97 %) suggests that stochastic processes also play a role in the assembly of such communities in the Namib Desert. PMID:23397517

  2. The gastric microbial community, Helicobacter pylori colonization, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Miriam E; Solnick, Jay V

    2014-01-01

    Long thought to be a sterile habitat, the stomach contains a diverse and unique community of bacteria. One particular inhabitant, Helicobacter pylori, colonizes half of the world’s human population and establishes a decades-long infection that can be asymptomatic, pathogenic, or even beneficial for the host. Many host and bacterial factors are known to influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, but another potentially important determinant has recently come to light: the host microbiota. Although it is unclear to what extent H. pylori infection perturbs the established gastric microbial community, and H. pylori colonization seems generally resistant to disturbances in the host microbiota, it can modulate H. pylori pathogenicity. Interactions between H. pylori and bacteria at non-gastric sites are likely indirect—via programming of the pro-inflammatory vs. regulatory T lymphocytes—which may have a significant impact on human health. PMID:24642475

  3. Defining the normal core microbiome of conjunctival microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Yang, B; Li, W

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial ocular infections are common. Traditional culture and molecular biological methods have obvious limitations to identify the conjunctival microbiota, while metagenomic studies can avoid the defects of these methods. We used the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology (MiSeq Illumina Sequencing Platform) to sequence the 16S rDNA V3-V4 hypervariable region of all bacteria in conjunctival swab samples. The operational taxonomic units were obtained from the sequences. The bioinformatic analyses of taxonomy, abundance and alpha diversity were performed. A total of 840 373 high-quality sequencing reads were generated from 31 conjunctival samples. The number of the species operational taxonomic units ranged from 159 to 2042, indicating high microbial diversity. The combined bacterial community was classified into 25 phyla and 526 distinct genera. At the genus level, Corynebacterium (28.22%), Pseudomonas (26.75%), Staphylococcus (5.28%), Acinetobacter (4.74%), Streptococcus (2.85%), Millisia (2.16%), Anaerococcus (1.86%), Finegoldia (1.68%), Simonsiella (1.48%) and Veillonella (1.00%) accounted for over 76% of the microbial community, possibly representing the core genera in normal conjunctival microbiota. The composition and diversity of microbiota in the normal adult human conjunctiva were characterized using high-throughput sequencing. A framework for investigating potential roles played by the diverse microbiota in disease related with the ocular surface was provided. PMID:27102141

  4. Microbial community analysis of anaerobic reactors treating soft drink wastewater.

    PubMed

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kim, Na-Kyung; Mei, Ran; Nobu, Masaru K; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic packed-bed (AP) and hybrid packed-bed (HP) reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95%) after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR) increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR. PMID:25748027

  5. Similar Microbial Communities Found on Two Distant Seafloor Basalts

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Chong, Lauren S.; Heidelberg, John F.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2015-01-01

    The oceanic crust forms two thirds of the Earth’s surface and hosts a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms. While advances have been made in the sedimentary realm, our understanding of the igneous rock portion as a microbial habitat has remained limited. We present the first comparative metagenomic microbial community analysis from ocean floor basalt environments at the Lō’ihi Seamount, Hawai’i, and the East Pacific Rise (EPR; 9°N). Phylogenetic analysis indicates the presence of a total of 43 bacterial and archaeal mono-phyletic groups, dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, as well as Thaumarchaeota. Functional gene analysis suggests that these Thaumarchaeota play an important role in ammonium oxidation on seafloor basalts. In addition to ammonium oxidation, the seafloor basalt habitat reveals a wide spectrum of other metabolic potentials, including CO2 fixation, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and sulfur oxidation. Basalt communities from Lō’ihi and the EPR show considerable metabolic and phylogenetic overlap down to the genus level despite geographic distance and slightly different seafloor basalt mineralogy. PMID:26733957

  6. Pyrosequencing Based Microbial Community Analysis of Stabilized Mine Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. E.; Lee, B. T.; Son, A.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metals leached from exhausted mines have been causing severe environmental problems in nearby soils and groundwater. Environmental mitigation was performed based on the heavy metal stabilization using Calcite and steel slag in Korea. Since the soil stabilization only temporarily immobilizes the contaminants to soil matrix, the potential risk of re-leaching heavy metal still exists. Therefore the follow-up management of stabilized soils and the corresponding evaluation methods are required to avoid the consequent contamination from the stabilized soils. In this study, microbial community analysis using pyrosequencing was performed for assessing the potential leaching of the stabilized soils. As a result of rarefaction curve and Chao1 and Shannon indices, the stabilized soil has shown lower richness and diversity as compared to non-contaminated negative control. At the phyla level, as the degree of contamination increases, most of phyla decreased with only exception of increased proteobacteria. Among proteobacteria, gamma-proteobacteria increased against the heavy metal contamination. At the species level, Methylobacter tundripaludum of gamma-proteobacteria showed the highest relative portion of microbial community, indicating that methanotrophs may play an important role in either solubilization or immobilization of heavy metals in stabilized soils.

  7. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  8. Microbial Community Analysis of Anaerobic Reactors Treating Soft Drink Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kim, Na-Kyung; Mei, Ran; Nobu, Masaru K.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic packed-bed (AP) and hybrid packed-bed (HP) reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95%) after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR) increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR. PMID:25748027

  9. [Microbial community of municipal discharges in a sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ai-ling; Ren, Jie; Song, Zhi-wen; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2014-09-01

    There are numerous microorganisms, especial pathogens, in the discharges. Those microorganisms are discharged into the river and sea through sewage outfalls, which results in possible health risks to coastal populations. And more attention should be paid to municipal discharges in developing countries. This study investigated the microbial community in the discharges by constructing 16S rDNA clones library and using the PCR-RFLP technology. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in municipal discharges showed that there were 59 species, which were divided into 11 classes. Proteobacteria accounted for 85% of all the bacteria, of which β-Proteobacteria and γ- Proteobacteria were the dominant classes. Bacteria in the waste water treating process had important influence on microbial community in municipal discharges, therefore, municipal sewage plant should choose the process according to the characteristics and purifying capacity of the receiving water body. Legionella spp. accounted for approximately 10% , the Legionnaires' disease resulted from which might be of top risk for the residents in the surrounding of the municipal discharges outfall and receiving water. Dechloromonas aromatica could make use of chlorite ( CIO - ) , which led to its survival from chlorine disinfection, and it alerted us that several disinfection methods should be used together to ensure the bacterial safety of municipal discharges. Coliform group and other pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella spp. , Shigella spp. , Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Arcobacter spp. were not detected in this study, and it indicated that we should do more work and use more methods to investigate the perniciousness of discharges. PMID:25518668

  10. Microbial Communities from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep Marine Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, David William; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark Edmond; Blackwelder, David Bradley; Colwell, Frederick Scott; Uchida, T.

    2002-08-01

    Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35°C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial community in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments.

  11. Similar Microbial Communities Found on Two Distant Seafloor Basalts.

    PubMed

    Singer, Esther; Chong, Lauren S; Heidelberg, John F; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The oceanic crust forms two thirds of the Earth's surface and hosts a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms. While advances have been made in the sedimentary realm, our understanding of the igneous rock portion as a microbial habitat has remained limited. We present the first comparative metagenomic microbial community analysis from ocean floor basalt environments at the Lō'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i, and the East Pacific Rise (EPR; 9°N). Phylogenetic analysis indicates the presence of a total of 43 bacterial and archaeal mono-phyletic groups, dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, as well as Thaumarchaeota. Functional gene analysis suggests that these Thaumarchaeota play an important role in ammonium oxidation on seafloor basalts. In addition to ammonium oxidation, the seafloor basalt habitat reveals a wide spectrum of other metabolic potentials, including CO2 fixation, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and sulfur oxidation. Basalt communities from Lō'ihi and the EPR show considerable metabolic and phylogenetic overlap down to the genus level despite geographic distance and slightly different seafloor basalt mineralogy. PMID:26733957

  12. Temporal variation in the nitrogen uptake competition between plant community and soil microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legay, N.; Lavorel, S.; Personeni, E.; Bataillé, M. P.; Robson, T. M.; Clément, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    1. Subalpine grasslands are characterized by important seasonal variations and like in others cold environments, the existence of seasonal variations of nitrogen (N) dynamics is strongly plausible. It has been shown that plants and microbes were in competition for nitrogen acquisition mainly during the growing season and particularly at plant biomass peak. During snowmelt, plants could benefit from a decrease in competition potential by microbes given a greater N uptake and freeze-thaw cycles restricting microbial growth. In managed grasslands, these probable interactions are furthermore influenced by recent changes in management, and associated modifications in plant and microbial communities. A previous isotope tracing experiment during the biomass peak suggested that in more intensely managed grasslands, plants exerted a greater control over N cycling than microorganisms, and that soil N availability was stimulated by a greater nitrogen uptake by plants and microbes allowing nutrients to be more readily returned to the soil. 2. A pulse of 15N was added to estimate if the dynamics of N uptake between plants and microbes observed at the biomass peak was applicable at snowmelt. We also asked if the modifications of N dynamics observed depend on management activities across four different grassland types representing decreasing management intensities, from formerly cultivated terraces, either mown or only lightly grazed to unterraced permanent grasslands, either mown or only very lightly grazed. 3. In all grasslands, N pools of aboveground plants were smaller in May than in July while root N pools were greater, and the intrinsic plant uptake was 2 at 5 times weaker in May. N microbial pools were higher in May that in July, while microbial N uptake was 10 to 100 times smaller during snowmelt than at the biomass peak. In spite of the fact that microbial N pools were still larger than the plant N pool, in terms of plants vs microbes competition for N, a microbe N

