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Sample records for acidophilus strain lb

  1. Antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed Central

    Coconnier, M H; Liévin, V; Bernet-Camard, M F; Hudault, S; Servin, A L

    1997-01-01

    The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The activity was heat stable and relatively sensitive to enzymatic treatments and developed under acidic conditions. The antimicrobial activity was independent of lactic acid production. Activity against S. typhimurium SL1344 infecting human cultured intestinal Caco-2 cells was observed as it was in the conventional C3H/He/oujco mouse model with S. typhimurium C5 infection and oral treatment with the LB spent culture supernatant. PMID:9145867

  2. Antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Liévin, V; Bernet-Camard, M F; Hudault, S; Servin, A L

    1997-05-01

    The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The activity was heat stable and relatively sensitive to enzymatic treatments and developed under acidic conditions. The antimicrobial activity was independent of lactic acid production. Activity against S. typhimurium SL1344 infecting human cultured intestinal Caco-2 cells was observed as it was in the conventional C3H/He/oujco mouse model with S. typhimurium C5 infection and oral treatment with the LB spent culture supernatant. PMID:9145867

  3. Adhesion of human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chauvière, G; Coconnier, M H; Kernéis, S; Fourniat, J; Servin, A L

    1992-08-01

    Twenty-five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. Seven Lactobacillus strains adhered well to the Caco-2 cells, of which three possessed calcium-independent adhesion properties. A high level of calcium-independent adhesion was observed with the human stool isolate Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this strain adhered to the apical brush border of the cells. Adhesion increased in parallel with the morphological and functional differentiation of the Caco-2 cells. Two Lactobacillus components were involved in this adhesion. One was protease-resistant and bacterial-surface-associated; the other was heat-stable, extracellular and protease-sensitive. PMID:1527509

  4. Inhibition of adhesion of enteroinvasive pathogens to human intestinal Caco-2 cells by Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB decreases bacterial invasion.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Bernet, M F; Kernéis, S; Chauvière, G; Fourniat, J; Servin, A L

    1993-07-01

    Salmonella typhimurium and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) were found to adhere to the brush border of differentiated human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells in culture, whereas Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes adhered to the periphery of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. All these enterovirulent strains invaded the Caco-2 cells. Using a heat-killed human Lactobacillus acidophilus (strain LB) which strongly adheres both to undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells, we have studied inhibition of cell association with and invasion within Caco-2 cells by enterovirulent bacteria. Living and heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB inhibited both cell association and invasion of Caco-2 cells by enterovirulent bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism of inhibition of both adhesion and invasion appears to be due to steric hindrance of human enterocytic pathogen receptors by whole-cell lactobacilli rather than to a specific blockade of receptors. PMID:8354463

  5. Antagonistic activity against Helicobacter infection in vitro and in vivo by the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Lievin, V; Hemery, E; Servin, A L

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the activity of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB, which secretes an antibacterial substance(s) against Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. The spent culture supernatant (SCS) of the strain LB (LB-SCS) dramatically decreased the viability of H. pylori in vitro independent of pH and lactic acid levels. Adhesion of H. pylori to the cultured human mucosecreting HT29-MTX cells decreased in parallel with the viability of H. pylori. In conventional mice, oral treatment with the LB-SCS protected against infection with Helicobacter felis. Indeed, at both 8 and 49 days post-LB-SCS treatment (29 and 70 days postinfection), inhibition of stomach colonization by H. felis was observed, and no evidence of gastric histopathological lesions was found. LB-SCS treatment inhibits the H. pylori urease activity in vitro and in H. pylori that remained associated with the cultured human mucosecreting HT29-MTX cells. Moreover, a decrease in urease activity was detected in the stomach of the mice infected with H. felis and treated with LB-SCS. PMID:9797324

  6. Impairment of swimming motility by antidiarrheic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB retards internalization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium within human enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Amsellem, Raymonde; Servin, Alain L

    2011-10-01

    We report that both culture and the cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB (Lactéol Boucard) have the ability (i) to delay the appearance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344-induced mobilization of F-actin and, subsequently, (ii) to retard cell entry by S. Typhimurium SL1344. Time-lapse imaging and Western immunoblotting showed that S. Typhimurium SL1344 swimming motility, as represented by cell tracks of various types, was rapidly but temporarily blocked without affecting the expression of FliC flagellar propeller protein. We show that the product(s) secreted by L. acidophilus LB that supports the inhibitory activity is heat stable and of low molecular weight. The product(s) caused rapid depolarization of the S. Typhimurium SL1344 cytoplasmic membrane without affecting bacterial viability. We identified inhibition of swimming motility as a newly discovered mechanism by which the secreted product(s) of L. acidophilus strain LB retards the internalization of the diarrhea-associated pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium within cultured human enterocyte-like cells. PMID:21825295

  7. Adhering heat-killed human Lactobacillus acidophilus, strain LB, inhibits the process of pathogenicity of diarrhoeagenic bacteria in cultured human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Bernet, M F; Chauvière, G; Servin, A L

    1993-12-01

    Heat-killed L. acidophilus, strain LB, was tested for its ability to adhere in vitro onto human enterocyte-like Caco-2 and muco-secreting HT29-MTX cells in culture. The heat-killed LB bacteria exhibited a high adhesive property. A diffuse pattern of adhesion was observed to the undifferentiated cells, the apical brush border of the enterocytic cells, and to the mucus layer that covered the surface of the mucus-secreting cells. The inhibitory effect of heat-killed LB organisms against the human intestinal Caco-2 cell-adhesion and cell-invasion by a large variety of diarrhoeagenic bacteria was investigated. The following dose-dependent inhibitions were obtained: (i) against the cell-association of enterotoxigenic, diffusely-adhering and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Salmonella typhimurium; (ii) against the cell-invasion by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. PMID:8188996

  8. Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-05-25

    The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use. PMID:10857928

  9. Impact of colostomy on intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in young rats fed with heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed

    Rigon-Zimmer, K; Mullié, C; Tir-Touil-Meddah, A; Buisson, P; Léké, L; Canarelli, J P

    2008-01-01

    A rat animal model of left colostomy was found to significantly impair the growth curve of rats. Assessment of the intestinal flora showed that colostomy mostly affects the cecal but not colonic microflora. Generally, the number of enterococci was increased in both ileum and cecum; cecal lactobacilli also rose, accounting for a promotion of lactic acid bacteria in colostomised rats. No significant differences between colostomised, laparotomised and control rats could be observed for the translocation of intestinal bacteria to internal organs of rats (i.e. spleen, kidneys, lungs or liver), whatever their diet. Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB administration (dead probiotic bacteria) tended to exhibit a stimulatory effect on bifidobacteria, probably affecting the culture-medium fermentation substances included in the pharmaceutical product. This effect was abolished by laparotomy and colostomy. A trend towards a probiotic-like effect, not susceptible to colostomy, was also witnessed as counts of lactobacilli tended to increase in both cecum and colon of all animals fed with L. acidophilus LB. PMID:18481224

  10. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LB against intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infecting human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Liévin, V; Lorrot, M; Servin, A L

    2000-03-01

    To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lactobacilli develop antimicrobial activity, we have examined how Lactobacillus acidophilus LB inhibits the promoted cellular injuries and intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 infecting the cultured, fully differentiated human intestinal cell line Caco-2/TC-7. We showed that the spent culture supernatant of strain LB (LB-SCS) decreases the number of apical serovar Typhimurium-induced F-actin rearrangements in infected cells. LB-SCS treatment efficiently decreased transcellular passage of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Moreover, LB-SCS treatment inhibited intracellular growth of serovar Typhimurium, since treated intracellular bacteria displayed a small, rounded morphology resembling that of resting bacteria. We also showed that LB-SCS treatment inhibits adhesion-dependent serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 production. PMID:10698785

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1,991,830-bp complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-14 (SD-5212). Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.98% similarity overall to the L. acidophilus NCFM genome. Globally, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (95 SNPs, 16 indels) were observed throughout the genome. Also, a 416-bp deletion in the LA14_1146 sugar ABC transporter was identified. PMID:23788546

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M.; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  14. A Lactobacillus acidophilus strain of human gastrointestinal microbiota origin elicits killing of enterovirulent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by triggering lethal bacterial membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2005-10-01

    The human gastrointestinal microbiota produces antagonistic activities against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. We undertook a study to investigate the mechanism(s) by which a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain of human microbiota origin antagonizes the gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We showed that the cell-free culture supernatant of L. acidophilus strain LB (LB-CFCS) induced the following effects in S. enterica SL1344: (i) a decrease in intracellular ATP that paralleled bacterial death, (ii) the release of lipopolysaccharide, (iii) permeabilization of the bacterial membrane, and (iv) an increase in the sensitivity of Salmonella to the lytic action of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Finally, we showed using two mutant strains of Salmonella, PhoP MS7953s and PmrA JKS1170, that the two-component regulatory systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB that regulate the mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents in Salmonella did not influence the anti-Salmonella effect of LB-CFCS. PMID:16204528

  15. Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ≥10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P < 0.05 for E. coli ATCC; t = -6.19, P < 0.05 for E. coli clinical isolates; t = -6.16, P < 0.05 for Enterobacter sp; t = -11.92, P < 0.05 for Salmonella typhi, t = -1.10, P > 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ≥10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity. PMID:25153762

  16. [Particular behavior of different Lactobacillus acidophilus strains in petit-suisse cheese].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Keila Marques; Pereira, Lucas Campana; Souza, Cínthia Hoch Batista de; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of petit-suisse cheeses manufactured with the addition of two Lactobacillus acidophilus strains: LA-14 (potentially probiotic) and La-5 (probiotic culture), using Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 as starter culture. Three cheese-making trials were prepared: Q1 (control: with TA040), Q2 (with TA040 + LA-14), and Q3 (with TA040 + La-5). Parameters analyzed included microbial counts of probiotic, potentially probiotic and starter microorganisms, and physico-chemical parameters (pH and moisture) after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage of the product at 4 +/- 1 degree C. Viable counts of L. acidophilus remained between 7.46 and 7.62 log CFU g(-1) for La-5, and between 6.39 and 6.83 log CFU g(-1) for LA-14. As for the starter, higher populations were observed for Q2 (9.58-9.68 log CFU g(-1)) and Q3 (9.42-9.79 log CFU g(-1)), when compared to Q1, which suggests synergism between L. acidophilus and the starter culture. Moisture and pH values remained stable for cheeses Q1, Q2, and Q3, and no significant differences were detected between cheeses after the first day of storage (p > 0.05). Particular features of both L. acidophilus strains determined different behavior in petit-suisse cheese, and the better adaptation of the La-5 to the product environment was perceptible, since higher populations were observed when compared to LA-14. PMID:24020254

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans immune conditioning with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NCFM enhances gram-positive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2012-07-01

    Although the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to microbial infections is well established, very little is known about the effects of health-promoting probiotic bacteria on evolutionarily conserved C. elegans host responses. We found that the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is not harmful to C. elegans and that L. acidophilus NCFM is unable to colonize the C. elegans intestine. Conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM significantly decreased the burden of a subsequent Enterococcus faecalis infection in the nematode intestine and prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to pathogenic strains of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Preexposure of nematodes to Bacillus subtilis did not provide any beneficial effects. Importantly, L. acidophilus NCFM activates key immune signaling pathways involved in C. elegans defenses against Gram-positive bacteria, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (via TIR-1 and PMK-1) and the β-catenin signaling pathway (via BAR-1). Interestingly, conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM had a minimal effect on Gram-negative infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and had no or a negative effect on defense genes associated with Gram-negative pathogens or general stress. In conclusion, we describe a new system for the study of probiotic immune agents and our findings demonstrate that probiotic conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM modulates specific C. elegans immunity traits. PMID:22585961

  18. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune responses of 390 BALB/c mice fed the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51® and infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in a 6-month trial. Mice were randomized to nine treatment groups fed either viable- or heat-killed NP51 and inocula...

  19. Complete genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic mineral-sulfide-oxidizing firmicute Sulfobacillus acidophilus type strain (NALT)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Chertkov, Olga; Chen, Amy; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Pukall, Rudiger; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Mavromatis, K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp, harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. A gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agent: the heat-treated Lactobacillus LB.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies support the hypothesis that heat-treated, lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus LB cells and concentrated, neutralized spent culture medium conserve the variety of pharmacological, antimicrobial activities of the live probiotic strain against several infectious agents involved in well-established acute and persistent watery diarrhoea and gastritis. Heat-treated cells and heat-stable secreted molecules trigger multiple strain-specific activities explaining the therapeutic efficacy of L. acidophilus LB. This review discusses the current body of knowledge on the antimicrobial mechanisms of action exerted by L. acidophilus LB demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, and the evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of this anti-infectious biotherapeutic agent proved in randomized clinical trials for the treatment of acute and persistent watery diarrhoea associated with several intestinal infectious diseases in humans. PMID:26770268

  1. A gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agent: the heat-treated Lactobacillus LB

    PubMed Central

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies support the hypothesis that heat-treated, lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus LB cells and concentrated, neutralized spent culture medium conserve the variety of pharmacological, antimicrobial activities of the live probiotic strain against several infectious agents involved in well-established acute and persistent watery diarrhoea and gastritis. Heat-treated cells and heat-stable secreted molecules trigger multiple strain-specific activities explaining the therapeutic efficacy of L. acidophilus LB. This review discusses the current body of knowledge on the antimicrobial mechanisms of action exerted by L. acidophilus LB demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, and the evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of this anti-infectious biotherapeutic agent proved in randomized clinical trials for the treatment of acute and persistent watery diarrhoea associated with several intestinal infectious diseases in humans. PMID:26770268

  2. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  3. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  4. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. his organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. iphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl ...

  5. Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria, in maize porridge with added malted barley.

    PubMed

    Helland, Merete H; Wicklund, Trude; Narvhus, Judith A

    2004-03-15

    A fermented probiotic maize porridge with high energy density and low viscosity was prepared, using maize flour and barley malt. The porridge was fermented with four probiotic strains (grown separately): Lactobacillus reuteri, Lb. acidophilus (LA5 and 1748) and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains were inoculated at two levels; to obtain approx. 7 or 6 log cfu g(-1) in the porridge at 0 h. The porridge was fermented for 24 h at 37 degrees C, and analysed for viable cell count, pH, organic acids, volatile aromatic compounds and sugar content. The inoculated cell concentration was shown to be particularly important during the first hours of the fermentation period, showing a delayed production of most metabolites in porridge inoculated with approx. 6 log cfu g(-1). Most strains reached maximum cell count after 12-h fermentation (7.2-8.2 log cfu g(-1)), with a pH below 4.0. Depending on the strain, lactic acid was produced in amounts ranging from 1360 to 4000 mg kg(-1). Lb. reuteri metabolised succinate, while pyruvate and small amounts of diacetyl were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748. High amounts of diacetyl (6 mg kg(-1)) and acetoin (27 mg kg(-1)) were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. rhamnosus GG. Porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748, contained acetaldehyde, while both Lb. reuteri and Lb. rhamnosus GG reduced the acetaldehyde to ethanol. Lb. reuteri utilised both maltose and glucose as carbohydrate sources, while Lb. acidophilus LA5, Lb. acidophilus 1748 and Lb. rhamnosus GG utilised only glucose. PMID:14984778

  6. Viable intestinal passage of a canine jejunal commensal strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yurui; Saris, Per E J

    2014-10-01

    The strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 with immunomodulatory properties was previously found dominant in the jejunal chyme of four dogs, and the novel surface layer protein of LAB20 suggested its competitive colonization in canine gut. To evaluate the persistence and survival of LAB20 in healthy dogs, LAB20 was fed to five healthy pet dogs for 3 days, at a dosage of 10(8) CFU daily as fermented milk supplement. The fecal samples, from 1 day prior to feeding, three continuous feeding days, and on day 5, 7, 14, and 21, were collected for strain-specific detection of LAB20 using real-time PCR. We found that LAB20 count was significantly increased in dog fecal samples at the second feeding day, but rapidly decreased after feeding ceased. The fecal samples from prior to feeding, during feeding, and post-cessation days were plated onto mLBS7 agar, from where LAB20 was recovered and distinguishable from other fecal lactobacilli based on its colony morphotype. Using strain-specific PCR detection, the colonies were further verified as LAB20 indicating that LAB20 can survive through the passage of the canine intestine. This study suggested that canine-derived strain LAB20 maintained at high numbers during feeding, viably transited through the dog gut, and could be identified based on its colony morphotype. PMID:24849733

  7. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  8. Complete genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic mineral-sulfide-oxidizing firmicute Sulfobacillus acidophilus type strain (NAL(T)).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Iain; Chertkov, Olga; Chen, Amy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Pukall, Rüdiger; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Mavromatis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-30

    Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia ofBacteria andArchaea project. PMID:23407703

  9. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P < 0.05) of total solids (42%), proteins (16.5%), and titratable acidity (2.2%) was observed in the test sample compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P < 0.05) of melting in the probiotic one may have resulted from less over run, than the nonprobiotic sample. Rapid reduction in the viable cells during frozen storage occurred at -18°C and gradual adaptation occurred over the first 4 weeks. At the 10th week, 1.0 × 10(7) numbers of viable organisms were present in 1 g of the probiotic ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers. PMID:24804052

  10. Characterization of a Novel Angular Dioxygenase from Fluorene-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain LB126▿

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Luc; Ní Chadhain, Sinéad M.; Jouanneau, Yves; Meyer, Christine; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Hols, Pascal; Agathos, Spiros N.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genes involved in the initial attack on fluorene by Sphingomonas sp. strain LB126 were investigated. The α and β subunits of a dioxygenase complex (FlnA1-FlnA2), showing 63 and 51% sequence identity, respectively, to the subunits of an angular dioxygenase from the gram-positive dibenzofuran degrader Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63, were identified. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, FlnA1-FlnA2 was responsible for the angular oxidation of fluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 9-fluorenone, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. Moreover, FlnA1-FlnA2 was able to oxidize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heteroaromatics, some of which were not oxidized by the dioxygenase from Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63. The quantification of resulting oxidation products showed that fluorene and phenanthrene were the preferred substrates of FlnA1-FlnA2. PMID:18156320

  11. SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES IN THE GENES ENCODING POLY- CHLORINATED BIPHENYL DEGRADATION BY PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400 AND ALCALIGENES EUTROPHUS H850

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA-DNA hybridization was used to compare the Pseudomonas strain LB400 genes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation with those from seven other PCB-degrading strains. Significant hybridization was detected to the genome of Alcaligenes eutrophus H850, a strain similar to L...

  12. Derivation of DNA probes for enumeration of a specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in piglet digestive tract samples.

    PubMed Central

    Rodtong, S; Dobbinson, S; Thode-Andersen, S; McConnell, M A; Tannock, G W

    1993-01-01

    Four DNA probes were derived that hybridized specifically to DNA from Lactobacillus acidophilus O. The probes were constructed by randomly cloning lactobacillus DNA in plasmid vector pBR322. Two of the probes (pSR1 and pSR2) were composed of vector and plasmid DNA inserts (3.6 and 1.6 kb, respectively); the others (pSR3 and pSR4) were composed of vector and chromosomally derived inserts (6.9 and 1.4 kb, respectively). The probes were used to enumerate, by colony hybridization, strain O in digestive tract samples collected from piglets inoculated 24 hours previously with a culture of the strain. The probes did not hybridize to DNA from lactobacilli inhabiting the digestive tract of uninoculated piglets. Strain O made up about 10% of the total lactobacillus population of the pars esophagea and about 20% of the population in other digestive tract samples. Images PMID:8285690

  13. Effect of exopolysaccharides on the hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 in an in vitro gastric/pancreatic system.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Haertlé, Thomas; Mozzi, Fernanda; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2009-06-24

    An analysis of the peptides generated by hydrolysis of BLG by nonproliferating cells of the strain Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 was carried out. The effect of polysaccharides (pectin, and two EPS synthesized by two Streptococcus thermophilus strains, EPS1190 and EPS804) on BLG digestibility using an in vitro gastric/pancreatic system was analyzed. Polysaccharides are commonly used in the dairy industry to improve food texture; these hydrocolloids may interact with proteins, affecting their digestibility. Nonproliferating cells of Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 were able to hydrolyze 52% of BLG. Twenty-six resulting peptides with molecular masses in the range 544-4119 Da were identified by LC-MS/MS. These peptides resulted mostly from the hydrolysis of the more accessible N-terminal part of BLG. Degradation of BLG by pepsin was poor (8%). When BLG was previously hydrolyzed by Lb. acidophilus CRL 636, peptic hydrolysis was of 54.8%, while when pectin and EPS1190 were added, hydrolysis was higher (58.2 and 57.2%, respectively). Peptides crossing 8 kDa dialysis membranes after trypsin/chymotrypsin hydrolysis were analyzed by HPSEC. The produced peptides were smaller when BLG was hydrolyzed previously by the Lb. acidophilus strain. Moreover, in the presence of pectin, the amount of the larger peptide (3.5 kDa) observed in the size exclusion chromatograms was considerably decreased. Our studies showed that prehydrolysis of BLG by Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 had a positive influence on BLG digestibility and that polysaccharides may change the peptide profile yielded by trypsin/chymotrypsin hydrolysis, releasing smaller size peptides, which are known to be less immune-reactive. Moreover, Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 was able to hydrolyze the main epitopes (41-60, 102-124, and 149-162) of BLG, reducing its allergenic content. PMID:19469473

  14. Classification of the biphenyl- and polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading strain LB400T and relatives as Burkholderia xenovorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Goris, Johan; De Vos, Paul; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Park, Joonhong; Falsen, Enevold; Quensen, John F; Tiedje, James M; Vandamme, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Strain LB400T is the best-studied polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader. This organism has previously been allocated in the genus Burkholderia, since its 16S rRNA gene sequence shows 98.6 % sequence similarity to the type strains of Burkholderia graminis and Burkholderia terricola. A polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the actual taxonomic position of this biotechnologically important organism and of two strains, one recovered from a blood culture vial and one from a coffee plant rhizosphere, both of which resembled strain LB400T in their whole-cell protein patterns. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that the three strains represented a single novel species, for which the name Burkholderia xenovorans sp. nov. is proposed. Strains of this novel species can be differentiated phenotypically from nearly all other Burkholderia species by their inability to assimilate L-arabinose. The whole-cell fatty acid profile of B. xenovorans strains is consistent with their classification in the genus Burkholderia, with 18 : 1omega7c, 16 : 1omega7c, 16 : 0, 14 : 0 3OH, 16 : 0 3OH, 17 : 0 cyclo and 14 : 0 being the most abundant fatty acids. The G + C content of the species varies between 62.4 and 62.9 mol%. The type strain of B. xenovorans is LB400T (= LMG 21463T = CCUG 46959T = NRRL B-18064T). PMID:15388727

  15. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOAL-CALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. hese results are attributed to differences in the...

  16. Complete genome sequence of Deinococcus maricopensis type strain (LB-34T)

    SciTech Connect

    Pukall, Rudiger; Zeytun, Ahmet; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Nolan, Matt; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Pati, Amrita; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Deinococcus maricopensis (Rainey and da Costa 2005) is a member of the genus Deinococcus, which is comprised of 44 validly named species and is located within the deeply branching bacterial phylum Deinococcus Thermus. Strain LB-34T was isolated from a soil sample from the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. Various species of the genus Deinococcus are characterized by extreme radiation resistance, with D. maricopensis being resistant in excess of 10 kGy. Even though the genomes of three Deinococcus species, D. radiodurans, D. geothermalis and D. deserti, have already been published, no special physiological characteristic is currently known that is unique to this group. It is therefore of special interest to analyze the genomes of additional species of the genus Deinococcus to better understand how these species adapted to gamma- or UV ionizing-radiation. The 3,498,530 bp long genome of D. maricopensis with its 3,301 protein-coding and 66 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Induction of bphA, Encoding Biphenyl Dioxygenase, in Two Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Bacteria, Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas Strain Cam-1 and Mesophilic Burkholderia Strain LB400

    PubMed Central

    Master, Emma R.; Mohn, William W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated induction of biphenyl dioxygenase in the psychrotolerant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader Pseudomonas strain Cam-1 and in the mesophilic PCB degrader Burkholderia strain LB400. Using a counterselectable gene replacement vector, we inserted a lacZ-Gmr fusion cassette between chromosomal genes encoding the large subunit (bphA) and small subunit (bphE) of biphenyl dioxygenase in Cam-1 and LB400, generating Cam-10 and LB400-1, respectively. Potential inducers of bphA were added to cell suspensions of Cam-10 and LB400-1 incubated at 30°C, and then beta-galactosidase activity was measured. Biphenyl induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10 to a level approximately six times greater than the basal level in cells incubated with pyruvate. In contrast, the beta-galactosidase activities in LB400-1 incubated with biphenyl and in LB400-1 incubated with pyruvate were indistinguishable. At a concentration of 1 mM, most of the 40 potential inducers tested were inhibitory to induction by biphenyl of beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10. The exceptions were naphthalene, salicylate, 2-chlorobiphenyl, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, which induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10, although at levels that were no more than 30% of the levels induced by biphenyl. After incubation for 24 h at 7°C, biphenyl induced beta-galactosidase activity in Cam-10 to a level approximately four times greater than the basal level in cells incubated with pyruvate. The constitutive level of beta-galactosidase activity in LB400-1 grown at 15°C was approximately five times less than the level in LB400-1 grown at 30°C. Thus, there are substantial differences in the effects of physical and chemical environmental conditions on genetic regulation of PCB degradation in different bacteria. PMID:11375179

  18. The human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 secretes a nonbacteriocin antibacterial substance(s) active in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bernet-Camard, M F; Liévin, V; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L; Hudault, S

    1997-07-01

    The adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells (M. F. Bernet, D. Brassard, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, Gut 35:483-489, 1994). Here, we demonstrate that strain LA1 developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium. We present evidence that the spent culture supernatant of strain LA1 (LA1-SCS) contained antibacterial components active against S. typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was insensitive to proteases and independent of lactic acid production. PMID:9212421

  19. The human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 secretes a nonbacteriocin antibacterial substance(s) active in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bernet-Camard, M F; Liévin, V; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L; Hudault, S

    1997-01-01

    The adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells (M. F. Bernet, D. Brassard, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, Gut 35:483-489, 1994). Here, we demonstrate that strain LA1 developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium. We present evidence that the spent culture supernatant of strain LA1 (LA1-SCS) contained antibacterial components active against S. typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was insensitive to proteases and independent of lactic acid production. PMID:9212421

  20. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Karska-Wysocki, Barbara; Bazo, Mari; Smoragiewicz, Wanda

    2010-10-20

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant microorganism and the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria against MRSA from ten human clinical isolates as well as MRSA standard strain ATCC 43300 was tested in vitro. The Lactobacillus (Lb.) strains (Lb. acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lb. casei LBC80R) as pure cultures, which came from commercial food products were employed. The growth inhibitory effect produced by the antimicrobial activity of the lactic acid bacteria on the MRSA strains was tested on solid medium using agar diffusion methods as well as a using a liquid medium procedure that contained a mixture of MRSA and lactic acid bacteria cultures. In the latter instance, we were able to demonstrate that the direct interaction of lactic acid bacteria and MRSA in such a mixture led to the elimination of 99% of the MRSA cells after 24 h of their incubation at 37°C. PMID:20116228

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Strain CIP 76.13T, Isolated from Humans, Strains CIRM-BIA 442 and CIRM-BIA 445, Isolated from Dairy Products, and Strains DSM 20242 and DSM 9126 of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Falentin, Hélène; Cousin, Sylvie; Clermont, Dominique; Creno, Sophie; Ma, Laurence; Chuat, Victoria; Loux, Valentin; Rüdiger, Pukall; Bizet, Chantal; Bouchier, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a natural inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal systems and is used in dairy and pharmaceutical products. Five draft genome sequences, covering 1,995,790 nucleotides (nt) on average, are divided into 19 to 34 scaffolds covering 1,995 to 2,053 genes. The draft genome sequences were compared to the sequence of the L. acidophilus NCFM dairy strain. PMID:23969059

  2. Bacteriocin production and resistance to drugs are advantageous features for Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14, a potential probiotic strain.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Furtado, Danielle Nader; Saad, Susana Marta Isay; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora

    2011-10-01

    L. acidophilus La-14 produces bacteriocin active against L. monocytogenes ScottA (1600 AU/ml) in MRS broth at 30°C or 37°C. The bacteriocin proved inhibitory to different serological types of Listeria spp. Antimicrobial activity was completely lost after treatment of the cell-free supernatant with proteolytic enzymes. Addition of bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus La-14 to a 3 h-old culture of L. monocytogenes ScottA repressed cell growth in the following 8h. Treatment of stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes ScottA (107-108 CFU/ml) by the bacteriocin resulted in growth inhibition. Growth of L. acidophilus La-14 was not inhibited by commercial drugs from different generic groups, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) containing diclofenac potassium or ibuprofen arginine. Only one non-antibiotic drug tested, Atlansil (an antiarrhythmic agent), had an inhibitory effect on L. acidophilus La-14 with MIC of 2.5 mg/ml. L. acidophilus La-14 was not affected by drugs containing sodium or potassium diclofenac. L. acidophilus La-14 shows a good resistance to several drugs and may be applied in combination for therapeutic use. PMID:22143809

  3. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOMPONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. ix open reading frames were identified, four of which are, homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  4. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus FSI4, Isolated from Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Iartchouk, Oleg; Kozyavkin, Sergei; Karamychev, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    A new Lactobacillus acidophilus strain, FSI4, isolated from yogurt, was isolated and sequenced in our laboratory. Our data, although supportive of previous conclusions regarding the remarkable stability of L. acidophilus species, indicate accumulating mutations in commercial L. acidophilus strains that warrant further study of the effect of damaged genes on the competitiveness of these bacteria in gut microbiota. PMID:25858829

  6. Purification and characterization of the oxygenase component of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400.

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, J D; Gibson, D T

    1995-01-01

    The iron-sulfur protein of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (ISPBPH) was purified from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400. The protein is composed of a 1:1 ratio of a large (alpha) subunit with an estimated molecular weight of 53,300 and a small (beta) subunit with an estimated molecular weight of 27,300. The native molecular weight was 209,000, indicating that the protein adopts an alpha 3 beta 3 native conformation. Measurements of iron and acid-labile sulfide gave 2 mol of each per mol of alpha beta heterodimer. The absorbance spectrum showed peaks at 325 and 450 nm with a broad shoulder at 550 nm. The spectrum was bleached upon reduction of the protein with NADPH in the presence of catalytic amounts of ferredoxinBPH and ferredoxinBPH oxidoreductase. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the reduced protein showed three signals at gx = 1.74, gy = 1.92, and gz = 2.01. These properties are characteristic of proteins that contain a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] center. Biphenyl was oxidized to cis-(2R,3S)-dihydroxy-1-phenylcyclohexa-4,6-diene by ISPBPH in the presence of ferredoxinBPH, ferredoxinBPH oxidoreductase, NADPH, and ferrous iron. Naphthalene was also oxidized to a cis-dihydrodiol, but only 3% was converted to product under the same conditions that gave 92% oxidation of biphenyl. Benzene, toluene, 2,5-dichlorotoluene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene were not oxidized. ISPBPH is proposed to be the terminal oxygenase component of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase where substrate binding and oxidation occur via addition of molecular oxygen and two reducing equivalents. PMID:7592331

  7. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  8. Genetic and functional aspects of linoleate isomerase in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, Martin; Robert, Normand; Lee, Byong H

    2010-08-01

    While the remarkable health effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) catalyzed from alpha-linoleic acid by the enzyme linoleate isomerase (LI, EC 5.2.1.5) are well recognized, how widely this biochemical activity is present and the mechanisms of its regulation in lactic acid bacteria are unknown. Although certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus can enrich CLA in fermented dairy products, it is unknown if other strains share this capacity. Due to its immense economic importance, this work aimed to investigate genetic aspects of CLA production in L. acidophilus for the first time. The genomic DNA from industrial and type strains of L. acidophilus were subjected to PCR and immunoblot analyses using the putative LI gene of L. reuteri ATCC 55739 as probe. The CLA production ability was estimated by gas chromatography of the biomass extracts. The presumptive LI gene from L. acidophilus ATCC 832 was isolated and sequenced. The resulting sequence shared 71% identity with that of L. reuteri and at least 99% with reported sequences from other L. acidophilus strains. All the strains accumulated detectable levels of CLA and tested positive by PCR and immunoblotting. However, no apparent correlation was observed between the yields and the hybridization patterns. The results suggest that LI activity might be common among L. acidophilus and related species and provide a new tool for screening potential CLA producers. PMID:20461509

  9. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group and the Lactobacillus acidophilus group by automated ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Ryu, C S; Czajka, J W; Sakamoto, M; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    A total of 91 type and reference strains of the Lactobacillus casei group and the L acidophilus group were characterized by the automated ribotyping device Riboprinter microbial characterization system. The L. casei group was divided into five (C1-C5) genotypes by ribotyping. Among them, the strain of L. casei ATCC 334 was clustered to the same genotype group as most of L. paracasei strains and L casei JCM 1134T generated a riboprint pattern that was different from the type strain of L. zeae. These results supported the designation of L. casei ATCC 334 as the neotype strain, but were not consistent with the reclassification of L. casei JCM 1134T as L. zeae. The L. acidophilus group was also divided into 14 (A1-A11, B1-B3) genotypes by ribotyping. L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus and L. gallinarum generated ribotype patterns that were distinct from the patterns produced by L. gasseri and L. johnsonii. This result confirmed previous data that the L. acidophilus group divided to two major clusters. Five strains of L. acidophilus and two strains of L. gasseri were correctly reidentified by ribotyping. Most strains belonging to the L. casei group and the L. acidophilus group were discriminated at the species level by automated ribotyping. Thus this RiboPrinter system yields rapid, accurate and reproducible genetic information for the identification of many strains. PMID:11386416

  10. Regiospecificity of Dioxygenation of Di- to Pentachlorobiphenyls and Their Degradation to Chlorobenzoates by the bph-Encoded Catabolic Pathway of Burkholderia sp. Strain LB400

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Michael; Zielinski, Marco; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Hofer, Bernd

    1999-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 is one of the most potent aerobic polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-degrading microorganisms that have been characterized. Its PCB-dioxygenating activity originates predominantly or exclusively from the biphenyl dioxygenase encoded by its bph gene cluster. Analysis of the dioxygenation products of several di- to pentachlorinated biphenyls formed by this enzyme revealed a complex dependence of the regiospecificity and the yield of dioxygenation on the substitution patterns of both the oxidized and the nonoxidized rings. No dioxygenolytic attack involving chlorinated meta or para carbons was observed. Therefore, the ability of the enzyme to hydroxylate chlorinated carbons appears to be limited to the ortho position. However, it is not limited to monochlorinated rings, as evidenced by dioxygenation of the 2,4-disubstituted ring at carbons 2 and 3. This site of attack is strikingly different from that of the 2,5-dichlorinated ring, which has been shown to be dihydroxylated at positions 3 and 4 (J. D. Haddock, J. R. Horton, and D. T. Gibson, J. Bacteriol. 177:20–26, 1995). These results demonstrate that a second substituent of ortho-chlorinated rings crucially influences the site of dioxygenation at this ring and thereby determines whether or not the initial chlorobiphenyl oxidation product is further metabolized through the bph-encoded pathway. The 2,4-dichlorinated ring can alternatively be attacked at carbons 5 and 6. The preferred site crucially depends on the substitution pattern of the other ring. The formation of more than a single dioxygenation product was found predominantly with congeners that contain two chlorinated rings, both of which are similarly prone to dioxygenation or one is substituted only at carbon 3. PMID:10427057

  11. [Study on effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus MG2-1 on serum lipid metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, He-Ping; Chen, Yong-Fu; Guan, Hong; Zhou, Dong-Po

    2005-12-01

    Wistar rats were fed with a high lipid diet supplemented with living or thermal death bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus MG2-1 which was isolated from koumiss in Mongolia and was of good ability of acid tolerance and decreasing the level of cholesterol in vitro. The effect of Lb. acidophilus MG2-1 on the metabolism of serum cholesterol was discussed. It was showed that it was on the 14th day of experiment that the inhibiting effects of the increase of serum cholesterol level of rat groups fed with living bacteria and heat-killed bacteria was significantly (p > 0.05) and very significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of the high lipid diet group respectively; at the same time, the level of serum HDL-C of the thermal death bacteria group was significantly higher than that of the high lipid diet group (p < 0.05), also arteriosclerosis index of wistar rats in experimental group is significantly lower than that of the high lipid diet group (p < 0.01). The total bile acid level of the thermal death bacteria group in fecal is significantly higher than that of the high lipid diet group (p < 0.05). It is suggested that the increase of serum cholesterol level in rats can be inhibited and arteriosclerosis can also be prevented by this strain. During the period of tests, the effect of the strain on serum lipid in rats weaken with the time going, while the dose of bacteria fed was not changed. PMID:16496693

  12. ESR spin trapping for characterization of radical formation in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Anni B; Arneborg, Nils; Andersen, Mogens L; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-09-01

    In this study, radicals in pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Listeria innocua were detected in a quantitative way by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) or N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN). No adverse effect of spin trap addition on viability was observed for any of the bacterial strains. L. acidophilus NCFM had a higher production of radicals than L. innocua when incubated in a growth medium. Furthermore, by using DMPO in a buffer system, the radicals produced by L. acidophilus NCFM could be identified as hydroxyl radicals. The presence of polyethylene glycol, impermeable for bacterial cells, decreased the signal intensity of the ESR spectrum of the DMPO-OH adduct in cultures of L. acidophilus NCFM and indicated quenching of hydroxyl radicals outside the bacteria. This suggests that radical production is an extracellular event for L. acidophilus NCFM. PMID:23811362

  13. Role of transporter proteins in bile tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Erika A; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM derivatives containing deletion mutations in the transporter genes LBA0552, LBA1429, LBA1446, and LBA1679 exhibited increased sensitivity to bile. These strains showed unique patterns of sensitivity to a variety of inhibitory compounds, as well as differential accumulations of ciprofloxacin and taurocholate. PMID:19633113

  14. Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria in milk.

    PubMed

    Østlie, Hilde M; Helland, Merete H; Narvhus, Judith A

    2003-10-15

    Growth and metabolism of five probiotic strains with well-documented health effects were studied in ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk, supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) tryptone or 0.75% (w/v) fructose. The probiotic strains were Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Lb. acidophilus 1748, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri SD 2112 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12. Fermentation was followed for 72 h at 37 degrees C and the samples were analysed for pH, log cfu ml(-1), volatile compounds, organic acids and carbon dioxide. The strains reduced pH from 6.7 to between 3.9 and 4.4 after 24 h of incubation. All strains attained viable cell counts above 8.7-9.18 log cfu ml(-1) after 6-16 h of incubation. The two Lb. acidophilus strains showed a stable level of viable cells during 12-72 h of incubation but the three other strains showed a reduction of 0.4-1.1 log cfu ml(-1) from 24 to 72 h of incubation. However, all strains showed cell levels between 7.8 and 8.7 log cfu ml(-1) after 72 h of incubation. After 48 h of incubation, the amount of lactic acid produced varied according to strain from 6949 to 14,000 mg kg(-1) and acetic acid produced varied from 0 to 6901 mg kg(-1). Three of the strains metabolised citrate but only low amounts of diacetyl and acetoin were detected within strains, 0.2-0.8 and 6.5-10 mg kg(-1), respectively. Carbon dioxide produced varied from 221 to 3942 mg kg(-1) and was connected to the citrate-fermenting ability of the strain used and their carbohydrate fermentation pathway. Three of the strains produced detectable levels of acetaldehyde and the concentration varied from 9.4 to 12.6 mg kg(-1) after 24 h of incubation. All five probiotic strains showed very different profiles of metabolites during fermentation; however, the two Lb. acidophilus strains were the most alike. Our findings show the importance of controlling the fermentation time since the probiotic strains produced different amounts of metabolic products according to

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Simone FG; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia CA; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio OC; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. PMID:25654408

  16. Screening of Lactobacilli derived from chicken feces and partial characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus A12 as an animal probiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Yun, Cheol-Won; Kim, Seung Wook; Chang, Hyo-Ihl; Kang, Chang-Won; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2008-02-01

    This study was performed to screen and select Lactobacillus strains from chicken feces for probiotic use in animals. Of these strains, strain A12 had the highest immunostimulatory effect. Therefore, strain A12 was characterized as a potential probiotic. Strain A12 was tentatively identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus A12, using the API 50 CHL kit based on a 99.9% homology. L. acidophilus A12 was highly resistant to artificial gastric juice (pH 2.5) and bile acid (oxgall). Based on results from the API ZYM kit, leucine arylamidase, crystine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, alpha-galactosidase, beta- galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-beta- glucosamidase were produced by strain A12. L. acidophilus A12 showed resistance to several antibiotics (nisin, gentamycin, and erythromycin). The amount of interleukin (IL)-1alpha in 20x concentrated supernatant from L. acidophilus A12 was approximately 156 pg/ml. With regard to antioxidant activity, L. acidophilus A12 supernatant showed 60.6% DPPH radical scavenging activity. These results demonstrate the potential use of L. acidophilus A12 as a health-promoting probiotics. PMID:18309281

  17. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  18. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-01

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. PMID:21807435

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    PubMed

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management. PMID:26946538

  20. S layer protein A of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM regulates immature dendritic cell and T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Sergey R; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M; Bruijns, Sven C M; Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Valence, Florence; Molle, Daniel; Lortal, Sylvie; Altermann, Eric; Klaenhammer, Todd R; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2008-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in mucosal tolerance. They regularly encounter beneficial intestinal bacteria, but the nature of these cellular contacts and the immune responses elicited by the bacteria are not entirely elucidated. Here, we examined the interactions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and its cell surface compounds with DCs. L. acidophilus NCFM attached to DCs and induced a concentration-dependent production of IL-10, and low IL-12p70. We further demonstrated that the bacterium binds to DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a DC- specific receptor. To identify the DC-SIGN ligand present on the bacterium, we took advantage of a generated array of L. acidophilus NCFM mutants. A knockout mutant of L. acidophilus NCFM lacking the surface (S) layer A protein (SlpA) was significantly reduced in binding to DC-SIGN. This mutant incurred a chromosomal inversion leading to dominant expression of a second S layer protein, SlpB. In the SlpB-dominant strain, the nature of the interaction of this bacterium with DCs changed dramatically. Higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12p70, TNFalpha, and IL-1beta were produced by DCs interacting with the SlpB-dominant strain compared with the parent NCFM strain. Unlike the SlpA-knockout mutant, T cells primed with L. acidophilus NCFM stimulated DCs produced more IL-4. The SlpA-DC-SIGN interaction was further confirmed as purified SlpA protein ligated directly to the DC-SIGN. In conclusion, the major S layer protein, SlpA, of L. acidophilus NCFM is the first probiotic bacterial DC-SIGN ligand identified that is functionally involved in the modulation of DCs and T cells functions. PMID:19047644

  1. Bacteriocins Produced by L. Fermentum and L. Acidophilus Can Inhibit Cephalosporin Resistant E. Coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Saba; Kashif Nawaz, Syed; Hasnain, Shahida

    2010-01-01

    Reemerging infections occur due to resistant bacteria. Such infections create restrictions for clinicians and microbiologists in drug selection. Such problems demand new strategies for solution. Use of bacteriocins for this purpose may be fruitful. In the present research work, the inhibitory effects of bactericins on cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli are used as model system for the control of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. Cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli strain was isolated from pus by using conventional methodology. For bacteriocin production, Lactobacilli strains were selected by using selective media. Out of seventy two strains isolated from yogurt, fecal materials of human, chick, parrot and cat, only two strains (strain 45 and strain 52) were found to produce bacteriocins having antimicrobial potential against cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization showed that strain 45 belonged to group of Lactobacillus fermentum and strain 52 to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both strains showed maximum growth at 25°C and 35°C respectively. Suitable pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus respectively. Bacteriocins produced by both strains were found stable at 50, 75 and 100°C for 60min. Function of bacteriocin was also not disturbed due to change in pH. These findings suggest that bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus can be used for the infection control of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli. PMID:24031540

  2. The inhibitory effect of a Lactobacillus acidophilus derived biosurfactant on biofilm producer Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhfard, Maliheh; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Shahandashti, Roya Vahedi; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Teimourian, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Serratia marcescens is one of the nosocomial pathogen with the ability to form biofilm which is an important feature in the pathogenesis of S. marcescens. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-adhesive properties of a biosurfactant isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, on S. marcescens strains. Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was selected as a probiotic strain for biosurfactant production. Anti-adhesive activities was determined by pre-coating and co- incubating methods in 96-well culture plates. Results: The FTIR analysis of derived biosurfactant revealed the composition as protein component. Due to the release of such biosurfactants, L. acidophilus was able to interfere with the adhesion and biofilm formation of the S. marcescens strains. In co-incubation method, this biosurfactant in 2.5 mg/ml concentration showed anti-adhesive activity against all tested strains of S. marcescens (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results show that the anti-adhesive properties of L. acidophilus biosurfactant has the potential to be used against microorganisms responsible for infections in the urinary, vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as skin, making it a suitable alternative to conventional antibiotics. PMID:26730335

  3. The protective effect of recombinant FomA-expressing Lactobacillus acidophilus against periodontal infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Ding, Qinfeng; Feng, Xiping; Li, Fei

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that the outer membrane protein FomA found in Fusobacterium nucleatum demonstrates great potential as an immune target for combating periodontitis. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a useful antigen delivery vehicle for mucosal immunisation, and previous studies by our group have shown that L. acidophilus acts as a protective factor in periodontal health. In this study, making use of the immunogenicity of FomA and the probiotic properties of L. acidophilus, we constructed a recombinant form of L. acidophilus expressing the FomA protein and detected the FomA-specific IgG in the serum and sIgA in the saliva of mice through oral administration with the recombinant strains. When serum containing FomA-specific antibodies was incubated with the F. nucleatum in vitro, the number of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells that coaggregated with the F. nucleatum cells was significantly reduced. Furthermore, a mouse gum abscess model was successfully generated, and the range of gingival abscesses in the immune mice was relatively limited compared with the control group. The level of IL-1β in the serum and local gum tissues of the immune mice was consistently lower than in the control group. Our findings indicated that oral administration of the recombinant L. acidophilus reduced the risk of periodontal infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. PMID:23644821

  4. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of an herbal dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Bhatnagar, Maheep; Sharma, Kanika

    2008-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of a herbal dentifrice Arodent against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was evaluated using Colgate as standard. Both bacterial strains were isolated from the oral cavity on selective media and identified by standard methods. The antibacterial activity was assayed by cup-well method. The bacterial lawn of facultative anaerobe S. mutans was established between two layers of agar under microaerophilic conditions. Five and a half millimeters and 10 mm zones of inhibition were produced by Arodent against S. mutans and L. acidophilus , respectively, under microaerophilic conditions. On the other hand, the standard dentifrice Colgate produced 5.83 mm and 10.17 mm zones of inhibition against S. mutans and L. acidophilus , respectively, under microaerophilic condition. The results suggest that Arodent is an effective antibacterial herbal dentifrice. PMID:18245920

  5. Potential of functional strains, isolated from traditional Maasai milk, as starters for the production of fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Mathara, Julius Maina; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this research was the evaluation of technological features and of the ability of functional LAB strains with desirable sensory characteristics, to produce fermented milk. Eight strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactococcus lactis, isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya and previously tested for their probiotic properties, were selected for this investigation. Technological features such as growth kinetics in fresh heat-treated whole milk medium and survival in the final product during storage at 4 degrees C, were studied. The strains Lb. acidophilus BFE 6,059, Lb. paracasei BFE 5,264 and Lc. lactis BFE 6,049 showed the best potential and were thus selected for use as starter cultures in further trials with the objective to improve their technological performance and to optimise the sensory features of fermented milk obtained. The effects of fat (F), non-fat milk solids (S) and fermentation temperature (T), modulated according to a Central Composite Design, on fermentation rates and viability losses during refrigerated storage of the chosen starters, and on product texture parameters, were studied. From the data analysis, it was possible to select optimum conditions for enhancing positive sensory traits of final products and for improving the survival of these potentially probiotic cultures. PMID:16271787

  6. Biomarkers involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress response in the liver of Goodea gracilis Hubbs and Turner, 1939 exposed to the microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa LB85 strain.

