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Sample records for acidophilus thiobacillus novellus

  1. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. [Rhodococcus erythropolis, Thiobacillus acidophilus, Thiobacillus novellus

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA's of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  2. Growth and physiology of Thiobacillus novellus under nutrient-limited mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Leefeldt, R H; Matin, A

    1980-01-01

    Thiobacillus novellus was cultivated in a chemostate under the individual limitations of thiosulfate, glucose, and thiosulfate plus glucose. At dilution rate (D) of 0.05 h-1 or lower, the steady-state biomass concentration in mixotrophic medium was additive of the heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass at corresponding D values. The ambient concentrations of thiosulfate, glucose, or both in the various cultures were low and were very similar in mixotrophic, heterotrophic, and autotrophic environments at a given D value. At D = 0.05 h-1, mixotrophic cells possessed higher activities of sulfite oxidase and thiosulfate oxidation compared to autotrophic cells, as well as higher activities of glucose enzymes and glucose oxidation than heterotrophic cells. Thus, in contrast to nutrient-excess conditions, in nutrient-limited mixotrophic environments at these D values, T. novellus did not exhibit characteristics of uncoupled substrate oxidation, inhibition of substrate utilization, and repression of enzymes of energy metabolism. It is concluded that T. novellus responds to mixotrophic growth conditions differently in environments of different nutritional status, and the ecological and physiological significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:7380804

  3. Characterization of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase from Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. J.; Johnson, M. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1968-01-01

    Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase activity in chemosynthetic autotrophs Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus, noting sedimentation and gel filtration characteristics

  4. Molecular genetics of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, D E; Kusano, T

    1994-01-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is a gram-negative, highly acidophilic (pH 1.5 to 2.0), autotrophic bacterium that obtains its energy through the oxidation of ferrous iron or reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. It is usually dominant in the mixed bacterial populations that are used industrially for the extraction of metals such as copper and uranium from their ores. More recently, these bacterial consortia have been used for the biooxidation of refractory gold-bearing arsenopyrite ores prior to the recovery of gold by cyanidation. The commercial use of T. ferrooxidans has led to an increasing interest in the genetics and molecular biology of the bacterium. Initial investigations were aimed at determining whether the unique physiology and specialized habitat of T. ferrooxidans had been accompanied by a high degree of genetic drift from other gram-negative bacteria. Early genetic studies were comparative in nature and concerned the isolation of genes such as nifHDK, glnA, and recA, which are widespread among bacteria. From a molecular biology viewpoint, T. ferrooxidans appears to be a typical member of the proteobacteria. In most instances, cloned gene promoters and protein products have been functional in Escherichia coli. Although T. ferrooxidans has proved difficult to transform with DNA, research on indigenous plasmids and the isolation of the T. ferrooxidans merA gene have resulted in the development of a low-efficiency electroporation system for one strain of T. ferrooxidans. The most recent studies have focused on the molecular genetics of the pathways associated with nitrogen metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation, and components of the energy-producing mechanisms. PMID:8177170

  5. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.; Oliver, D.J.; Kim, Inbeum; De, G.C.

    1993-01-20

    A cyclic voltammetry technique was used to study the interactions of pyrite during bioleaching with the bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Potential effects of heavy metals (silver and mercury) and varying the pH on the iron oxidizing ability of the bacterium are reported. Redox potential techniques were used to study effect of ferrous sulfate concentration and pH on bacterial growth.

  6. [Biomachining of metal copper by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, D; Wu, Y

    2000-06-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was employed in the biomachining process of metal copper(Cu0). The bacteria growth and the changes of Fe3+ concentration during machining processes have been studied. Biomachining and chemical machining have been compared. The results showed that the concentrations of bacteria and Fe3+ determine the speed of machining copper. The biomachining is more fast that chemical maching because bacteria are able to regenerate Fe3+ oxidizing copper. It was also found that the Cu2+ produced from the machining processes inhibit the growth of bacteria. Cu2+ has to be removed.

  7. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    PubMed

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case.

  8. [Oxidation of sulfide minerals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    PubMed

    Malakhova, P T; Chebotarev, G M; Kovalenko, E V; Volkov, Iu A

    1981-01-01

    Samples of natural pyrites and sphalerites were subjected to the action of the mineral medium 9K with 1 g of Fe3+ per litre in the presence and in the absence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and incubated at 28 degrees C under the stationary conditions for 30 days. The chemical composition of the solutions was studied after leaching as well as changes of the surfaces of monoliths. The deepest etching of surfaces with the formation of crusts and films of jarosite, limonite and goslarite occurs upon the combined action of bacteria and Fe3+ in regions of a fine-zonal structure enriched with an isomorphous arsenic admixture which are characterized by a defective weak structure. The pyrite and sphalerite from Charmitan with a higher arsenic and iron content were leached more than the pyrite and sphalerite from Kurgashincan. This was also corroborated by chemical analyses of leaching solutions and by monometric studies of crushed sulfide samples.

  9. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.; Oliver, D.J.; Kim, Inbeum; De, G.C.

    1993-01-20

    A cyclic voltammetry technique was used to study the interactions of pyrite during bioleaching with the bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Potential effects of heavy metals (silver and mercury) and varying the pH on the iron oxidizing ability of the bacterium are reported. Redox potential techniques were used to study effect of ferrous sulfate concentration and pH on bacterial growth.

  10. Chalcocite Oxidation and Coupled Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A M; Beck, J V

    1972-03-10

    The reaction of cell suspensions of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with pulverized chalcocite (Cu(2)S) in a Warburg manometric apparatus resulted in oxygen uptake accompanied by increased solubilization of copper and fixation of carbon dioxide. Since the only detectable oxidized products were cupric ions and the more oxidized form of the sulfide mineral, that is, digenite or covellite, the apparent source of energy for the carbon dioxide fixation was provided by the oxidation of the cuprous copper of the chalcocite.

  11. Estimation of kinetic rates in batch Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cultures.

    PubMed

    Biagiola, S; Solsona, J; Milocco, R

    2001-11-17

    In this work, the key problem of estimation in bioprocesses when no structural model is available is dealt with. A nonlinear observer-based algorithm is developed in order to estimate kinetic rates in batch bioreactors. The algorithm uses the measurements of biomass concentration and either substrate concentration or redox potential to perform the estimation of the respective specific kinetic rates. For this purpose, a general mathematical model description of the process is provided. The estimation algorithm design is based on a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The observer performance is validated with experimental results on a Thiobacillus ferrooxidans batch culture.

  12. Use of Electroporation To Generate a Thiobacillus neapolitanus Carboxysome Mutant

    PubMed Central

    English, R. S.; Jin, S.; Shively, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Two cloning vectors designed for use in Escherichia coli and the thiobacilli were constructed by combining a Thiobacillus intermedius plasmid replicon with a multicloning site, lacZ(prm1), and either a kanamycin or a streptomycin resistance gene. Conditions necessary for the introduction of DNA into T. intermedius and T. neapolitanus via electroporation were examined and optimized. By using optimal electroporation conditions, the gene encoding a carboxysome shell protein, csoS1A, was insertionally inactivated in T. neapolitanus. The mutant showed a reduced number of carboxysomes and an increased level of CO(inf2) necessary for growth. PMID:16535117

  13. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts. [Thiobacillus sulfolobus

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant is run and operated by Southern Clean Fuels. A large sample of spent catalyst from this facility has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the No content of this particular sample is too low for the current studies and no new catalyst has since been obtained. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  14. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Bull, Matthew J; Jolley, Keith A; Bray, James E; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C J; Marchesi, Julian R; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-11-26

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population.

  15. Characterization of uranium mine isolates and laboratory cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with emphasis on the oxidation and cellular accumulation of uranium and bioenergetic comparison with iron

    SciTech Connect

    Dispirito, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Five strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which included three recent isolates from a uranium mine, possessed flagella. Both polar and peritrichous flagella were observed, indicating strain-dependent ultrastructural variation in acidophilic thiobacilli. The oxidation of uranous compounds by washed cell suspensions of T. ferrooxidans and T. acidophilus was monitored with a Clark oxygen electrode. The rates of oxygen uptake were dependent on: the cell concentration; the previous growth history of the organism; the amounts of U-IV and of inhibitors; pH and the presence of iron sulfates. The stoichiometric oxidation of uranous- to uranyl-uranium by T. ferrooxidans was demonstrated. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and the effect of inhibitors demonstrate that energy is conserved during the oxidation and used for energy-dependent reverse electron flow and carbon dioxide fixation. Kinetic constants for the oxidation of uranous and ferrous ions by T. ferrooxidans were estimated. Isoprenoid quinones were extracted from T. ferrooxidans by three different methods. The uptake and cellular distribution of UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ was investigated in washed cell suspension of T. ferrooxidans.

  16. Mineral Products of Pyrrhotite Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, T M; Bigham, J M; Carlson, L; Tuovinen, O H

    1993-06-01

    The biological leaching of pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S) by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied to characterize the oxidation process and to identify the mineral weathering products. The process was biphasic in that an initial phase of acid consumption and decrease in redox potential was followed by an acid-producing phase and an increase in redox potential. Elemental S was one of the first products of pyrrhotite degradation detected by X-ray diffraction. Pyrrhotite oxidation also yielded K-jarosite [KFe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)], goethite (alpha-FeOOH), and schwertmannite [Fe(8)O(8)(OH)(6)SO(4)] as solid-phase products. Pyrrhotite was mostly depleted after 14 days, whereas impurities in the form of pyrite (cubic FeS(2)) and marcasite (orthorhombic FeS(2)) accumulated in the leach residue.

  17. Anaerobic Production of Thiobacillus denitrificans for the Enzyme Rhodanese

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, K.; Buck, P. W.; Ford, J. W. S.; Yeo, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    A method for the anaerobic growth of Thiobacillus denitrificans in a 140-liter (total capacity) stainless-steel culture vessel is described. As a result of controlling the pH value of cultures, and of ensuring that certain essential nutrients were in excess, cell yields approaching 700 mg (dry weight) per liter were obtained. These were over threefold higher than the best yields hitherto reported. The average rhodanese content of the cells from four cultures was 176,000 units per gram (dry weight). Adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase (average content, 238 units per gram dry weight) and adenylate kinase (average content, 15,300 units per gram, dry weight) were also present. PMID:16349709

  18. Reduction of Mo6+ with elemental sulfur by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed Central

    Sugio, T; Tsujita, Y; Katagiri, T; Inagaki, K; Tano, T

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of phosphate ions, molybdic ions (Mo6+) were reduced enzymatically with elemental sulfur by washed intact cells of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to give molybdenum blue. The whole-cell activity that reduced Mo6+ was totally due to cellular sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase (SFORase) (T. Sugio, W. Mizunashi, K. Inagaki, and T. Tano, J. Bacteriol. 169:4916-4922, 1987). The activity of M06+ reduction with elemental sulfur was competitively inhibited by Fe3+, Cu2+, and Co2+. The Michaelis constant of SFORase for Mo6+ was 7.6 mM, and the inhibition constants for Fe3+, Cu2+, and Co2+ were 0.084, 0.015, and 0.17 mM, respectively, suggesting that SFORase can reduce not only Fe3+ and Mo6+ but also Cu2+ and Co2+ with elemental sulfur. PMID:3056928

  19. Leaching of pyrites of various reactivities by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, F. ); Clark, T.; Pollack, S.S.; Olson, G.J. )

    1992-06-01

    Variations were found in the rate of chemical and microbiological leaching of iron from pyritic materials from various sources. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans accelerated leaching of iron from all of the pyritic materials tested in shake flask suspensions at loadings of 0.4% (wt/vol) pulp density. The most chemically reactive pyrites exhibited the fastest bioleaching rates. However, at 2.0% pulp density, a delay in onset of bioleaching occurred with two of the pyrites derived from coal sources. T. ferrooxidans was unable to oxidize the most chemically reactive pyrite at 2.0% pulp density. No inhibition of pyrite oxidation by T. ferrooxidans occurred with mineral pyrite at 2.0% pulp density. Experiments with the most chemically reactive pyrite indicated that the leachates from the material were not inhibitory to iron oxidation by T. ferrooxidans.

  20. Leaching of Pyrites of Various Reactivities by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Baldi, F; Clark, T; Pollack, S S; Olson, G J

    1992-06-01

    Wide variations were found in the rate of chemical and microbiological leaching of iron from pyritic materials from various sources. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans accelerated leaching of iron from all of the pyritic materials tested in shake flask suspensions at loadings of 0.4% (wt/vol) pulp density. The most chemically reactive pyrites exhibited the fastest bioleaching rates. However, at 2.0% pulp density, a delay in onset of bioleaching occurred with two of the pyrites derived from coal sources. T. ferrooxidans was unable to oxidize the most chemically reactive pyrite at 2.0% pulp density. No inhibition of pyrite oxidation by T. ferrooxidans occurred with mineral pyrite at 2.0% pulp density. Experiments with the most chemically reactive pyrite indicated that the leachates from the material were not inhibitory to iron oxidation by T. ferrooxidans.

  1. Leaching of Pyrites of Various Reactivities by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Franco; Clark, Thomas; Pollack, S. S.; Olson, Gregory J.

    1992-01-01

    Wide variations were found in the rate of chemical and microbiological leaching of iron from pyritic materials from various sources. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans accelerated leaching of iron from all of the pyritic materials tested in shake flask suspensions at loadings of 0.4% (wt/vol) pulp density. The most chemically reactive pyrites exhibited the fastest bioleaching rates. However, at 2.0% pulp density, a delay in onset of bioleaching occurred with two of the pyrites derived from coal sources. T. ferrooxidans was unable to oxidize the most chemically reactive pyrite at 2.0% pulp density. No inhibition of pyrite oxidation by T. ferrooxidans occurred with mineral pyrite at 2.0% pulp density. Experiments with the most chemically reactive pyrite indicated that the leachates from the material were not inhibitory to iron oxidation by T. ferrooxidans. PMID:16348718

  2. Corrosion and Electrochemical Oxidation of a Pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Mustin, C.; Berthelin, J.; Marion, P.; de Donato, P.

    1992-01-01

    The oxidation of a pure pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is not really a constant phenomenon; it must be considered to be more like a succession of different steps which need characterization. Electrochemical studies using a combination of a platinum electrode and a specific pyrite electrode (packed-ground-pyrite electrode) revealed four steps in the bioleaching process. Each step can be identified by the electrochemical behavior (redox potentials) of pyrite, which in turn can be related to chemical (leachate content), bacterial (growth), and physical (corrosion patterns) parameters of the leaching process. A comparison of the oxidation rates of iron and sulfur indicated the nonstoichiometric bacterial oxidation of a pure pyrite in which superficial phenomena, aqueous oxidation, and deep crystal dissolution are successively involved. Images PMID:16348688

  3. Genetic manipulation of the obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H.R.; Legler, T.C.; Kane, S.R.

    2011-07-15

    Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria can be of industrial and environmental importance, but they present a challenge for systems biology studies, as their central metabolism deviates from that of model organisms and there is a much less extensive experimental basis for their gene annotation than for typical organoheterotrophs. For microbes with sequenced genomes but unconventional metabolism, the ability to create knockout mutations can be a powerful tool for functional genomics and thereby render an organism more amenable to systems biology approaches. In this chapter, we describe a genetic system for Thiobacillus denitrificans, with which insertion mutations can be introduced by homologous recombination and complemented in trans. Insertion mutations are generated by in vitro transposition, the mutated genes are amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons are introduced into T. denitrificans by electroporation. Use of a complementation vector, pTL2, based on the IncP plasmid pRR10 is also addressed.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on Helicobacter hepaticus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manhua; Zhang, Haiyang; Li, Yan; Qi, Wenqian; Wang, Xu; Wang, Jiangbin

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter pylori both belong to Helicobacter species. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, including L4 and L6, have shown significant inhibitory effects on H. pylori. Based on this phenomenon, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of L. acidophilus on H. hepaticus. Both standard and isolated H. hepaticus strains were grown under microaerophilic conditions at 37 °C in the presence of L. acidophilus supernatant, or lactic acid. The diameters of the inhibition zones were measured on the solid culture media. In liquid culture, the cell concentrations were measured and the urease activity was determined by phenol red staining. Sixteen strains of L. acidophilus isolated from human feces (named as L1-L16) showed anti-H. hepaticus effects. Two of them (L4 and L6) exhibited the most apparent effects on H. hepaticus inhibition. The L. acidophilus supernatant of L4 and L6 significantly increased the diameters of the inhibition zones compared with that of the lactic acid control (P < 0.05). The inhibitory role of L. acidophilus supernatant was independent of the pH value of solution (P > 0.05). Moreover, in liquid culture, L. acidophilus supernatant significantly reduced the cell growth rate and the urease activity of H. hepaticus cells in a time-dependent pattern (P < 0.05 compared with lactic acid control). No obvious difference was observed between the standard and isolated strain of H. hepaticus (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that L. acidophilus can decrease the viability and urease activity of H. hepaticus in vitro and this inhibition is independent of pH levels. This provides evidence for developing novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of H. hepaticus infection.

  5. Genetic and functional aspects of linoleate isomerase in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, Martin; Robert, Normand; Lee, Byong H

    2010-08-01

    While the remarkable health effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) catalyzed from alpha-linoleic acid by the enzyme linoleate isomerase (LI, EC 5.2.1.5) are well recognized, how widely this biochemical activity is present and the mechanisms of its regulation in lactic acid bacteria are unknown. Although certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus can enrich CLA in fermented dairy products, it is unknown if other strains share this capacity. Due to its immense economic importance, this work aimed to investigate genetic aspects of CLA production in L. acidophilus for the first time. The genomic DNA from industrial and type strains of L. acidophilus were subjected to PCR and immunoblot analyses using the putative LI gene of L. reuteri ATCC 55739 as probe. The CLA production ability was estimated by gas chromatography of the biomass extracts. The presumptive LI gene from L. acidophilus ATCC 832 was isolated and sequenced. The resulting sequence shared 71% identity with that of L. reuteri and at least 99% with reported sequences from other L. acidophilus strains. All the strains accumulated detectable levels of CLA and tested positive by PCR and immunoblotting. However, no apparent correlation was observed between the yields and the hybridization patterns. The results suggest that LI activity might be common among L. acidophilus and related species and provide a new tool for screening potential CLA producers.

  6. Betaine Transport Imparts Osmotolerance on a Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Hutkins, Robert W.; Ellefson, William L.; Kashket, Eva R.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike most Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, a specific strain, L. acidophilus IFO 3532, was found to grow in rich medium containing 1 M sodium acetate, KCl, or NaCl. This strain could also grow with up to 1.8 M NaCl or 3 M nonelectrolytes (fructose, xylose, or sorbitol) added. Thus, this strain was tolerant to osmotic pressures up to 2.8 osM. A search for an intracellular solute which conferred osmoprotection led to the identification of glycine betaine (betaine). Betaine was accumulated to high concentrations in cells growing in MRS medium supplemented with 1 M KCl or NaCl. Uptake of [14C]betaine by L. acidophilus 3532 cells suspended in buffer was stimulated by increasing the medium osmotic pressure with 1 M KCl or NaCl. The accumulated betaine was not metabolized further; transport was relatively specific for betaine and was dependent on an energy source. Other lactobacilli, more osmosensitive than strain 3532, including L. acidophilus strain E4356, L. bulgaricus 8144, and L. delbrueckii 9649, showed lower betaine transport rates in response to an osmotic challenge than L. acidophilus 3532. Experiments with chloramphenicol-treated L. acidophilus 3532 cells indicated that the transport system was not induced but appeared to be activated by an increase in osmotic pressure. PMID:16347448

  7. Thiobacillus cuprinus sp. nov. , a novel facultatively organotrophic metal-mobilizing bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Stetter, K.O. )

    1990-02-01

    Five strains of mesophilic, facultatively organotrophic, ore-leaching eubacteria were isolated from solfatara fields in Iceland and a uranium mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The new organisms are aerobic gram-negative rods. They can use sulfidic ores or elemental sulfur as sole energy source, indicating that they belong to the genus Thiobacillus. Alternatively, they grow on organic substrates such as yeast extract, peptone, and pyruvate. In contrast to the other leaching bacteria known so far, the new isolates are unable to oxidize ferrous iron. They consist of extreme and moderate acidophiles growing optimally at pH 3 and 4, respectively. The extreme acidophiles showed leaching characteristics similar to those shown by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, while the moderate acidophiles exhibited a pronounced preference for copper leaching on some chalcopyrite ores. The G+C content of the DNA is between 66 and 69 mol%, depending on the isolate. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the new strains showed homologies among each other of >70%, indicating that they belong to the same species. No significant DNA homology to Thiobacillus reference strains was detectable. Therefore, the new isolates represent a new species of Thiobacillus, which the authors named Thiobacillus cuprinus. Isolate Hoe5 is designated as the type strain (DSM 5495).

  8. Thiobacillus cuprinus sp. nov., a Novel Facultatively Organotrophic Metal-Mobilizing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Harald; Stetter, Karl O.

    1990-01-01

    Five strains of mesophilic, facultatively organotrophic, ore-leaching eubacteria were isolated from solfatara fields in Iceland and a uranium mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The new organisms are aerobic gram-negative rods. They can use sulfidic ores or elemental sulfur as sole energy source, indicating that they belong to the genus Thiobacillus. Alternatively, they grow on organic substrates such as yeast extract, peptone, and pyruvate. In contrast to the other leaching bacteria known so far, the new isolates are unable to oxidize ferrous iron. They consist of extreme and moderate acidophiles growing optimally at pH 3 and 4, respectively. The extreme acidophiles showed leaching characteristics similar to those shown by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, while the moderate acidophiles exhibited a pronounced preference for copper leaching on some chalcopyrite ores. The G+C content of the DNA is between 66 and 69 mol%, depending on the isolate. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the new strains showed homologies among each other of >70%, indicating that they belong to the same species. No significant DNA homology to Thiobacillus reference strains was detectable. Therefore, the new isolates represent a new species of Thiobacillus, which we name Thiobacillus cuprinus. Isolate Hö5 is designated as the type strain (DSM 5495). Images PMID:16348110

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the virulence of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Yun, B; Oh, S; Griffiths, M W

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract. This pathogen causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in animals and humans. Antibiotic-associated diseases may be treated with probiotics, and interest is increasing in such uses of probiotics. This study investigated the effect of Lactobacillus strains on the quorum-sensing signals and toxin production of C. difficile. In addition, an in vivo experiment was designed to assess whether Lactobacillus acidophilus GP1B is able to control C. difficile-associated disease. Autoinducer-2 activity was measured for C. difficile using the Vibrio harveyi coupled bioluminescent assay. Cell extract (10μg/mL) of L. acidophilus GP1B exhibited the highest inhibitory activity among 5 to 40μg/mL cell-extract concentrations. Real-time PCR data indicated decreased transcriptional levels in luxS, tcdA, tcdB, and txeR genes in the presence of 10μg/mL of cell extract of L. acidophilus GP1B. Survival rates at 5d for mice given the pathogen alone with L. acidophilus GP1B cell extract or L. acidophilus GP1B were 10, 70, and 80%, respectively. In addition, the lactic acid-produced L. acidophilus GP1B exhibits an inhibitory effect against the growth of C. difficile. Both the L. acidophilus GP1B and GP1B cell extract have significant antipathogenic effects on C. difficile.

  10. Simulated microgravity affects some biological characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongyan; Yao, Linbo; Riaz, Muhammad Shahid; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Junling; Jin, Mingliang; Huang, Qingsheng; Yang, Hui

    2017-04-01

    The effects of weightlessness on enteric microorganisms have been extensively studied, but have mainly been focused on pathogens. As a major component of the microbiome of the human intestinal tract, probiotics are important to keep the host healthy. Accordingly, understanding their changes under weightlessness conditions has substantial value. This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a typical probiotic for humans, under simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. The results revealed that SMG had no significant impact on the morphology of L. acidophilus, but markedly shortened its lag phase, enhanced its growth rate, acid tolerance ability up to pH < 2.5, and the bile resistance at the bile concentration of <0.05%. SMG also decreased the sensitivity of L. acidophilus to cefalexin, sulfur gentamicin, and sodium penicillin. No obvious effect of SMG was observed on the adhesion ability of L. acidophilus to Caco-2 cells. Moreover, after SMG treatment, both the culture of L. acidophilus and its liquid phase exhibited higher antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium and S. aureus in a time-dependent manner. The SMG treatment also increased the in vitro cholesterol-lowering ability of L. acidophilus by regulating the expression of the key cholesterol metabolism genes CYP7A1, ABCB11, LDLR, and HMGCR in the HepG2 cell line. Thus, the SMG treatment did have considerable influence on some biological activities and characteristics of L. acidophilus related to human health. These findings provided valuable information for understanding the influence of probiotics on human health under simulated microgravity conditions, at least.

  11. Reduction of Cupric Ions with Elemental Sulfur by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Sugio, T; Tsujita, Y; Inagaki, K; Tano, T

    1990-03-01

    In anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the presence of 5 mM sodium cyanide, an inhibitor of iron oxidase, cupric ion (Cu) was reduced enzymatically with elemental sulfur (S) by washed intact cells of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3 to give cuprous ion (Cu). The rate of Cu reduction was proportional to the concentrations of S and Cu added to the reaction mixture. The pH optimum for the cupric ion-reducing system was 5.0, and the activity was completely destroyed by 10-min incubation of cells at 70 degrees C. The activity of Cu reduction with S by this strain was strongly inhibited by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide: ferric ion oxidoreductase (SFORase), such as alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, 4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salts, and diazine dicarboxylic acid bis-(N, N-dimethylamide). A SFORase purified from this strain, which catalyzes oxidation of both hydrogen sulfide and S with Fe or Mo as an electron acceptor in the presence of glutathione, catalyzed a reduction of Cu by S, and the Michaelis constant of SFORase for Cu was 7.2 mM, indicating that a SFORase catalyzes the reduction of not only Fe and Mo but also Cu.

  12. Reduction of Cupric Ions with Elemental Sulfur by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Tsujita, Yoshihiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Tano, Tatsuo

    1990-01-01

    In anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the presence of 5 mM sodium cyanide, an inhibitor of iron oxidase, cupric ion (Cu2+) was reduced enzymatically with elemental sulfur (S0) by washed intact cells of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3 to give cuprous ion (Cu+). The rate of Cu2+ reduction was proportional to the concentrations of S0 and Cu2+ added to the reaction mixture. The pH optimum for the cupric ion-reducing system was 5.0, and the activity was completely destroyed by 10-min incubation of cells at 70°C. The activity of Cu2+ reduction with S0 by this strain was strongly inhibited by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide: ferric ion oxidoreductase (SFORase), such as α,α′-dipyridyl, 4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salts, and diazine dicarboxylic acid bis-(N, N-dimethylamide). A SFORase purified from this strain, which catalyzes oxidation of both hydrogen sulfide and S0 with Fe3+ or Mo6+ as an electron acceptor in the presence of glutathione, catalyzed a reduction of Cu2+ by S0, and the Michaelis constant of SFORase for Cu2+ was 7.2 mM, indicating that a SFORase catalyzes the reduction of not only Fe3+ and Mo6+ but also Cu2+. PMID:16348143

  13. A Novel Mineral Flotation Process Using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Toru; Ohmura, Naoya; Saiki, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppressed to less than 20%. In contrast, addition of the bacterium had little effect on the floatabilities of the other minerals, even when they were present in relatively large quantities: their floatabilities remained in the range of 81 to 98%. T. ferrooxidans thus appears to selectively suppress pyrite floatability. As a consequence, 77 to 95% of pyrite was removed from mineral mixtures while 72 to 100% of nonpyrite sulfide minerals was recovered. The suppression of pyrite floatability was caused by bacterial adhesion to pyrite surfaces. When normalized to the mineral surface area, the number of cells adhering to pyrite was significantly larger than the number adhering to other minerals. These results suggest that flotation with T. ferrooxidans may provide a novel approach to mineral processing in which the biological functions involved in cell adhesion play a key role in the separation of minerals. PMID:10427053

  14. Influence of Thiobacillus Ferroxidans Biofilm on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel A3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Songmei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei

    Electrochemical measurement and surface analysis methods were employed to investigate the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) influenced by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans biofilm. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicated that the impedance value of steel A3 after 21 days of immersion in sterile solution was much higher than that of T.f solution. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) results showed the adsorption state of the microorganism on the metal surface for 7 days of exposure in T.f solution. The morphologies of the surface film were analyzed with the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), which showed the changes with exposure time of the film on the metal surface. The special morphology and the heterogeneity of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans biofilm induced the localized corrosion of steel A3. After 21 days of exposure, general corrosion occurred in the sterile solution, while localized corrosion was detected under the effect of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

  15. Mechanism of Pyrite Dissolution in the Presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Holmes, P. R.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the environmental and commercial interests in the bacterial leaching of pyrite, two central questions have not been answered after more than 35 years of research: does Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enhance the rate of leaching above that achieved by ferric sulfate solutions under the same conditions, and if so, how do the bacteria affect such an enhancement? Experimental conditions of previous studies were such that the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions changed substantially throughout the course of the experiments. This has made it difficult to interpret the data obtained from these previous works. The aim of this work was to answer these two questions by employing an experimental apparatus designed to maintain the concentrations in solution at a constant value. This was achieved by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey, and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997; T. A. Fowler, and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3570–3575, 1998). Experiments were conducted in both the presence and absence of T. ferrooxidans, maintaining the same conditions in solution. The rate of dissolution of pyrite with bacteria was higher than that without bacteria at the same concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions in solution. Analysis of the dependence of the rate of leaching on the concentration of ferric ions and on the pH, together with results obtained from electrochemical measurements, provided clear evidence that the higher rate of leaching with bacteria is due to the bacteria increasing the pH at the surface of the pyrite. PMID:10388693

  16. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine.