  13. Metagenomic Sequencing of an In Vitro-Simulated Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Jenna L.; Darling, Aaron E.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2009-12-01

    Background: Microbial life dominates the earth, but many species are difficult or even impossible to study under laboratory conditions. Sequencing DNA directly from the environment, a technique commonly referred to as metagenomics, is an important tool for cataloging microbial life. This culture-independent approach involves collecting samples that include microbes in them, extracting DNA from the samples, and sequencing the DNA. A sample may contain many different microorganisms, macroorganisms, and even free-floating environmental DNA. A fundamental challenge in metagenomics has been estimating the abundance of organisms in a sample based on the frequency with which the organism's DNA was observed in reads generated via DNA sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings: We created mixtures of ten microbial species for which genome sequences are known. Each mixture contained an equal number of cells of each species. We then extracted DNA from the mixtures, sequenced the DNA, and measured the frequency with which genomic regions from each organism was observed in the sequenced DNA. We found that the observed frequency of reads mapping to each organism did not reflect the equal numbers of cells that were known to be included in each mixture. The relative organism abundances varied significantly depending on the DNA extraction and sequencing protocol utilized. Conclusions/Significance: We describe a new data resource for measuring the accuracy of metagenomic binning methods, created by in vitro-simulation of a metagenomic community. Our in vitro simulation can be used to complement previous in silico benchmark studies. In constructing a synthetic community and sequencing its metagenome, we encountered several sources of observation bias that likely affect most metagenomic experiments to date and present challenges for comparative metagenomic studies. DNA preparation methods have a particularly profound effect in our study, implying that samples prepared with different

  14. Profiling In Situ Microbial Community Structure with an Amplification Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Knickerbocker, Christopher; Bryant, Lexi; Golova, Julia; Wiles, Cory; Williams, Kenneth H.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to unify amplification, labeling, and microarray hybridization chemistries within a single, closed microfluidic chamber (an amplification microarray) and verify technology performance on a series of groundwater samples from an in situ field experiment designed to compare U(VI) mobility under conditions of various alkalinities (as HCO3−) during stimulated microbial activity accompanying acetate amendment. Analytical limits of detection were between 2 and 200 cell equivalents of purified DNA. Amplification microarray signatures were well correlated with 16S rRNA-targeted quantitative PCR results and hybridization microarray signatures. The succession of the microbial community was evident with and consistent between the two microarray platforms. Amplification microarray analysis of acetate-treated groundwater showed elevated levels of iron-reducing bacteria (Flexibacter, Geobacter, Rhodoferax, and Shewanella) relative to the average background profile, as expected. Identical molecular signatures were evident in the transect treated with acetate plus NaHCO3, but at much lower signal intensities and with a much more rapid decline (to nondetection). Azoarcus, Thaurea, and Methylobacterium were responsive in the acetate-only transect but not in the presence of bicarbonate. Observed differences in microbial community composition or response to bicarbonate amendment likely had an effect on measured rates of U reduction, with higher rates probable in the part of the field experiment that was amended with bicarbonate. The simplification in microarray-based work flow is a significant technological advance toward entirely closed-amplicon microarray-based tests and is generally extensible to any number of environmental monitoring applications. PMID:23160129

  15. In-Drift Microbial Communities Model Validation Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Jolley

    2001-09-24

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN MO9909SPAMING1.003 using its replacement DTN MO0106SPAIDM01.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.

  16. In-Drift Microbial Communities Model Validation Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Jolley

    2001-10-31

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN MO9909SPAMING1.003 using its replacement DTN MO0106SPAIDM01.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.

  17. IN-DRIFT MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES MODEL VALIDATION CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Jolley

    2001-12-18

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN M09909SPAMINGl.003 using its replacement DTN M00106SPAIDMO 1.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 200 1) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.

  18. Patterns of Endemism and Habitat Selection in Coalbed Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christopher E.; Strachan, Cameron R.; Williams, Dominique D.; Koziel, Susan; Hallam, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Microbially produced methane, a versatile, cleaner-burning alternative energy resource to fossil fuels, is sourced from a variety of natural and engineered ecosystems, including marine sediments, anaerobic digesters, shales, and coalbeds. There is a prevailing interest in developing environmental biotechnologies to enhance methane production. Here, we use small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics to better describe the interplay between coalbed methane (CBM) well conditions and microbial communities in the Alberta Basin. Our results show that CBM microbial community structures display patterns of endemism and habitat selection across the Alberta Basin, consistent with observations from other geographical locations. While some phylum-level taxonomic patterns were observed, relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups were localized to discrete wells, likely shaped by local environmental conditions, such as coal rank and depth-dependent physicochemical conditions. To better resolve functional potential within the CBM milieu, a metagenome from a deep volatile-bituminous coal sample was generated. This sample was dominated by Rhodobacteraceae genotypes, resolving a near-complete population genome bin related to Celeribacter sp. that encoded metabolic pathways for the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds and the production of methanogenic substrates via acidogenic fermentation. Genomic comparisons between the Celeribacter sp. population genome and related organisms isolated from different environments reflected habitat-specific selection pressures that included nitrogen availability and the ability to utilize diverse carbon substrates. Taken together, our observations reveal that both endemism and metabolic specialization should be considered in the development of biostimulation strategies for nonproductive wells or for those with declining productivity. PMID:26341214

  19. Patterns of Endemism and Habitat Selection in Coalbed Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Christopher E; Strachan, Cameron R; Williams, Dominique D; Koziel, Susan; Hallam, Steven J; Budwill, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Microbially produced methane, a versatile, cleaner-burning alternative energy resource to fossil fuels, is sourced from a variety of natural and engineered ecosystems, including marine sediments, anaerobic digesters, shales, and coalbeds. There is a prevailing interest in developing environmental biotechnologies to enhance methane production. Here, we use small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics to better describe the interplay between coalbed methane (CBM) well conditions and microbial communities in the Alberta Basin. Our results show that CBM microbial community structures display patterns of endemism and habitat selection across the Alberta Basin, consistent with observations from other geographical locations. While some phylum-level taxonomic patterns were observed, relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups were localized to discrete wells, likely shaped by local environmental conditions, such as coal rank and depth-dependent physicochemical conditions. To better resolve functional potential within the CBM milieu, a metagenome from a deep volatile-bituminous coal sample was generated. This sample was dominated by Rhodobacteraceae genotypes, resolving a near-complete population genome bin related to Celeribacter sp. that encoded metabolic pathways for the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds and the production of methanogenic substrates via acidogenic fermentation. Genomic comparisons between the Celeribacter sp. population genome and related organisms isolated from different environments reflected habitat-specific selection pressures that included nitrogen availability and the ability to utilize diverse carbon substrates. Taken together, our observations reveal that both endemism and metabolic specialization should be considered in the development of biostimulation strategies for nonproductive wells or for those with declining productivity. PMID:26341214

  20. Evolutionary game theory: Theoretical concepts and applications to microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Erwin

    2010-10-01

    Ecological systems are complex assemblies of large numbers of individuals, interacting competitively under multifaceted environmental conditions. Recent studies using microbial laboratory communities have revealed some of the self-organization principles underneath the complexity of these systems. A major role of the inherent stochasticity of its dynamics and the spatial segregation of different interacting species into distinct patterns has thereby been established. It ensures the viability of microbial colonies by allowing for species diversity, cooperative behavior and other kinds of “social” behavior. A synthesis of evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes provides the mathematical tools and a conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of these ecological systems. We give an introduction into the modern formulation of these theories and illustrate their effectiveness focussing on selected examples of microbial systems. Intrinsic fluctuations, stemming from the discreteness of individuals, are ubiquitous, and can have an important impact on the stability of ecosystems. In the absence of speciation, extinction of species is unavoidable. It may, however, take very long times. We provide a general concept for defining survival and extinction on ecological time-scales. Spatial degrees of freedom come with a certain mobility of individuals. When the latter is sufficiently high, bacterial community structures can be understood through mapping individual-based models, in a continuum approach, onto stochastic partial differential equations. These allow progress using methods of nonlinear dynamics such as bifurcation analysis and invariant manifolds. We conclude with a perspective on the current challenges in quantifying bacterial pattern formation, and how this might have an impact on fundamental research in non-equilibrium physics.

  1. Do climate factors govern soil microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Lü, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil microbial communities play important role in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and vegetation dynamic. However, little is known about factors driving soil microbial community composition at large scales. The objective of this study was to determine whether climate dominates among environmental factors governing microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale. Here, we compared soil microbial communities using phospholipid fatty acid method across 7 land use types from 23 locations in North-East China Transect (850 km x 50 km). The results showed that soil water availability and land use changes exhibited the dominant effects on soil microbial community composition and biomass at the regional scale, while climate factors (expressed as a function of large-scale spatial variation) did not show strong relationships with distribution of microbial community composition. Likewise, factors such as spatial structure, soil texture, nutrient availability and vegetation types were not important. Wetter soils had higher contributions of gram-positive bacteria, whereas drier soils had higher contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Heavily disturbed soils had lower contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi than historically disturbed and undisturbed soils. The lowest microbial biomass appeared in the wettest and driest soils. In conclusion, dominant climate factors, commonly known to structure distribution of macroorganisms, were not the most important drivers governing regional pattern of microbial communities because of inclusion of irrigated and managed practices. In comparison, soil water regime and land use types appear to be primary determinants of microbial community composition and biomass.