    PubMed

    Olivares Rubio, Hugo F; Martínez-Torres, M Lysset; Nájera-Martínez, Minerva; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2015-09-01

    Goodea gracilis is an endemic fish that only habitats in some water bodies of Central Mexico that are contaminated with cyanobacteria-producing microcystins (MC); however, a lack of information on this topic prevails. With the aim to generate the first approximation about the physiological changes elicited by cyanobacterium that produce MC congeners in this fish species, specimens born in the laboratory was exposed for 96 h to cell densities of 572.5, 1145, 2290, 4580, and 9160 × 10(6) cells of Microcystis aeruginosa strain LB85/L, and a set of novel endpoint related to hepatic gluconeogenesis (ADH/LDH) and pro-oxidant forces O2., H2 O2 ) in addition to biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant response was evaluated in the liver. Results suggest that high inhibition of protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP) may trigger many metabolic processes, such as those related to hepatic gluconeogenesis (ADH/LDH) and pro-oxidant O2⋅, H2 O2 , TBARS, ROOH, RC=O) as well as antioxidant (SOD, CAT, GPx) response to oxidative stress. Particularly, we observed that inhibition of LDH and PP, and H2 O2 increase and TBARS production were the key damages induced by high densities of M. aeruginosa. However, changes between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism related with ROS metabolism and ADH/LDH balance are apparently an acclimation of this fish species to exposure to cyanobacteria or their MCs. Fish species living in environments potentially contaminated with cyanobacteria or their MCs possess mechanisms of acclimation that allow them to offset the damage induced, even in the case of fish that have never been exposed to MCs. PMID:24639371

  7. Development of a Tiered Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W.; Pfeiler, Erika A.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  8. Development of a tiered multilocus sequence typing scheme for members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W; Pfeiler, Erika A; Elkins, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  9. Lipoteichoic acid-deficient Lactobacillus acidophilus regulates downstream signals.

    PubMed

    Saber, Rana; Zadeh, Mojgan; Pakanati, Krishna C; Bere, Praveen; Klaenhammer, Todd; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2011-03-01

    The trillions of microbes residing within the intestine induce critical signals that either regulate or stimulate host immunity via their bacterial products. To better understand the immune regulation elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-deficient Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in steady state and induced inflammation, we deleted phosphoglycerol transferase gene, which synthesizes LTA in L. acidophilus NCFM. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted in order to compare the immune regulatory properties of the L. acidophilus strain deficient in LTA (NCK2025) with its wild-type parent (NCK56) in C57BL/6, C57BL/6 recombination-activation gene 1-deficient (Rag1 (-/-)) and C57BL/6 Rag1(-/-)IL-10(-/-) mice. We demonstrate that NCK2025 significantly activates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 but downregulates the phosphorylation of Akt1, cytosolic group IV PLA2 and p38 in mouse dendritic cells. Similarly, mice treated orally with NCK2025 exhibit decreased phosphorylation of inflammatory signals (Akt1, cytosolic group IV PLA2 or P38) but upregulate Erk1/2-phosphorylation in colonic epithelial cells in comparison with mice treated with NCK56. In addition, regulation of pathogenic CD4+ T cell induced colitis by NCK2025 was observed in Rag1 (-/-) but not Rag1(-/-)IL-10 (-/-) mice suggests a critical role of IL-10 that may be tightly regulated by Erk1/2 signaling. These data highlight the immunosuppressive properties of NCK2025 to deliver regulatory signals in innate cells, which results in the mitigation of T-cell-induced colitis in vivo. PMID:21395377

  10. Membrane filter method to study the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hidenori; Benno, Yoshimi

    2015-11-01

    A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132(T) and B. longum JCM1217(T) ) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication. Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus pasteurianus, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Clostridium spp. were the most abundant gut bacteria detected before coculture with the test strains. Results of the coculture experiments indicated that the test strains significantly promote the growth of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques, and Veillonella spp. and inhibit the growth of Sutterella wadsworthensis. Differences in the relative abundances of gut bacterial strains were furthermore observed after coculture of the fecal samples with each test strain. Bifidobacterium spp., which was detected as the dominant strain in the fecal samples, was found to be unaffected by coculture with the test strains. In the present study, interbacterial communication using bacterial metabolites between the test strains and the gut microbiota was demonstrated by the coculture technique. The detailed mechanisms and effects of the complex interbacterial communications that occur among the gut microbiota are, however, still unclear. Further investigation of these relationships by coculture of several fecal samples with probiotic strains is urgently required. PMID:26486646

  11. Effect of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors on a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Negga, Rekek; Zeng, Ximin; Smith, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH), a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. Recent studies suggest that BSH inhibitors are promising alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) for enhanced animal growth performance and food safety. Using a high-purity BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we have identified a panel of BSH inhibitors. However, it is still unknown if these inhibitors also effectively inhibit the function of the BSH enzymes from other bacterial species with different sequence and substrate spectrum. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis and determined the inhibitory effect of identified BSH inhibitors on a BSH from L. acidophilus. Although the L. acidophilus BSH is phylogenetically distant from the L. salivarius BSH, sequence analysis and structure modeling indicated the two BSH enzymes contain conserved, catalytically important amino residues and domain. His-tagged recombinant BSH from L. acidophilus was further purified and used to determine inhibitory effect of specific compounds. Previously identified BSH inhibitors also exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the L. acidophilus BSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BSH from L. salivarius is an ideal candidate for screening BSH inhibitors, the promising alternatives to AGP for enhanced feed efficiency, growth performance and profitability of food animals. PMID:25526498

  12. Functional Analysis of an S-Layer-Associated Fibronectin-Binding Protein in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Hymes, Jeffrey P.; Johnson, Brant R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps) that comprise the outermost layer of the cell envelope. Many additional proteins that are associated with or embedded within the S-layer have been identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, an S-layer-forming bacterium that is widely used in fermented dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on the in silico detection of a fibronectin-binding domain. Fibronectin is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of intestinal epithelial cells. Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells is considered an important trait for probiotic microorganisms during transit and potential association with the intestinal mucosa. To investigate the functional role of LBA0191 (designated FbpB) in L. acidophilus NCFM, an fbpB-deficient strain was constructed. The L. acidophilus mutant with a deletion of fbpB lost the ability to adhere to mucin and fibronectin in vitro. Homologues of fbpB were identified in five additional putative S-layer-forming species, but no homologues were detected in species outside the L. acidophilus homology group. PMID:26921419

  13. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  14. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  15. S-layer production by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 under environmental stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Brown, Lucia; Hebert, Elvira M; Brezeanu, Aurelia; Brinzan, Alexandru; Fadda, Silvina; Mozzi, Fernanda; Zamfir, Medana

    2016-05-01

    The ability of microorganisms to synthesize S-layer, the outermost structure of the microbial cell envelope composed of non-covalently bound proteins, has been ascribed to help microorganisms to exert their probiotic properties in the host. In this work, formation of S-layer by the potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 under different stress culture conditions (high incubation temperatures, presence of bile salts or NaCl, and acidic pH) was assayed. A marked S-layer synthesis by L. acidophilus IBB 801 was detected when the strain was grown at 42 °C and in the presence of 0.05 % bile salts or 2.0 % NaCl. The presence of S-layer proteins was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and protein identification by MS/MS. The differential expression of the proteome of this strain at 42 °C, when a marked formation of S-layer was detected, revealed the overexpression of six proteins mainly related to general stress and protein biosynthesis and translation, while four proteins detected in lower amounts were involved in DNA repair and energy metabolism. As L. acidophilus IBB 801 produces both a bacteriocin and S-layer proteins, the strain could be of interest to be used in the formulation of functional food products with specific properties. PMID:26910041

  16. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  17. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  18. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in Balb/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  19. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  20. The quorum sensing luxS gene is induced in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in response to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-10-01

    The luxS gene involved in quorum sensing has been shown to control different behaviour of probiotic lactobacilli. In this study we investigated if luxS in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM was up-regulated in response to Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. The two bacterial strains were grown in mono- and co-culture and the growth of both bacteria and the transcriptional level of luxS in L. acidophilus cells were monitored. Contrary to L. acidophilus, the growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly affected by co-cultivation. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of luxS increased during exponential growth in L. acidophilus cells with the highest level in the late-exponential growth phase, decreasing in the stationary phase. Following co-cultivation with L. monocytogenes, the transcriptional level of luxS increased significantly in mid-exponential growing cells of L. acidophilus after incubation with viable L. monocytogenes cells and by addition of cell-free culture supernatant of L. monocytogenes, whereas incubation with heat killed cells of L. monocytogenes had no effect on the transcriptional level. This could indicate that the up-regulation of luxS is due to a response to a secreted compound produced by L. monocytogenes cells. PMID:21784546

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Nielsen, Birgit Nøhr; Jarmer, Hanne; Jespersen, Lene; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotics that, among other health-promoting effects, have been ascribed immunostimulating and virus-preventive properties. Certain Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to possess strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) -inducing properties. As IL-12 production depends on the up-regulation of type I interferons (IFNs), we hypothesized that the strong IL-12-inducing capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) is caused by an up-regulation of IFN-β, which subsequently induces IL-12 and the double-stranded RNA binding Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). The expression of the genes encoding IFN-β, TLR-3, IL-12 and IL-10 in DCs upon stimulation with L. acidophilus NCFM was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM induced a much stronger expression of Ifn-β, Il-12 and Il-10 compared with the synthetic double-stranded RNA ligand Poly I:C, whereas the levels of expressed Tlr-3 were similar. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis revealed that other genes related to viral defence were significantly up-regulated and among the strongest induced genes in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. The ability to induce IFN-β was also detected in another L. acidophilus strain (X37), but was not a property of other probiotic strains tested, i.e. Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The IFN-β expression was markedly reduced in TLR-2−/− DCs, dependent on endocytosis, and the major cause of the induction of Il-12 and Tlr-3 in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. Collectively, our results reveal that certain lactobacilli trigger the expression of viral defence genes in DCs in a TLR-2 manner dependent on IFN-β. PMID:20545783

  2. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Nielsen, Birgit Nøhr; Jarmer, Hanne; Jespersen, Lene; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-10-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotics that, among other health-promoting effects, have been ascribed immunostimulating and virus-preventive properties. Certain Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to possess strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) -inducing properties. As IL-12 production depends on the up-regulation of type I interferons (IFNs), we hypothesized that the strong IL-12-inducing capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) is caused by an up-regulation of IFN-β, which subsequently induces IL-12 and the double-stranded RNA binding Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). The expression of the genes encoding IFN-β, TLR-3, IL-12 and IL-10 in DCs upon stimulation with L. acidophilus NCFM was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM induced a much stronger expression of Ifn-β, Il-12 and Il-10 compared with the synthetic double-stranded RNA ligand Poly I:C, whereas the levels of expressed Tlr-3 were similar. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis revealed that other genes related to viral defence were significantly up-regulated and among the strongest induced genes in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. The ability to induce IFN-β was also detected in another L. acidophilus strain (X37), but was not a property of other probiotic strains tested, i.e. Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The IFN-β expression was markedly reduced in TLR-2(-/-) DCs, dependent on endocytosis, and the major cause of the induction of Il-12 and Tlr-3 in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. Collectively, our results reveal that certain lactobacilli trigger the expression of viral defence genes in DCs in a TLR-2 manner dependent on IFN-β. PMID:20545783

  3. Functional analysis of putative adhesion factors in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Buck, B Logan; Altermann, Eric; Svingerud, Tina; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2005-12-01

    Lactobacilli are major inhabitants of the normal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, and some select species have been used extensively as probiotic cultures. One potentially important property of these organisms is their ability to interact with epithelial cells in the intestinal tract, which may promote retention and host-bacterial communication. However, the mechanisms by which they attach to intestinal epithelial cells are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate cell surface proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus that may promote attachment to intestinal tissues. Using genome sequence data, predicted open reading frames were searched against known protein and protein motif databases to identify four proteins potentially involved in adhesion to epithelial cells. Homologous recombination was used to construct isogenic mutations in genes encoding a mucin-binding protein, a fibronectin-binding protein, a surface layer protein, and two streptococcal R28 homologs. The abilities of the mutants to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells were then evaluated in vitro. Each strain was screened on Caco-2 cells, which differentiate and express markers characteristic of normal small-intestine cells. A significant decrease in adhesion was observed in the fibronectin-binding protein mutant (76%) and the mucin-binding protein mutant (65%). A surface layer protein mutant also showed reduction in adhesion ability (84%), but the effect of this mutation is likely due to the loss of multiple surface proteins that may be embedded in the S-layer. This study demonstrated that multiple cell surface proteins in L. acidophilus NCFM can individually contribute to the organism's ability to attach to intestinal cells in vitro. PMID:16332821

  4. The brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, Thomas; Brown, Peter; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wayhu; Brunsden, Barry; Prior, Fred

    2005-04-01

    The brain of Homo floresiensis was assessed by comparing a virtual endocast from the type specimen (LB1) with endocasts from great apes, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, a human pygmy, a human microcephalic, specimen number Sts 5 (Australopithecus africanus), and specimen number WT 17000 (Paranthropus aethiopicus). Morphometric, allometric, and shape data indicate that LB1 is not a microcephalic or pygmy. LB1's brain/body size ratio scales like that of an australopithecine, but its endocast shape resembles that of Homo erectus. LB1 has derived frontal and temporal lobes and a lunate sulcus in a derived position, which are consistent with capabilities for higher cognitive processing. PMID:15749690

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using broth microdilution and molecular identification of their resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Mair, Christiane; Huys, Geert; Aarts, Henk J M; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2010-11-15

    The range of antibiotic susceptibility to 13 antibiotics in 101 strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group was examined using the lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test medium (LSM) and broth microdilution. Additionally, microarray analysis and PCR were applied to identify resistance genes responsible for the displayed resistant phenotypes in a selection of strains. In general, narrow as well as broad unimodal and bimodal MIC distributions were observed for the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and the tested antimicrobial agents. Atypically resistant strains could be determined by visual inspection of the obtained MIC ranges for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, streptomycin and tetracycline. For most of these atypically resistant strains underlying resistance determinants were found. To our knowledge erm(A) was detected in lactobacilli for the first time within this study. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing present microbiological breakpoints for categorization of susceptible and resistant strains within the Lactobacillus acidophilus group to assess the safety of microorganisms intended for use in food and feed applications. PMID:20888656

  6. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication by triple therapy plus Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to triple therapy alone.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, J A da Silva; Gonçalves, T M F O; Boyanova, L; Pereira, M I de Correia; de Carvalho, J N da Silva Paiva; Pereira, A M de Sousa; Cabrita, A M Silvério

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to a triple regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional, treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive H. pylori-positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy, with pre-treatment direct Gram-staining and culture of gastric biopsies. The first 31 patients received esomeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg (EAC), all b.i.d., for 8 days. The remaining 31 added L. acidophilus, 5 × 10(9) organisms per capsule, 3 + 2 i.d. for 8 days (EACL). The main outcome measure was (13)C urea breath test (UBT), ≥6 weeks after completion of therapy. Successful eradication (UBT-negativity after treatment), was similar in both groups (EAC = 80.6%; EACL = 83.9%, p = 0.740) by both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. The non-eradicated strains were susceptible in vitro to both antibiotics. Adding L. acidophilus to EAC triple therapy did not increase H. pylori eradication rates. Considering the cost and the burden of ingesting five extra capsules daily, supplementing the EAC therapy with L. acidophilus, at this dose, shows no benefit. Further studies with different dosages and duration of treatment, and other probiotics or probiotic combinations are required to improve eradication. PMID:21207091

  7. chr genes from adaptive replicons are responsible for chromate resistance by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gallegos, Rosa I; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Cervantes, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The chromate ion transporter (CHR) superfamily includes proteins that confer chromate resistance by extruding toxic chromate ions from cytoplasm. Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400 encodes six CHR homologues in its multireplicon genome and has been reported as highly chromate-resistant. The objective of this work was to analyze the involvement of chr redundant genes in chromate resistance by LB400. It was found that B. xenovorans plant rhizosphere strains lacking the megaplasmid are chromate-sensitive, suggesting that the chr gene present in this replicon is responsible for the chromate-resistance phenotype of the LB400 strain. Transformation of a chromate-sensitive B. xenovorans strain with each of the six cloned LB400 chr genes showed that genes from 'adaptive replicons' (chrA1b and chr1NCb from chromosome 2 and chrA2 from the megaplasmid) conferred higher chromate resistance levels than chr genes from 'central' chromosome 1 (chrA1a, chrA6, and chr1NCa). An LB400 insertion mutant affected in the chrA2 gene displayed a chromate-sensitive phenotype, which was fully reverted by transferring the chrA2 wild-type gene, and partially reverted by chrA1b or chr1NCb genes. These data indicate that chr genes from adaptive replicons, mainly chrA2 from the megaplasmid, are responsible for the B. xenovorans LB400 chromate-resistance phenotype. PMID:26873556

  8. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  9. Construction and immunogenicity of the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuelan; Jiang, Lufeng; Liu, Teng; Wang, Min; Cao, Wenbo; Bao, Yongzhan; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) is an infectious disease of cattle with a worldwide distribution, creating a substantial economic impact. It is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This research was conducted to construct the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of BVDV E0 gene and to test its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against BVDV infection in the mice model. The BVDV E0 gene was sub-cloned into the expression vector and then transformed into the L. acidophilus LA-5 strain by electroporation. The recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 was confirmed by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. The mice were immunized orally with the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The serum IgG antibody and fecal sIgA antibody responses, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were detected respectively. On the 7th day after the last-immunization, the mice were inoculated with BVDV to evaluate the protective efficiency of the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The results showed that the expressed products protein E0 in the L. acidophilus LA-5 resulted in single band of 27kDa by SDS-PAGE and its strong reactivity with BVDV antibody was confirmed by Western blotting. The IgG and sIgA antibodies responses, IL-12 and IFN-γ expression levels in the vaccinated mice with recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 were significantly higher than those in the control mice. The protective rate of the vaccinated mice against BVDV increased significantly, and a 90.00% protection rate in virulent challenge was observed. These results indicated that the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 strain was successfully constructed and it could effectively improve the immune response in mice and might provide protection against BVDV. PMID:26386184

  10. Astragalus Root and Elderberry Fruit Extracts Enhance the IFN-β Stimulatory Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Frøkiær, Hanne; Henningsen, Louise; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Weiss, Gudrun; Roller, Marc; Flanagan, John; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    Many foods and food components boost the immune system, but little data are available regarding the mechanisms by which they do. Bacterial strains have disparate effects in stimulating the immune system. Indendritic cells, the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli upregulates proinflammatory cytokines, whereas gram-positive Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a robust interferon (IFN)-β response. The immune-modulating effects of astragalus root and elderberry fruit extracts were examined in bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells that were stimulated with L. acidophilus or E. coli. IFN-β and other cytokines were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Endocytosis of fluorescence-labeled dextran and L. acidophilus in the presence of elderberry fruit or astragalus root extract was evaluated in dendritic cells. Our results show that both extracts enhanced L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β production and slightly decreased the proinflammatory response to E. coli. The enhanced IFN-β production was associated with upregulation of toll-like receptor 3 and to a varying degree, the cytokines IL-12, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α. Both extracts increased endocytosis in immature dendritic cells, and only slightly influenced the viability of the cells. In conclusion, astragalus root and elderberry fruit extracts increase the IFN-β inducing activity of L. acidophilus in dendritic cells, suggesting that they may exert antiviral and immune-enhancing activity. PMID:23118903

  11. Prebiotic Effects of Agave salmiana Fructans in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Cultures.

    PubMed

    Castro-Zavala, Adriana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan R; Alcocer-Gouyonnet, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Agave salmiana is a fructan rich species that is widely distributed in Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to extract the fructans of A. salmiana and evaluate their prebiotic effect in 48 hours in vitro cultures of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and to compare this effect with other available fructan sources. A significant difference in pH, optical density and biomass was found in the cultures depending on the source of fructans and the type of bacteria. It was possible to determine a dose-response effect of the A. salmiana fructans and the growth of the studied strains. PMID:26749843

  12. Enterotoxigenic intestinal bacteria in tropical sprue. IV. Effect of linoleic acid on growth interrelationships of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, M J; Klipstein, F A

    1975-11-01

    The factors responsible for colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic coliform bacteria in Puerto Ricans with tropical sprue are unknown, but epidemiological observations have suggested that they may be related to an increased dietary intake of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which is known to exert an inhibitory effect on the growth of gram-positive organisms that normally comprise the flora of the small intestine. We have examined, by using a glucose-limited continuous-culture system, what effect this fatty acid exerts on the growth relationships of enteric gram-positive and coliform bacteria. In this system, colonization by an invading strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was prevented by the presence of an established culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus, principally by virtue of a lowered pH of the medium that was incompatible with Klebsiella growth. However, when the population density of L. acidophilus was reduced by the presence of a sufficient concentration of linoleic acid, the invading K. pneumoniae successfully colonized the system and, once established, suppressed the growth of L. acidophilus. These observations indicate that, under the conditions of our chemostat, gram-positive enteric bacteria suppress coliform growth and that this effect is reversible by the presence of linoleic acid. It remains to be established, however, what pertinence these in vitro observations have to conditions within the intestinal tract of persons living in the tropics. PMID:811564

  13. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    PubMed

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages. PMID:23567124

  14. Functional Analysis of an S-Layer-Associated Fibronectin-Binding Protein in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Jeffrey P; Johnson, Brant R; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps) that comprise the outermost layer of the cell envelope. Many additional proteins that are associated with or embedded within the S-layer have been identified inLactobacillus acidophilusNCFM, an S-layer-forming bacterium that is widely used in fermented dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on thein silicodetection of a fibronectin-binding domain. Fibronectin is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of intestinal epithelial cells. Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells is considered an important trait for probiotic microorganisms during transit and potential association with the intestinal mucosa. To investigate the functional role of LBA0191 (designated FbpB) inL. acidophilusNCFM, anfbpB-deficient strain was constructed. TheL. acidophilusmutant with a deletion offbpBlost the ability to adhere to mucin and fibronectinin vitro Homologues offbpBwere identified in five additional putative S-layer-forming species, but no homologues were detected in species outside theL. acidophilushomology group. PMID:26921419

  15. Yield improvement of exopolysaccharides by screening of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC and optimization of the fermentation and extraction conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Yang, Dengxiang; Si, Tianlei; Pan, Siyi; Yang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysacharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in food processing with its well-recognized antioxidant activity. In this study, a L. acidophilus mutant strain with high-yielding EPS (2.92±0.05 g/L) was screened by chemical mutation (0.2 % diethyl sulfate). Plackett-Burman (PB) design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the EPS fermentation parameters and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the EPS extraction parameters. A strain with high-yielding EPS was screened. It was revealed that three parameters (Tween 80, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and trisodium citrate) had significant influence (P < 0.05) on the EPS yield. The optimal culture conditions for EPS production were: Tween 80 0.6 mL, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.6 g and trisodium citrate 4.1 g (with culture volume of 1 L). In these conditions, the maximum EPS yield was 3.96±0.08 g/L. The optimal extraction conditions analyzed by CCD were: alcohol concentration 70 %, the ratio of material to liquid (M/L ratio) 1:3.6 and the extraction time 31 h. In these conditions, the maximum EPS extraction yield was 1.48±0.23 g/L. It was confirmed by the verification experiments that the EPS yield from L. acidophilus mutant strains reached 5.12±0.73 g/L under the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the control (1.05±0.06 g/L). The results indicated that the strain screening with high-yielding EPS was successful and the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions significantly enhanced EPS yield. It was efficient and industrially promising. PMID:27103893

  16. Yield improvement of exopolysaccharides by screening of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC and optimization of the fermentation and extraction conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Yang, Dengxiang; Si, Tianlei; Pan, Siyi; Yang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysacharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in food processing with its well-recognized antioxidant activity. In this study, a L. acidophilus mutant strain with high-yielding EPS (2.92±0.05 g/L) was screened by chemical mutation (0.2 % diethyl sulfate). Plackett-Burman (PB) design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the EPS fermentation parameters and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the EPS extraction parameters. A strain with high-yielding EPS was screened. It was revealed that three parameters (Tween 80, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and trisodium citrate) had significant influence (P < 0.05) on the EPS yield. The optimal culture conditions for EPS production were: Tween 80 0.6 mL, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.6 g and trisodium citrate 4.1 g (with culture volume of 1 L). In these conditions, the maximum EPS yield was 3.96±0.08 g/L. The optimal extraction conditions analyzed by CCD were: alcohol concentration 70 %, the ratio of material to liquid (M/L ratio) 1:3.6 and the extraction time 31 h. In these conditions, the maximum EPS extraction yield was 1.48±0.23 g/L. It was confirmed by the verification experiments that the EPS yield from L. acidophilus mutant strains reached 5.12±0.73 g/L under the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the control (1.05±0.06 g/L). The results indicated that the strain screening with high-yielding EPS was successful and the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions significantly enhanced EPS yield. It was efficient and industrially promising. PMID:27103893

  17. Construction and Immunological Evaluation of Dual Cell Surface Display of HIV-1 Gag and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium FliC in Lactobacillus acidophilus for Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Zhang, Lin; Long, Julie; Nordone, Shila; Stoeker, Laura; LaVoy, Alora; Bumgardner, Sara; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Oral vaccines that elicit a mucosal immune response may be effective against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) because its transmission occurs mainly at the mucosa. The aim of this study was to construct recombinant Lactobacillus for oral delivery of oral vaccines against HIV-1 and to evaluate their immunogenicity. A recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus strain expressing the HIV-1 Gag on the bacterial cell surface was established by fusion with the signal peptide and anchor motif of a mucus binding protein (Mub) from L. acidophilus with or without coexpression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC) fused to a different Mub signal peptide and anchor. Using HEK293 cells engineered to express Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), the biological activity of FliC on the bacterial cell surfaces was determined. The surface-exposed flagellin retained its TLR5-stimulating activity, suggesting that the recombinant strain with Gag and FliC dual display might provide a different immunopotency than the strain expressing only Gag. The immunological properties of the recombinant strains were assessed by coculture with human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). The heterologous antigens on the cell surface affected maturation and cytokine responses of DCs. Acquired immune responses were also investigated by intragastric immunization of mice. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay showed induction of gamma interferon-producing cells at local mucosa after immunization of mice with the Gag-producing strain. Meanwhile, the immunization with L. acidophilus displaying both Gag and FliC resulted in an increase of Gag-specific IgA-secreting cells. These results suggested that the Gag-displaying L. acidophilus elicited specific immune responses and the coexistence of FliC conferred an adjuvant effect on local IgA production. PMID:22761297

  18. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine. PMID:24914724

  19. The other way around: probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restrict progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice via activiation of CD8 alpha+ immune cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the immune-modulating effects of feeding a novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) in rumi...

  20. The other way around: Probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restricts progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice through activation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine immune effects of feeding novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). We hypothesized that fe...

  1. Some probiotic and antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus cultured from dahi a native milk product.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Masud, Tariq; Sohail, Asma

    2014-08-01

    In this study, different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus from dahi were analyzed for certain probiotic and antibacterial properties. Initially, these strains were confirmed by the amplification of 16S rRNA regions and then screened for antibacterial activities against food borne pathogens. The phenotypic relationship between apparent antibacterial activity and cell wall proteins were established by cluster analysis. It was observed that those strains, which have prominent bands having size 22-25 kDa possess antibacterial activity. On the basis of wide spectrum of killing pattern, a strain LA06FT was further characterized that showed no change in its behavior when subjected to the antibiotic protected environment and grow well in acid-bile conditions. The bacteriocin produced by this strain has specific antibacterial activity of 5369.13 AU mg(-1). It remained stable at 60-90 °C and pH range of 4.5-6.5 while proteolytic enzymes inactivate the bacteriocin that confirm its proteinic nature having molecular weight of ≤8.5 kDa. PMID:24689927

  2. Characterization of the temperate bacteriophage phi adh and plasmid transduction in Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH.

    PubMed Central

    Raya, R R; Kleeman, E G; Luchansky, J B; Klaenhammer, T R

    1989-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH is lysogenic and harbors an inducible prophage, phi adh. Bacteriophage were detected in cell lysates induced by treatment with mitomycin C or UV light. Electron microscopy of lysates revealed phage particles with a hexagonal head (62 nm) and a long, noncontractile, flexible tail (398 nm) ending in at last five short fibers. Phage phi adh was classified within Bradley's B1 phage group and the Siphoviridae family. The phi adh genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule of 41.7 kilobase pairs with cohesive ends: a physical map of the phi adh genome was constructed. A prophage-cured derivative of strain ADH, designated NCK102, was isolated from cells that survived UV exposure. NCK102 did not exhibit mitomycin C-induced lysis, but broth cultures lysed upon addition of phage. Phage phi adh produced clear plaques on NCK102 in media containing 10 mM CaCl2 at pH values between 5.2 and 5.5. A relysogenized derivative (NCK103) of NCK102 was isolated that exhibited mitomycin C-induced lysis and superinfection immunity to phage phi adh. Hybridization experiments showed that the phi adh genome was present in the ADH and NCK103 chromosomes, but absent in NCK102. These results demonstrated classic lytic and lysogenic cycles of replication for the temperate phage phi adh induced from L. acidophilus ADH. Phage phi adh also mediates transduction of plasmid DNA. Transductants of strain ADH containing pC194, pGK12, pGB354, and pVA797 were detected at frequencies in the range of 3.6 x 10(-8) to 8.3 x 10(-10) per PFU. Rearrangements or deletions were not detected in these plasmids as a consequence of transduction. This is the first description of plasmid transduction in the genus Lactobacillus. Images PMID:2508554

  3. Temporal gene expression and probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus acidophilus during growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M A; Tallon, R; Klaenhammer, T R

    2009-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been used as starter strains in the production of fermented dairy products for centuries. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a widely recognized probiotic bacteria commonly added to yogurt and used in dietary supplements. In this study, a whole genome microarray was employed to monitor gene expression of L. acidophilus NCFM cells propagated in 11% skim milk during early, mid and late logarithmic phase, and stationary phase. Approximately 21% of 1,864 open reading frames were differentially expressed at least in one time point. Genes differentially expressed in skim milk included several members of the proteolytic enzyme system. Expression of prtP (proteinase precursor) and prtM (maturase) increased over time as well as several peptidases and transport systems. Expression of Opp1 (oligopeptide transport system 1) was highest at 4 h, whereas gene expression of Opp2 increased over time reaching its highest level at 12 h, suggesting that the 2 systems have different specificities. Expression of a 2-component regulatory system, previously shown to regulate acid tolerance and proteolytic activity, also increased during the early log and early stationary phases of growth. Expression of the genes involved in lactose utilization increased immediately (5 min) upon exposure to milk. The acidification activity, survival under storage conditions, and adhesion to mucin and Caco-2 tissue culture cells of selected mutants containing insertionally inactivated genes differentially expressed in the wild-type strain during growth in milk were examined for any potential links between probiotic properties and bacterial growth and survival in milk. Some of the most interesting genes found to be expressed in milk were correlated with signaling (autoinducer-2) and adherence to mucin and intestinal epithelial cells, in vitro. PMID:19233780

  4. Prays oleae midgut putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3LB differs from that of Cry1Ac toxin.

    PubMed

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Rouis, Souad; Sellami, Sameh; Jaoua, Samir

    2009-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) is a class of insecticidal proteins produced by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage. The vip3LB gene of B. thuringiensis strain BUPM95, which encodes a protein active against the Lepidoptera olive tree pathogenic insect Prays oleae, was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed Vip3LB protein, found in the E. coli cytoplasmic fraction, was purified and used to produce anti-Vip3LB antibodies. Using the midgut extract of P. oleae, the purified Vip3LB bound to a 65-kDa protein, whereas Cry1Ac toxin bound to a 210-kDa midgut putative receptor. This result justifies the importance of the biological pest control agent Vip3LB that could be used as another alternative particularly in case of resistance to Cry toxins. PMID:19434523

  5. Protein-mediated adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4 on human enterocyte and mucus-secreting cell lines in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Coconnier, M H; Klaenhammer, T R; Kernéis, S; Bernet, M F; Servin, A L

    1992-01-01

    The adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4, a human stool isolate, to two human enterocytelike cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29) and to the mucus secreted by a subpopulation of mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria interacted with the well-defined apical microvilli of Caco-2 cells without cell damage and with the mucus secreted by the subpopulation of HT29-MTX cells. The adhesion to Caco-2 cells did not require calcium and involved an adhesion-promoting factor that was present in the spent supernatant of L. acidophilus cultures. This factor promoted adhesion of poorly adhering human Lactobacillus casei GG but did not promote adhesion of L. casei CNRZ 387, a strain of dairy origin. The adherence components on the bacterial cells and in the spent supernatant were partially characterized. Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell wall appeared to be partly responsible for the interaction between the bacteria and the extracellular adhesion-promoting factor. The adhesion-promoting factor was proteinaceous, since trypsin treatment dramatically decreased the adhesion of the L. acidophilus strain. The adhesion-promoting factor may be an important component of Lactobacillus species that colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:1622282

  6. AggLb Is the Largest Cell-Aggregation Factor from Lactobacillus paracasei Subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64, Functions in Collagen Adhesion, and Pathogen Exclusion In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Marija; Strahinic, Ivana; Tolinacki, Maja; Zivkovic, Milica; Kojic, Snezana; Golic, Natasa; Kojic, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Eleven Lactobacillus strains with strong aggregation abilities were selected from a laboratory collection. In two of the strains, genes associated with aggregation capability were plasmid located and found to strongly correlate with collagen binding. The gene encoding the auto-aggregation-promoting protein (AggLb) of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 was cloned using a novel, wide-range-host shuttle cloning vector, pAZILSJ. The clone pALb35, containing a 11377-bp DNA fragment, was selected from the SacI plasmid library for its ability to provide carriers with the aggregation phenotype. The complete fragment was sequenced and four potential ORFs were detected, including the aggLb gene and three surrounding transposase genes. AggLb is the largest known cell-surface protein in lactobacilli, consisting of 2998 aa (318,611 Da). AggLb belongs to the collagen-binding superfamily and its C-terminal region contains 20 successive repeats that are identical even at the nucleotide level. Deletion of aggLb causes a loss of the capacity to form cell aggregates, whereas overexpression increases cellular aggregation, hydrophobicity and collagen-binding potential. PCR screening performed with three sets of primers based on the aggLb gene of BGNJ1-64 enabled detection of the same type of aggLb gene in five of eleven selected aggregation-positive Lactobacillus strains. Heterologous expression of aggLb confirmed the crucial role of the AggLb protein in cell aggregation and specific collagen binding, indicating that AggLb has a useful probiotic function in effective colonization of host tissue and prevention of pathogen colonization. PMID:25955159

  7. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  8. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  9. Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Putaala, H; Barrangou, R; Leyer, G J; Ouwehand, A C; Hansen, E Bech; Romero, D A; Rautonen, N

    2010-09-01

    The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33 DCE-induced changes were overall more similar to those of B. lactis 420 than to L. acidophilus NCFM™, which is consistent with previously observed in vivo immunomodulation properties. In the gene ontology and pathway analyses both specific and unspecific changes were observed. Common to all was the regulation of apoptosis and adipogenesis, and lipid-metabolism related regulation by the probiotics. Specific changes such as regulation of cell-cell adhesion by B. lactis 420, superoxide metabolism by L. salivarius Ls-33, and regulation of MAPK pathway by L. acidophilus NCFM™ were noted. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed between the pathogenic and probiotic treatments in the Toll-like receptor pathway, especially for adapter molecules with a lowered level of transcriptional activation of MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1 and TRAF6 by probiotics compared to EHEC. The results in this study provide insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlight the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria. PMID:21831765

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus MN-BM-F01

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lan; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Yudong; Li, Zhouyong; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus MN-BM-F01 was originally isolated from a traditional fermented dairy product in China. The characteristics of this bacterium are its low post-acidification ability and high acid-producing rate. Here, we report the main genome features of L. acidophilus MN-BM-F01. PMID:26868391

  11. Synbiotic effects of lactitol and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™ in a semi-continuous colon fermentation model.

    PubMed

    Mäkivuokko, H; Forssten, S; Saarinen, M; Ouwehand, A; Rautonen, N

    2010-06-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, lactitol, and the combination of lactitol and L. acidophilus NCFM™ were studied with a semi-continuous colon fermentation simulation; consisting of compartments mimicking, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon and their conditions with faecal inoculation. L. acidophilus NCFM™ was detected throughout the colon simulator. Lactitol was utilised early on by the microbes in the proximal part of the simulator. Lactitol increased the total numbers of microbes and bifidobacteria, and decreased clostridia cluster IV, while L. acidophilus NCFM™ alone decreased the numbers of clostridia cluster XIV. Combination treatment increased the numbers of bifidobacteria. Furthermore, concentrations of acetic acid, butyric acid and the sum of total short-chain fatty acids were increased by both lactitol-including treatments. The treatment with L. acidophilus NCFM™ alone increased the concentration of propionic acid and butyric acid. L. acidophilus NCFM™ tended to increase the total concentrations of biogenic amines, while lactitol suppressed production of biogenic amines also in the presence of L. acidophilus NCFM™. True synergistic effects are suggested in stimulation of the production of butyrate, an important microbial metabolite for colon health. In conclusion, lactitol as well as the combination of lactitol and L. acidophilus NCFM™ were found to exhibit complementary beneficial effects on the colon microbial composition and activity. PMID:21840801

  12. Burkholderia xernovorans LB400 harbors a multi-replicon, 9.73-Mbp genome shaped for versatility

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, Patrick S. G.; Denef, Vincent; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Vergez, Lisa; Agullo, Loreine; Reyes, Valeria Latorre; Hauser, Loren John; Cordova, Macarena; Gomez, Luis; Gonzalez, Myriam; Land, Miriam L; Lao, Victoria; Larimer, Frank W; LiPuma, John J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Malfatti, Stephanie; Marx, Christopher J; Parnell, J Jacob; Ramette, Alban; Richardson, P M; Seeger, Michael; Smith, Daryl; Spilker, Theodore; Sul, Woo Jun; Tsoi, Tamara V; Zhulin, Igor B; Tiedje, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (LB400), a well studied, effective polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader, has one of the two largest known bacterial genomes and is the first nonpathogenic Burkholderia isolate sequenced. From an evolutionary perspective, we find significant differences in functional specialization between the three replicons of LB400, as well as a more relaxed selective pressure for genes located on the two smaller vs. the largest replicon. High genomic plasticity, diversity, and specialization within the Burkholderia genus are exemplified by the conservation of only 44% of the genes between LB400 and Burkholderia cepacia complex strain 383. Even among four B. xenovorans strains, genome size varies from 7.4 to 9.73 Mbp. The latter is largely explained by our findings that >20% of the LB400 sequence was recently acquired by means of lateral gene transfer. Although a range of genetic factors associated with in vivo survival and intercellular interactions are present, these genetic factors are likely related to niche breadth rather than determinants of pathogenicity. The presence of at least eleven 'central aromatic' and twenty 'peripheral aromatic' pathways in LB400, among the highest in any sequenced bacterial genome, supports this hypothesis. Finally, in addition to the experimentally observed redundancy in benzoate degradation and formaldehyde oxidation pathways, the fact that 17.6% of proteins have a better LB400 paralog than an ortholog in a different genome highlights the importance of gene duplication and repeated acquirement, which, coupled with their divergence, raises questions regarding the role of paralogs and potential functional redundancies in large-genome microbes.