  17. Heavy metal resistance of Thiobacillus spp. isolated from tin mining area in Bestari Jaya, Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, Pranesha; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul

    2016-11-01

    Increased anthropogenic activities such as mining have contributed to accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Microorganisms that are found in the contaminated area develop resistance toward the heavy metals after a prolonged exposure. Screenings for bacterial resistance to metal tin were conducted using isolated Thiobacillus spp. from a tin mining area at Bestari Jaya, Selangor. Two isolated Thiobacillus spp. able to show growth without inhibition up to 300 ppm. IC50 that indicate 50% inhibition of the bacterial growth for both isolates, TB1 and TB2 are 496.03 ppm and 514.27 ppm respectively under tin-stressed condition. Adaptation of these microorganisms toward heavy metal could be exploited for bioremediation of heavy metals at contaminated sites.

  18. Identify biosorption effects of Thiobacillus towards perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): Pilot study from field to laboratory.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tieyu; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Pei; Yvette, Baninla; Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhou, Yunqiao

    2017-03-01

    The concentration of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and the bacterial community composition along the Xiaoqing River were explored with HPLC-MS/MS and Illumina high-throughput sequencing in present study. The results showed that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAAs in all sediment samples, and high level of PFOA could lead to an evident increase in the abundance of Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus was identified with the survival ability in high concentrations of PFOA accordingly. Therefore, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus denitrificans were selected as receptors to design indoor biosorption experiment. The growth curves under different PFOA concentrations and residual rates of PFOA in the processes of cultivation were analyzed. The results showed that upwards concentrations of PFOA below 5000 ng/L led to an obvious increase in the growth rate of T. thioparus. Whereas PFOA promoted the growth of T. denitrificans in a relatively limited range of concentration, and the effect was not obvious. The addition of different concentrations of PFOA had no apparent effects on pH values in the media of both T. thioparus and T. denitrificans. The concentrations of PFOA in liquid media reduced after the process of bacteria culturing. The removal rates of T. thioparus and T. denitrificans to PFOA were 21.1-26.8% and 13.5-18.4%, respectively. The current findings indicated that T. thioparus could play a significant role as potential biosorbent with the ability to eliminate PFOA effectively in aquatic environment, which would provide novel information for PFOA ecological decontamination and remediation.

  19. [Tn5037-a Tn21-like mercury transposon, detected in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    PubMed

    Kaliaeva, E S; Kholodiĭ, G Ia; Bass, I A; Gorlenko, Zh M; Iur'eva, O V; Nikiforov, V G

    2001-08-01

    The 6645-bp mercury resistance transposon of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned and sequenced. This transposon, named Tn5037, belongs to the Tn21 branch of the Tn21 subgroup, many members of which have been isolated from clinical sources. Having the minimum set of the genes (merRTPA), the mercury resistance operon of Tn5037 is organized similarly to most of the Gram-negative bacteria mer operons and is closest to that of Thiobacillus 3.2. The operator-promoter region of the mer operon of Tn5037 also has the common (Tn21/Tn501-like) structure. However, its inverted, presumably MerR protein binding repeats in the operator/promoter element are two base pairs shorter than in Tn21/Tn501. In the merA region, this transposon shares 77.4, 79.1, 83.2 and 87.8% identical bases with Tn21, Tn501, T. ferrooxidance E-15, and Thiobacillus 3.2, respectively. No inducibility of the Tn5037 mer operon was detected in the in vivo experiments. The transposition system (terminal repeats plus gene tnpA) of Tn5037 was inactive in Escherichia coli K12, in contrast to its resolution system (res site plus gene tnpR). However, transposition of Tn5037 in this host was provided by the tnpA gene of Tn5036, a member of the Tn21 subgroup. Sequence analysis of the Tn5037 res site suggested its recombinant nature.

  20. [Research on anti-corrosion of Thiobacillus for the geopolymer solidification MSWI fly ash].

    PubMed

    Jin, Man-Tong; Sun, Xin; Dong, Hai-Li; Jin, Zan-Fang

    2012-09-01

    In order to discuss the anti-Thiobacillus corrosion performance of geopolymer solidification MSWI fly ash, the research simulated the Thiobacillus corrosion process by experiment, investigated the change of mass, compressive strength, leaching concentration. The results showed that geopolymer had a good anti-corrosion ability: weight loss within 1%, the compressive strength still reached 21.88 MPa after 28 days, the corrosion resistance coefficient was above 0.9. The maximum leaching concentration of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb were 107.7 microg x L(-1), 22.71 microg x L(-1), 39.18 microg x L(-1), 0.56 microg x L(-1), 34.84 microg x L(-1) and 3.03 microg x L(-1), respectively. And the leaching concentration of geopolymer reduced with the immersion time, showed a good anti-Thiobacillus corrosion performance. Through the X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope spectra of geopolymer, we investigated the microstructure and mechanism of geopolymer anti-corrosion.

  1. Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed Central

    Vescovo, M; Morelli, L; Bottazzi, V

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and 20 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were tested for resistance to 22 antibiotics by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Evidence suggesting linkage of these resistances to plasmids was obtained by "curing" experiments with acridine dyes and high growth temperatures. Examination of plasmid patterns of agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of loss in plasmid DNA under curing conditions in some of the strains examined. Images PMID:6798933

  2. Dendritic Cell Targeting of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-28

    Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice from lethal challenge M...lethal chal- lenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) via...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice

  3. Lactobacillus acidophilus Mixture in Treatment of Children Hospitalized With Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jamie M; Petrova, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Despite unproven effectiveness, Lactobacillus acidophilus is a widely used probiotic in the treatment of pediatric diarrhea. In this report, we evaluated the association between length of stay (LOS) for 290 young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea and adjuvant therapy with a probiotic mixture containing 80% L acidophilus that was included in treatment for 22.4% of them. Overall, no association between LOS and use of L acidophilus was recorded after controlling for age, length of diarrhea symptoms, duration of intravenous fluids, and prior exposure to antibiotic. However, LOS was directly associated with use of L acidophilus in children with negative stool studies, and no such association was recorded in children with positive stool for rotavirus or other infections. We concluded that adjuvant therapy with L acidophilus mixture is not beneficial for young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea.

  4. Anticholesteremic property of Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt fed to mature boars.

    PubMed

    Danielson, A D; Peo, E R; Shahani, K M; Lewis, A J; Whalen, P J; Amer, M A

    1989-04-01

    Three strains of Lactobacilus acidophilus (LA) were isolated from the feces of mature boars that were not being fed antibiotics from the Nebraska Gene Pool (NGP). All three LA isolates were screened in vitro for anticholesteremic and antimicrobial activities. One strain, LA16, caused the greatest reduction in cholesterol and inhibited both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli the most. LA16 was used to produce 16, 18.9-liter quantities of acidophilus yogurt (AY), over a period of 8 wk, for use as a feed ingredient in diets for the NGP boars. Colony forming units (cfu), pH, protein, energy, Ca and P were consistent across all 16 batches of yogurt. All of the 18 boars were fed a high-cholesterol diet for a period of 56 d at a rate of 2.268 kg/(hd.d) to furnish 6.661 g/(hd.d) of cholesterol. Nine of the boars then were fed 1.81 kg/(hd.d) of a second diet that was supplemented with .454 kg/(hd.d) of AY. The other nine boars were fed the original diet. Cholesterol intake was the same for the two dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected weekly from the brachial-jugular region and the sera were analyzed for lipids. Acidophilus yogurt reduced serum cholesterol (P less than .01) and low density lipoproteins (P less than .08), but it had no effect on serum triglycerides (P greater than .23) or on high density lipoproteins (P greater than .11).

  5. The life history of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic: a tale of revisionary taxonomy, misidentification and commercial success.

    PubMed

    Bull, Matthew; Plummer, Sue; Marchesi, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a commercially significant bacterial probiotic, originally isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract and designated Bacillus acidophilus in 1900. Throughout the development of methods to identify and characterise bacteria, L. acidophilus has undergone multiple taxonomic revisions and is now the type species of a phylogenetic subgroup in the highly diverse and heterogeneous Lactobacillus genus. As a result of the limitations of differentiating phenotypically similar species by morphological and biochemical means and revisionary nature of Lactobacillus taxonomy, the characterisation of L. acidophilus has struggled with misidentification and misrepresentation. In contrast, due to its global use as a probiotic supplement in functional foods, L. acidophilus sensu stricto is now one of the most well-characterised Lactobacillus species. Here, we establish the provenance of L. acidophilus strains, unpicking historical and current misidentifications of L. acidophilus, and reviewing the probiotic, genomic and physiological characteristics of this important Lactobacillus species.

  6. Occurrences at mineral-bacteria interface during oxidation of arsenopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, M.G.M.; Mustin, C.; Berthelin, J.; Donato, P. de; Barres, O.; Marion, P.

    1995-04-05

    The combination of an improved bacterial desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance and transmission infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and a desorption-leaching device like high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze bacterial populations and surface-oxidized phases during the arsenopyrite biooxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The bacterial distribution, the physicochemical composition of the leachate, the evolution of corrosion patterns, and the nature and amount of the surface-oxidized chemical species characterized different behavior for each step of arsenopyrite bioleaching.

  7. Specific dot-immunobinding assay for detection and enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, R.; Jerez, C.A. )

    1989-08-01

    A specific and very sensitive dot-immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the bioleaching microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was developed. Nitrocellulose spotted with samples was incubated with polyclonal antisera against whole T. ferrooxidans cells and then in {sup 125}I-labeled protein A or {sup 125}I-labeled goat antirabbit immunoglobulin G; incubation was followed by autoradiography. Since a minimum of 10{sup 3} cells per dot could be detected, the method offers the possibility of simultaneous processing of numerous samples in a short time to monitor the levels of T. ferrooxidans in bioleaching operations.

  8. Identification and structural analysis of a ribosomal RNA gene promoter from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, M; Salazar, O; Vargas, D; Jedlicki, E; Orellana, O

    1990-10-15

    The 5'-terminus of a rRNA operon (rrnT2) from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was characterized. The rRNA promoters from this microorganism were identified by means of a functional assay in Escherichia coli. DNA sequencing of the promoter region, upstream the 16 S rRNA gene, showed the presence of a consensus sequence for bacterial ribosomal promoters. Other features such as a 'discriminator' sequence, antiterminator elements and an upstream hexanucleotide common to several rRNA operons were also found. Two other putative transcription promoters were also identified.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.

  10. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagawa, T.; Mikami, E.

    1989-03-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day.

  11. Lactobacillus acidophilus contributes to a healthy environment for vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pi, Woojin; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Roh, Jaesook

    2011-09-01

    Lactobacillus species in the female genital tract are thought to act as a barrier to infection. Several studies have demonstrated that lactobacilli can adhere to vaginal epithelial cells. However, little is known about how the adherence of lactobacilli to vaginal epithelial cells affects the acidity, cell viability, or proliferation of the lactobacilli themselves or those of vaginal epithelial cells. Lactobacillus acidophilus was co-cultured with immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cell line), and the growth of L. acidophilus and the acidity of the culture medium were measured. MS74 cell density and viability were also assessed by counting cell numbers and observing the cell attachment state. L. acidophilus showed exponential growth for the first 6 hr until 9 hr, and the pH was maintained close to 4.0-5.0 at 24 hr after culture, consistent with previous studies. The growth curve of L. acidophilus or the pH values were relatively unaffected by co-culture with MS74 cells, confirming that L. acidophilus maintains a low pH in the presence of MS74 cells. This co-culture model could therefore potentially be used to mimic vaginal conditions for future in vitro studies. On the other hand, MS74 cells co-cultured with L. acidophilus more firmly attached to the culture plate, and a higher number of cells were present compared to cells cultured in the absence of L. acidophilus. These results indicate that L. acidophilus increases MS74 cell proliferation and viability, suggesting that lactobacilli may contribute to the healthy environment for vaginal epithelial cells.

  12. Phenol degradation by Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY via the meta-pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wengen; Guo, Wenbin; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-09-01

    Due to its toxicity and volatility, phenol must be cleared from the environment. Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, which was isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean as a moderately thermoacidophilic Gram-positive bacterium, was capable of aerobically degrading phenol. This bacterium could tolerate up to 1300mg/L phenol and degrade 100mg/L phenol in 40h completely at 45°C and pH 1.8 with a maximal degradation rate of 2.32mg/L/h at 38h. Genome-wide search revealed that one gene (TPY_3176) and 14 genes clustered together in two regions with locus tags of TPY_0628-0634 and TPY_0640-0646 was proposed to be involved in phenol degradation via the meta-pathway with both the 4-oxalocrotonate branch and the hydrolytic branch. Real-time PCR analysis of S. acidophilus TPY under phenol cultivation condition confirmed the transcription of proposed genes involved in the phenol degradation meta-pathway. Degradation of 3-methylphenol and 2-methylphenol confirmed that the hydrolytic branch was utilised by S. acidophilus TPY. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. acidophilus TPY was closely related to sulphate-reducing bacteria and some Gram-positive phenol-degrading bacteria. This was the first report demonstrating the ability of S. acidophilus to degrade phenol and characterising the putative genes involved in phenol metabolism in S. acidophilus TPY.

  13. Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ≥10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P < 0.05 for E. coli ATCC; t = -6.19, P < 0.05 for E. coli clinical isolates; t = -6.16, P < 0.05 for Enterobacter sp; t = -11.92, P < 0.05 for Salmonella typhi, t = -1.10, P > 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ≥10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity.

  14. Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of pyrite nanoparticles by Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Julian; Lee, Keun-Young; Jordan, Guntram; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2012-02-21

    Pyrite is a key mineral in the global biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and iron, yet its anaerobic microbial oxidation has eluded geochemists and microbiologists for decades. Recent reports indicated that anaerobic oxidation of pyrite is occurring, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence for the capability of Thiobacillus denitrificans to anaerobically oxidize a putatively nanosized pyrite particle fraction with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nanosized pyrite was readily oxidized to ferric iron and sulfate with a rate of 10.1 μM h(-1). The mass balance of pyrite oxidation and nitrate reduction revealed a closed recovery of the electrons. This substantiates a further "missing lithotrophy" in the global cycles of sulfur and iron and emphasizes the high reactivity of nanominerals in the environment.

  15. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  16. Kinetic properties of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Gay, Sean C; Fribourgh, Jennifer L; Donohoue, Paul D; Segel, Irwin H; Fisher, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    The Thiobacillus denitrificans genome contains two sequences corresponding to ATP sulfurylase (Tbd_0210 and Tbd_0874). Both genes were cloned and expressed protein characterized. The larger protein (Tbd_0210; 544 residues) possesses an N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain and was therefore annotated as a bifunctional enzyme. But, the protein was not bifunctional because it lacked ATP sulfurylase activity. However, the enzyme did possess APS kinase activity and displayed substrate inhibition by APS. Truncated protein missing the N-terminal domain had <2% APS kinase activity suggesting the function of the inactive sulfurylase domain is to promote the oligomerization of the APS kinase domains. The smaller gene product (Tbd_0874; 402 residues) possessed strong ATP sulfurylase activity with kinetic properties that appear to be kinetically optimized for the direction of APS utilization and ATP+sulfate production, which is consistent with an enzyme that functions physiologically to produce inorganic sulfate.

  17. Multiple Serotypes of the Moderate Thermophile Thiobacillus caldus, a Limitation of Immunological Assays for Biomining Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, K. B.; Lindstrom, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis indicates that a moderately thermophilic isolate, C-SH12, from Australia belongs to the species Thiobacillus caldus. Antiserum generated against whole cells of T. caldus KU recognized protein antigens common to cell lysates of the three T. caldus strains KU, BC13, and C-SH12 but did not recognize whole cells of isolate C-SH12. Differences in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of strain C-SH12 and those of the other two T. caldus strains were found, and the anti-KU antiserum did not recognize the LPS from strain C-SH12. These data indicate that this T. caldus isolate belongs to a serotype different from that of strains KU and BC13. PMID:16535449

  18. Effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus on cow manure aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenjie; Zhang, Fabao; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Xie, Kaizhi; Huang, Xu; Huang, Qiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    A simulated aerobic composting experiment was used to explore the effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus during six manure composting treatments. The addition of sulphur led to a decrease of the pH level within the range 6-6.3, which was lower than the control treatment (CK). The concentration of ammonium nitrogen in T1 (0.25% sulphur), T2 (0.5% sulphur), T3 (0.25% sulphur + T. thioparus) and T4 (0.5% sulphur + T. thioparus) were much higher than the ammonium N in CK. The results indicated that addition of sulphur could increase the concentration of ammonium N and reduce loss of nitrogen. However, excess sulphur had a negative effect on temperature and GI. Addition of T. thioparus could increase concentration of available S, alleviate these negative influences and reduce compost biological toxicity.

  19. The mechanism of bacterial action in the leaching of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. An electrochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, P.R.; Fowler, T.A.; Crundwell, F.K.

    1999-08-01

    In many of the experiments reported in the literature on the leaching of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of bacteria differ significantly from experiments conducted in their absence. In addition, these concentrations change throughout the course of the experiment. This makes it difficult to determine whether the presence of bacteria increases the rate of leaching above that for chemical leaching at the same solution conditions. The authors have designed an experimental apparatus to overcome this problem. This apparatus controls the redox potential in one compartment of an electrolytic cell by manipulating the current to the cell. In this manner, the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions are maintained at their initial values for the duration of the experiment. Two types of experiments are reported in this paper. In the first, pyrite electrodes were exposed to solutions of the same bulk conditions in the presence and absence of bacteria, and their mixed potentials were determined. In the second, particulate pyrite was leached with and without bacteria to determine the effect that bacteria have on the rate of leaching. The mixed potential of bacterially dissolved pyrite decreases as microcolonies and biofilms form on the surface of pyrite electrode over a 14 day period. On the other hand, the mixed potential of chemically dissolved pyrite is constant over the same period. The results of the leaching experiments show that Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enhances the rate of leaching above that found in the absence of bacteria at the same conditions in solution. An electrochemical model of pyrite dissolution is derived that describes the mixed potential and the kinetics of pyrite leaching. This analysis indicates that the decrease in mixed potential and the increase in the leaching rate in the presence of bacteria are due to an increase in the pH at the surface.

  20. Characterization of Thiobacillus thioparus LV43 and its distribution in a chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem.

    PubMed Central

    Vlasceanu, L; Popa, R; Kinkle, B K

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial strain LV43 was previously isolated from a floating microbial mat located in Movile Cave, the access point to a chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem in southern Romania. This gram-negative, rod-shaped organism grows autotrophically through the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide, but it does not grow heterotrophically. Strain LV43 grows over a pH range of 5.0 to 9.0, with an optimum near 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The pH of the medium decreased from 7.5 to 6.5 during growth on thiosulfate. Carbon isotope fractionation values for strain LV43 were within the previously reported range of fractionation values for the overall floating microbial mat in Movile Cave and were similar to values reported for chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing strains of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiomicrospira sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LV43 was determined, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LV43 was most closely related to Thiobacillus thioparus and the uncultured bacterial strain Strip2, which is represented by a 16S rRNA clone obtained by direct PCR from the Stripa research mine in Sweden. This identification of strain LV43 is supported by its G+C content of 62%, which is within the range reported for strains of T. thioparus. Fluorescently labeled polyclonal antibodies specific for strain LV43 were used to locate and enumerate this strain at different locations in Movile Cave and in nearby surface-water and groundwater sources. Strain LV43 was found only at aerobic, neutral-pH sites within the cave. Strain LV43 was also found outside Movile Cave in surface waters and in groundwater believed to intercept the same sulfurous aquifer as Movile Cave. PMID:9251199

  1. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  2. Anaerobic, Nitrate-Dependent Oxidation of U(IV) Oxide Minerals by the Chemolithoautotrophic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Beller, Harry R.

    2005-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions and at circumneutral pH, cells of the widely distributed, obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans oxidatively dissolved synthetic and biogenic U(IV) oxides (uraninite) in nitrate-dependent fashion: U(IV) oxidation required the presence of nitrate and was strongly correlated with nitrate consumption. This is the first report of anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by an autotrophic bacterium. PMID:15812053

  3. Anaerobic, Nitrate-Dependent Oxidation of U(IV) Oxide Minerals by the Chemolithoautotrophic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H R

    2004-06-25

    Under anaerobic conditions and at circumneutral pH, cells of the widely-distributed, obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans oxidatively dissolved synthetic and biogenic U(IV) oxides (uraninite) in nitrate-dependent fashion: U(IV) oxidation required the presence of nitrate and was strongly correlated to nitrate consumption. This is the first report of anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by an autotrophic bacterium.

  4. Effect of mycorrhizae, Thiobacillus and sulfur nutrition on the chemical composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.)] Merr. seed.

    PubMed

    Mostafavian, S R; Pirdashti, H; Ramzanpour, M R; Andarkhor, A A; Shahsavari, A

    2008-03-15

    A field experiment carried out in a calcareous soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate effectiveness of biofertilizers, mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) and Thiobacillus sp. inoculation individually or in combination on seed yield, oil, protein and some elements (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) concentration in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. The applied treatments were different fertilizers with 6 levels (including: NP (control, 12 kg N ha(-1) as urea, 46 kg P2O5 ha(-1) as triple super phosphate); NPK (NP + 75 kg K2O ha(-1) as potassium sulphate); NPKS [NPK+ S (100 kg S ha(-1))]; NPKST (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus bacteria); NPKM (NPK + Seed inoculation with mycorrhizae fungi) and NPKSTM (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus and mycorrhizae) and two cultivars (JK and 032). Before planting, soybean seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in all treatments. Results showed that combined inoculation of biofertilizers increased yield, however the highest yield was observed in treatment NPKST. Increasing oil content (percentage) was more pronounced in treatments NPKM, while most protein content (percentage) increasing was observed in NPKS and NPKM. Fe and Zn concentrations were unaffected significantly by fertilizer treatments, but NPKSTM showed significantly higher value of seed's Mn concentration compared to treatments NP and NPK. Although no significant difference was observed in terms ofP concentration of 032 line among fertilizer treatments, JK cultivar and NPKSTM caused a significant increasing in P concentration compared to NP, NPKS and NPKM. Present results suggested that applying biofertilizers i.e., mycorrhizae and Thiobacillus increased soybean yield compared to control (NP). Overall, this study demonstrated that soybean seed yield and its chemical composition could be affected by biofertilizer inoculation.

  5. Short communication: Adverse effect of surface-active reagents on the bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Huerta, G; Escobar, B; Rubio, J; Badilla-Ohlbaum, R

    1995-09-01

    Oxidation of Fe(II) iron and bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was adversely affected by isopropylxanthate, a flotation agent, and by LIX 984, a solvent-extraction agent, each at ≤ 1 g/l. The reagents/l were adsorbed on the bacterial surface, decreasing the bacteria's development and preventing biooxidation. Both reagents inhibited the bioleaching of pyrite and LIX 984 also inhibited the bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

  6. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  7. Capsicum annuum enhances L-lactate production by Lactobacillus acidophilus: implication in curd formation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Smriti; Jain, Sriyans; Nair, Girija N; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-07-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is commonly used lactic acid bacteria for producing fermented milk products. In general household practice, curdling is known to occur faster in the presence of red chili. Herein we analyzed the enhanced effect of red chili (Capsicum annuum) and its major component, capsaicin, on Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) in the production of L-lactate in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium at various temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 37°C). The addition of red chili showed significant increase in the amount of L-lactate produced by L. acidophilus compared with the control at all temperatures. Similar results were observed with addition of capsaicin alone. This was accompanied by an increase in the consumption of d-glucose. Capsazepine, a known antagonist of capsaicin, inhibited the production of L-lactate by L. acidophilus in the presence of both capsaicin and red chili. Because no increase occurred in the growth of L. acidophilus in the presence of red chili, the enhanced production of L-lactate in the presence of red chili or capsaicin is due to increased metabolic activity.

  8. The protective effect of recombinant FomA-expressing Lactobacillus acidophilus against periodontal infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Ding, Qinfeng; Feng, Xiping; Li, Fei

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that the outer membrane protein FomA found in Fusobacterium nucleatum demonstrates great potential as an immune target for combating periodontitis. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a useful antigen delivery vehicle for mucosal immunisation, and previous studies by our group have shown that L. acidophilus acts as a protective factor in periodontal health. In this study, making use of the immunogenicity of FomA and the probiotic properties of L. acidophilus, we constructed a recombinant form of L. acidophilus expressing the FomA protein and detected the FomA-specific IgG in the serum and sIgA in the saliva of mice through oral administration with the recombinant strains. When serum containing FomA-specific antibodies was incubated with the F. nucleatum in vitro, the number of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells that coaggregated with the F. nucleatum cells was significantly reduced. Furthermore, a mouse gum abscess model was successfully generated, and the range of gingival abscesses in the immune mice was relatively limited compared with the control group. The level of IL-1β in the serum and local gum tissues of the immune mice was consistently lower than in the control group. Our findings indicated that oral administration of the recombinant L. acidophilus reduced the risk of periodontal infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Simone FG; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia CA; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio OC; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. PMID:25654408

  10. Complete genome analysis of Sulfobacillus acidophilus strain TPY, isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Qian; Hu, Songnian; Chen, Xinhua

    2011-10-01

    Sulfobacillus acidophilus strain TPY is a moderately thermoacidophilic bacterium originally isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean. Ferrous iron and sulfur oxidation in acidic environments in strain TPY have been confirmed. Here we report the genome sequence and annotation of the strain TPY, which is the first complete genome of Sulfobacillus acidophilus.

  11. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Simone F G; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia C A; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio O C; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo.

  12. Detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Feces of Humans, Pigs, and Chickens1

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, S. E.; Speck, M. L.; Morgan, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Lactobacilli in fecal material from humans, pigs, and chickens were enumerated on lactobacillus selective agar (LBS). In all samples, higher numbers of lactobacilli were detected when plates were incubated in a system flushed with CO2 rather than in air. Much higher numbers of bacteria from human feces were detected when the LBS agar plates were incubated anaerobically in a hydrogen-carbon dioxide atmosphere (GasPak) than when incubated in CO2. The bacteria from human feces isolated on LBS agar incubated anaerobically were predominately bifidobacteria. Cultures from all three sources isolated on LBS agar incubated under CO2 were lactobacilli, including Lactobacillus acidophilus. Differences were observed in biochemical characteristics of some of the L. acidophilus isolated from all three sources. Guanine plus cytosine base ratios of deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from L. acidophilus cultures from humans were lower, in most cases, than those from pigs and chickens. PMID:811162

  13. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of an herbal dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Bhatnagar, Maheep; Sharma, Kanika

    2008-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of a herbal dentifrice Arodent against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was evaluated using Colgate as standard. Both bacterial strains were isolated from the oral cavity on selective media and identified by standard methods. The antibacterial activity was assayed by cup-well method. The bacterial lawn of facultative anaerobe S. mutans was established between two layers of agar under microaerophilic conditions. Five and a half millimeters and 10 mm zones of inhibition were produced by Arodent against S. mutans and L. acidophilus , respectively, under microaerophilic conditions. On the other hand, the standard dentifrice Colgate produced 5.83 mm and 10.17 mm zones of inhibition against S. mutans and L. acidophilus , respectively, under microaerophilic condition. The results suggest that Arodent is an effective antibacterial herbal dentifrice.

  14. Serum cholesterol levels in axenic mice colonized with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Zacconi, C; Bottazzi, V; Rebecchi, A; Bosi, E; Sarra, P G; Tagliaferri, L

    1992-10-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect was shown in axenic, mono, bicolonized and conventional mice: the effect was different depending on probiotic properties of intestinal microorganisms. Contamination by Enterococcus faecium CX determined the highest effect: haematic cholesterol level decrease was 16.9% in females and 7.8% in males. In mice contaminated by Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 the decrease of haematic cholesterol levels was less and not relevant in mice contaminated by conventional microflora. Enterococcus faecium CX and Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 strains were able to grow in presence of bile salts, to colonize intestinal tract, to survive at gastric conditions and to assimilate cholesterol (E. faecium more than L. acidophilus). The authors consider the possibility to associate probiotic strains with these characteristics for the health of consumers.