  2. Response of microbial community composition and function to soil climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil microbial communities mediate critical ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles. How microbial communities will respond to changes in vegetation and climate, however, are not well understood. We reciprocally transplanted soil cores from under oak canopies and adjacent open grasslands in a California oak-grassland ecosystem to determine how microbial communities respond to changes in the soil environment and the potential consequences for the cycling of carbon. Every 3 months for up to 2 years, we monitored microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), microbial biomass, respiration rates, microbial enzyme activities, and the activity of microbial groups by quantifying 13C uptake from a universal substrate (pyruvate) into PLFA biomarkers. Soil in the open grassland experienced higher maximum temperatures and lower soil water content than soil under the oak canopies. Soil microbial communities in soil under oak canopies were more sensitive to environmental change than those in adjacent soil from the open grassland. Oak canopy soil communities changed rapidly when cores were transplanted into the open grassland soil environment, but grassland soil communities did not change when transplanted into the oak canopy environment. Similarly, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and microbial respiration decreased when microbial communities were transplanted from the oak canopy soils to the grassland environment, but not when the grassland communities were transplanted to the oak canopy environment. These data support the hypothesis that microbial community composition and function is altered when microbes are exposed to new extremes in environmental conditions; that is, environmental conditions outside of their "life history" envelopes. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  3. Culturability as an indicator of succession in microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, J. L.; Cook, K. L.; Adams, J. L.; Kerkhof, L.

    2001-01-01

    Successional theory predicts that opportunistic species with high investment of energy in reproduction and wide niche width will be replaced by equilibrium species with relatively higher investment of energy in maintenance and narrower niche width as communities develop. Since the ability to rapidly grow into a detectable colony on nonselective agar medium could be considered as characteristic of opportunistic types of bacteria, the percentage of culturable cells may be an indicator of successional state in microbial communities. The ratios of culturable cells (colony forming units on R2A agar) to total cells (acridine orange direct microscopic counts) and culturable cells to active cells (reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride) were measured over time in two types of laboratory microcosms (the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat and aerobic, continuously stirred tank reactors containing plant biomass) to determine the effectiveness of culturabilty as an index of successional state. The culturable cell:total cell ratio in the rhizosphere decreased from approximately 0.25 to less than 0.05 during the first 30-50 days of plant growth, and from 0.65 to 0.14 during the first 7 days of operation of the bioreactor. The culturable cell:active cell ratio followed similar trends, but the values were consistently greater than the culturable cell:total cell ratio, and even exceeded I in early samples. Follow-up studies used a cultivation-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) from whole community DNA, to assess community structure. The number of TRFLP peaks increased with time, while the number of culturable types did not, indicating that the general decrease in culturability is associated with a shift in community structure. The ratio of respired to assimilated C-14-labeled amino acids increased with the age of rhizosphere communities, supporting the hypothesis that a shift in resource allocation from growth to

  4. Culturability as an indicator of succession in microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Garland, J L; Cook, K L; Adams, J L; Kerkhof, L

    2001-08-01

    Successional theory predicts that opportunistic species with high investment of energy in reproduction and wide niche width will be replaced by equilibrium species with relatively higher investment of energy in maintenance and narrower niche width as communities develop. Since the ability to rapidly grow into a detectable colony on nonselective agar medium could be considered as characteristic of opportunistic types of bacteria, the percentage of culturable cells may be an indicator of successional state in microbial communities. The ratios of culturable cells (colony forming units on R2A agar) to total cells (acridine orange direct microscopic counts) and culturable cells to active cells (reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride) were measured over time in two types of laboratory microcosms (the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat and aerobic, continuously stirred tank reactors containing plant biomass) to determine the effectiveness of culturabilty as an index of successional state. The culturable cell:total cell ratio in the rhizosphere decreased from approximately 0.25 to less than 0.05 during the first 30-50 days of plant growth, and from 0.65 to 0.14 during the first 7 days of operation of the bioreactor. The culturable cell:active cell ratio followed similar trends, but the values were consistently greater than the culturable cell:total cell ratio, and even exceeded I in early samples. Follow-up studies used a cultivation-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) from whole community DNA, to assess community structure. The number of TRFLP peaks increased with time, while the number of culturable types did not, indicating that the general decrease in culturability is associated with a shift in community structure. The ratio of respired to assimilated C-14-labeled amino acids increased with the age of rhizosphere communities, supporting the hypothesis that a shift in resource allocation from growth to

  5. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

  6. Microbial Community Dynamics of Lactate Enriched Hanford Groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Drake, Meghan M.; Carroll, Susan L.; Yang, Zamin K.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Stephen D.; Podar, Mircea; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy site at Hanford, WA, has been historically impacted by U and Cr from the nuclear weapons industry. In an attempt to stimulate microbial remediation of these metals, in-situ lactate enrichment experiments are ongoing. In order to bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, we inoculated triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors with groundwater collected from well Hanford 100-H in order to obtain a stable, enriched community while selecting for metal-reducing bacteria. Each reactor was fed from a single carboy containing defined media with 30 mM lactate at a rate of 0.223 ml/min under continuous nitrogen flow at 9 ml/min. Cell counts, organic acids, gDNA (for qPCR and pyrosequencing) and gases were sampled during the experiment. Cell counts remained low (less than 1x107 cells/ml) during the first two weeks of the experiment, but by day 20, had reached a density greater than 1x108 cells/ml. Metabolite analysis showed a decrease in the lactate concentrations over time. Pyruvate concentrations ranged from 20-40 uM the first week of the experiment then was undetectable after day 10. Likewise, formate appeared in the reactors during the first week with concentrations of 1.48-1.65 mM at day 7 then the concentrations decreased to 0.69-0.95 on day 10 and were undetectable on day 15. Acetate was present in low amounts on day 3 (0.15-0.33 mM) and steadily increased to 3.35-5.22 mM over time. Similarly, carbon dioxide was present in low concentrations early on and increased to 0.28-0.35 mM as the experiment progressed. We also were able to detect low amounts of methane (10-20 uM) during the first week of the experiment, but by day 10 the methane was undetectable. From these results and pyrosequencing analysis, we conclude that a shift in the microbial community dynamics occurred over time to eventually form a stable and enriched microbial community. Comprehensive investigations such as these allow for the examination of not only which

  7. Response of Antarctic cryoconite microbial communities to light

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Elizabeth A.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Tranter, Martyn; Perkins, Rupert; Morgan, Alistair; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Fitzsimons, Sean; Dubnick, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities on polar glacier surfaces are found dispersed on the ice surface, or concentrated in cryoconite holes and cryolakes, which are accumulations of debris covered by a layer of ice for some or all of the year. The ice lid limits the penetration of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) to the sediment layer, since the ice attenuates up to 99% of incoming radiation. This suite of field and laboratory experiments demonstrates that PAR is an important control on primary production in cryoconite and cryolake ecosystems. Increased light intensity increased efficiency of primary production in controlled laboratory incubations of debris from the surface of Joyce Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. However, when light intensity was increased to levels near that received on the ice surface, without the protection of an ice lid, efficiency decreased and measurements of photophysiology showed that the communities suffered light stress. The communities are therefore well adapted to low light levels. Comparison with Arctic cryoconite communities, which are typically not covered by an ice lid for the majority of the ablation season, showed that these organisms were also stressed by high light, so they must employ strategies to protect against photodamage.

  8. Next-generation studies of microbial biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Rice, Scott A; Wuertz, Stefan; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2016-09-01

    As we look into the future of microbial biofilm research, there is clearly an emerging focus on communities rather than populations. This represents an essential change in direction to more accurately understand how and why microorganisms assemble into communities, as well as the functional implications for such a life style. For example, current research studies shows that communities display emergent properties or functions that are not predicted from the individual single species populations, including elevated stress tolerance and resistance to antibiotics. Models for mixed species biofilms can be very simple, comprised only a handful of species or can be extremely species rich, with hundreds or thousands of species present. The future holds much promise for this area of research, where investigators will increasingly be able to resolve, at the molecular and biochemical levels, interspecies relationships and mechanisms of interaction. The outcome of these studies will greatly enhance our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive community function in natural and engineered systems. PMID:27471123

  9. Response of Antarctic cryoconite microbial communities to light.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Elizabeth A; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Perkins, Rupert; Morgan, Alistair; Williamson, Christopher J; Fountain, Andrew G; Fitzsimons, Sean; Dubnick, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Microbial communities on polar glacier surfaces are found dispersed on the ice surface, or concentrated in cryoconite holes and cryolakes, which are accumulations of debris covered by a layer of ice for some or all of the year. The ice lid limits the penetration of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) to the sediment layer, since the ice attenuates up to 99% of incoming radiation. This suite of field and laboratory experiments demonstrates that PAR is an important control on primary production in cryoconite and cryolake ecosystems. Increased light intensity increased efficiency of primary production in controlled laboratory incubations of debris from the surface of Joyce Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. However, when light intensity was increased to levels near that received on the ice surface, without the protection of an ice lid, efficiency decreased and measurements of photophysiology showed that the communities suffered light stress. The communities are therefore well adapted to low light levels. Comparison with Arctic cryoconite communities, which are typically not covered by an ice lid for the majority of the ablation season, showed that these organisms were also stressed by high light, so they must employ strategies to protect against photodamage. PMID:27095815