  13. Correlates of the MMPI LB Scale in a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Steven; Cross, Herbert J.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Low Back Pain Scale (LB) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and other measures to 123 college freshmen. Subjects with a psychosomatic disorder scored higher on LB. Females who reported problems with their mothers were more likely to have a psychosomatic disorder, suggesting different etiology between males and…

  14. AcmB Is an S-Layer-Associated β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase and Functional Autolysin in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brant R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autolysins, also known as peptidoglycan hydrolases, are enzymes that hydrolyze specific bonds within bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan during cell division and daughter cell separation. Within the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, there are 11 genes encoding proteins with peptidoglycan hydrolase catalytic domains, 9 of which are predicted to be functional. Notably, 5 of the 9 putative autolysins in L. acidophilus NCFM are S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) noncovalently colocalized along with the surface (S)-layer at the cell surface. One of these SLAPs, AcmB, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase encoded by the gene lba0176 (acmB), was selected for functional analysis. In silico analysis revealed that acmB orthologs are found exclusively in S-layer- forming species of Lactobacillus. Chromosomal deletion of acmB resulted in aberrant cell division, autolysis, and autoaggregation. Complementation of acmB in the ΔacmB mutant restored the wild-type phenotype, confirming the role of this SLAP in cell division. The absence of AcmB within the exoproteome had a pleiotropic effect on the extracellular proteins covalently and noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan, which likely led to the observed decrease in the binding capacity of the ΔacmB strain for mucin and extracellular matrices fibronectin, laminin, and collagen in vitro. These data suggest a functional association between the S-layer and the multiple autolysins noncovalently colocalized at the cell surface of L. acidophilus NCFM and other S-layer-producing Lactobacillus species. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely used probiotic microbes incorporated in many dairy foods and dietary supplements. This organism produces a surface (S)-layer, which is a self-assembling crystalline array found as the outermost layer of the cell wall. The S-layer, along with colocalized associated proteins, is an important mediator of probiotic activity through intestinal adhesion and modulation of

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans. PMID:26506821

  16. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces. PMID:21204871

  17. Functional and phenotypic characterization of a protein from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in cell morphology, stress tolerance and adherence to intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Sarah J; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2010-11-01

    Structural components of the cell surface have an impact on some of the beneficial attributes of probiotic bacteria. In silico analysis of the L. acidophilus NCFM genome sequence revealed the presence of a putative cell surface protein that was predicted to be a myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA). As MCRAs are conserved among many probiotic bacteria, we used the upp-based counterselective gene replacement system, designed recently for use in L. acidophilus, to determine the functional role of this gene (LBA649) in L. acidophilus NCFM. Phenotypic assays were undertaken with the parent strain (NCK1909) and deletion mutant (NCK2015) to assign a function for this gene. The growth of NCK2015 (ΔLBA649) was reduced in the presence of lactate, acetate, porcine bile and salt. Adhesion of NCK2015 to Caco-2 cells was substantially reduced for both stationary-phase (∼45 % reduction) and exponential-phase cells (∼50 % reduction). Analysis of NCK2015 by scanning electron microscopy revealed a longer cell morphology after growth in MRS broth compared to NCK1909. These results indicate a role for LBA649 in stress tolerance, cell wall division and adherence to Caco-2 cells. PMID:20829293

  18. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium to potentiate immunoglobulin A responses to cholera toxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Simon, M V; Lee, J H; Ustunol, Z; Pestka, J J

    1999-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to have benefits for the prevention and treatment of some forms of diarrhea and related conditions. To determine whether these effects might involve direct stimulation of the gastrointestinal immune response, we administered yogurt to try to enhance mucosal and systemic antibodies against an orally presented immunogen, cholera toxin. Yogurts were manufactured with starter cultures containing different species and strains of lactic acid bacteria. Mice were fed these yogurts for 3 wk, during which they were also orally immunized twice with 10 micrograms of cholera toxin. Blood was collected on d 0 and 21, and fecal pellets were collected weekly. Mice that were immunized orally with cholera toxin responded by producing specific intestinal and serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A anti-cholera toxin. Antibody responses of the IgA isotype were significantly increased in mice fed yogurts made with starters containing the conventional yogurt bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Yogurt that was manufactured with starters containing only conventional yogurt bacteria produced less IgA anti-cholera toxin than did the control group fed nonfat dry milk. Although strong responses were also observed for IgG anti-cholera toxin in serum, the responses did not differ among groups. Thus, administration of yogurt supplemented with L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. enhanced mucosal and systemic IgA responses to the cholera toxin immunogen. PMID:10212452

  19. Tensile and fatigue qualification testing of ITER-CS conduit alloy JK2LB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils utilize cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and the conduit alloy is JK2LB. The production grade conduit alloy (and it's welds) must meet strict requirements for strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and fabricability. The conduit alloy must retain good mechanical properties after additional fabrication steps such as welding, coil winding strain and exposure to the Nb3Sn superconductor's reaction heat treatment. Here we present data from cryogenic tensile, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate, and axial fatigue tests of JK2LB alloy and conduit butt welds, before and after the exposure to the reaction heat treatment. The tests of specimens removed directly from the conduit provide confirmation of the materials properties and the effect of the cold work and aging. The 4 K fatigue performance is extremely important to the reliability of the CS and is covered both by axial cyclic fatigue tests and the fatigue crack growth rate measurements.

  20. Study for Electrode Metals on Taste Sensor with LB film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, Takahiro; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    In this paper, sensor responses with only metal electrode as Au, Cr, Ti and more with LB film were described. LB film material was the Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide combined by PVSK as an underlayer. To detect five basic taste substances, sensor parameters were defined as maximum voltage change and response time. Response time for sourness and umami with Ti and Cr evaporated metal electrode was larger than that of usual Au electrode. LB film effect was finally found to increase response time for five basic taste materials.

  1. Mucosal Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing an HIV-1 Epitope within the Surface Layer Protein.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Zhang, Lin; LaVoy, Alora; Bumgardner, Sara; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Dean, Gregg A

    2015-01-01

    Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions. Moreover, analysis of systemic SlpA-specific cytokines revealed that the responses appeared to be Th1 and Th17 dominant. These findings demonstrated the potential use of the Lactobacillus S-layer protein for development of oral vaccines targeting specific peptides. PMID:26509697

  2. Mucosal Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing an HIV-1 Epitope within the Surface Layer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Zhang, Lin; LaVoy, Alora; Bumgardner, Sara; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Dean, Gregg A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions. Moreover, analysis of systemic SlpA-specific cytokines revealed that the responses appeared to be Th1 and Th17 dominant. These findings demonstrated the potential use of the Lactobacillus S-layer protein for development of oral vaccines targeting specific peptides. PMID:26509697

  3. In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

  4. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice

    PubMed Central

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMTM (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

  5. SIGNR3-dependent immune regulation by Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A in colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Yaíma L; Selle, Kurt; Yang, Tao; Goh, Yong Jun; Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Owen, Jennifer L; Colliou, Natacha; Li, Eric; Johannssen, Timo; Lepenies, Bernd; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal immune regulatory signals govern gut homeostasis. Breakdown of such regulatory mechanisms may result in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Lactobacillus acidophilus contains unique surface layer proteins (Slps), including SlpA, SlpB, SlpX, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which interact with pattern recognition receptors to mobilize immune responses. Here, to elucidate the role of SlpA in protective immune regulation, the NCK2187 strain, which solely expresses SlpA, was generated. NCK2187 and its purified SlpA bind to the C-type lectin SIGNR3 to exert regulatory signals that result in mitigation of colitis, maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal microbiota, and protected gut mucosal barrier function. However, such protection was not observed in Signr3−/− mice, suggesting that the SlpA/SIGNR3 interaction plays a key regulatory role in colitis. Our work presents critical insights into SlpA/SIGNR3-induced responses that are integral to the potential development of novel biological therapies for autoinflammatory diseases, including IBD. PMID:25666591

  6. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.

    PubMed

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

  7. Bacterial Endocarditis Caused by Lactobacillus acidophilus Leading to Rupture of Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Loranger, Austin Mitchell; Bharatkumar, A.G.; Almassi, G. Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus rarely causes bacterial endocarditis, because it usually resides in the mucosa of the vagina, gastrointestinal tract, and oropharynx. Moreover, sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are rare cardiac anomalies, either acquired or congenital. We present the case of a middle-aged man whose bacterial endocarditis, caused by Lactobacillus acidophilus, led to an aneurysmal rupture of the sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricular outflow tract. The patient underwent successful surgical repair, despite numerous complications and sequelae. PMID:27127435

  8. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA 1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by enterovirulent bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Bernet, M F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L

    1994-01-01

    Four human Lactobacillus acidophilus strains were tested for their ability to adhere onto human enterocyte like Caco-2 cells in culture. The LA 1 strain exhibited a high calcium independent adhesive property. This adhesion onto Caco-2 cells required a proteinaceous adhesion promoting factor, which was present in the spent bacterial broth culture supernatant. LA 1 strain also strongly bound to the mucus secreted by the homogeneous cultured human goblet cell line HT29-MTX. The inhibitory effect of LA 1 organisms against Caco-2 cell adhesion and cell invasion by a large variety of diarrhoeagenic bacteria was investigated. As a result, the following dose dependent inhibitions were obtained: (a) against the cell association of enterotoxigenic, diffusely adhering and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium; (b) against the cell invasion by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Salmonella typhimurium. Incubations of L acidophilus LA 1 before and together with enterovirulent E coli were more effective than incubation after infection by E coli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8174985

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA 1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by enterovirulent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bernet, M F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L

    1994-04-01

    Four human Lactobacillus acidophilus strains were tested for their ability to adhere onto human enterocyte like Caco-2 cells in culture. The LA 1 strain exhibited a high calcium independent adhesive property. This adhesion onto Caco-2 cells required a proteinaceous adhesion promoting factor, which was present in the spent bacterial broth culture supernatant. LA 1 strain also strongly bound to the mucus secreted by the homogeneous cultured human goblet cell line HT29-MTX. The inhibitory effect of LA 1 organisms against Caco-2 cell adhesion and cell invasion by a large variety of diarrhoeagenic bacteria was investigated. As a result, the following dose dependent inhibitions were obtained: (a) against the cell association of enterotoxigenic, diffusely adhering and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium; (b) against the cell invasion by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Salmonella typhimurium. Incubations of L acidophilus LA 1 before and together with enterovirulent E coli were more effective than incubation after infection by E coli. PMID:8174985

  10. Genetic and Functional Analysis of the Biosynthesis of a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Siderophore in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Straube, María José; Cámara, Beatriz; Tello, Mario; Montero-Silva, Francisco; Cárdenas, Franco; Seeger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the study of the metabolism of aromatic compounds. The aim of this study was the genomic and functional characterization of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase containing gene cluster that encodes a siderophore in B. xenovorans LB400. The mba gene cluster from strain LB400 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis and transport of a hydroxamate-type siderophore. Strain LB400 has a unique mba gene organization, although mba gene clusters have been observed in diverse Burkholderiales. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of promoters in the mba gene cluster that strongly suggest regulation by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) and by the alternative RNA polymerase extracytoplasmic function sigma factor MbaF. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed the expression of iron-regulated transcriptional units mbaFGHIJKL, mbaN, mbaABCE, mbaO, mbaP and mbaD genes under iron limitation. Chrome azurol S (CAS) assay strongly suggests that strain LB400 synthesized a siderophore under iron limitation. Mass spectrometry ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses revealed that the siderophore is a non-ribosomal peptide, and forms an iron complex with a molecular mass of 676 Da. Based on bioinformatic prediction, CAS assay and MS analyses, we propose that the siderophore is L-Nδ-hydroxy-Nδ-formylOrn-D-β-hydroxyAsp-L-Ser-L-Nδ-hydroxy-Nδ-formylOrn-1,4-diaminobutane that is closely related to malleobactin-type siderophores reported in B. thailandensis. PMID:26963250

  11. Genetic and Functional Analysis of the Biosynthesis of a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Siderophore in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Straube, María José; Cámara, Beatriz; Tello, Mario; Montero-Silva, Francisco; Cárdenas, Franco; Seeger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the study of the metabolism of aromatic compounds. The aim of this study was the genomic and functional characterization of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase containing gene cluster that encodes a siderophore in B. xenovorans LB400. The mba gene cluster from strain LB400 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis and transport of a hydroxamate-type siderophore. Strain LB400 has a unique mba gene organization, although mba gene clusters have been observed in diverse Burkholderiales. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of promoters in the mba gene cluster that strongly suggest regulation by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) and by the alternative RNA polymerase extracytoplasmic function sigma factor MbaF. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed the expression of iron-regulated transcriptional units mbaFGHIJKL, mbaN, mbaABCE, mbaO, mbaP and mbaD genes under iron limitation. Chrome azurol S (CAS) assay strongly suggests that strain LB400 synthesized a siderophore under iron limitation. Mass spectrometry ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses revealed that the siderophore is a non-ribosomal peptide, and forms an iron complex with a molecular mass of 676 Da. Based on bioinformatic prediction, CAS assay and MS analyses, we propose that the siderophore is L-Nδ-hydroxy-Nδ-formylOrn-D-β-hydroxyAsp-L-Ser-L-Nδ-hydroxy-Nδ-formylOrn-1,4-diaminobutane that is closely related to malleobactin-type siderophores reported in B. thailandensis. PMID:26963250

  12. Influence of the Virus LbFV and of Wolbachia in a Host-Parasitoid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Woolfit, Megan; Vavre, Fabrice; O'Neill, Scott L.; Varaldi, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Symbionts are widespread and might have a substantial effect on the outcome of interactions between species, such as in host-parasitoid systems. Here, we studied the effects of symbionts on the outcome of host-parasitoid interactions in a four-partner system, consisting of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, its two hosts Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, the wasp virus LbFV, and the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. The virus is known to manipulate the superparasitism behavior of the parasitoid whereas some Wolbachia strains can reproductively manipulate and/or confer pathogen protection to Drosophila hosts. We used two nuclear backgrounds for both Drosophila species, infected with or cured of their respective Wolbachia strains, and offered them to L. boulardi of one nuclear background, either infected or uninfected by the virus. The main defence mechanism against parasitoids, i.e. encapsulation, and other important traits of the interaction were measured. The results showed that virus-infected parasitoids are less frequently encapsulated than uninfected ones. Further experiments showed that this viral effect involved both a direct protective effect against encapsulation and an indirect effect of superparasitism. Additionally, the Wolbachia strain wAu affected the encapsulation ability of its Drosophila host but the direction of this effect was strongly dependent on the presence/absence of LbFV. Our results confirmed the importance of heritable symbionts in the outcome of antagonistic interactions. PMID:22558118

  13. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA10 against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis SE86 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Scapin, Diane; Grando, Williani Fabiola; Rossi, Eliandra Mirlei; Perez, Karla Joseane; Malheiros, Patrícia da Silva; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the main pathogens responsible for foodborne illness in Brazil. Probiotic bacteria can play a role in defense and recovery from enteropathogenic infections. In this study, the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA10 to colonise and exert antagonistic effects in the gastrointestinal tract was tested before and during experimental infection in conventional mice contaminated with S. Enteritidis (SE86). A dose of 0.1 mL containing 108 viable cells of SE86 and L. acidophilus LA10 was orally administered by gavage to mice. The experiment was divided into groups. As a negative control, Group 1 was administered only sterile saline solution. As a positive control, Group 2 was administered only SE86. Group 3 was first administered SE86, and after 10 days, treated with L. acidophilus LA10. Group 4 was first administered L. acidophilus LA10, and after 10 days, challenged with SE86. The results demonstrated that a significant number of SE86 cells were able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of mice, specifically in the colon and ileum. L. acidophilus LA10 demonstrated an antagonistic effect against SE86, with better results observed for Group 3 over Group 4. Thus, L. acidophilus LA10 shows potential antagonistic effects against S. Enteritidis SE86, especially if administered after infection. PMID:24159284

  14. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Larsen, Nadja; Pedersen-Skovsgaard, Theis; Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Svendsen, Kira Dynnes; Jakobsen, Mogens; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-12-01

    According to animal studies, intake of probiotic bacteria may improve glucose homeostasis. We hypothesised that probiotic bacteria improve insulin sensitivity by attenuating systemic inflammation. Therefore, the effects of oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory response were investigated in subjects with normal or impaired insulin sensitivity. In a double-blinded, randomised fashion, forty-five males with type 2 diabetes, impaired or normal glucose tolerance were enrolled and allocated to a 4-week treatment course with either L. acidophilus NCFM or placebo. L. acidophilus was detected in stool samples by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Separated by the 4-week intervention period, two hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed to estimate insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the systemic inflammatory response was evaluated by subjecting the participants to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide injection (0·3 ng/kg) before and after the treatment course. L. acidophilus NCFM was detected in 75 % of the faecal samples after treatment with the probiotic bacterium. Insulin sensitivity was preserved among volunteers in the L. acidophilus NCFM group, whereas it decreased in the placebo group. Both baseline inflammatory markers and the systemic inflammatory response were, however, unaffected by the intervention. In conclusion, intake of L. acidophilus NCFM for 4 weeks preserved insulin sensitivity compared with placebo, but did not affect the systemic inflammatory response. PMID:20815975

  15. Phenol degradation by Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY via the meta-pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wengen; Guo, Wenbin; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-09-01

    Due to its toxicity and volatility, phenol must be cleared from the environment. Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, which was isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean as a moderately thermoacidophilic Gram-positive bacterium, was capable of aerobically degrading phenol. This bacterium could tolerate up to 1300mg/L phenol and degrade 100mg/L phenol in 40h completely at 45°C and pH 1.8 with a maximal degradation rate of 2.32mg/L/h at 38h. Genome-wide search revealed that one gene (TPY_3176) and 14 genes clustered together in two regions with locus tags of TPY_0628-0634 and TPY_0640-0646 was proposed to be involved in phenol degradation via the meta-pathway with both the 4-oxalocrotonate branch and the hydrolytic branch. Real-time PCR analysis of S. acidophilus TPY under phenol cultivation condition confirmed the transcription of proposed genes involved in the phenol degradation meta-pathway. Degradation of 3-methylphenol and 2-methylphenol confirmed that the hydrolytic branch was utilised by S. acidophilus TPY. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. acidophilus TPY was closely related to sulphate-reducing bacteria and some Gram-positive phenol-degrading bacteria. This was the first report demonstrating the ability of S. acidophilus to degrade phenol and characterising the putative genes involved in phenol metabolism in S. acidophilus TPY. PMID:27393997

  16. Functional characteristics of Lactobacillus spp. from traditional Maasai fermented milk products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Kutima, Phillip Museve; Mbugua, Samuel K; Shin, H-K; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-08-15

    In this study functional characteristics of 23 representative Lactobacillus strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk 'Kule naoto' were determined. The Lb. acidophilus group strains showed resistance to gastric juice and bile. In addition, some Lb. acidophilus strains expressed bile salt hydrolase activity, and had ability to assimilate cholesterol in vitro. In-vitro adhesion to HT29 MTX cells of up to 70% was recorded. Lb. fermentum strains showed almost 100% survival under simulated stomach acidic conditions and physiological salt concentrations of bile salts, hydrophobicity values were over 80%. Most strains of the Lb. casei and Lb. acidophilus groups showed aggregation abilities of above 50%. Many strains expressed a protective effect against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced DNA damage according to the 'comet assay' and none was virulent. The antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration of selected strains was established. According to these results, the Lactobacillus spp associated with 'Kule naoto', contain potentially probiotic (functional) strains. PMID:18539351

  17. Identification of Lactobacillus UFV H2B20 (probiotic strain) using DNA-DNA hybridization

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, J.T.; Uetanabaro, A.P. T.; de Moraes, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization tests were performed for identification of the species of the probiotic Lactobacillus UFV H2b20 strain. Using these two tests, we concluded that this strain, originally considered Lact. acidophilus, should be classified as Lact. delbrueckii. PMID:24031263

  18. High-Quality LB Films of Artificial Dialkyl Lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Yoichi; Moriizumi, Toyosaka; Okahata, Yoshio; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    1987-11-01

    LB films (4 monolayers) of artificial dialkyl lipid were deposited over Au evaporated films on glass substrates. The film quality was examined using the Cu decoration method and optical polarization microscopy. The defect density of the lipid film was much less than that of a monoalkyl film. Moreover, the defect density was so decreased after thermal annealing and rinsing in an alcohol solution that LB films which were almost defect-free were obtained. Microscopic observation revealed a snowflake crystalline pattern after the annealing and rinsing treatments.

  19. Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

  20. Functional roles of aggregation-promoting-like factor in stress tolerance and adherence of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2010-08-01

    Aggregation-promoting factors (Apf) are secreted proteins that have been associated with a diverse number of functional roles in lactobacilli, including self-aggregation, the bridging of conjugal pairs, coaggregation with other commensal or pathogenic bacteria, and maintenance of cell shape. In silico genome analysis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM identified LBA0493 as a 696-bp apf gene that encodes a putative 21-kDa Apf protein. Transcriptional studies of NCFM during growth in milk showed apf to be one of the most highly upregulated genes in the genome. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) analysis revealed that the apf gene was highly induced during the stationary phase compared to that during the logarithmic phase. To investigate the functional role of Apf in NCFM, an Delta apf deletion mutant was constructed. The resulting Delta apf mutant, NCK2033, did not show a significant difference in cell morphology or growth compared to that of the NCFMDelta upp reference strain, NCK1909. The autoaggregation phenotype of NCK2033 in planktonic culture was unaffected. Additional phenotypic assays revealed that NCK2033 was more susceptible to treatments with oxgall bile and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Survival rates of NCK2033 decreased when stationary-phase cells were exposed to simulated small-intestinal and gastric juices. Furthermore, NCK2033 in the stationary phase showed a reduction of in vitro adherence to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, mucin glycoproteins, and fibronectin. The data suggest that the Apf-like proteins may contribute to the survival of L. acidophilus during transit through the digestive tract and, potentially, participate in the interactions with the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:20562289

  1. Microcin V Production in Lactobacillus plantarum LB-B1 Using Heterologous Leader Peptide from Pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiayin; Wang, Guohong; Li, Dan; Hao, Yanling

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus strains producing bacteriocins have attracted highly attention as probiotic cultures in animal nutrition since the use of antibiotics was forbidden in the livestock industry. Lactobacillus plantarum LB-B1 isolated from the fermented dairy product can produce pediocin PA-1, which has a strong inhibition of Listeria but hardly any influence on Gram-negative spoilage agents. In this work, L. plantarum LB-B1 was selected as the host to express microcin V using the leader peptide of pediocin PA-1. Well-diffusion assay combined with Tricine-SDS-polyacrylamide gel showed that microcin V could be successfully expressed and secreted in L. plantarum LB-B1. Meanwhile, the production of microcin V did not affect the secretion of pediocin PA-1. It is worthwhile noted that the supernatant from L. plantarum 8148-ColV had a more effective inhibition of Listeria than that from the control strain L. plantarum 8148. Furthermore, this supernatant also unexpectedly produced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Taken altogether, these results suggested that pediocin PA-1 and microcin V in the supernatant could generate synergistic effect, which not only enhanced the antibacterial ability but also expanded the antibacterial spectrum. Therefore, the recombinant strain has a great potential application as a probiotic to reduce the level of enteric pathogens in livestock industry. PMID:26687333

  2. Effect of native Lactobacillus murinus LbP2 administration on total fecal IgA in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Luis; Fraga, Martín; Perelmuter, Karen; Cella, Claudia Della; Zunino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of Lactobacillus murinus strain LbP2 on canine fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. Seven dogs were orally treated with a 3-mL suspension of L. murinus LbP2 containing 5 × 109 colony-forming units on alternate days for 2 wk. Six dogs were treated with 3 mL of phosphate-buffered saline as placebo. Fecal samples were taken from the rectal ampulla on days 0 and 16, and the total canine fecal IgA concentration was determined with an immunoperoxidase assay kit. The IgA levels of individual dogs were compared with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test. Differences were considered significant when the P-value was less than 0.05. An increase in the total fecal IgA concentration was observed in the 7 dogs after treatment with L. murinus LbP2 (P = 0.01796). No differences were detected between the initial total fecal IgA values and those obtained at the end of placebo treatment. Thus, after oral administration L. murinus LbP2 showed potential immunomodulatory effects, an important property to assess in a microorganism being considered for use as a probiotic. PMID:24688179

  3. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  4. A prebiotic mixture improved Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis gastrointestinal in vitro resistance in petit-suisse.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marina; Villarreal Morales, Martha Lissete; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-05-18

    The survival of two probiotic strains -Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 - incorporated into probiotic (PC) and into synbiotic (SC, with inulin + fructooligosaccharides, respectively, at 7.5 and at 2.5 g per 100 g) petit-suisse cheese was investigated in the beginning (day 1) and at the end (28 days) of storage at 4 °C when the food products were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal simulated assays. Species-specific quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) was employed to quantify the strains. Initial La-5 and Bb-12 populations were always above 7 log CFU g(-1). The presence of the prebiotic ingredients in SC improved the Bb-12 and La-5 resistance after the 6 h assay, with higher populations in all the in vitro stages and throughout the storage period (p < 0.05), leading to equal or superior survival rates (SR) in SC of both probiotic strains, in the beginning as well as at the end of storage. The mean La-5 SR were 58% (PC) and 67% (SC), whereas the mean Bb-12 SR were 60% (PC) and 79% (SC). Our findings suggest that the addition of a prebiotic mixture in petit-suisse cheese was advantageous, since it improved both the Bb-12 and La-5 viability and tolerance under in vitro gastrointestinal simulated conditions, both in the fresh product and in the product refrigerated for 28 days. PMID:27112363

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus maintained oxidative stress from reproductive organs in collagen-induced arthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXTS: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced organ damage is a well-known fact. Previous studies suggest that Lactobacillus scavenge the free radicals from liver and kidney and also protect animals from arthritis. AIMS: Comparing protective properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus in reducing oxidative stress from reproductive organs developed during collagen-induced arthritis in animal model. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in Wistar rats. Oral administration of L. acidophilus, indomethacin, and distilled water were all started on the same day. Arthritis scores were calculated for each group. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in testis and ovary homogenates. Histopathology of ovary and testis was also performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: L. acidophilus decreased arthritis score (P < 0.001) as well as maintained normal histology of reproductive organs. L. acidophilus maintained oxidative stress parameters from ovaries and testis (P < 0.001). These results provide strong evidence that NSAIDs increase oxidative stress in reproductive organs while L. acidophilus not only scavenges free radicals from reproductive organs but also protects rats from arthritis symptoms. PMID:27110077

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI342 on the development of chemically induced precancerous growths in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Hee; Shim, Youn Young; Cha, Seong-Kwan; Reaney, Martin J T; Chee, Kew Mahn

    2012-03-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI342, isolated from the Korean traditional food kimchi, was investigated for its suitability as a dietary probiotic. The effects of L. acidophilus KFRI342 on the development of chemically induced (1,2-dimethylhydrazine; DMH) precancerous cytological changes of the colon were investigated in rats. Forty-five male F344 rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups. The control group received a high-fat diet (HF), a second group received a high-fat diet containing the carcinogen (HFC), and a final group received a high-fat diet containing the carcinogen and L. acidophilus KFRI342 (HFCL). L. acidophilus KFRI342 was administered orally three times per week at 2×10(9) c.f.u. ml(-1). L. acidophilus KFRI342 treatments decreased the number of Escherichia coli in faecal samples, the enzyme activities of β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase, and plasma triglyceride concentration compared to the HF and HFC treatments (P<0.05). L. acidophilus KFRI342 consumption also decreased the ratio of aberrant crypts to aberrant crypt foci incidence and the number of aberrant crypts in HFCL rats. Therefore, L. acidophilus showed potential probiotic activity as an inhibitor of DMH-induced symptoms in live rats. Our in vivo studies indicate that L. acidophilus from kimchi may be suitable as a probiotic for human use. PMID:22034161

  7. Osmotically regulated transport of proline by Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532.

    PubMed

    Jewell, J B; Kashket, E R

    1991-10-01

    We reported previously that, when exposed to high osmotic pressure, Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532 cells accumulated N,N,N-trimethylglycine (glycine betaine), which serves as a compatible intracellular solute. When grown in medium with high osmotic pressure, these cells also accumulated one amino acid, proline. The uptake of [3H]proline by resting, glucose-energized cells was stimulated by increasing the osmotic pressure of the assay medium with 0.5 to 1.0 M KCl, 1.0 M NaCl, or 0.5 M sucrose. The accumulated [3H]proline was not metabolized further. In contrast, there was no osmotic stimulation of [3H]leucine uptake. The uptake of proline was activated rather than induced by exposure of the cells to high osmotic pressure. Only one proline transport system could be discerned from kinetics plots. The affinity of the carrier for proline remained constant over a range of osmotic pressures from 650 to 1,910 mosM (Kt, 7.8 to 15.5 mM). The Vmax, however, increased from 15 nmol/min/mg of dry weight in 0.5 M sucrose to 27 and 40 nmol/min/mg of dry weight in 0.5 M KCl and in 1.0 M KCl or NaCl, respectively. The efflux of proline from preloaded cells occurred rapidly when the osmotic pressure of the suspending buffer was lowered. PMID:1786048

  8. LC-MS/MS analysis of surface layer proteins as a useful method for the identification of lactobacilli from the Lactobacillus acidophilus group.

    PubMed

    Podlesny, Marcin; Jarocki, Piotr; Komon, Elwira; Glibowska, Agnieszka; Targonski, Zdzislaw

    2011-04-01

    For precise identification of a Lactobacillus K1 isolate, LC-MS/MS analysis of the putative surface layer protein was performed. The results obtained from LTQ-FT-ICR mass spectrometry confirmed that the analyzed protein spot is the surface layer protein originating from Lb. helveticus species. Moreover, the identified protein has the highest similarity with the surface layer protein from Lb. helveticus R0052. To evaluate the proteomic study, multilocus sequence analysis of selected housekeeping gene sequences was performed. Combination of 16S rRNA sequencing with partial sequences for the genes encoding the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS), translational elongation factor Tu (tuf), and Hsp60 chaperonins (groEL) also allowed to classify the analyzed isolate as Lb. helveticus. Further classification at the strain level was achieved by sequencing of the slp gene. This gene showed 99.8% identity with the corresponding slp gene of Lb. helveticus R0052, which is in good agreement with data obtained by nano-HPLC coupled to an LTQ-FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Finally, LC-MS/ MS analysis of surface layer proteins extracted from three other Lactobacillus strains proved that the proposed method is the appropriate molecular tool for the identification of S-layer-possessing lactobacilli at the species and even strain levels. PMID:21532327

  9. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability. PMID:22676388

  10. Effect of some nutritional and environmental parameters on the production of diacetyl and on starch consumption by Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in submerged cultures.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, M L; Valdés, S E; Soriano, J; Tomasini, A

    2000-01-01

    Three series of 5-day submerged cultures with Pediococcus pentosaceus MITJ-10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus Hansen 1748 were carried out in starch-based media, and the effect of cultural factors on the changes of starch, diacetyl and amylase activity determined. In axenic cultures, Ped. pentosaceus MITJ-10 produced more diacetyl (63.27 mg l(-1)) by adding glucose, yeast extract and CaCO3 (P < 0.01), at 28 degrees C (P < 0.05); but more starch was consumed (18.4 g l(-1)) in the absence of glucose (P < 0.01). Lact. acidophilus Hansen 1748 consumed more starch (26.56 g l(-1)) at 28 degrees C, with CaCO3, glucose (P < 0.01) and yeast extract (P < 0.05); however, the amylolytic activity (10077U l(-1)) was favoured at 35 degrees C (P < 0.01). Little starch was consumed in mixed cultures due to the low pH; nevertheless, diacetyl content rose to 135.76 mg l(-1) at 32 degrees C (P < 0.01). Therefore, both studied strains might be useful to produce aromatic extensors from starchy substrates. These natural aromatic extensors are of interest to the food industry. PMID:10735253

  11. Chitinase Genes LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor Were Successfully Expressed in Escherichia coli and Exhibit Recombinant Chitinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Rongshu; Diao, Guiping; Fan, Haijuan; Wang, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    The two chitinase genes, LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor, were, respectively, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The intracellular recombinant chitinases, inrCHI31 and inrCHI32, and the extracellular exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 could be produced into E. coli. The exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 can be secreted into extracellular medium. The optimal reaction condition for inrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Mn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.772 U using Alternaria alternata cell wall as substrate. The optimal condition of inrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of Ba2+ at 45°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.792 U using Valsa sordida cell wall as substrate. The optimal reaction condition of exrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Zn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0, and the activity was 0.921 U using the A. alternata cell wall as substrate. Simultaneously, the optimal condition of exrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of K+ at 45°C and pH 5.0, with V. sordida cell wall as the substrate, and the activity was 0.897 U. Furthermore, the activities of extracellular recombinant enzymes on fungal cell walls and compounds were generally higher than those of the intracellular recombinant enzymes. Recombinant exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 have better hydrolytic ability on cell walls of different fungi than synthetic chitins and obviously showed activity against A. alternata. PMID:24385885

  12. Characterization of a novel bile-inducible operon encoding a two-component regulatory system in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Erika A; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2007-07-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is an industrially important strain used extensively as a probiotic culture. Tolerance of the presence of bile is an attribute important to microbial survival in the intestinal tract. A whole-genome microarray was employed to examine the effects of bile on the global transcriptional profile of this strain, with the intention of elucidating genes contributing to bile tolerance. Genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were generally induced, while genes involved in other aspects of cellular growth were mostly repressed. A 7-kb eight-gene operon encoding a two-component regulatory system (2CRS), a transporter, an oxidoreductase, and four hypothetical proteins was significantly upregulated in the presence of bile. Deletion mutations were constructed in six genes of the operon. Transcriptional analysis of the 2CRS mutants showed that mutation of the histidine protein kinase (HPK) had no effect on the induction of the operon, whereas the mutated response regulator (RR) showed enhanced induction when the cells were exposed to bile. These results indicate that the 2CRS plays a role in bile tolerance and that the operon it resides in is negatively controlled by the RR. Mutations in the transporter, the HPK, the RR, and a hypothetical protein each resulted in loss of tolerance of bile. Mutations in genes encoding another hypothetical protein and a putative oxidoreductase resulted in significant increases in bile tolerance. This functional analysis showed that the operon encoded proteins involved in both bile tolerance and bile sensitivity. PMID:17449631

  13. Lactobacillus acidophilus upregulates intestinal NHE3 expression and function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varsha; Raheja, Geetu; Borthakur, Alip; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alakkam, Anas; Malakooti, Jaleh

    2012-01-01

    A major mechanism of electroneutral NaCl absorption in the human ileum and colon involves coupling of Na+/H+ and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers. Disturbances in these mechanisms have been implicated in diarrheal conditions. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus have been indicated to be beneficial in the management of gastrointestinal disorders, including diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics have not been fully understood. We have previously demonstrated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) to stimulate Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels and expression of the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger DRA in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of LA on NHE3, the Na+/H+ exchanger involved in the coupled electroneutral NaCl absorption, are not known. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the effects of LA on the function and expression of NHE3 and to determine the mechanisms involved. Treatment of Caco2 cells with LA or its conditioned culture supernatant (CS) for 8–24 h resulted in a significant increase in Na+/H+ exchange activity, mRNA, and protein levels of NHE3. LA-CS upregulation of NHE3 function and expression was also observed in SK-CO15 cells, a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line. Additionally, LA treatment increased NHE3 promoter activity, suggesting involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. In vivo, mice gavaged with live LA showed significant increase in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colonic regions. In conclusion, LA-induced increase in NHE3 expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of probiotics. PMID:23086913

  14. Potential for tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus as an effective component in moisturizing skin and anti-wrinkle products

    PubMed Central

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Hui Seong; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin damage. In the present study, a UVB-induced hairless mouse model of skin photoaging was developed to determine whether tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to significantly enhance the repair of photodamaged skin. To evaluate the effects of tyndalized L. acidophilus on UVB-induced skin-wrinkle formation in vivo, HR-1 hairless male mice were exposed to UVB radiation and orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus. Compared with the control group, the UVB irradiation mice displayed a significant increase in transepidermal water loss and a reduction in skin hydration. In mice with UVB-induced photodamage, the effacement of the fine wrinkles by tyndalized L. acidophilus was correlated with dermal collagen synthesis, accompanied by histological changes. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to investigate the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Notably, orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus reduced the expression levels of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Based upon the aforementioned results, it was determined that tyndalized L. acidophilus effectively inhibited the wrinkle formation induced by UVB irradiation, and that this may be attributed to the downregulation of MMPs. Therefore, tyndalized L. acidophilus may be considered a potential agent for preventing skin photoaging and wrinkle formation. PMID:27446272

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 prevents atherosclerosis via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25261526

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25261526

  17. Results of a Parametric Study on 10,000 lb. and 50,000 lb. Permanent Magnetic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stekly, Z. J. J.; Gardner, C.; Domigan, P.; McDonald, C.; Farrell, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate design data and complete dynamic performance estimates for a high performance permanent magnet actuator. The basic configuration selected for analysis is an axisymmetric Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet actuator capable of providing force in one direction along its major axis. The actuator consisted of two main axisymmetric components separated by an air gap. The design was optimized for each value of force, gap and magnetic field to yield minimum weight and maximum lift to weight ratio. The basic conclusion is that, within parameters considered, the 10,000 lb. and 50,000 lb. actuators are lightweight and compact. As expected for most permanent magnet devices, the smaller ones have higher lift to eight ratios.

  18. Dominance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the Facultative Jejunal Lactobacillus Microbiota of Fistulated Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yurui; Manninen, Titta J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 104 to 108 CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), Lactobacillus acidophilus was dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern. PMID:22843523

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus: characterization of the species and application in food production.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Nazia; Maqsood, Shabana; Masud, Tariq; Ahmad, Asif; Sohail, Asma; Momin, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    L. acidophilus is a homofermentative, microaerophilic, short chain gram positive microorganism with rod morphology having its bacteriocins belonging to class II a. Several bacteriocins of L. acidophilus have been isolated and characterized. These are structurally similar, but their molecular weight varies as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They exhibit important technical properties, i.e., thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range along with strong inhibitory actions against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria make them an important class of biopreservatives. L. acidophilus can be added as an adjunct in many food fermentation processes contributing to unique taste, flavor, and texture. It also preserves the products by producing lactic acid and bacteriocins. A lot of new information regarding the bacteriocins of L. acidophilus has emerged during the last few years. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize and discuss all the available information regarding the sources of bacteriocins production, their characteristics, and their antimicrobial action along with their application. PMID:24499153

  20. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P

    2016-01-14

    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P<0·05) for each of the individual treatment groups: BCD or L. acidophilus. However, significant differences in total serum cholesterol concentrations were observed when comparing the combined treatment group (BCD and L. acidophilus) with the control group, which consisted of a basal diet and sterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. PMID:26467089

  1. Bifidobacterium bifidum actively changes the gene expression profile induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in murine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen Fink, Lisbeth; Jarmer, Hanne; Nøhr Nielsen, Birgit; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal regulatory role in activation of both the innate as well as the adaptive immune system by responding to environmental microorganisms. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a strong production of the pro-inflammatory and Th1 polarizing cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9. L. acidophilus NCFM strongly induced expression of interferon (IFN)-beta, other virus defence genes, and cytokine and chemokine genes related to the innate and the adaptive immune response. By contrast, B. bifidum Z9 up-regulated genes encoding cytokines and chemokines related to the innate immune response. Moreover, B. bifidum Z9 inhibited the expression of the Th1-promoting genes induced by L. acidophilus NCFM and had an additive effect on genes of the innate immune response and Th2 skewing genes. The gene encoding Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a transcription factor regulating the activation of JNK, was one of the few genes only induced by B. bifidum Z9. Neutralization of IFN-beta abrogated L. acidophilus NCFM-induced expression of Th1-skewing genes, and blocking of the JNK pathway completely inhibited the expression of IFN-beta. Our results indicate that B. bifidum Z9 actively inhibits the expression of genes related to the adaptive immune system in murine dendritic cells and that JPD2 via blocking of IFN-beta plays a central role in this regulatory mechanism. PMID:20548777

  2. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and bacitracin on layer performance of chickens and cholesterol content of plasma and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, S Y; Hashlamoun, E A; Robinson, R K

    1996-05-01

    1. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus alone or in combination with zinc bacitracin on the performance of laying hens was monitored over a period of 4 months. 2. Lactobacillus acidophilus improved egg production, food conversion and reduced the cholesterol concentration in the eggs, but zinc bacitracin had no effect when administered alone. 3. In combination, bacitracin had an adverse effect on the otherwise beneficial activity of the culture. PMID:8773843

  3. Proteome reference map of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and quantitative proteomics towards understanding the prebiotic action of lactitol.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Avishek; Sultan, Abida; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne Gregers; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2011-09-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic bacterium adapted to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and with potential health benefits to the host. Lactitol is a synthetic sugar alcohol used as a sugar replacement in low calorie foods and selectively stimulating growth of L. acidophilus NCFM. In the present study the whole-cell extract proteome of L. acidophilus NCFM grown on glucose until late exponential phase was resolved by 2-DE (pH 3-7). A total of 275 unique proteins assigned to various physiological processes were identified from 650 spots. Differential 2-DE (DIGE) (pH 4-7) of L. acidophilus NCFM grown on glucose and lactitol, revealed 68 spots with modified relative intensity. Thirty-two unique proteins were identified in 41 of these spots changing 1.6-12.7-fold in relative abundance by adaptation of L. acidophilus NCFM to growth on lactitol. These proteins included β-galactosidase small subunit, galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase, which all are potentially involved in lactitol metabolism. This first comprehensive proteome analysis of L. acidophilus NCFM provides insights into protein abundance changes elicited by the prebiotic lactitol. PMID:21751373

  4. Impact of oral Lactobacillus acidophilus gavage on rooster seminal and cloacal Lactobacilli concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kiess, A S; Hirai, J H; Triplett, M D; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2016-08-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry is being heavily scrutinized, therefore alternatives such as probiotics are being investigated. Lactobacilli spp. are a commonly used bacteria in formulating probiotics, and the addition of Lactobacilli to broiler diets has demonstrated increased growth rates, stimulated immune systems, and reduced pathogen loads in the gastro-intestinal tract ( GI: ) tract. However, previous research has shown that when rooster semen is directly exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) sperm quality is reduced. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine if oral administration of L. acidophilus increases the concentration of Lactobacilli in semen as well as the cloaca. A total of 30 roosters were used: 15 roosters were gavaged with 1X PBS (Control) and 15 roosters were gavaged with 10(7) cfu/mL of L. acidophilus (Treated). All roosters were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. Semen was collected on a 3 d interval, and cloacal swabs were collected on a 2 d interval, beginning on the first day prior to oral administration. Semen and cloacal swabs were serial diluted, and 100 μL of each dilution was then plated on Man, Rogosa, Sharpe ( MRS: ) agar plates. All plates were incubated for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions and counted. All Lactobacilli counts were first log transformed, then log transformed (day 0) pre-counts were subtracted from the log transformed day counts providing log differences for the analysis. Seminal Lactobacilli counts were not altered by treatments. However, the main effect of treatment (P = 0.026) for cloacal counts indicated that roosters gavaged with Lactobacilli yielded higher counts than the controls. Additionally, cloaca samples also demonstrated a treatment by day interaction trend (P = 0.082), where Lactobacilli was higher in the L. acidophilus gavaged roosters than the controls only on days 3, 5, 13, and 15. In conclusion, the addition of L. acidophilus to the male breeder diet

  5. Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2001-01-22

    The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host's mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) to degrade mucin in vitro was evaluated, in order to assess their potential pathogenicity and local toxicity. The LAB strains were incubated in medium containing hog gastric mucin (HGM, 0.3%) at 37 degrees C for 48 h, following which any decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentration in the ethanol-precipitated portion of the culture medium was determined, using phenol-sulphuric acid and bicinchonic acid (BCA) protein assays, respectively. The change in molecular weight of mucin glycoproteins, following incubation with the test strains, was monitored by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In order to expose any ability of the test strains to degrade mucin visually and more directly, the test strains were also cultured on agarose containing 0.3% HGM and incubated anaerobically for 72 h at 37 degrees C. No significant change in the carbohydrate or protein concentration in mucin substrates was found following incubation with the test strains. No mucin fragments were derived from the mucin suspension incubated with test strains, and no mucinolysis zone was identified on agarose. These results demonstrate that the potential probiotic LAB strains tested here were unable to degrade gastrointestinal mucin in vitro, which suggests that these novel probiotic candidates are likely to be non-invasive and non-toxic at the mucosal interface. PMID:11205957

  6. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

  7. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  8. Whole-cell detection of live lactobacillus acidophilus on aptamer-decorated porous silicon biosensors.