  15. Transmission of Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus acidophilus from mother to child at time of delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, J; Gothefors, L

    1975-01-01

    The presence of Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus acidophilus has been studied in specimens from the rectum and vagina of the mother, from the mouth of the infant at the time of delivery, and from the mouth and rectum of infants six days of age. L. jensenii could be differentiated from other species of lactobacilli by the following combination of characteristics: production of only D-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, and fermentation of cellobiose, galactose, and ribose, but not of lactose. L. jensenii and L. acidophilus were common inhabitants of the vagina. In spite of a contamination of the infant's mouth by L. jensenii and L. acidophilus during delivery, neither of these organisms became established in the mouth of the newborn infants. PMID:809467

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 attenuates the atherosclerotic progression through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Liu, Wenen; Li, Yanming; Luo, San; Liu, Qingxia; Zhong, Yiming; Jian, Zijuan; Bao, Meihua

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the progression of atherosclerosis in Apoliprotein-E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice and the underlying mechanisms. Eight week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 12 weeks. The wild type (WT) mice or ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group were treated with saline only. Body weights, serum lipid levels, aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and tissue oxidative and inflammatory statuses were examined among the groups. As compared to ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group, ApoE(-/-) mice treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 had no changes in body weights and serum lipid profiles, but showed decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in en face aorta. In comparison with WT mice, ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group showed higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), but lower levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum. Administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 could reverse these trends in a dose-dependent manner in ApoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, ApoE(-/-) mice treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed an inhibition of translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus, suppression of degradation of aortic IκB-α, and improvements of gut microbiota distribution, as compared to ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can attenuate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice through reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  17. Characterization of adhesive molecule with affinity to Caco-2 cells in Lactobacillus acidophilus by proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yanagihara, Sae; Shinoda, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2011-10-01

    The adhesive activities of eight Lactobacillus acidophilus strains toward intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were studied to understand the probiotic characteristics of the L. acidophilus L-92 strain. Most of the strains, including L-92, showed high adhesive activity; CP23 showed the lowest adhesive activity. CP23 was selected for comparative analysis of cell wall-associated proteins versus the L-92 strain. Cell wall-associated proteins extracted from L-92 and CP23 were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and major spots observed in the former were compared to the corresponding spots in the latter. To understand the effects of key components of L-92 on its adhesion to Caco-2 cells, 18 spots with stronger signals in L-92 than those in CP23 were identified by a MALDI-TOF/TOF of Ultraflex analysis. Among the identified proteins of L-92, surface-layer protein A (SlpA) was considered strongly involved in adhesion in the eight L. acidophilus strains. To study the importance of SlpA in the adhesion of L. acidophilus, the amounts of SlpA proteins in LiCl extracts of the eight strains were compared by SDSpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. As a result, the adhesive abilities of L. acidophilus strains to Caco-2 cells correlated closely to the amount of SlpA in the cells and the productivity of IL-12, an inflammatory cytokine, in all eight strains. These results strongly suggested that SlpA in L. acidophilus might play a key role in its attachment to Caco-2 cells and in the release of IL-12 from dendritic cells.

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin as dietary additives for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, M S; Odetallah, N H; Robinson, R K

    1999-03-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin alone, or in combination, on the growth of broiler chickens was monitored over a period of 8 weeks. 2. The maximum improvement in body weight over the controls was 10.8% with both additives in the diet but the use of bacitracin alone induced a 9.1% improvement. 3. Food conversion was reduced by zinc bacitracin alone but was improved by the use of L. acidophilus and bacitracin in combination. 4. The combination treatment increased abdominal fat deposition in the female chickens by 31%.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the nitrogenase iron protein of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Pretorius, I.M.; Rawlings, D.E.; O'Neill, E.G.; Jones, W.A.; Kirby, R.; Woods, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA sequence was determined for the cloned Thiobacillus ferrooxidans nifH and part of the nifD genes. The DNA chains were radiolabeled with (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)dCTP (3000 Ci/mmol) or (..cap alpha..-/sup 35/S)dCTP (400 Ci/mmol). A putative T. ferrooxidans nifH promoter was identified whose sequences showed perfect consensus with those of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif promoter. Two putative consensus upstream activator sequences were also identified. The amino acid sequence was deduced from the DNA sequence. In a comparison of nifH DNA sequences from T. ferrooxidans and eight other nitrogen-fixing microbes, a Rhizobium sp. isolated from Parasponia andersonii showed the greatest homology (74%) and Clostridium pasteurianum (nifH1) showed the least homology (54%). In the comparison of the amino acid sequences of the Fe proteins, the Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium japonicum showed the greatest homology (both 86%) and C. pasteurianum (nifH1 gene product) demonstrated the least homology (56%) to the T. ferrooxidans Fe protein.

  20. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by immobilized Thiobacillus thioparus in a biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Martín; Gómez, José Manuel; Aroca, Germán; Cantero, Domingo

    2009-11-01

    In the work described here, a biotrickling filter with Thiobacillus thioparus (ATCC 23645) immobilized on polyurethane foam is proposed for the removal of hydrogen sulfide contained in air. The effect of surface velocity of the recirculation medium (5.9-1.2 m/h), sulfate concentration inhibition (3.0-10.7 g/L), pH (6.0-8.2), empty bed residence time (EBRT) (150-11 s) for constant loads of 11.5 and 2.9 g S/m(3)/h, and pressure drop of the system were investigated. The total amount of biomass immobilized on the carrier was 8.2+/-1.3x10(10) cells/g. The optimal values of the operating variables were: pH between 7.0 and 7.5, surface velocity of 5.9 m/h and sulfate concentration below 5 g/L. The critical EC value was 14.9 g S/m(3)/h (removal efficiency of 99.8%) and the EC(max) was 55.0 g S/m(3)/h (removal efficiency of 79.8%) for an EBRT of 150 s. For loads of 2.89+/-0.05 and 11.5+/-0.1 g S/m(3)/h, the removal efficiency was higher than 99% for an EBRT over 90 s.

  1. Modeling and analysis of biooxidation of gold bearing pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrates by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Chandraprabha, M N; Modak, Jayant M; Natarajan, K A; Raichur, Ashok M

    2003-01-01

    The results of modeling the biooxidation of a mixed sulfidic concentrate by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is reported here. A kinetic model, which accounts for the dissolution of sulfide matrix due to both bacterial attachment onto the mineral surface and indirect leaching, has been proposed. A comprehensive system approach is employed for modeling the complex biooxidation process by (a) the decomposition of the complete system into several subsystems, (b) modeling individual systems, and (c) integrating the subsystems model in a final system model. The model for subsystems was developed by writing mass balance equations for the different species involved. The bacterial balance accounts for its growth, both on solid substrate and in solution, and for the attachment to and detachment from the surface. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by designing the experiments in such a manner that only one subsystem was operational. This model was tested in both laboratory scale batch and continuous biooxidation processes. The model predictions agreed with the experimental data reasonably well. A further analysis of the model was carried out to predict the conditions for efficient biooxidation. Studies on the effect of residence time and pulp density on steady-state behavior showed that there is a critical residence time and pulp density below which washout conditions occur. Operation at pulp densities lower than 5% and residence times lower than 72 h was found unfavorable for efficient leaching.

  2. Selective Inhibition of the Oxidation of Ferrous Iron or Sulfur in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Harahuc, Lesia; Lizama, Hector M.; Suzuki, Isamu

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of either ferrous iron or sulfur by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was selectively inhibited or controlled by various anions, inhibitors, and osmotic pressure. Iron oxidation was more sensitive than sulfur oxidation to inhibition by chloride, phosphate, and nitrate at low concentrations (below 0.1 M) and also to inhibition by azide and cyanide. Sulfur oxidation was more sensitive than iron oxidation to the inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure. These differences were evident not only between iron oxidation by iron-grown cells and sulfur oxidation by sulfur-grown cells but also between the iron and sulfur oxidation activities of the same iron-grown cells. Growth experiments with ferrous iron or sulfur as an oxidizable substrate confirmed the higher sensitivity of iron oxidation to inhibition by phosphate, chloride, azide, and cyanide. Sulfur oxidation was actually stimulated by 50 mM phosphate or chloride. Leaching of Fe and Zn from pyrite (FeS2) and sphalerite (ZnS) by T. ferrooxidans was differentially affected by phosphate and chloride, which inhibited the solubilization of Fe without significantly affecting the solubilization of Zn. PMID:10698768

  3. Cloning and expression of the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans glutamine synthetase gene in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, M.E.C.; Rawlings, D.E.; Woods, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    The glutamine synthetase (GS) gene glnA of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned on recombinant plasmid pMEB100 which enabled Escherichia coli glnA deletion mutants to utilize (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as the sole source of nitrogen. High levels of GS-specific activity were obtained in the E. coli glnA deletion mutants containing the T. ferrooxidans GS gene. The cloned T. ferrooxidans DNA fragment containing the glnA gene activated histidase activity in an E. coli glnA glnL glnG deletion mutant containing the Klebsiella aerogenes hut operon. Plasmid pMEB100 also enabled the E. coli glnA glnL glnG deletion mutant to utilize arginine or low levels of glutamine as the sole source of nitrogen. There was no detectable DNA homology between the T. ferrooxidans glnA gene and the E. coli glnA gene.

  4. Bioleaching of zinc and aluminium from industrial waste sludges by means of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Solisio, C; Lodi, A; Veglio, F

    2002-01-01

    Biological solubilisation of heavy metals contained in two different kinds of industrial wastes was performed in batches employing a strain of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The wastes tested were: a dust coming from the iron-manganese alloy production in an electric furnace (sludge 1) and a sludge coming from a process treatment plant of aluminium anodic oxidation (sludge 2). The experimental results pointed out the ability of the used strain to maintain the environment, that initially has a pH about 8, at strongly acid conditions (pH 2.5-3.5), producing sulphuric acid that is the chemical agent responsible for the metals solubilisation. At wastes initial concentration of 1%, the percentage of solubilised metals was 76 and 78% for the wastes 1 and 2, respectively, but the lag phase was considerably longer for sludge 2 than for sludge 1, indicating a different affinity of microorganisms for the solid phase. Increasing the initial slurry concentration, the percentage of removed metal reached 72-73% for the sludge 1, while in case of sludge 2, the total amount of solubilized metal progressively decreased. Two kinetic models are proposed to describe the trends of metals solubilization curves.

  5. Effect of Thiobacillus, sulfur, and vermicompost on the water-soluble phosphorus of hard rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Aria, Marzieh Mohammady; Lakzian, Amir; Haghnia, Gholam Hosain; Berenji, Ali Reza; Besharati, Hosein; Fotovat, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur, organic matter, and inoculation with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are considered as amendments to increase the availability of phosphorus from rock phosphate. The present study was conducted to evaluate the best combination of sulfur, vermicompost, and Thiobacillus thiooxidans inoculation with rock phosphate from Yazd province for direct application to agricultural lands in Iran. For such study, an experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement: Elemental sulfur originated from Sarakhs mine at three rates, 0% (S1), 10% (S2), 20% (S3), vermicompost at two rates, 0% (V1), 15% (V2), and inoculation without (B1) and with (B2) T. thiooxidans, in three replications. The results showed that water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) content was significantly higher in inoculated treatments compared to non-inoculated treatments. Sulfur had a significant effect on WSP. The highest solubility rate of rock phosphate was obtained in 20% of sulfur (S3) treatments and it was 2.4 times more than S1 treatments. Vermicompost also had a significant and positive effect on WSP of rock phosphate dissolution. The results also revealed that the highest concentration of WSP, sulfate and the lowest pH were obtained in treatments with 20% sulfur, 15% vermicompost inoculated with T. thiooxidans (B2S3V2).

  6. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur isotopic change during heterotrophic (Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and autotrophic (Thiobacillus denitrificans) denitrification reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Lin, In-Tian; Shimada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    In batch culture experiments, we examined the isotopic change of nitrogen in nitrate (δ15NNO3), carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC), and sulfur in sulfate (δ34SSO4) during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification of two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Thiobacillus denitrificans). Heterotrophic denitrification (HD) experiments were conducted with trisodium citrate as electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification (AD) experiments were carried out with iron disulfide (FeS2) as electron donor. For heterotrophic denitrification experiments, a complete nitrate reduction was accomplished, however bacterial denitrification with T. denitrificans is a slow process in which, after seventy days nitrate was reduced to 40% of the initial concentration by denitrification. In the HD experiment, systematic change of δ13CDIC (from - 7.7‰ to - 12.2‰) with increase of DIC was observed during denitrification (enrichment factor εN was - 4.7‰), suggesting the contribution of C of trisodium citrate (δ13C = - 12.4‰). No SO42 - and δ34SSO4 changes were observed. In the AD experiment, clear fractionation of δ13CDIC during DIC consumption (εC = - 7.8‰) and δ34SSO4 during sulfur use of FeS2-S (around 2‰), were confirmed through denitrification (εN = - 12.5‰). Different pattern in isotopic change between HD and AD obtained on laboratory-scale are useful to recognize the type of denitrification occurring in the field.

  7. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur isotopic change during heterotrophic (Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and autotrophic (Thiobacillus denitrificans) denitrification reactions.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Lin, In-Tian; Shimada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    In batch culture experiments, we examined the isotopic change of nitrogen in nitrate (δ(15)NNO3), carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)CDIC), and sulfur in sulfate (δ(34)SSO4) during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification of two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Thiobacillus denitrificans). Heterotrophic denitrification (HD) experiments were conducted with trisodium citrate as electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification (AD) experiments were carried out with iron disulfide (FeS2) as electron donor. For heterotrophic denitrification experiments, a complete nitrate reduction was accomplished, however bacterial denitrification with T. denitrificans is a slow process in which, after seventy days nitrate was reduced to 40% of the initial concentration by denitrification. In the HD experiment, systematic change of δ(13)CDIC (from -7.7‰ to -12.2‰) with increase of DIC was observed during denitrification (enrichment factor εN was -4.7‰), suggesting the contribution of C of trisodium citrate (δ(13)C=-12.4‰). No SO4(2-) and δ(34)SSO4 changes were observed. In the AD experiment, clear fractionation of δ(13)CDIC during DIC consumption (εC=-7.8‰) and δ(34)SSO4 during sulfur use of FeS2-S (around 2‰), were confirmed through denitrification (εN=-12.5‰). Different pattern in isotopic change between HD and AD obtained on laboratory-scale are useful to recognize the type of denitrification occurring in the field.

  8. Dimethyl sulphide degradation using immobilized Thiobacillus thioparus in a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Arellano-García, L; Revah, S; Ramírez, M; Gómez, J M; Cantero, D

    2009-11-01

    Gaseous dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was eliminated in a biotrickling filter with Thiobacillus thioparus grown in polyurethane foam cubes as carrier material. The temperature, pH and empty bed residence time of the gas were maintained at 30 degrees C, 7.0 and 40 s, respectively. In the first 45 days, DMS loads of around 2.0 gDMS m(-3) h(-1) were fed to the BTF to adapt T. thioparus to DMS consumption, attaining close to 100% removal efficiency (RE) on day 46, and the maximum elimination capacity (EC) was 4.0 gDMS m(-3) h(-1) with a RE of 77%. The overall performance was enhanced by adding a nitrogen-enriched (9x) medium but was negatively affected by high superficial liquid velocity (8.18 m h(-1)) and high pH (>7.5). Sulphate concentrations (up to 10 g L(-1)) showed no effect. The system supported shock loads up to 58 gDMS m(-3) h(-1) with increased elimination. With nitrogen-enriched medium and a pH of 7.0 it was possible to increase the EC of DMS up to a maximum of around 23 gDMS m(-3) h(-1) with 65% RE.

  9. Reclassification of 'Thiobacillus prosperus' Huber and Stetter 1989 as Acidihalobacter prosperus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae.

    PubMed

    Pablo Cárdenas, Juan; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Norris, Paul R; Watkin, Elizabeth; Holmes, David S

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of phylogenomic metrics of a recently released draft genome sequence of the halotolerant, acidophile 'Thiobacillus prosperus' DSM 5130 indicates that it is not a member of the genus Thiobacillus within the class Betaproteobacteria as originally proposed. Based on data from 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, and analyses of multiprotein phylogeny and average nucleotide identity (ANI), we show that it belongs to a new genus within the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae, for which we propose the name Acidihalobacter gen. nov. In accordance, it is proposed that 'Thiobacillus prosperus' DSM 5130 be named Acidihalobacter prosperus gen. nov., sp. nov. DSM 5130T ( = JCM 30709T) and that it becomes the type strain of the type species of this genus.

  10. Potential for tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus as an effective component in moisturizing skin and anti-wrinkle products.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Hui Seong; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-08-01

    It is widely accepted that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin damage. In the present study, a UVB-induced hairless mouse model of skin photoaging was developed to determine whether tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to significantly enhance the repair of photodamaged skin. To evaluate the effects of tyndalized L. acidophilus on UVB-induced skin-wrinkle formation in vivo, HR-1 hairless male mice were exposed to UVB radiation and orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus. Compared with the control group, the UVB irradiation mice displayed a significant increase in transepidermal water loss and a reduction in skin hydration. In mice with UVB-induced photodamage, the effacement of the fine wrinkles by tyndalized L. acidophilus was correlated with dermal collagen synthesis, accompanied by histological changes. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to investigate the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Notably, orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus reduced the expression levels of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Based upon the aforementioned results, it was determined that tyndalized L. acidophilus effectively inhibited the wrinkle formation induced by UVB irradiation, and that this may be attributed to the downregulation of MMPs. Therefore, tyndalized L. acidophilus may be considered a potential agent for preventing skin photoaging and wrinkle formation.

  11. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 prevents atherosclerosis via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.

  12. Functional Analysis of an S-Layer-Associated Fibronectin-Binding Protein in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Hymes, Jeffrey P.; Johnson, Brant R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps) that comprise the outermost layer of the cell envelope. Many additional proteins that are associated with or embedded within the S-layer have been identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, an S-layer-forming bacterium that is widely used in fermented dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on the in silico detection of a fibronectin-binding domain. Fibronectin is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of intestinal epithelial cells. Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells is considered an important trait for probiotic microorganisms during transit and potential association with the intestinal mucosa. To investigate the functional role of LBA0191 (designated FbpB) in L. acidophilus NCFM, an fbpB-deficient strain was constructed. The L. acidophilus mutant with a deletion of fbpB lost the ability to adhere to mucin and fibronectin in vitro. Homologues of fbpB were identified in five additional putative S-layer-forming species, but no homologues were detected in species outside the L. acidophilus homology group. PMID:26921419

  13. Modulation of the Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 lipidome by different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marie-Louise R W; Clausen, Anders; Ejsing, Christer S; Risbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Probiotics are bacteria used in the food industry due to their potential health benefits. In this study, the plasma membrane of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 was investigated using state-of-the-art high-resolution shotgun lipidomics. Comparisons of the lipidome of the plasma membrane were done after altering the fatty acid composition by supplementing L. acidophilus La-5 with saturated, mono-, di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids during fermentation. The plasma membrane with the highest degree of saturation resulted in a lipid composition with the highest proportion of cardiolipin (CL) and lowest proportion of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL). No significant changes were found for other lipid classes. The bacteria grown with di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids were expected to have more unsaturated plasma membranes than bacteria grown with mono-unsaturated fatty acids. This was also the case for MLCL, but the numbers of double bonds for CL were quite similar for these three samples. The results indicate that L. acidophilus La-5 possesses a molecular mechanism for remodelling and optimizing the fatty acid composition of CL and MLCL species and the molar ratio of CL and MLCL. This study contributes new knowledge on the previously uninvestigated lipidome of L. acidophilus La-5.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    PubMed

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management.

  15. Functional Analysis of an S-Layer-Associated Fibronectin-Binding Protein in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Jeffrey P; Johnson, Brant R; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps) that comprise the outermost layer of the cell envelope. Many additional proteins that are associated with or embedded within the S-layer have been identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, an S-layer-forming bacterium that is widely used in fermented dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on the in silico detection of a fibronectin-binding domain. Fibronectin is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of intestinal epithelial cells. Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells is considered an important trait for probiotic microorganisms during transit and potential association with the intestinal mucosa. To investigate the functional role of LBA0191 (designated FbpB) in L. acidophilus NCFM, an fbpB-deficient strain was constructed. The L. acidophilus mutant with a deletion off bpB lost the ability to adhere to mucin and fibronectin in vitro Homologues off bpB were identified in five additional putative S-layer-forming species, but no homologues were detected in species outside theL. acidophilus homology group.

  16. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P

    2016-01-14

    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P<0·05) for each of the individual treatment groups: BCD or L. acidophilus. However, significant differences in total serum cholesterol concentrations were observed when comparing the combined treatment group (BCD and L. acidophilus) with the control group, which consisted of a basal diet and sterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  17. Fat-free plain yogurt manufactured with inulins of various chain lengths and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Aryana, K J; Plauche, S; Rao, R M; McGrew, P; Shah, N P

    2007-04-01

    Inulin is a prebiotic food ingredient that increases the activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, increases calcium absorption, and is a good source of dietary fiber. The objective was to determine the effect of short, medium, and long chain inulins on the physicochemical, sensory, and microbiological characteristics of fat-free plain yogurt containing L. acidophilus. Inulins of short (P95), medium (GR), and long (HP) chain lengths were incorporated at 1.5% w/w of the yogurt mix. Viscosity, pH, syneresis, sensory properties (flavor, body and texture, and appearance and color), L. acidophilus counts, and color (L*, a*, and b*) of yogurts were determined at 1, 11, and 22 d after yogurt manufacture. The P95 containing yogurt had a significantly lower pH than the remaining yogurts, higher flavor scores than the yogurt containing HP, and comparable flavor scores with the control. The yogurts containing HP had less syneresis than the control and a better body and texture than the remaining yogurts. Yogurts containing prebiotics of different chain lengths had comparable L. acidophilus counts with each other but higher counts than the control. However, inulins of various chain lengths did not affect viscosity, color, and product appearance. Chain length of prebiotics affected some quality attributes of probiotic yogurts.

  18. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  19. Effect of external pH perturbations on in vivo protein synthesis by the acidophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, A M; Chamorro, D; Seeger, M; Arredondo, R; Peirano, I; Jerez, C A

    1991-01-01

    The response of the obligate acidophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to external pH changes is reported. When T. ferrooxidans cells grown at pH 1.5 were shifted to pH 3.5, there were several changes in the general protein synthesis pattern, including a large stimulation of the synthesis of a 36-kDa protein (p36). The apparent low isoelectric point of p36, its location in the membrane fraction, and its cross-reaction with anti-OmpC from Salmonella typhi suggested that it may be a porin whose expression is regulated by extracellular pH. Images PMID:1987171

  20. The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitfificans.

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H R; Larimer, Frank W

    2006-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, {beta}-proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and to oxidize mineral electron donors. Notable genomic features include (i) genes encoding c-type cytochromes totaling 1 to 2 percent of the genome, which is a proportion greater than for almost all bacterial and archaeal species sequenced to date, (ii) genes encoding two [NiFe]hydrogenases, which is particularly significant because no information on hydrogenases has previously been reported for T. denitrificans and hydrogen oxidation appears to be critical for anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by this species, (iii) a diverse complement of more than 50 genes associated with sulfur-compound oxidation (including sox genes, dsr genes, and genes associated with the AMP-dependent oxidation of sulfite to sulfate), some of which occur in multiple (up to eight) copies, (iv) a relatively large number of genes associated with inorganic ion transport and heavy metal resistance, and (v) a paucity of genes encoding organic-compound transporters, commensurate with obligate chemolithoautotrophy. Ultimately, the genome sequence of T. denitrificans will enable elucidation of the mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur-compound oxidation by {beta}-proteobacteria and will help reveal the molecular basis of this organism's role in major biogeochemical cycles (i.e., those involving sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon) and groundwater restoration.

  1. Permanent draft genome of Thiobacillus thioparus DSM 505(T), an obligately chemolithoautotrophic member of the Betaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Lee P; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, Tatiparthi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Boden, Rich

    2017-01-01

    Thiobacillus thioparus DSM 505(T) is one of first two isolated strains of inorganic sulfur-oxidising Bacteria. The original strain of T. thioparus was lost almost 100 years ago and the working type strain is Culture C(T) (=DSM 505(T) = ATCC 8158(T)) isolated by Starkey in 1934 from agricultural soil at Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA. It is an obligate chemolithoautotroph that conserves energy from the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds using the Kelly-Trudinger pathway and uses it to fix carbon dioxide It is not capable of heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth. The strain has a genome size of 3,201,518 bp. Here we report the genome sequence, annotation and characteristics. The genome contains 3,135 protein coding and 62 RNA coding genes. Genes encoding the transaldolase variant of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle were also identified and an operon encoding carboxysomes, along with Smith's biosynthetic horseshoe in lieu of Krebs' cycle sensu stricto. Terminal oxidases were identified, viz. cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3, EC 1.9.3.1) and ubiquinol oxidase (bd, EC 1.10.3.10). There is a partial sox operon of the Kelly-Friedrich pathway of inorganic sulfur-oxidation that contains soxXYZAB genes but lacking soxCDEF, there is also a lack of the DUF302 gene previously noted in the sox operon of other members of the 'Proteobacteria' that can use trithionate as an energy source. In spite of apparently not growing anaerobically with denitrification, the nar, nir, nor and nos operons encoding enzymes of denitrification are found in the T. thioparus genome, in the same arrangements as in the true denitrifier T. denitrificans.

  2. Occurrences at mineral-bacteria interface during oxidation of arsenopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M G; Mustin, C; de Donato, P; Barres, O; Marion, P; Berthelin, J

    1995-04-05

    The combination of an improved bacterial desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance and transmission infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and a desorption-leaching device like high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze bacterial populations (adhering and free bacteria) and surface-oxidized phases (ferric arsenates and elemental sulfur) during the arsenopyrite biooxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The bacterial distribution, the physicochemical composition of the leachate, the evolution of corrosion patterns, and the nature and amount of the surface-oxidized chemical species characterized different behavior for each step of arsenopyrite bioleaching. The first step is characterized by a slow but strong adhesion of bacteria to mineral surfaces, the appearance of a surface phase of elemental sulfur, the weak solubilization of Fe(II), As(III), and As(V), and the presence of the first corrosion patterns, which follow the fragility zones and the crystallographic orientation of mineral grains. After this short step, growth of the unattached bacteria begins, while ferrous ions in solution are oxidized by them. Ferric ions produced by the bacteria can oxidize the sulfide directly and are regenerated by Fe(II) bacterial oxidation. At this time, a bioleaching cycle takes place and a coarse surface phase of ferric arsenate (FeAsO(4) . xH(2)O where x approximately 2) and deep ovoid pores appear. At the end of the bioleaching cycle, the high concentration of Fe(III) and As(V) in solution promotes the precipitation of a second phase of amorphous ferric arsenate (FeAsO(4) . xH(2)O where x approximately 4) in the leachate. Then the biooxidation process ceases: The bacteria adhering to the mineral sufaces are coated by the ferric arsenates and the concentration of Fe(III) on the leachate is found to have decreased greatly. Both oxidation mechanisms (direct and indirect oxidation) have been stopped. (c) 1995 John Wiley

  3. Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. [Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus, Rhodococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-02-07

    The original conception of the work was that genetic determinants of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate ( 4S'') pathway in Pseudomonas spp. would be cloned in vivo and then transferred to Thiobacillus spp. This ambition remains an appealing prospect; however, fulfilling that ambition has been confounded by an instability observed in the DbtS{sup +} phenotype in Pseudomonas spp. But the persisting interest in the phenotype has lead to isolation of fresh strains which have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. One strain in particular, N1-36, has been the focus of extensive characterizations in long-term cultures. During the present quarter, seven cultures maintained in a fermentor'' for a week or longer have been run to determine rate and extent of growth, extent of conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) or dibenzosulfone (DBTO{sub 2}) to monohydroxybiphenyl (OH-BP), effect of pH maintained at 6.0, and the effect of adding glucose to cultures in which the amount of glucose had been diminished by bacterial consumption. In addition, a study of the effectiveness of using R68.445 as a vehicle for in vivo cloning of genes was completed this semester, and introduction of DbtS{sup +} determinants into Thiobacillus spp. continues to be an important goal.

  4. Bacteriocin production and resistance to drugs are advantageous features for Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14, a potential probiotic strain.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Furtado, Danielle Nader; Saad, Susana Marta Isay; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora

    2011-10-01

    L. acidophilus La-14 produces bacteriocin active against L. monocytogenes ScottA (1600 AU/ml) in MRS broth at 30°C or 37°C. The bacteriocin proved inhibitory to different serological types of Listeria spp. Antimicrobial activity was completely lost after treatment of the cell-free supernatant with proteolytic enzymes. Addition of bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus La-14 to a 3 h-old culture of L. monocytogenes ScottA repressed cell growth in the following 8h. Treatment of stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes ScottA (107-108 CFU/ml) by the bacteriocin resulted in growth inhibition. Growth of L. acidophilus La-14 was not inhibited by commercial drugs from different generic groups, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) containing diclofenac potassium or ibuprofen arginine. Only one non-antibiotic drug tested, Atlansil (an antiarrhythmic agent), had an inhibitory effect on L. acidophilus La-14 with MIC of 2.5 mg/ml. L. acidophilus La-14 was not affected by drugs containing sodium or potassium diclofenac. L. acidophilus La-14 shows a good resistance to several drugs and may be applied in combination for therapeutic use.

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans immune conditioning with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NCFM enhances gram-positive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2012-07-01

    Although the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to microbial infections is well established, very little is known about the effects of health-promoting probiotic bacteria on evolutionarily conserved C. elegans host responses. We found that the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is not harmful to C. elegans and that L. acidophilus NCFM is unable to colonize the C. elegans intestine. Conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM significantly decreased the burden of a subsequent Enterococcus faecalis infection in the nematode intestine and prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to pathogenic strains of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Preexposure of nematodes to Bacillus subtilis did not provide any beneficial effects. Importantly, L. acidophilus NCFM activates key immune signaling pathways involved in C. elegans defenses against Gram-positive bacteria, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (via TIR-1 and PMK-1) and the β-catenin signaling pathway (via BAR-1). Interestingly, conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM had a minimal effect on Gram-negative infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and had no or a negative effect on defense genes associated with Gram-negative pathogens or general stress. In conclusion, we describe a new system for the study of probiotic immune agents and our findings demonstrate that probiotic conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM modulates specific C. elegans immunity traits.