  10. Response of Antarctic cryoconite microbial communities to light

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Elizabeth A.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Tranter, Martyn; Perkins, Rupert; Morgan, Alistair; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Fitzsimons, Sean; Dubnick, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities on polar glacier surfaces are found dispersed on the ice surface, or concentrated in cryoconite holes and cryolakes, which are accumulations of debris covered by a layer of ice for some or all of the year. The ice lid limits the penetration of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) to the sediment layer, since the ice attenuates up to 99% of incoming radiation. This suite of field and laboratory experiments demonstrates that PAR is an important control on primary production in cryoconite and cryolake ecosystems. Increased light intensity increased efficiency of primary production in controlled laboratory incubations of debris from the surface of Joyce Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. However, when light intensity was increased to levels near that received on the ice surface, without the protection of an ice lid, efficiency decreased and measurements of photophysiology showed that the communities suffered light stress. The communities are therefore well adapted to low light levels. Comparison with Arctic cryoconite communities, which are typically not covered by an ice lid for the majority of the ablation season, showed that these organisms were also stressed by high light, so they must employ strategies to protect against photodamage. PMID:27095815

  11. Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities in Soils in the Vicinity of Wanda Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Pessi, Igor Stelmach; de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Simões, Felipe Lorenz; Simões, Jefferson Cardia; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2012-01-01

    Microbial functional diversity in four soils sampled in the vicinity of Wanda Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula, was determined using Biolog EcoPlates at 5°C and 25°C. Comparisons of the patterns of substrate utilization and the diversity index showed differences in community composition, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of microorganisms in this environment. Differences in microbial diversity may be related to soil chemical properties. Higher incubation temperature influenced the overall microbial diversity, reducing richness due to the selection of psychrotrophic microorganisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study with microbial communities from Wanda Glacier and contributes to understanding the microbial diversity of Antarctic environments. PMID:22791054

  12. Comparative analysis of microbial community between different cathode systems of microbial fuel cells for denitrification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Xu, Ming; Lu, Yi; Fang, Fang; Cao, Jiashun

    2016-03-01

    Two types of cathodic biofilm in microbial fuel cells (MFC) were established for comparison on their performance and microbial communities. Complete autotrophic simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) without organics addition was achieved in nitrifying-MFC (N-MFC) with a total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 0.35 mg/(L·h), which was even higher than that in denitrifying-MFC (D-MFC) at same TN level. Integrated denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis based on both 16S rRNA and nirK genes showed that Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria were the main denitrifier communities. Some potential autotrophic denitrifying bacteria which can use electrons and reducing power from cathodes, such as Shewanella oneidensis, Shewanella loihica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Starkeya novella and Rhodopseudomonas palustris were identified and selectively enriched on cathode biofilms. Further, relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria characterized by nirK/16S ratios was much higher in biofilm than suspended sludge according to real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest enrichment efficiency for denitrifiers was obtained in N-MFC cathode biofilms, which confirmed autotrophic denitrifying bacteria enrichment is the key factor for a D-MFC system. PMID:26278100

  13. Approaches to analyse dynamic microbial communities such as those seen in cystic fibrosis lung

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities play vital roles in many aspects of our lives, although our understanding of microbial biogeography and community profiles remains unclear. The number of microbes or the diversity of the microbes, even in small environmental niches, is staggering. Current microbiological methods used to analyse these communities are limited, in that many microorganisms cannot be cultured. Even for the isolates that can be cultured, the expense of identifying them definitively is much too high to be practical. Many recent molecular technologies, combined with bioinformatic tools, are raising the bar by improving the sensitivity and reliability of microbial community analysis. These tools and techniques range from those that attempt to understand a microbial community from their length heterogeneity profiles to those that help to identify the strains and species of a random sampling of the microbes in a given sample. These technologies are reviewed here, using the microbial communities present in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients as a paradigm. PMID:19403459

  14. Soil microbial communities and metabolic function of a Northern Alabama forest ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thinning, prescribed burning, and their combinations, are common forest management practices to restore degraded forest communities and to prevent uncontrollable wildfires. However, their impacts on soil microbial communities, which are vital to global element cycling, are traditionally overlooked. ...

  15. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164 178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87–80 °C) and Site B (79 °C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (p̂=36.1%), Aeropyrum (p̂=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (p̂=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (p̂=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (p̂=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ‘Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82 °C (p̂=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23235293

  16. Microbial community structures in a closed raw water distribution system biofilm as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing analysis and the effect of microbial biofilm communities on raw water quality.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianghan; Liang, Heng; Yan, Lijun; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yanling; Li, Guibai

    2013-11-01

    This is the first report on the characterization of the microbial biofilm community structure and water quality change along a closed and stable raw water distribution system. 454-pyrosequencing was employed to investigate the microbial communities in four biofilm samples. 25,426 optimized sequences were obtained. Results showed Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in each biofilm sample. The abundance of Nitrospiraes in M6 biofilm, Firmicutes in M8 biofilm, Actinobacteria in M9 biofilm were higher by comparing with other three biofilm samples. The M6 microbial biofilm community structure was similar to that of M7, dissimilar to that of M9. Dissolved oxygen and nitrogen was probably major factors to influence the microbial biofilm communities. Nitrospiraes in M6 biofilm and Firmicutes in M8 biofilm were crucial to remove ammonia nitrogen and nitrate in raw water. How to enrich functional microbes in biofilm to pretreat raw water is an important area of future research. PMID:24055963

  17. Heavy metal resistance strategies of acidophilic bacteria and their acquisition: importance for biomining and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Claudio A; von Bernath, Diego; Jerez, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial solubilizing of metals in acid environments is successfully used in industrial bioleaching of ores or biomining to extract metals such as copper, gold, uranium and others. This is done mainly by acidophilic and other microorganisms that mobilize metals and generate acid mine drainage or AMD, causing serious environmental problems. However, bioremediation or removal of the toxic metals from contaminated soils can be achieved by using the specific properties of the acidophilic microorganisms interacting with these elements. These bacteria resist high levels of metals by using a few "canonical" systems such as active efflux or trapping of the metal ions by metal chaperones. Nonetheless, gene duplications, the presence of genomic islands, the existence of additional mechanisms such as passive instruments for pH and cation homeostasis in acidophiles and an inorganic polyphosphate-driven metal resistance mechanism have also been proposed. Horizontal gene transfer in environmental microorganisms present in natural ecosystems is considered to be an important mechanism in their adaptive evolution. This process is carried out by different mobile genetic elements, including genomic islands (GI), which increase the adaptability and versatility of the microorganism. This mini-review also describes the possible role of GIs in metal resistance of some environmental microorganisms of importance in biomining and bioremediation of metal polluted environments such as Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, a moderate acidophilic microorganism, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains ATCC 23270 and ATCC 53993, all extreme acidophiles able to tolerate exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Some of these bacteria contain variable numbers of GIs, most of which code for high numbers of genes related to metal resistance. In some cases there is an apparent correlation between the number of metal resistance genes and the metal tolerance of each of these

  18. Analyzing gene expression from marine microbial communities using environmental transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Poretsky, Rachel S; Gifford, Scott; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna; Vila-Costa, Maria; Moran, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Analogous to metagenomics, environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) retrieves and sequences environmental mRNAs from a microbial assemblage without prior knowledge of what genes the community might be expressing. Thus it provides the most unbiased perspective on community gene expression in situ. Environmental transcriptomics protocols are technically difficult since prokaryotic mRNAs generally lack the poly(A) tails that make isolation of eukaryotic messages relatively straightforward (1) and because of the relatively short half lives of mRNAs (2). In addition, mRNAs are much less abundant than rRNAs in total RNA extracts, thus an rRNA background often overwhelms mRNA signals. However, techniques for overcoming some of these difficulties have recently been developed. A procedure for analyzing environmental transcriptomes by creating clone libraries using random primers to reverse-transcribe and amplify environmental mRNAs was recently described was successful in two different natural environments, but results were biased by selection of the random primers used to initiate cDNA synthesis (3). Advances in linear amplification of mRNA obviate the need for random primers in the amplification step and make it possible to use less starting material decreasing the collection and processing time of samples and thereby minimizing RNA degradation (4). In vitro transcription methods for amplifying mRNA involve polyadenylating the mRNA and incorporating a T7 promoter onto the 3' end of the transcript. Amplified RNA (aRNA) can then be converted to double stranded cDNA using random hexamers and directly sequenced by pyrosequencing (5). A first use of this method at Station ALOHA demonstrated its utility for characterizing microbial community gene expression (6). PMID:19229184

  19. Managing microbial communities for sequentially reconstruct genomes from complex metagenomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Simonet, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Global understanding on environmental microbial communities is currently limited by the bottleneck of genome reconstruction. Soil is a typical example where individual cells are currently mostly uncultured and metagenomic datasets unassembled. In this study, the microbial community composition of a natural grassland soil was managed under several controlled selective pressures to experiment a "multi-evenness" stratagem for sequentially attempt to reconstruct genomes from a complex metagenome. While lowly represented in the natural community, several newly dominant genomes (an enrichment attaining 105 in some cases) were successfully reconstructed under various "harsh" tested conditions. These genomes belong to several genera including (but not restricted to) Leifsonia, Rhodanobacter, Bacillus, Ktedonobacter, Xanthomonas, Streptomyces and Burkholderia. So far, from 10 to 78% of generated metagenomic datasets were reconstructed, so providing access to more than 88 000 genes of known or unknown functions and to their genetic environment. Adaptative genes directly related to selective pressures were found, mostly in large plasmids. Functions of potential industrial interest (e.g., novel polyketide synthase modules in Streptomyces) were also discovered. Furthermore, an important phage infection snapshot (>1500X of coverage for the most represented phage) was observed among the Streptomyces population (three distinct genomes reconstructed) of a particular enrichment (mercury, 0.02g/kg) during the fourth month of incubation. This "divide and conquer" strategy could be applied to other environments and using auxiliary sequencing approaches like single cell to detect, connect and mine taxa and functions of interest while creating an extensive set of reference genomes from across the planet. Next limit could turn out to become our imagination defining novel selective pressures to sequentially make dominant the 1030 cells of the biosphere.