    PubMed

    Urmann, K; Arshavsky-Graham, S; Walter, J G; Scheper, T; Segal, E

    2016-09-21

    This work describes the design of optical aptamer-based porous silicon (PSi) biosensors for the direct capture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (single-stranded DNA or RNA) that can bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, making them excellent recognition elements for biosensing applications. Herein, aptamer Hemag1P, which specifically targets the important probiotic L. acidophilus, was utilized for direct bacteria capture onto oxidized PSi Fabry-Pérot thin films. Monitoring changes in the reflectivity spectrum (using reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy) allows for bacteria detection in a label-free, simple and rapid manner. The performance of the biosensor was optimized by tuning the PSi nanostructure, its optical properties, as well as the immobilization density of the aptamer. We demonstrate the high selectivity and specificity of this simple "direct-capture" biosensing scheme and show its ability to distinguish between live and dead bacteria. The resulting biosensor presents a robust and rapid method for the specific detection of live L. acidophilus at concentrations relevant for probiotic products and as low as 10(6) cells per mL. Rapid monitoring of probiotic bacteria is crucial for quality, purity and safety control as the use of probiotics in functional foods and pharmaceuticals is becoming increasingly popular. PMID:27381045

  9. Immunoregulatory effects on Caco-2 cells and mice of exopolysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Jiang, Yu-Jun; Yang, Xiang-Yi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jin-Yu; Man, Chao-Xin

    2014-12-01

    On the basis of our previous results on potential immunoregulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, the immunoregulatory effects of exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from L. acidophilus NCFM and their regulating mechanisms are further investigated in the current research. Stimulated by EPS preparations, four immune-related genes in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 cells, namely, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), chemokine C-C motif 2 (CCL2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3), first showed an increase at 2-4 h, peaked at 4 h, and then decreased at 4-12 h. Similar trends were observed in vivo: four genes showed transient expression (highest on the 4th day) in the cecum and colon of mice. Meanwhile, the organ coefficient, clearance index and phagocytic index all significantly increased with time extension and dose increase of EPS stimulation. EPS triggered NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways in Caco-2 cells, and the activated pathways initiated the genes expression. EPS compounds from L. acidophilus NCFM may play an important role in host immunoregulation and might be applied as a new type of immunoregulatory agent in functional foods. PMID:25340590

  10. Regulation of induced colonic inflammation by Lactobacillus acidophilus deficient in lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Pfeiler, Erika A; Brown, Jeffrey B; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gramarossa, Matthew; Managlia, Elizabeth; Bere, Praveen; Sarraj, Bara; Khan, Mohammad W; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya; Ansari, M Javeed; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Barrett, Terrence; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-03-15

    Imbalance in the regulatory immune mechanisms that control intestinal cellular and bacterial homeostasis may lead to induction of the detrimental inflammatory signals characterized in humans as inflammatory bowel disease. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-12) induced by dendritic cells (DCs) expressing pattern recognition receptors may skew naive T cells to T helper 1 polarization, which is strongly implicated in mucosal autoimmunity. Recent studies show the ability of probiotic microbes to treat and prevent numerous intestinal disorders, including Clostridium difficile-induced colitis. To study the molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and repression of intestinal inflammation, the phosphoglycerol transferase gene that plays a key role in lipoteichoic acid (LTA) biosynthesis in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCK56) was deleted. The data show that the L. acidophilus LTA-negative in LTA (NCK2025) not only down-regulated IL-12 and TNFα but also significantly enhanced IL-10 in DCs and controlled the regulation of costimulatory DC functions, resulting in their inability to induce CD4(+) T-cell activation. Moreover, treatment of mice with NCK2025 compared with NCK56 significantly mitigated dextran sulfate sodium and CD4(+)CD45RB(high)T cell-induced colitis and effectively ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-established colitis through a mechanism that involves IL-10 and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells to dampen exaggerated mucosal inflammation. Directed alteration of cell surface components of L. acidophilus NCFM establishes a potential strategy for the treatment of inflammatory intestinal disorders. PMID:21282652

  11. Bacterial cell surface properties: role of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Yang, Shanshan; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) on the comprehensive surface properties of four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus suis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida). The removal of LB-EPS from bacterial surfaces by high-speed centrifugation (12,000×g) was confirmed by SEM images. Viability tests showed that the percentages of viable cells ranged from 95.9% to 98.0%, and no significant difference was found after treatment (P>0.05). FTIR spectra revealed the presence of phosphodiester, carboxylic, phosphate, and amino functional groups on bacteria surfaces, and the removal of LB-EPS did not alter the types of cell surface functional groups. Potentiometric titration results suggested the total site concentrations on the intact bacteria were higher than those on LB-EPS free bacteria. Most of the acidity constants (pKa) were almost identical, except the increased pKa values of phosphodiester groups on LB-EPS free S. suis and E. coli surfaces. The electrophoretic mobilities and hydrodynamic diameters of the intact and LB-EPS free bacteria were statistically unchanged (P>0.05), indicating LB-EPS had no influence on the net surface charges and size distribution of bacteria. However, LB-ESP could enhance cell aggregation processes. The four LB-EPS free bacteria all exhibited fewer hydrophobicity values (26.1-65.0%) as compared to the intact cells (47.4-69.3%), suggesting the removal of uncharged nonpolar compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) in LB-EPS. These findings improve our understanding of the changes in cell surface characterizations induced by LB-EPS, and have important implications for assessing the role of LB-EPS in bacterial adhesion and transport behaviors. PMID:25805151

  12. Competitive exclusion of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells by heat-killed Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Chauvière, G; Coconnier, M H; Kerneis, S; Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Joly, B; Servin, A L

    1992-03-15

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bearing CFA/I or CFA/II adhesive factors specifically adhere onto the brush border of the polarized epithelial human intestinal Caco-2 cells in culture. Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB, that adheres onto Caco-2 cells, inhibits diarrheagenic Escherichia coli adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Since the L. acidophilus does not express ETEC-CFA adhesive factors, it can be postulated that the heat-killed L. acidophilus LB cells inhibit diarrheagenic E. coli attachment by steric hindrance of the human enterocytic ETEC receptors. PMID:1624102

  13. Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 Inhibits Atherogenesis via Induction of 24 (S), 25-Epoxycholesterol-Mediated ABCA1 and ABCG1 Production and Cholesterol Efflux in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Sun; Park, Woo Jung; Kim, Joo-Yun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus species are well-known probiotics with the beneficial activity of regulating cholesterol levels. In this study, we showed that L. acidophilus K301 reduced the level of cholesterol through reverse transport in macrophages. L. acidophilus K301 upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of genes such as ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) under the control of liver X receptor (LXR), resulting in increased apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells. L. acidophilus K301 induced both ABCA1 and ABCG1 through the endogenous LXR agonist 24(S), 25-epoxcycholesterol, which is synthesized by intracellular cholesterol synthetic pathways. In vivo studies using L. acidophilus K301-treated ApoE-/- mice showed reduced accumulation of lipoproteins in the arterial lumen. The inhibitory effects of L. acidophilus K301 on accumulation of lipoprotein in atherosclerotic plaques were mediated by the induction of squalene reductase (SQLE) and oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) and resulted in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Taken together, our findings revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 regulates the expression of genes related to cholesterol reverse transport via the induction of endogenous LXR agonist, suggesting the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. PMID:27120199

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 Inhibits Atherogenesis via Induction of 24 (S), 25-Epoxycholesterol-Mediated ABCA1 and ABCG1 Production and Cholesterol Efflux in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Sun; Park, Woo Jung; Kim, Joo-Yun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus species are well-known probiotics with the beneficial activity of regulating cholesterol levels. In this study, we showed that L. acidophilus K301 reduced the level of cholesterol through reverse transport in macrophages. L. acidophilus K301 upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of genes such as ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) under the control of liver X receptor (LXR), resulting in increased apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells. L. acidophilus K301 induced both ABCA1 and ABCG1 through the endogenous LXR agonist 24(S), 25-epoxcycholesterol, which is synthesized by intracellular cholesterol synthetic pathways. In vivo studies using L. acidophilus K301-treated ApoE-/- mice showed reduced accumulation of lipoproteins in the arterial lumen. The inhibitory effects of L. acidophilus K301 on accumulation of lipoprotein in atherosclerotic plaques were mediated by the induction of squalene reductase (SQLE) and oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) and resulted in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Taken together, our findings revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 regulates the expression of genes related to cholesterol reverse transport via the induction of endogenous LXR agonist, suggesting the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. PMID:27120199

  15. A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.

    PubMed

    Orel, Oksana V; Lobkova, Ludmila E; Zhirov, Sergey V; Petrova, Ninel A

    2015-01-01

    Morphology, cytology, ecology and biology of Holarctic Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl, 1960 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the geothermal Vosmerka Lake (pH=2.0-2.5). An illustrated redescription of C. acidophilus is given on the basis of adult males reared from field-collected pupae, and of simultaneously collected larvae. Additional larvae belonging to the pseudothummi-complex were identified as C. acidophilus on the basis of their karyotype. The karyotype of C. acidophilus (2n=8) and detailed mapping of the 4 chromosome arms A, E, D and F are provided. The population of C. acidophilus from Kamchatka was found to be karyologically monomorphic. Information on distribution and ecology of C. acidophilus from Vosmerka Lake (total mineralization 1583.5 mg/l) is also given. Chironomus acidophilus is the only species of aquatic insects recorded in this lake. Lack of competition and a richness of food resources contribute to the high abundance (35161 ind./m2) and biomass (11.342 g/m2) of the larvae of C. acidophilus in Vosmerka Lake. PMID:26249988

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces cytokine and chemokine production via NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yujun; Lü, Xuena; Man, Chaoxin; Han, Linlin; Shan, Yi; Qu, Xingguang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shiqin; Xue, Yuqing; Zhang, Yinghua

    2012-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells can respond to certain bacteria by producing an array of cytokines and chemokines which are associated with host immune responses. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a characterized probiotic, originally isolated from human feces. This study aimed to test the ability of L. acidophilus NCFM to stimulate cytokine and chemokine production in intestinal epithelial cells and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their upregulation. In experiments using intestinal epithelial cell lines and mouse models, we observed that L. acidophilus NCFM could rapidly but transiently upregulate a number of effector genes encoding cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, CCL2, and CCL20 and that cytokines showed lower expression levels with L. acidophilus NCFM treatment than chemokines. Moreover, L. acidophilus NCFM could activate a pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), in intestinal epithelial cell lines. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in intestinal epithelial cell lines was also enhanced by L. acidophilus NCFM. Furthermore, inhibitors of NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate [PDTC]) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced cytokine and chemokine production in the intestinal epithelial cell lines stimulated by L. acidophilus NCFM, suggesting that both NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were important for the production of cytokines and chemokines induced by L. acidophilus NCFM. PMID:22357649

  17. MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb: The Neptune analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    We present the discovery and mass measurement of the first Neptune analog exoplanet, MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune and it orbits at a distance of 11 times the expected position of the snow-line, which is the same position as Neptune in our Solar System. This is the first sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet found at such a large distance from its host star, although planets at similar separations have been found by direct imaging. There are two degenerate physical solutions due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, known as the wide degeneracy. The slightly favored model has a Neptune-mass planet orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf. The alternative model implies a mini-Neptune orbiting a brown dwarf host. The 3-D planet-host separations are 11 times or 16 times greater than the expected positions of the snow-line for these models, respectively, which are close to Neptune's separation of 11 snow-line from the Sun. This discovery suggests that Neptune-like planets orbiting at 11 snow-line are quite common, so the process that formed Uranus and Neptune in our own Solar System may be quite common in other solar systems.

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed. PMID:25922399

  19. Isolation and characterization of xanthan-degrading Enterobacter sp. nov. LB37 for reducing the viscosity of xanthan in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Wang, Mi; Yang, Fan; Tang, Wenzhu; Li, Xianzhen

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-negative, straight rod and facultative anaerobic bacterium was isolated from soil sample. It exhibits the phenotypic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Enterobacter. The isolate ferment glucose to acid and gas. Arginine dihydrolase, ornithin decarboxylase and gelatinase but not deoxyribonuclease was produced by this isolate. There was no hydrogen sulfide production. On the basis of the phenotypic data, together with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequences, this strain should represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter and was designated as LB37. The strain LB37 could degrade xanthan molecules resulting in the rapid decrease of the viscosity of xanthan solution used in oil drilling process. Endoxanthanase activity was also detected in the culture supernatant. To our knowledge, it is the first report on the microbes being involved in the xanthan degradation for oil industry. The isolate LB37 would be useful for potential application in enhanced oil recovery and oil drilling field. PMID:24326911

  20. Identification of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brant; Selle, Kurt; O’Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial surface (S-) layers are crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps), with molecular masses ranging from 40 to 200 kDa. The S-layer-forming bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM expresses three major Slps: SlpA (46 kDa), SlpB (47 kDa) and SlpX (51 kDa). SlpA has a demonstrated role in adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and has been shown to modulate dendritic cell (DC) and T-cell functionalities with murine DCs. In this study, a modification of a standard lithium chloride S-layer extraction revealed 37 proteins were solubilized from the S-layer wash fraction. Of these, 30 have predicted cleavage sites for secretion, 24 are predicted to be extracellular, six are lipid-anchored, three have N-terminal hydrophobic membrane spanning regions and four are intracellular, potentially moonlighting proteins. Some of these proteins, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs), may be loosely associated with or embedded within the bacterial S-layer complex. Lba-1029, a putative SLAP gene, was deleted from the chromosome of L. acidophilus. Phenotypic characterization of the deletion mutant demonstrated that the SLAP LBA1029 contributes to a pro-inflammatory TNF-α response from murine DCs. This study identified extracellular proteins and putative SLAPs of L. acidophilus NCFM using LC-MS/MS. SLAPs appear to impart important surface display features and immunological properties to microbes that are coated by S-layers. PMID:24002751

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 improved “gut health” in the SHIME® reactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background How to maintain “gut health” is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. Methods The SHIME® model was used to study the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus 1014 on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2-wk using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-wk control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-wk treatment period by adding 5 mL of sterile peptone water with L. acidophilus CRL1014 at the concentration of 108 CFU/mL to vessel one (the stomach compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonium analyses were carried out for monitoring of the microbial community from the colon compartments. Results A significant increase (p < 0.01) in the Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed changes in the lactobacilli community from the colon compartments of the SHIME® reactor. The (SCFA) concentration increased (p < 0.01) during the treatment period, due mainly to significant increased levels of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. However, ammonium concentrations decreased during the same period (p < 0.01). Conclusions This study showed the beneficial influence of L. acidophilus CRL 1014 on microbial metabolism and lactobacilli community composition for improving human health. PMID:23758634

  2. Identification of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brant; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial surface (S-) layers are crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps), with molecular masses ranging from 40 to 200 kDa. The S-layer-forming bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM expresses three major Slps: SlpA (46 kDa), SlpB (47 kDa) and SlpX (51 kDa). SlpA has a demonstrated role in adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and has been shown to modulate dendritic cell (DC) and T-cell functionalities with murine DCs. In this study, a modification of a standard lithium chloride S-layer extraction revealed 37 proteins were solubilized from the S-layer wash fraction. Of these, 30 have predicted cleavage sites for secretion, 24 are predicted to be extracellular, six are lipid-anchored, three have N-terminal hydrophobic membrane spanning regions and four are intracellular, potentially moonlighting proteins. Some of these proteins, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs), may be loosely associated with or embedded within the bacterial S-layer complex. Lba-1029, a putative SLAP gene, was deleted from the chromosome of L. acidophilus. Phenotypic characterization of the deletion mutant demonstrated that the SLAP LBA1029 contributes to a pro-inflammatory TNF-α response from murine DCs. This study identified extracellular proteins and putative SLAPs of L. acidophilus NCFM using LC-MS/MS. SLAPs appear to impart important surface display features and immunological properties to microbes that are coated by S-layers. PMID:24002751

  3. Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation in human subjects and their resistance to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, A C; ten Bruggencate, S J M; Schonewille, A J; Alhoniemi, E; Forssten, S D; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I M J

    2014-02-01

    To assess the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 700396) on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection, in the present study, a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled 4-week intervention was performed in healthy males. The subjects largely consumed their habitual diet, but had to abstain from consuming dairy foods generally high in Ca. The subjects were randomised into the L. acidophilus (dose 10⁹ colony-forming units twice daily; n 20) or the placebo (n 19) group. After an adaptation period of 2 weeks, the subjects were orally infected with a live, but attenuated, ETEC vaccine, able to induce mild, short-lived symptoms. Before and after the challenge, the subjects recorded stool consistency, bowel habits, and frequency and severity of gastrointestinal complaints. The ETEC challenge led to a significant increase in faecal output on the 2nd day and a concomitant increase in Bristol stool scale scores. Likewise, abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, fever, headache and nausea peaked 1 d after the oral challenge. The concentrations of faecal calprotectin and IgA peaked 2 d after and that of serum IgM peaked 9 and 15 d after the oral challenge. The concentrations of serum IgA and IgG were unaffected. The ETEC challenge led to a reduction in the number of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium cluster XIVab and total faecal bacteria. Probiotic treatment was associated with a larger increase in Bristol stool scale scores and more fever, headache and nausea after the ETEC challenge compared with the placebo treatment. These differences were, however, small and with substantial variation within the groups. Oral application of an attenuated live ETEC vaccine provides a useful model for food-borne infections. Supplementation with L. acidophilus ATCC 700396, however, was ineffective in reducing ETEC infection symptoms in healthy men. PMID:23930950

  4. The growth of Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in Sorbarod biofilms.

    PubMed

    Muli, F W; Struthers, J K

    1998-05-01

    Sorbarod biofilms were investigated for their suitability in establishing continuous culture biofilms for the study of bacterial vaginosis. Two important organisms in the condition, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, were studied. In contrast to growth in broth culture, both organisms were maintained for at least 96 h in a steady state on the biofilms. With G. vaginalis, the haemolytic activity was consistently maintained in the biofilms in contrast to short-term activity in broth culture which matched the bacterial titre. The simple Sorbarod system appears to be suitable for studying the growth conditions of bacteria in continuous culture and has potential for investigating interactions between micro-organisms. PMID:9879940

  5. pH-indicators doped polysaccharide LbL coatings for hazardous gases optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Mironenko, A Yu; Sergeev, A A; Voznesenskiy, S S; Marinin, D V; Bratskaya, S Yu

    2013-01-30

    Sensitive layer-by-layer (LbL) coatings for optical detection of gaseous NH(3) and HCl were prepared by self-assembly of oppositely charged polysaccharides (chitosan and λ-carrageenan) followed by doping LbLs with pH-sensitive dyes - bromothymol blue (BTB) and Congo red (CR). It has been shown that CR, being an amphoteric dye, diffuses into LbL films regardless of the charge of the outermost polyelectrolyte layer, and the dye loading increases linearly with the LbL film thickness, whereas BTB diffuses into LbL films only when the outermost layer is positively charged, and linearity between dye loading and film thickness holds only up to 8-12 double layers (DLs) deposited. Formation of dye-doped LbL coatings at the surface of K(+)/Na(+) ion-exchanged glass has allowed fabrication of composite optical waveguide (OWG) gas sensor for detection of ammonia and hydrochloric acid vapors. The response time of BTB-doped composite OWG for ammonia detection was below 1s, and the detection limit was below 1 ppm. CR-doped OWG sensors have shown high sensitivity to HCl vapor but slow relaxation time (up to several hours for 12 DL LbL films). PMID:23218366

  6. Characterization of the log lithology of cores LB-07A and LB-08A of the Bosumtwi impact structure by using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, Christina; Schleifer, Norbert; Elbra, Tiiu

    Petrophysical data are commonly used for the discrimination of different lithologies, as the variation in mineralogy, texture, and porosity is accompanied by varying physical properties. A special field of investigation is the analysis of the directional dependence (anisotropy) of the petrophysical properties, which can provide further information on the characteristics of the lithologies, due to the fact that this parameter is different in the various rock-forming and rockchanging processes, e.g., deformation or sedimentation. To characterize the rocks in drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A, which were drilled into the deep crater moat and central uplift of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, samples were taken for the study of petrophysical properties. In the present work the magnetic properties of these samples were determined in the laboratory. The results are discussed in relation to the various lithologies represented by this sample suite. The shape and degree of magnetic anisotropy, in combination with the magnetic susceptibility, proved useful in distinguishing between the different lithologies present in the drill cores (polymict lithic breccia, suevite, shale component, and meta-graywacke). It was possible to correlate layers of high (shale component), ntermediate (graywacke, polymict lithic breccia), and low (suevite) anisotropy degree with the lithostratigraphic sequences determined for cores LB-07A and LB-08A. The shape of the anisotropy showed that foliation is most dominant within the shale component, whereas lineation is more pronounced in the meta-graywacke and polymict lithic breccia. An overall increase of the anisotropy degree was observed from core LB-07A towards core LB-08A. Thus magnetic anisotropy data provide a useful contribution towards an improved petrophysical characterization of the lithostratigraphic sequences in drillcores from the Bosumtwi impact structure.

  7. 75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final... Columbia in United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc., Civil Action No. 1:10-cv... by L.B. Foster Company (``Foster'') of Portec Rail Products, Inc. (``Portec'') would violate...

  8. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM using polymerized whey proteins as wall material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yujun; Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Tiehua; Hendricks, Gregory; Guo, Mingruo

    2016-09-01

    Survivability of probiotics in foods is essential for developing functional food containing probiotics. We investigated polymerized whey protein (PWP)-based microencapsulation process which is developed for protecting probiotics like Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and compared with the method using sodium alginate (SA). The entrapment rate was 89.3 ± 4.8% using PWP, while it was 73.2 ± 1.4% for SA. The microencapsulated NCFM by PWP and SA were separately subjected to digestion juices and post-fermentation storage of fermented cows' and goats' milk using the encapsulated culture. The log viable count of NCFM in PWP-based microencapsulation was 4.56, compared with that of 4.26 in SA-based ones and 3.13 for free culture. Compared with using SA as wall material, PWP was more effective in protecting probiotic. Microencapsulation of L. acidophilus NCFM using PWP as wall material can be exploited in the development of fermented dairy products with better survivability of probiotic organism. PMID:27309796

  9. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing. PMID:25305442

  10. A functional glycogen biosynthesis pathway in Lactobacillus acidophilus: expression and analysis of the glg operon

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism contributes to energy storage and various physiological functions in some prokaryotes, including colonization persistence. A role for glycogen metabolism is proposed on the survival and fitness of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a probiotic microbe, in the human gastrointestinal environment. L. acidophilus NCFM possesses a glycogen metabolism (glg) operon consisting of glgBCDAP-amy-pgm genes. Expression of the glg operon and glycogen accumulation were carbon source- and growth phase-dependent, and were repressed by glucose. The highest intracellular glycogen content was observed in early log-phase cells grown on trehalose, which was followed by a drastic decrease of glycogen content prior to entering stationary phase. In raffinose-grown cells, however, glycogen accumulation gradually declined following early log phase and was maintained at stable levels throughout stationary phase. Raffinose also induced an overall higher temporal glg expression throughout growth compared with trehalose. Isogenic ΔglgA (glycogen synthase) and ΔglgB (glycogen-branching enzyme) mutants are glycogen-deficient and exhibited growth defects on raffinose. The latter observation suggests a reciprocal relationship between glycogen synthesis and raffinose metabolism. Deletion of glgB or glgP (glycogen phosphorylase) resulted in defective growth and increased bile sensitivity. The data indicate that glycogen metabolism is involved in growth maintenance, bile tolerance and complex carbohydrate utilization in L. acidophilus. PMID:23879596

  11. Transcriptional analysis of prebiotic uptake and catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Hachem, Maher Abou; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:23028535

  12. A functional glycogen biosynthesis pathway in Lactobacillus acidophilus: expression and analysis of the glg operon.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-09-01

    Glycogen metabolism contributes to energy storage and various physiological functions in some prokaryotes, including colonization persistence. A role for glycogen metabolism is proposed on the survival and fitness of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a probiotic microbe, in the human gastrointestinal environment. L. acidophilus NCFM possesses a glycogen metabolism (glg) operon consisting of glgBCDAP-amy-pgm genes. Expression of the glg operon and glycogen accumulation were carbon source- and growth phase-dependent, and were repressed by glucose. The highest intracellular glycogen content was observed in early log-phase cells grown on trehalose, which was followed by a drastic decrease of glycogen content prior to entering stationary phase. In raffinose-grown cells, however, glycogen accumulation gradually declined following early log phase and was maintained at stable levels throughout stationary phase. Raffinose also induced an overall higher temporal glg expression throughout growth compared with trehalose. Isogenic ΔglgA (glycogen synthase) and ΔglgB (glycogen-branching enzyme) mutants are glycogen-deficient and exhibited growth defects on raffinose. The latter observation suggests a reciprocal relationship between glycogen synthesis and raffinose metabolism. Deletion of glgB or glgP (glycogen phosphorylase) resulted in defective growth and increased bile sensitivity. The data indicate that glycogen metabolism is involved in growth maintenance, bile tolerance and complex carbohydrate utilization in L. acidophilus. PMID:23879596

  13. Characterization of the tre locus and analysis of trehalose cryoprotection in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tri; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Russell, W Michael; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2006-02-01

    Freezing and lyophilization are common methods used for preservation and storage of microorganisms during the production of concentrated starter cultures destined for industrial fermentations or product formulations. The compatible solute trehalose has been widely reported to protect bacterial, yeast and animal cells against a variety of environmental stresses, particularly freezing and dehydration. Analysis of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM genome revealed a putative trehalose utilization locus consisting of a transcriptional regulator, treR; a trehalose phosphoenolpyruvate transferase system (PTS) transporter, treB; and a trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase, treC. The objective of this study was to characterize the tre locus in L. acidophilus and determine whether or not intracellular uptake of trehalose contributes to cryoprotection. Cells subjected to repeated freezing and thawing cycles were monitored for survival in the presence of various concentrations of trehalose. At 20% trehalose a 2-log increase in survival was observed. The trehalose PTS transporter and trehalose hydrolase were disrupted by targeted plasmid insertions. The resulting mutants were unable to grow on trehalose, indicating that both trehalose transport into the cell via a PTS and hydrolysis via a trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase were necessary for trehalose fermentation. Trehalose uptake was found to be significantly reduced in the transporter mutant but unaffected in the hydrolase mutant. Additionally, the cryoprotective effect of trehalose was reduced in these mutants, suggesting that intracellular transport and hydrolysis contribute significantly to cryoprotection. PMID:16461669

  14. Transcriptional and functional analysis of galactooligosaccharide uptake by lacS in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo; Goh, Yong Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-10-25

    Probiotic microbes rely on their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, adhere to mucosal surfaces, and metabolize available energy sources from dietary compounds, including prebiotics. Genome sequencing projects have proposed models for understanding prebiotic catabolism, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated for many prebiotic substrates. Although β-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are documented prebiotic compounds, little is known about their utilization by lactobacilli. This study aimed to identify genetic loci in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM responsible for the transport and catabolism of GOS. Whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays were used to survey the differential global transcriptome during logarithmic growth of L. acidophilus NCFM using GOS or glucose as a sole source of carbohydrate. Within the 16.6-kbp gal-lac gene cluster, lacS, a galactoside-pentose-hexuronide permease-encoding gene, was up-regulated 5.1-fold in the presence of GOS. In addition, two β-galactosidases, LacA and LacLM, and enzymes in the Leloir pathway were also encoded by genes within this locus and up-regulated by GOS stimulation. Generation of a lacS-deficient mutant enabled phenotypic confirmation of the functional LacS permease not only for the utilization of lactose and GOS but also lactitol, suggesting a prominent role of LacS in the metabolism of a broad range of prebiotic β-galactosides, known to selectively modulate the beneficial gut microbiota. PMID:22006318

  15. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Razzaqh; Tajik, Hossein; Ehsani, Ali; Zare, Payman

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods. PMID:25610568

  16. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  17. Cost effectiveness of cryoprotective agents and modified De-man Rogosa Sharpe medium on growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-04-01

    The effect of cryoprotective agents (namely, sodium chloride, sucrose, dextran, sorbitol, monosodium glutamate, glycerol, skim milk and skim milk with malt extract) and modified De-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium, on the viability and stability of L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, was investigated. The modified MRS medium was not only economical, but it gave a relatively higher yield of L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 than the commercial MRS. Monosodium glutamate, skim milk and skim milk with malt extract provided significantly higher viable counts, with optimum concentration at 0.3%. Nevertheless, at concentration above 0.5%, there was a reduction in cell viability, which could be attributed to cell shrinkage associated with osmotic pressure changes inside the cells. It was also found that L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 was stable at 28 degrees C for eight weeks. Skim milk demonstrated a significant growth of probiotics. Skim milk was the preferred cryoprotective agent, as it is of low cost, easily available and demonstrated a significant growth of probiotics. In conclusion, modified MRS medium with skim milk is suggested for the remarkable growth and yield of L. acidophilus. PMID:25911832

  18. 42. VIEW SHOWING A GROUP OF TRAINEES DURING 50LB PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW SHOWING A GROUP OF TRAINEES DURING 50-LB PRESSURE TEST IN RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER IN EQUIPMENT HOUSE No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  19. Comparison of transferred freely-suspended films and LB-films of liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Decher, G.; Reibel, J.; Sohling, U.

    1993-12-31

    Amphiphilic liquid crystalline (LC) compounds offer the possibility to obtain similar layered structures such as LB mono- and multilayers, freely suspended and transferred freely-suspended films or bulk LC-phases from a single compound. This way a structural comparison of all types of assemblies can be achieved, combining the experience from both the LB-and the LC-fields. There is a remarkable similarity of the structures of the transferred freely-suspended (TFS) and LB-films. Nevertheless both types of multilayer assemblies, prepared from the same substance (ethyl-4`-n-octyloxybiphenyl-4-carboxylate), show a different thermal behavior. Whereas the TFS-films undergo reversible phase transitions and are stable up to the clearing point of the bulk material (110{degrees}C), the LB-films show only one irreversible phase transition and start to melt already 30{degrees}C below the clearing point of the bulk material.

  20. Spray-assisted layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly of anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Souvik; Suarez Martinez, Pilar; Kavarthapu, Avanti; Lutkenhaus, Jodie

    2015-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has gained tremendous interest as it allows one to incorporate a large variety of molecules with nano-scale precision and very good reproducibility. In addition to charged polymers, the technique has become extremely popular to fabricate tailor-made thin films containing anisotropic nanomaterials (e.g., graphene oxide sheets). The challenge is that a standard protocol to fabricate ``all-polyelectrolyte'' LbL films may not necessarily give rise to satisfactory film growth when applied to LbL assembly where one of the adsorbing components is an anisotropic nanomaterial. Therefore, in this contribution, we combine polymers and anisotropic nanomaterials via dip- and spray-assisted LbL assembly and investigate the effect of charge density, exfoliation, concentration etc. of the components on the growth behavior and the film quality. The end result is a conformal, pin-hole free coating on model substrates (glass, silicon, metal) over a large area.

  1. STIRLING BOILER BY BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. (45,000 LB/HR CAPACITY), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STIRLING BOILER BY BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. (45,000 LB/HR CAPACITY), INSIDE BOILER HOUSE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Hildebolt, Charles F; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  3. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis

    PubMed Central

    Baab, Karen L.; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  4. Who Is LB1? Discriminant Analysis for the Classification of Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Aleix M.; Hamsici, Onur C.

    2008-01-01

    Many problems in paleontology reduce to finding those features that best discriminate among a set of classes. A clear example is the classification of new specimens. However, these classifications are generally challenging because the number of discriminant features and the number of samples are limited. This has been the fate of LB1, a new specimen found in the Liang Bua Cave of Flores. Several authors have attributed LB1 to a new species of Homo, H. floresiensis. According to this hypothesis, LB1 is either a member of the early Homo group or a descendent of an ancestor of the Asian H. erectus. Detractors have put forward an alternate hypothesis, which stipulates that LB1 is in fact a microcephalic modern human. In this paper, we show how we can employ a new Bayes optimal discriminant feature extraction technique to help resolve this type of issues. In this process, we present three types of experiments. First, we use this Bayes optimal discriminant technique to develop a model of morphological (shape) evolution from Australopiths to H. sapiens. LB1 fits perfectly in this model as a member of the early Homo group. Second, we build a classifier based on the available cranial and mandibular data appropriately normalized for size and volume. Again, LB1 is most similar to early Homo. Third, we build a brain endocast classifier to show that LB1 is not within the normal range of variation in H. sapiens. These results combined support the hypothesis of a very early shared ancestor for LB1 and H. erectus, and illustrate how discriminant analysis approaches can be successfully used to help classify newly discovered specimens. PMID:19884951

  5. In vitro gastrointestinal resistance of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in soy and/or milk-based synbiotic apple ice creams.

    PubMed

    Matias, Natalia Silva; Padilha, Marina; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-10-01

    The viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in synbiotic ice creams, in which milk was replaced by soy extract and/or whey protein isolate (WPI) with inulin, were investigated. The ice creams were showed to be satisfactory vehicles for La-5 and Bb-12 (populations around 7.5logCFU/g), even after the whole storage period (84days/-18°C). In all formulations, the propidium monoazide qPCR (PMA-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that probiotics could resist the in vitro GI assay, with significant survival levels, achieving survival rates exceeding 50%. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy images evidenced cells with morphological differences, suggesting physiological changes in response to the induced stress during the in vitro assay. Although all formulations provided resistance to the probiotic strains under GI stress, the variation found in probiotic survival suggests that GI tolerance is indeed affected by the choice of the food matrix. PMID:27387254

  6. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne G; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well-documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel-based NCFM proteomics addressed the so-called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6-11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D gel using MALDI-TOF-MS. The 102 unique gene products among the 150 protein identifications were assigned to different functional categories, and evaluated by considering a calculated distribution of abundance as well as grand average of hydrophobicity values. None of the very few available lactic acid bacteria proteome reference maps included the range of pI >7.0. The present report of such data on the proteome of NCFM fundamentally complements current knowledge on protein profiles limited to the acid and neutral pH range. PMID:22522807

  7. Synergistic effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer and nisin on bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Prado-Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Allievi, Mariana C; Palomino, María Mercedes; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We have previously described a murein hydrolase activity for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356. Here we show that, in combination with nisin, this S-layer acts synergistically to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Gram-negative Salmonella enterica and potential pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. In addition, bacteriolytic effects were observed for the Gram-positive species tested. We postulate that the S-layer enhances the access of nisin into the cell membrane by enabling it to cross the cell wall, while nisin provides the sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force required to enhance the S-layer murein hydrolase activity. PMID:19948852

  8. Optimization of Lactobacillus acidophilus cultivation using taro waste and evaluation of its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Liu, Jui-Ming; Pua, Xiao-Hui; Ting, Yuwen; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, taro waste (TW) was utilized for Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 14079 cultivation and the anti-tumor and immune-modulatory properties of heat-killed cells (HKCs), cytoplasmic fraction (CF), and exopolysaccharide (EPS) were evaluated. The optimum liquefaction enzyme dosage, temperature, and time determined by Box-Behnken design response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) were 9 mL/L of α-amylase, 79.2 °C, and 5 h of reaction, respectively. The optimum temperature and reaction time for saccharification were determined as 60 °C and 3 h. The optimum medium, CGMY1 medium, constitutes of TW hydrolysate containing 37 g/L of glucose, 25 g/L of corn gluten meal (CGM), and 1 g/L of yeast extract (YE). Results of MTT assay showed that HKCs and EPS from CGM medium exhibited the highest anti-proliferative in HT-29 (IC50 of HKCs, 467.25 μg/mL; EPS, 716.10 μg/mL) and in Caco-2 cells (IC50 of EPS, 741.60 μg/mL). Luciferase-based NF-ΚB and COX-2 systems indicated HKCs from CGM medium stimulated the highest expression of luciferin in both systems. The luciferase activities by using 100 and 500 μg/mL of HKCs from CGM were 24.30- and 45.83-fold in NF-ΚB system and 11.54- and 4.93-fold in COX-2 system higher than the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the potential of TW medium for L. acidophilus cultivation and the production of non-viable probiotics with enhanced biological activities. PMID:26572522

  9. Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus on secretion of IL1B, IL6, and IL8 by gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-jun; Feng, Xi-ping; Zhang, Xiu-li; Le, Ke-yi

    2012-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis alters cytokine expression in gingival epithelial cells, stimulating inflammatory responses that may lead to periodontal disease. This study explored the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the specific expressions of the interleukins (ILs) IL1B, IL6, and IL8 induced by the pathogen. Human gingival epithelial cells were co-cultured with P. gingivalis, L. acidophilus, or L. acidophilus + P. gingivalis; the control group consisted of the cells alone. Protein and gene expression levels of the ILs were detected using ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. The supernatant from the P. gingivalis group held significantly higher protein and mRNA levels of IL1B, IL6, and IL8, compared to the control group. In the mixed bacterial group (L. acidophilus + P. gingivalis), the levels of all three ILs decreased with increasing concentrations of L. acidophilus and were significantly different from the P. gingivalis group. This suggests that in gingival cells, L. acidophilus offsets the P. gingivalis-induced secretion of these ILs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22382516

  10. Craniometric ratios of microcephaly and LB1, Homo floresiensis, using MRI and endocasts

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Robert C.; Barron, Todd F.; Holloway, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    The designation of Homo floresiensis as a new species derived from an ancient population is controversial, because the type specimen, LB1, might represent a pathological microcephalic modern Homo sapiens. Accordingly, two specific craniometric ratios (relative frontal breadth and cerebellar protrusion) were ascertained in 21 microcephalic infants and children by using MRI. Data on 118 age-equivalent control (normocephalic) subjects were collected for comparative purposes. In addition, the same craniometric ratios were determined on the endocasts of 10 microcephalic individuals, 79 normal controls (anatomically modern humans), and 17 Homo erectus specimens. These ratios were then compared with those of two LB1 endocasts. The findings showed that the calculated cerebral/cerebellar ratios of the LB1 endocast [Falk D, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:2513–2518] fall outside the range of living normocephalic individuals. The ratios derived from two LB1 endocasts also fall largely outside the range of modern normal human and H. erectus endocasts and within the range of microcephalic endocasts. The findings support but do not prove the contention that LB1 represents a pathological microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species, (i.e., H. floresiensis). PMID:21825126

  11. Systemic augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Perdigón, G; de Macias, M E; Alvarez, S; Oliver, G; de Ruiz Holgado, A P

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mixture of both micro-organisms on the specific and non-specific host defence mechanisms in Swiss mice. Animals fed with fermented milk for 8 days (100 micrograms/day) showed an increase in both phagocytic and lymphocytic activity. This activation of the immune system began on the 3rd day, reached a maximum on the 5th, and decreased slightly on the 8th day of feeding. In the 8-day treated mice, boosted with a single dose (100 micrograms) on the 11th day, the immune response increased further. The feeding with fermented milk produced neither hepatomegaly nor splenomegaly. These results suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus, associated with intestinal mucosae, can influence the level of activation of the immune system. The possible clinical application of fermented milks as immunopotentiators is also discussed. PMID:3123370

  12. Effects of synbiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on the fecal microbiota of adults with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bogovič Matijašić, Bojana; Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Sernel, Tjaša; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja; Šmid, Alenka; Rogelj, Irena

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentric study to investigate the influence of a synbiotic fermented milk on the fecal microbiota composition of 30 adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The synbiotic product contained Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, Streptococcus thermophilus, and dietary fiber (90% inulin, 10% oligofructose), and a heat-treated fermented milk without probiotic bacteria or dietary fiber served as placebo. Stool samples were collected after a run-in period, a 4-wk consumption period, and a 1-wk follow-up period, and were subjected to real-time PCR and 16S rDNA profiling by next-generation sequencing. After 4wk of synbiotic (11 subjects) or placebo (19 subjects) consumption, a greater increase in DNA specific for L. acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis was detected in the feces of the synbiotic group compared with the placebo group by quantitative real-time PCR. After 1wk of follow-up, the content of L. acidophilus La-5 and B. animalis ssp. lactis decreased to levels close to initial levels. No significant changes with time or differences between the groups were observed for Lactobacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacterium, or all bacteria. The presence of viable BB-12- and La-5-like bacteria in the feces resulting from the intake of synbiotic product was confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. At the end of consumption period, the feces of all subjects assigned to the synbiotic group contained viable bacteria with a BB-12-like RAPD profile, and after 1wk of follow-up, BB-12-like bacteria remained in the feces of 87.5% of these subjects. The presence of La-5-like colonies was observed less frequently (37.5 and 25% of subjects, respectively). Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons revealed that only the percentage of sequences assigned to Strep. thermophilus was temporarily increased in both groups, whereas the

  13. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of Oxalyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M.; Hassan, Hosni M.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2006-01-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene (oxc) was identified in the genome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Physiological analysis of a mutant harboring a deleted version of the frc gene confirmed that frc expression specifically improves survival in the presence of oxalic acid at pH 3.5 compared with the survival of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the frc mutant was unable to degrade oxalate. These genes, which have not previously been described in lactobacilli, appear to be responsible for oxalate degradation in this organism. Transcriptional analysis using cDNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that mildly acidic conditions were a prerequisite for frc and oxc transcription. As a consequence, oxalate-dependent induction of these genes occurred only in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 5.5. Where genome information was available, other lactic acid bacteria were screened for frc and oxc genes. With the exception of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium lactis, none of the other strains harbored genes for oxalate utilization. PMID:16517636

  14. PP2A inhibition with LB100 enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity and overcomes cisplatin resistance in medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Dragan; Amable, Lauren; Hall, Matthew D.; Feldman, Gerald M.; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lizak, Martin J.; Vera, Juan-Carlos; Robison, R. Aaron; Zhuang, Zhengping; Heiss, John D.

    2016-01-01

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor, LB100, has been shown in pre-clinical studies to be an effective chemo- and radio-sensitizer for treatment of various cancers. We investigated effects associated with LB100 treatment alone and in combination with cisplatin for medulloblastoma (MB) in vitro and in vivo in an intracranial xenograft model. We demonstrated that LB100 had a potent effect on MB cells. By itself, LB100 inhibited proliferation and induced significant apoptosis in a range of pediatric MB cell lines. It also attenuated MB cell migration, a pre-requirement for invasion. When used in combination, LB100 enhanced cisplatin-mediated cytotoxic effects. Cell viability in the presence of 1 uM cisplatin alone was 61% (DAOY), 100% (D341), and 58% (D283), but decreased with the addition of 2 μM of LB100 to 26% (DAOY), 67% (D341), and 27% (D283), (p < 0.005). LB100 suppressed phosphorylation of the STAT3 protein and several STAT3 downstream targets. Also, LB100 directly increased cisplatin uptake and overcame cisplatin-resistance in vitro. Finally, LB100 exhibited potent in vivo anti-neoplastic activity in combination with cisplatin in an intracranial xenograft model. PMID:26799670

  15. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  16. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  17. Influence of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol on healthy elderly: intestinal and immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Rautonen, Nina

    2009-02-01

    With increasing age, a number of physiological changes take place which are reflected in immune and bowel function. These changes may relate to the commonly assumed age-related changes in intestinal microbiota; most noticeably a reduction in bifidobacteria. The current study aimed at modifying the intestinal microbiota with a potential synbiotic on selected immune and microbiota markers. Healthy elderly subjects were randomised to consume during 2 weeks either a placebo (sucrose) or a combination of lactitol and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM twice daily in a double-blind parallel trial. After the intervention, stool frequency was higher in the synbiotic group than in the placebo group and a significant increase in faecal L. acidophilus NCFM levels was observed in the synbiotic group, after baseline correction. In contrast to the generally held opinion, the study subjects had faecal Bifidobacterium levels that were similar to those reported in healthy young adults. These levels were, nevertheless, significantly increased by the intervention. Levels of SCFA were not changed significantly. Of the measured immune markers, PGE2 levels were different between treatments and IgA levels changed over time. These changes were modest which may relate to the fact that the volunteers were healthy. Spermidine levels changed over time which may suggest an improved mucosal integrity and intestinal motility. The results suggest that consumption of lactitol combined with L. acidophilus NCFM twice daily may improve some markers of the intestinal microbiota composition and mucosal functions. PMID:18634707

  18. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in synbiotic guava mousses and its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Castro, Inar A; Saad, Susana M I

    2010-02-28

    The effects of refrigeration, freezing and substitution of milk fat by inulin and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 viability and resistance to gastric and enteric simulated conditions in synbiotic guava mousses effects were investigated. Refrigerated mousses supplemented with WPC presented the best probiotic viability, ranging from 7.77 to 6.24 log cfu/g during 28 days of storage. The highest probiotic populations, above 7.45 log cfu/g, were observed for all frozen mousses during 112 days of storage. Decreased L. acidophilus survival during the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation was observed both for refrigerated and frozen mousses. Nonetheless, for the refrigerated mousses, the addition of inulin enhanced the probiotic survival during the in vitro assays in the first week of storage. L. acidophilus survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids was also improved through freezing. The frozen storage may be used to provide increased shelf-life for synbiotic guava mousses. Even though the protective effect of inulin and WPC on the probiotic microorganism tested was shown to be more specific for the refrigerated products, the partial replacement of milk fat by these ingredients may also help, as it improves the nutritional value of mousses in both storage conditions. PMID:20056289

  19. Interior of large xray room with 16,000 lb. crane showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of large x-ray room with 16,000 lb. crane showing sliding door and tracks, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Tank Applied Testing of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Valenzuela, Juan G.; Feller, Jerr; Plachta, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The development of long duration orbital cryogenic storage systems will require the reduction of heat loads into the storage tank. In the case of liquid hydrogen, complete elimination of the heat load at 20 K is currently impractical due to the limitations in lift available on flight cryocoolers. In order to reduce the heat load, without having to remove heat at 20 K, the concept of Reduced Boil-Off uses cooled shields within the insulation system at approximately 90 K. The development of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI) allowed the 90 K shield with tubing and cryocooler attachments to be suspended within the MLI and still be structurally stable. Coupon testing both thermally and structurally were performed to verify that the LB-MLI should work at the tank applied level. Then tank applied thermal and structural (acoustic) testing was performed to demonstrate the functionality of the LB-MLI as a structural insulation system. The LB-MLI showed no degradation of thermal performance due to the acoustic testing and showed excellent thermal performance when integrated with a 90 K class cryocooler on a liquid hydrogen tank.