  6. Impact of oral Lactobacillus acidophilus gavage on rooster seminal and cloacal Lactobacilli concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kiess, A S; Hirai, J H; Triplett, M D; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2016-08-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry is being heavily scrutinized, therefore alternatives such as probiotics are being investigated. Lactobacilli spp. are a commonly used bacteria in formulating probiotics, and the addition of Lactobacilli to broiler diets has demonstrated increased growth rates, stimulated immune systems, and reduced pathogen loads in the gastro-intestinal tract ( GI: ) tract. However, previous research has shown that when rooster semen is directly exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) sperm quality is reduced. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine if oral administration of L. acidophilus increases the concentration of Lactobacilli in semen as well as the cloaca. A total of 30 roosters were used: 15 roosters were gavaged with 1X PBS (Control) and 15 roosters were gavaged with 10(7) cfu/mL of L. acidophilus (Treated). All roosters were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. Semen was collected on a 3 d interval, and cloacal swabs were collected on a 2 d interval, beginning on the first day prior to oral administration. Semen and cloacal swabs were serial diluted, and 100 μL of each dilution was then plated on Man, Rogosa, Sharpe ( MRS: ) agar plates. All plates were incubated for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions and counted. All Lactobacilli counts were first log transformed, then log transformed (day 0) pre-counts were subtracted from the log transformed day counts providing log differences for the analysis. Seminal Lactobacilli counts were not altered by treatments. However, the main effect of treatment (P = 0.026) for cloacal counts indicated that roosters gavaged with Lactobacilli yielded higher counts than the controls. Additionally, cloaca samples also demonstrated a treatment by day interaction trend (P = 0.082), where Lactobacilli was higher in the L. acidophilus gavaged roosters than the controls only on days 3, 5, 13, and 15. In conclusion, the addition of L. acidophilus to the male breeder diet

  7. Murein hydrolase activity of surface layer proteins from Lactobacillus acidophilus against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Gao, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the murein hydrolase activities of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) from two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus using zymography. The influence of these hydrolase activities on Escherichia coli ATCC 43893 was also evaluated by analysing their growth curve, cell morphology and physiological state. After the incubation of E. coli with SLPs, growth was inhibited, the number of viable cells was significantly reduced, examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell wall was damaged and flow cytometry results indicated that the majority of the cells were sublethally injured. All of these results suggested that the SLPs of both L. acidophilus strains possessed murein hydrolase activities that were sublethal to E. coli cells.

  8. Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, M Luz; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Pérez-Ramos, Adrián; Gaiser, Rogier A; Requena, Teresa; López, Paloma

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene expression in Lactobacillus. This vector is also able to replicate in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The usage of pRCR as a promoter probe was validated in Lactobacillus acidophilus by characterizing the regulation of lactacin B expression. The results show that the regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level, with lbaB gene expression being specifically induced by co-culture of the L. acidophilus bacteriocin producer and the S. thermophilus STY-31 inducer bacterium.

  9. Modification of sweet acidophilus milk to improve utilization by lactose-intolerant persons.

    PubMed

    McDonough, F E; Hitchins, A D; Wong, N P; Wells, P; Bodwell, C E

    1987-03-01

    Enhanced digestion of yogurt by lactose-intolerant individuals is believed to be due to inherent beta-galactosidase (lactase) in the culture organisms that aids in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. However, sweet acidophilus milk, which contains lactase-rich organisms, does not enhance lactose digestion. Using breath-hydrogen measurements to indicate malabsorption in 14 human subjects, we compared utilization of: milk, yogurt, heated yogurt, yogurt plus lactose, heated yogurt plus lactase, sweet acidophilus milk (SAM), and SAM made with sonicated cells. Results indicate that both the reduction of lactose during fermentation and the presence of indigenous bacterial lactase are responsible for the increased ability to tolerate lactose in yogurt. Improved utilization of SAM by sonication suggests that intracellular lactase is not available during digestion and that sonication releases the lactase activity from the cells.

  10. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus & epidermal growth factor on experimentally induced Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhminderjit; Vaishnavi, Chetana; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Ray, Pallab; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) remains an important nosocomial ailment. Antimicrobial therapy used for CDAD gives inconsistent results. This experimental study was planned to investigate the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and epidermal growth factor (EGF) for CDAD management. Methods: Among 10 groups of BALB/c mice (6 in each), group 1 served as controls receiving no inoculum. Animals in groups 2-10 received C. difficile, those in groups 3, 6 and 9 received L. acidophilus and those in groups 4, 7 and 10 received EGF after C. difficile inoculation. Animals in groups 5-7 were pre-treated with ampicillin and those in groups 8-10 with lansoprazole prior to C. difficile. The animals were killed and investigated for colonisation by C. difficile and toxin production, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathology. Results: Colonisation by C. difficile was found to be significantly different (P<0.001) in the various groups. C. difficile toxin titres and MPO activity were significantly lower in animals given L. acidophilus and EGF after ampicillin (groups 6 and 7) and lansoprazole (groups 9 and 10). The severity of acute inflammation was also significantly less (P<0.05) in caecal and colonic segments of animals in groups 6 and 7 compared to those in group 5. Although the severity of acute inflammation was less in the caecal and colonic segment of animals in groups 9 and 10, the reduction was not significant compared to group 8. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that the administration of L. acidophilus and EGF reduced the severity of C. difficile infection in the experimental animals. PMID:21537099

  11. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  12. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  13. Development of a tiered multilocus sequence typing scheme for members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W; Pfeiler, Erika A; Elkins, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species.

  14. Functional and comparative genomic analyses of an operon involved in fructooligosaccharide utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Altermann, Eric; Hutkins, Robert; Cano, Raul; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a probiotic organism that displays the ability to use prebiotic compounds such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which stimulate the growth of beneficial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the mechanisms and genes involved in FOS utilization by Lactobacillus species. Analysis of the L. acidophilus NCFM genome revealed an msm locus composed of a transcriptional regulator of the LacI family, a four-component ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, a fructosidase, and a sucrose phosphorylase. Transcriptional analysis of this operon demonstrated that gene expression was induced by sucrose and FOS but not by glucose or fructose, suggesting some specificity for nonreadily fermentable sugars. Additionally, expression was repressed by glucose but not by fructose, suggesting catabolite repression via two cre-like sequences identified in the promoter–operator region. Insertional inactivation of the genes encoding the ABC transporter substrate-binding protein and the fructosidase reduced the ability of the mutants to grow on FOS. Comparative analysis of gene architecture within this cluster revealed a high degree of synteny with operons in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the association between a fructosidase and an ABC transporter is unusual and may be specific to L. acidophilus. This is a description of a previously undescribed gene locus involved in transport and catabolism of FOS compounds, which can promote competition of beneficial microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12847288

  15. Chromosomal-gene-mediated inhibition of intestinal and foodborne pathogens by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11.

    PubMed

    Abo-Amer, Aly E

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 63 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from Egyptian home-made cheese and examined for production of antagonism. Only eight strains demonstrated inhibitory activity against spoilage microorganisms (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and pathogens (i.e. E. coli, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp.). Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 produced a more antimicrobial activity with a wide range of inhibition. The agent AA11 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and retained full activity after 30 min at 100 degrees C. Activity against sensitive cells was bactericidal but not bacteriolytic. The compound was produced during growth phase and can be extracted from the culture supernatant fluids with n-Butanol. 12 % SDS-PAGE analysis of 40% ammonium sulphate precipitated agent showed two peptides with molecular weights of approximately 36 kDa and approximately 29 kDa. No plasmid was identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 indicating that the genes encoding the inhibitory agent located on the chromosome. These characteristics identify the inhibitory substance as a bacteriocin, designated acidocin AA11 and confer the agent an application potential as a biopreservative.

  16. Tailoring gut immune responses with lipoteichoic acid-deficient Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Yaíma L.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    As highlighted by the development of intestinal autoinflammatory disorders when tolerance is lost, homeostatic interactions between gut microbiota, resident immune cells, and the gut epithelium are key in the maintenance of gastrointestinal health. Gut immune responses, whether stimulatory or regulatory, are dictated by the activated dendritic cells (DCs) that first interact with microorganisms and their gene products to then elicit T and B cell responses. Previously, we have demonstrated that treatment with genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus is sufficient to tilt the immune balance from proinflammatory to regulatory in experimental models of colitis and colon cancer. Given the significant role of DCs in efficiently orchestrating intestinal immune responses, characterization of the signals induced within these cells by the surface layer molecules, such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and proteins of L. acidophilus is critical for future treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Here, we discuss the potential regulatory pathways involved in the downregulation of pathogenic inflammation in the gut, and explore questions regarding the immune responses to LTA-deficient L. acidophilus that require future studies. PMID:23390423

  17. Whole-cell detection of live lactobacillus acidophilus on aptamer-decorated porous silicon biosensors.

    PubMed

    Urmann, K; Arshavsky-Graham, S; Walter, J G; Scheper, T; Segal, E

    2016-09-21

    This work describes the design of optical aptamer-based porous silicon (PSi) biosensors for the direct capture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (single-stranded DNA or RNA) that can bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, making them excellent recognition elements for biosensing applications. Herein, aptamer Hemag1P, which specifically targets the important probiotic L. acidophilus, was utilized for direct bacteria capture onto oxidized PSi Fabry-Pérot thin films. Monitoring changes in the reflectivity spectrum (using reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy) allows for bacteria detection in a label-free, simple and rapid manner. The performance of the biosensor was optimized by tuning the PSi nanostructure, its optical properties, as well as the immobilization density of the aptamer. We demonstrate the high selectivity and specificity of this simple "direct-capture" biosensing scheme and show its ability to distinguish between live and dead bacteria. The resulting biosensor presents a robust and rapid method for the specific detection of live L. acidophilus at concentrations relevant for probiotic products and as low as 10(6) cells per mL. Rapid monitoring of probiotic bacteria is crucial for quality, purity and safety control as the use of probiotics in functional foods and pharmaceuticals is becoming increasingly popular.

  18. Effect of porous starch concentrations on the microbiological characteristics of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Ma, Yuan; Che, Zhenming; Cai, Yimin; Jiang, Li

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different porous starch concentrations on the microbiological characteristics of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus. Results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of L. acidophilus with porous starch at a concentration of 10% is the highest (61.2%) compared with other concentrations. The morphology of microencapsulation was observed by scanning electron microscope. Moreover, survival assays at pH 1.5 indicated that, at the end of 3 h, the cell numbers for microencapsulation with 10% porous starch and free cells showed 2.63 and 4.01 logarithmic cycle reductions, respectively. However, no significant reduction in viable count was observed in microcapsules as well as for free cells at pH 6.5 for 3 h. The improving survival rate under high temperatures was observed with increasing concentration of porous starch from 6 to 10% and decreasing temperature. The released counts were increased with prolonged incubation time and were between 6.34 and 6.46 log CFU g(-1) at the end of storage exposure for 2.5 h to simulated colonic pH solution. These results indicated that porous starch with the optimum concentration as a carrier can be considered as an innovative technology to improve the stability of L. acidophilus.

  19. Effects of penicillin G on morphology and certain physiological parameters of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, M; Kasra Kermanshahi, R; Zarkesh-Esfahani, S H

    2011-08-01

    Evidence shows that probiotic bacteria can undergo substantial structural and morphological changes in response to environmental stresses, including antibiotics. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of penicillin G (0.015, 0.03, and 0.06 mg/l) on the morphology and adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, including the colony morphotype, biofilm production, hydrophobicity, H₂O₂ formation, S-layer structure, and slpA gene expression. Whereas only smooth colonies grew in the presence of penicillin, rough and smooth colony types were observed in the control group. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was found to be hydrophobic under normal conditions, yet its hydrophobicity decreased in the presence of the antibiotic. No biofilm was produced by the bacterium, despite testing a variety of different culture conditions; however, treatment with penicillin G (0.015-0.06 mg/l) significantly decreased its production of H₂O₂ formation and altered the S-layer protein structure and slpA gene expression. The S-protein expression decreased with 0.015 mg/l penicillin G, yet increased with 0.03 and 0.06 mg/l penicillin G. In addition, the slpA gene expression decreased in the presence of 0.015 mg/l of the antibiotic. In conclusion, penicillin G was able to alter the S-layer protein production, slpA gene expression, and certain physicochemical properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

  20. Preparation and application characteristics of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotics for dogs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Wang, TinXuan; Cai, Yimin; Cao, Dong; Che, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    In this article, preparation and application characteristics of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus were investigated. Results indicated that the optimum condition for preparation of micro encapsulation were 10% (w/v) wall material and the temperature of 20°C, respectively. Many micropores in the porous starch micro particles was also observed by Scanning Electron Microscope. Furthermore, the released cell counts were increase from 2.43 log cfu/g to 9.17 log cfu/g for the time prolong to 3h in the simulated colonic pH solution. On the other hand, the visible cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the dog feces on the 10th day after the probiotics feeding was improve about 34.8% compare to the before feeding, which was decrease about 24.6%for Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the content of is ovaleric acid, indole and 3-methylindole, putrefactive substances in dog feces, before feeding were reduce 24%, 16% and 45% in dog feces on the 10th day after feeding compared to that before feeding, respectively. Micro encapsulation can be considered a useful technology to provide the protection for Lactobacillus acidophilus and better application effective.

  1. Viability of probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and nonprobiotic microflora in Argentinian Fresco cheese.

    PubMed

    Vinderola, C G; Prosello, W; Ghiberto, T D; Reinheimer, J A

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bifidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combinations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts, and molds) organisms were counted at 0, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage. Furthermore, the acid resistance of probiotic and starter bacteria was determined from hydrochloric solutions (pH 2 and 3) of Fresco cheese. The results showed that nine different combinations of bifidobacteria and L. acidophilus had a satisfactory viability (count decreases in 60 d <1 log order) in the cheese. Both combinations of bifidobacteria and L. casei cultures assayed also showed a satisfactory survival (counts decreased <1 log order for bifidobacteria but no decrease was detected for L. casei). On the other hand, the three combinations of bifidobacteria, L. acidophilus, and L. casei tested adapted well to the Fresco cheese environment. When a cheese homogenate at pH 3 was used to partially simulate the acidic conditions in the stomach, the probiotic cultures had an excellent ability to remain viable up to 3 h. At pH 2, the cell viability was more affected; B. bifidum was the most resistant organism. This study showed that the Argentinian Fresco cheese could be used as an adequate carrier of probiotic bacteria.

  2. Plasma membrane Toll-like receptor activation increases bacterial uptake but abrogates endosomal Lactobacillus acidophilus induction of interferon-β.

    PubMed

    Boye, Louise; Welsby, Iain; Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Goriely, Stanislas; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a potent interferon-β (IFN-β) response in dendritic cells (DCs) by a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -dependent mechanism, in turn leading to strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) production. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of different types of endocytosis in the L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β and IL-12 responses and how TLR2 or TLR4 ligation by lipopolysaccharide and Pam3/4CSK4 influenced endocytosis of L. acidophilus and the induced IFN-β and IL-12 production. Lactobacillus acidophilus was endocytosed by constitutive macropinocytosis taking place in the immature cells as well as by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) -dependent phagocytosis but without involvement of plasma membrane TLR2. Stimulation with TLR2 or TLR4 ligands increased macropinocytosis in a Syk-independent manner. As a consequence, incubation of DCs with TLR ligands before incubation with L. acidophilus enhanced the uptake of the bacteria. However, in these experimental conditions, induction of IFN-β and IL-12 was strongly inhibited. As L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β depends on endocytosis and endosomal degradation before signalling and as TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane leading to increased macropinocytosis abrogates IFN-β induction we conclude that plasma membrane TLR stimulation leading to increased macropinocytosis decreases endosomal induction of IFN-β and speculate that this is due to competition between compartments for molecules involved in the signal pathways. In summary, endosomal signalling by L. acidophilus that leads to IFN-β and IL-12 production is inhibited by TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane.

  3. The role of higher polythionates in the reduction of chromium(VI) by Acidithiobacillus and Thiobacillus cultures.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, P; Furlong, J; Donati, E

    2006-03-09

    In this paper, we report the chromium(VI) reduction by filtrates of Acidithiobacillus and Thiobacillus cultures. Chromium(VI) reduction by filtrates of A. ferrooxidans cultures under acidic conditions was higher than that observed for A. thiooxidans. However, at pH close to 7, chromium(VI) reduction by filtrates of T. thioparus cultures was as high as that by filtrates of A. thiooxidans cultures and much higher than that observed for A. ferrooxidans cultures at the same pH. The capability of these cultures to reduce chromium(VI) was associated specifically with the fraction of cultures (cells, sulphur and associated sulphur compounds) retained by filtration through a 0.45mum filter. In the fraction that comes from A. thiooxidans culture, polythionates (S(x)O(6)(2-)) with 3-7 sulphur atoms were detected and identified (by HPLC with MS as detector). The model of vesicles containing polythionates, sulphur and water agrees with our results.

  4. Cloning and sequencing of the gene coding for the large subunit of methylamine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus versutus.

    PubMed Central

    Huitema, F; van Beeumen, J; van Driessche, G; Duine, J A; Canters, G W

    1993-01-01

    The gene that codes for the alpha-subunit of methylamine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus versutus, madA, was cloned and sequenced. It codes for a protein of 395 amino acids preceded by a leader sequence of 31 amino acids. The derived amino acid sequence was confirmed by partial amino acid sequencing. The start of the mature protein could not be determined by direct sequencing, since the N terminus appeared to be blocked. Instead, it was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. Confirmation of the results was obtained by sequencing the N terminus after pyroglutamate aminopeptidase digestion. The sequence is homologous to the Paracoccus denitrificans nucleotide sequence. A second open reading frame, called open reading frame 3, is located immediately downstream of madA. PMID:8407797

  5. The amino acid sequence of the cytochrome c-554(547) from the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus neapolitanus.

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R P; Meyer, T E; Trudinger, P A; Kamen, M D

    1985-01-01

    An amino acid sequence is proposed for the cytochrome c-554(547) from the bacterium Thiobacillus neapolitanus N.C.I.B. 8539). It consists of a polypeptide chain of 91 residues, with a pair of haem-attachment cysteine residues at positions 15 and 18. There is similarity in sequence with each of the halves of the sequence of the dihaem cytochromes c4 and with a cytochrome c-554(548) from a halophilic strain of Paracoccus. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the protein has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50127 (11 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1985) 225, 5. PMID:2988504

  6. EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ION AND 2,4-DINITROPHENOL ON THE ACTIVITY OF INTACT CELLS OF THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jay V.; Shafia, Fred M.

    1964-01-01

    Beck, Jay V. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah), and Fred M. Shafia. Effect of phosphate ion and 2,4-dinitrophenol on the activity of cell suspensions of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 88:850–857. 1964.—The rate of oxidation of ferrous salts or elemental sulfur by aged cell suspensions, phosphate-depleted cells, or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-treated cells of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was increased by addition of orthophosphate salts. The effect was found to be transitory, with the rate gradually approaching that observed prior to phosphate ion addition. The total increased oxygen uptake was observed to be roughly proportional to the amount of phosphate salt added. The efficiency of CO2 fixation accompanying oxidation of ferrous salts was found to be about 1.7 μmoles of CO2 fixed per 100 μmoles of O2 absorbed, in contrast to a value of about 8.0 μmoles of CO2 fixed per 100 μmoles of O2 uptake during sulfur oxidation. The rate of oxidation did not affect the CO2 fixation efficiency. Whereas addition of phosphate salts to aged or phosphate-depleted cells increased slightly the already high efficiency of CO2 fixation, it did not affect the complete inhibition of CO2 fixation observed in the presence of 10-5m DNP. The results indicate that the phosphate ion is essential for oxidation of the ferrous ion, and that dinitrophenol and other so-called upcoupling agents interfere with phosphate metabolism. The latter may be a result of action at the site of assimilation of the ferrous ion or it may be an effect on the electron-transport system. In any event, it seems obvious that the phosphate ion is converted into a nonactive form in the presence of dinitrophenol-treated cells, because additional quantities of orthophosphate salts cause an immediate, marked restoration of oxidative activity. PMID:14219046

  7. The quorum sensing luxS gene is induced in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in response to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-10-03

    The luxS gene involved in quorum sensing has been shown to control different behaviour of probiotic lactobacilli. In this study we investigated if luxS in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM was up-regulated in response to Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. The two bacterial strains were grown in mono- and co-culture and the growth of both bacteria and the transcriptional level of luxS in L. acidophilus cells were monitored. Contrary to L. acidophilus, the growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly affected by co-cultivation. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of luxS increased during exponential growth in L. acidophilus cells with the highest level in the late-exponential growth phase, decreasing in the stationary phase. Following co-cultivation with L. monocytogenes, the transcriptional level of luxS increased significantly in mid-exponential growing cells of L. acidophilus after incubation with viable L. monocytogenes cells and by addition of cell-free culture supernatant of L. monocytogenes, whereas incubation with heat killed cells of L. monocytogenes had no effect on the transcriptional level. This could indicate that the up-regulation of luxS is due to a response to a secreted compound produced by L. monocytogenes cells.

  8. Probiotic potential and biotherapeutic effects of newly isolated vaginal Lactobacillus acidophilus 36YL strain on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nami, Yousef; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Haghshenas, Babak; Radiah, Dayang; Rosli, Rozita; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is categorized as a probiotic strain because of its beneficial effects in human health and prevention of disease transmission. This study is aimed to characterize the probiotic potential of L. acidophilus 36YL originally isolated from the vagina of healthy and fertile Iranian women. The L. acidophilus 36YL strain was identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing and characterized by biochemical methodologies, such as antibiotics susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, and acid and bile resistance. The bioactivity of the secretion of this strain on four human cancer cell lines (AGS, HeLa, MCF-7, and HT-29) and one normal cell line (HUVEC) was evaluated by cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis analysis. This newly isolated strain was found to exhibit notable probiotic properties, such as admirable antibiotic susceptibility, good antimicrobial activity, and favorable resistance to acid and bile salt. The results of bioactivity assessment demonstrated acceptable anticancer effects on the four tested cancer cell lines and negligible side effects on the assayed normal cell line. Our findings revealed that the anticancer effect of L. acidophilus 36YL strain secretions depends on the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. L. acidophilus 36YL strain is considered as a nutraceutical alternative or a topical medication with a potential therapeutic index because of the absence of cytotoxicity to normal cells, but effective toxicity to cancer cell lines.

  9. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus regulate inflammatory pathway and improve antioxidant status in collagen-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

    2013-01-01

    In view of well-established immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus, present investigation was carried out to evaluate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus, against inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress developed in an experimental model of arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was used. Oral administration of L. casei, L. acidophilus, standard antiarthritic drug indomethacin, and vehicle were started after induced arthritis and continued up to day 28. Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were estimated in serum. In parallel, oxidative stress parameters were also measured from synovial effsuate. All rats were graded for arthritis score at the end of each week. L. casei, L. acidophilus, and indomethacin treatment significantly downregulated proinflammatory and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines at P<0.0001. They have significantly decreased oxidative stress in synovial effsuate (P<0.0001) and also arthritis score (P<0.05). Protection provided by L. casei and L. acidophilus was more pronounced than that of indomethacin. These lines of evidence suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus exert potent protective effect against CIA. It further establishes effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Lactobacillus. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of Lactobacillus in treatment/management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 Inhibits Atherogenesis via Induction of 24 (S), 25-Epoxycholesterol-Mediated ABCA1 and ABCG1 Production and Cholesterol Efflux in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Sun; Park, Woo Jung; Kim, Joo-Yun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus species are well-known probiotics with the beneficial activity of regulating cholesterol levels. In this study, we showed that L. acidophilus K301 reduced the level of cholesterol through reverse transport in macrophages. L. acidophilus K301 upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of genes such as ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) under the control of liver X receptor (LXR), resulting in increased apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells. L. acidophilus K301 induced both ABCA1 and ABCG1 through the endogenous LXR agonist 24(S), 25-epoxcycholesterol, which is synthesized by intracellular cholesterol synthetic pathways. In vivo studies using L. acidophilus K301-treated ApoE-/- mice showed reduced accumulation of lipoproteins in the arterial lumen. The inhibitory effects of L. acidophilus K301 on accumulation of lipoprotein in atherosclerotic plaques were mediated by the induction of squalene reductase (SQLE) and oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) and resulted in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Taken together, our findings revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 regulates the expression of genes related to cholesterol reverse transport via the induction of endogenous LXR agonist, suggesting the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus K301 as an anti-atherosclerotic agent.

  11. A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.

    PubMed

    Orel, Oksana V; Lobkova, Ludmila E; Zhirov, Sergey V; Petrova, Ninel A

    2015-07-03

    Morphology, cytology, ecology and biology of Holarctic Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl, 1960 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the geothermal Vosmerka Lake (pH=2.0-2.5). An illustrated redescription of C. acidophilus is given on the basis of adult males reared from field-collected pupae, and of simultaneously collected larvae. Additional larvae belonging to the pseudothummi-complex were identified as C. acidophilus on the basis of their karyotype. The karyotype of C. acidophilus (2n=8) and detailed mapping of the 4 chromosome arms A, E, D and F are provided. The population of C. acidophilus from Kamchatka was found to be karyologically monomorphic. Information on distribution and ecology of C. acidophilus from Vosmerka Lake (total mineralization 1583.5 mg/l) is also given. Chironomus acidophilus is the only species of aquatic insects recorded in this lake. Lack of competition and a richness of food resources contribute to the high abundance (35161 ind./m2) and biomass (11.342 g/m2) of the larvae of C. acidophilus in Vosmerka Lake.

  12. Helicobacter pylori VacA Suppresses Lactobacillus acidophilus-Induced Interferon Beta Signaling in Macrophages via Alterations in the Endocytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gudrun; Forster, Sam; Irving, Aaron; Tate, Michelle; Ferrero, Richard L.; Hertzog, Paul; Frøkiær, Hanne; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis and avoids elimination by the immune system of the infected host. The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus has been suggested to exert beneficial effects as a supplement during H. pylori eradication therapy. In the present study, we applied whole-genome microarray analysis to compare the immune responses induced in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori, or both bacteria in combination. While L. acidophilus induced a Th1-polarizing response characterized by high expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), H. pylori strongly induced the innate cytokines IL-1β and IL-1α. In BMDMs prestimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori blocked the expression of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β and IL-12 and suppressed the expression of key regulators of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases. The inhibition of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β was independent of H. pylori viability and the virulence factor CagPAI; however, a vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) mutant was unable to block IFN-β. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the addition of H. pylori to L. acidophilus-stimulated BMDMs redirects intracellular processing, leading to an accumulation of L. acidophilus in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Thus, our findings indicate that H. pylori inhibits the development of a strong Th1-polarizing response in BMDMs stimulated with L. acidophilus by blocking the production of IFN-β in a VacA-dependent manner. We suggest that this abrogation is caused by a redirection of the endocytotic pathway in the processing of L. acidophilus. PMID:23760466

  13. Development and Application of Small-Subunit rRNA Probes for Assessment of Selected Thiobacillus Species and Members of the Genus Acidiphilium

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Marchand, Eric A.; Silverstein, Joann; Hernandez, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Culture-dependent studies have implicated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as the causative agents of acid mine drainage and concrete corrosion in sewers. Thiobacillus species are considered the major representatives of the acid-producing bacteria in these environments. Small-subunit rRNA genes from all of the Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species catalogued by the Ribosomal Database Project were identified and used to design oligonucleotide DNA probes. Two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to complement variable regions of 16S rRNA in the following acidophilic bacteria: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans (probe Thio820) and members of the genus Acidiphilium (probe Acdp821). Using 32P radiolabels, probe specificity was characterized by hybridization dissociation temperature (Td) with membrane-immobilized RNA extracted from a suite of 21 strains representing three groups of bacteria. Fluorochrome-conjugated probes were evaluated for use with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at the experimentally determined Tds. FISH was used to identify and enumerate bacteria in laboratory reactors and environmental samples. Probing of laboratory reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria validated the ability of the oligonucleotide probes to track specific cell numbers with time. Additionally, probing of sediments from an active acid mine drainage site in Colorado demonstrated the ability to identify numbers of active bacteria in natural environments that contain high concentrations of metals, associated precipitates, and other mineral debris. PMID:10877807

  14. Development and application of small-subunit rRNA probes for assessment of selected Thiobacillus species and members of the genus Acidiphilium.

    PubMed

    Peccia, J; Marchand, E A; Silverstein, J; Hernandez, M

    2000-07-01

    Culture-dependent studies have implicated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as the causative agents of acid mine drainage and concrete corrosion in sewers. Thiobacillus species are considered the major representatives of the acid-producing bacteria in these environments. Small-subunit rRNA genes from all of the Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species catalogued by the Ribosomal Database Project were identified and used to design oligonucleotide DNA probes. Two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to complement variable regions of 16S rRNA in the following acidophilic bacteria: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans (probe Thio820) and members of the genus Acidiphilium (probe Acdp821). Using (32)P radiolabels, probe specificity was characterized by hybridization dissociation temperature (T(d)) with membrane-immobilized RNA extracted from a suite of 21 strains representing three groups of bacteria. Fluorochrome-conjugated probes were evaluated for use with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at the experimentally determined T(d)s. FISH was used to identify and enumerate bacteria in laboratory reactors and environmental samples. Probing of laboratory reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria validated the ability of the oligonucleotide probes to track specific cell numbers with time. Additionally, probing of sediments from an active acid mine drainage site in Colorado demonstrated the ability to identify numbers of active bacteria in natural environments that contain high concentrations of metals, associated precipitates, and other mineral debris.