  20. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Auguet, O; Pijuan, M; Batista, J; Borrego, C M; Gutierrez, O

    2015-10-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7±72.3 mg S-H2S liter(-1) day(-1)), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9±15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6±16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  1. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Auguet, O.; Pijuan, M.; Batista, J.; Gutierrez, O.

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7 ± 72.3 mg S-H2S liter−1 day−1), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9 ± 15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6 ± 16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  2. Responses of soil microbial community to experimental warming and precipitation manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Kim, S.; Park, M. J.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An experimental nursery was established with two-year-old Pinus densiflora seedlings at Korea University to study soil microbial community responses to air warming (+3°C) and precipitation manipulation (-30% and +30%). Soil samplings were collected monthly from July to November, 2014. Substrate utilization profile of microbial community was examined using BIOLOG EcoPlate. Microbial community composition was assessed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that warming significantly affected the substrate utilization profile of microbial community (P<0.05), which labile substrates were degraded more quickly in warming plots than unwarmed plots. Only significant effects of warming on fungal community richness and abundance were observed (all P<0.05). Compared with unwarmed and precipitation control treatment, fungal community richness in the others were significantly decreased by 1.22%-15.27% (P<0.05), but community diversity in those treatments were slightly increased (P>0.05). In contrast, compared with unwarmed and precipitation control treatment, the bacterial community richness in the others were increased, but community abundance and diversity in those treatments were decreased (all P>0.05). These changes in microbial community structure resulted in the changes in community functional composition, which microbial metabolic functions were higher in warming plots than unwarmed plots. Since microorganisms differ in their susceptibility to stressors, changes in the soil environment affect the microbial community. Therefore, the results indicated that effects of warming and precipitation manipulation on soil microbial community might be related to warming and precipitation manipulation-induced changes in soil moisture. We suggested that shifts in the microbial community may be important implications for soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a warmer world. This study was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2013R1A1A2012242).

  3. Effects of repeated applications of chlorimuron-ethyl on the soil microbial biomass, activity and microbial community in the greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of repeated chlorimuron-ethyl applications on soil microbial community structure and function were studied under greenhouse conditions. Chlorimuron-ethyl was applied to soil samples at three different doses [1-,10-,100-fold of recommended field rate (T1, T10, T100)] for 3 years. The half-lives of chlorimuron-ethyl were 37.1-54.6 days. The soil microbial biomass (microbial biomass carbon and total phospholipid fatty acid), the microbial activity (basal respiration and average well color development), the ratio of Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria and Shannon index were stimulated by chlorimuron-ethyl during the initial period. Except for T100, the other treatments recovered to the untreated level. The ratio of fungi/bacteria decreased during the initial period and then recovered in the end. Principal component analysis of phospholipid fatty acid showed that chlorimuron-ethyl altered the microbial community structure. Except got T100, T1 and T10 were not different from the control at the end of experiment. These results suggested a dosage effect of chlorimuron-ethyl on the living microbial biomass and the microbial community. PMID:24264144

  4. Effects of biochar blends on microbial community composition in two Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amendment of soil with biochar has been demonstrated to have an effect not only on the soil physicochemical properties, but also on soil microbial community composition and activity. Previous reports have demonstrated both positive and negative effects on soil microbial communities. These effect...

  5. Impact of no-tillage and conventional tillage systems on soil microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices influence soil physical and chemical characteristics and bring about changes in the soil microbial community structure and function. In this study, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage practices on microbial community structure, enzyme activities, and select...

  6. Soil microbial community structure and functionality during grassland restoration in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are an indispensable part of restoration programs due to their significant role in ecosystem functioning and sensitivity to disturbance. We evaluated soil microbial community structure using ester-linked fatty acid (EL-FAME) profiling and metabolic functioning, by measurin...

  7. SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES UNDER CONVENTIONAL-TILL AND NO-TILL CONTINUOUS COTTON SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices affect soil microbial communities, which in turn influence soil ecosystem processes. In this study, the effects of conventional- and no-tillage practices on soil microbial communities were examined under long-term continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) systems on a Deca...

  8. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  9. Microbial community structure and variability in the tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Michael R.; Kirchman, David L.

    The spatially extensive tropical Pacific includes regions that are limited by macronutrients or iron, and is thus broadly representative of open-ocean systems in which microbial communities predominate. Despite strong physical forcing due to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle and the local effects of tropical instability waves, microbial abundances from a variety of JGOFS and related studies show similar, modest levels of variability in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) equatorial upwelling region, the oligotrophic, western Pacific Warm Pool, and the North Pacific central gyre. Mean 0-50 m abundances of some of the groups distinguished by flow cytometry are significantly enhanced in the HNLC region, including heterotrophic bacteria (HBACT; 720,000 versus 440,000 cells ml -1), Synechococcus spp. (SYN; 9800 versus 2000 cells ml -1) and pico-eukaryotic algae (PEUK; 6300 versus 800 cells ml -1). However, Prochlorococcus spp. (PRO) are slightly more abundant in the low-nitrate regions (180,000 versus 150,000 cells ml -1). The higher HNLC concentrations of SYN and PEUK are part of a broader expansion of the phytoplankton community over the relatively constant PRO base when the limiting nutrient (iron) pool is increased. Elevated biomass and production of phytoplankton and the greater availability of DOC presumably explain the higher HNLC abundances of HBACT. The mean biomass (±standard deviation) of bacterial populations for cross-equatorial transects (14.1±2.8 μg C l -1) is similar to that in the subtropics (11.6±2.7 μg C l -1), with cruise variations falling generally within a 2-fold range. Heterotrophs comprise a significantly higher mean percentage of total prokaryote biomass (59±9%) in the HNLC region than in the low-nutrient subtropics (42±6%). The biomass production of photosynthetic bacteria (PRO and SYN) in the central equatorial Pacific is conservatively twice that of HBACT, but total carbon flux through bacteria (44-75% of phytoplankton 14C

  10. Soil Microbial Substrate Properties and Microbial Community Responses under Irrigated Organic and Reduced-Tillage Crop and Forage Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B.; Stahl, Peter D.; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil

  11. Pyrogenic and Fresh Organic Matter Effects on Soil Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, T.; Buckley, D. H.; Lehmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soils hold a globally important stock of carbon (C) and can act as both a C source and sink, depending on management and environmental conditions. Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is produced naturally during fires, and contains relatively stable forms of C. Its intentional production has also been proposed as a mechanism for C management (in such cases PyOM is often referred to as "biochar"). However, the impact of natural or anthropogenic PyOM production on soils is complex and depends on many factors. In particular, PyOM additions to soils may have effects on plant growth and on native soil C cycling. The response of the soil microbial community to PyOM additions is likely key to understanding these interactions, but remains poorly characterized. We studied soil C dynamics and soil microbial communities in a field study with 350°C PyOM from 13C-labelled corn stover, a C3-derived soil, and C4 plants (sudangrass). PyOM additions only temporarily increased total soil CO2 fluxes, dramatically less than the increase associated with the addition of corn stover, which likely increased SOC losses. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S region on the MiSeq platform to characterize the initial, 12-day and 82-day soil bacterial communiities. We used three-part stable isotopic partitioning after two months to distinguish 334% higher root-derived CO2 fluxes in the plots with PyOM additions than those without, and 45% lower PyOM-C derived CO2 fluxes in the plots with plants present. The 84% increase in estimated cumulative soil CO2 emissions with stover additions was accompanied by a significant shift in the soil bacterial community on days 12 and 82, while the PyOM additions only resulted in significant changes to the overall community on day 82. We investigate which taxa are driving these community shifts, and how they may relate to the soil CO2 fluxes.

  12. Effects of octahedral molecular sieve on treatment performance, microbial metabolism, and microbial community in expanded granular sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Xu, Aihua; Xia, Dongsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Guo; Meyer, Melissa; Zhao, Dongye; Huang, Ching-Hua; Wu, Qihang; Fu, Jie

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated the effects of synthesized octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanoparticles on the anaerobic microbial community in a model digester, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The addition of OMS-2 (0.025 g/L) in the EGSB reactors resulted in an enhanced operational performance, i.e., COD removal and biogas production increased by 4% and 11% respectively, and effluent volatile fatty acid (VFA) decreased by 11% relative to the control group. The Biolog EcoPlate™ test was employed to investigate microbial metabolism in the EGSB reactors. Results showed that OMS-2 not only increased the microbial metabolic level but also significantly changed the community level physiological profiling of the microorganisms. The Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated OMS-2 enhanced the microbial diversity and altered the community structure. The largest bacterial genus Lactococcus, a lactic acid bacterium, reduced from 29.3% to 20.4% by abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L OMS-2, which may be conducive to decreasing the VFA production and increasing the microbial diversity. OMS-2 also increased the quantities of acetogenic bacteria and Archaea, and promoted the acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy illustrated that Mn(IV)/Mn(III) with high redox potential in OMS-2 were reduced to Mn(II) in the EGSB reactors; this in turn affected the microbial community. PMID:26397455