  1. Tank Applied Testing of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Valenzuela, Juan G.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Plachta, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The development of long duration orbital cryogenic storage systems will require the reduction of heat loads into the storage tank. In the case of liquid hydrogen, complete elimination of the heat load at 20 K is currently impractical due to the limitations in lift available on flight cryocoolers. In order to reduce the heat load, without having to remove heat at 20 K, the concept of Reduced Boil-Off uses cooled shields within the insulation system at approximately 90 K. The development of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI) allowed the 90 K shield with tubing and cryocooler attachments to be suspended within the MLI and still be structurally stable. Coupon testing, both thermal and structural was performed to verify that the LB-MLI should work at the tank applied level. Then tank applied thermal and structural (acoustic) testing was performed to demonstrate the functionality of the LB-MLI as a structural insulation system. The LB-MLI showed no degradation of thermal performance due to the acoustic testing and showed excellent thermal performance when integrated with a 90 K class cryocooler on a liquid hydrogen tank.

  2. 5. Love, L.B. W. & A. Fletcher Co. 'North River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Love, L.B. W. & A. Fletcher Co. 'North River Iron Works'. 1919. On file, The Applied Companies, Hoboken, New Jersey. MAP OF THE W. & A. FLETCHER SHIPYARD IN 1919. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. Bimodal Tumor-Targeting from Microenvironment Responsive Hyaluronan Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoscale drug carriers can improve tumor-specific delivery; however, cellular heterogeneity both within and among tumor sites is a fundamental barrier to their success. Here, we describe a tumor microenvironment-responsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer drug carrier that actively targets tumors based on two independent mechanisms: pH-dependent cellular uptake at hypoxic tumor pH and hyaluronan-directed targeting of cell-surface CD44 receptor, a well-characterized biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer stem cells. Hypoxic pH-induced structural reorganization of hyaluronan-LbL nanoparticles was a direct result of the nature of the LbL electrostatic complex, and led to targeted cellular delivery in vitro and in vivo, with effective tumor penetration and uptake. The nanoscale drug carriers selectively bound CD44 and diminished cancer cell migration in vitro, while co-localizing with the CD44 receptor in vivo. Multimodal targeting of LbL nanoparticles is a powerful strategy for tumor-specific cancer diagnostics and therapy that can be accomplished using a single bilayer of polyamine and hyaluronan that, when assembled, produce a dynamic and responsive cell–particle interface. PMID:25100313

  4. Gas and oil fired package boilers 20,000 - 50,000 lb/hr

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.K.

    1996-11-01

    Gas and oil fired package boilers rated at 20,000-50,000 lb/hr are discussed. The fleet consists of approximately 75 units, divided into two basic groups: (1) mobile boiler rooms - these consist of van mounted firetube boilers from 100-350 hp, complete with feedwater systems and water treatment equipment; and (2) trailer-mounted boilers - these consist of {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} type watertube boilers from 24,000 - 120,000 lb/hr, specially designed and mounted on highway legal lowboy trailers for mobility. Other products include new and reconditioned skid-mounted package boilers up to 150,000 lb/hr, turnkey {open_quotes}fast track{close_quotes} steam plants, and custom designed mobile or transportable steam plants for sale or lease. One of the earlier introductions into low NOx technology was a new equipment sale to Union Oil in Arroyo Grande, CA in 1983. A 100,000 lb/hr custom designed boiler with side wall NOx ports and low excess air burner to meet 80 ppm on natural gas was supplied. With the enactment of 40ppm low NOx mandates in Southern California in 2987, it was necessary to quickly retrofit the rental fleet and to work closely with boiler and burner manufacturers to meet the new standards.

  5. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:25246731

  6. Characteristics of Intramolecular Charge Transfer by J-Aggregates in Merocyanine Dye LB Films.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang Heon; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    In this study, for the development of future molecular electronic devices, we have investigated the characteristics of the aggregates of Langmuir-Blodgett films. The characteristics of intramolecular charge transfer by J-aggregates in merocyanine dye LB films have been studied experimentally by using UV irradiation and heat treatment. In addition to intramolecular charge transfer, we also studied the conjugation and energy changes of the molecules. In case a dye is thinned by LB method, the alkyl chain is often displaced in order to form a mono-molecular film with ease. Since the molecular association form is often made by self-organization of molecules themselves, in case the dye and the alkyl chain are strongly bonded by the covalent bond, it may be said that the properties of the LB film to be built up are almost determined at the time of synthesis of film-forming molecules. Meanwhile, since, in case LB film is fabricated by the diffusion absorption method, the cohesive force between the water-soluble dye and the surface-active mono-molecular film is electrostatic, the dye molecule can move relatively freely on the air/water interface, which may be regarded as a two-dimensional crystal growth process. PMID:27427711

  7. The Homo floresiensis cranium (LB1): Size, scaling, and early Homo affinities

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Adam D.; Nevell, Lisa; Wood, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The skeletal remains of a diminutive small-brained hominin found in Late Pleistocene cave deposits on the island of Flores, Indonesia were assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis [Brown P, et al. (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431: 1055–1061]. A dramatically different interpretation is that this material belongs not to a novel hominin taxon but to a population of small-bodied modern humans affected, or unaffected, by microcephaly. The debate has primarily focused on the size and shape of the endocranial cavity of the type specimen, LB1, with less attention being paid to the morphological evidence provided by the rest of the LB1 cranium and postcranium, and no study thus far has addressed the problem of how scaling would affect shape comparisons between a diminutive cranium like LB1 and the much larger crania of modern humans. We show that whether or not the effects of its small cranial size are accounted for, the external cranial morphology of the LB1 cranium cannot be accommodated within a large global sample of normal modern human crania. Instead, the shape of LB1, which is shown by multivariate analysis to differ significantly from that of modern humans, is similar to that of Homo erectus sensu lato, and, to a lesser extent, Homo habilis. Our results are consistent with hypotheses that suggest the Liang Bua specimens represent a diminutive population closely related to either early H. erectus s. l. from East Africa and/or Dmanisi or to H. habilis. PMID:18356300

  8. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    PubMed

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species. PMID:27086053

  9. The Homo floresiensis cranium (LB1): size, scaling, and early Homo affinities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam D; Nevell, Lisa; Wood, Bernard

    2008-03-25

    The skeletal remains of a diminutive small-brained hominin found in Late Pleistocene cave deposits on the island of Flores, Indonesia were assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis [Brown P, et al. (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431: 1055-1061]. A dramatically different interpretation is that this material belongs not to a novel hominin taxon but to a population of small-bodied modern humans affected, or unaffected, by microcephaly. The debate has primarily focused on the size and shape of the endocranial cavity of the type specimen, LB1, with less attention being paid to the morphological evidence provided by the rest of the LB1 cranium and postcranium, and no study thus far has addressed the problem of how scaling would affect shape comparisons between a diminutive cranium like LB1 and the much larger crania of modern humans. We show that whether or not the effects of its small cranial size are accounted for, the external cranial morphology of the LB1 cranium cannot be accommodated within a large global sample of normal modern human crania. Instead, the shape of LB1, which is shown by multivariate analysis to differ significantly from that of modern humans, is similar to that of Homo erectus sensu lato, and, to a lesser extent, Homo habilis. Our results are consistent with hypotheses that suggest the Liang Bua specimens represent a diminutive population closely related to either early H. erectus s. l. from East Africa and/or Dmanisi or to H. habilis. PMID:18356300

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Alginate and Psyllium Beads Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Mirzaeei, Shahla; Maghsoodi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes preparation and characterization of beads of alginate and psyllium containing probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus DMSZ20079. Twelve different formulations containing alginate (ALG) and alginate-psyllium (ALG-PSL) were prepared using extrusion technique. The prepared beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology and surface properties, encapsulation efficiency, viabilities in acid (pH 1.8, 2 hours) and bile (0.5% w/v, 2 hours) conditions, and release in simulated colon pH conditions. The results showed that spherical beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.59 ± 0.04 to 1.67 ± 0.09 mm for ALG and from 1.61 ± 0.06 to 1.80 ± 0.07 mm for ALG-PSL with encapsulation efficiency higher than 98% were achieved. Furthermore, addition of PSL into ALG enhanced the integrity of prepared beads in comparison with ALG formulations. The results indicated that incorporation of PSL into alginate beads improved viability of the bacteria in acidic conditions as well as bile conditions. Also, stimulating effect of PSL on the probiotic bacteria was observed through 20-hour incubation in simulated colonic pH solution. According to our in vitro studies, PSL can be a suitable polymer candidate for partial substitution with ALG for probiotic coating. PMID:22649306

  11. Optimization of anticancer exopolysaccharide production from probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Venkataraman; Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D; Nellaiah, Hariharan; Sundar, Krishnan

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the Western world. Recently, much attention has been focused on decreasing the risk of CRC by consuming probiotics. In the present study, exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus was found to inhibit the growth of CaCo2 colon cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The experiment was performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and EPS was found to reduce the survival of CaCo2 cell line in both the conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) studies demonstrated that EPS treatment upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions, whereas it upregulated the expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in the normoxic condition, but there was no significant expression under hypoxic conditions. Hence, the EPS production was optimized by Plackett-Burman design followed by central composite rotatory design. The optimized production of EPS at 24 hr was found to be 400 mg/L. During batch cultivation the production peaked at 21 hr, resulting in an EPS concentration of 597 mg/L. PMID:25831127

  12. In vitro evaluation of anticancer properties of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus in colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Venkataraman; Ramachandran, Sharavan; Balahmar, Reham Mohammed; Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D; Nellaiah, Hariharan; Sundar, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    The present work aims at studying the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the colon cancer cell lines in vitro. Initial analysis showed that EPS has antioxidative properties. EPS was also found to induce cytotoxicity in two colon cancer cell lines, viz. HCT15 and CaCo2 under normoxia and hypoxia. The membrane integrity was also found to be affected in EPS-treated cells. Once the toxic concentration was determined (5 mg/ml), the effect of EPS on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of various genes was studied by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The results suggest that EPS downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and upregulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). An increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was also observed. These results show that EPS may inhibit the expressions of genes involved in tumor angiogenesis and survival. Increase in the expression of HO-1 also shows that EPS have antioxidative properties. PMID:26659393

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of a mucin-binding GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhaval K; Shah, Kunal R; Pappachan, Anju; Gupta, Sarita; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis. It is also referred to as a moonlighting protein as it has many diverse functions like regulation of apoptosis, iron homeostasis, cell-matrix interactions, adherence to human colon etc. apart from its principal role in glycolysis. Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria which colonize the human gut and confer various health benefits to humans. In the present study, we have cloned, expressed and purified the GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus to get a recombinant product (r-LaGAPDH) and characterized it. Size exclusion chromatography shows that r-LaGAPDH exists as a tetramer in solution and have a mucin binding and hemagglutination activity indicating carbohydrate like binding adhesion mechanism. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed an interaction of r-LaGAPDH with mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine with a Kd of 3.6±0.7×10(-3)M, 4.34±0.09×10(-3)M, 4±0.87×10(-3)M and 3.7±0.28×10(-3)M respectively. We hope that this preliminary data will generate more interest in further elucidation of the roles of GAPDH in the adhesion processes of the bacteria. PMID:27180300

  14. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus on Citrobacter rodentium colitis: the role of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan

    2009-02-01

    Modulation of the intestinal immune response early in life by administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or attenuating infectious diarrhea. We preinoculated the mice early in life with the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) at age 2 wk. Dendritic cells (DCs) were collected and purified from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleens of the BalbC/ByJ mice. DC isolation and adoptive transfer was used to examine the function of probiotics. We demonstrated that when mice were adoptively transferred with La-primed DCs (t-LaDC) instead of oral consumption with La, there was a similar effect on fecal bacteria counts, IgA levels, and colonic histopathology, as well as cytokine levels in MLN when there was intestinal bacterial infection. The above findings suggest that DCs play a key role in probiotics attenuating Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) colitis. Moreover, the location of La-primed DC hints that there is interaction of DCs and T cells in the digestive system of the host. Up-regulated expression of a surface marker on DCs indicated that inoculation with probiotics will stimulate the function of DCs, thereby further increasing immune response triggered by DC. PMID:19262293

  15. Synbiotic yogurt-ice cream produced via incorporation of microencapsulated lactobacillus acidophilus (la-5) and fructooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Milani, Elnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Salarbashi, Davoud

    2014-08-01

    Yogurt-ice cream is a nutritious product with a refreshing taste and durability profoundly longer than that of yogurt. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5) cells either in free or encapsulated form were incorporated into yog-ice cream and their survivability were studied. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic compound at three levels (0, 4 & 8 % w/w) was added to yogurt-ice cream mix and its effects on some chemical properties, overrun and firmness of product were evaluated. The higher the incorporated FOS concentration, the lower were the pH value and higher the total solid content of treatments. FOS incorporation (8 %) significantly increased the overrun of treatments and reduced their firmness. The viable counts of free probiotics decreased from ~9.55 to ~7.3 log cfu/g after 60 days of frozen storage while that of encapsulated cells merely decreased less than 1 log cycle. Encapsulation with alginate microbeads protected the probiotic cells against injuries in the freezing stage as well as, during frozen storage. PMID:25114349

  16. Elaboration of a probiotic oblea from whey fermented using Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacterium infantis.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-de Santiago, G; Sáenz-Collins, C P; Rojas-de Gante, C

    2012-12-01

    A novel probiotic product was developed, which was formulated as an oblea (wafer-type dehydrated traditional Mexican dessert) using goat sweet whey fermented with Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus acidophilus. To obtain the probiotic oblea, the fermented whey was formulated with prebiotic carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and gelatin, and the preparation was poured onto a polytetrafluoroethylene-coated nonstick baking pan, dried in a convection oven, and finally dehydrated at a low relative humidity and room temperature (23±2°C). The amounts of prebiotic carbohydrates and gelatin to be used in the formulation were determined by a factorial experimental design. An untrained sensory panel evaluated 3 quality characteristics (film formation, homogeneity, and smoothness) in the final product. Three different drying temperatures were tested, namely, 40, 55, and 70°C. Bacterial survival at each temperature was determined by viable plate-counting. The best formulation, based on the quality characteristics tested, consisted of 58.33% (vol/vol) of fermented whey, 8.33% (vol/vol) of 6% (wt/vol) resistant starch dispersion, 16.66% (vol/vol) of 15% (wt/vol) inulin solution, and 16.66% (vol/vol) of a 10% (wt/vol) gelatin solution. Drying at 55±2°C for 2.66±0.22 h allowed for concentrations of probiotic bacteria above 9 log(10) cfu/g, which is above the minimum concentration required in a probiotic product. PMID:23040019

  17. Geochemistry of impactites and basement lithologies from ICDP borehole LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coney, Louise; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Gibson, Roger L.; Koeberl, Christian

    In 2004, a drilling project by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (1.07 Myr old and 10.5 km in diameter), obtained drill core LB-07A, which sampled impactites and underlying metasediments in the crater moat surrounding the small central uplift of the structure. The LB-07A core consists of three sequences: 82.29 m of an upper impactite sequence of alternating polymict lithic and suevitic impact breccias overlying 54.88 m of so-called lower impactite of monomict impact breccia with several suevite intercalations, and 74.53 m of meta-graywacke and altered shale of the basement, also containing a number of suevite intercalations. Major- and trace-element characteristics of all three sequences have been determined to investigate breccia formation and the role of the respective basement lithologies therein. Compositions of polymict impact breccias of the crater fill revealed by core LB-07A are compared with the compositions of the Ivory Coast tektites and the fallout suevites. The impactites of the LB-07A borehole appear well homogenized with respect to the silicate component, and little change in the ranges of many major- and trace-element differences is seen along the length of the borehole (except for Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO contents). Much scatter is observed for a number of elements, and in many cases this increases with depth. It is proposed that any variability in composition is likely the function of clast population differences (i.e., also of relatively small sample sizes). No systematic compositional difference between polymict lithic and suevitic impact breccias is evident. An indication of carbonate enrichment due to hydrothermal alteration is observed in samples from all lithologies. The impactites of the borehole generally show intermediate compositions to previously defined target rocks. The fallout suevites have comparable major element abundances, except for relatively lower MgO contents. The

  18. Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Savard, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Thiboutot, Hélène; Laurin, Émilie; Roy, Denis

    2011-09-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626. PMID:21296446

  19. Anaerobic induction of adherence to laminin in Lactobacillus gasseri strains by contact with solid surface.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Murakami, Takatomo; Sato, Takumi; Tarusawa, Yukiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Toba, Takahiro

    2005-10-01

    The effect of growth conditions on adhesion was studied in six species belonging to Lactobacillus acidophilus homology groups. Namely, 17 strains including 6 fresh isolates of L. gasseri from human feces were assessed for their adherence to immobilized fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen. These extracellular matrix proteins were used as a model of damaged intestinal mucosa. When the bacteria were grown on MRS agar under anaerobic conditions, all eight L. gasseri strains and one L. johnsonii strain showed strong adhesiveness to laminin, but not when grown in static MRS broth. A similar pattern was observed in four L. gasseri strains in terms of adherence to fibronectin. No L. gasseri or L. johnsonii strains exhibited adhesion to type IV collagen under either growth condition. Adhesion of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. amylovorus, and L. gallinarum was not affected by the growth conditions. Although protease treatment of L. gasseri cells abolished the adhesion, periodate oxidation of the cells increased it except in one strain. The adherence of L. gasseri cells was diminished by periodate and alpha-mannosidase treatments of immobilized laminin. The above results suggest that mannose-specific proteinaceous adhesion can be induced in L. gasseri by contact with a mucosal surface in the anaerobic intestinal lumen. PMID:16086101

  20. The Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contraction through PKC/MLCK/MLC Signaling Pathway in TBI Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huan; Zhu, Lina; Gao, Ning; Zhu, Jingci

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics influence gastrointestinal motility. However, the molecular mechanisms by which probiotic Lactobacillus modulates intestinal motility in traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model have not been explored. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that treatment of TBI mice with Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly improved the terminal ileum villus morphology, restored the impaired interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the disrupted ICC networks after TBI, and prevented TBI-mediated inhibition of contractile activity in intestinal smooth muscle. Mechanistically, the decreased concentration of MLCK, phospho-MLC20 and phospho-MYPT1 and increased concentration of MLCP and PKC were observed after TBI, and these events mediated by TBI were efficiently prevented by Lactobacillus acidophilus application. These findings may provide a novel mechanistic basis for the application of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the treatment of TBI. PMID:26030918

  1. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control. PMID:26060435

  2. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control. PMID:26060435

  3. The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on skin mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Roosta, Zahra; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Vakili, Farzaneh

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on intestinal microbiota, skin mucus immune parameters and salinity stress resistance as well as growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). One-thousand and eight hundred healthy black swordtail larvae (0.03 ± 0.001 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (100 L) at a density of 150 fish per aquaria and fed different levels of dietary L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1)) for 10 weeks. At the end of trial, there were significant differences among antibacterial activity of skin mucus in probiotic fed fish and control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the skin mucus protein level and alkaline phosphatase activity in control group were significantly lower than those of L. acidophilus fed fish (P < 0.05). Microbiological assessments revealed that feeding with probiotic supplemented diet remarkably increased total autochthonous bacteria and autochthonous lactic acid bacteria levels (P < 0.05). The results showed that dietary administration of L. acidophilus significantly elevated black swordtail resistance against salinity stress (i.e survival %) (P < 0.05). Also, dietary administration of different levels of L. acidophilus improved weight gain, SGR, FCR compared to fish fed unsupplemented diet (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of dietary L. acidophilus on mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth parameters of black swordtail and the appropriate inclusion is 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1). PMID:25514375

  4. Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Shamarao, Supreetha; Battur, Hemant; Tikare, Shreyas; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Al Sayed, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic Stevia extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Tukey post hoc for group wise comparisons. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous and ethnolic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were 25% and 12.5% respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Streptococcus mutans at 48 hours were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours was 20.5 and 13.2 respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and was inferior when compared with Chlorhexidine. PMID:25558451

  5. Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) Root Extract Against Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Comparison to Chlorhexidine: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Battur, Hemant; Shamarao, Supreetha; Sivakumar, Vivek; Patil, Pavan Uday; Shanavas, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhiza (licorice) an herb, which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Roots of Glycyrrhiza contain a high concentration of saponin and glycyrrhizin, which are supposed to be sweetening agents. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic licorice root extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic licorice extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. CHX was used as a positive control. Results: MIC of aqueous and ethnolic licorice root extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus were 25% and 12.5%, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic licorice extracts against S. mutans at 48 h were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic licorice extracts against L. acidophilus at 48 h were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the CHX against S. mutans and L. acidophilus at 48 h was 20.5 and 13.2, respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic licorice root extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and CHX. PMID:25214729

  6. Zinc Oxide LB Films with Improved Antireflective, Photoactive and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naszályi Nagy, Lívia; Ábrahám, Nóra; Kovács, Attila L.; van der Lee, Arie; Rouessac, Vincent; Cot, Didier; Ayral, André; Hórvölgyi, Z.

    Multifunctional Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared using sol-gel derived ZnO and silica nanoparticles synthesized by the procedure of Seelig et al. [1] and Stöber et al. [2], respectively. High inherent porosity was observed for ZnO particles (30-40%) by pycnometry, scanning angle reflectometry, N2 adsorption-desorption and ellipsometric porosimetry methods. Water contact angle of ZnO nanoparticles was determined from the non-dissipative part of the obtained surface pressure-surface area isotherms, and by scanning angle reflectometry measurements in a Wilhelmy film balance. Antireflective and photocatalytically active coatings of ZnO particles were deposited on glass, conductive glass and silicon substrates. The antireflectivity of ZnO LB films was improved by the integration of silica nanoparticles in the LB film. The photocatalytic activity and the mechanical stability of the samples were enhanced by means of surface modification with 3-methacryloxypropyl(trimethoxy)silane.

  7. Characterization of Multiple-Substrate Utilization by Anthracene-Degrading Mycobacterium frederiksbergense LB501T

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Lukas Y.; Pasche, Natacha; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Pelz, Oliver; Harms, Hauke

    2003-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of biomass and analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA), and mycolic acids were used to characterize mixed-substrate utilization by Mycobacterium frederiksbergense LB501T under various substrate regimens. The distinct 13C contents of anthracene and glucose as representatives of typical hydrophobic pollutants and naturally occurring organic compounds, respectively, were monitored during formation into biomass and used to quantify the relative contributions of the two carbon sources to biomass formation. Moreover, the influence of mixed-substrate utilization on PLFA, GLFA, and mycolic acid profiles and cell surface hydrophobicity was investigated. Results revealed that M. frederiksbergense LB501T degrades anthracene and forms biomass from it even in the presence of more readily available dissolved glucose. The relative ratios of straight-chain saturated PLFA to the corresponding unsaturated PLFA and the total fraction of saturated cyclopropyl-branched PLFA of M. frederiksbergense LB501T depended on the carbon source and the various rates of addition of mixed substrates, whereas no such trend was observed with GLFA. Higher proportions of anthracene in the carbon source mixture led to higher cell surface hydrophobicities and more-hydrophobic mycolic acids, which in turn appeared to be valuable indicators for substrate utilization by M. frederiksbergense LB501T. The capability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria to utilize readily available substrates besides the poorly available PAHs favors the buildup of PAH-degrading biomass. Feeding of supplementary carbon substrates may therefore promote bioremediation, provided that it sustains the pollutant-degrading population rather than other members of the microbial community. PMID:14532072

  8. Study of polymorphism of ZnPc LB thin film on annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    The average molecular orientation in the as-deposited Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film has been obtained to be 47° w.r.t to substrate surface from polarized Raman spectroscopy analysis. Absorption spectroscopy confirms the phase transition of ZnPc thin film from α-phase to β-phase on annealinghowever, such confirmation could not get established from Raman spectroscopy.

  9. LbL multilayer capsules: recent progress and future outlook for their use in life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Mercato, Loretta L.; Rivera-Gil, Pilar; Abbasi, Azhar Z.; Ochs, Markus; Ganas, Carolin; Zins, Inga; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2010-04-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the recent progress in designing composite polymer capsules based on the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology demonstrated so far in material science, focusing on their potential applications in medicine, drug delivery and catalysis. The benefits and limits of current systems are discussed and the perspectives on emerging strategies for designing novel classes of therapeutic vehicles are highlighted.

  10. The development of a flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb payload

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    A 30-ft-diameter ringslot/solid parachute was designed, developed, and tested at Sandia National Laboratories as the major component of a flight termination system required for a 1900-lb gliding delivery platform. Four full-scale sled tests were performed to validate the design models of the parachute, determine reefing line length, demonstrate structural adequacy of the parachute materials, and demonstrate that performance met the design requirements.

  11. Directed chromosomal integration and expression of the reporter gene gusA3 in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Grace L; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-10-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic microbe that survives passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and interacts with the host epithelium and mucosal immune cells. The potential for L. acidophilus to express antigens at mucosal surfaces has been investigated with various antigens and plasmid expression vectors. Plasmid instability and antibiotic selection complicate the possibility of testing these constructs in human clinical trials. Integrating antigen encoding genes into the chromosome for expression is expected to eliminate selection requirements and provide genetic stability. In this work, a reporter gene encoding a β-glucuronidase (GusA3) was integrated into four intergenic chromosomal locations. The integrants were tested for genetic stability and GusA3 activity. Two locations were selected for insertion downstream of constitutively highly expressed genes, one downstream of slpA (LBA0169), encoding a highly expressed surface-layer protein, and one downstream of phosphopyruvate hydratase (LBA0889), a highly expressed gene with homologs in other lactic acid bacteria. An inducible location was selected downstream of lacZ (LBA1462), encoding a β-galactosidase. A fourth location was selected in a low-expression region. The expression of gusA3 was evaluated from each location by measuring GusA3 activity on 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide (MUG). GusA3 activity from both highly expressed loci was more than three logs higher than the gusA3-negative parent, L. acidophilus NCK1909. GusA3 activity from the lacZ locus was one log higher in cells grown in lactose than in glucose. The differences in expression levels between integration locations highlights the importance of rational targeting with gene cassettes intended for chromosomal expression. PMID:21873486

  12. [Use of Plaferon LB for cardiac preconditioning during experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Ubilava, T O; Megreladze, I I; Dzhangavadze, M B; Khodeli, N G; Chkhaidze, Z A

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of research was to study potential of Plaferon LB for cardiac preconditioning during experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits. 30 rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were used in experiment. They were divided in 3 groups and 6 subgroups (n=5). In I group experimental design of m/i was performed by proximal ligation of left coronary artery (LCA) (2-6 hours). In II group on the 2 and 6 hour ligature was removed - reperfusion during 1 hour. In III group before ligation of LCA animals was administered Plaferon LB (0.2 mg/kg). The animals were under electrocardiographic monitoring. Troponin I was measured in blood. In II group after 1 hour of reperfusion Troponin I concentration was higher than in I group after 2 and 6 hours. In II group electrocardiographic data was worsened (rhythm and heart rate). In III group these changes were less marked. Obtained data confirm enhancement of myocardial injury during the reperfusion. Cardiac preconditioning by Plaferon LB significantly decreased pathologic indices. PMID:17921551

  13. Electrochemistry of LB films of mixed MGDG:UQ on ITO.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Javier; Guaus, Ester; Torrent-Burgués, Juan; Sanz, Fausto

    2015-08-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of biomimetic monolayers of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) incorporating ubiquinone-10 (UQ) has been investigated. MGDG is the principal component in the thylakoid membrane and UQ seems a good substitute for plastoquinone-9, involved in photosynthesis chain. The monolayers have been performed using the Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques and the redox behaviour of the LB films, transferred at several surface pressures on a glass covered with indium-tin oxide (ITO), has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms show that UQ molecules present two redox processes (I and II) at high UQ content and high surface pressures, and only one redox process (I) at low UQ content and low surface pressures. The apparent rate constants calculated for processes I and II indicate a different kinetic control for the reduction and the oxidation of UQ/UQH2 redox couple, being k(Rapp)(I) = 2.2 · 10(-5) s(-1), k(Rapp)(II) = 5.1 · 10(-14) k(Oapp)(I) = 3.3 · 10(-3) s(-1) and k(Oapp)(II) = 6.1 · 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. The correlation of the redox response with the physical states of the LB films allows determining the positions of the UQ molecules in the biomimetic monolayer, which change with the surface pressure and the UQ content. These positions are known as diving and swimming. PMID:25725477

  14. Spatio-temporal control of LbL films for biomedical applications: from 2D to 3D

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Claire; Almodóvar, Jorge; Boudou, Thomas; Picart, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Introduced in the 90’s by Prof Moehwald, Lvov and Decher, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes has become a popular technique to engineer various types of objects such as films, capsules and free standing membranes, with an unprecedented control at the nanometer and micrometer scales. The LbL technique allows to engineer biofunctional surface coatings, which may be dedicated to biomedical applications in vivo but also to fundamental studies and diagnosis in vitro. Initially mostly developed as 2D coatings and hollow capsules, the range of complex objects created by the LbL technique has greatly expanded in the past 10 years. In this review, our aim was to highlight the recent progress in the field of LbL films for biomedical applications and discuss the various ways to control spatially and temporally the biochemical and mechanical properties of multilayers. In particular, we will discuss three major developments of LbL films: 1) the new methods and templates to engineer LbL films and control cellular processes from adhesion to differentiation, 2) the major ways to achieve temporal control by chemical, biological and physical triggers and, 3) the combinations of LbL technique, cells and scaffolds for repairing 3D tissues, including cardio-vascular devices, bone implants and neuro-prosthetic devices. PMID:25627563

  15. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  16. Solution Structure of Acidocin B, a Circular Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46

    PubMed Central

    Acedo, Jeella Z.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Lohans, Christopher T.; McKay, Ryan T.; Miskolzie, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Acidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46, was originally reported to be a linear peptide composed of 59 amino acid residues. However, its high sequence similarity to gassericin A, a circular bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, suggested that acidocin B might be circular as well. Acidocin B was purified from culture supernatant by a series of hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps. Its circular nature was ascertained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing. The peptide sequence was found to consist of 58 amino acids with a molecular mass of 5,621.5 Da. The sequence of the acidocin B biosynthetic gene cluster was also determined and showed high nucleotide sequence similarity to that of gassericin A. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of acidocin B in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles was elucidated, revealing that it is composed of four α-helices of similar length that are folded to form a compact, globular bundle with a central pore. This is a three-dimensional structure for a member of subgroup II circular bacteriocins, which are classified based on their isoelectric points of ∼7 or lower. Comparison of acidocin B with carnocyclin A, a subgroup I circular bacteriocin with four α-helices and a pI of 10, revealed differences in the overall folding. The observed variations could be attributed to inherent diversity in their physical properties, which also required the use of different solvent systems for three-dimensional structural elucidation. PMID:25681186

  17. Efficacy of prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 in adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kozo; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Kato, Sayaka; Kato, Shinji; Yamada, Kazuhisa; Hirota, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 (L-92) on skin symptoms in adult atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, a placebo-controlled double-blinded parallel-group comparison study was performed. This included daily administration of heat-killed and dried L-92 or placebo for 24wk in 50 AD patients who were 16yr old or older. The severity of skin symptoms was evaluated at baseline and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24wk during the intervention using the investigator global assessment, eczema area and severity index, and scoring atopic dermatitis. Serum cytokine and blood marker levels were also measured at baseline and at 4, 8, 16, and 24wk during the intervention. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, the L-92 group showed significant decreases in investigator global assessment, eczema area and severity index, and scoring atopic dermatitis. Subjective symptoms in adult AD patients were reduced by intake of L-92. Furthermore, it was suggested that sustained ingestion of L-92 resulted in suppression of scratching behavior and maintenance of remission status of skin symptoms. Sixteen weeks after the study commenced, a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase and a significant increase in transforming growth factor-β were observed in the L-92 group compared with the placebo group. In the L-92 group, a significant elevation of IL-12 (p70) level at the end of treatment period compared with before the treatment was observed. This study suggested that L-92 suppresses type-2-helper-T-cell-dominant inflammation by activating regulatory T cells and type 1 helper T cells. PMID:27108169

  18. Rational engineering of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase into either trehalose or kojibiose dual specificity phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher; Duus, Jens Ø; Schols, Henk A; Svensson, Birte

    2010-10-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase (LaMP) of the (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65) catalyses both phosphorolysis of maltose and formation of maltose by reverse phosphorolysis with beta-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose as donor and acceptor, respectively. LaMP has about 35 and 26% amino acid sequence identity with GH65 trehalose phosphorylase (TP) and kojibiose phosphorylase (KP) from Thermoanaerobacter brockii ATCC35047. The structure of L. brevis MP and multiple sequence alignment identified (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel loop 3 that forms the rim of the active site pocket as a target for specificity engineering since it contains distinct sequences for different GH65 disaccharide phosphorylases. Substitution of LaMP His413-Glu421, His413-Ile418 and His413-Glu415 from loop 3, that include His413 and Glu415 presumably recognising the alpha-anomeric O-1 group of the glucose moiety at subsite +1, by corresponding segments from Ser426-Ala431 in TP and Thr419-Phe427 in KP, thus conferred LaMP with phosphorolytic activity towards trehalose and kojibiose, respectively. Two different loop 3 LaMP variants catalysed the formation of trehalose and kojibiose in yields superior of maltose by reverse phosphorolysis with (alpha1, alpha1)- and alpha-(1,2)-regioselectivity, respectively, as analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The loop 3 in GH65 disaccharide phosphorylase is thus a key determinant for specificity both in phosphorolysis and in regiospecific reverse phosphorolysis. PMID:20713411

  19. Identification and purification of a protein that induces production of the Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteriocin lactacin B.

    PubMed Central

    Barefoot, S F; Chen, Y R; Hughes, T A; Bodine, A B; Shearer, M Y; Hughes, M D

    1994-01-01

    Lactacin B is a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus N2 that is active against closely related lactobacilli, including Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (formerly Lactobacillus leichmannii) ATCC 4797. Pure producer cultures propagated in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5) contain no lactacin B; it is detected only in cultures maintained at pH 5.0 to 6.0 and produced optimally at pH 6.0 S. F. Barefoot and T. R. Klaenhammer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:328-334, 1984). Associative growth of producer and indicator, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797, resulted in production of an inhibitor identical to lactacin B. Associative growth increased lactacin B production from nondetectable levels (< 100 activity units [AU]/ml) to between 3,200 and 6,400 AU/ml in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5) and resulted in early but equal production of lactacin B (approximately 25,600 AU/ml) in broth maintained at pH 6.0. Indicator cells, but not spent culture filtrates, induced lactacin B production. Indicator cells disrupted by a French pressure cell yielded cell-free filtrates containing inducing activity. Chromatofocusing and gel filtration high-performance liquid chromatography of cell-free filtrates yielded a protein with a pI of 4.1 and a molecular size of approximately 58 kDa that induced lactacin B production. Analytical isoelectric focusing yielded a single protein band. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels contained a 28-kDa protein suggesting a two-subunit structure. Protein sequencing identified an N-terminal serine and 18 additional amino acids. To our knowledge, there are not previous descriptions of proteins that induce bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:7986029

  20. 26 CFR 1.1400L(b)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified New York Liberty Zone property. 1.1400L(b)-1 Section 1.1400L(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... qualified New York Liberty Zone property. (a) Scope. This section provides the rules for determining the 30... York Liberty Zone property. (b) Definitions. For purposes of section 1400L(b) and this section,...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1400L(b)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for qualified New York Liberty Zone property. 1.1400L(b)-1 Section 1.1400L(b)-1 Internal Revenue... deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property. (a) Scope. This section provides the rules for... qualified New York Liberty Zone property. (b) Definitions. For purposes of section 1400L(b) and this...

  2. Ordered and ultrathin reduced graphene oxide LB films as hole injection layers for organic light-emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the utilization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films as high performance hole injection layer in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). By using LB technique, the well-ordered and thickness-controlled RGO sheets are incorporated between the organic active layer and the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO), leading to an increase of recombination between electrons and holes. Due to the dramatic increase of hole carrier injection efficiency in RGO LB layer, the device luminance performance is greatly enhanced comparable to devices fabricated with spin-coating RGO and a commercial conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS as the hole transport layer. Furthermore, our results indicate that RGO LB films could be an excellent alternative to commercial PEDOT:PSS as the effective hole transport and electron blocking layer in light-emitting diode devices. PMID:25298757

  3. Ordered and ultrathin reduced graphene oxide LB films as hole injection layers for organic light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yajie; Yang, Xiaojie; Yang, Wenyao; Li, Shibin; Xu, Jianhua; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the utilization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films as high performance hole injection layer in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). By using LB technique, the well-ordered and thickness-controlled RGO sheets are incorporated between the organic active layer and the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO), leading to an increase of recombination between electrons and holes. Due to the dramatic increase of hole carrier injection efficiency in RGO LB layer, the device luminance performance is greatly enhanced comparable to devices fabricated with spin-coating RGO and a commercial conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS as the hole transport layer. Furthermore, our results indicate that RGO LB films could be an excellent alternative to commercial PEDOT:PSS as the effective hole transport and electron blocking layer in light-emitting diode devices. PMID:25298757

  4. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products. PMID:22633536

  5. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang

    2014-03-01

    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. PMID:24119263

  6. Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730

    PubMed Central

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G. H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also contains α-(1→6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted α-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing α-(1→4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of α-(1→4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

  7. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  8. Performance of Small (100-lb Thrust) Rocket Motors Using Coaxial Injection of Hydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, Joseph F.; Tabata, William

    1961-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a small (approximately 100-lb thrust) rocket using coaxial injection of hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Characteristic-velocity efficiencies of 94 percent of the theoretical shifting equilibrium value were obtained at a chamber pressure of about 300 pounds per square inch using a 21-tube injector and a combustion chamber characteristic length of 10 inches. Performance at lower chamber pressures could be improved by reducing contraction ratio and thereby increasing the combustion chamber length and injector pressure drop, which would tend to promote better mixing. Calculations based on experimental data showed a vacuum specific impulse of 305 seconds with a nozzle area ratio of 50.

  9. Design and performance of a parachute for supersonic and subsonic recovery of an 800-lb payload

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Waye, D.E.; Rollstin, L.R.; Holt, I.T.

    1986-01-01

    The design and development of a parachute system to recover an 800-lb test payload flying at both supersonic and subsonic speeds are presented. Performance data from full-scale flight tests for several parachute configurations were used to define an acceptable parachute system and to gain insight into which design parameters are most critical for supersonic parachute design. The suspension line length, canopy configuration, and forebody wake have a major effect upon parachute performance and stability. A tractor rocket was used to deploy this parachute system successfully at all deployment speeds.

  10. The effect of polysaccharide types on adsorption properties of LbL assembled multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Yang, Lixing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Shimei; Wang, Jide; Feng, Shun

    2015-03-01

    Three types of biocompatible films were fabricated via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of oppositely charged cationic polyurethane and anionic polysaccharides with different primary structures, including sodium hyaluronate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. The adsorption behaviors of films were investigated by using the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) as a model drug at various pH values and salt concentrations. The relationship between the type of polysaccharide and the adsorption behavior of LbL films was comparatively studied. It was found that the adsorption capacity increased with an increase of the initial concentration of MB in the concentration range of the experiment to all of the films, and the pH of environment ranged from 3.0 to 9.0. The Langmuir equation fit perfectly to the experiment data. In addition, a pseudo second-order adsorption model can well describe the adsorption behaviors of MB for three films. The results showed that the type of side chains and the charge density of the polysaccharides played key roles in the adsorption properties of the PU/polysaccharide multilayer films. PMID:25609027

  11. Immobilization and stabilization of lipase (CaLB) through hierarchical interfacial assembly.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Joey N; Wang, Li-Sheng; Duncan, Bradley; Jeong, Youngdo; Andler, Stephanie M; Rotello, Vincent M; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-11-10

    Nanostructure-enabled hierarchical assembly holds promise for efficient biocatalyst immobilization for improved stability in bioprocessing. In this work we demonstrate the use of a hierarchical assembly immobilization strategy to enhance the physicochemical properties and stability of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB). CaLB was complexed with iron oxide nanoparticles followed by interfacial assembly at the surface of an oil-in-water emulsion. Subsequent ring opening polymerization of the oil provided cross-linked microparticles that displayed an increase in catalytic efficiency when compared to the native enzyme and Novozym 435. The hierarchical immobilized enzyme assembly showed no leakage from the support in 50% acetonitrile and could be magnetically recovered across five cycles. Immobilized lipase exhibited enhanced thermal and pH stability, providing 72% activity retention after 24 h at 50 °C (pH 7.0) and 62% activity retention after 24 h at pH 3.0 (30 °C); conditions resulting in complete deactivation of the native lipase. PMID:25252004

  12. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Samha, H.A.; Martinez, T.J.; De Armond, M.K. ); Garces, F.O.; Watts, R.J. )

    1993-05-26

    Monolayer and multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of the neutral hydrophobic Ir(ppy)[sub 3] (1) (ppy = 2-Phenylpyridine) have been produced on the water surface when mixed with a fatty acid (stearic acid). The molecular area of the complex in the close-packed film is 55 [angstrom][sup 2]. The homogeneity of the films was verified by measuring the absorbance vs the number of layers on a substrate (quartz) and also by comparing the relative emission intensity of multilayer mixed LB films of different molar ratios. The films are stable and capable of being transferred from the water surface onto a substrate with a transfer ratio very close to unity. A blue shift in the maxima of the emission, as the complex concentration is decreased, occurs for both room-temperature fluid solution and a rigid matrix at 77 K. In-trough cyclic voltammetry (horizontal touch) of the mixed film is also reported and compared to the cyclic voltammetry of a film transferred to an indium-tin oxide plate (vertical dip).

  13. Design and performance of a parachute for the recovery of a 760-lb payload

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 26-ft-diameter ribbon parachute deployed using a pilot parachute system has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the recovery of a 760-lb payload released at subsonic and transonic speeds. The wide range of deployment dynamic pressures led to the design, utilizing wind tunnel testing and computer simulation, of a unique pilot parachute system verified in full-scale flight tests. Performance data from 20 full-scale flight tests were used to evaluate system performance and structural validity. The concical ribbon parachute design chosen for this development effort follows the practice of previous Sandia National Laboratory parachute development programs for high performance airdropped payloads. The design process for this parachute system included a tradeoff study to evaluate and compare the performance between an equivalent drag area 26-foot-diameter single parachute system and a cluster system of three 14-ft-diameter parachutes. The results showed a small advantage for the cluster system in inflation and initial deceleration characteristics. However, the higher cost, higher weight, greater packing complexity and greater risk involved in the development of the cluster system outweighed the performance advantages and led to the choice of the 26-ft-diameter parachute as the baseline design for the development. This paper describes the design and performance of the 26-ft-diameter parachute which was chosen for the recovery of a 760-lb payload. The results of 20 full-scale flight test of this parachute system are summarized. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Use of colony-based bacterial strain typing for tracking the fate of Lactobacillus strains during human consumption

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are important components of the healthy gut flora and have been used extensively as probiotics. Understanding the cultivable diversity of LAB before and after probiotic administration, and being able to track the fate of administered probiotic isolates during feeding are important parameters to consider in the design of clinical trials to assess probiotic efficacy. Several methods may be used to identify bacteria at the strain level, however, PCR-based methods such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) are particularly suited to rapid analysis. We examined the cultivable diversity of LAB in the human gut before and after feeding with two Lactobacillus strains, and also tracked the fate of these two administered strains using a RAPD technique. Results A RAPD typing scheme was developed to genetically type LAB isolates from a wide range of species, and optimised for direct application to bacterial colony growth. A high-throughput strategy for fingerprinting the cultivable diversity of human faeces was developed and used to determine: (i) the initial cultivable LAB strain diversity in the human gut, and (ii) the fate of two Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius NCIMB 30211 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30156) contained within a capsule that was administered in a small-scale human feeding study. The L. salivarius strain was not cultivated from the faeces of any of the 12 volunteers prior to capsule administration, but appeared post-feeding in four. Strains matching the L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 feeding strain were found in the faeces of three volunteers prior to consumption; after taking the Lactobacillus capsule, 10 of the 12 volunteers were culture positive for this strain. The appearance of both Lactobacillus strains during capsule consumption was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion We have shown that genetic strain typing of the cultivable human gut microbiota can be evaluated using a high

  15. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  16. Immune modulation of blood leukocytes in humans by lactic acid bacteria: criteria for strain selection.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, E J; Brassart, D; Servin, A L; Rochat, F; Donnet-Hughes, A

    1997-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria in food can transiently colonize the intestine and exert beneficial effects (probiotic). Survival during intestinal transit or adhesion to epithelium or both seem to be important for modifying the host's immune reactivity. Because Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La1 is adherent to enterocytes in vitro, we hypothesize that contact with immune cells may occur in vivo. However, Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb12, which shows high fecal colonization, is another potential immunomodulator. Twenty-eight volunteers were divided into two groups and given a fermented product containing one of the two strains. Lymphocyte subsets and leukocyte phagocytic activity were studied in blood. No modifications were detected in lymphocyte subsets. In contrast, phagocytosis of Escherichia coli ssp. was enhanced in both groups (P < 0.001 for both). Bacterial adhesion to enterocytes, fecal colonization, or both seem to be valuable selection criteria for immunomodulation. Antiinfective mechanisms of defense can be enhanced after ingestion of specific lactic acid bacteria strains. PMID:9250141

  17. Real-time analysis of metabolic activity within Lactobacillus acidophilus by phasor fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of NADH.