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Nielsen, Birgit Nøhr; Jarmer, Hanne; Jespersen, Lene; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-10-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotics that, among other health-promoting effects, have been ascribed immunostimulating and virus-preventive properties. Certain Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to possess strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) -inducing properties. As IL-12 production depends on the up-regulation of type I interferons (IFNs), we hypothesized that the strong IL-12-inducing capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) is caused by an up-regulation of IFN-β, which subsequently induces IL-12 and the double-stranded RNA binding Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). The expression of the genes encoding IFN-β, TLR-3, IL-12 and IL-10 in DCs upon stimulation with L. acidophilus NCFM was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM induced a much stronger expression of Ifn-β, Il-12 and Il-10 compared with the synthetic double-stranded RNA ligand Poly I:C, whereas the levels of expressed Tlr-3 were similar. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis revealed that other genes related to viral defence were significantly up-regulated and among the strongest induced genes in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. The ability to induce IFN-β was also detected in another L. acidophilus strain (X37), but was not a property of other probiotic strains tested, i.e. Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The IFN-β expression was markedly reduced in TLR-2(-/-) DCs, dependent on endocytosis, and the major cause of the induction of Il-12 and Tlr-3 in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. Collectively, our results reveal that certain lactobacilli trigger the expression of viral defence genes in DCs in a TLR-2 manner dependent on IFN-β.

  16. Enhancement of natural and acquired immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019).

    PubMed

    Gill, H S; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Gopal, P K

    2000-02-01

    Consumption of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been suggested to confer a range of health benefits including stimulation of the immune system and increased resistance to malignancy and infectious illness. In the present study, the effects of feeding Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001, DR20), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019, DR10) on in vivo and in vitro indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice were examined. Mice were fed daily with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis (10(9) colony forming units) and their immune function was assessed on day 10 or day 28. Supplementation with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis resulted in a significant increase in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leucocytes and peritoneal macrophages compared with the control mice. The proliferative responses of spleen cells to concanavalin A (a T-cell mitogen) and lipopolysaccharide (a B-cell mitogen) were also significantly enhanced in mice given different LAB. Spleen cells from mice given L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis also produced significantly higher amounts of interferon-gamma in response to stimulation with concanavalin A than cells from the control mice. LAB feeding had no significant effect on interleukin-4 production by spleen cells or on the percentages of CD4+, CD8+ and CD40+ cells in the blood. The serum antibody responses to orally and systemically administered antigens were also significantly enhanced by supplementation with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis. Together, these results suggest that supplementation of the diet with L. rhamnosus (HN001), L. acidophilus (HN017) or B. lactis (HN019) is able to enhance several indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice.

  17. Sulfur Metabolism Pathways in Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, A Gram-Positive Moderate Thermoacidophile from a Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Huijun; Zhou, Wengen; Wang, Yuguang; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean, is a moderately thermoacidophilic Gram-positive bacterium that can oxidize ferrous iron or sulfur compounds to obtain energy. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analyses of S. acidophilus TPY were performed under different redox conditions. Based on these results, pathways involved in sulfur metabolism were proposed. Additional evidence was obtained by analyzing mRNA abundance of selected genes involved in the sulfur metabolism of sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR)-overexpressed S. acidophilus TPY recombinant under different redox conditions. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of S. acidophilus TPY cultured in the presence of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) or elemental sulfur (S(0)) were employed to detect differentially transcribed genes and operons involved in sulfur metabolism. The mRNA abundances of genes involved in sulfur metabolism decreased in cultures containing elemental sulfur, as opposed to cultures in which FeSO4 was present where an increase in the expression of sulfur metabolism genes, particularly sulfite reductase (SiR) involved in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction, was observed. SOR, whose mRNA abundance increased in S(0) culture, may play an important role in the initial sulfur oxidation. In order to confirm the pathways, SOR overexpression in S. acidophilus TPY and subsequent mRNA abundance analysis of sulfur metabolism-related genes were carried out. Conjugation-based transformation of pTrc99A derived plasmid from heterotrophic E. coli to facultative autotrophic S. acidophilus TPY was developed in this study. Transconjugation between E. coli and S. acidophilus was performed on modified solid 2:2 medium at pH 4.8 and 37°C for 72 h. The SOR-overexpressed recombinant S. acidophilus TPY-SOR had a [Formula: see text]-accumulation increase, higher oxidation/ reduction potentials (ORPs) and lower pH compared with the wild type strain in the late growth stage of S

  18. Sulfur Metabolism Pathways in Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, A Gram-Positive Moderate Thermoacidophile from a Hydrothermal Vent

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Huijun; Zhou, Wengen; Wang, Yuguang; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY, isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean, is a moderately thermoacidophilic Gram-positive bacterium that can oxidize ferrous iron or sulfur compounds to obtain energy. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analyses of S. acidophilus TPY were performed under different redox conditions. Based on these results, pathways involved in sulfur metabolism were proposed. Additional evidence was obtained by analyzing mRNA abundance of selected genes involved in the sulfur metabolism of sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR)-overexpressed S. acidophilus TPY recombinant under different redox conditions. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of S. acidophilus TPY cultured in the presence of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) or elemental sulfur (S0) were employed to detect differentially transcribed genes and operons involved in sulfur metabolism. The mRNA abundances of genes involved in sulfur metabolism decreased in cultures containing elemental sulfur, as opposed to cultures in which FeSO4 was present where an increase in the expression of sulfur metabolism genes, particularly sulfite reductase (SiR) involved in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction, was observed. SOR, whose mRNA abundance increased in S0 culture, may play an important role in the initial sulfur oxidation. In order to confirm the pathways, SOR overexpression in S. acidophilus TPY and subsequent mRNA abundance analysis of sulfur metabolism-related genes were carried out. Conjugation-based transformation of pTrc99A derived plasmid from heterotrophic E. coli to facultative autotrophic S. acidophilus TPY was developed in this study. Transconjugation between E. coli and S. acidophilus was performed on modified solid 2:2 medium at pH 4.8 and 37°C for 72 h. The SOR-overexpressed recombinant S. acidophilus TPY-SOR had a SO42−-accumulation increase, higher oxidation/ reduction potentials (ORPs) and lower pH compared with the wild type strain in the late growth stage of S0 culture

  19. Complete genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic mineral-sulfide-oxidizing firmicute Sulfobacillus acidophilus type strain (NALT)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Chertkov, Olga; Chen, Amy; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Pukall, Rudiger; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Mavromatis, K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp, harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 improved “gut health” in the SHIME® reactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background How to maintain “gut health” is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. Methods The SHIME® model was used to study the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus 1014 on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2-wk using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-wk control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-wk treatment period by adding 5 mL of sterile peptone water with L. acidophilus CRL1014 at the concentration of 108 CFU/mL to vessel one (the stomach compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonium analyses were carried out for monitoring of the microbial community from the colon compartments. Results A significant increase (p < 0.01) in the Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed changes in the lactobacilli community from the colon compartments of the SHIME® reactor. The (SCFA) concentration increased (p < 0.01) during the treatment period, due mainly to significant increased levels of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. However, ammonium concentrations decreased during the same period (p < 0.01). Conclusions This study showed the beneficial influence of L. acidophilus CRL 1014 on microbial metabolism and lactobacilli community composition for improving human health. PMID:23758634

  1. Prebiotic Effects of Agave salmiana Fructans in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Cultures.

    PubMed

    Castro-Zavala, Adriana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan R; Alcocer-Gouyonnet, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Agave salmiana is a fructan rich species that is widely distributed in Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to extract the fructans of A. salmiana and evaluate their prebiotic effect in 48 hours in vitro cultures of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and to compare this effect with other available fructan sources. A significant difference in pH, optical density and biomass was found in the cultures depending on the source of fructans and the type of bacteria. It was possible to determine a dose-response effect of the A. salmiana fructans and the growth of the studied strains.

  2. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-12-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field.

  3. Characteristic odor components of volatile oil from the cultivation medium of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Nakaya, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of Lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to investigate the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 46 and 19 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were fatty acids, including pentanoic acid (12.75%), heptanoic acid (14.05%), and nonanoic acid (14.04%). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-MS/Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). Pyrazines were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine was the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. In addition, as the characteristic aroma-active compounds, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, trimethylpyrazine, and pentanoic acid were also detected in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. acidophilus may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  4. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Razzaqh; Tajik, Hossein; Ehsani, Ali; Zare, Payman

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods. PMID:25610568

  5. Membrane filter method to study the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hidenori; Benno, Yoshimi

    2015-11-01

    A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132(T) and B. longum JCM1217(T) ) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication. Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus pasteurianus, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Clostridium spp. were the most abundant gut bacteria detected before coculture with the test strains. Results of the coculture experiments indicated that the test strains significantly promote the growth of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques, and Veillonella spp. and inhibit the growth of Sutterella wadsworthensis. Differences in the relative abundances of gut bacterial strains were furthermore observed after coculture of the fecal samples with each test strain. Bifidobacterium spp., which was detected as the dominant strain in the fecal samples, was found to be unaffected by coculture with the test strains. In the present study, interbacterial communication using bacterial metabolites between the test strains and the gut microbiota was demonstrated by the coculture technique. The detailed mechanisms and effects of the complex interbacterial communications that occur among the gut microbiota are, however, still unclear. Further investigation of these relationships by coculture of several fecal samples with probiotic strains is urgently required.

  6. Membrane filter method to study the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on fecal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132T and B. longum JCM1217T) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication. Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus pasteurianus, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Clostridium spp. were the most abundant gut bacteria detected before coculture with the test strains. Results of the coculture experiments indicated that the test strains significantly promote the growth of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques, and Veillonella spp. and inhibit the growth of Sutterella wadsworthensis. Differences in the relative abundances of gut bacterial strains were furthermore observed after coculture of the fecal samples with each test strain. Bifidobacterium spp., which was detected as the dominant strain in the fecal samples, was found to be unaffected by coculture with the test strains. In the present study, interbacterial communication using bacterial metabolites between the test strains and the gut microbiota was demonstrated by the coculture technique. The detailed mechanisms and effects of the complex interbacterial communications that occur among the gut microbiota are, however, still unclear. Further investigation of these relationships by coculture of several fecal samples with probiotic strains is urgently required. PMID:26486646

  7. Transcriptional Analysis of Prebiotic Uptake and Catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Hachem, Maher Abou; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β- linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:23028535

  8. Transcriptional analysis of prebiotic uptake and catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Hachem, Maher Abou; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  9. In situ control of food spoilage fungus using Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 291.

    PubMed

    Garcha, Seema; Natt, Navdeep Kaur

    2012-10-01

    A challenge for food industry today is to produce minimally processed food, without use of chemical preservatives and little compromise on nutritional status. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 291 can be directly added to food where it enhances shelf life by competing with other microflora (both bacterial and fungal) for food and also by production of antimicrobial metabolites as bacteriocins. Comprehensive studies have demonstrated the in vitro activity of bacteriocins. However their role in preventing fresh food spoilage needs more elucidation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the whole cells of this organism as biopreservative agent against fungi. Four most commonly occurring spoilage fungi were isolated and were identified as Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Growth of all of them was inhibited in in vitro studies, (approximately 33-43% decrease in mycelial dry weight basis between test and control). In situ biopreservation of Indian cheese and raw poultry meat was attempted and the colony count of Alternaria was significantly (p < 0.05, Bonferroni Holm) reduced in presence of L. acidophilus. Dip and Keep approach of preservation for Mangifera and Momordica were carried out in which microbial spoilage was not observed up to 6 days.

  10. A functional glycogen biosynthesis pathway in Lactobacillus acidophilus: expression and analysis of the glg operon.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-09-01

    Glycogen metabolism contributes to energy storage and various physiological functions in some prokaryotes, including colonization persistence. A role for glycogen metabolism is proposed on the survival and fitness of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a probiotic microbe, in the human gastrointestinal environment. L. acidophilus NCFM possesses a glycogen metabolism (glg) operon consisting of glgBCDAP-amy-pgm genes. Expression of the glg operon and glycogen accumulation were carbon source- and growth phase-dependent, and were repressed by glucose. The highest intracellular glycogen content was observed in early log-phase cells grown on trehalose, which was followed by a drastic decrease of glycogen content prior to entering stationary phase. In raffinose-grown cells, however, glycogen accumulation gradually declined following early log phase and was maintained at stable levels throughout stationary phase. Raffinose also induced an overall higher temporal glg expression throughout growth compared with trehalose. Isogenic ΔglgA (glycogen synthase) and ΔglgB (glycogen-branching enzyme) mutants are glycogen-deficient and exhibited growth defects on raffinose. The latter observation suggests a reciprocal relationship between glycogen synthesis and raffinose metabolism. Deletion of glgB or glgP (glycogen phosphorylase) resulted in defective growth and increased bile sensitivity. The data indicate that glycogen metabolism is involved in growth maintenance, bile tolerance and complex carbohydrate utilization in L. acidophilus.

  11. Potentiated anti-microsporidial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus CH1 bacteriocin using gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Shereen F; Amer, Eglal I; Diab, Radwa G

    2014-09-01

    Through increased awareness and improved diagnostics, microsporidiosis has now been identified in a broader range of human populations; however current therapies are inconsistently effective. Recently, probiotics were determined as means for the control of intestinal parasitic infections through their secretory products; bacteriocins. This is the first study on the effect of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus CH1 bacteriocin, with or without gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), against intestinal microsporidiosis in immunosuppressed mice. Fecal and intestinal spore loads, besides viability, extrusion and infectivity of spores from treated animals were assessed. Results showed that the anti-microsporidial effects of bacteriocin were significantly potent. This efficiency was further potentiated upon conjugating bacteriocins with Au-NPs, as it induced a strikingly sustained reduction in fecal spore shedding after cessation of therapy by 1 week (94.26%). Furthermore, reduction in intestinal spore load was highest in bacteriocin/Au-NPs-inoculated mice (89.7%) followed by bacteriocin-inoculated group (73.5%). Spores encountered from stool of bacteriocin/Au-NPs group showed 92.4% viability, versus 93.7% in bacteriocin group. Spore extrusion and infectivity were most inhibited by exposure to bacteriocin/Au-NPs. Safety of bacteriocin/Au-NPs was also verified. Thus, considering the results of the present work, L. acidophilus CH1-derived bacteriocin can present a powerful safe therapy against intestinal microsporidiosis.

  12. Insights into glycogen metabolism in Lactobacillus acidophilus: impact on carbohydrate metabolism, stress tolerance and gut retention.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2014-11-20

    In prokaryotic species equipped with glycogen metabolism machinery, the co-regulation of glycogen biosynthesis and degradation has been associated with the synthesis of energy storage compounds and various crucial physiological functions, including global cellular processes such as carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy sensing and production, stress response and cell-cell communication. In addition, the glycogen metabolic pathway was proposed to serve as a carbon capacitor that regulates downstream carbon fluxes, and in some microorganisms the ability to synthesize intracellular glycogen has been implicated in host persistence. Among lactobacilli, complete glycogen metabolic pathway genes are present only in select species predominantly associated with mammalian hosts or natural environments. This observation highlights the potential involvement of glycogen biosynthesis in probiotic activities and persistence of intestinal lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we summarize recent findings on (i) the presence and potential ecological distribution of glycogen metabolic pathways among lactobacilli, (ii) influence of carbon substrates and growth phases on glycogen metabolic gene expression and glycogen accumulation in L. acidophilus, and (iii) the involvement of glycogen metabolism on growth, sugar utilization and bile tolerance. Our present in vivo studies established the significance of glycogen biosynthesis on the competitive retention of L. acidophilus in the mouse intestinal tract, demonstrating for the first time that the ability to synthesize intracellular glycogen contributes to gut fitness and retention among probiotic microorganisms.

  13. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  14. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-02

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing.

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background H. pylori infection may trigger Smad7 and NFκB expression in the stomach, whereas probiotics promote gastrointestinal health and improve intestinal inflammation caused by pathogens. This study examines if probiotics can improve H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. Results Challenge with H. pylori increased IL-8 and TNF-α expressions but not TGF-β1 in MKN45 cells. The RNA levels of Smad7 in AGS cells increased after H. pylori infection in a dose-dependent manner. A higher dose (MOI 100) of L. acidophilus pre-treatment attenuated the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expressions, but not TGF-β1. Such anti-inflammatory effect was mediated via increased cytoplasmic IκBα and depletion of nuclear NFκB. L. acidophilus also inhibited H. pylori-induced Smad7 transcription by inactivating the Jak1 and Stat1 pathways, which might activate the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. L. acidophilus pre-treatment ameliorated IFN-γ-induced Smad7 translation level and subsequently reduced nuclear NF-κB production, as detected by western blotting. Conclusions H. pylori infection induces Smad7, NFκB, IL-8, and TNF-α production in vitro. Higher doses of L. acidophilus pre-treatment reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation through the inactivation of the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. PMID:22429929

  16. Supplementation with a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product alters the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would alter the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4+/-0.1 kg BW) were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were...

  17. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  18. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in Balb/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  19. Cost effectiveness of cryoprotective agents and modified De-man Rogosa Sharpe medium on growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-04-01

    The effect of cryoprotective agents (namely, sodium chloride, sucrose, dextran, sorbitol, monosodium glutamate, glycerol, skim milk and skim milk with malt extract) and modified De-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium, on the viability and stability of L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, was investigated. The modified MRS medium was not only economical, but it gave a relatively higher yield of L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 than the commercial MRS. Monosodium glutamate, skim milk and skim milk with malt extract provided significantly higher viable counts, with optimum concentration at 0.3%. Nevertheless, at concentration above 0.5%, there was a reduction in cell viability, which could be attributed to cell shrinkage associated with osmotic pressure changes inside the cells. It was also found that L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 was stable at 28 degrees C for eight weeks. Skim milk demonstrated a significant growth of probiotics. Skim milk was the preferred cryoprotective agent, as it is of low cost, easily available and demonstrated a significant growth of probiotics. In conclusion, modified MRS medium with skim milk is suggested for the remarkable growth and yield of L. acidophilus.

  20. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  1. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  2. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  3. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune responses of 390 BALB/c mice fed the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51® and infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in a 6-month trial. Mice were randomized to nine treatment groups fed either viable- or heat-killed NP51 and inocula...

  4. Cytochrome c550 from Thiobacillus versutus: cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and purification of the heterologous holoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, M; Van Beeumen, J; Canters, G W

    1992-01-01

    The gene coding for cytochrome c550 from Thiobacillus versutus, cycA, has been cloned and sequenced. It codes for a protein of 134 amino acids plus a 19-amino-acid-long signal peptide. Both coding and noncoding DNA sequences of the clone are homologous to the Paracoccus denitrificans DNA sequence. An expression vector was constructed by cloning the cycA gene directly behind the lac promoter of pUC. The cycA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli under semianaerobic conditions, and mature holo-cytochrome c550 was isolated with the periplasmic soluble protein fraction. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, significantly less cytochrome c550 was produced. The heterologously expressed cytochrome c550 was isolated and purified to better than 95% purity and was compared with cytochrome c550 isolated and purified from T. versutus. No structural differences could be detected by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis UV-visible light spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating that E. coli produces the cytochrome and attaches the heme correctly. Images PMID:1339423

  5. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation in novel Horizontal-Flow Biofilm Reactors dominated by an Acidithiobacillus and a Thiobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, S; Kennelly, C; Clifford, E; Collins, G

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is an odourous, highly toxic gas commonly encountered in various commercial and municipal sectors. Three novel, laboratory-scale, Horizontal-Flow Biofilm Reactors (HFBRs) were tested for the removal of H2S gas from air streams over a 178-day trial at 10°C. Removal rates of up to 15.1 g [H2S] m(-3) h(-1) were achieved, demonstrating the HFBRs as a feasible technology for the treatment of H2S-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures. Bio-oxidation of H2S in the reactors led to the production of H(+) and sulfate (SO(2-)4) ions, resulting in the acidification of the liquid phase. Reduced removal efficiency was observed at loading rates of 15.1 g [H2S] m(-3) h(-1). NaHCO3 addition to the liquid nutrient feed (synthetic wastewater (SWW)) resulted in improved H2S removal. Bacterial diversity, which was investigated by sequencing and fingerprinting 16S rRNA genes, was low, likely due to the harsh conditions prevailing in the systems. The HFBRs were dominated by two species from the genus Acidithiobacillus and Thiobacillus. Nonetheless, there were significant differences in microbial community structure between distinct HFBR zones due to the influence of alkalinity, pH and SO4 concentrations. Despite the low temperature, this study indicates HFBRs have an excellent potential to biologically treat H2S-contaminated airstreams.

  6. The role of "blebbing" in overcoming the hydrophobic barrier during biooxidation of elemental sulfur by Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knickerbocker, C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Southam, G.

    2000-01-01

    Brimstone Basin, in southeastern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming is an ancient hydrothermal area containing solfataric alteration. Drainage waters flowing from Brimstone Basin had pH values as low as 1.23 and contained up to 1.7×106 MPN/ml acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Thiobacillus thiooxidans was the dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacterium recovered from an enrichment culture and was used in a structural examination of bacterial sulfur oxidation. Growth in these sulfur cultures occurred in two phases with cells in association with the macroscopic sulfur grains and in suspension above these grains. Colonization of sulfur grains by individual cells and microcolonies was facilitated by organic material that appeared to be responsible for bacterial adhesion. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained (2% [wt./vol.] uranyl acetate), sulfur-grown T. thiooxidans revealed extensive membrane blebbing (sloughing of outer membrane vesicles) and the presence of approximately 100 nm sized sulfur particles adsorbed to membrane material surrounding individual bacteria. Sulfite-grown bacteria did not possess membrane blebs. The amphipathic nature of these outer membrane vesicles appear to be responsible for overcoming the hydrophobic barrier necessary for the growth of T. thiooxidans on elemental sulfur.

  7. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

  8. The effect of temperature on ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from a mesophile, Thiobacillus thioparus, and a thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus.

    PubMed

    Middaugh, C R; MacElroy, R D

    1976-06-01

    The enzyme ribose-5-phosphate isomerase [EC 5.3.1.6] was partially purified from a mesophilic organism, Thiobacillus thioparus, and from an extreme thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. The stability and kinetics of the two enzymes were compared with regard to temperature in the presence of a series of neutral salts and alcohols. The thermal stability of both enzymes was altered such that the salts (NH4)2SO4, NaCl, KCl, and LiCl increased stability, while LiBr, CaCl2, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol decreased stability. Ethylene glycol had little effect on the mesophilic enzyme, but increased the stability of the thermophilic protein. The kinetics of both enzymes were also affected by the salts and alcohols, and Arrhenius plots of two kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, displayed discontinuities, or sharp changes in slope, at characteristic temperatures, TD. Neutral salts and alcohols altered the temperature of discontinuity in a sequence similar to that observed in studies of thermal stability. It is suggested that the slope change is due to temperature-dependent alterations in the enzymes at specific, but undefined, loci at the active site, although no evidence is offered for the absence of a larger conformation change in the entire enzyme.

  9. Influence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM
and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 on Proteolysis Patterns
of Edam Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Nalepa, Beata; Kowalska, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to determine the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Edam cheese as well as the effect of probiotic bacteria on paracasein proteolysis and changes in the water activity during ripening. The use of probiotics L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM in Edam cheese slightly changed its chemical composition, but the change was not significant. The pH values were significantly correlated with the changes in Lactobacillus count (R=–0.807) and the level of phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen compounds in total nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN) (R=0.775). After 10 weeks of ripening, the highest level of trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen compounds in total nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN) was observed in the cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 (11.87%) and slightly lower level in the cheese containing L. acidophilus NCFM (7.60%) and control cheese (6.24%). The highest level of PTA-SN/TN fraction was noted in cheese containing L. acidophilus NCFM (3.48%) but the lowest level was observed in control cheese (2.24%) after ten weeks of ripening. The changes in the levels of PTA-SN/TN (R=–0.813) and TCA-SN/TN (R=–0.717) fractions were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the viability of probiotic counts. Water activity (aw) strongly correlated with the PTA-SN/TN level (R=–0.824) and bacteria viability (R=–0.728). All of the analyzed cheeses were characterized by high counts of L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM during ten weeks of ripening. PMID:27904317

  10. Th1 Cytokine Production Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in BALB/c Mice Bearing Transplanted Breast Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Azizi, Taghi; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The immunomodulative effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria as probiotics have been already demonstrated. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the immune responses and patterns of cytokine production in the BALB/c mice bearing breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The current study used thirty inbred BALB/c mice, six- to eight-week-old; they were divided into two groups of 15 each. One group was used as control in each assay. The L. acidophilus (ATCC4356) used in the study was inoculated in MRS broth and cultivated overnight at 37°C under anaerobic conditions, then collected by centrifugation, and re-suspended in Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) media. After preparation of the proper amount of the suspension, it was orally administered to the mice via gavage and the control mice received an equal volume of PBS in the same manner. Results: The results showed that oral administration of L. acidophilus as a potent immunostimulator agent could motivate the proliferation of immune cells. Moreover, it could increase the production of IFN-γ and decrease the production of IL-4, known as Th2 cytokines, in the spleen cell culture. The results showed that the survival time of the L. acidophilus administered mice significantly increased in comparison to that of the control mice. Conclusions: The current study findings suggested that L. acidophilus can promote immune responses with Th1 bias and may increase the antitumor response. Further, the consumption of this probiotic strain may help to manage the immune response in tumor condition, but more studies are needed to investigate the other mechanisms of this effect. PMID:26034546

  11. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 by spray-drying using sweet whey and skim milk as encapsulating materials.

    PubMed

    Maciel, G M; Chaves, K S; Grosso, C R F; Gigante, M L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulating material on encapsulation yield, resistance to passage through simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage. Microparticles were produced from reconstituted sweet whey or skim milk (30% total solids) inoculated with a suspension of L. acidophilus La-5 (1% vol/vol) and subjected to spray-drying at inlet and outlet temperatures of 180°C and 85 to 95°C, respectively. The samples were packed, vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4°C and 25°C. Encapsulation yield, moisture content, and resistance of microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 compared with free cells (control) during exposure to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0 and 7.0) were evaluated. Viability was assessed after 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90d of storage. The experiments were repeated 3 times and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test for the comparison between means. The encapsulating material did not significantly affect encapsulation yield, average diameter, or moisture of the particles, which averaged 76.58±4.72%, 12.94±0.78μm, and 4.53±0.32%, respectively. Both microparticle types were effective in protecting the probiotic during gastrointestinal simulation, and the skim milk microparticles favored an increase in viability of L. acidophilus La-5. Regardless of the encapsulating material and temperature of storage, viability of the microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 decreased on average 0.43 log cfu/g at the end of 90d of storage, remaining higher than 10(6)cfu/g.

  12. Effects of encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus along with pasteurized longan juice on the colon microbiota residing in a dynamic simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-01-01

    The effect of encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 along with pasteurized longan juice on the colon microbiota was investigated by applying a dynamic model of the human gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 in pasteurized longan juice or sole encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 exhibited the efficiency of colonizing the colon and enabling the growth of colon lactobacilli as well as beneficial bifidobacteria but inhibited the growth of fecal coliforms and clostridia. Moreover, these treatments gave rise to a significant increase of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Although acetate displayed the highest quantity, it was likely that after incorporating encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 plus pasteurized longan juice, quantity of butyrate exceed propionate, and acetate in comparison with their controls. Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis patterns confirmed that various treatments affected the alteration of microbial community within the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem.

  13. Helicobacter pylori VacA suppresses Lactobacillus acidophilus-induced interferon beta signaling in macrophages via alterations in the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gudrun; Forster, Sam; Irving, Aaron; Tate, Michelle; Ferrero, Richard L; Hertzog, Paul; Frøkiær, Hanne; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria

    2013-06-11

    Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis and avoids elimination by the immune system of the infected host. The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus has been suggested to exert beneficial effects as a supplement during H. pylori eradication therapy. In the present study, we applied whole-genome microarray analysis to compare the immune responses induced in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori, or both bacteria in combination. While L. acidophilus induced a Th1-polarizing response characterized by high expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), H. pylori strongly induced the innate cytokines IL-1β and IL-1α. In BMDMs prestimulated with L. acidophilus, H. pylori blocked the expression of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β and IL-12 and suppressed the expression of key regulators of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases. The inhibition of L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β was independent of H. pylori viability and the virulence factor CagPAI; however, a vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) mutant was unable to block IFN-β. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the addition of H. pylori to L. acidophilus-stimulated BMDMs redirects intracellular processing, leading to an accumulation of L. acidophilus in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Thus, our findings indicate that H. pylori inhibits the development of a strong Th1-polarizing response in BMDMs stimulated with L. acidophilus by blocking the production of IFN-β in a VacA-dependent manner. We suggest that this abrogation is caused by a redirection of the endocytotic pathway in the processing of L. acidophilus. IMPORTANCE Approximately half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. The factors that allow this pathogen to persist in the stomach and cause chronic infections have not yet been fully elucidated. In particular, how H. pylori avoids killing by macrophages, one of the main types of immune cell underlying the

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates inflammatory activity by regulating the TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang In; Kim, Hyun Soo; Koo, Jin Mo; Kim, In Ho

    2016-02-28

    A total of forty weaned pigs ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc) were used to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on inflammatory activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Experimental treatments were as follows: (T1) control diet+saline challenge; (T2) control diet with 0·1% L. acidophilus+saline challenge; (T3) control diet+LPS challenge; and (T4) control diet with 0·1% L. acidophilus+LPS challenge. On d-14, piglets were challenged with saline (T1 and T2) or LPS (T3 and T4). Blood samples were obtained at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h after being challenged and analysed for immune cell cytokine production and gene expression pattern. The L. acidophilus treatment increased the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared with the control diet. With the control diet, the LPS challenge (T3) increased the number of immune cells and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the saline challenge (T1). Whereas with the saline challenge L. acidophilus treatment (T2) increased the number of leucocytes and CD4 compared with the control diet (T1), with the LPS challenge L. acidophilus treatment (T4) decreased the number of leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the control diet (T3). L. acidophilus treatment decreased the expression of TRL4 and NF-κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after LPS challenge, which leads to inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8 and IL1B1 and to induction of IL-4 and IL-10. We suggested that L. acidophilus improved ADWG and ADFI and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory responses by regulating TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine PBMC.