  13. Microbial community structure in the North Pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark V; Philip, Gayle K; Bunge, John A; Smith, Matthew C; Bissett, Andrew; Lauro, Federico M; Fuhrman, Jed A; Donachie, Stuart P

    2009-12-01

    We report a ribosomal tag pyrosequencing study of the phylogenetic diversity of Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya over a depth profile at the Hawaii Ocean Time-Series Station, ALOHA. The V9 region of the SSU rRNA gene was amplified from samples representing the epi- (10 m), meso- (800 m) and bathy- (4400 m) pelagia. The primers used are expected to amplify representatives of approximately 80% of known phylogenetic diversity across all three domains. Comparisons of unique sequences revealed a remarkably low degree of overlap between communities at each depth. The 444 147 sequence tags analyzed represented 62 975 unique sequences. Of these, 3707 (5.9%) occurred at two depths, and only 298 (0.5%) were observed at all three depths. At this level of phylogenetic resolution, Bacteria diversity decreased with depth but was still equivalent to that reported elsewhere for different soil types. Archaea diversity was highest in the two deeper samples. Eucarya observations and richness estimates are almost one order of magnitude higher than any previous marine microbial Eucarya richness estimates. The associations of many Eucarya sequences with putative parasitic organisms may have significant impacts on our understanding of the mechanisms controlling host population density and diversity, and point to a more significant role for microbial Eucarya in carbon flux through the microbial loop. We posit that the majority of sequences detected from the deep sea that have closest matches to sequences from non-pelagic sources are indeed native to the marine environment, and are possibly responsible for key metabolic processes in global biogeochemical cycles. PMID:19626056

  14. Dark fermentation from real solid waste. Evolution of microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the evolution of microbial community and its relation to the hydrogen production (HP) steps in thermophilic-dry dark fermentation from real organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Nine organic loading rates (OLRs) (from 9 to 220 g TVS/l/d) were investigated. Population dynamics study showed that increasing OLR (between 9 and 110 g TVS/l/d) resulted in an increase in the relations between Eubacteria:Archaea and hydrolytic-acidogenic bacteria (HABs):acetogens. This was strongly influenced by the microbial content of the OFMSW. The presence of acetogens and Archaea was due to contribution of these microorganisms in the substrate (the biogas produced was methane-free). The maximum value of hydrolysis (63±7%) was observed at 110 g TVS/l/d OLR according to maximum HP and HAB activity. The highest average values of acidification yields (57-60%) were achieved for OLR between 28 and 43 g TVS/l/d. PMID:24240181

  15. Microbial community dynamics in the forefield of glaciers

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, James A.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Anesio, Alexandre M.

    2014-01-01

    Retreating ice fronts (as a result of a warming climate) expose large expanses of deglaciated forefield, which become colonized by microbes and plants. There has been increasing interest in characterizing the biogeochemical development of these ecosystems using a chronosequence approach. Prior to the establishment of plants, microbes use autochthonously produced and allochthonously delivered nutrients for growth. The microbial community composition is largely made up of heterotrophic microbes (both bacteria and fungi), autotrophic microbes and nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs. Microbial activity is thought to be responsible for the initial build-up of labile nutrient pools, facilitating the growth of higher order plant life in developed soils. However, it is unclear to what extent these ecosystems rely on external sources of nutrients such as ancient carbon pools and periodic nitrogen deposition. Furthermore, the seasonal variation of chronosequence dynamics and the effect of winter are largely unexplored. Modelling this ecosystem will provide a quantitative evaluation of the key processes and could guide the focus of future research. Year-round datasets combined with novel metagenomic techniques will help answer some of the pressing questions in this relatively new but rapidly expanding field, which is of growing interest in the context of future large-scale ice retreat. PMID:25274358

  16. Kinetic characteristics and microbial community of Anammox-EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zheng, Ping; Shen, Lidong; Ding, Shuang; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2011-06-15

    The present study reports kinetic characteristics of Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) EGSB (Expanded Granular Sludge Bed) reactor after feeding with strong ammonium-containing synthetic wastewater. The microbial communities were analysed based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the volumetric nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR) reached up to 22.87 kg N/(m(3)d) and 18.65 kg N/(m(3)d), respectively, when the influent nitrogen concentrations were 1429.1mg N/L. Monod and Haldane models both proved to be suitable in characterizing the kinetic behavior of the reactor. Based on Haldane model, the relationships among the ammonium, nitrite, nitrogen conversion rates and substrate concentrations were established with corresponding correlation coefficients of 0.992, 0.993 and 0.993, respectively. The maximum ammonium, nitrite and nitrogen conversion rates (q(max)) by the granular sludge were 381.2, 304.7 and 731.7 mg N/(gVSSd), half saturation constants (K(s)) were 36.75, 0.657 and 29.26 mg N/L and inhibition constants (K(i)) were 887.1, 13,942.1 and 1779.6 mg N/L, respectively. Anammox-EGSB reactor was found tolerant to substrate and capable of treating strong ammonium-containing wastewater. The dominant microbial population of the granular sludge in the reactor was Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. PMID:21440987

  17. Impact of (±)-catechin on soil microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rajwant; Kaur, Surinder

    2009-01-01

    Catechin is a highly studied but controversial allelochemical reported as a component of the root exudates of Centaurea maculosa. Initial reports of high and consistent exudation rates and soil concentrations have been shown to be highly inaccurate, but the chemical has been found in root exudates at and much less frequently in soil but sporadically at high concentrations. Part of the problem of detection and measuring phytotoxicity in natural soils may be due to the confounding effect of soil microbes, and little is known about interactions between catechin and soil microbes. Here we tested the effect of catechin on soil microbial communities and the feedback of these effects to two plant species. We found that catechin inhibits microbial activity in the soil we tested, and by doing so appears to promote plant growth in the microbe-free environment. This is in striking contrast to other in vitro studies, emphasizing the highly conditional effects of the chemical and suggesting that the phytotoxic effects of catechin may be exerted through the microbes in some soils. PMID:19704908

  18. A Metagenomic Framework for the Study of Airborne Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Aaron; McQuaid, Jeff; Williamson, Shannon; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brami, Daniel; Zeigler-Allen, Lisa; Hoffman, Jeff; Goll, Johannes B.; Fadrosh, Douglas; Glass, John; Adams, Mark D.; Friedman, Robert; Venter, J. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the microbial content of the air has important scientific, health, and economic implications. While studies have primarily characterized the taxonomic content of air samples by sequencing the 16S or 18S ribosomal RNA gene, direct analysis of the genomic content of airborne microorganisms has not been possible due to the extremely low density of biological material in airborne environments. We developed sampling and amplification methods to enable adequate DNA recovery to allow metagenomic profiling of air samples collected from indoor and outdoor environments. Air samples were collected from a large urban building, a medical center, a house, and a pier. Analyses of metagenomic data generated from these samples reveal airborne communities with a high degree of diversity and different genera abundance profiles. The identities of many of the taxonomic groups and protein families also allows for the identification of the likely sources of the sampled airborne bacteria. PMID:24349140

  19. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  20. Microbial communities, processes and functions in acid mine drainage ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Xing; Huang, Li-Nan; Méndez-García, Celia; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Liu, Jun; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is generated from the oxidative dissolution of metal sulfides when water and oxygen are available largely due to human mining activities. This process can be accelerated by indigenous microorganisms. In the last several decades, culture-dependent researches have uncovered and validated the roles of AMD microorganisms in metal sulfides oxidation and acid generation processes, and culture-independent studies have largely revealed the diversity and metabolic potentials and activities of AMD communities, leading towards a full understanding of the microbial diversity, functions and interactions in AMD ecosystems. This review describes the diversity of microorganisms and their functions in AMD ecosystems, and discusses their biotechnological applications in biomining and AMD bioremediation according to their capabilities. PMID:26921733

  1. Metagenomic insights into the dynamics of microbial communities in food.

    PubMed

    Kergourlay, Gilles; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Champomier Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-11-20

    Metagenomics has proven to be a powerful tool in exploring a large diversity of natural environments such as air, soil, water, and plants, as well as various human microbiota (e.g. digestive tract, lungs, skin). DNA sequencing techniques are becoming increasingly popular and less and less expensive. Given that high-throughput DNA sequencing approaches have only recently started to be used to decipher food microbial ecosystems, there is a significant growth potential for such technologies in the field of food microbiology. The aim of this review is to present a survey of recent food investigations via metagenomics and to illustrate how this approach can be a valuable tool in the better characterization of foods and their transformation, storage and safety. Traditional food in particular has been thoroughly explored by global approaches in order to provide information on multi-species and multi-organism communities. PMID:26414193

  2. Abundance and functional diversity of riboswitches in microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kazanov, Marat D; Vitreschak, Alexey G; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2007-01-01

    Background Several recently completed large-scale enviromental sequencing projects produced a large amount of genetic information about microbial communities ('metagenomes') which is not biased towards cultured organisms. It is a good source for estimation of the abundance of genes and regulatory structures in both known and unknown members of microbial communities. In this study we consider the distribution of RNA regulatory structures, riboswitches, in the Sargasso Sea, Minnesota Soil and Whale Falls metagenomes. Results Over three hundred riboswitches were found in about 2 Gbp metagenome DNA sequences. The abundabce of riboswitches in metagenomes was highest for the TPP, B12 and GCVT riboswitches; the S-box, RFN, YKKC/YXKD, YYBP/YKOY regulatory elements showed lower but significant abundance, while the LYS, G-box, GLMS and YKOK riboswitches were rare. Regions downstream of identified riboswitches were scanned for open reading frames. Comparative analysis of identified ORFs revealed new riboswitch-regulated functions for several classes of riboswitches. In particular, we have observed phosphoserine aminotransferase serC (COG1932) and malate synthase glcB (COG2225) to be regulated by the glycine (GCVT) riboswitch; fatty acid desaturase ole1 (COG1398), by the cobalamin (B12) riboswitch; 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase ykrS (COG0182), by the SAM-riboswitch. We also identified conserved riboswitches upstream of genes of unknown function: thiamine (TPP), cobalamine (B12), and glycine (GCVT, upstream of genes from COG4198). Conclusion This study demonstrates applicability of bioinformatics to the analysis of RNA regulatory structures in metagenomes. PMID:17908319