    PubMed

    Torno, Keenan; Wright, Belinda K; Jones, Mark R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Phillips, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is an endogenous fluorescent molecule commonly used as a metabolic biomarker. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a method in which the fluorescence decay is measured at each pixel of an image. While the fluorescence spectrum of free and protein-bound NADH is very similar, free and protein-bound NADH display very different decay profiles. Therefore, FLIM can provide a way to distinguish free/bound NADH at the level of single bacteria within biological samples. The phasor technique is a graphical method to analyse the entire image and to produce a histogram of pixels with different decay profile. In this study, NADH fluorescence decay profiles within Lactobacillus acidophilus samples treated using different protocols indicated discernible variations. Clear distinctions between fluorescence decay profiles of NADH in samples of artificially heightened metabolic activity in comparison to those of samples lacking an accessible carbon source were obtained. PMID:23233088

  18. Advancing the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A for the treatment of intestinal disorders in humans.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Bikash; Ge, Yong; Colliou, Natacha; Zadeh, Mojgan; Weiner, Chelsea; Mila, Ashley; Owen, Jennifer L; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal immunity is subject to complex and fine-tuned regulation dictated by interactions of the resident microbial community and their gene products with host innate cells. Deterioration of this delicate process may result in devastating autoinflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which primarily comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Efficacious interventions to regulate proinflammatory signals, which play critical roles in IBD, require further scientific investigation. We recently demonstrated that rebalancing intestinal immunity via the surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM potentially represents a feasible therapeutic approach to restore intestinal homeostasis. To expand on these findings, we established a new method of purifying bacterial SlpA, a new SlpA-specific monoclonal antibody, and found no SlpA-associated toxicity in mice. Thus, these data may assist in our efforts to determine the immune regulatory efficacy of SlpA in humans. PMID:26647142

  19. Use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to study the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Muli, F; Struthers, J K

    1998-06-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus have been shown to grow to high titers in a simple biofilm system. This system was used in the present investigation to compare the biofilm-eradicating concentrations (BECs) of amoxicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and metronidazole to standard tube MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) results. With the lactobacillus, the BEC/tube MBC ratio was at least 16:1, while for G. vaginalis the ratio varied from 2:1 to 512:1. The simple continuous-culture system used in the present investigation is ideal for investigating the BEC for bacteria involved in complex ecological situations such as bacterial vaginosis and may be useful for the identification of the most effective and selective antibiotic therapy. PMID:9624489

  20. Site-directed circular dichroism of proteins: 1Lb bands of Trp resolve position-specific features in tear lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Gasymov, Oktay K.; Abduragimov, Adil R.; Glasgow, Ben J.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption spectra of N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide in various solvents were resolved into the sums of the 1La and 1Lb components. The relative intensities of the 0-0 transitions of the 1Lb bands correlate linearly with the solvent polarity values (ETN). A novel strategy, which utilizes a set of the experimental 1Lb bands, was employed to resolve the near-UV CD spectra of tryptophanyl residues. Resolved spectral parameters from the single-tryptophan mutants of tear lipocalin (TL), F99W and Y87W, corroborate the fluorescence as well as structural data of TL. Analysis of the 1Lb bands of the Trp CD spectra in proteins is a valuable tool to obtain the local features. The “DMSO-like” 1Lb band of Trp CD spectra may be used as a “fingerprint” to identify the tryptophanyl side chains in situations where the benzene rings of Trp have van der Waals interactions with the side chains of its nearest neighbor. In addition, the signs and intensities of the components hold information about the side-chain conformations and dynamics in proteins. Combined with Trp mutagenesis, this method we call site-directed circular dichroism is broadly applicable to various proteins to obtain the position-specific data. PMID:18047823

  1. Site-directed circular dichroism of proteins: 1Lb bands of Trp resolve position-specific features in tear lipocalin.

    PubMed

    Gasymov, Oktay K; Abduragimov, Adil R; Glasgow, Ben J

    2008-03-15

    The absorption spectra of N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide in various solvents were resolved into the sums of the (1)L(a) and (1)L(b) components. The relative intensities of the 0-0 transitions of the (1)L(b) bands correlate linearly with the solvent polarity values (E(T)(N)). A novel strategy that uses a set of the experimental (1)L(b) bands was employed to resolve the near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra of tryptophanyl residues. Resolved spectral parameters from the single-tryptophan mutants of tear lipocalin (TL), F99W and Y87W, corroborate the fluorescence and structural data of TL. Analysis of the (1)L(b) bands of the Trp CD spectra in proteins is a valuable tool to obtain the local features. The dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-like (1)L(b) band of Trp CD spectra may be used as a "fingerprint" to identify the tryptophanyl side chains in situations where the benzene rings of Trp have van der Waals interactions with the side chains of its nearest neighbor. In addition, the signs and intensities of the components hold information about the side chain conformations and dynamics in proteins. Combined with Trp mutagenesis, this method, which we call site-directed circular dichroism, is broadly applicable to various proteins to obtain the position-specific data. PMID:18047823

  2. Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition with LB100 Enhances Radiation-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe and Tumor Growth Delay in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ira K; Lu, Jie; Graves, Christian A; Huntoon, Kristin; Frerich, Jason M; Hanson, Ryan H; Wang, Xiaoping; Hong, Christopher S; Ho, Winson; Feldman, Michael J; Ikejiri, Barbara; Bisht, Kheem; Chen, Xiaoyuan S; Tandle, Anita; Yang, Chunzhang; Arscott, W Tristram; Ye, Donald; Heiss, John D; Lonser, Russell R; Camphausen, Kevin; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-07-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a tumor suppressor whose function is lost in many cancers. An emerging, though counterintuitive, therapeutic approach is inhibition of PP2A to drive damaged cells through the cell cycle, sensitizing them to radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of PP2A inhibition on U251 glioblastoma cells following radiation treatment in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Radiotherapy alone augmented PP2A activity, though this was significantly attenuated with combination LB100 treatment. LB100 treatment yielded a radiation dose enhancement factor of 1.45 and increased the rate of postradiation mitotic catastrophe at 72 and 96 hours. Glioblastoma cells treated with combination LB100 and radiotherapy maintained increased γ-H2AX expression at 24 hours, diminishing cellular repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Combination therapy significantly enhanced tumor growth delay and mouse survival and decreased p53 expression 3.68-fold, compared with radiotherapy alone. LB100 treatment effectively inhibited PP2A activity and enhanced U251 glioblastoma radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Combination treatment with LB100 and radiation significantly delayed tumor growth, prolonging survival. The mechanism of radiosensitization appears to be related to increased mitotic catastrophe, decreased capacity for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and diminished p53 DNA-damage response pathway activity. PMID:25939762

  3. Peripheral Light-Harvesting LH2 Complex Can Be Assembled in Cells of Nonsulfur Purple Bacterium Rhodoblastus acidophilus without Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Bol'shakov, M A; Ashikhmin, A A; Makhneva, Z K; Moskalenko, A A

    2015-09-01

    The effect of carotenoids on the assembly of LH2 complex in cells of the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodoblastus acidophilus was investigated. For this purpose, the bacterial culture was cultivated with an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis - 71 µM diphenylamine (DPA). The inhibitor decreased the level of biosynthesis of the colored carotenoids in membranes by ~58%. It was found that a large amount of phytoene was accumulated in them. This carotenoid precursor was bound nonspecifically to LH2 complex and did not stabilize its structure. Thermostability testing of the isolated LH2 complex together with analysis of carotenoid composition revealed that the population of this complex was heterogeneous with respect to carotenoid composition. One fraction of the LH2 complex with carotenoid content around 90% remains stable and was not destroyed under heating for 15 min at 50°C. The other fraction of LH2 complex containing on average less than one molecule of carotenoid per complex was destroyed under heating, forming a zone of free pigments (and polypeptides). The data suggest that a certain part of the LH2 complexes is assembled without carotenoids in cells of the nonsulfur bacterium Rbl. acidophilus grown with DPA. These data contradict the fact that the LH2 complex from nonsulfur bacteria cannot be assembled without carotenoids, but on the other hand, they are in good agreement with the results demonstrated in our earlier studies of the sulfur bacteria Allochromatium minutissimum and Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila. Carotenoidless LH2 complex was obtained from these bacteria with the use of DPA (Moskalenko, A. A., and Makhneva, Z. K. (2012) J. Photochem. Photobiol., 108, 1-7; Ashikhmin, A., et al. (2014) Photosynth. Res., 119, 291-303). PMID:26555469

  4. Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuates Aeromonas hydrophila induced cytotoxicity in catla thymus macrophages by modulating oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhakti; Kumar, Premranjan; Banerjee, Rajanya; Basu, Madhubanti; Pal, Arttatrana; Samanta, Mrinal; Das, Surajit

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila, a potent fish pathogen, is attributed to its ability to cause motile aeromonad septicaemia leading to apoptosis in a myriad of fish species, including freshwater carp Catla catla. However, the underlying mechanism of antagonistic activity of probiotics against A. hydrophila induced apoptosis is not elucidated due to lack of appropriate in-vitro models. This study reported that the exposure of catla thymus macrophages (CTM) to A. hydrophila markedly induced cellular injuries as evidenced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), increased apoptosis, DNA damage and decreased cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis and Annexin-V/propidium iodide assay further confirmed increased ROS positive cells leading to cell death after infection. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis, also revealed upregulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα), cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) and downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Pretreatment of cells with probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuated A. hydrophila induced apoptosis as evident from the decrease in the levels of ROS, RNS and DNA damage. Significant increase (P≤0.05) in expression of TNFα and IL-10 and decrease in iNOS and COX-2 was observed on probiotic stimulation. In-vivo study using catla fingerlings confirmed similar pattern of ROS, iNOS, NO production and cytokine expression in thymus. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the mechanistic basis of L. acidophilus induced macrophage mediated inflammatory response against A. hydrophila in CTM cells. Further, it speculates the possibility of using cost-effective in-vitro models for screening probiotic candidates of therapeutic potential in aquaculture industry. PMID:27262084

  5. Crystal structure of α-galactosidase from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM: insight into tetramer formation and substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Fredslund, Folmer; Hachem, Maher Abou; Larsen, René Jonsgaard; Sørensen, Pernille Gerd; Coutinho, Pedro M; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2011-09-23

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic bacterium known for its beneficial effects on human health. The importance of α-galactosidases (α-Gals) for growth of probiotic organisms on oligosaccharides of the raffinose family present in many foods is increasingly recognized. Here, the crystal structure of α-Gal from L. acidophilus NCFM (LaMel36A) of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 36 (GH36) is determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion. In addition, a 1.58-Å-resolution crystallographic complex with α-d-galactose at substrate binding subsite -1 was determined. LaMel36A has a large N-terminal twisted β-sandwich domain, connected by a long α-helix to the catalytic (β/α)(8)-barrel domain, and a C-terminal β-sheet domain. Four identical monomers form a tightly packed tetramer where three monomers contribute to the structural integrity of the active site in each monomer. Structural comparison of LaMel36A with the monomeric Thermotoga maritima α-Gal (TmGal36A) reveals that O2 of α-d-galactose in LaMel36A interacts with a backbone nitrogen in a glycine-rich loop of the catalytic domain, whereas the corresponding atom in TmGal36A is from a tryptophan side chain belonging to the N-terminal domain. Thus, two distinctly different structural motifs participate in substrate recognition. The tetrameric LaMel36A furthermore has a much deeper active site than the monomeric TmGal36A, which possibly modulates substrate specificity. Sequence analysis of GH36, inspired by the observed structural differences, results in four distinct subgroups having clearly different active-site sequence motifs. This novel subdivision incorporates functional and architectural features and may aid further biochemical and structural analyses within GH36. PMID:21827767

  6. Lithostratigraphic and petrographic analysis of ICDP drill core LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coney, Louise; Gibson, Roger L.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

    Lithostratigraphic and petrographic studies of drill core samples from the 545.08 m deep International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) borehole LB-07A in the Bosumtwi impact structure revealed two sequences of impactites below the post-impact crater sediments and above coherent basement rock. The upper impactites (333.38-415.67 m depth) comprise an alternating sequence of suevite and lithic impact breccias. The lower impactite sequence (415.67-470.55 m depth) consists essentially of monomict impact breccia formed from meta-graywacke with minor shale, as well as two narrow injections of suevite, which differ from the suevites of the upper impactites in color and intensity of shock metamorphism of the clasts. The basement rock (470.55-545.08 m depth) is composed of lower greenschist-facies metapelites (shale, schist and minor phyllite), meta-graywacke, and minor meta-sandstone, as well as interlaminated quartzite and calcite layers. The basement also contains a number of suevite dikelets that are interpreted as injection veins, as well as a single occurrence of granophyric-textured rock, tentatively interpreted as a hydrothermally altered granitic intrusion likely related to the regional pre-impact granitoid complexes. Impact melt fragments are not as prevalent in LB-07A suevite as in the fallout suevite facies around the northern crater rim; on average, 3.6 vol% of melt fragments is seen in the upper suevites and up to 18 vol% in the lower suevite occurrences. Shock deformation features observed in the suevites and polymict lithic breccias include planar deformation features in quartz (1 to 3 sets), rare diaplectic quartz glass, and very rare diaplectic feldspar glass. Notably, no ballen quartz, which is abundant in the fallout suevites, has been found in the within-crater impact breccias. An overall slight increase in the degree of shock metamorphism occurs with depth in the impactites, but considerably lower shock degrees are seen in the suevites of

  7. OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the Most Massive M-Dwarf Planetary Companion?

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, S; Gould, A; Udalski, A; Anderson, J; Christie, G W; Gaudi, B S; Jaroszynski, M; Kubiak, M; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D L; Fox, D B; Gal-Yam, A; Han, C; Lepine, S; McCormick, J; Ofek, E; Park, B; Pogge, R W; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Britton, T R; Gilmore, A C; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Ohnishi, K; Okada, C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sako, T; Sasaki, M; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Tristram, P J; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P M; Yoshoika, T; Albrow, M D; Beaulieu, J P; Brillant, S; Calitz, H; Cassan, A; Cook, K H; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D D; Donatowicz, J; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; J?rgensen, U G; Kane, S; Kubas, D; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Vinter, C; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Doublier, V; Foelmi, C

    2008-04-18

    We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher-order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is a foreground M dwarf, with mass M = 0.46 {+-} 0.04M{sub {circle_dot}}, distance D{sub l} = 3.3 {+-} 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics {nu}{sub LSR} {approx} 103 km s{sup -1}. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass M{sub p} = 3.5 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter}, lies at a projected separation r{sub {perpendicular}} = 3.6 {+-} 0.2 AU from its host and has an equilibrium temperature of T {approx} 50 K, i.e., similar to Neptune. A degenerate model less favored by {Delta}{sub {chi}}{sup 2} {approx} 4 gives essentially the same planetary mass M{sub p} = 3.3 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter} with a smaller projected separation, r{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 AU, and higher equilibrium temperature T {approx} 68 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M-dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this analysis, but these could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

  8. Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-α-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  9. Enzymology and structure of the GH13_31 glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase that confers isomaltooligosaccharide utilization in the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Møller, Marie S; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-08-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  10. A versatile 50 ft-lb-sec reaction wheel for TRMM and XTE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialke, Bill

    A 50 ft-lb-sec Reaction Wheel is being manufactured by ITHACO, Inc. for NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) missions, using the same mechanical assemblies as a similar Reaction Wheel developed by ITHACO for the Air Force's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) (P91-1) mission. The versatile design allows variation in motor torque and speed capability with no mechanical modifications. State of the art ball bearing technology is combined with flight proven materials and conventional fabrication techniques to produce a relaible and manufacturable wheel assembly. An ironless armature brushless DC motor is incorporated for high efficiency and minimum weight. Comprehensive tradeoff analyses from the Reaction Wheel development are discussed for each component, and performance characteristics are presented for design variations from a high torque Reaction Wheel used in a three axis stabilized spacecraft to a low torque Momentum Wheel used in a momentum biased attitude Control System.

  11. MOA-2013-BLG-220Lb: Massive planetary companion to galactic-disk host

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, J. C.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jung, Y. K.; Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Bond, I. A.; Hundertmark, M.; Monard, L. A. G.; Porritt, I.; Nelson, P.; Bozza, V.; Albrow, M. D.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Lee, C.-U.; McCormick, J.; Collaboration: μFUN Collaboration),; MOA Collaboration),; OGLE Collaboration),; RoboNet Collaboration),; and others

    2014-07-20

    We report the discovery of MOA-2013-BLG-220Lb, which has a super-Jupiter mass ratio q = 3.01 ± 0.02 × 10{sup –3} relative to its host. The proper motion, μ = 12.5 ± 1 mas yr{sup –1}, is one of the highest for microlensing planets yet discovered, implying that it will be possible to separately resolve the host within ∼7 yr. Two separate lines of evidence imply that the planet and host are in the Galactic disk. The planet could have been detected and characterized purely with follow-up data, which has important implications for microlensing surveys, both current and into the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era.

  12. The success story at Birchwood: Operation below 0.10 lb/10{sup 6} Btu

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.B.

    1999-07-01

    The Southern Energy, Inc. (SEI) Birchwood Power Facility is successfully operating on coal maintaining stack NO{sub x} emissions below 0.10 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (73 ppmvd at 3% O{sub 2}, 43 ng/J) on a 30-day rolling average. The cogeneration plant uses an integrated approach for controlling NO{sub x} including in-furnace reduction from a TFS 2000{trademark} firing system and post-combustion control from selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The plant began operation in November 1996, and continues to meet the State of Virginia's stringent environmental requirements under all operating conditions. This paper focuses upon recent performance and operation of the NO{sub x} control technologies. Operational data of the NO{sub x} emissions from the steam generator as well as those exiting the SCR are presented. In addition, the latest information from the Spring '99 outage is discussed.

  13. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  14. Mechanical Properties of High Manganese Austenitic Stainless Steel JK2LB for ITER Central Solenoid Jacket Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Toru; Ozeki, Hidemasa; Isono, Takaaki; Hamada, Kazuya; Devred, Arnaud; Vostner, Alexander

    A suite of advanced austenitic stainless steels are used for the ITER TF, CS and PF coil systems.These materials will be exposed to cyclic-stress at cryogenic temperature. Therefore, high manganese austenitic stainless steel JK2LB, which has high tensile strength, high ductility and high resistance to fatigue at 4 K has been chosen for the CS conductor. The cryogenic temperature mechanical property data of this material are very important for the ITER magnet design. This study is focused on mechanical characteristics of JK2LB and its weld joint.

  15. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion☆

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion. PMID:24748900

  16. Studying the Stability of S-Layer Protein of Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356 in Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids Using SDS-PAGE and Circular Dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Erfan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline arrays of proteinaceous subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are now recognized as one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms. The surface layer protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 is composed of a single species of protein of apparent molecular weight of 43-46 KDa. Considering the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 having the S-layer is stable in harsh gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, a protective role against destructive GI factors which has been proposed for these nanostructures. It opens interesting perspectives in the using and development of this S-layer as a protective coat for oral administration of unstable drug nanocarriers. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to study the in-vitro stability of the S-layers in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGIF). This study was planned to evaluate the in-vitro stability of the extracted S-layer protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 in SGIF using it as a protective coat in oral drug delivery. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were used to study the stability of the S-layer protein incubated in SGIF. Both the SDS-PAGE and CD spectra results showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 S-layer protein is stable in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) with pH = 2 up to 5 min. It is stable in SGF pH = 3.2 and above it, with and without pepsin. It is also stable in all the simulated intestinal fluids. This S-layer is also stable in all of the simulated intestinal fluids. PMID:24250671

  17. Development and application of a upp-based counterselective gene replacement system for the study of the S-layer protein SlpX of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Azcárate-Peril, M Andrea; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Durmaz, Evelyn; Valence, Florence; Jardin, Julien; Lortal, Sylvie; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2009-05-01

    In silico genome analysis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM coupled with gene expression studies have identified putative genes and regulatory networks that are potentially important to this organism's survival, persistence, and activities in the gastrointestinal tract. Correlation of key genotypes to phenotypes requires an efficient gene replacement system. In this study, use of the upp-encoded uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) of L. acidophilus NCFM was explored as a counterselection marker to positively select for recombinants that have resolved from chromosomal integration of pORI-based plasmids. An isogenic mutant carrying a upp gene deletion was constructed and was resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a toxic uracil analog that is also a substrate for UPRTase. A 3.0-kb pORI-based counterselectable integration vector bearing a upp expression cassette, pTRK935, was constructed and introduced into the Deltaupp host harboring the pTRK669 helper plasmid. Extrachromosomal replication of pTRK935 complemented the mutated chromosomal upp allele and restored sensitivity to 5-FU. This host background provides a platform for a two-step plasmid integration and excision strategy that can select for plasmid-free recombinants with either the wild-type or mutated allele of the targeted gene in the presence of 5-FU. The efficacy of the system was demonstrated by in-frame deletion of the slpX gene (LBA0512) encoding a novel 51-kDa secreted protein associated with the S-layer complex of L. acidophilus. The resulting DeltaslpX mutant exhibited lower growth rates, increased sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate, and greater resistance to bile. Overall, this improved gene replacement system represents a valuable tool for investigating the mechanisms underlying the probiotic functionality of L. acidophilus. PMID:19304841

  18. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  19. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-01-01

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity. PMID:27609467

  20. Transcriptional analysis of genes associated with stress and adhesion in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM during the passage through an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G; Jespersen, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the transcription of genes associated with stress and adhesion in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM during the passage through an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. As acidified milk exerted a protective effect on the bacteria leading to increased survival, the gene expression studies were carried out with pre-inoculation of L. acidophilus NCFM in acidified milk. The induction of the genes encoding the stress-related proteins GroEL, DnaK and ClpP, and adhesion-related genes encoding mucin-binding proteins, fibronectin-binding protein and S-layer was analyzed by real-time PCR. The genes encoding GroEL, DnaK and ClpP were significantly up-regulated (9- to 16-fold) during gastric digestion and declined upon subsequent duodenal digestion. The genes encoding mucin-binding proteins and fibronectin-binding protein were not influenced by saliva and gastric juice, but they were significantly upregulated during incubation in duodenal juice and bile (6- to 7-fold). A significant induction of the gene encoding the S-layer protein was not detected. Our results give a better understanding of the functionality of L. acidophilus NCFM and other probiotics during passage through the gastrointestinal tract; hence, they provide an implementable basis for the selection of prospective probiotic candidates. PMID:20559014

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a slow but more sustained chemokine and cytokine response in naïve foetal enterocytes compared to commensal Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The first exposure to microorganisms at mucosal surfaces is critical for immune maturation and gut health. Facultative anaerobic bacteria are the first to colonise the infant gut, and the impact of these bacteria on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) may be determinant for how the immune system subsequently tolerates gut bacteria. Results To mirror the influence of the very first bacterial stimuli on infant IEC, we isolated IEC from mouse foetuses at gestational day 19 and from germfree neonates. IEC were stimulated with gut-derived bacteria, Gram-negative Escherichia coli Nissle and Gram-positive Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and expression of genes important for immune regulation was measured together with cytokine production. E. coli Nissle and L. acidophilus NCFM strongly induced chemokines and cytokines, but with different kinetics, and only E. coli Nissle induced down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 2. The sensitivity to stimulation was similar before and after birth in germ-free IEC, although Toll-like receptor 2 expression was higher before birth than immediately after. Conclusions In conclusion, IEC isolated before gut colonisation occurs at birth, are highly responsive to stimulation with gut commensals, with L. acidophilus NCFM inducing a slower, but more sustained response than E. coli Nissle. E. coli may induce intestinal tolerance through very rapid up-regulation of chemokine and cytokine genes and down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4, while regulating also responsiveness to Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:20085657

  2. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C3H7NO2 2-Nitropropane (LB1897, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB1897 of the ELBT database.

  4. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  5. Short communication: Viability of culture organisms in honey-enriched acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type fermented camel milk.

    PubMed

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this research was to monitor the survival during refrigerated storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in cultured dairy foods made from camel and, for comparison, cow milks supplemented with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) honey and fermented by an acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type culture. Two liters of dromedary camel milk and 2 L of cow milk were heated to 90 °C and held for 10 min, then cooled to 40 °C. One half of both types of milk was fortified with black locust honey at the rate of 5.0% (wt/vol), whereas the other half was devoid of honey and served as a control. The camel and cow milks with and without honey were subsequently inoculated with ABT-5 culture and were fermented at 37 °C until a pH value of 4.6 was reached. Thereafter, the probiotic fermented milks were cooled to 15 °C in ice water and were each separated into 18 fractions that were transferred in sterile, tightly capped centrifuge tubes. After 24 h of cooling at 8 °C (d 0), the samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Three tubes of all 4 products (i.e., fermented camel and cow milks with and without honey) were taken at each sampling time (i.e., following 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d of storage), and the counts of characteristic microorganisms and those of certain spoilage microbes (yeasts, molds, coliforms, Escherichia coli) were enumerated. The entire experimental program was repeated twice. The results showed that addition of black locust honey at 5% to heat-treated camel and cow milks did not influence the growth and survival of starter streptococci during production and subsequent refrigerated storage of fermented ABT milks. In contrast, honey improved retention of viability of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 in the camel milk-based product during storage at 4 °C up to 5 wk. No spoilage organisms were detected in any of the samples tested

  6. LB 1800 - A bright eclipsing cataclysmic variable and a transient X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Remillard, R. A.; Tuohy, I. R.; Clark, M.

    1990-01-01

    The star LB 1800 has been discovered to be a 13th mag high-excitation cataclysmic variable exhibiting novalike characteristics and partial eclipses in its light curve. It has subsequently been identified as the optical counterpart of the transient hard X-ray source 4U 0608-49 following analysis of HEAO 1 data. Both the radial velocity and photometric variations have a period of 5.56 hr, while the K-velocity of the relatively uncomplicated radial velocity curves is 134 + or - 9 km/s, leading to a mass function of 0.058 + or - 0.003 solar mass. The dynamical and eclipse solutions point to an orbital inclination of 87 deg + or - 3 deg and a mass ratio of 0.46 + or - 0.04 for the empirical secondary mass 0.55 solar mass. The implied white dwarf mass is therefore quite high at about 1.2 solar mass. The disk size, from timings of first and last contact, was estimated to be very close to that of the secondary star. Phase-dependent, double-peak emission lines are sometimes observed. It is argued that the orbital variations in the relative strengths of the red and blue peaks arise from changing hot-spot visibility.

  7. Formation and Properties of Protamine/Pectin LbL-Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hileuskaya, K.; Agabekov, V. E.

    The adsorption regularities of protamine sulfate and pectin on the surfaces from solution with different ionic strength were investigated in situ using quartz substrate via the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Both polymers were observed to absorb according to Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The value of Langmuir adsorption constant (k) is equal to 74,48 and 1,12 sm3/μg for pectin and protamine respectively. Maximum amount of biopolymer (A∞) adsorbed on resonator is 0,87 μg/sm2 for Pect and 0,57 μg/sm2 for PtS. Ultrathin (<100 nm) multilayer (protamine/pectin)8 LbL films were formed and adsorption kinetics of both polyions were studied. The rate constant of protamine and pectin adsorption are (3,9 ± 0,9)·10-2 s-1 and (3,4 ± 0,3)·10-2 s-1 respectively. It was shown, that film thickness increases by 2.5 times with polymers concentration in solution increasing from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/ml.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1400L(b)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section 168(e) (for example, 5-year property); (ii) Water utility property as defined in section 168(e)(5... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property. 1.1400L(b)-1 Section 1.1400L(b)-1 Internal...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1400L(b)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 168(e) (for example, 5-year property); (ii) Water utility property as defined in section 168(e)(5... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property. 1.1400L(b)-1 Section 1.1400L(b)-1 Internal...

  10. Performance of two 10-lb/sec centrifugal compressors with different blade and shroud thicknesses operating over a range of Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.; Moore, Royce D.

    1987-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors often cannot be directly scaled to very small flow sizes because of structural and manufacturing limitations. The inability to directly scale all design parameters leads to a performance loss other than that which can be associated with the lower Reynolds number. A 10-lb/sec centrifugal compressor was scaled down to 2-lb/sec where adjustments to blade and shroud thickness and fillet radii were required. The modified 2-lb/sec compressor was then directly scaled back up to 10 lb/sec so that the effect of the modifications could be determined. The performance of the two 10-lb/sec compressors is compared over a range of speed and mass flow. The effect of variations in Reynolds number, impeller tip clearance, and shroud thickness on compressor performance is also presented.

  11. The hsp 16 gene of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus is differently regulated by salt, high temperature and acidic stresses, as revealed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Arena, Mattia Pia; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs) in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C), bile (0.3% w/v), hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl), and low pH value (pH 4). The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR) sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA) homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE) elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. PMID:21954366

  12. Interaction of Aeromonas Strains with Lactic Acid Bacteria via Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatje, E.; Neuman, C.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas includes some species that have now been identified as human pathogens of significant medical importance. We investigated the ability of 13 selected Aeromonas strains belonging to nine species isolated from clinical cases (n = 5), environmental waters (n = 5), and fish (n = 3) to adhere to and translocate Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve. Aeromonas isolates were also assessed for their cytotoxicity, the presence of virulence genes, and hemolysin production. Among the clinical isolates, one strain of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii and two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila carried cytotoxin (act), heat-labile toxin (alt), hemolysin (hlyA), and aerolysin (aerA) genes, were cytotoxic to Vero cells, produced hemolysin, and showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells. In contrast, this was seen in only one environmental strain, a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria. When Aeromonas strains were coinoculated with LAB onto Caco-2 cells, their level of adhesion was reduced. However, their rate of translocation in the presence of LAB increased and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among fish strains. We suggest that either the interaction between Aeromonas and LAB strains could have a detrimental effect on the Caco-2 cells, allowing the Aeromonas to translocate more readily, or the presence of the LAB stimulated the Aeromonas strains to produce more toxins and/or increase their translocation rate. PMID:24242240

  13. Identification and partial characterization of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Lb. Bulgaricus K41 isolated from indigenous yogurts.

    PubMed

    Zaeim, Davood; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Forty-two strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus isolated from locally made yogurts were examined and compared for bacteriocin producing ability using spot on lawn assay which improved by taking photo and image processing. Lb. bulgaricus K41 exhibited the highest inhibition level against indicators. K41 Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance is sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin) but α-amylase makes slight reduction in its activity and it is resistant to lipase. This antibacterial peptide is extremely heat-stable (121 °C for 15 min) and remains active over a wide pH range (pH = 2 to 10); also nonionic detergents (Tween-20, Tween-80, and Triton X100) showed no effect on its activity. The inhibitory spectrum is against Gram-positive bacteria (except Staphylococcus aureus) with extremely antilisterial activity and it is almost ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria. The mode of its action was identified as bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes. The properties of K41 bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance add to its safety as a biopreservative produced by a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacterium suggesting it can be used in hurdle technology for ready-to-eat foods as one of the main sources of Listeria contaminations. PMID:24279356

  14. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor, LB42708, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis irreversibly in H-ras and K-ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Ju Won; Gang, Jingu; Wen, Jing; Koh, Sang Seok; Koh, Jong Sung; Chung, Hyun-Ho; Song, Si Young . E-mail: gisong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    LB42708 (LB7) and LB42908 (LB9) are pyrrole-based orally active farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) that have similar structures. The in vitro potencies of these compounds against FTase and GGTase I are remarkably similar, and yet they display different activity in apoptosis induction and morphological reversion of ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells. Both FTIs induced cell death despite K-ras prenylation, implying the participation of Ras-independent mechanism(s). Growth inhibition by these two FTIs was accompanied by G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrests in H-ras and K-ras-transformed RIE cells, respectively. We identified three key markers, p21{sup CIP1/WAF1}, RhoB and EGFR, that can explain the differences in the molecular mechanism of action between two FTIs. Only LB7 induced the upregulation of p21{sup CIP1/WAF1} and RhoB above the basal level that led to the cell cycle arrest and to distinct morphological alterations of ras-transformed RIE cells. Both FTIs successfully inhibited the ERK and activated JNK in RIE/K-ras cells. While the addition of conditioned medium from RIE/K-ras reversed the growth inhibition of ras-transformed RIE cells by LB9, it failed to overcome the growth inhibitory effect of LB7 in both H-ras- and K-ras-transformed RIE cells. We found that LB7, but not LB9, decreased the expression of EGFRs that confers the cellular unresponsiveness to EGFR ligands. These results suggest that LB7 causes the induction of p21{sup CIP1/WAF1} and RhoB and downregulation of EGFR that may serve as critical steps in the mechanism by which FTIs trigger irreversible inhibitions on the cell growth and apoptosis in ras-transformed cells.

  15. A novel unsaturated fatty acid hydratase toward C16 to C22 fatty acids from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akiko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Park, Si-Bum; Takeuchi, Michiki; Kitamura, Nahoko; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy FAs, one of the gut microbial metabolites of PUFAs, have attracted much attention because of their various bioactivities. The purpose of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria with the ability to convert linoleic acid (LA) to hydroxy FAs. A screening process revealed that a gut bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus NTV001, converts LA mainly into 13-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and resulted in the identification of the hydratase responsible, fatty acid hydratase 1 (FA-HY1). Recombinant FA-HY1 was purified, and its enzymatic characteristics were investigated. FA-HY1 could convert not only C18 PUFAs but also C20 and C22 PUFAs. C18 PUFAs with a cis carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ12 position were converted into the corresponding 13-hydroxy FAs. Arachidonic acid and DHA were converted into the corresponding 15-hydroxy FA and 14-hydroxy FA, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterial FA hydratase that can convert C20 and C22 PUFAs into the corresponding hydroxy FAs. These novel hydroxy FAs produced by using FA-HY1 should contribute to elucidating the bioactivities of hydroxy FAs. PMID:25966711

  16. Yogurt containing bioactive molecules produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 exerts a protective effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeinhom, Mohamed; Tellez, Angela M; Delcenserie, Veronique; El-Kholy, A M; El-Shinawy, S H; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-10-01

    An active fraction extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 cell-free spent medium (LAla-5AF) was incorporated in a dairy matrix and tested to assess its antivirulent effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Mice in experimental groups were fed for 4 days with yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. On the fifth day, mice were challenged with a single dose (10(7) CFU per mouse) of E. coli O157:H7. The clinical manifestations of the infection were significantly less severe in mice fed the yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. EHEC attachment and colonization was attenuated by LAla-5AF. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production was down-regulated, which might indicate a protective effect in the kidney during EHEC infection. To investigate the mechanisms associated with the in vivo effects observed, LAla-5AF was tested by reverse transcription real-time PCR to confirm its effects on the expression of several virulence genes of EHEC O157. The results showed that these fractions were able to down-regulate several virulence genes of EHEC, including stxB2, qseA, luxS, tir, ler, eaeA, and hlyB. PMID:23043828

  17. Differential proteome and cellular adhesion analyses of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM grown on raffinose - an emerging prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Ejby, Morten; Majumder, Avishek; Købler, Carsten; Goh, Yong Jun; Thorsen, Kristian; Schmidt, Bjarne; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Brix, Susanne; Mølhave, Kristian; Svensson, Birte

    2016-05-01

    Whole cell and surface proteomes were analyzed together with adhesive properties of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) grown on the emerging prebiotic raffinose, exemplifying a synbiotic. Adhesion of NCFM to mucin and intestinal HT-29 cells increased three-fold after culture with raffinose versus glucose, as also visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative proteomics using 2D-DIGE showed 43 unique proteins to change in relative abundance in whole cell lysates from NCFM grown on raffinose compared to glucose. Furthermore, 14 unique proteins in 18 spots of the surface subproteome underwent changes identified by differential 2DE, including elongation factor G, thermostable pullulanase, and phosphate starvation inducible stress-related protein increasing in a range of +2.1 - +4.7 fold. By contrast five known moonlighting proteins decreased in relative abundance by up to -2.4 fold. Enzymes involved in raffinose catabolism were elevated in the whole cell proteome; α-galactosidase (+13.9 fold); sucrose phosphorylase (+5.4 fold) together with metabolic enzymes from the Leloir pathway for galactose utilization and the glycolysis; β-galactosidase (+5.7 fold); galactose (+2.9/+3.1 fold) and fructose (+2.8 fold) kinases. The insights at the molecular and cellular levels contributed to the understanding of the interplay of a synbiotic composed of NCFM and raffinose with the host. PMID:26959526

  18. The Three-Species Consortium of Genetically Improved Strains Cupriavidus necator RW112, Burkholderia xenovorans RW118, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes RW120 Grows with Technical Polychlorobiphenyl, Aroclor 1242

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sánchez, Verónica; Lang, Elke; Wittich, Regina-Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Cupriavidus necator H850, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 are bacterial strains able to mineralize biphenyl and to co-oxidize many of its halogenated derivatives (PCBs). Only strain LB400 also mineralizes a few mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, due to the presence of a functioning chlorocatechol pathway. Here, we used a Tn5-based minitransposon shuttle system to chromosomically introduce genes tcbRCDEF, encoding the chlorocatechol pathway into KF707, and genes cbdABC encoding a 2-chlorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase into KF707 and LB400, as well as transposon Tn4653 from the TOL plasmid, providing genes xylXYZL, encoding a broad-range toluate (methylbenzoate) dioxygenase and its dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, to extend the range for the mineralization of halogenated benzoates in LB400 and in KF707 through co-oxidation of halobenzoates into chlorocatechols. The engineered derivatives of LB400 and KF707 thus gained the ability for the mineralization of all isomeric monochloro- and bromobenzoates of the so-called lower pathway which, consequently, also allowed the mineralization of all monochlorobiphenyls and a number of di- and trichlorobiphenyls, thus preventing the accumulation of halobenzoates and of catabolites thereof. LB400 and KF707 also grow with the two commercial PCB formulations, Aroclor 1221 and Aroclor 1232, as the sole carbon and energy sources, but not with higher halogenated PCB mixtures, similar to the already published strain RW112. Repeated exposition of the modified LB400 to short pulses of UV light, over a prolonged period of time, allowed the isolation of a derivative of LB400, termed RW118, capable of growth with Aroclor 1016 still containing only traces of biphenyl, and in co-culture with modified KF707 termed RW120, and modified H850 (RW112) with Aroclor 1242, the commercial mixture already void of biphenyl and monochlorobiphenyls. PMID:23658554

  19. OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb: A Saturn-mass Planet around an M Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Y.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Shibai, H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; The MOA Collaboration; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; The OGLE Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high-cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio q=(1.58+/- 0.15)× {10}-3. By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M dwarf with a mass of {M}{{L}}={0.29}-0.16+0.33 {M}ȯ located at {D}{{L}}={6.7}-1.2+1.1 {{kpc}} away from the Earth and the companion’s mass is {m}{{P}}={0.47}-0.26+0.54 {M}{{Jup}}. The projected planet–host separation is {a}\\perp ={1.6}-0.3+0.4 {{AU}}. Because the lens–source relative proper motion is relatively high, future high-resolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an M dwarf, and such systems are commonly detected by gravitational microlensing. This adds another example of a possible pileup of sub-Jupiters (0.2\\lt {m}{{P}}/{M}{{Jup}}\\lt 1) in contrast to a lack of Jupiters (˜ 1{--}2 {M}{{Jup}}) around M dwarfs, supporting the prediction by core accretion models that Jupiter-mass or more massive planets are unlikely to form around M dwarfs.

  20. OGLE-2008-BLG-355Lb: A massive planet around a late-type star

    SciTech Connect

    Koshimoto, N.; Sumi, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Shibai, H.; Udalski, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Rattenbury, N.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Fukui, A.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Saito, To.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; and others

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a massive planet, OGLE-2008-BLG-355Lb. The light curve analysis indicates a planet:host mass ratio of q = 0.0118 ± 0.0006 at a separation of 0.877 ± 0.010 Einstein radii. We do not measure a significant microlensing parallax signal and do not have high angular resolution images that could detect the planetary host star. Therefore, we do not have a direct measurement of the host star mass. A Bayesian analysis, assuming that all host stars have equal probability to host a planet with the measured mass ratio, implies a host star mass of M{sub h}=0.37{sub −0.17}{sup +0.30} M{sub ⊙} and a companion of mass M{sub P}=4.6{sub −2.2}{sup +3.7}M{sub J}, at a projected separation of r{sub ⊥}=1.70{sub −0.30}{sup +0.29} AU. The implied distance to the planetary system is D {sub L} = 6.8 ± 1.1 kpc. A planetary system with the properties preferred by the Bayesian analysis may be a challenge to the core accretion model of planet formation, as the core accretion model predicts that massive planets are far more likely to form around more massive host stars. This core accretion model prediction is not consistent with our Bayesian prior of an equal probability of host stars of all masses to host a planet with the measured mass ratio. Thus, if the core accretion model prediction is right, we should expect that follow-up high angular resolution observations will detect a host star with a mass in the upper part of the range allowed by the Bayesian analysis. That is, the host would probably be a K or G dwarf.

  1. Controlled Formation of Heteroleptic [Pd2(La)2(Lb)2](4+) Cages.

    PubMed

    Preston, Dan; Barnsley, Jonathan E; Gordon, Keith C; Crowley, James D

    2016-08-24

    Metallosupramolecular architectures are beginning to be exploited for a range of applications including drug delivery, catalysis, molecular recognition, and sensing. For the most part these achievements have been made with high-symmetry metallosupramolecular architectures composed of just one type of ligand and metal ion. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to generate metallosupramolecular architectures that are made up of multiple different ligands and/or metals ions in order to obtain more complex systems with new properties. Herein we show that the addition of an electron-rich 2-amino-substituted tripyridyl ligand, 2,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylethynyl)pyridine (2A-tripy), to a solution of the [Pd2(tripy)4](4+) cage resulted in the clean generation of a heteroleptic [Pd2(tripy)2(2A-tripy)2](4+) architecture. The formation of the mixed-ligand cage [Pd2(tripy)2(2A-tripy)2](4+) was confirmed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, and rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Density functional theory calculations suggested the cis isomer was more stable that the trans isomer. Additionally, the calculations indicated that the heteroleptic palladium(II) cages are kinetically metastable intermediates rather than the thermodynamic product of the reaction. Competition experiments supported that finding and showed the cages are long-lived in solution at room temperature. Finally, it was shown that the addition of 2A-tripy to a range of preformed [Pd2(Ltripy)4](4+) cages cleanly generated the mixed-ligand systems. Three other systems displaying different exo and endo functionalities within the cage assembly were generated, suggesting that this method could be applied to synthesize a range of highly functionalized heteroleptic cis-[Pd2(La)2(Lb)2](4+) cages. PMID:27463413

  2. Ogle-2012-blg-0724lb: A Saturn Mass Planet Around an M-dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirao, Y.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high-cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio q = (1.58 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp -3). By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M dwarf with a mass of M(sub L) = 0.29(+0.33/-0.16) solar mass located at D(sub L) = 6.7(+1.1/-1.2) kpc away from the Earth and the companion's mass is m(sub P) = 0.47(+0.54/-0.26) M(Jup). The projected planet- host separation is a falsum = 1.6(+0.4/-0.3) AU. Because the lens-source relative proper motion is relatively high, future highresolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an M dwarf, and such systems are commonly detected by gravitational microlensing. This adds another example of a possible pileup of sub-Jupiters (0.2 less than m(sub P)/M(sub Jup) less than 1) in contrast to a lack of Jupiters (approximately 1-2 M(sub Jup)) around M dwarfs, supporting the prediction by core accretion models that Jupiter-mass or more massive planets are unlikely to form around M dwarfs.