  15. Effect of pH on sulfite oxidation by Thiobacillus thiooxidans cells with sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide as a possible substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, T L; Suzuki, I

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of sulfite by Thiobacillus thiooxidans was studied at various pH values with changing concentrations of potassium sulfite. The optimal pH for sulfite oxidation by cells was a function of sulfite concentrations, rising with increasing substrate concentrations, while that by the cell extracts was unaffected. The sulfite oxidation by cells was inhibited at high sulfite concentrations, particularly at low pH values. The results from kinetic studies show that the fully protonated form of sulfite, sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide, is the form which penetrates the cells for the oxidation. PMID:8300544

  16. Viricidal effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on human immunodeficiency virus type 1: possible role in heterosexual transmission

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Peroxidase, H2O2, and a halide form a powerful antimicrobial system in phagocytes and tissue fluids, and certain microorganisms can serve as the source of H2O2 for this system. H2O2-generating Lactobacillus acidophilus (LB+) is present in the vagina of most normal women and peroxidase has been detected in vaginal fluid. LB+ at high concentration is viricidal to HIV-1, and, at levels where LB+ is ineffective alone, the addition of peroxidase (myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase) and a halide (chloride, iodide, bromide, thiocyanate) restore viricidal activity. LB+ can be replaced by H2O2, but not by non-H2O2-producing LB, and viricidal activity is inhibited by azide and catalase. The survival of HIV in the female genital tract and thus the likelihood of transmission may be influenced by the activity of the LB(+)-peroxidase-halide system in the vagina. PMID:1647436

  17. Cofactor-induced reversible folding of Flavodoxin-4 from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Geralt, Michael; Axelrod, Herbert L; Xu, Qingping; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Deacon, Ashley M; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Flavodoxins in combination with the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor play important roles for electron transport in prokaryotes. Here, novel insights into the FMN-binding mechanism to flavodoxins-4 were obtained from the NMR structures of the apo-protein from Lactobacillus acidophilus (YP_193882.1) and comparison of its complex with FMN. Extensive reversible conformational changes were observed upon FMN binding and release. The NMR structure of the FMN complex is in agreement with the crystal structure (PDB ID: 3EDO) and exhibits the characteristic flavodoxin fold, with a central five-stranded parallel β–sheet and five α-helices forming an α/β-sandwich architecture. The structure differs from other flavoproteins in that helix α2 is oriented perpendicular to the β-sheet and covers the FMN-binding site. This helix reversibly unfolds upon removal of the FMN ligand, which represents a unique structural rearrangement among flavodoxins. PMID:26177955

  18. Purification and some properties of acidocin 8912, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus TK8912.

    PubMed

    Tahara, T; Kanatani, K; Yoshida, K; Miura, H; Sakamoto, M; Oshimura, M

    1992-08-01

    Acidocin 8912, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus TK8912, was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographies on CM-cellulose, Sephadex G-50, Sephadex G-25, and reversed-phase HPLC on Aquapore RP-300. The purified acidocin 8912 migrated as a single band on SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight was estimated to be 5200 by SDS-PAGE, and 5400 by HPLC gel filtration on TSKgel G3000PWXL. Both the amino acid composition and the N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated that acidocin 8912 was a peptide composed of presumably 50 amino acids containing a Lys residue at the N-terminus. The purified acidocin 8912 showed a bactericidal effect on sensitive cells but not a bacteriolytic effect.

  19. Optimization of Lactobacillus acidophilus cultivation using taro waste and evaluation of its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Liu, Jui-Ming; Pua, Xiao-Hui; Ting, Yuwen; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, taro waste (TW) was utilized for Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 14079 cultivation and the anti-tumor and immune-modulatory properties of heat-killed cells (HKCs), cytoplasmic fraction (CF), and exopolysaccharide (EPS) were evaluated. The optimum liquefaction enzyme dosage, temperature, and time determined by Box-Behnken design response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) were 9 mL/L of α-amylase, 79.2 °C, and 5 h of reaction, respectively. The optimum temperature and reaction time for saccharification were determined as 60 °C and 3 h. The optimum medium, CGMY1 medium, constitutes of TW hydrolysate containing 37 g/L of glucose, 25 g/L of corn gluten meal (CGM), and 1 g/L of yeast extract (YE). Results of MTT assay showed that HKCs and EPS from CGM medium exhibited the highest anti-proliferative in HT-29 (IC50 of HKCs, 467.25 μg/mL; EPS, 716.10 μg/mL) and in Caco-2 cells (IC50 of EPS, 741.60 μg/mL). Luciferase-based NF-ΚB and COX-2 systems indicated HKCs from CGM medium stimulated the highest expression of luciferin in both systems. The luciferase activities by using 100 and 500 μg/mL of HKCs from CGM were 24.30- and 45.83-fold in NF-ΚB system and 11.54- and 4.93-fold in COX-2 system higher than the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the potential of TW medium for L. acidophilus cultivation and the production of non-viable probiotics with enhanced biological activities.

  20. Characterization of the temperate bacteriophage phi adh and plasmid transduction in Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH.

    PubMed

    Raya, R R; Kleeman, E G; Luchansky, J B; Klaenhammer, T R

    1989-09-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH is lysogenic and harbors an inducible prophage, phi adh. Bacteriophage were detected in cell lysates induced by treatment with mitomycin C or UV light. Electron microscopy of lysates revealed phage particles with a hexagonal head (62 nm) and a long, noncontractile, flexible tail (398 nm) ending in at last five short fibers. Phage phi adh was classified within Bradley's B1 phage group and the Siphoviridae family. The phi adh genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule of 41.7 kilobase pairs with cohesive ends: a physical map of the phi adh genome was constructed. A prophage-cured derivative of strain ADH, designated NCK102, was isolated from cells that survived UV exposure. NCK102 did not exhibit mitomycin C-induced lysis, but broth cultures lysed upon addition of phage. Phage phi adh produced clear plaques on NCK102 in media containing 10 mM CaCl2 at pH values between 5.2 and 5.5. A relysogenized derivative (NCK103) of NCK102 was isolated that exhibited mitomycin C-induced lysis and superinfection immunity to phage phi adh. Hybridization experiments showed that the phi adh genome was present in the ADH and NCK103 chromosomes, but absent in NCK102. These results demonstrated classic lytic and lysogenic cycles of replication for the temperate phage phi adh induced from L. acidophilus ADH. Phage phi adh also mediates transduction of plasmid DNA. Transductants of strain ADH containing pC194, pGK12, pGB354, and pVA797 were detected at frequencies in the range of 3.6 x 10(-8) to 8.3 x 10(-10) per PFU. Rearrangements or deletions were not detected in these plasmids as a consequence of transduction. This is the first description of plasmid transduction in the genus Lactobacillus.

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus CP23 with weak immunomodulatory activity lacks anchoring structure for surface layer protein.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Sae; Kato, Shinji; Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    To determine the reason for the low levels of Surface layer protein A (SlpA) on CP23 cells, which might play a crucial role in the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus, the DNA sequence of the slpA gene of CP23 and L-92 strains, including the upstream region, were analyzed. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminus needed for cell anchoring, and only an additional Ala-Val-Ala sequence inserted in the N-terminal region of the mature CP23 protein. Therefore, anchoring of SlpA on the cell wall of CP23 and L-92 was evaluated by a reconstitution assay, which showed that SlpA released by LiCl treatment from both CP23 and L-92 was successfully anchored on LiCl-treated L-92 cells, but not on LiCl-treated CP23 cells. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SlpA protein in the culture medium of CP23 and L-92 by ELISA revealed higher levels of SlpA secretion in CP23 cells than in L-92 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the lower levels of SlpA on the surface of CP23 cells might be caused by less cell wall capacity for SlpA anchoring, leading to an accumulation of SlpA in the culture medium of CP23 cells. The present study supports the importance of cell surface structure of L. acidophilus L-92 for SlpA anchoring on the cell surface needed for immunomodulatory effect.

  2. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Russell, W. Michael; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Buck, B. Logan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Souther, Nicole; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Callanan, Michael; Lick, Sonja; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic bacterium that has been produced commercially since 1972. The complete genome is 1,993,564 nt and devoid of plasmids. The average GC content is 34.71% with 1,864 predicted ORFs, of which 72.5% were functionally classified. Nine phage-related integrases were predicted, but no complete prophages were found. However, three unique regions designated as potential autonomous units (PAUs) were identified. These units resemble a unique structure and bear characteristics of both plasmids and phages. Analysis of the three PAUs revealed the presence of two R/M systems and a prophage maintenance system killer protein. A spacers interspersed direct repeat locus containing 32 nearly perfect 29-bp repeats was discovered and may provide a unique molecular signature for this organism. In silico analyses predicted 17 transposase genes and a chromosomal locus for lactacin B, a class II bacteriocin. Several mucus- and fibronectin-binding proteins, implicated in adhesion to human intestinal cells, were also identified. Gene clusters for transport of a diverse group of carbohydrates, including fructooligosaccharides and raffinose, were present and often accompanied by transcriptional regulators of the lacI family. For protein degradation and peptide utilization, the organism encoded 20 putative peptidases, homologs for PrtP and PrtM, and two complete oligopeptide transport systems. Nine two-component regulatory systems were predicted, some associated with determinants implicated in bacteriocin production and acid tolerance. Collectively, these features within the genome sequence of L. acidophilus are likely to contribute to the organisms' gastric survival and promote interactions with the intestinal mucosa and microbiota. PMID:15671160

  3. Role of Thiobacillus thioparus in the biodegradation of carbon disulfide in a biofilter packed with a recycled organic pelletized material.

    PubMed

    Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X; Rojo, Naiara; Gallastegui, Gorka; Guivernau, Miriam; Viñas, Marc; Elías, Ana

    2014-07-01

    This study reports the biodegradation of carbon disulfide (CS2) in air biofilters packed with a pelletized mixture of composted manure and sawdust. Experiments were carried out in two lab-scale (1.2 L) biofiltration units. Biofilter B was seeded with activated sludge enriched previously on CS2-degrading biomass under batch conditions, while biofilter A was left as a negative inoculation control. This inoculum was characterized by an acidic pH and sulfate accumulation, and contained Achromobacter xylosoxidans as the main putative CS2 biodegrading bacterium. Biofilter operation start-up was unsuccessfully attempted under xerophilic conditions and significant CS2 elimination was only achieved in biofilter A upon the implementation of an intermittent irrigation regime. Sustained removal efficiencies of 90-100 % at an inlet load of up to 12 g CS2 m(-3) h(-1) were reached. The CS2 removal in this biofilter was linked to the presence of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus, known among the relatively small number of species with a reported capacity of growing on CS2 as the sole energy source. DGGE molecular profiles confirmed that this microbe had become dominant in biofilter A while it was not detected in samples from biofilter B. Conventional biofilters packed with inexpensive organic materials are suited for the treatment of low-strength CS2 polluted gases (IL <12 g CS2 m(-3) h(-1)), provided that the development of the adequate microorganisms is favored, either upon enrichment or by inoculation. The importance of applying culture-independent techniques for microbial community analysis as a diagnostic tool in the biofiltration of recalcitrant compounds has been highlighted.

  4. Genome-enabled studies of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation in the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Beller, Harry R.; Zhou, Peng; Legler, Tina C.; Chakicherla, Anu; Kane, Staci; Letain, Tracy E.; A. O’Day, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium capable of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent U(IV) and Fe(II) oxidation, both of which can strongly influence the long-term efficacy of in situ reductive immobilization of uranium in contaminated aquifers. We previously identified two c-type cytochromes involved in nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidation in T. denitrificans and hypothesized that c-type cytochromes would also catalyze Fe(II) oxidation, as they have been found to play this role in anaerobic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Here we report on efforts to identify genes associated with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation, namely (a) whole-genome transcriptional studies [using FeCO3, Fe2+, and U(IV) oxides as electron donors under denitrifying conditions], (b) Fe(II) oxidation assays performed with knockout mutants targeting primarily highly expressed or upregulated c-type cytochromes, and (c) random transposon-mutagenesis studies with screening for Fe(II) oxidation. Assays of mutants for 26 target genes, most of which were c-type cytochromes, indicated that none of the mutants tested were significantly defective in nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The non-defective mutants included the c1-cytochrome subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III), which has relevance to a previously proposed role for this complex in nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation and to current concepts of reverse electron transfer. A transposon mutant with a disrupted gene associated with NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) was ~35% defective relative to the wild-type strain; this strain was similarly defective in nitrate reduction with thiosulfate as the electron donor. Overall, our results indicate that nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in T. denitrificans is not catalyzed by the same c-type cytochromes involved in U(IV) oxidation, nor have other c-type cytochromes yet been implicated in the process. PMID:24065960

  5. Whole-Genome Transcriptional Analysis of Chemolithoautotrophic Thiosulfate Oxidation by Thiobacillus denitrificans Under Aerobic vs. Denitrifying Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H R; Letain, T E; Chakicherla, A; Kane, S R; Legler, T C; Coleman, M A

    2006-04-22

    Thiobacillus denitrificans is one of the few known obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of energetically coupling thiosulfate oxidation to denitrification as well as aerobic respiration. As very little is known about the differential expression of genes associated with ke chemolithoautotrophic functions (such as sulfur-compound oxidation and CO2 fixation) under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions, we conducted whole-genome, cDNA microarray studies to explore this topic systematically. The microarrays identified 277 genes (approximately ten percent of the genome) as differentially expressed using Robust Multi-array Average statistical analysis and a 2-fold cutoff. Genes upregulated (ca. 6- to 150-fold) under aerobic conditions included a cluster of genes associated with iron acquisition (e.g., siderophore-related genes), a cluster of cytochrome cbb3 oxidase genes, cbbL and cbbS (encoding the large and small subunits of form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, or RubisCO), and multiple molecular chaperone genes. Genes upregulated (ca. 4- to 95-fold) under denitrifying conditions included nar, nir, and nor genes (associated respectively with nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitric oxide reductase, which catalyze successive steps of denitrification), cbbM (encoding form II RubisCO), and genes involved with sulfur-compound oxidation (including two physically separated but highly similar copies of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and of dsrC, associated with dissimilatory sulfite reductase). Among genes associated with denitrification, relative expression levels (i.e., degree of upregulation with nitrate) tended to decrease in the order nar > nir > nor > nos. Reverse transcription, quantitative PCR analysis was used to validate these trends.

  6. Effect of Heavy metals on the iron oxidizing ability of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Part 1, Effect of silver

    SciTech Connect

    De, G.C.; Pesic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of silver ions on the iron oxidizing ability of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied using electrochemical and other physics-chemical techniques. Electrochemical investigation was conducted using a method based on redox potential change. Experiments were performed by adding an aliquot of separately prepared concentrate of the bacteria into the solution of ferrous ion and monitoring the redox potential for at least one hour. Pyrite was used as the indicator electrode. Parameters examined were pH, microbial cell density, ferrous, ferric and silver ion concentration, temperature and preconditioning period of the bacteria with silver ions, etc. Results obtained demonstrate that the rate of ferrous ion oxidation is dependent on pH (optimum pH range is 1.5--2.0) and the substrate (i.e. Fe(II)) to microbial cell concentration ratio. The mechanism of the bacteria mediated oxidation of ferrous iron is remarkably sensitive to temperature changes. At the vicinity of the optimum temperature (i.e. 25[degree]C), the reaction is likely to be controlled by the diffusion of Fe (II) ions through the cell wall of the bacteria, whereas below the range 18--25[degree]C, reaction kinetics may be the rate controlling factor. In the presence of 10 mg/L silver, the reaction may be kinetically controlled over the temperature range 5.5--25[degree]C. Inhibition of microbial FE(II) oxidation in the presence of silver may take place via a mixed mechanism in which silver may bind with both the enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex.

  7. Protection of Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions with whey protein/pullulan microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Burcu; Tellioğlu Harsa, Şebnem

    2015-12-01

    In this research, whey protein/pullulan (WP/pullulan) microcapsules were developed in order to assess its protective effect on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. Results demonstrated that WP/pullulan microencapsulated cells exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher resistance to simulated gastric acid and bile salt. Pullulan incorporation into protein wall matrix resulted in improved survival as compared to free cells after 3 h incubation in simulated gastric solution. Moreover WP/pullulan microcapsules were found to release over 70% of encapsulated L. acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 cells within 1 h. The effect of encapsulation during refrigerated storage was also studied. Free bacteria exhibited 3.96 log reduction while, WP/pullulan encapsulated bacteria showed 1.64 log reduction after 4 weeks of storage.

  8. Structure of the two-domain hexameric APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans: structural basis for the absence of ATP sulfurylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Sean C.; Segel, Irwin H.; Fisher, Andrew J.

    2009-10-01

    APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans contains an inactive N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain. The structure presented unveils the first hexameric assembly for an APS kinase, and reveals that structural changes in the N-terminal domain disrupt the ATP sulfurylase active site thus prohibiting activity. The Tbd-0210 gene of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans is annotated to encode a 60.5 kDa bifunctional enzyme with ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activity. This putative bifunctional enzyme was cloned, expressed and structurally characterized. The 2.95 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure reported here revealed a hexameric assembly with D{sub 3} symmetry. Each subunit contains a large N-terminal sulfurylase-like domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain reminiscent of the two-domain fungal ATP sulfurylases of Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which also exhibit a hexameric assembly. However, the T. denitrificans enzyme exhibits numerous structural and sequence differences in the N-terminal domain that render it inactive with respect to ATP sulfurylase activity. Surprisingly, the C-terminal domain does indeed display APS kinase activity, indicating that this gene product is a true APS kinase. Therefore, these results provide the first structural insights into a unique hexameric APS kinase that contains a nonfunctional ATP sulfurylase-like domain of unknown function.

  9. Some low homogenization pressures improve certain probiotic characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K.

    PubMed

    Muramalla, T; Aryana, K J

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are dairy cultures widely used in the manufacture of cultured dairy products. Commonly used homogenization pressures in the dairy industry are 13.80 MPa or less. It is not known whether low homogenization pressures can stimulate bacteria to improve their probiotic characteristics. Objectives were to determine the effect of homogenization at 0, 3.45, 6.90, 10.34, and 13.80 MPa on acid tolerance, bile tolerance, protease activity, and growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12, S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus ST-M5, and L. acidophilus LA-K. The cultures were individually inoculated in cool autoclaved skim milk (4°C) and homogenized for 5 continuous passes. Growth and bile tolerance of samples were determined hourly for 10h of incubation. Acid tolerance was determined every 20 min for 120 min of incubation. Protease activity was determined at 0, 12, and 24h of incubation. All homogenization pressures studied improved acid tolerance of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12 but had no beneficial effect on protease activity and had negative effects on growth and bile tolerance. A pressure of 6.90 MPa improved acid tolerance, bile tolerance, and protease activity of S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus ST-M5, but none of the homogenization pressures studied had an effect on its growth. Homogenization pressures of 13.80 and 6.90 MPa improved acid tolerance and bile tolerance, respectively, of L. acidophilus LA-K but had no effect on protease activity and its growth. Some low homogenization pressures positively influenced some characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and L. acidophilus LA-K. Culture pretreatment with some low homogenization pressures can be recommended for improvement of certain probiotic characteristics.

  10. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  11. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    PubMed

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages.

  12. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in synbiotic guava mousses and its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Castro, Inar A; Saad, Susana M I

    2010-02-28

    The effects of refrigeration, freezing and substitution of milk fat by inulin and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 viability and resistance to gastric and enteric simulated conditions in synbiotic guava mousses effects were investigated. Refrigerated mousses supplemented with WPC presented the best probiotic viability, ranging from 7.77 to 6.24 log cfu/g during 28 days of storage. The highest probiotic populations, above 7.45 log cfu/g, were observed for all frozen mousses during 112 days of storage. Decreased L. acidophilus survival during the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation was observed both for refrigerated and frozen mousses. Nonetheless, for the refrigerated mousses, the addition of inulin enhanced the probiotic survival during the in vitro assays in the first week of storage. L. acidophilus survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids was also improved through freezing. The frozen storage may be used to provide increased shelf-life for synbiotic guava mousses. Even though the protective effect of inulin and WPC on the probiotic microorganism tested was shown to be more specific for the refrigerated products, the partial replacement of milk fat by these ingredients may also help, as it improves the nutritional value of mousses in both storage conditions.

  13. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-huan; Huang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    To investigate Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) supplementation to triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora in children with H. pylori infection. One hundred H. pylori-infected children were randomly assigned to two groups: treatment group (n = 43), standard triple anti-H. pylori therapy plus probiotics of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum for 2 weeks followed by taking probiotics for another 4 weeks; control group (n = 45), standard triple anti-H. pylori therapy for 6 weeks. After 6-week treatment, ¹³C-urease breath test was performed and side effects were monitored during the observation period. Quantitative PCR with 16S rRNA-gene-targeted species-specific primers was carried out for the analysis of human intestinal B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, and Escherichia coli (E. coli). As expected, treatment group could significantly enhance the H. pylori eradication rate (83.7 vs. 64.4 %, P < 0.05). B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, and E. coli showed no statistical difference before or after therapy in the treatment group. The number of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was significantly decreased after 2-week treatment in the control group, but after 6-week treatment it significantly increased and nearly returned to the level before treatment. The number of E. coli increased significantly after 2-week treatment, while after 6-week treatment, it nearly decreased to the level before treatment. L. acidophilus and B. bifidum supplementation is effective for H. pylori eradication compared with triple therapy alone.

  15. Genome-Enabled Studies of Anaerobic, Nitrate-Dependent Iron Oxidation in the Chemolithoautotrophic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, H. R.; Zhou, P.; Legler, T. C.; Chakicherla, A.; O'Day, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium capable of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent U(IV) and Fe(II) oxidation, both of which can strongly influence the long-term efficacy of in situ reductive immobilization of uranium in contaminated aquifers. We previously identified two c-type cytochromes involved in nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidation in T. denitrificans and hypothesized that c-type cytochromes would also catalyze Fe(II) oxidation, as they have been found to play this role in anaerobic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Here we report on efforts to identify genes associated with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation, namely (a) whole-genome transcriptional studies [using FeCO3, Fe2+, and U(IV) oxides as electron donors under denitrifying conditions], (b) Fe(II) oxidation assays performed with knockout mutants targeting primarily highly expressed or upregulated c-type cytochromes, and (c) random transposon-mutagenesis studies with screening for Fe(II) oxidation. Assays of mutants for 26 target genes, most of which were c-type cytochromes, indicated that none of the mutants tested were significantly defective in nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The non-defective mutants included the c1-cytochrome subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III), which has relevance to a previously proposed role for this complex in nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation and to current concepts of reverse electron transfer. Of the transposon mutants defective in Fe(II) oxidation, one mutant with a disrupted gene associated with NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) was ~35% defective relative to the wild-type strain; this strain was similarly defective in nitrate reduction with thiosulfate as the electron donor. Overall, our results indicate that nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in T. denitrificans is not catalyzed by the same c-type cytochromes involved in U(IV) oxidation, nor have other c-type cytochromes yet been implicated in the process.

  16. Construction and immunogenicity of the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuelan; Jiang, Lufeng; Liu, Teng; Wang, Min; Cao, Wenbo; Bao, Yongzhan; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) is an infectious disease of cattle with a worldwide distribution, creating a substantial economic impact. It is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This research was conducted to construct the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of BVDV E0 gene and to test its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against BVDV infection in the mice model. The BVDV E0 gene was sub-cloned into the expression vector and then transformed into the L. acidophilus LA-5 strain by electroporation. The recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 was confirmed by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. The mice were immunized orally with the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The serum IgG antibody and fecal sIgA antibody responses, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were detected respectively. On the 7th day after the last-immunization, the mice were inoculated with BVDV to evaluate the protective efficiency of the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The results showed that the expressed products protein E0 in the L. acidophilus LA-5 resulted in single band of 27kDa by SDS-PAGE and its strong reactivity with BVDV antibody was confirmed by Western blotting. The IgG and sIgA antibodies responses, IL-12 and IFN-γ expression levels in the vaccinated mice with recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 were significantly higher than those in the control mice. The protective rate of the vaccinated mice against BVDV increased significantly, and a 90.00% protection rate in virulent challenge was observed. These results indicated that the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 strain was successfully constructed and it could effectively improve the immune response in mice and might provide protection against BVDV.

  17. Some probiotic and antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus cultured from dahi a native milk product.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Masud, Tariq; Sohail, Asma

    2014-08-01

    In this study, different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus from dahi were analyzed for certain probiotic and antibacterial properties. Initially, these strains were confirmed by the amplification of 16S rRNA regions and then screened for antibacterial activities against food borne pathogens. The phenotypic relationship between apparent antibacterial activity and cell wall proteins were established by cluster analysis. It was observed that those strains, which have prominent bands having size 22-25 kDa possess antibacterial activity. On the basis of wide spectrum of killing pattern, a strain LA06FT was further characterized that showed no change in its behavior when subjected to the antibiotic protected environment and grow well in acid-bile conditions. The bacteriocin produced by this strain has specific antibacterial activity of 5369.13 AU mg(-1). It remained stable at 60-90 °C and pH range of 4.5-6.5 while proteolytic enzymes inactivate the bacteriocin that confirm its proteinic nature having molecular weight of ≤8.5 kDa.

  18. Newly Identified Thermostable Esterase from Sulfobacillus acidophilus: Properties and Performance in Phthalate Ester Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Xiang; Qiu, Yong-Jun; Li, Cheng-Yuan; Xing, Shuai; Zheng, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    EstS1, a newly identified thermostable esterase from Sulfobacillus acidophilus DSM10332, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to enzymatically degrade phthalate esters (PAEs) to their corresponding monoalkyl PAEs. The optimal pH and temperature of the esterase were found to be 8.0 and 70°C, respectively. The half-life of EstS1 at 60°C was 15 h, indicating that the enzyme had good thermostability. The specificity constant (kcat/Km) of the enzyme for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was as high as 6,770 mM−1 s−1. The potential value of EstS1 was demonstrated by its ability to effectively hydrolyze 35 to 82% of PAEs (10 mM) within 2 min at 37°C, with all substrates being completely degraded within 24 h. At 60°C, the time required for complete hydrolysis of most PAEs was reduced by half. To our knowledge, this enzyme is a new esterase identified from thermophiles that is able to degrade various PAEs at high temperatures. PMID:25149523

  19. Preparation and characterization of alginate and psyllium beads containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Mirzaeei, Shahla; Maghsoodi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes preparation and characterization of beads of alginate and psyllium containing probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus DMSZ20079. Twelve different formulations containing alginate (ALG) and alginate-psyllium (ALG-PSL) were prepared using extrusion technique. The prepared beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology and surface properties, encapsulation efficiency, viabilities in acid (pH 1.8, 2 hours) and bile (0.5% w/v, 2 hours) conditions, and release in simulated colon pH conditions. The results showed that spherical beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.59 ± 0.04 to 1.67 ± 0.09 mm for ALG and from 1.61 ± 0.06 to 1.80 ± 0.07 mm for ALG-PSL with encapsulation efficiency higher than 98% were achieved. Furthermore, addition of PSL into ALG enhanced the integrity of prepared beads in comparison with ALG formulations. The results indicated that incorporation of PSL into alginate beads improved viability of the bacteria in acidic conditions as well as bile conditions. Also, stimulating effect of PSL on the probiotic bacteria was observed through 20-hour incubation in simulated colonic pH solution. According to our in vitro studies, PSL can be a suitable polymer candidate for partial substitution with ALG for probiotic coating.

  20. Effect of spermicides on Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro-nonoxynol-9 vs. Sapindus saponins.

    PubMed

    Ojha, P; Maikhuri, J P; Gupta, G

    2003-08-01

    Saponins extracted from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorosii were tested for their bactericidal/bacteriostatic property against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Nonoxynol-9 was used as a reference compound for the comparison of activity. Lactobacillus colonies were grown on specific medium (Rogosa SL agar) containing different concentrations of saponins and nonoxynol-9 in an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air at 37 degrees C for 72 h. The number and size of colonies were recorded at the end of the experiment and compared with controls. Results indicated that nearly 90% of Lactobacillus colonies with minor reduction in size thrived at 0.05% concentration of saponins whereas only 18% of colonies with approximately 75% reduction in size grew in dishes containing 0.05% nonoxynol-9. At higher concentrations of saponins, there was a gradual, dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonies and at 2.5% concentration there was an approximately 55% reduction in the number and 60% reduction in the size of surviving colonies. No lactobacillus colonies, however, grew in dishes containing 0.1% and higher concentrations of nonoxynol-9. The studies indicate that Sapindus saponins as compared to nonoxynol-9 are far less toxic to lactobacillus species and therefore saponins containing spermicidal preparations are likely to be more vaginal-friendly than equivalent nonoxynol-9 preparations.