  3. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    PubMed Central

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  4. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community in uranium-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xun; Luo, Xuegang; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Uranium tailing is a serious pollution challenge for the environment. Based on metagenomic sequencing analysis, we explored the functional and structural diversity of the microbial community in six soil samples taken at different soil depths from uranium-contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology (KO) groups were obtained using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search based on the universal protein resource database. The KO-pathway network was then constructed using the selected KOs. Finally, alpha and beta diversity analyses were performed to explore the differences in soil bacterial diversity between the radioactive soil and uncontaminated soil. In total, 30-68 million high-quality reads were obtained. Sequence assembly yielded 286,615 contigs; and these contigs mostly annotated to 1699 KOs. The KO distributions were similar among the six soil samples. Moreover, the proportion of the metabolism of other amino acids (e.g., beta-alanine, taurine, and hypotaurine) and signal transduction was significantly lower in radioactive soil than in uncontaminated soil, whereas the proportion of membrane transport and carbohydrate metabolism was higher. Additionally, KOs were mostly enriched in ATP-binding cassette transporters and two-component systems. According to diversity analyses, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in radioactive and uncontaminated soil, and Robiginitalea, Microlunatus, and Alicyclobacillus were the dominant genera in radioactive soil. Taken together, these results demonstrate that soil microbial community, structure, and functions show significant changes in uranium-contaminated soil. The dominant categories such as Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria may be applied in environmental governance for uranium-contaminated soil in southern China. PMID:26433967

  5. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, Marie L; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L Vega; Lopez, Jose V

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  6. Spatial Distribution of Viruses Associated with Planktonic and Attached Microbial Communities in Hydrothermal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nunoura, Takuro; Kazama, Hiromi; Noguchi, Takuroh; Inoue, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Hironori; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Furushima, Yasuo; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Viruses play important roles in marine surface ecosystems, but little is known about viral ecology and virus-mediated processes in deep-sea hydrothermal microbial communities. In this study, we examined virus-like particle (VLP) abundances in planktonic and attached microbial communities, which occur in physical and chemical gradients in both deep and shallow submarine hydrothermal environments (mixing waters between hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater and dense microbial communities attached to chimney surface areas or macrofaunal bodies and colonies). We found that viruses were widely distributed in a variety of hydrothermal microbial habitats, with the exception of the interior parts of hydrothermal chimney structures. The VLP abundance and VLP-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) in the planktonic habitats increased as the ratio of hydrothermal fluid to mixing water increased. On the other hand, the VLP abundance in attached microbial communities was significantly and positively correlated with the whole prokaryotic abundance; however, the VPRs were always much lower than those for the surrounding hydrothermal waters. This is the first report to show VLP abundance in the attached microbial communities of submarine hydrothermal environments, which presented VPR values significantly lower than those in planktonic microbial communities reported before. These results suggested that viral lifestyles (e.g., lysogenic prevalence) and virus interactions with prokaryotes are significantly different among the planktonic and attached microbial communities that are developing in the submarine hydrothermal environments. PMID:22210205

  7. Spatial distribution of viruses associated with planktonic and attached microbial communities in hydrothermal environments.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Takashima, Yukari; Nunoura, Takuro; Kazama, Hiromi; Noguchi, Takuroh; Inoue, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Hironori; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Furushima, Yasuo; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Viruses play important roles in marine surface ecosystems, but little is known about viral ecology and virus-mediated processes in deep-sea hydrothermal microbial communities. In this study, we examined virus-like particle (VLP) abundances in planktonic and attached microbial communities, which occur in physical and chemical gradients in both deep and shallow submarine hydrothermal environments (mixing waters between hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater and dense microbial communities attached to chimney surface areas or macrofaunal bodies and colonies). We found that viruses were widely distributed in a variety of hydrothermal microbial habitats, with the exception of the interior parts of hydrothermal chimney structures. The VLP abundance and VLP-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) in the planktonic habitats increased as the ratio of hydrothermal fluid to mixing water increased. On the other hand, the VLP abundance in attached microbial communities was significantly and positively correlated with the whole prokaryotic abundance; however, the VPRs were always much lower than those for the surrounding hydrothermal waters. This is the first report to show VLP abundance in the attached microbial communities of submarine hydrothermal environments, which presented VPR values significantly lower than those in planktonic microbial communities reported before. These results suggested that viral lifestyles (e.g., lysogenic prevalence) and virus interactions with prokaryotes are significantly different among the planktonic and attached microbial communities that are developing in the submarine hydrothermal environments. PMID:22210205

  8. Microbial community dynamics and effect of environmental microbial reservoirs on red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus)

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Andrew H; Woodhams, Douglas C; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Archer, Holly; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie; Harris, Reid N

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial cutaneous bacteria on amphibians can protect against the lethal disease chytridiomycosis, which has devastated many amphibian species and is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We describe the diversity of bacteria on red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in the wild and the stability of these communities through time in captivity using culture-independent Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After field sampling, salamanders were housed with soil from the field or sterile media. The captive conditions led to different trajectories of bacterial communities. Eight OTUs present on >90% of salamanders in the field, through time, and in both treatments were defined as the core community, suggesting that some bacteria are closely associated with the host and are independent of an environmental reservoir. One of these taxa, a Pseudomonas sp., was previously cultured from amphibians and found to be antifungal. As all host-associated bacteria were found in the soil reservoir, environmental microbes strongly influence host–microbial diversity and likely regulate the core community. Using PICRUSt, an exploratory bioinformatics tool to predict gene functions, we found that core skin bacteria provided similar gene functions to the entire community. We suggest that future experiments focus on testing whether core bacteria on salamander skin contribute to the observed resistance to chytridiomycosis in this species even under hygenic captive conditions. For disease-susceptible hosts, providing an environmental reservoir with defensive bacteria in captive-rearing programs may improve outcomes by increasing bacterial diversity on threatened amphibians or increasing the likelihood that defensive bacteria are available for colonization. PMID:24335825

  9. Carbon availability structures microbial community composition and function in soil aggregate fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmockel, K. S.; Bach, E.; Williams, R.; Howe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying the microbial metabolic pathways that most strongly influence ecosystem carbon (C) cycling requires a deeper understanding of the availability and accessibility of microbial substrates. A first step towards this goal is characterizing the relationships between microbial community function and soil C chemistry in a field context. For this perspective, soil aggregate fractions can be used as model systems that scale between microbe-substrate interactions and ecosystem C cycling and storage. The present study addresses how physicochemical variation among soil aggregate fractions influences the composition and functional potential of C cycling microbial communities. We report variation across soil aggregates using plot scale biological replicates from biofuel agroecosystems (fertilized, reconstructed, tallgrass prairie). Our results suggest that C and nitrogen (N) chemistry significantly differ among aggregate fractions. This leads to variation in microbial community composition, which was better characterized among aggregates than by using the whole soil. In fact by considering soil aggregation, we were able to characterize almost 2000 more taxa than whole soil alone, resulting in 65% greater community richness. Availability of C and N strongly influenced the composition of microbial communities among soil aggregate fractions. The normalized abundance of microbial functional guilds among aggregate fractions correlated with C and N chemistry, as did functional potential, measured by extracellular enzyme activity. Metagenomic results suggest that soil aggregate fractions select for functionally distinct microbial communities, which may significantly influence decomposition and soil C storage. Our study provides support for the premise that integration of soil aggregate chemistry, especially microaggregates that have greater microbial richness and occur at spatial scales relevant to microbial community functioning, may be necessary to understand the role of

  10. So close, so different: geothermal flux shapes divergent soil microbial communities at neighbouring sites.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, A L; Tagliavia, M; D'Alessandro, W; Franzetti, A; Parello, F; Quatrini, P

    2016-03-01

    This study is focused on the (micro)biogeochemical features of two close geothermal sites (FAV1 and FAV2), both selected at the main exhalative area of Pantelleria Island, Italy. A previous biogeochemical survey revealed high CH4 consumption and the presence of a diverse community of methanotrophs at FAV2 site, whereas the close site FAV1 was apparently devoid of methanotrophs and recorded no CH4 consumption. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to describe the bacterial and archaeal communities which have been linked to the physicochemical conditions and the geothermal sources of energy available at the two sites. Both sites are dominated by Bacteria and host a negligible component of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (phylum Thaumarchaeota). The FAV2 bacterial community is characterized by an extraordinary diversity of methanotrophs, with 40% of the sequences assigned to Methylocaldum, Methylobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Bejerickia (Alphaproteobacteria); conversely, a community of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs (Acidithiobacillus, Nitrosococcus) or putative chemolithotrophs (Ktedonobacter) dominates the FAV1 community, in the absence of methanotrophs. Since physical andchemical factors of FAV1, such as temperature and pH, cannot be considered limiting for methanotrophy, it is hypothesized that the main limiting factor for methanotrophs could be high NH4(+) concentration. At the same time, abundant availability of NH4(+) and other high energy electron donors and acceptors determined by the hydrothermal flux in this site create more energetically favourable conditions for chemolithotrophs that outcompete methanotrophs in non-nitrogen-limited soils. PMID:26560641