  3. OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb: A Saturn-mass Planet around an M Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Y.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Shibai, H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; The MOA Collaboration; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; The OGLE Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high-cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio q=(1.58+/- 0.15)× {10}-3. By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M dwarf with a mass of {M}{{L}}={0.29}-0.16+0.33 {M}ȯ located at {D}{{L}}={6.7}-1.2+1.1 {{kpc}} away from the Earth and the companion’s mass is {m}{{P}}={0.47}-0.26+0.54 {M}{{Jup}}. The projected planet–host separation is {a}\\perp ={1.6}-0.3+0.4 {{AU}}. Because the lens–source relative proper motion is relatively high, future high-resolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an M dwarf, and such systems are commonly detected by gravitational microlensing. This adds another example of a possible pileup of sub-Jupiters (0.2\\lt {m}{{P}}/{M}{{Jup}}\\lt 1) in contrast to a lack of Jupiters (∼ 1{--}2 {M}{{Jup}}) around M dwarfs, supporting the prediction by core accretion models that Jupiter-mass or more massive planets are unlikely to form around M dwarfs.

  4. A COLD NEPTUNE-MASS PLANET OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb: COLD NEPTUNES ARE COMMON

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, T.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A. E-mail: abe@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2010-02-20

    We present the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb with a planet-star mass ratio of q = [9.5 +- 2.1] x 10{sup -5} via gravitational microlensing. The planetary deviation was detected in real-time thanks to the high cadence of the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics survey, real-time light-curve monitoring and intensive follow-up observations. A Bayesian analysis returns the stellar mass and distance at M{sub l} = 0.64{sup +0.21}{sub -0.26} M{sub sun} and D{sub l} = 5.9{sup +0.9}{sub -1.4} kpc, respectively, so the mass and separation of the planet are M{sub p} = 20{sup +7}{sub -8} M{sub +} and a = 3.3{sup +1.4}{sub -0.8} AU, respectively. This discovery adds another cold Neptune-mass planet to the planetary sample discovered by microlensing, which now comprises four cold Neptune/super-Earths, five gas giant planets, and another sub-Saturn mass planet whose nature is unclear. The discovery of these 10 cold exoplanets by the microlensing method implies that the mass ratio function of cold exoplanets scales as dN{sub pl}/dlog q {proportional_to} q {sup -0.7+}-{sup 0.2} with a 95% confidence level upper limit of n < -0.35 (where dN{sub pl}/dlog q {proportional_to} q{sup n} ). As microlensing is most sensitive to planets beyond the snow-line, this implies that Neptune-mass planets are at least three times more common than Jupiters in this region at the 95% confidence level.

  5. Safety analysis of the 1000 lb/day coal-liquefaction PDU

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 1000 lb/day PDU located in Building 83 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Risks to personnel from potential process hazards are largely controlled by installation of a major portion of the unit within a hot cell. This segregates and isolates personnel from a majority of potential equipment rupture and fire/explosion hazards. Equipment within the cell is subject to potential risks associated with overpressurization or excessively high temperature, and fire/explosion due to ignition of leaking flammable gas (i.e. H/sub 2/). There are some existing safeguards designed to protect against overpressure or high temperature. Additional safeguards are offered to minimize these risks. The hot cell is provided with general dilution ventilation and hydrogen monitoring. However, confinement effects and potential ignition sources are such that avoidance of formation and ignition of flammable mixtures cannot be assured. Potential health hazards relate to contact with coal-derived liquids or inhalation of irritant or toxic gases, vapors, or dusts, associated with slurry preparation, sampling, draw down of catch-pots, or cleaning of centrifuge bowls. No particularly serious workplace safety hazards were identified, and environmental concerns are largely limited by the relatively low throughput for the unit. A number of Category I hazards with Remote likelihood, and Category II hazards with May Occur likelihood, were identified. Recommendations were developed for these hazards. Implementation of these recommendations will materially reduce the overall risk level of the operation. The Safety Analysis was based on a site visit, process flow diagrams, material balance, equipment data, and operating procedures provided to Hercules, or as represented to Hercules, by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. A detailed listing of the data and information package is documented in Appendix A.

  6. Detection of the 1400 A absorption in the ultraviolet spectrum of the DA white dwarf LB 3303

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G.

    1982-01-01

    Low-resolution ultraviolet International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra of the southern white dwarf LB 3303 show the presence of the wavelength 1400 absorption feature reported by Greenstein in the spectrum of 40 Eri B. The equivalent width is 5.7 A, and the measured wavelength is 1394 A. A comparison of the ultraviolet fluxes with model atmospheres confirms that LB 3303 has an effective temperature near 16,000 K, as found earlier from visual wavelength data. There are still problems with the identification of this line. The star is not hot enough to explain the presence of Si IV, and the agreement with the spectrum of the H2 molecule is not convincing.

  7. Pategrás cheese as a suitable carrier for six probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Carina; Hynes, Erica; Meinardi, Carlos; Suárez, Viviana; Quiberoni, Andrea; Zalazar, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The viability of five single-strain and one three-strain probiotic cultures was assessed during Pategrás cheese ripening. Probiotics were inoculated into cheese-milk after a pre-incubation step - intended to improve their survival - or directly as a lyophilised culture; control cheeses without probiotics were also obtained. pH of probiotic and control cheeses was similar, except in probiotic cheeses containing the strain Lb. acidophilus B or the mixed culture. In these cases, the probiotic cheeses were more acid than their respective control cheeses. All the probiotics tested maintained counts above 107 cfu/g during the shelf-life settled for the product. Strains of the Lb. casei group: Lb. paracasei, Lb. casei and Lb. rhamnosus reached and kept the highest cell concentration during cheese ripening, followed by Lb. acidophilus and bifidobacteria. The direct addition of the probiotic cultures was more efficient than their inoculation after a pre-incubation step, for all the probiotics assayed. We have provided evidence that support the use of Pategrás cheese as a performing food-based vehicle for probiotic bacteria. PMID:20181295

  8. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  9. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus curvatus strain isolated from homemade Azerbaijani cheese.

    PubMed

    Ahmadova, Aynur; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Hadji-Sfaxi, Imen; Choiset, Yvan; Rabesona, Hanitra; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Kuliyev, Akif; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize inhibitory activity spectra, some probiotic properties and safety of Lactobacillus curvatus A61 for its future application in production of fermented foods. The studied strain was isolated from traditional homemade cheese manufactured in Azerbaijan. The cell-free supernatant of culture of Lb. curvatus A61 inhibited the growth of tested LAB, as well as of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus strains. The strain presented antifungal activity and inhibited the growth of Cladosporium and Fusarium ssp. during co-cultivation on agar media. PCR amplification with specific primers revealed the presence of curvacin A encoding gene in Lb. curvatus A61. Bacteriocin produced by the studied strain was heat stable and active in a broad pH range, and in the presence of Triton X-20, Triton X-80, Triton X-100, β-mercaptoethanol, Na-EDTA, SDS and NaCl. The mode of action of bacteriocin against selected indicator strains was found to be bacteriostatic. Lb. curvatus A61 was resistant to physiological concentrations of bile salts and showed high auto-aggregation ability, as well as co-aggregation ability with pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains. It was sensitive to chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, but resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. PMID:23357316

  10. Generation of disk-like domains with nanometer scale thickness in merocyanine dye LB film induced by hydrothermal treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have characterized the binary LB films of merocyanine dye (MS) and arachidic acid (C20) before and after hydrothermal treatment (HTT), which is defined as a heat treatment under relative humidity of 100%, focusing on the morphology studied by bright field (BF) microscopy and fluorescence (FL) microscopy. BF microscopy observation has revealed that the as-deposited MS-C20 binary LB film is found to emit intense red fluorescence over the whole film area by 540-nm excitation. Since the surface image is almost featureless, it is considered that the crystallite sizes of J-aggregate are less than 10 μm. Interestingly, after HTT, round-shaped domains are observed in the LB systems, and the sizes are reaching 100 μm in diameter. Crystallites of J-aggregate, which are bluish in color and emit intense red fluorescence, tend to be in the round domains. We have observed two different types of domains, i.e., blue-rimmed domains and white-rimmed domains, which are postulated to be confined in the inner layers and located at the outermost layer, respectively. The thickness of the domains is equal to or less than that of the double layer of the MS-C20 mixed LB film, which is ca. 5.52 nm. The molecular order of MS in the J-aggregate is improved by the HTT process leading to the significant sharpening of the band shape together with the further red shift of the band (from 590 to 594 nm up to 597 to 599 nm). The reorganized J-band is considered to be ‘apparently’ isotropic owing to the random growth of the J-aggregate in the film plane. We consider that the lubrication effect by the presence of water molecules predominates in the HTT process. PMID:24134673

  11. Vibronic coupling in indole: I. Theoretical description of the 1La-1Lb interaction and the electronic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christian; Küpper, Jochen; Pratt, David W; Meerts, W Leo; Krügler, Daniel; Tatchen, Jörg; Schmitt, Michael

    2010-05-21

    The properties of the three lowest singlet electronic states (ground, (1)L(b), and (1)L(a) states) of indole (C(8)H(7)N) have been calculated with second-order approximate coupled-cluster theory (CC2) within the resolution-of-the-identity approximation. Refined electronic energies at the CC2 optimized structures and transition dipole moments were calculated using a density functional theory multi-reference configuration-interaction (DFT/MRCI) approach. Structures, energies, and dipole moments are reported for all three states and compared to experimental values. From the optimized structures and calculated transition dipole moments, we predict that pure (1)L(b) bands will have positive signs for both the axis reorientation angle theta(T) and the angle theta of the transition dipole moment with respect to the inertial a axis. For (1)L(a) bands the signs of both angles will be reversed. Vibronically coupled bands can exhibit opposite signs for theta and theta(T). The absorption and emission spectra of indole are calculated based on the Franck-Condon Herzberg-Teller approximation using numerical transition dipole moment derivatives at the DFT/MRCI level of theory. Implications for the experimentally observed vibronic spectra are discussed. Predictions are made for rotationally resolved spectra of various rovibronic bands. A conical intersection, connecting the (1)L(b) and (1)L(a) states, which can be accessed to varying extents via different Herzberg-Teller active modes is found approximately 2000 cm(-1) above the (1)L(b) minimum. PMID:20411191

  12. NLTE spectral analysis of the sdOB primary of the eclipsing binary system LB 3459 (AA Dor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.

    2000-04-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the sdOB primary star of the binary system LB 3459 based on high-resolution high-S/N optical and UV spectra. The metal abundances are determined by means of state-of-the-art NLTE model atmospheres. We determined Teffw42 and log gw{5.2} within very small error limits. The He (1/125 solar), C (1/265), N (1/33), O (1/12), and Si (1/5) abundances appear strongly depleted while that of Fe and Ni are roughly solar and Mg is strongly enriched by a factor of 6. The spectroscopic distance to LB 3459 is d = 396 pc. The mass of the primary component of LB 3459 is 0.330 M_sun derived from comparisons with theoretical models for sdO stars in the log T_eff - \\log g plane. The mass of the secondary is then 0.066 M_sun derived from the mass function. There remains some disagreement between the radius derived from log g and the above mass, and that derived from analysis of the radial-velocity curve and the eclipse curves. LB 3459 is a close binary system which had experienced a common envelope (CE) phase during its evolution. It fits in the ``low mass case B'' scenario of Iben & Livio (1993) and the secondary is a brown dwarf. The spectroscopically determined rotational velocity of the primary is v_rot = 34 ± 10 km* sec-1. Thus even bound rotation (v_rot = 45.7 km* sec-1) cannot be ruled out. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (proposals 55.D-0319, 56.C-0165) and on data retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Final Archive.

  13. Generation of disk-like domains with nanometer scale thickness in merocyanine dye LB film induced by hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yasuhiro F.; Sano, Motoaki; Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi

    2013-10-01

    We have characterized the binary LB films of merocyanine dye (MS) and arachidic acid (C20) before and after hydrothermal treatment (HTT), which is defined as a heat treatment under relative humidity of 100%, focusing on the morphology studied by bright field (BF) microscopy and fluorescence (FL) microscopy. BF microscopy observation has revealed that the as-deposited MS-C20 binary LB film is found to emit intense red fluorescence over the whole film area by 540-nm excitation. Since the surface image is almost featureless, it is considered that the crystallite sizes of J-aggregate are less than 10 μm. Interestingly, after HTT, round-shaped domains are observed in the LB systems, and the sizes are reaching 100 μm in diameter. Crystallites of J-aggregate, which are bluish in color and emit intense red fluorescence, tend to be in the round domains. We have observed two different types of domains, i.e., blue-rimmed domains and white-rimmed domains, which are postulated to be confined in the inner layers and located at the outermost layer, respectively. The thickness of the domains is equal to or less than that of the double layer of the MS-C20 mixed LB film, which is ca. 5.52 nm. The molecular order of MS in the J-aggregate is improved by the HTT process leading to the significant sharpening of the band shape together with the further red shift of the band (from 590 to 594 nm up to 597 to 599 nm). The reorganized J-band is considered to be `apparently' isotropic owing to the random growth of the J-aggregate in the film plane. We consider that the lubrication effect by the presence of water molecules predominates in the HTT process.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4570_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4570_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1342, LB3352_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1342, LB3352_V)' providing data by calculation of isothermal compressibility from direct measurements of mass densities at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1242, LB3379_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1242, LB3379_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from density measurements at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1141, LB3350_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1141, LB3350_V)' providing data from direct measurement of mass density at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  18. Assessment of the Group 5-6 (LB C2, LB S2, LV S1) Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2011-03-11

    This document reports on a series of tests to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 5-6 exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LB-C2, LV-S1, and LB S2 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 5-6) because the common factor in their design is that the last significant flow disturbance upstream of the air sampling probe is a reduction in duct diameter. Federal regulations( ) require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria of the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The testing on scale models of the stacks conducted for this project was part of the River Protection Project—Waste Treatment Plant Support Program under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 according to the statement of work issued by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI, 24590-QL-SRA-W000-00101, N13.1-1999 Stack Monitor Scale Model Testing and Qualification, Revision 1, 9/12/2007) and Work Authorization 09 of Memorandum of Agreement 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task is 53024, Work for Hanford Contractors Stack Monitoring. The testing described in this document was further guided by the Test Plan Scale Model Testing the Waste Treatment Plant LB-C2, LB-S2, and LV-S1 (Test Group 5-6) Stack Air Sampling Positions (TP-RPP-WTP-594). The tests conducted by PNNL during 2009 and 2010 on the Group 5-6 scale model systems are described in this report. The series of tests consists of various measurements taken over a grid of points in the duct cross-section at the designed sampling

  19. LB100, a small molecule inhibitor of PP2A with potent chemo- and radio-sensitizing potential.

    PubMed

    Hong, Christopher S; Ho, Winson; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chunzhang; Elder, J Bradley; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a significant role in mitotic progression and cellular responses to DNA damage. While traditionally viewed as a tumor suppressor, inhibition of PP2A has recently come to attention as a novel therapeutic means of driving senescent cancer cells into mitosis and promoting cell death via mitotic catastrophe. These findings have been corroborated in numerous studies utilizing naturally produced compounds that selectively inhibit PP2A. To overcome the known human toxicities associated with these compounds, a water-soluble small molecule inhibitor, LB100, was recently developed to competitively inhibit the PP2A protein. This review summarizes the pre-clinical studies to date that have demonstrated the anti-cancer activity of LB100 via its chemo- and radio-sensitizing properties. These studies demonstrate the tremendous therapeutic potential of LB100 in a variety of cancer types. The results of an ongoing phase 1 trial are eagerly anticipated. PMID:25897893

  20. LB100, a small molecule inhibitor of PP2A with potent chemo- and radio-sensitizing potential

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Christopher S; Ho, Winson; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chunzhang; Elder, J Bradley; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a significant role in mitotic progression and cellular responses to DNA damage. While traditionally viewed as a tumor suppressor, inhibition of PP2A has recently come to attention as a novel therapeutic means of driving senescent cancer cells into mitosis and promoting cell death via mitotic catastrophe. These findings have been corroborated in numerous studies utilizing naturally produced compounds that selectively inhibit PP2A. To overcome the known human toxicities associated with these compounds, a water-soluble small molecule inhibitor, LB100, was recently developed to competitively inhibit the PP2A protein. This review summarizes the pre-clinical studies to date that have demonstrated the anti-cancer activity of LB100 via its chemo- and radio-sensitizing properties. These studies demonstrate the tremendous therapeutic potential of LB100 in a variety of cancer types. The results of an ongoing phase 1 trial are eagerly anticipated. PMID:25897893

  1. The use of machine learning program LERS-LB 2.5 in knowledge acquisition for expert system development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Woolery, L; Grzymala-Busse, J; Summers, S; Budihardjo, A

    1991-01-01

    LERS-LB (Learning from Examples using Rough Sets Lower Boundaries) is a computer program based on rough set theory for knowledge acquisition, which extracts patterns from real-world data in generating production rules for expert system development. From LERS-LB evaluation of an SPSS-X data file containing data for recovery room patients, it was concluded that both statistical data files and existing databases can be converted to decision-table format needed by LERS-LB, but it is less desirable to work with statistical files than a well-developed database. It was also concluded that choosing a well-developed database and checking it thoroughly for accuracy and completeness should be done before running LERS-LB, or other learning programs, to avoid problems with data errors. Using rough set theory and a technique called 'dropping conditions' LERS-LB offers, at least in theory, a possible method for identifying which data items are critical to nursing practice. Further research and continued LERS-LB program enhancements still may help with identifying critical data items versus redundant data for nursing practice. LERS-LB, and other learning programs, offer techniques which will help reduce the knowledge acquisition bottleneck in nursing expert system development. It is doubtful, however, that learning programs will eliminate the need for involving domain experts in evaluating rules and expert systems for clinical decision support. PMID:1747822

  2. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  3. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  4. GENETIC AND CELL-FREE STUDIES OF PCB BIODEGRADATION IN PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBS, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. he genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. he ability of cell-free extracts of...

  5. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). Conclusion: All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the

  6. SUB-SATURN PLANET MOA-2008-BLG-310Lb: LIKELY TO BE IN THE GALACTIC BULGE

    SciTech Connect

    Janczak, Julia; Dong, Subo; Kozlowski, Szymon E-mail: simkoz@astronomy.ohio-state.ed

    2010-03-10

    We report the detection of sub-Saturn-mass planet MOA-2008-BLG-310Lb and argue that it is the strongest candidate yet for a bulge planet. Deviations from the single-lens fit are smoothed out by finite-source effects and therefore are not immediately apparent from the light curve. Nevertheless, we find that a model in which the primary has a planetary companion is favored over the single-lens model by DELTAchi{sup 2} {approx} 880 for an additional 3 degrees of freedom. Detailed analysis yields a planet/star mass ratio q = (3.3 +- 0.3) x 10{sup -4} and an angular separation between the planet and star within 10% of the angular Einstein radius. The small angular Einstein radius, theta{sub E} = 0.155 +- 0.011 mas, constrains the distance to the lens to be D{sub L} >6.0 kpc if it is a star (M{sub L} >0.08 M{sub sun}). This is the only microlensing exoplanet host discovered so far that must be in the bulge if it is a star. By analyzing VLT NACO adaptive optics images taken near the baseline of the event, we detect additional blended light that is aligned to within 130 mas of the lensed source. This light is plausibly from the lens, but could also be due to a companion to the lens or source, or possibly an unassociated star. If the blended light is indeed due to the lens, we can estimate the mass of the lens, M{sub L} = 0.67 +- 0.14 M{sub sun}, planet mass m = 74 +- 17 M{sub +}, and projected separation between the planet and host, 1.25 +- 0.10 AU, putting it right on the 'snow line'. If not, then the planet has lower mass, is closer to its host and is colder. To distinguish among these possibilities on reasonable timescales would require obtaining Hubble Space Telescope images almost immediately, before the source-lens relative motion of mu= 5 mas yr{sup -1} causes them to separate substantially.

  7. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties. PMID:24674438

  8. Gut microbiota of healthy elderly NSAID users is selectively modified with the administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Marika; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia D; Nikkilä, Janne; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Rautonen, Nina; Lahtinen, Sampo J

    2012-08-01

    Ageing changes gut microbiota composition and alters immune system function. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics may improve the health status of elderly individuals by modifying the intestinal environment and the microbiota composition, and by stimulating the immune system. In this work, we studied the effects of synbiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota of healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-one elders were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic dietary supplement or a placebo in addition to their usual diet for a 2-week period. The synbiotic product consisted of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and the prebiotic lactitol and was ingested twice a day, with a total daily dose of 10 g lactitol and 2 × 10(10) cells of probiotic bacteria. Before, during and after the intervention period fecal quantities of six phylogenetic bacterial groups were determined using quantitative PCR, and relative changes in total microbiota composition were assessed by percent guanine-plus-cytosine profiling. The microbiota profiles showed certain relative changes within the microbial community, and indicated an increase of bifidobacteria levels during synbiotic supplementation. Quantification by PCR confirmed the in changes in the microbiota composition; for example increases in total levels of endogenous bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were recorded. Throughout the 6-week study period there was a decrease unrelated to intervention in the Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale bacterial group levels and Clostridium cluster XIVab levels, but this decrease appeared to be halted during the synbiotic intervention. In conclusion, putatively beneficial changes in microbiota were observed in the elderly subjects supplemented with the synbiotic product. PMID:21853265

  9. Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Kutima, Phillip M; Mbugua, Samuel K; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development. PMID:18175177

  10. In Vitro Activities of Gemifloxacin (SB 265805, LB20304) against Recent Clinical Isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Roblin, Patricia M.; Reznik, Tamara; Kutlin, Andrei; Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, a new quinolone antibiotic, to the activities of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, erythromycin, and doxycycline against 20 isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Gemifloxacin was the most active quinolone tested, with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited and a minimal bactericidal concentration at which 90% of strains tested are killed of 0.25 μg/ml, but this activity was less than those of doxycycline and erythromycin. PMID:10543770

  11. Influence of long-bright and increasing-dim photoperiods on live and processing performance of two broiler strains.

    PubMed

    Lien, R J; Hooie, L B; Hess, J B

    2009-05-01

    The influence of long-bright and increasing-dim photoperiods on live and processing performance was investigated in 2 broiler strains. Fifty males of moderate (M) and high (H) yield strains were placed by strain in 2 pens in each of 12 rooms. Six rooms were provided a long-bright photoperiod (LB treatment) of 23L:1D with 2 footcandles of intensity. The other 6 rooms were provided an increasing-dim photoperiod (ID treatment) of 20L:4D from 1 to 10 d, 12L:12D from 10 to 21 d, 15L:9D from 21 to 28 d, 18L:6D from 28 to 35 d, and 20L:4D from 35 to 54 d, with 0.1 foot-candle throughout. Relative to LB, the ID treatment had lower BW from 7 to 28 d, feed consumption from 7 to 35 d, and feed conversion from 7 to 42 d; however, these variables did not differ between treatments at 54 d. The M strain had consistently greater BW and feed consumption than the H strain. However, M strain feed conversion was only greater from 7 to 35 d. Mortality was unaffected by treatment or strain. Total breast weights and yields were 42 g or 5.1% greater, respectively, in the LB than the ID treatment. Fillet weights and yields, and tender yields, were greater in the LB than ID treatment. Leg weights and yields, and wing yields, were greater in the ID than LB treatment. Total breast weights of M and H strains were similar; however, yield was 3.3% greater in the H than M strain. Fillet yields were greater in the H than M strain. Wing and leg weights and yields were greater in the M than H strain. There was an interaction effect on fat pad weights and yields, which were greater in H strain subjected to ID treatment than other strain and treatment combinations. These results indicate that increasing photoperiods and dim intensities, which often improve broiler live performance, may have a greater negative effect on breast meat production than differences in strains. PMID:19359674

  12. Production of 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid from linoleic acid by whole recombinant cells expressing linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Park, Jin-Byung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-08-20

    Linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 11470 converted linoleic acid to hydroxyl fatty acid, which was identified as 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (13-HOD) by GC-MS and NMR. The expression of linoleate 13-hydratase gene in Escherichia coli was maximized by using pACYC plasmid and super optimal broth with catabolite repression (SOC) medium containing 40mM Mg(2+). To optimize induction conditions, recombinant cells were cultivated at 37°C, 1mM isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside was added at 2h, and the culture was further incubated at 16°C for 18h. Recombinant cells expressing linoleate 13-hydratase from L. acidophilus were obtained under the optimized expression conditions and used for 13-HOD production from linoleic acid. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 6.0, 40°C, 0.25% (v/v) Tween 40, 25gl(-1) cells, and 100gl(-1) linoleic acid, and under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 79gl(-1) 13-HOD for 3h with a conversion yield of 79% (w/w), a volumetric productivity of 26.3gl(-1)h(-1), and a specific productivity of 1.05g g-cells(-1)h(-1). To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant cells produced hydroxy fatty acid with the highest concentration and productivity reported so far. PMID:26015260

  13. Implications of modifying membrane fatty acid composition on membrane oxidation, integrity, and storage viability of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marie-Louise R W; Petersen, Mikael A; Risbo, Jens; Hümmer, Magdalena; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering the fatty acid profile of the lipid membrane on storage survival of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, as well as study the membrane integrity and lipid oxidation. The fatty acid composition of the lipid membrane of L. acidophilus La-5 was significantly different upon growth in MRS (containing Tween 80, an oleic acid source), or in MRS with Tween 20 (containing C12:0 and C14:0), linoleic, or linolenic acid supplemented. Bacteria grown in MRS showed the highest storage survival rates. No indications of loss of membrane integrity could be found, and membrane integrity could therefore not be connected with loss of viability. Survival of bacteria grown with linoleic or linolenic acid was more negatively affected by the presence of oxygen, than bacteria grown in MRS or with Tween 20 supplemented. A small, but significant, loss of linolenic acid during storage could be identified, and an increase of volatile secondary oxidation products during storage was found for bacteria grown in MRS, or with linoleic, or linolenic acid supplemented, but not for bacteria grown with Tween 20. Overall, the results indicate that lipid oxidation and loss of membrane integrity are not the only or most important detrimental reactions which can occur during storage. By altering the fatty acid composition, it was also found that properties of oleic acid gave rise to more robust bacteria than more saturated or unsaturated fatty acids did. PMID:25823709

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus Increases the Anti-apoptotic Micro RNA-21 and Decreases the Pro-inflammatory Micro RNA-155 in the LPS-Treated Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Mehdi; Hodjati, Hossein; Sajedi Khanian, Mahdi; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-06-01

    Given the anti-inflammatory and protective role of probiotics in atherosclerosis and the regulatory role of micro RNA (miRNA) in endothelial cell (dys) functions, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) on cellular death and the expression of miRNA-21, 92a, 155, and 663 in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (Ec-LPS). LPS-treated and untreated HUVECs were cultured in the presence of different La conditions such as La-conditioned media (LaCM), La water extract (LaWE), La culture-filtered (LaFS) and unfiltered supernatants (LaUFS). After 24 h, apoptosis, necrosis and the levels of the mentioned miRNAs were measured using flow cytometry and real-time PCR methods, respectively. LaCM decreased apoptosis, necrosis and inflammatory miR-155 and conversely increased anti-apoptotic miR-21 in Ec-LPS-treated HUVECs. Association analysis revealed negative correlations between necrosis and the levels of miR-21, miR-92a, and miR-155. The beneficial effects of L. acidophilus on the ECs death and expression of atherosclerosis related miRNAs in these cells imply a new aspect of its regulation in cardiovascular diseases rather than previously described ones and suggest this probiotic bacterium as a candidate in the preventative therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:27107761

  15. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A with the small molecule LB100 overcomes cell cycle arrest in osteosarcoma after cisplatin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Hong, Christopher S; Hu, Xu; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Zhu, Dongwang; Moon, Seogin; Dmitriev, Pauline; Lu, Jie; Chiang, Jeffrey; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and affects a significant portion of pediatric oncology patients. Although surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy confer significant survival benefits, many patients go on to develop metastatic disease, particularly to the lungs, secondary to development of drug resistance. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A with the small molecule, LB100, has demonstrated potent chemo- and radio-sensitizing properties in numerous pre-clinical tumor models. In this study, we showed that LB100 overcame DNA repair mechanisms in osteosarcoma cells treated with cisplatin, in vitro, and recapitulated these findings in an in vivo xenograft model. Notably, the addition of LB100 to cisplatin prevented development of pulmonary metastases in the majority of treated animals. Our data indicated the mechanism of chemo-sensitization by LB100 involved abrogation of the ATM/ATR-activated DNA damage response, leading to hyperphosphorylation of Chk proteins and persistent cyclin activity. In addition, LB100 exposure suppressed Akt signaling, leading to Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of functional p53. Taken together, LB100 prevented repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage, resulting in mitotic catastrophe and cell death. PMID:25942376

  16. Effect of annealing on the growth dynamics of ZnPc LB thin film and its surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    The ZnPc molecules in the thin film prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) process in asdeposited state has been found to have an edge on orientation with average tilt angle of 64.3 ° as confirmed from the Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The ZnPc LB thin film has been observed to have abnormal growth mode at higher annealing temperature and it is mainly driven by minimization of surface free energy which lead to large increase in crystallinity of the film. Kinetically favored orientational and structural transitions of ZnPc thin film during annealing and their effect on the surface morphology of the thin film has been studied using scaling concepts. The scaling exponents 1) root mean square (RMS) roughness σ, 2) roughness exponent α and, 3) in plane correlation length ξ are calculated from the HDCF g(r) and ACF C(r). The RMS surface roughness σ is found to be dependent on the as defined short wavelength undulations (ρ) and long wavelength undulations (χ). Both ρ and χ are the function of all the three scaling exponents. σ has been observed to be maximum for the ZnPc thin film annealed at 290 °C, since the χ shoot to maximum value at this temperature due to the formation of small domains of ZnPc nanorods. The self affinity of the ZnPc thin film is found to decrease on annealing as obtained from both power spectral density (PSD) and HDCF g(R) & ACF C(R) study, which confirms that the dimension of surface morphology of the ZnPc LB thin film transform towards 2D with increase in annealing temperature.

  17. Effect of annealing on the growth dynamics of ZnPc LB thin film and its surface morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, P. S.

    2014-07-15

    The ZnPc molecules in the thin film prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) process in asdeposited state has been found to have an edge on orientation with average tilt angle of 64.3 ° as confirmed from the Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The ZnPc LB thin film has been observed to have abnormal growth mode at higher annealing temperature and it is mainly driven by minimization of surface free energy which lead to large increase in crystallinity of the film. Kinetically favored orientational and structural transitions of ZnPc thin film during annealing and their effect on the surface morphology of the thin film has been studied using scaling concepts. The scaling exponents 1) root mean square (RMS) roughness σ, 2) roughness exponent α and, 3) in plane correlation length ξ are calculated from the HDCF g(r) and ACF C(r). The RMS surface roughness σ is found to be dependent on the as defined short wavelength undulations (ρ) and long wavelength undulations (χ). Both ρ and χ are the function of all the three scaling exponents. σ has been observed to be maximum for the ZnPc thin film annealed at 290 °C, since the χ shoot to maximum value at this temperature due to the formation of small domains of ZnPc nanorods. The self affinity of the ZnPc thin film is found to decrease on annealing as obtained from both power spectral density (PSD) and HDCF g(R) and ACF C(R) study, which confirms that the dimension of surface morphology of the ZnPc LB thin film transform towards 2D with increase in annealing temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4916_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4916_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4924_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4924_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4909_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4909_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly

  2. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-breathing Launch Vehicle for Single-stage-to-orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2001-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (five to ten years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  3. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle For Single-Stage-To-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Palac, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (5 to 10 years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  4. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production.

    PubMed

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Galanis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties. PMID:27153065

  5. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production

    PubMed Central

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S.; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Galanis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties. PMID:27153065

  6. Isolation of potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains from traditional fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tala; Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Mikumo, Dai; Oda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    To explore potential probiotics in the traditional foods of Indonesia, fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island was investigated in this study. Gram stain, catalase activity, gas production, cell morphology, carbohydrate utilization pattern, and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed to identify isolated lactic acid bacteria. To assess their probiotic ability, tolerance of low pH, bile salts, artificial gastrointestinal fluids, and adhesion properties to extracellular matrices, were examined. In total 27 strains, 25 Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus fermentum, were obtained. Among the isolated lactobacilli, three Lb. rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22, and FSMM26, were selected as candidates for probiotics, using Lb. rhamnosus GG as index. In vitro binding assay of the three strains against several extracellular matrix proteins revealed that FSMM15 and FSMM26 gave greater binding ratios of mucin/bovine serum albumin (BSA) and significantly higher adhesive abilities to fibronectin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. FSMM22 showed significantly higher adhesion to laminin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. PMID:23047104

  7. Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid species Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, Maciej; Eckhardt, Robert B; Chavanaves, Sakdapong; Hsü, Kenneth J

    2014-08-19

    Human skeletons from Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia, are coeval with only Homo sapiens populations worldwide and no other previously known hominins. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the occipitofrontal circumference of specimen LB1. This datum makes it possible to link the 430-mL endocranial volume of LB1 reported by us previously, later confirmed independently by other investigators, not only with other human skeletal samples past and present but also with a large body of clinical data routinely collected on patients with developmental disorders. Our analyses show that the brain size of LB1 is in the range predicted for an individual with Down syndrome (DS) in a normal small-bodied population from the geographic region that includes Flores. Among additional diagnostic signs of DS and other skeletal dysplasiae are abnormally short femora combined with disproportionate flat feet. Liang Bua Cave femora, known only for LB1, match interlimb proportions for DS. Predictions based on corrected LB1 femur lengths show a stature normal for other H. sapiens populations in the region. PMID:25092311

  8. Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid species Homo floresiensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Maciej; Eckhardt, Robert B.; Chavanaves, Sakdapong; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-08-01

    Human skeletons from Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia, are coeval with only Homo sapiens populations worldwide and no other previously known hominins. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the occipitofrontal circumference of specimen LB1. This datum makes it possible to link the 430-mL endocranial volume of LB1 reported by us previously, later confirmed independently by other investigators, not only with other human skeletal samples past and present but also with a large body of clinical data routinely collected on patients with developmental disorders. Our analyses show that the brain size of LB1 is in the range predicted for an individual with Down syndrome (DS) in a normal small-bodied population from the geographic region that includes Flores. Among additional diagnostic signs of DS and other skeletal dysplasiae are abnormally short femora combined with disproportionate flat feet. Liang Bua Cave femora, known only for LB1, match interlimb proportions for DS. Predictions based on corrected LB1 femur lengths show a stature normal for other H. sapiens populations in the region.

  9. Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid species Homo floresiensis

    PubMed Central

    Henneberg, Maciej; Eckhardt, Robert B.; Chavanaves, Sakdapong; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Human skeletons from Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia, are coeval with only Homo sapiens populations worldwide and no other previously known hominins. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the occipitofrontal circumference of specimen LB1. This datum makes it possible to link the 430-mL endocranial volume of LB1 reported by us previously, later confirmed independently by other investigators, not only with other human skeletal samples past and present but also with a large body of clinical data routinely collected on patients with developmental disorders. Our analyses show that the brain size of LB1 is in the range predicted for an individual with Down syndrome (DS) in a normal small-bodied population from the geographic region that includes Flores. Among additional diagnostic signs of DS and other skeletal dysplasiae are abnormally short femora combined with disproportionate flat feet. Liang Bua Cave femora, known only for LB1, match interlimb proportions for DS. Predictions based on corrected LB1 femur lengths show a stature normal for other H. sapiens populations in the region. PMID:25092311

  10. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Lin, Pei-Rong; Ng, Chang-Chai; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of β-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and microbial changes during and after treatment. Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. All the strains demonstrated the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells, particularly, strain L. plantarum C06 and L. reuteri F03 showed satisfactory abilities, which were similar to that of the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. The strains L. paracasei F08 and L. acidophilus C11 had the highest β-galactosidase activity. Most of the strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin. All the 5 strains elicited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and -negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) pathogens. Moreover, the strains L. reuteri F03, L. paracasei F08, and L. plantarum C06 could grow rapidly in milk without nutrient supplementation and reached 10⁸ cfu/mL after 24 h of fermentation at 37 °C. The viable cell counts of the 3 strains remained above 10⁷ cfu/mL after 21 d of storage at 4 °C. In the animal feeding trial, the number of intestinal lactobacilli increased significantly after administration of milk fermented with the 3 strains, and the counts of fecal coliforms and Clostridium perfringens were markedly reduced

  11. Characterization of Oaxaca raw milk cheese microbiota with particular interest in Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Caro, Irma; Mateo, Javier; Sandoval, María H; Soto, Sergio; García-Armesto, María R; Castro, José M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize lactobacilli strains from Mexican Oaxaca cheese. Twenty-seven lactobacilli isolated from Oaxaca cheese were identified at species level by 16S rRNA sequencing. Selected isolates were further characterized by ribotyping. Isolates were screened, among others, by acidifying capacity, antibiotic resistance, and activity against pathogens. Lactobacillus plantarum was predominant in Oaxaca cheese. The intraspecies variability of Lb. plantarum isolates was great. Multiple antibiotic resistances were observed. Eight isolates showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic species tested. Four Lb. plantarum strains showing low antibiotic resistance index, antimicrobial activity against enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua stains, amine-negative decarboxylase activity, and resistance to NaCl and bile salt solutions, could be preselected to complete studies focused on designing a culture for use in pasteurized-milk Oaxaca cheese manufacturing. PMID:23548294

  12. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Simiqueli, Ana Paula Resende; de Andrade, Cristiano José; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes. PMID:23533780

  13. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Metabolites from Lactobacillus Strains on Candida Species Implicated in Candida Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Mopelola A; Bello, Victoria B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research from developing countries, such as Nigeria, on Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract and their role as a barrier to vaginal infection is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical biotherapeutic potential of indigenous Lactobacillus species. Methods: Antimicrobial metabolites production were characterised using simple and easily reproducible qualitative and quantitative methods. The in vitro inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus antimicrobials on vulvovaginal candidiasis–associated Candida species was investigated using modified agar spot and agar well-diffusion methods. Results: The maximum levels of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl from 20 vaginal Lactobacillus strains from diseased subjects were 1.46 mg/L, 1.36 mmol/L, and 1.72 mg/L respectively. From the 4 healthy subjects, the maximum level of lactic acid was 1.08 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide, 1.36 mmol/L; and diacetyl, 0.86 mg/L. The maximum productions of these substances occurred between 72 and 120 hours of incubation. The in vitro antagonistic activities of vaginal L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. jensenii from diseased subjects inhibited a maximum of 5.71% of the 35 Candida species tested, while vaginal L. acidophilus and L. plantarum from healthy subjects inhibited between 57.1% and 68.6% of Candida species in vitro. Conclusion: Antimicrobial-producing lactobacilli can be considered as adjunct biotherapeutic candidates for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:22589669

  14. Microbiological, physico-chemical, nutritional and sensory characterization of traditional Matsoni: selection and use of autochthonous multiple strain cultures to extend its shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Owczarek, Lubomila; Borcakli, Mehlika; Fontana, Cecilia; Skapska, Sylwia; Jasinska, Urszula T; Ozturk, Tarik; Morea, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Matsoni, a traditional Georgian fermented milk, has variable quality and stability besides a short shelf-life (72-120 h at 6 °C) due to inadequate production and storage conditions. To individuate its typical traits as well as select and exploit autochthonous starter cultures to standardize its overall quality without altering its typicality, we carried out a thorough physico-chemical, sensorial and microbial characterization of traditional Matsoni. A polyphasic approach, including a culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) and two PCR culture-dependent methods, was employed to study the ecology of Matsoni. Overall, the microbial ecosystem of Matsoni resulted largely dominated by Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus and Lactobacillus (Lb.) delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. High loads of other lactic acid bacteria species, including Lb. helveticus, Lb. paracasei and Leuconostoc (Leuc.) lactis were found to occur as well. A selected autochthonous multiple strain culture (AMSC) composed of one Lb. bulgaricus, one Lb. paracasei and one S. thermophilus strain, applied for the pilot-scale production of traditional Matsoni, resulted the best in terms of enhanced shelf-life (one month), sensorial and nutritional quality without altering its overall typical quality. This AMSC is at disposal of SMEs who need to exploit and standardize the overall quality of this traditional fermented milk, preserving its typicality. PMID:24290642

  15. Caries arresting effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesion with S. mutans and L. acidophilus dual-species cariogenic biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Mei, May L.; Low, Kan H.; Che, Ching M.; Lo, Edward CM.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study investigated the effects of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on dentine carious lesion with cariogenic biofilm. Study Design: Thirty human dentine blocks were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus dual-species biofilm to create carious lesion. They were equally divided into test and control group to receive topical application of SDF and water. After incubation anaerobically using micro-well plate at 37oC for 7 days, the biofilms were evaluated for kinetics, morphology and viability by colony forming units (CFU), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CLSM), respectively. The carious lesion underwent crystal characteristics analysis, evaluation of the changes in chemical structure and density of collagen fibrils using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and immune-labeling. Results: The log CFU of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in the test group was significantly lower than control group. SEM and CLSM showed confluent biofilm in control group, but not in test group. XRD showed the loss of crystallinity of dentine due to the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystal structure in test group was less than control group. FTIR showed that log [Amide I: HPO42-] for test vs. control group was 0.31±0.10 vs. 0.57±0.13 (p<0.05). The gold-labeling density in test vs. control group was 8.54±2.44/µm2 vs. 12.91±4.24/µm2 (p=0.04). Conclusions: SDF had antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic biofilms and reduced demineralization of dentine. Key words:Caries, caries arrest, dentine, silver, silver diamine fluoride, fluoride, biofilm,cariogenic. PMID:23722131

  16. Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Strains for Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. Objectives: The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes’ milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. Results: The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L

  17. A study on the interactions of cationic porphyrin with nano clay platelets in Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self assembled films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, J.; Banik, Soma; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2015-07-01

    In the present communication, interaction of tetracationic porphyrin, 5,10,15,10-tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyrindino) porphyrin tetra (p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP) with anionic nano clay platelets laponite has been studied in aqueous clay dispersion and Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self assembled film. Electrostatic adsorption of TMPyP molecules on clay platelets resulted in the flattenening of meso-substituent groups which led to the development of a new adsorbed band in the UV-vis absorption spectra. J-band was also formed due to overlapped organizations of organo-clay hybrid molecules in the LbL film leading to J-aggregates. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies gave visual evidence of this favoured organization in the monolayer LbL film.

  18. Purification and crystallization of a putative transcriptional regulator of the benzoate oxidation pathway in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Law, Adrienne M.; Bains, Jasleen; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbours two paralogous copies of the recently discovered benzoate oxidation (box) pathway. While both copies are functional, the paralogues are differentially regulated and flanked by putative transcriptional regulators from distinct families. The putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) adjacent to the megaplasmid-encoded box enzymes, Bxe_C0898, has been produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Gel-filtration studies show that Bxe_C0898 is a tetramer in solution, consistent with previously characterized LTTRs. Bxe_C0898 crystallized with four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the P43212/P41212 unit cell with a solvent content of 61.19%, as indicated by processing of the X-ray diffraction data. DNA-protection assays are currently under way in order to identify potential operator regions for this LTTR and to define its role in regulation of the box pathway. PMID:19851006

  19. Arming embolic beads with anti-VEGF antibodies and controlling their release using LbL technology.

    PubMed

    Sakr, O S; Berndt, S; Carpentier, G; Cuendet, M; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-02-28

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is used to treat various types of hypervascular tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cancer. However, embolization and blocking of blood vessels nourishing a tumor mass evokes an angiogenic response due to the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which results in the formation of new blood vessels and eventually limitation in therapeutic efficacy. The presented work investigates the feasibility of loading the clinically used embolic beads (DC Bead®) with Bevacizumab (BEV), an anti-VEGF antibody, and control its release kinetics via Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating. This strategy has the aim to achieve high, localized and sustained concentrations of BEV at the tumor site and reduce drug exposure in the systemic circulation. High loading of BEV on lyophilized beads of about 76mg BEV/bead vial was achieved. LbL coating was carried out by depositing alternating layers of the biocompatible polymers alginate and poly-L-lysine. Coating was proven successful by monitoring the reversal of zeta potential after addition of each layer. Morphological changes of the bead surface before and after coating were illustrated using SEM imaging. Moreover, release profiles from different formulations were studied and results showed that optimizing the number of deposited layers effectively slows the release of BEV for three days. Activity of released BEV was studied in different 2D and 3D cell based assays. Released BEV fractions showed comparable activity to fresh BEV solution used as control after 3days. In conclusion, our results suggest the opportunity for loading anti-VEGF antibodies on commercially available embolic beads to increase the efficacy of TACE of hypervascular tumors. PMID:26780173

  20. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Pulled hip flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  1. In vitro screening of selected probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented cabbage and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieliński, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (<39 %). The incubation with 0.2 % bile salt solution resulted in a survival rates of 81-94 % after 24 h, whereas after incubation in 2 and 4 % bile salt solution it was 59-94 %. All tested strains showed very good and good resistance to 0.4 % phenol addition, however only Lb. johnsonii K4 was able to multiply. The hydrophobic nature of the cell surface of the tested strains was moderated recording hydrophobicity of Lb. johnsonii K4 and Lb. rhamnosus K3 above 60 %. Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies. PMID:25270682

  2. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Robert B.; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S.; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-08-01

    The original centrally defining features of "Homo floresiensis" are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxane C4H8O2 + C6H6 Benzene (LB0337, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0337 of the ELBT database.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxane C4H8O2 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (LB0334, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0334 of the ELBT database.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Nitropropane C3H7NO2 + C6H14 Hexane (LB1900, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB1900 of the ELBT database.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Nitropropane C3H7NO2 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (LB1899, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB1899 of the ELBT database.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Nitropropane C3H7NO2 + C6H14 2,3-Dimethylbutane (LB1904, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB1904 of the ELBT database.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Nitropropane C3H7NO2 + C16H34 Hexadecane (LB1905, VMSD1211a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB1905 of the ELBT database.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Nitropropane C3H7NO2 + C6H6 Benzene (LB1898, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB1898 of the ELBT database.