  1. Synbiotic yogurt-ice cream produced via incorporation of microencapsulated lactobacillus acidophilus (la-5) and fructooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Milani, Elnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Salarbashi, Davoud

    2014-08-01

    Yogurt-ice cream is a nutritious product with a refreshing taste and durability profoundly longer than that of yogurt. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5) cells either in free or encapsulated form were incorporated into yog-ice cream and their survivability were studied. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic compound at three levels (0, 4 & 8 % w/w) was added to yogurt-ice cream mix and its effects on some chemical properties, overrun and firmness of product were evaluated. The higher the incorporated FOS concentration, the lower were the pH value and higher the total solid content of treatments. FOS incorporation (8 %) significantly increased the overrun of treatments and reduced their firmness. The viable counts of free probiotics decreased from ~9.55 to ~7.3 log cfu/g after 60 days of frozen storage while that of encapsulated cells merely decreased less than 1 log cycle. Encapsulation with alginate microbeads protected the probiotic cells against injuries in the freezing stage as well as, during frozen storage.

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of a mucin-binding GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhaval K; Shah, Kunal R; Pappachan, Anju; Gupta, Sarita; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis. It is also referred to as a moonlighting protein as it has many diverse functions like regulation of apoptosis, iron homeostasis, cell-matrix interactions, adherence to human colon etc. apart from its principal role in glycolysis. Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria which colonize the human gut and confer various health benefits to humans. In the present study, we have cloned, expressed and purified the GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus to get a recombinant product (r-LaGAPDH) and characterized it. Size exclusion chromatography shows that r-LaGAPDH exists as a tetramer in solution and have a mucin binding and hemagglutination activity indicating carbohydrate like binding adhesion mechanism. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed an interaction of r-LaGAPDH with mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine with a Kd of 3.6±0.7×10(-3)M, 4.34±0.09×10(-3)M, 4±0.87×10(-3)M and 3.7±0.28×10(-3)M respectively. We hope that this preliminary data will generate more interest in further elucidation of the roles of GAPDH in the adhesion processes of the bacteria.

  3. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.

    PubMed

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM.

  4. SIGNR3-dependent immune regulation by Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A in colitis.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Yaíma L; Selle, Kurt; Yang, Tao; Goh, Yong Jun; Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Owen, Jennifer L; Colliou, Natacha; Li, Eric; Johannssen, Timo; Lepenies, Bernd; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-04-01

    Intestinal immune regulatory signals govern gut homeostasis. Breakdown of such regulatory mechanisms may result in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Lactobacillus acidophilus contains unique surface layer proteins (Slps), including SlpA, SlpB, SlpX, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which interact with pattern recognition receptors to mobilize immune responses. Here, to elucidate the role of SlpA in protective immune regulation, the NCK2187 strain, which solely expresses SlpA, was generated. NCK2187 and its purified SlpA bind to the C-type lectin SIGNR3 to exert regulatory signals that result in mitigation of colitis, maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal microbiota, and protected gut mucosal barrier function. However, such protection was not observed in Signr3(-/-) mice, suggesting that the SlpA/SIGNR3 interaction plays a key regulatory role in colitis. Our work presents critical insights into SlpA/SIGNR3-induced responses that are integral to the potential development of novel biological therapies for autoinflammatory diseases, including IBD.

  5. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by Lactobacillus acidophilus n.v. Er2 317/402

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Suk; Lee, Junsoo

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus n.v. Er2 317/402 strain Narine is known as a health beneficial functional probiotic culture and supplementary source of nutrition for newborns. In this study, in vitro antimicrobial activities of Narine-lyophilized (Narine-L), Narine-heat treated (Narine-HT), and Narine crude cell-free extract (Narine-CCFE) were evaluated against pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) in agar as well as in a reconstituted powdered infant formula (RPIF) model. Inhibition zones of 30 mg Narine-L and Narine-HT were both 150 U, whereas inhibition zone of 30 mg Narine-CCFE was 200 U. Narine-L (1 g) and Narine-HT (1 g) were added to 10 mL of artificially contaminated RPIF, respectively, containing 100 μL of C. sakazakii (1.62×108 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL). After treatment with Narine-L and Narine-HT for 3 h and 6 h at 37℃, less than ≤107 CFU/mL of C. sakazakii was detected in RPIF. Without Narine-L and Narine-HT treatment, the population of C. sakazakii increased up to 5.36×109 CFU/mL after 6 h. Examination by transmission electron microscopy confirmed C. sakazakii cells were damaged by Narine-CCFE. Thus, employing Narine culture as a natural and safe bio-preservative may protect infants from C. sakazakii. PMID:27857539

  6. Effect of moderate electric field frequency on growth kinetics and metabolic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Laleh; Sastry, Sudhir K; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2008-01-01

    Moderate electric fields (MEF) have been previously shown to alter the metabolic activity of microbial cells; thus, the effect of frequency and electric field would be of considerable interest. We investigated herein the effects of MEF frequency on microbial growth kinetics and bacteriocin (Lacidin A) production of Lactobacillus acidophilus OSU 133 during fermentation. The following fermentation treatments were compared: conventional (for 40 h), MEF (1 V cm(-1), for 40 h), combination of MEF (1 V cm(-1), for the first 5 h) and conventional (for 35 h) at various frequency levels (45, 60, and 90 Hz) all at 30 degrees C, and control (conventional) fermentation at 37 degrees C. MEF treatments with purely sinusoidal waveforms at all frequencies at 30 degrees C produced a shorter lag phase than conventional fermentation. However, no lag phase reduction was found for a 60 Hz waveform that contained high-frequency harmonics. There was, however, a significant increase in the bacteriocin production under early MEF treatment at 60 Hz with high-frequency harmonics. On the basis of these observations, the fermentation process is accelerated by applying pure sinusoidal MEF at the early stage of growth while a significant increase in the bacteriocin production occurs when sinusoidal field at 60 Hz with harmonics is applied at the early stage of the growth.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Alginate and Psyllium Beads Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Mirzaeei, Shahla; Maghsoodi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes preparation and characterization of beads of alginate and psyllium containing probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus DMSZ20079. Twelve different formulations containing alginate (ALG) and alginate-psyllium (ALG-PSL) were prepared using extrusion technique. The prepared beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology and surface properties, encapsulation efficiency, viabilities in acid (pH 1.8, 2 hours) and bile (0.5% w/v, 2 hours) conditions, and release in simulated colon pH conditions. The results showed that spherical beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.59 ± 0.04 to 1.67 ± 0.09 mm for ALG and from 1.61 ± 0.06 to 1.80 ± 0.07 mm for ALG-PSL with encapsulation efficiency higher than 98% were achieved. Furthermore, addition of PSL into ALG enhanced the integrity of prepared beads in comparison with ALG formulations. The results indicated that incorporation of PSL into alginate beads improved viability of the bacteria in acidic conditions as well as bile conditions. Also, stimulating effect of PSL on the probiotic bacteria was observed through 20-hour incubation in simulated colonic pH solution. According to our in vitro studies, PSL can be a suitable polymer candidate for partial substitution with ALG for probiotic coating. PMID:22649306

  8. Leaching of zinc sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial oxidation of the sulfur product layer increases the rate of zinc sulfide dissolution at high concentrations of ferrous ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.A.; Crundwell, F.K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferroxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with Bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, which no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T.ferroxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions.

  9. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial Oxidation of the Sulfur Product Layer Increases the Rate of Zinc Sulfide Dissolution at High Concentrations of Ferrous Ions

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions. PMID:10583978

  10. Estimation of the potential antitumor activity of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt formulation in the attenuation of tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Bhathena, Jasmine; Martoni, Christopher; Prakash, Satya

    2009-02-01

    There is a strong correlation between orally administered probiotics and suppression of the low-grade inflammation that can lead to restoration of normal local immune functions. We studied the potential immunomodulatory and antitumorigenic properties of microencapsulated probiotic bacterial cells in a yogurt formulation in Min mice carrying a germline APC mutation. Daily oral administration of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterial cells in the yogurt formulation mice resulted in significant suppression of colon tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and reduced tumor size. Results show that oral administration of microencapsulated L. acidophilus contributed to the stabilization of animal body weight and decreased the release of bile acids. Histopathological analyses revealed fewer adenomas in treated versus untreated animals. Furthermore, treated animals exhibited fewer gastrointestinal intra-epithelial neoplasias with a lower grade of dysplasia in detected tumors. Results suggest that oral administration of microencapsulated probiotic L. acidophilus exerts anti-tumorous activity, which consequently leads to reduced tumor outcome.

  11. The Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contraction through PKC/MLCK/MLC Signaling Pathway in TBI Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Hu, Chen; Fang, Huan; Zhu, Lina; Gao, Ning; Zhu, Jingci

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics influence gastrointestinal motility. However, the molecular mechanisms by which probiotic Lactobacillus modulates intestinal motility in traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model have not been explored. In the present study, we provided evidence showing that treatment of TBI mice with Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly improved the terminal ileum villus morphology, restored the impaired interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the disrupted ICC networks after TBI, and prevented TBI-mediated inhibition of contractile activity in intestinal smooth muscle. Mechanistically, the decreased concentration of MLCK, phospho-MLC20 and phospho-MYPT1 and increased concentration of MLCP and PKC were observed after TBI, and these events mediated by TBI were efficiently prevented by Lactobacillus acidophilus application. These findings may provide a novel mechanistic basis for the application of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the treatment of TBI.

  12. Enzymology and structure of the GH13_31 glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase that confers isomaltooligosaccharide utilization in the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Møller, Marie S; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-08-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents.

  13. The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on skin mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Roosta, Zahra; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Vakili, Farzaneh

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on intestinal microbiota, skin mucus immune parameters and salinity stress resistance as well as growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). One-thousand and eight hundred healthy black swordtail larvae (0.03 ± 0.001 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (100 L) at a density of 150 fish per aquaria and fed different levels of dietary L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1)) for 10 weeks. At the end of trial, there were significant differences among antibacterial activity of skin mucus in probiotic fed fish and control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the skin mucus protein level and alkaline phosphatase activity in control group were significantly lower than those of L. acidophilus fed fish (P < 0.05). Microbiological assessments revealed that feeding with probiotic supplemented diet remarkably increased total autochthonous bacteria and autochthonous lactic acid bacteria levels (P < 0.05). The results showed that dietary administration of L. acidophilus significantly elevated black swordtail resistance against salinity stress (i.e survival %) (P < 0.05). Also, dietary administration of different levels of L. acidophilus improved weight gain, SGR, FCR compared to fish fed unsupplemented diet (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of dietary L. acidophilus on mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth parameters of black swordtail and the appropriate inclusion is 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1).

  14. Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Shamarao, Supreetha; Battur, Hemant; Tikare, Shreyas; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Al Sayed, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic Stevia extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Tukey post hoc for group wise comparisons. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous and ethnolic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were 25% and 12.5% respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Streptococcus mutans at 48 hours were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours was 20.5 and 13.2 respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and was inferior when compared with Chlorhexidine. PMID:25558451

  15. Effect of exopolysaccharides on the hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 in an in vitro gastric/pancreatic system.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Haertlé, Thomas; Mozzi, Fernanda; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2009-06-24

    An analysis of the peptides generated by hydrolysis of BLG by nonproliferating cells of the strain Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 was carried out. The effect of polysaccharides (pectin, and two EPS synthesized by two Streptococcus thermophilus strains, EPS1190 and EPS804) on BLG digestibility using an in vitro gastric/pancreatic system was analyzed. Polysaccharides are commonly used in the dairy industry to improve food texture; these hydrocolloids may interact with proteins, affecting their digestibility. Nonproliferating cells of Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 were able to hydrolyze 52% of BLG. Twenty-six resulting peptides with molecular masses in the range 544-4119 Da were identified by LC-MS/MS. These peptides resulted mostly from the hydrolysis of the more accessible N-terminal part of BLG. Degradation of BLG by pepsin was poor (8%). When BLG was previously hydrolyzed by Lb. acidophilus CRL 636, peptic hydrolysis was of 54.8%, while when pectin and EPS1190 were added, hydrolysis was higher (58.2 and 57.2%, respectively). Peptides crossing 8 kDa dialysis membranes after trypsin/chymotrypsin hydrolysis were analyzed by HPSEC. The produced peptides were smaller when BLG was hydrolyzed previously by the Lb. acidophilus strain. Moreover, in the presence of pectin, the amount of the larger peptide (3.5 kDa) observed in the size exclusion chromatograms was considerably decreased. Our studies showed that prehydrolysis of BLG by Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 had a positive influence on BLG digestibility and that polysaccharides may change the peptide profile yielded by trypsin/chymotrypsin hydrolysis, releasing smaller size peptides, which are known to be less immune-reactive. Moreover, Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 was able to hydrolyze the main epitopes (41-60, 102-124, and 149-162) of BLG, reducing its allergenic content.

  16. A novel biosensor based on Lactobacillus acidophilus for determination of phenolic compounds in milk products and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sagiroglu, Ayten; Paluzar, Hatice; Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Okten, Suzan; Sen, Burhan

    2011-01-01

    Different branches of industry need to use phenolic compounds (PCs) in their production, so determination of PCs sensitively, accurately, rapidly, and economically is very important. For the sensitive determination of PCs, some biosensors based on pure polyphenol oxidase, plant tissue and microorganisms were developed before. But there has been no study to develop a microbial phenolic compounds biosensor based on Lactobacillus species, which contain polyphenol oxidase enzyme. In this study, we used different forms of Lactobacillus species as enzyme sources of biosensor and compared biosensor performances of these forms for determination of PCs. For this purpose, we used lyophilized Lactobacillus cells (containing L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus), pure L. acidophilus, pure L. bulgaricus, and L. acidophilus- and L. bulgaricus adapted to catechol in Lactobacilli MRS Broth. The most suitable form was determined and optimization studies of the biosensor were carried out by using this form. For preparing the bioactive layer of the biosensor, the Lactobacillus cells were immobilized in gelatin by using glutaraldehyde. In the study, we used catechol as a substrate. Phenolic compound determination is based on the assay of the differences on the respiration activity of the cells on the oxygen meter in the absence and the presence of catechol. The microbial biosensor response depends directly on catechol concentration between 0.5 and 5.0 mM with 18 min response time. In the optimization studies of the microbial biosensor the most suitable microorganism amount was found to be 10 mg, and also phosphate buffer (pH 8.0; 50 mM) and 37.5 °C were obtained as the optimum working conditions. In the characterization studies of the microbial biosensor some parameters such as substrate specificity on the biosensor response and operational and storage stability were examine. Furthermore, the determination of PC levels in synthetic wastewater, industrial

  17. Influence of osmotic stress on the profile and gene expression of surface layer proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Palomino, María Mercedes; Waehner, Pablo M; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Ojeda, Paula; Malone, Lucía; Sánchez Rivas, Carmen; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Allievi, Mariana C; Ruzal, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we studied the role of surface layer (S-layer) proteins in the adaptation of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 to the osmotic stress generated by high salt. The amounts of the predominant and the auxiliary S-layer proteins SlpA and SlpX were strongly influenced by the growth phase and high-salt conditions (0.6 M NaCl). Changes in gene expression were also observed as the mRNAs of the slpA and slpX genes increased related to the growth phase and presence of high salt. A growth stage-dependent modification on the S-layer protein profile in response to NaCl was observed: while in control conditions, the auxiliary SlpX protein represented less than 10 % of the total S-layer protein, in high-salt conditions, it increased to almost 40 % in the stationary phase. The increase in S-layer protein synthesis in the stress condition could be a consequence of or a way to counteract the fragility of the cell wall, since a decrease in the cell wall thickness and envelope components (peptidoglycan layer and lipoteichoic acid content) was observed in L. acidophilus when compared to a non-S-layer-producing species such as Lactobacillus casei. Also, the stationary phase and growth in high-salt medium resulted in increased release of S-layer proteins to the supernatant medium. Overall, these findings suggest that pre-growth in high-salt conditions would result in an advantage for the probiotic nature of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as the increased amount and release of the S-layer might be appropriate for its antimicrobial capacity.

  18. Yield improvement of exopolysaccharides by screening of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC and optimization of the fermentation and extraction conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Yang, Dengxiang; Si, Tianlei; Pan, Siyi; Yang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysacharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in food processing with its well-recognized antioxidant activity. In this study, a L. acidophilus mutant strain with high-yielding EPS (2.92±0.05 g/L) was screened by chemical mutation (0.2 % diethyl sulfate). Plackett-Burman (PB) design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the EPS fermentation parameters and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the EPS extraction parameters. A strain with high-yielding EPS was screened. It was revealed that three parameters (Tween 80, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and trisodium citrate) had significant influence (P < 0.05) on the EPS yield. The optimal culture conditions for EPS production were: Tween 80 0.6 mL, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.6 g and trisodium citrate 4.1 g (with culture volume of 1 L). In these conditions, the maximum EPS yield was 3.96±0.08 g/L. The optimal extraction conditions analyzed by CCD were: alcohol concentration 70 %, the ratio of material to liquid (M/L ratio) 1:3.6 and the extraction time 31 h. In these conditions, the maximum EPS extraction yield was 1.48±0.23 g/L. It was confirmed by the verification experiments that the EPS yield from L. acidophilus mutant strains reached 5.12±0.73 g/L under the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the control (1.05±0.06 g/L). The results indicated that the strain screening with high-yielding EPS was successful and the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions significantly enhanced EPS yield. It was efficient and industrially promising. PMID:27103893

  19. Rennet paste from lambs fed a milk substitute supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus: effects on lipolysis in ovine cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Quinto, M; Dentico, M; Muscio, A; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2007-07-01

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation of a milk substitute on the features of lamb rennet paste used for cheese making. Lipolysis in cheese manufactured with rennet paste from lambs receiving supplemented milk was also evaluated. Lambs were subjected to 3 different feeding regimens (mother suckling, MS; artificial rearing, AR; and artificial rearing with 7 log10 cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus supplementation of the milk substitute, ARLb) and slaughtered at 20 and 40 d of age for each feeding treatment. Abomasa of the lambs were processed to rennet paste. Microbial loads, enzymatic activities (chymosin, pepsin, and lipases), and renneting characteristics of the lamb rennet paste were determined. Free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids were detected in cheese at 60 d of ripening. Addition of 7 log10 cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus to the milk substitute was carried out successfully. Total recovery of viable cells was recorded in milk supplied daily to the lambs in the ARLb group. The ARLb rennet had greater amounts of lactobacilli than did the MS or AR rennet, irrespective of the slaughter age of the lambs, and the ARLb rennet had higher concentrations of lactococci when lambs were slaughtered at 40 d of age. Chymosin and lipase activities were also higher in ARLb rennet than in MS or AR rennet from lambs slaughtered at an older age. Milk supplementation of ARLb lambs resulted in improved coagulating ability of the rennet and enhanced cheese lipolysis after 60 d of ripening. A reduction of all free fatty acids was observed in all cheeses when passing from 20 to 40 d of slaughter of the lambs. Conjugated linoleic acids were more abundant in ARLb cheeses at both 20 and 40 d. Therefore, supplementation of the milk substitute with Lb. acidophilus improved the enzymatic features of rennet and the healthful and nutritional characteristics of it the ovine cheese. Moreover, the addition of lactobacilli to the milk

  20. AcmB Is an S-Layer-Associated β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase and Functional Autolysin in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brant R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autolysins, also known as peptidoglycan hydrolases, are enzymes that hydrolyze specific bonds within bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan during cell division and daughter cell separation. Within the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, there are 11 genes encoding proteins with peptidoglycan hydrolase catalytic domains, 9 of which are predicted to be functional. Notably, 5 of the 9 putative autolysins in L. acidophilus NCFM are S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) noncovalently colocalized along with the surface (S)-layer at the cell surface. One of these SLAPs, AcmB, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase encoded by the gene lba0176 (acmB), was selected for functional analysis. In silico analysis revealed that acmB orthologs are found exclusively in S-layer- forming species of Lactobacillus. Chromosomal deletion of acmB resulted in aberrant cell division, autolysis, and autoaggregation. Complementation of acmB in the ΔacmB mutant restored the wild-type phenotype, confirming the role of this SLAP in cell division. The absence of AcmB within the exoproteome had a pleiotropic effect on the extracellular proteins covalently and noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan, which likely led to the observed decrease in the binding capacity of the ΔacmB strain for mucin and extracellular matrices fibronectin, laminin, and collagen in vitro. These data suggest a functional association between the S-layer and the multiple autolysins noncovalently colocalized at the cell surface of L. acidophilus NCFM and other S-layer-producing Lactobacillus species. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely used probiotic microbes incorporated in many dairy foods and dietary supplements. This organism produces a surface (S)-layer, which is a self-assembling crystalline array found as the outermost layer of the cell wall. The S-layer, along with colocalized associated proteins, is an important mediator of probiotic activity through intestinal adhesion and modulation of

  1. Identification and purification of a protein that induces production of the Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteriocin lactacin B.

    PubMed Central

    Barefoot, S F; Chen, Y R; Hughes, T A; Bodine, A B; Shearer, M Y; Hughes, M D

    1994-01-01

    Lactacin B is a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus N2 that is active against closely related lactobacilli, including Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (formerly Lactobacillus leichmannii) ATCC 4797. Pure producer cultures propagated in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5) contain no lactacin B; it is detected only in cultures maintained at pH 5.0 to 6.0 and produced optimally at pH 6.0 S. F. Barefoot and T. R. Klaenhammer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:328-334, 1984). Associative growth of producer and indicator, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797, resulted in production of an inhibitor identical to lactacin B. Associative growth increased lactacin B production from nondetectable levels (< 100 activity units [AU]/ml) to between 3,200 and 6,400 AU/ml in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5) and resulted in early but equal production of lactacin B (approximately 25,600 AU/ml) in broth maintained at pH 6.0. Indicator cells, but not spent culture filtrates, induced lactacin B production. Indicator cells disrupted by a French pressure cell yielded cell-free filtrates containing inducing activity. Chromatofocusing and gel filtration high-performance liquid chromatography of cell-free filtrates yielded a protein with a pI of 4.1 and a molecular size of approximately 58 kDa that induced lactacin B production. Analytical isoelectric focusing yielded a single protein band. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels contained a 28-kDa protein suggesting a two-subunit structure. Protein sequencing identified an N-terminal serine and 18 additional amino acids. To our knowledge, there are not previous descriptions of proteins that induce bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:7986029

  2. Probiotic Crescenza cheese containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus manufactured with high-pressure homogenized milk.

    PubMed

    Burns, P; Patrignani, F; Serrazanetti, D; Vinderola, G C; Reinheimer, J A; Lanciotti, R; Guerzoni, M E

    2008-02-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment of food preservation and diversification. Its effectiveness on the deactivation of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in model systems and real food is well documented. To evaluate the potential of milk treated by HPH for the production of Crescenza cheese with commercial probiotic lactobacilli added, 4 types of cheeses were made: HPH (from HPH-treated milk), P (from pasteurized milk), HPH-P (HPH-treated milk plus probiotics), and P-P (pasteurized milk plus probiotics) cheeses. A strain of Streptococcus thermophilus was used as starter culture for cheese production. Compositional, microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic analyses were carried out at 1, 5, 8, and 12 d of refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). According to results obtained, no significant differences among the 4 cheese types were observed for gross composition (protein, fat, moisture) and pH. Differently, the HPH treatment of milk increased the cheese yield about 1% and positively affected the viability during the refrigerated storage of the probiotic bacteria. In fact, after 12 d of storage, the Lactobacillus paracasei A13 cell loads were 8 log cfu/ g, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus H5 exhibited, in P-P cheese, a cell load decrease of about 1 log cfu/g with respect to the HPH-P cheese. The hyperbaric treatment had a significant positive effect on free fatty acids release and cheese proteolysis. Also, probiotic cultures affected proteolytic and lipolytic cheese patterns. No significant differences were found for the sensory descriptors salty and creamy among HPH and P cheeses as well as for acid, piquant, sweet, milky, salty, creamy, and overall acceptance among HPH, HPH-P, and P-P Crescenza cheeses.

  3. In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

  4. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P < 0.05) of total solids (42%), proteins (16.5%), and titratable acidity (2.2%) was observed in the test sample compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P < 0.05) of melting in the probiotic one may have resulted from less over run, than the nonprobiotic sample. Rapid reduction in the viable cells during frozen storage occurred at -18°C and gradual adaptation occurred over the first 4 weeks. At the 10th week, 1.0 × 10(7) numbers of viable organisms were present in 1 g of the probiotic ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers.

  5. Solution Structure of Acidocin B, a Circular Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46

    PubMed Central

    Acedo, Jeella Z.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Lohans, Christopher T.; McKay, Ryan T.; Miskolzie, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Acidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46, was originally reported to be a linear peptide composed of 59 amino acid residues. However, its high sequence similarity to gassericin A, a circular bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, suggested that acidocin B might be circular as well. Acidocin B was purified from culture supernatant by a series of hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps. Its circular nature was ascertained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing. The peptide sequence was found to consist of 58 amino acids with a molecular mass of 5,621.5 Da. The sequence of the acidocin B biosynthetic gene cluster was also determined and showed high nucleotide sequence similarity to that of gassericin A. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of acidocin B in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles was elucidated, revealing that it is composed of four α-helices of similar length that are folded to form a compact, globular bundle with a central pore. This is a three-dimensional structure for a member of subgroup II circular bacteriocins, which are classified based on their isoelectric points of ∼7 or lower. Comparison of acidocin B with carnocyclin A, a subgroup I circular bacteriocin with four α-helices and a pI of 10, revealed differences in the overall folding. The observed variations could be attributed to inherent diversity in their physical properties, which also required the use of different solvent systems for three-dimensional structural elucidation. PMID:25681186

  6. Antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus against multidrug-resistant enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manesh; Dhaka, Pankaj; Vijay, Deepthi; Vergis, Jess; Mohan, Vysakh; Kumar, Ashok; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Malik, S V S; Rawool, Deepak B

    2016-09-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated individually and synergistically against multidrug-resistant enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (MDR-EAEC). In vitro evaluation of each probiotic strain when co-cultured with MDR-EAEC isolates revealed a reduction in MDR-EAEC counts (eosin-methylene blue agar) in a dose- and time-dependent manner: probiotics at a dose rate of 10(10) CFU inhibited MDR-EAEC isolates at 72 h post-inoculation (PI), whereas at lower concentrations (10(8) and 10(9) CFU) MDR-EAEC isolates were inhibited at 96 h PI. The synergistic antimicrobial effect of both probiotic strains (each at 10(10) CFU) was highly significant (P < 0.01) and inhibited the growth of MDR-EAEC isolates at 24 h PI. For in vivo evaluation, weaned mice were fed orally with 10(7) CFU of MDR-EAEC. At Day 3 post-infection, treated mice were fed orally with the probiotic strains (each at 10(10) CFU). Compared with the control, post-treatment a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in MDR-EAEC counts was observed in faeces by Day 2 and in intestinal tissues of treated mice by Days 3 and 4 as evidenced by plate count (mean 2.71 log and 2.27 log, respectively) and real-time PCR (mean 1.62 log and 1.57 log, respectively) methods. Histopathologically, comparatively mild changes were observed in the ileum and colon from Days 3 to 5 post-treatment with probiotics; however, from Day 6 the changes were regenerative or normal. These observations suggest that these probiotic strains can serve as alternative therapeutics against MDR-EAEC-associated infections in humans and animals.

  7. Solution structure of acidocin B, a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46.

    PubMed

    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; McKay, Ryan T; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2015-04-01

    Acidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46, was originally reported to be a linear peptide composed of 59 amino acid residues. However, its high sequence similarity to gassericin A, a circular bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, suggested that acidocin B might be circular as well. Acidocin B was purified from culture supernatant by a series of hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps. Its circular nature was ascertained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing. The peptide sequence was found to consist of 58 amino acids with a molecular mass of 5,621.5 Da. The sequence of the acidocin B biosynthetic gene cluster was also determined and showed high nucleotide sequence similarity to that of gassericin A. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of acidocin B in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles was elucidated, revealing that it is composed of four α-helices of similar length that are folded to form a compact, globular bundle with a central pore. This is a three-dimensional structure for a member of subgroup II circular bacteriocins, which are classified based on their isoelectric points of ∼7 or lower. Comparison of acidocin B with carnocyclin A, a subgroup I circular bacteriocin with four α-helices and a pI of 10, revealed differences in the overall folding. The observed variations could be attributed to inherent diversity in their physical properties, which also required the use of different solvent systems for three-dimensional structural elucidation.