  11. Which Members of the Microbial Communities Are Active? Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.

    only at the early stages of understanding the microbial processes that occur in petroliferous formations and the surrounding subterranean environment. Important first steps in characterising the microbiology of oilfield systems involve identifying the microbial community structure and determining how population diversity changes are affected by the overall geochemical and biological parameters of the system. This is relatively easy to do today by using general 16S rRNA primers for PCR and building clone libraries. For example, previous studies using molecular methods characterised many dominant prokaryotes in petroleum reservoirs (Orphan et al., 2000) and in two Alaskan North Slope oil facilities (Duncan et al., 2009; Pham et al., 2009). However, the problem is that more traditional molecular biology approaches, such as 16S clone libraries, fail to detect large portions of the community perhaps missing up to half of the biodiversity (see Hong et al., 2009) and require significant laboratory time to construct large libraries necessary to increase the probability of detecting the majority of even bacterial biodiversity. In the energy sector, the overarching desire would be to quickly assess the extent of in situ hydrocarbon biodegradation or to disrupt detrimental processes such as biofouling, and in these cases it may not be necessary to identify specific microbial species. Rather, it would be more critical to evaluate metabolic processes or monitor gene products that are implicated in the specific activity of interest. Research goals such as these are well suited for a tailored application of microarray technology.

  12. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized. PMID:26563413

  13. Colonization patterns of soil microbial communities in the Atacama Desert

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atacama Desert is one of the driest deserts in the world and its soil, with extremely low moisture, organic carbon content, and oxidizing conditions, is considered to be at the dry limit for life. Results Analyses of high throughput DNA sequence data revealed that bacterial communities from six geographic locations in the hyper-arid core and along a North-South moisture gradient were structurally and phylogenetically distinct (ANOVA test for observed operating taxonomic units at 97% similarity (OTU0.03), P <0.001) and that communities from locations in the hyper-arid zone displayed the lowest levels of diversity. We found bacterial taxa similar to those found in other arid soil communities with an abundance of Rubrobacterales, Actinomycetales, Acidimicrobiales, and a number of families from the Thermoleophilia. The extremely low abundance of Firmicutes indicated that most bacteria in the soil were in the form of vegetative cells. Integrating molecular data with climate and soil geochemistry, we found that air relative humidity (RH) and soil conductivity significantly correlated with microbial communities’ diversity metrics (least squares linear regression for observed OTU0.03 and air RH and soil conductivity, P <0.001; UniFrac PCoA Spearman’s correlation for air RH and soil conductivity, P <0.0001), indicating that water availability and salt content are key factors in shaping the Atacama soil microbiome. Mineralization studies showed communities actively metabolizing in all soil samples, with increased rates in soils from the southern locations. Conclusions Our results suggest that microorganisms in the driest soils of the Atacama Desert are in a state of stasis for most of the time, but can potentially metabolize if presented with liquid water for a sufficient duration. Over geological time, rare rain events and physicochemical factors potentially played a major role in selecting micro-organisms that are most adapted to extreme desiccating

  14. Microbial Community Metabolic Modeling: A Community Data-Driven Network Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christopher S; Bernstein, Hans C; Weisenhorn, Pamela; Taylor, Ronald C; Lee, Joon-Yong; Zucker, Jeremy; Song, Hyun-Seob

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic network modeling of microbial communities provides an in-depth understanding of community-wide metabolic and regulatory processes. Compared to single organism analyses, community metabolic network modeling is more complex because it needs to account for interspecies interactions. To date, most approaches focus on reconstruction of high-quality individual networks so that, when combined, they can predict community behaviors as a result of interspecies interactions. However, this conventional method becomes ineffective for communities whose members are not well characterized and cannot be experimentally interrogated in isolation. Here, we tested a new approach that uses community-level data as a critical input for the network reconstruction process. This method focuses on directly predicting interspecies metabolic interactions in a community, when axenic information is insufficient. We validated our method through the case study of a bacterial photoautotroph-heterotroph consortium that was used to provide data needed for a community-level metabolic network reconstruction. Resulting simulations provided experimentally validated predictions of how a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium supports the growth of an obligate heterotrophic species by providing organic carbon and nitrogen sources. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2339-2345, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27186840

  15. Comparative phylogenetic microarray analysis of microbial communities in TCE-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Nemir, Audra; David, Maude M; Perrussel, Ronan; Sapkota, Amy; Simonet, Pascal; Monier, Jean-Michel; Vogel, Timothy M

    2010-07-01

    The arrival of chemicals in a soil or groundwater ecosystem could upset the natural balance of the microbial community. Since soil microorganisms are the first to be exposed to the chemicals released into the soil environment, we evaluated the use of a phylogenetic microarray as a bio-indicator of community perturbations due to the exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). The phylogenetic microarray, which measures the presence of different members of the soil community, was used to evaluate unpolluted soils exposed to TCE as well as to samples from historically TCE polluted sites. We were able to determine an apparent threshold at which the microbial community structure was significantly affected (about 1ppm). In addition, the members of the microbial community most affected were identified. This approach could be useful for assessing environmental impact of chemicals on the biosphere as well as important members of the microbial community involved in TCE degradation. PMID:20444493

  16. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; Torn, Margaret S.; Burton, Sarah D.; Firestone, Mary

    2011-03-01

    Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect the amount and chemical quality of carbon (C) in soils. Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition, particularly in N-rich tropical forests, is likely to change the composition and behavior of microbial communities and feed back on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of mechanistic links between microbial responses to N deposition and shifts in soil organic matter (SOM) quality and quantity. We used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and microbial enzyme assays in soils to assess microbial community responses to long-term N additions in two distinct tropical rain forests. We used soil density fractionation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to measure related changes in SOM pool sizes and chemical quality. Microbial biomass increased in response to N fertilization in both tropical forests and corresponded to declines in pools of low-density SOM. The chemical quality of this soil C pool reflected ecosystem-specific changes in microbial community composition. In the lower-elevation forest, there was an increase in gram-negative bacteria PLFA biomass, and there were significant losses of labile C chemical groups (O-alkyls). In contrast, the upper-elevation tropical forest had an increase in fungal PLFAs with N additions and declines in C groups associated with increased soil C storage (alkyls). The dynamics of microbial enzymatic activities with N addition provided a functional link between changes in microbial community structure and SOM chemistry. Ecosystem-specific changes in microbial community composition are likely to have far-reaching effects on soil carbon storage and cycling. This study indicates that microbial communities in N-rich tropical forests can be sensitive to added N, but we can expect significant variability in how ecosystem structure and function respond to N deposition among tropical forest types.

  17. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Daniela F; Silver, Whendee L; Torn, Margaret S; Burton, Sarah D; Firestone, Mary K

    2011-03-01

    Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect the amount and chemical quality of carbon (C) in soils. Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition, particularly in N-rich tropical forests, is likely to change the composition and behavior of microbial communities and feed back on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of mechanistic links between microbial responses to N deposition and shifts in soil organic matter (SOM) quality and quantity. We used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and microbial enzyme assays in soils to assess microbial community responses to long-term N additions in two distinct tropical rain forests. We used soil density fractionation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to measure related changes in SOM pool sizes and chemical quality. Microbial biomass increased in response to N fertilization in both tropical forests and corresponded to declines in pools of low-density SOM. The chemical quality of this soil C pool reflected ecosystem-specific changes in microbial community composition. In the lower-elevation forest, there was an increase in gram-negative bacteria PLFA biomass, and there were significant losses of labile C chemical groups (O-alkyls). In contrast, the upper-elevation tropical forest had an increase in fungal PLFAs with N additions and declines in C groups associated with increased soil C storage (alkyls). The dynamics of microbial enzymatic activities with N addition provided a functional link between changes in microbial community structure and SOM chemistry. Ecosystem-specific changes in microbial community composition are likely to have far-reaching effects on soil carbon storage and cycling. This study indicates that microbial communities in N-rich tropical forests can be sensitive to added N, but we can expect significant variability in how ecosystem structure and function respond to N deposition among tropical forest types. PMID:21608471

  18. Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in Bioreactor Effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowe, Candice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine microbial communities of simulated wastewater effluent from hollow fiber membrane bioreactors collected from the Space Life Science Laboratory and Texas Technical University. Microbes were characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction where a total count of bacteria and fungi were determined. The primers that were used to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi were targeted for 16S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye and a melting curve analysis was performed to identify unique melt profiles resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the community. Results from both the total bacteria and total fungi count assays showed that distinct populations were present in isolates from these bioreactors. This was exhibited by variation in the number of peaks observed on the melting curve analysis graph. Further analysis of these results using species-specific primers will shed light on exactly which microbes are present in these effluents. Information gained from this study will enable the design of a system that can efficiently monitor microbes that play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in wastewater on the International Space Station to assist in the design of a sustainable system capable of converting this nutrient.

  19. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-09-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particular vulnerable for ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ∼180 to 1100 μatm) in the Kongsfjord off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. The most prominent finding of our study is the profound effect of OA on the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton prospered. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  20. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ~ 180 to 1100 μatm) in Kongsfjorden off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. OA distinctly affected the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton thrived. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Besides being grazed, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  1. Advances in Quantitative Proteomics of Microbes and Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldbauer, J.; Zhang, L.; Rizzo, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative measurements of gene expression are key to developing a mechanistic, predictive unders