  10. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Robert B; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S; Hsü, Kenneth J

    2014-08-19

    The original centrally defining features of "Homo floresiensis" are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1. PMID:25092307

  11. 78 FR 61838 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Removal of 2,000-lb (907.2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Federal Register (78 FR 21071, April 9, 2013) projecting that 95 percent (the closure threshold at the... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Removal of 2,000-lb (907.2-kg) Herring Trip Limit in Atlantic Herring Management Area 2 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  12. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Robert B.; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S.; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The original centrally defining features of “Homo floresiensis” are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1. PMID:25092307

  13. Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Petrographic and shock metamorphic studies of material from the central uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    During a recent drilling project sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Progam (ICDP), two boreholes (LB-07A and LB-08A) were drilled into the crater fill of the Bosumtwi impact structure and the underlying basement, into the deep crater moat and the outer flank of the central uplift, respectively. The Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which is 10.5 km in diameter and 1.07 Myr old, is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi. Here we present the lithostratigraphy of drill core LB-08A (recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level) as well as the first mineralogical and petrographic observations of samples from this core. This drill core consists of approximately 25 m of polymict, clast-supported lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment that displays a large variation in lithology and grain size. The lithologies present in the central uplift are metasediments composed dominantly of fine-grained to gritty meta-graywacke, phyllite, and slate, as well as suevite and polymict lithic impact breccia. The suevites, principally present between 235.6 and 240.5 m and between 257.6 and 262.2 m, display a fine-grained fragmental matrix (about 39 to 45 vol%) and a variety of lithic and mineral clasts that include meta-graywacke, phyllite, slate, quartzite, carbon-rich organic shale, and calcite, as well as melt particles, fractured quartz, unshocked quartz, unshocked feldspar, quartz with planar deformation features (PDFs), diaplectic quartz glass, mica, epidote, sphene, and opaque minerals). The crater-fill suevite contains calcite clasts but no granite clasts, in contrast to suevite from outside the northern crater rim. The presence of melt particles in suevite samples from the uppermost 25 meters of the core and in suevite dikelets in the basement is an indicator of shock pressures exceeding 45 GPa. Quartz grains present in suevite and polymict lithic impact breccia abundantly

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Multi-strain probiotics as adjunct therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication and prevention of adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Eradication rates with triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections have currently declined to unacceptable levels worldwide. Newer quadruple therapies are burdened with a high rate of adverse events. Whether multi-strain probiotics can improve eradication rates or diminish adverse events remains uncertain. Methods Relevant publications in which patients with H. pylori infections were randomized to a multi-strain probiotic or control were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Databases, and other sources from 1 January 1960–3 June 2015. Primary outcomes included eradication rates, incidence of any adverse event and the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. As probiotic efficacy is strain-specific, pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using meta-analysis stratified by similar multi-strain probiotic mixtures. Results A total of 19 randomized controlled trials (20 treatment arms, n = 2730) assessing one of six mixtures of strains of probiotics were included. Four multi-strain probiotics significantly improved H. pylori eradication rates, five significantly prevented any adverse reactions and three significantly reduced antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Only two probiotic mixtures (Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium animalis and an eight-strain mixture) had significant efficacy for all three outcomes. Conclusions Our meta-analysis found adjunctive use of some multi-strain probiotics may improve H. pylori eradication rates and prevent the development of adverse events and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, but not all mixtures were effective. PMID:27536365

  15. Identification and In-vivo Characterization of a Novel OhrR Transcriptional Regulator in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tinh T.; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Hall, Richard S.; Maity, Tuhin; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Dunbar, John M.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-05-21

    Transcriptional regulators (TRs) are an important and versatile group of proteins, yet very little progress has been achieved towards the discovery and annotation of their biological functions. We have characterized a previously unknown organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator from Burkholderia xenovoransLB400, Bxe_B2842, which is homologous to E. coli’s OhrR. Bxe_B2842 regulates the expression of an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (OsmC). We utilized frontal affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (FAC-MS) and electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSA) to identify and characterize the possible effectors of the regulation by Bxe_B2842. Without an effector, Bxe_B2842 binds a DNA operator sequence (DOS) upstream of osmC. FAC-MS results suggest that 2-aminophenol binds to the protein and is potentially an effector molecule. EMSA analysis shows that 2-aminophenol also attenuates the Bxe_B2842’s affinity for its DOS. EMSA analysis also shows that organic peroxides attenuate Bxe_B2842/DOS affinity, suggesting that binding of the TR to its DOS is regulated by the two-cysteine mechanism, common to TRs in this family. Bxe_B2842 is the first OhrR TR to have both oxidative and effector-binding mechanisms of regulation. Our paper reveals further mechanistic diversity TR mediated gene regulation and provides insights into methods for function discovery of TRs.

  16. Identification and In-vivo Characterization of a Novel OhrR Transcriptional Regulator in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nguyen, Tinh T.; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Hall, Richard S.; Maity, Tuhin; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Dunbar, John M.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-05-21

    Transcriptional regulators (TRs) are an important and versatile group of proteins, yet very little progress has been achieved towards the discovery and annotation of their biological functions. We have characterized a previously unknown organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator from Burkholderia xenovoransLB400, Bxe_B2842, which is homologous to E. coli’s OhrR. Bxe_B2842 regulates the expression of an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (OsmC). We utilized frontal affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (FAC-MS) and electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSA) to identify and characterize the possible effectors of the regulation by Bxe_B2842. Without an effector, Bxe_B2842 binds a DNA operator sequence (DOS) upstream ofmore » osmC. FAC-MS results suggest that 2-aminophenol binds to the protein and is potentially an effector molecule. EMSA analysis shows that 2-aminophenol also attenuates the Bxe_B2842’s affinity for its DOS. EMSA analysis also shows that organic peroxides attenuate Bxe_B2842/DOS affinity, suggesting that binding of the TR to its DOS is regulated by the two-cysteine mechanism, common to TRs in this family. Bxe_B2842 is the first OhrR TR to have both oxidative and effector-binding mechanisms of regulation. Our paper reveals further mechanistic diversity TR mediated gene regulation and provides insights into methods for function discovery of TRs.« less

  17. Hot-Fire Testing of 100 LB(sub F) LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LO2/LCH4 ) has recently been viewed as a potential green propulsion system for both the Altair ascent main engine (AME) and reaction control system (RCS). The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development Project (PCAD) has been tasked by NASA to develop these green propellant systems to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. However, experience with LO2/LCH4 as a propellant combination is limited, so testing of these systems is critical to demonstrating reliable ignition and performance. A test program of a 100 lb f reaction control engine (RCE) is underway at the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) of the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a focus on conducting tests at altitude conditions. These tests include a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows for the inlet conditions of the propellant to be varied to test warm to subcooled liquid propellant temperatures. Engine performance, including thrust, c* and vacuum specific impulse (I(sub sp,vac)) will be presented as a function of propellant temperature conditions. In general, the engine performed as expected, with higher performance at warmer propellant temperatures but better efficiency at lower propellant temperatures. Mixture ratio effects were inconclusive within the uncertainty bands of data, but qualitatively showed higher performance at lower ratios.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica. PMID:27038159

  19. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  20. Growth comparison of several Escherichia coli strains exposed to various concentrations of lactoferrin using linear spline regression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We wanted to compare growth differences between 13 Escherichia coli strains exposed to various concentrations of the growth inhibitor lactoferrin in two different types of broth (Syncase and Luria-Bertani (LB)). To carry this out, we present a simple statistical procedure that separates microbial growth curves that are due to natural random perturbations and growth curves that are more likely caused by biological differences. Bacterial growth was determined using optical density data (OD) recorded for triplicates at 620 nm for 18 hours for each strain. Each resulting growth curve was divided into three equally spaced intervals. We propose a procedure using linear spline regression with two knots to compute the slopes of each interval in the bacterial growth curves. These slopes are subsequently used to estimate a 95% confidence interval based on an appropriate statistical distribution. Slopes outside the confidence interval were considered as significantly different from slopes within. We also demonstrate the use of related, but more advanced methods known collectively as generalized additive models (GAMs) to model growth. In addition to impressive curve fitting capabilities with corresponding confidence intervals, GAM’s allow for the computation of derivatives, i.e. growth rate estimation, with respect to each time point. Results The results from our proposed procedure agreed well with the observed data. The results indicated that there were substantial growth differences between the E. coli strains. Most strains exhibited improved growth in the nutrient rich LB broth compared to Syncase. The inhibiting effect of lactoferrin varied between the different strains. The atypical enteropathogenic aEPEC-2 grew, on average, faster in both broths than the other strains tested while the enteroinvasive strains, EIEC-6 and EIEC-7 grew slower. The enterotoxigenic ETEC-5 strain, exhibited exceptional growth in Syncase broth, but slower growth in LB broth

  1. An oral preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the treatment of uncomplicated acute watery diarrhoea in Vietnamese children: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal disease is a major global health problem, particularly affecting children under the age of 5 years. Besides oral rehydration solution, probiotics are also commonly prescribed to children with acute watery diarrhoea in some settings. Results from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in which investigators studied the effect of probiotics on diarrhoeal symptoms have largely shown a positive effect; yet, the overall quality of the data is limited. In Vietnam, probiotics are the most frequently prescribed treatment for children hospitalised with acute watery diarrhoea, but there is little justification for this treatment in this location. We have designed a RCT to test the hypothesis that an oral preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus is superior to placebo in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in Vietnamese children. Methods This RCT was designed to study the effect of treatment with L. acidophilus (4 × 109 colony-forming units/day) for 5 days for acute watery diarrhoea against a placebo in 300 children ages 9 to 60 months admitted to hospitals in Vietnam. Clinical and laboratory data plus samples will be collected on admission, daily during hospitalisation, at discharge, and at follow-up visits for a subset of participants. The primary end point will be defined as the time from the first dose of study medication to the start of the first 24-hour period without diarrhoea as assessed by the on-duty nurse. Secondary endpoints include the time to cessation of diarrhoea as recorded by parents or guardians in an hourly checklist, stool frequency over the first 3 days, treatment failure, rotavirus and norovirus viral loads, and adverse events. Discussion The existing evidence for the use of probiotics in treating acute watery diarrhoea seems to favour their use. However, the size of the effect varies across publications. An array of different probiotic organisms, doses, treatment durations, study populations, designs, settings, and aetiologies

  2. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  3. Effects of seven potential probiotic strains on specific immune responses in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Paineau, Damien; Carcano, Didier; Leyer, Greg; Darquy, Sylviane; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Simoneau, Guy; Bergmann, Jean-François; Brassart, Dominique; Bornet, Francis; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2008-06-01

    This pilot study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of seven probiotic strains. Eighty-three healthy volunteers aged 18-62 years consumed 2 x 10(10) CFU of bacteria or a placebo (maltodextrin) over 3 weeks (D0-D21). Subjects received an oral cholera vaccine at D7 and at D14; blood and saliva samples were collected at D0, D21 and D28. Serum samples were analyzed for specific IgA, IgG and IgM, and saliva samples were analyzed for specific IgA only, by ELISA. Statistical analyses were based on Wilcoxon's signed-rank test (intragroup analyses) and exact median t-test (intergroup analyses). Salivary analysis showed no difference in specific IgA concentrations between groups. Serum analysis indicated an effect of some of the tested strains on specific humoral responses. Between D0 and D21, IgG increased in two probiotic groups, for example, Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14, compared with controls (P=0.01). Trends toward significant changes in immunoglobulin serum concentrations compared with controls (P<0.1) were found for six out of the seven probiotic strains. In conclusion, some strains of probiotics demonstrated a faster immune response measured with serum immunoglobulin indicators, especially IgG, although overall vaccination was not influenced. Specific strains of probiotics may thus act as adjuvants to the humoral immune response following oral vaccination. PMID:18422632

  4. Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain Cutipay enhances chalcopyrite bioleaching under moderate thermophilic conditions in the presence of chloride ion.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cortés, Maria Paz; Maass, Alejandro; Parada, Pilar

    2014-12-01

    Currently more than 90% of the world's copper is obtained through sulfide mineral processing. Among the copper sulfides, chalcopyrite is the most abundant and therefore economically relevant. However, primary copper sulfide bioleaching is restricted due to high ionic strength raffinate solutions and particularly chloride coming from the dissolution of ores. In this work we describe the chalcopyrite bioleaching capacity of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain Cutipay (DSM 27601) previously described at the genomic level (Travisany et al. (2012) Draft genome sequence of the Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay strain, an indigenous bacterium isolated from a naturally extreme mining environment in Northern Chile. J Bacteriol 194:6327-6328). Bioleaching assays with the mixotrophic strain Cutipay showed a strong increase in copper recovery from chalcopyrite concentrate at 50°C in the presence of chloride ion, a relevant inhibitory element present in copper bioleaching processes. Compared to the abiotic control and a test with Sulfobacillus acidophilus DSM 10332, strain Cutipay showed an increase of 42 and 69% in copper recovery, respectively, demonstrating its high potential for chalcopyrite bioleaching. Moreover, a genomic comparison highlights the presence of the 2-Haloacid dehalogenase predicted-protein related to a potential new mechanism of chloride resistance in acidophiles. This novel and industrially applicable strain is under patent application CL 2013-03335. PMID:26267113

  5. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Ondulla T.; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C.; Walker, W. Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2014-01-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476

  6. In vitro fermentation of rice bran combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus 14 150B or Bifidobacterium longum 05 by the canine faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ogué-Bon, Eva; Khoo, Christina; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A

    2011-03-01

    The fermentability of rice bran (RB), alone or in combination with one of two probiotics, by canine faecal microbiota was evaluated in stirred, pH-controlled, anaerobic batch cultures. RB enhanced the levels of bacteria detected by probes Bif164 (bifidobacteria) and Lab158 (lactic acid bacteria); however, addition of the probiotics did not have a significant effect on the predominant microbial counts compared with RB alone. RB sustained levels of Bifidobacterium longum 05 throughout the fermentation; in contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus 14 150B levels decreased significantly after 5-h fermentation. RB fermentation induced changes in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile. However, RB combined with probiotics did not alter the SCFA levels compared with RB alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of samples obtained at 24 h showed a treatment effect with RB, which was not observed in the RB plus probiotic systems. Overall, the negative controls displayed lower species richness than the treatment systems and their banding profiles were distinct. This study illustrates the ability of a common ingredient found in pet food to modulate the canine faecal microbiota and highlights that RB may be an economical alternative to prebiotics for use in dog food. PMID:21204868

  7. Efficient one-pot enzymatic synthesis of alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic disaccharides through a coupled reaction catalysed by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2010-05-27

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase (LaMalP) of glycoside hydrolase family 65 catalysed enzymatic synthesis of alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic disaccharides from maltose and five monosaccharides in a coupled phosphorolysis/reverse phosphorolysis one-pot reaction. Thus phosphorolysis of maltose to beta-glucose 1-phosphate circumvented addition of costly beta-glucose 1-phosphate for reverse phosphorolysis with different monosaccharide acceptors, resulting in 91%, 89%, 88%, 86% and 84% yield of alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminopyranose [N-acetyl-maltosamine], alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucosaminopyranose [maltosamine], alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-mannopyranose, alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-L-fucopyranose and alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose, respectively, from 0.1M maltose, 0.5M N-acetyl glucosamine, 0.1M glucosamine, 0.1M mannose, 1M L-fucose and 0.5M xylose in 0.2M phosphate-citrate pH 6.2. These current yields of 0.27-0.34 g of disaccharide products from 10 mL reaction mixtures are easy to scale up and moreover the strategy can be applied to large-scale production of other oligosaccharides from low-cost disaccharides as catalysed by phosphorylases with different substrate specificities. PMID:20392438

  8. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β-Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4–7) and the alkaline (pH 6–11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5–13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5–7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  9. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β -Glycoside Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  10. The Lactobacillus acidophilus S-layer protein gene expression site comprises two consensus promoter sequences, one of which directs transcription of stable mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Boot, H J; Kolen, C P; Andreadaki, F J; Leer, R J; Pouwels, P H

    1996-01-01

    S-proteins are proteins which form a regular structure (S-layer) on the outside of the cell walls of many bacteria. Two S-protein-encoding genes are located in opposite directions on a 6.0-kb segment of the chromosome of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 bacteria. Inversion of this chromosomal segment occurs through recombination between two regions with identical sequences, thereby interchanging the expressed and the silent genes. In this study, we show that the region involved in recombination also has a function in efficient S-protein production. Two promoter sequences are present in the S-protein gene expression site, although only the most downstream promoter (P-1) is used to direct mRNA synthesis. S-protein mRNA directed by this promoter has a half-life of 15 min. Its untranslated leader can form a stable secondary structure in which the 5' end is base paired, whereas the ribosome-binding site is exposed. Truncation of this leader sequence results in a reduction in protein production, as shown by reporter gene analysis of Lactobacillus casei. The results obtained indicate that the untranslated leader sequence of S-protein mRNA is involved in efficient S-protein production. PMID:8808926

  11. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Foye, Ondulla T; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C; Walker, W Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2012-08-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476

  12. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's Sports Injuries Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries Knee Injuries Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains Strains and Sprains ... Pain Going to a Physical Therapist Hamstring Strain Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries ...

  13. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  14. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  15. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  16. Limited feeding of potassium nitrate for intracellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation of Nannochloris sp. UTEX LB1999.

    PubMed

    Takagi, M; Watanabe, K; Yamaberi, K; Yoshida, T

    2000-07-01

    Limited feeding of nitrate during culture of Nannochloris sp. UTEX LB1999 for intracellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation was investigated with the aim of obtaining cells superior for liquefaction into a fuel oil. The intracellular lipid contents and the percentage of triglycerides in the lipids of cells grown in a nitrogen-limited medium (0.9 mM KNO3) were 1.3 times as high as those grown in a modified NORO medium containing 2.0-9.9 mM KNO3. However, the cell concentration was too low for the practical production of fuel oil by high-pressure liquefaction of the cell mass. A single feeding of 0.9 mM nitrate after nitrate depletion during cultivation in a nitrate-limited medium increased the cell concentration to twice that obtained without such feeding, and the lipid content was maintained at a high level. The timing of nitrate feeding, i.e., whether it was given during the log phase (before nitrate depletion), the constant growth phase (just after the depletion), or the stationary phase (after the depletion), had negligible effect on the intracellular lipid content and percentage of triglycerides in the lipids. When 0.9 mM nitrate was intermittently fed ten times during the log phase in addition to the initial nitrate feed (0.9 mM), the cell concentration reached almost the same (2.16 g/l) and the intracellular lipid content and the percentage of triglycerides in the lipids increased from 31.0 to 50.9% and 26.0 to 47.6%, respectively, compared with those of cells cultured in a modified NORO medium containing 9.9 mM KNO3 without additional nitrate feeding. PMID:10952013

  17. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating

  18. NOx emissions retrofit at Reliant Energy, W.A. Parish Generating Station, Unit 7: Achieving 0.15 lb/MBtu

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, T.M.; Hoh, R.H.; Ray, B.; Dorazio, T.; Jennings, P.; Sikorski, K.

    1999-07-01

    The current Clean Air Act (CAA), Title 1 regulations require States to develop implementation plans (SIPs) which address NO{sub x} emissions as part of the ozone non-attainment requirements. The EPA has recommended NO{sub x} limits of 0.15 lb/MBtu for utility boilers. In this paper, Reliant Energy and ABB C-E Services, Inc. will discuss a project where 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu can be achieved with the TFS 2000{trademark} R firing system and highly reactive Powder River Basin (PRB) fuels. Reliant Energy will retrofit their W.A. Parish Unit 7 with this system in the first quarter of 1999. This is part of Reliant Energy's drive to lower NO{sub x} emissions and meet future air quality requirements at the W.Q. Parish station.

  19. Effect of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Encapsulation of Nano-Emulsified Fish Oil on Their Digestibility Ex Vivo and Skin Permeability In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Young; Hong, Ki Bae; Son, Heung Soo; Suh, Hyung Joo; Park, Yooheon

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 rich fish oils are extremely labile, thus requiring control of oxidation and off flavor development. A recently proposed emulsification method, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, was found to be a plausible method to enhance the characteristics of bioactive ingredients, especially lipids. The present work was designed to test the possibility of enhancing the uptake and utilization of omega-3 fatty acids present in fish oil. The bioavailability of nano-emulsified fish oil was monitored in terms of intestinal absorption as well as skin permeability by using the everted intestinal sac model and Franz cell model. The skin permeability and intestinal absorption characteristics was significantly improved by LbL emulsification with lecithin/chitosan/low methoxypectin. Multilayer encapsulation along with nano-emulsification can be a useful method to deliver biologically active lipids and related components, such as fish oil. The protective effect of this tool from lipid oxidation still needs to be verified. PMID:27390723

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1141, LB3346_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C16H34 Hexadecane (VMSD1141, LB3346_V)' providing data from direct measurement of mass density at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  1. Vibronic analysis of the 1Lb ↔ S0 transitions of indole and 3-methylindole: The influence of anharmonic, Duschinsky, and Herzberg-Teller contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pan; Pang, Min; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing

    2015-07-01

    The spectral similarities and differences between indole and 3-methylindole were investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT). The geometries, energies, dipole moments, oscillator strengths, and vibrational frequencies of the ground and two lowest excited states (1Lb and 1La) were calculated and compared with experimental data and other theoretical values. The vibrationally resolved 1Lb ↔ S0 electronic spectra were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation and included the Herzberg-Teller (HT) and Duschinsky effects. The HT and Duschinsky effects played important roles in weak dipole-allowed electronic transitions, leading to full and rich spectral profiles. Furthermore, the anharmonic correction was also taken into account in the simulations. The simulated spectra of the 1Lb ↔ S0 transitions of indole and 3-methylindole are in good agreement with the experimental findings, which indicated that the present theoretical method is a useful tool to simulate the optical spectra of indole-like organic molecules.

  2. Genomic Diversification in Strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from Different Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Driscoll, Timothy P.; Verhoeve, Victoria I.; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Azad, Abdu F.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

  3. Genomic diversification in strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from different arthropods.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Joseph J; Driscoll, Timothy P; Verhoeve, Victoria I; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Azad, Abdu F; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

  4. Optical, IUE, and ROSAT observations of the eclipsing nova-like variable V347 Puppis (LB 1800)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.; Raymond, John C.; Buckley, David A. H.; Mouchet, Martine; Bonnell, Jerry; Sullivan, Denis J.; Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Bunk, Wolfram H.

    1994-01-01

    Using time-resolved optical spectroscopy and UBVRI and high-speed photometry obtained at Mount Stromlo Observatory, Mount John University Observatory, and the South African Astronomical Observatory; International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) ultraviolet spectroscopy; and Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) survey X-ray fluxes, we present a study of the accretion disk, hot spot, and emission line regions in the bright eclipsing nova-like variable V347 Pup (LB 1800). In the optical and UV, V347 Pup is a strong emission line source with a continuum spectrum which is remarkably red for a high-M cataclysmic variable. Consistent with its high inclination, we interpret the continuum spectrum as the superposition of the spectrum of the cool (T(sub eff) approximately 7000 K) outer edge and the hot (T(sub eff) approximately 100,000 K) inner regions of a self-eclipsed accretion disk. For the assumed parameters, the model matches the level and shape of the observed spectrum for an inclination of approximately 88 and a distance of approximately 300 pc. The prominent hump in the optical and UV light curves just before eclipse manifests the presence of the hot spot where the accretion stream strikes the edge of the disk. The wavelength dependence of the amplitude of the hump is best modeled by a spot having an effective temperature of approximately 25,000 K and an area of approximately 3 x 10(exp 18) sq cm if the spot radiates like a blackbody, or an effective temperatue of approximately 14,000 K and an area of approximately 3 x 10(exp 19) sq cm if it radiates with a stellar spectrum. In either case, the hot spot produces only one-tenth of the predicted luminosity for the assumed mass-transfer rate of 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr. Either the hot spot is 'buried' in the edge of the accretion disk, or a significant fraction of its luminosity is radiated away in lines. The difference in azimuth between the peak of the hump and the dynamically expected location of the hot spot suggests that the

  5. The First Neptune Analog or Super-Earth with a Neptune-Like Orbit: MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Poleski, R.; Bond, I. A.; Skowron, J.; Rattenbury, N.; Pogge, R. W.; Bensby, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first Neptune analog exoplanet or super-Earth with a Neptune-like orbit, MOA- 2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune or a super-Earth and it orbits at 9 approximately 14 times the expected position of the snow line, a(sub snow), which is similar to Neptune's separation of 11 a(sub snow) from the Sun. The planet/host-star mass ratio is q = (3.6 +/- 0.7) × 10(exp -4) and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is s = 2.39 +/- 0.05. There are three degenerate physical solutions and two of these are due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, which we designate "the wide degeneracy." The three models have (i) a Neptune-mass planet with a mass of M(sub p) = 21(+6/-7)(M) orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf with a mass of M(sub h) = 0.19(+0.05/-0.06 (solar mass)), (ii) a mini-Neptune with M(sub p) = 7.9(+1.8/-1.5)(M)) orbiting a brown dwarf host with M(sub h) = 0.068(+0.019/-0.011(solar mass)), and (iii) a super-Earth with M(sub p) = 3.2(+0.5/-0.3(M)) orbiting a low-mass brown dwarf host with M(sub h) = 0.025(+0.005/-0.004)(solar mass)), which is slightly favored. The 3D planet-host separations are 4.6(+4.7/-1.2)au, 2.1(+1.0/-0.2)au, and 0.94(+0.67/-0.02)au, which are 8.9(+10.5/-1.4)m 12(+7/-1), or 14(+11/-1) times larger than a(sub snow) for these models, respectively. Keck adaptive optics observations confirm that the lens is faint. This discovery suggests that low-mass planets with Neptune-like orbits are common. Therefore processes similar to the one that formed Neptune in our own solar system or cold super-Earths may be common in other solar systems.

  6. The First Neptune Analog or Super-Earth with a Neptune-like Orbit: MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Gould, A.; Poleski, R.; Bond, I. A.; Skowron, J.; Rattenbury, N.; Pogge, R. W.; Bensby, T.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Marquette, J. B.; Batista, V.; Brillant, S.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; OGLE Collaboration; Han, C.; Jung, Y.-K.; Shin, I.-G.; Lee, C.-U.

    2016-07-01

    We present the discovery of the first Neptune analog exoplanet or super-Earth with a Neptune-like orbit, MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune or a super-Earth and it orbits at 9 ∼ 14 times the expected position of the snow line, a snow, which is similar to Neptune's separation of 11 a snow from the Sun. The planet/host-star mass ratio is q = (3.6 ± 0.7) × 10‑4 and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is s = 2.39 ± 0.05. There are three degenerate physical solutions and two of these are due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, which we designate “the wide degeneracy.” The three models have (i) a Neptune-mass planet with a mass of {M}{{p}}={21}-7+6{M}\\oplus orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf with a mass of {M}{{h}}={0.19}-0.06+0.05{M}ȯ , (ii) a mini-Neptune with {M}{{p}}={7.9}-1.2+1.8{M}\\oplus orbiting a brown dwarf host with {M}{{h}}={0.068}-0.011+0.019{M}ȯ , and (iii) a super-Earth with {M}{{p}}={3.2}-0.3+0.5{M}\\oplus orbiting a low-mass brown dwarf host with {M}{{h}}={0.025}-0.004+0.005{M}ȯ , which is slightly favored. The 3D planet–host separations are {4.6}-1.2+4.7 au, {2.1}-0.2+1.0 au, and {0.94}-0.02+0.67 au, which are {8.9}-1.4+10.5, {12}-1+7, or {14}-1+11 times larger than a snow for these models, respectively. Keck adaptive optics observations confirm that the lens is faint. This discovery suggests that low-mass planets with Neptune-like orbits are common. Therefore processes similar to the one that formed Neptune in our own solar system or cold super-Earths may be common in other solar systems.

  7. The First Neptune Analog or Super-Earth with a Neptune-like Orbit: MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Gould, A.; Poleski, R.; Bond, I. A.; Skowron, J.; Rattenbury, N.; Pogge, R. W.; Bensby, T.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Marquette, J. B.; Batista, V.; Brillant, S.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; OGLE Collaboration; Han, C.; Jung, Y.-K.; Shin, I.-G.; Lee, C.-U.

    2016-07-01

    We present the discovery of the first Neptune analog exoplanet or super-Earth with a Neptune-like orbit, MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune or a super-Earth and it orbits at 9 ˜ 14 times the expected position of the snow line, a snow, which is similar to Neptune's separation of 11 a snow from the Sun. The planet/host-star mass ratio is q = (3.6 ± 0.7) × 10‑4 and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is s = 2.39 ± 0.05. There are three degenerate physical solutions and two of these are due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, which we designate “the wide degeneracy.” The three models have (i) a Neptune-mass planet with a mass of {M}{{p}}={21}-7+6{M}\\oplus orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf with a mass of {M}{{h}}={0.19}-0.06+0.05{M}ȯ , (ii) a mini-Neptune with {M}{{p}}={7.9}-1.2+1.8{M}\\oplus orbiting a brown dwarf host with {M}{{h}}={0.068}-0.011+0.019{M}ȯ , and (iii) a super-Earth with {M}{{p}}={3.2}-0.3+0.5{M}\\oplus orbiting a low-mass brown dwarf host with {M}{{h}}={0.025}-0.004+0.005{M}ȯ , which is slightly favored. The 3D planet–host separations are {4.6}-1.2+4.7 au, {2.1}-0.2+1.0 au, and {0.94}-0.02+0.67 au, which are {8.9}-1.4+10.5, {12}-1+7, or {14}-1+11 times larger than a snow for these models, respectively. Keck adaptive optics observations confirm that the lens is faint. This discovery suggests that low-mass planets with Neptune-like orbits are common. Therefore processes similar to the one that formed Neptune in our own solar system or cold super-Earths may be common in other solar systems.

  8. Program Calibrates Strain Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okazaki, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    Program dramatically reduces personnel and time requirements for acceptance tests of hardware. Data-acquisition system reads output from Wheatstone full-bridge strain-gauge circuit and calculates strain by use of shunt calibration technique. Program nearly instantaneously tabulates and plots strain data against load-cell outputs. Modified to acquire strain data for other specimens wherever full-bridge strain-gauge circuits used. Written in HP BASIC.

  9. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  10. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  11. Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Renu; Talapatra, Kesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples. PMID:24565320

  12. Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulates intestinal P-glycoprotein expression via a c-Fos/c-Jun-dependent mechanism in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Kumar, Anoop; Soni, Vikas; Alrefai, Waddah A; Gill, Ravinder K; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Saksena, Seema

    2016-04-15

    Our previous studies showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) culture supernatant (CS) increased P-glycoprotein [Pgp/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)] function, expression, and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The current studies were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of LA CS on Pgp promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the LA CS response element(s) is located in the -172/+428-bp region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential binding sites for c-Fos or c-Jun: proximal activating protein (AP) 1a (-119/-98 bp), distal AP1b (-99/-78 bp), and AP1c (+175/+196 bp). LA CS (24 h) showed an approximately twofold increase in the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LA CS markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to AP1a and AP1b, but not AP1c. The DNA-protein complex was completely eliminated by c-Fos antibody, while c-Jun antibody partially eliminated the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that LA CS enhanced the association of c-Fos and c-Jun (by ∼4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) with endogenous Pgp promoter in Caco-2 cells (p-172/+1). Interestingly, overexpression of c-Fos or c-Jun activated Pgp promoter by nearly twofold each. This increase was further enhanced (∼14-fold) when c-Fos and c-Jun were simultaneously overexpressed, suggesting that the presence of one of these transcription factors potentiates the effect of the other. These studies, for the first time, provide evidence for the involvement of c-Fos/c-Jun in stimulation of Pgp gene expression by LA CS in the human intestine. PMID:26867563

  13. Fructooligosaccharides and Lactobacillus acidophilus modify gut microbial populations, total tract nutrient digestibilities and fecal protein catabolite concentrations in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Grieshop, Christine M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Bauer, Laura L; Chow, JoMay; Wolf, Bryan W; Garleb, Keith A; Fahey, George C

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and (or) Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC) affected concentrations of gut microbial populations, fermentative end products and nutrient digestibilities in healthy adult dogs. Two experiments were performed using 40 adult dogs (20 dogs/experiment). Dogs in each experiment were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments. Twice daily, treatments were given orally via gelatin capsules: 1) 2 g sucrose + 80 mg cellulose; 2) 2 g FOS + 80 mg cellulose; 3) 2 g sucrose + 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) LAC; or 4) 2 g FOS + 1 x 10(9) cfu LAC. Data were analyzed by the General Linear Models procedure of SAS. In Experiment 1, FOS resulted in lower (P = 0.08) Clostridium perfringens and greater fecal butyrate (P = 0.06) and lactate (P < 0.05) concentrations. In Experiment 2, FOS supplementation increased (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria, increased lactobacilli (P = 0.08), increased fecal lactate (P = 0.06) and butyrate (P < 0.05), and decreased (P < 0.05) fecal ammonia, isobutyrate, isovalerate and total branched-chain fatty acid concentrations. Dogs fed LAC had the highest fecal concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol in Experiment 1 and dimethyl sulfide in Experiment 2, whereas dogs fed FOS had the lowest concentrations of these compounds. Overall, FOS appeared to enhance indices of gut health by positively altering gut microbial ecology and fecal protein catabolites, whereas LAC was more effective when fed in combination with FOS rather than fed alone. PMID:12468613

  14. Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Kong, Man-Shan; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Yung-Chang; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2012-06-01

    Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (SEM 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (SEM 1689·3) mm³, P<0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (P<0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (P<0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21992995

  15. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co-3-hydroxyalkanoates) by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2004-01-01

    Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) consisting of 3-hydroxy-alkanoates (3HAs) of 4 to 10 carbon atoms was examined in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains. When the fadA and/or fadB mutant E. coli strains harboring the plasmid containing the Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 phaC2 gene and the Ralstonia eutropha phaAB genes were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with 2 g/L of sodium decanoate, all the recombinant E. coli strains synthesized PHAs consisting of C4, C6, C8, and C10 monomer units. The monomer composition of PHA was dependent on the E. coli strain used. When the fadA mutant E. coli was employed, PHA containing up to 63 mol% of 3-hydroyhexanoate was produced. In fadB and fadAB mutant E. coli strains, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) was efficiently incorporated into PHA up to 86 mol%. Cultivation of recombinant fadA and/or fadB mutant E. coli strains in LB medium containing 10 g/L of sodium gluconate and 2 g/L of sodium decanoate resulted in the production of PHA copolymer containing a very high fraction of 3HB up to 95 mol%. Since the material properties of PHA copolymer consisting of a large fraction of 3HB and a small fraction of medium-chain-length 3HA are similar to those of low-density polyethylene, recombinant E. coli strains constructed in this study should be useful for the production of PHAs suitable for various commercial applications. PMID:15054261

  16. Impact of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains feeding on fecal lactobacilli and weight gains in chicken.

    PubMed

    Lan, Pham Thi Ngoc; Binh, Le Thanh; Benno, Yoshimi

    2003-02-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus agilis JCM 1048 and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius JCM 1230 isolated from chicken intestine, exhibited probiotic characteristics that can be applied for chicken production. After 7 days of probiotic feeding (FD7), the count of intestinal lactobacilli in the probiotic group (group P, n=10) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the control group (group C, n=9). After 40 days of probiotic feeding (FD40), the lactobacilli and enterococci counts were stable but the Enterobacteriaceae number was significantly reduced (p<0.05). A total of 163 isolated lactobacilli were identified as the L. acidophilus/gallinarum group (49.7%), L. agilis (30.7%), L. salivarius (9.2%), L. reuteri (9.2%), and Lactobacillus spp. (1.2%). The probiotic lactobacilli positively affected the Lactobacillus biota in chickens at FD7, with a significant increase in the number (p<0.05) of L. agilis and group P. The viable counts of each Lactobacillus species at FD40, however, showed no differences between two groups. An increasing incidence of L. agilis was also noted with probiotic feeding. The probiotic effect of two strains resulted in significantly increased weight gains (10.7%) of group P in comparison with group C at FD40 (p<0.01). PMID:12682864

  17. Miniature biaxial strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, I. S. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A reusable miniature strain transducer for use in the measurement of static or quasi-static, high level, biaxial strain on the surface of test specimens or structures was studied. Two cantilever arms, constructed by machining the material to appropriate flexibility, are self-aligning and constitute the transducing elements of the device. Used in conjunction with strain gages, the device enables testing beyond normal gage limits for high strains and number of load cycles. The device does not require conversion computations since the electrical output of the strain gages is directly proportional to the strain measured.

  18. An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan Manuel

    Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken

  19. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  20. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  1. Pore size and LbL chitosan coating influence mesenchymal stem cell in vitro fibrosis and biomineralization in 3D porous poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Nima Ghavidel; Li, Xian; Chen, Gaoping; Favis, Basil D; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-07-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) is a hydrophobic bioplastic under development for bone tissue engineering applications. Limited information is available on the role of internal geometry and cell-surface attachment on osseous integration potential. We tested the hypothesis that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) deposit more mineral inside porous 3D PCL scaffolds with fully interconnected 84 or 141 µm pores, when the surfaces are coated with chitosan via Layer-by-Layer (LbL)-deposited polyelectrolytes. Freshly trypsinized MSCs were seeded on PCL 3D cylinders using a novel static cold seeding method in 2% serum to optimally populate all depths of the scaffold discs, followed by 10 days of culture in proliferation medium and 21 additional days in osteogenic medium. MSCs were observed by SEM and histology to spread faster and to proliferate more on chitosan-coated pore surfaces. Most pores, with or without chitosan, became filled by collagen networks sparsely populated with fibroblast-like cells. After 21 days of culture in osteogenic medium, sporadic matrix mineralization was detected histologically and by micro-CT in highly cellular surface layers that enveloped all scaffolds and in cell aggregates in 141 µm pores near the edges. LbL-chitosan promoted punctate mineral deposition on the surfaces of 84 µm pores (p < 0.05 vs. PCL-only) but not the 141 µm pores. This study revealed that LbL-chitosan coatings are sufficient to promote MSC attachment to PCL but only enhance mineral formation in 84 µm pores, suggesting a potential inhibitory role for MSC-derived fibroblasts in osteoblast terminal differentiation. PMID:25504184

  2. The ICDP Lake Bosumtwi impact crater scientific drilling project (Ghana): Core LB-08A litho-log, related ejecta, and shock recovery experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Alexander; Luetke, Sabine; Heinrich, Volker

    The 1.07 Myr old Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana was drilled within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Project (ICDP). Hole LB-08A, drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift and with a total depth of 451 m, yielded 215.71 m of impact-related rocks. This paper summarizes observations of the lithological logging on core LB-08A. Between a depth of 235.6 and ~260 m, the section consists of a melt-bearing allochthonous, polymict, and mostly clast-supported impact breccia. Down to ~418 m, the section comprises a rather uniform unit of metagraywacke alternating with phyllite to slate (lower greenschist facies); few (par-) autochthonous impact breccia bodies and rare impact dike breccias are present. The lowermost part of the section contains several centimeter- to decimeter-thick melt-bearing breccia dikes in country rocks identical to those occurring above. Omnipresent fracturing was mapped in a qualitative manner. Most prominent shock effects in the uplifted target rocks comprise planar fractures and deformation elements in quartz and polysynthetic twinning in carbonate minerals; the maximum shock pressure as evidenced by quartz is below 26 GPa. The allochthonous breccias occasionally contain a few vol% of melt particles. Suevites occur outside the crater rim, carrying diaplectic crystals, coesite, and ballen quartz as well as true melt glasses and a variety of lithic clasts, among those spectacular staurolite-rich mica-schists. The recorded shock level in the uplifted target rocks is lower than expected and modeled. Shock recovery experiments with analogue carbonaceous graywackes at 34 and 39.5 GPa yielded nearly complete transformation of quartz into diaplectic glass. We therefore exclude a specific shock behavior of the soft, fluid-rich target material (carbonaceous graywackes, shales, slates) in core LB-08A as the prime or only reason for the melt deficit and the generally low shock levels recorded inside the Lake

  3. The inhibitory effect of a fermented papaya preparation on growth, hydrophobicity, and acid production of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus: its implications in oral health improvement of diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Bahorun, Theeshan; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2013-01-01

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) is a “natural health product.” The high incidence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral microbial infection cases among patients with diabetes mellitus continues to prevail. The potential role of FPP against common oral microbiota (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) isolated from the human oral cavity was investigated using in vitro simulation models of dental plaque and caries. FPP showed an inhibitory effect against the growth (at 0.05 mg/mL: S. mutans: −6.9%; S. mitis: −4.47%, P < 0.05), acid production (at 0.05 mg/mL: S. mutans: +6.38%; L. acidophilus: +2.25%), and hydrophobicity (at 50 mg/mL: S. mutans: 1.01%, P < 0.01; S. mitis: 7.66%, P < 0.05) of tested microbiota. The results of this study suggest that low doses of FPP may be a suitable complement to good oral hygiene practice for the effective prevention of dental caries, plaque, and gingivitis. The functional application of FPP as a constituent of a balanced diet and active lifestyle can make a positive contribution to the oral health status and well-being of patients with diabetes. PMID:24804050

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5136_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5136_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Ethanol C2H6O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4328_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Ethanol C2H6O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4328_H)' providing data from direct calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant pressure and temperature.

  6. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4314_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4314_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Methanol CH4O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4327_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Methanol CH4O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4327_H)' providing data from direct calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant pressure and temperature.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5133_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5133_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  11. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 178 kilograms per second per square meter (6.5(lb/sec)/(sq ft))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Pentafluoroethane C2HF5 + C2H2F4 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (VMSD1541, LB3231_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Pentafluoroethane C2HF5 + C2H2F4 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (VMSD1541, LB3231_V)' providing data from direct measurement of thermodynamic speed of sound at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4927_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4927_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1212, LB4923_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1212, LB4923_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4912_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4912_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1111, LB4915_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1111, LB4915_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4274_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4274_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4267_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4267_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4918_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4918_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4913_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4913_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5NO2 Nitrobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5650_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5NO2 Nitrobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5650_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4256_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4256_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4552_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4552_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4263_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4263_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4253_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4253_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,2-Dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 + C3H3N Propenenitrile (EVLM1211, LB5647_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,2-Dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 + C3H3N Propenenitrile (EVLM1211, LB5647_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4271_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4271_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4919_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4919_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4265_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4265_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4250_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4250_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4262_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4262_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1111, LB4255_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1111, LB4255_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C8H18O Octan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4554_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C8H18O Octan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4554_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4252_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4252_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1412, LB4277_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1412, LB4277_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4266_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4266_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4925_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4925_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4260_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4260_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4930_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4930_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4272_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4272_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4926_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4926_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4910_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4910_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4920_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4920_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4269_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4269_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4917_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4917_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4264_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4264_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4251_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4251_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4261_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4261_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4259_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4259_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4911_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4911_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4275_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4275_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4922_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4922_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4273_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4273_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5Cl Chlorobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5649_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5Cl Chlorobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5649_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4258_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4258_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.