  8. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P < 0.05) of total solids (42%), proteins (16.5%), and titratable acidity (2.2%) was observed in the test sample compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P < 0.05) of melting in the probiotic one may have resulted from less over run, than the nonprobiotic sample. Rapid reduction in the viable cells during frozen storage occurred at −18°C and gradual adaptation occurred over the first 4 weeks. At the 10th week, 1.0 × 107 numbers of viable organisms were present in 1 g of the probiotic ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers. PMID:24804052

  9. Stability of microencapsulated B. lactis (BI 01) and L. acidophilus (LAC 4) by complex coacervation followed by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A C; Moretti, T S; Boschini, C; Baliero, J C C; Freitas, O; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2007-11-01

    Microcapsules containing Bifidobacterium lactis (BI 01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC 4) were produced by complex coacervation using a casein/pectin complex as the wall material, followed by spray drying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of these microorganisms when submitted to the spray drying process, a shelf-life of 120 days at 7-37 degrees C and the in vitro tolerance after being submitted to acid pH (pH 1.0 and 3.0) solutions besides morphology of microcapsules. Microencapsulated microorganisms were shown to be more resistant to acid conditions than free ones. Microencapsulated L. acidophilus maintained its viability for a longer storage period at both temperatures. The microcapsules presented a spherical shape with no fissures. The process used and the wall material were efficient in protecting the microorganisms under study against the spray drying process and simulated gastric juice; however, microencapsulated B. lactis lost its viability before the end of the storage time.

  10. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2012-07-02

    This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products.

  11. Enhanced survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus by encapsulation with nanostructured polyelectrolyte layers through layer-by-layer approach.

    PubMed

    Priya, Angel J; Vijayalakshmi, S P; Raichur, Ashok M

    2011-11-09

    The encapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus through layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolytes (PE) chitosan (CHI) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) has been investigated to enhance its survival in adverse conditions encountered in the GI tract. The survival of encapsulated cells in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal fluids (SIF) is significant when compared to nonencapsulated cells. On sequential exposure to SGF and SIF for 120 min, almost complete death of free cells is observed. However, for cells coated with three nanolayers of PEs (CHI/CMC/CHI), about 33 log % of the cells (6 log cfu/500 mg) survived under the same conditions. The enhanced survival rate of encapsulated L. acidophilus can be attributed to the impermeability of polyelectrolyte nanolayers to large enzyme molecules like pepsin and pancreatin that cause proteolysis and to the stability of the polyelectrolyte nanolayers in gastric and intestinal pH. The PE coating also serves to reduce viability losses during freezing and freeze-drying. About 73 and 92 log % of uncoated and coated cells survived after freeze-drying, and the losses occurring between freezing and freeze-drying were found to be lower for the coated cells.

  12. Microencapsulation of L. acidophilus (La-05) and B. lactis (Bb-12) and evaluation of their survival at the pH values of the stomach and in bile.

    PubMed

    Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Grosso, C R F

    2002-01-01

    Microcapsules were prepared using the probiotic microorganisms Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) and Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and the spray drying technique and cellulose acetate phthalate as the wall material. This study evaluated the resistance of these microorganisms to drying at three temperatures and also the in vitro tolerance of the free and microencapsulated form to pH values and bile concentrations similar to those found in the human stomach and intestine. With an air entry temperature of 130 degrees C and exit temperature of 75 degrees C, the number of viable cells of B. lactis was practically unaltered, whereas the population of L. acidophilus was reduced by two logarithmic cycles. B. lactis was more resistant to the drying process than L. acidophilus under all conditions tested. The morphology of the microcapsules was determined by scanning electron microscopy and the microcapsules presented a rounded external surface containing concavities, a continuous wall with no apparent porosity, average size of 22 microm, moisture content varying from 5.3 to 3.2% and water activity between 0.230 and 0.204. After inoculation into HCl solutions with pH values adjusted to 1 and 2, incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C, and plated after 0, 1 and 2 h of incubation, microcapsules were effective in protecting the microorganisms, while the populations of both free microorganisms were eliminated after only 1 h at the acidic conditions. Microencapsulated B. lactis and L. acidophilus, both free and microencapsulated, were also resistant after 12h to bile solutions.

  13. Antigenic proteins of Lactobacillus acidophilus that are recognised by serum IgG antibodies in children with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Prangli, Anna-Liisa; Utt, Meeme; Talja, Ija; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Rajasalu, Tarvo; Uibo, Oivi; Tillmann, Vallo; Uibo, Raivo

    2010-06-01

    Immune responses to lactobacilli have been so far insufficiently investigated in patients with autoimmune diseases. We used whole-cell lysate of an indigenous Lactobacillus acidophilus strain isolated from an Estonian child to study serum IgG antibodies in children groups with type 1 diabetes [insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)] (n = 21, age 4-18 yr) and with acute coeliac disease (CD) (n = 20, age 0.6-15 yr) and to compare the results with the controls (n = 24, age 2-17 yr). We found that our developed 1-D immunoblot assay readily enables to reveal antibodies against 28 L. acidophilus antigenic proteins in patients' and controls' sera. As verified by immunoproteomics analysis with 2-D and LC ESI-MS/MS the antigens of L. acidophilus were mainly common cytoplasmic proteins GroEL (HSP60), enolase, transcription factor EF-Ts and EF-Tu. However, in addition we identified formyl-CoA transferase being target for antibodies in every tested IDDM patients' serum. We have characterized for the first time the antigenic profile of L. acidophilus whole-cell lysate using sera from children with IDDM, CD, and controls. The different prevalence of reactions against tested antigens in patients and controls sera may indicate significant differences in immune system and commensal bacteria cross-talk in these groups.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri modulate cytokine responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, M. S. P.; Zhang, W.; Wen, K.; Gonzalez, A. M.; Saif, L. J.; Yousef, A. E.; Yuan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to alleviate inflammation, enhance the immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccines, or reduce the severity of rotavirus diarrhoea. Although the mechanisms are not clear, the differential Th1/Th2/Th3-driving capacities and modulating effects on cytokine production of different LAB strains may be the key. Our goal was to delineate the influence of combining two probiotic strains L. acidophilus and L. reuteri on the development of cytokine responses in neonatal gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotavirus (HRV). We demonstrated that HRV alone, or HRV plus LAB, but not LAB alone, initiated serum cytokine responses, as indicated by significantly higher concentrations of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-10 at post-inoculation day (PID) 2 in the HRV only and LAB+HRV+ pigs compared to LAB only and LAB-HRV- pigs. Peak cytokine responses coincided with the peak of HRV replication. LAB further enhanced the Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to HRV infection as indicated by significantly higher concentrations of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in the LAB+HRV+ pigs compared to the LAB-HRV+ pigs. The LAB+HRV+ pigs maintained relatively constant concentrations of TGF-β compared to the HRV only group which had a significant increase at PID 2 and decrease at PID 7, suggesting a regulatory role of LAB in maintaining gut homeostasis. At PID 28, cytokine secreting cell (CSC) responses, measured by ELISpot, showed increased Th1 (IL-12, IFN-γ) CSC numbers in the LAB+HRV+ and LAB-HRV+ groups compared to LAB only and LAB-HRV- pigs, with significantly increased IL-12 CSCs in spleen and PBMCs and IFN-γ CSCs in spleen of the LAB+HRV+ group. Thus, HRV infection alone, but not LAB alone was effective in inducing cytokine responses but LAB significantly enhanced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in HRV-infected pigs. LAB may also help to maintain immunological homeostasis during HRV infection by regulating TGF-β production. PMID:22348907

  15. A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.

    PubMed

    Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes.

  16. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P < 0.05). Evaluation of appetite related gene expression showed down-regulation of ghrelin in probiotic fed fish compared those of control treatment (P < 0.05). However, administration of different levels of L. acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  17. Specific binding of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans RbcR to the intergenic sequence between the rbc operon and the rbcR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, T; Sugawara, K

    1993-01-01

    The presence of two sets (rbcL1-rbcS1 and rbcL2-rbcS2) of rbc operons has been demonstrated in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans Fe1 (T. Kusano, T. Takeshima, C. Inoue, and K. Sugawara, J. Bacteriol. 173:7313-7323, 1991). A possible regulatory gene, rbcR, 930 bp long and possibly translated into a 309-amino-acid protein, was found upstream from the rbcL1 gene as a single copy. The gene is located divergently to rbcL1 with a 144-bp intergenic sequence. As in the cases of the Chromatium vinosum RbcR and Alcaligenes eutrophus CfxR, T. ferrooxidans RbcR is thought to be a new member of the LysR family, and these proteins share 46.5 and 42.8% identity, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays showed that T. ferrooxidans RbcR, produced in Escherichia coli, binds specifically to the intergenic sequence between rbcL1 and rbcR. Footprinting and site-directed mutagenesis experiments further demonstrated that RbcR binds to overlapping promoter elements of the rbcR and rbcL1 genes. The above data strongly support the participation of RbcR in regulation of the rbcL1-rbcS1 operon and the rbcR gene in T. ferrooxidans. Images PMID:8432695

  18. Biological removal of methanethiol from gas and water streams by using Thiobacillus thioparus: investigation of biodegradability and optimization of sulphur production.

    PubMed

    Badr, Kiumars; Bahmania, Mahmoud; Jahanmiri, Abdolhossein; Mowla, Dariush

    2014-08-01

    The present work mainly deals with biological oxidation, which was tested using the bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus in semi-batch bioreactor systems to evaluate the removal efficiencies and optimal conditions for the biodegradation of methanethiol (MT) in order to treat the natural gas and refinery output streams. The efficiency of this method is analysed by evaluating the concentration of MT in a bioreactor. The effect of operational parameters, such as initial concentration of MT, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), initial concentration of bacteria and reaction time on the degradation of MT, were studied. In this process, MT is converted into elemental sulphur particles as an intermediate in the oxidation process of MT to sulphate. The obtained results showed that the highest degradation rate occurred during the first 300 minutes of reaction time. The optimal conditions of the different initial MT concentrations with 0.3-0.6 bacteria OD, DO of 0.5 ppm, acidic pH value of 6.2 and temperature of 300C are obtained. Acidic pH and oxygen-limiting conditions were applied to obtain 80-85% selectivity for elemental sulphur formation in products. Under the optimal conditions, and for the highest (8.51 mM) and the lowest (0.53 mM) concentration of MT, the biological removal was about 89% and 94%, respectively.

  19. Mucosal Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing an HIV-1 Epitope within the Surface Layer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Zhang, Lin; LaVoy, Alora; Bumgardner, Sara; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Dean, Gregg A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions. Moreover, analysis of systemic SlpA-specific cytokines revealed that the responses appeared to be Th1 and Th17 dominant. These findings demonstrated the potential use of the Lactobacillus S-layer protein for development of oral vaccines targeting specific peptides. PMID:26509697

  20. Derivation of DNA probes for enumeration of a specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in piglet digestive tract samples.

    PubMed Central

    Rodtong, S; Dobbinson, S; Thode-Andersen, S; McConnell, M A; Tannock, G W

    1993-01-01

    Four DNA probes were derived that hybridized specifically to DNA from Lactobacillus acidophilus O. The probes were constructed by randomly cloning lactobacillus DNA in plasmid vector pBR322. Two of the probes (pSR1 and pSR2) were composed of vector and plasmid DNA inserts (3.6 and 1.6 kb, respectively); the others (pSR3 and pSR4) were composed of vector and chromosomally derived inserts (6.9 and 1.4 kb, respectively). The probes were used to enumerate, by colony hybridization, strain O in digestive tract samples collected from piglets inoculated 24 hours previously with a culture of the strain. The probes did not hybridize to DNA from lactobacilli inhabiting the digestive tract of uninoculated piglets. Strain O made up about 10% of the total lactobacillus population of the pars esophagea and about 20% of the population in other digestive tract samples. Images PMID:8285690

  1. Advancing the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A for the treatment of intestinal disorders in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Bikash; Ge, Yong; Colliou, Natacha; Zadeh, Mojgan; Weiner, Chelsea; Mila, Ashley; Owen, Jennifer L; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal immunity is subject to complex and fine-tuned regulation dictated by interactions of the resident microbial community and their gene products with host innate cells. Deterioration of this delicate process may result in devastating autoinflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which primarily comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Efficacious interventions to regulate proinflammatory signals, which play critical roles in IBD, require further scientific investigation. We recently demonstrated that rebalancing intestinal immunity via the surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM potentially represents a feasible therapeutic approach to restore intestinal homeostasis. To expand on these findings, we established a new method of purifying bacterial SlpA, a new SlpA-specific monoclonal antibody, and found no SlpA-associated toxicity in mice. Thus, these data may assist in our efforts to determine the immune regulatory efficacy of SlpA in humans. PMID:26647142

  2. A novel NADPH-dependent reductase of Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY phenol hydroxylase: expression, characterization, and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    The reductase component (MhpP) of the Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY multicomponent phenol hydroxylase exhibits only 40 % similarity to Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600 phenol hydroxylase reductase. Amino acid sequence alignment analysis revealed that four cysteine residues (Cys-X 4 -Cys-X 2 -Cys-X 29-35 -Cys) are conserved in the N terminus of MhpP for [2Fe-2S] cluster binding, and two other motifs (RXYS and GXXS/T) are conserved in the C terminus for binding the isoalloxazine and phosphate groups of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Two motifs (S/T-R and yXCGp) responsible for binding to reduce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) are also conserved in MhpP, although some residues differ. To confirm the function of this reductase, MhpP was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified. UV-visible spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that MhpP contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster. MhpP mutants in which the four cysteine residues were substituted via site-directed mutagenesis lost the ability to bind the [2Fe-2S] cluster, resulting in a decrease in enzyme-specific oxidation of NADPH. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that MhpP contains FAD. Substrate specificity analyses confirmed that MhpP uses NADPH rather than NADH as an electron donor. MhpP oxidizes NADPH using cytochrome c, potassium ferricyanide, or nitro blue tetrazolium as an electron acceptor, with a specific activity of 1.7 ± 0.36, 0.78 ± 0.13, and 0.16 ± 0.06 U/mg, respectively. Thus, S. acidophilus TPY MhpP is a novel NADPH-dependent reductase component of phenol hydroxylase that utilizes FAD and a [2Fe-2S] cluster as cofactors.

  3. Peripheral Light-Harvesting LH2 Complex Can Be Assembled in Cells of Nonsulfur Purple Bacterium Rhodoblastus acidophilus without Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Bol'shakov, M A; Ashikhmin, A A; Makhneva, Z K; Moskalenko, A A

    2015-09-01

    The effect of carotenoids on the assembly of LH2 complex in cells of the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodoblastus acidophilus was investigated. For this purpose, the bacterial culture was cultivated with an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis - 71 µM diphenylamine (DPA). The inhibitor decreased the level of biosynthesis of the colored carotenoids in membranes by ~58%. It was found that a large amount of phytoene was accumulated in them. This carotenoid precursor was bound nonspecifically to LH2 complex and did not stabilize its structure. Thermostability testing of the isolated LH2 complex together with analysis of carotenoid composition revealed that the population of this complex was heterogeneous with respect to carotenoid composition. One fraction of the LH2 complex with carotenoid content around 90% remains stable and was not destroyed under heating for 15 min at 50°C. The other fraction of LH2 complex containing on average less than one molecule of carotenoid per complex was destroyed under heating, forming a zone of free pigments (and polypeptides). The data suggest that a certain part of the LH2 complexes is assembled without carotenoids in cells of the nonsulfur bacterium Rbl. acidophilus grown with DPA. These data contradict the fact that the LH2 complex from nonsulfur bacteria cannot be assembled without carotenoids, but on the other hand, they are in good agreement with the results demonstrated in our earlier studies of the sulfur bacteria Allochromatium minutissimum and Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila. Carotenoidless LH2 complex was obtained from these bacteria with the use of DPA (Moskalenko, A. A., and Makhneva, Z. K. (2012) J. Photochem. Photobiol., 108, 1-7; Ashikhmin, A., et al. (2014) Photosynth. Res., 119, 291-303).

  4. Multivalent Chromosomal Expression of the Clostridium botulinum Serotype A Neurotoxin Heavy-Chain Antigen and the Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent toxins that cause severe disease in humans. New and improved vaccines are needed for both of these pathogens. For mucosal vaccine delivery using lactic acid bacteria, chromosomal expression of antigens is preferred over plasmid-based expression systems, as chromosomal expression circumvents plasmid instability and the need for antibiotic pressure. In this study, we constructed three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM expressing from the chromosome (i) the nontoxic host receptor-binding domain of the heavy chain of Clostridium botulinum serotype A neurotoxin (BoNT/A-Hc), (ii) the anthrax protective antigen (PA), and (iii) both the BoNT/A-Hc and the PA. The BoNT/A-Hc vaccine cassette was engineered to contain the signal peptide from the S-layer protein A from L. acidophilus and a dendritic-cell-targeting peptide. A chromosomal region downstream of lba0889 carrying a highly expressed enolase gene was selected for insertion of the vaccine cassettes. Western blot analysis confirmed the heterologous expression of the two antigens from plasmid and chromosome locations. Stability assays demonstrated loss of the vaccine cassettes from expression plasmids without antibiotic maintenance. RNA sequencing showed high expression of each antigen and that insertion of the vaccine cassettes had little to no effect on the transcription of other genes in the chromosome. This study demonstrated that chromosomal integrative recombinant strains are promising vaccine delivery vehicles when targeted into high-expression chromosomal regions. Levels of expression match high-copy-number plasmids and eliminate the requirement for antibiotic selective maintenance of recombinant plasmids. IMPORTANCE Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent neurotoxins that pose a biochemical warfare concern; therefore, effective vaccines against these bacteria are required. Chromosomal expression of antigens is

  5. Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-α-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  6. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion☆

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion. PMID:24748900

  7. Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

  8. The formation of germtubes by Candida albicans, when grown with Staphylococcus pyogene, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacilius acidophilus and Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Purohit, B C; Joshi, K R; Ramdeo, I N; Bharadwaj, T P

    1977-12-31

    The formation of germtubes by twelve clinical isolates of C. albicans was studied in human serum containing per millilitre 10(3) to 10(9) organisms as: Staphylococcus pyegene, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Proteus vulgaris. All the five bacteria inhibited formation of germtubes by C. albicans at all concentrations and the percent germtube formed diminished with increasing concentration of the bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibited the formation of germtubes maximally followed by Staphylococcus pyogene, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Proteus vulgaris in the concentrations of 10(3) to 10(7) bacteria per millilitre produced only insignificant inhibition of formation of germtubes by C. albicans. Since germtubes of C. albicans are invasive, it is suggested that inhibition of "blastospore-germtube transformation" may be significantly responsible for prevention of infection by C. albicans by coexisting bacterial flora.

  9. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion.

  10. Eruca sativa might influence the growth, survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and some biological features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2014-10-01

    The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power.

  11. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey marketed in Malaysia against selected multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam

    2012-07-01

    A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey.

  12. Probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus suppresses DMH-induced procarcinogenic fecal enzymes and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci in early colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Verma, Angela; Shukla, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Diet makes an important contribution to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk implying risks for CRC are potentially reducible. Therefore, the probiotics have been suggested as the prophylactic measure in colon cancer. In this study, different probiotics were used to compare their protective potential against 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced chemical colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals belonging to different probiotic groups were fed orally with 1 × 10(9) lactobacilli daily for 1 week, and then a weekly injection of DMH was given intraperitoneally for 6 wks with daily administration of probiotic. Lactobacillus GG and L.acidophilus + DMH-treated animals had maximum percent reduction in ACF counts. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in fecal nitroreductase activity was observed in L.casei + DMH and L.plantarum + DMH-treated rats whereas β-glucuronidase activity decreased in L.GG + DMH and L.acidophilus + DMH-treated rats. Animals treated with Bifidobacterium bifidum + DMH had significant decreased β-glucosidase activity. However, not much difference was observed in the colon morphology of animals belonging to various probiotic + DMH-treated rats compared with DMH-treated alone. The results indicated that probiotics, L.GG, and L.acidophilus can be used as the better prophylactic agents for experimental colon carcinogenesis.

  13. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-08-31

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 cell surface hydrophobicity and survival of the cells under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakirova, Laisana; Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Auzina, Lilija; Zikmanis, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and the survival of these cells were examined in response to varied cultivation conditions and adverse environmental conditions. An inverse linear relationship (P < 0.01) was detected between the CSH of intact L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 and survival of cells subjected to subsequent freezing/thawing, long-term storage or exposure to mineral and bile acids. The observed relationships were supported by significant correlations between the CSH and changes in composition of the cell envelopes (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and conventional biochemical analysis methods. The results also suggest that the estimates of hydrophobicity, being a generalized characteristic of cell surfaces, are important parameters to predict the ability of intact probiotic bacteria to endure extreme environments and therefore should be monitored during cultivation. A defined balance of cell components, which can be characterized by the reduced CSH values, apparently helps to ensure the resistance, improved viability and hence the overall probiotic properties of bacteria.

  15. Effects of salt concentration and pH on structural and functional properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus: FT-IR spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-03-03

    The effects of sodium chloride concentration and varying pH levels on the structural and functional properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus were investigated. Reconstituted skim milk was inoculated with Lb. acidophilus at varying salt concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5 and 10% NaCl) and pH levels (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0) and ACE-inhibitory activity and proteolytic activity were determined and the viable cell count was enumerated after 24h of fermentation at 37 °C. The degree of proteolysis exhibited an increase with higher salt concentration at pH 5.0 and 6.0. ACE-inhibitory activity was found to be the highest at pH 5.0 at all salt concentrations. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results demonstrated significant changes occurring beyond 2% NaCl particularly at low pH (4.0). The findings revealed that significant changes occurred in amide I and amide III regions when Lb. acidophilus was subjected to varying salt concentrations.

  16. Screening, Isolation and Identification of Probiotic Producing Lactobacillus acidophilus Strains EMBS081 & EMBS082 by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chandok, Harshpreet; Shah, Pratik; Akare, Uday Raj; Hindala, Maliram; Bhadoriya, Sneha Singh; Ravi, G V; Sharma, Varsha; Bandaru, Srinivas; Rathore, Pragya; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2015-09-01

    16S rDNA sequencing which has gained wide popularity amongst microbiologists for the molecular characterization and identification of newly discovered isolates provides accurate identification of isolates down to the level of sub-species (strain). Its most important advantage over the traditional biochemical characterization methods is that it can provide an accurate identification of strains with atypical phenotypic characters as well. The following work is an application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to identify a novel species of Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus. The sample was collected from pond water samples of rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subsequently, the sample was serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time period following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The sequence aligned against other species was concluded to be a novel, Probiotic L. acidophilus bacteria, further which were named L. acidophilus strain EMBS081 & EMBS082. After the sequence characterization, the isolate was deposited in GenBank Database, maintained by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information NCBI. The sequence can also be retrieve from EMBL and DDBJ repositories with accession numbers JX255677 and KC150145.

  17. Comparable effects of low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation at the frequency of 51.8 and 53 GHz and antibiotic ceftazidime on Lactobacillus acidophilus growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) with the frequencies of 51.8 and 53 GHz on Lactobacillus acidophilus growth and survival were revealed. These effects were compared with antibacterial effects of antibiotic ceftazidime. Decrease in bacterial growth rate by EMI was comparable with the inhibitory effect of ceftazidime (minimal inhibitory concentration-16 μM) and no enhanced action was observed with combined effects of EMI and the antibiotic. However, EMI-enhanced antibiotic inhibitory effect on bacterial survival. The kinetics of the bacterial suspension oxidation-reduction potential up to 24 h of the growth was changed by EMI and ceftazidime. The changes were more strongly expressed by combined effects of EMI and antibiotic especially up to 12 h. Moreover, EMI did not change overall energy (glucose)-dependent H(+) efflux across the membrane but it increased N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD)-inhibited H(+) efflux. In contrast, this EMI in combination with ceftazidime decreased DCCD-sensitive H(+) efflux. Low-intensity EMI had inhibitory effect on L. acidophilus bacterial growth and survival. The effect on bacterial survival was more significant in the combination with ceftazidime. The H(+)-translocating F 0 F 1-ATPase, for which DCCD is specific inhibitor, might be a target for EMI and ceftazidime. The revealed bactericide effects on L. acidophilus can be applied in biotechnology, food producing and safety technology.

  18. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces.

  19. Fermentation of Dietetic Fiber from Green Bean and Prickly Pear Shell by Pure and Mixture Culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 450B.

    PubMed

    Mora-Cura, Y N; Meléndez-Rentería, N P; Delgado-García, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Morlett-Chávez, J A; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation of dietary fiber from green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and prickly pear shell (Opuntia ficus-indica) by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 450B growing as mono-culture and co-culture, the fermentation products, and proteins expressed during this process. The analysis of the fermentation profile showed a major growth of bacteria in the culture media of each dietary fiber supplemented with glucose, and particularly B. bifidum 450B at 48 h showed the highest growth. In the case of the co-culture, the growth was lower indicating the possible negative interaction between L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. bifidum 450B and may be due to the less amount of carbohydrates and the high content of non-soluble fiber that affected the nutrients availability for the bacterial strains. The pH changes indicated the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), being acetate (46-100%) the main SCFA. Changes in the proteome concerned proteins that are involved in carbohydrate and other carbohydrate pathways. The characterization of the bacteria according to the growth, metabolites, and proteins expressed allows understanding the response to the change of environmental conditions and could be useful to understand L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. bifidum 450B strains' adaptation to specific applications.

  20. Effect of yogurt containing polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Constipation is a frequent complaint and the combination of a prebiotic and probiotics could have a potentially synergic effect on the intestinal transit. The present study therefore aims to investigate the combination of polydextrose (Litesse®), L. acidophilus NCFM® and B. lactis HN019 in a yogurt on intestinal transit in subjects who suffer from constipation. Methods Patients with constipation were randomly divided into two groups, Control Group (CG) and Treatment Group (TG), and had to eat 180 ml of unflavored yogurt every morning for 14 days. Those in the CG received only yogurt, while the TG received yogurt containing polydextrose, L. acidophilus NCFM® (ATCC 700396) and B. lactis HN019 (AGAL NM97/09513). Results Favourable clinical response was assessed since Agachan score had a significant reduction at the end of the study in both groups and tended to be better in the TG. The subjects in the treatment group also had a shorter transit time at the end of the intervention compared to the control group (p = 0.01). Conclusion The product containing yogurt with polydextrose, B. lactis HN019 and L. acidophilus NCFM® significantly shortened colonic transit time after two weeks in the TG compared to CG and may be an option for treatment of constipation. PMID:25056655

  1. Deduced amino acid sequence, functional expression, and unique enzymatic properties of the form I and form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J M; Baker, S H; Lorbach, S C; Shively, J M; Tabita, F R

    1996-01-01

    The cbbL cbbS and cbbM genes of Thiobacillus denitrificans, encoding form I and form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), respectively, were found to complement a RubisCO-negative mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to autotrophic growth. Endogenous T. denitrificans promoters were shown to function in R. sphaeroides, resulting in high levels of cbbL cbbS and cbbM expression in the R. sphaeroides host. This expression system provided high levels of both T. denitrificans enzymes, each of which was highly purified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form I enzyme indicated that the large subunit was closely homologous to previously sequenced form I RubisCO enzymes from sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The form I T. denitrificans enzyme possessed a very low substrate specificity factor and did not exhibit fallover, and yet this enzyme showed a poor ability to recover from incubation with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form II T. denitrificans enzyme resembled those of other form II RubisCO enzymes. The substrate specificity factor was characteristically low, and the lack of fallover and the inhibition by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were similar to those of form II RubisCO obtained from nonsulfur purple bacteria. Both form I and form II RubisCO from T. denitrificans possessed high KCO2 values, suggesting that this organism might suffer in environments containing low levels of dissolved CO2. These studies present the initial description of the kinetic properties of form I and form II RubisCO from a chemoautotrophic bacterium that synthesizes both types of enzyme.

  2. Deduced amino acid sequence, functional expression, and unique enzymatic properties of the form I and form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, J M; Baker, S H; Lorbach, S C; Shively, J M; Tabita, F R

    1996-01-01

    The cbbL cbbS and cbbM genes of Thiobacillus denitrificans, encoding form I and form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), respectively, were found to complement a RubisCO-negative mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to autotrophic growth. Endogenous T. denitrificans promoters were shown to function in R. sphaeroides, resulting in high levels of cbbL cbbS and cbbM expression in the R. sphaeroides host. This expression system provided high levels of both T. denitrificans enzymes, each of which was highly purified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form I enzyme indicated that the large subunit was closely homologous to previously sequenced form I RubisCO enzymes from sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The form I T. denitrificans enzyme possessed a very low substrate specificity factor and did not exhibit fallover, and yet this enzyme showed a poor ability to recover from incubation with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form II T. denitrificans enzyme resembled those of other form II RubisCO enzymes. The substrate specificity factor was characteristically low, and the lack of fallover and the inhibition by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were similar to those of form II RubisCO obtained from nonsulfur purple bacteria. Both form I and form II RubisCO from T. denitrificans possessed high KCO2 values, suggesting that this organism might suffer in environments containing low levels of dissolved CO2. These studies present the initial description of the kinetic properties of form I and form II RubisCO from a chemoautotrophic bacterium that synthesizes both types of enzyme. PMID:8550452

  3. Development of an automated water toxicity biosensor using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans for monitoring cyanides in natural water for a water filtering plant.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Mima, Koji; Miyata, Maki; Shinozaki, Youhei; Haraguchi, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Minoru; Kaneko, Masao; Masukata, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2004-09-30

    An on-line biosensor consisting of immobilized Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and an oxygen electrode was developed for automated monitoring of acute toxicity in water samples. T. ferrooxidans is an obligatory acidophilic, autotrophic bacterium and derives its energy by the oxidation of ferrous ion, elemental sulfur, and reduced sulfur compounds including metal sulfides. The assay is based on the monitoring of a current increase by addition of toxicoids, which is caused by the inhibition of bacterial respiration and decrease in oxygen consumption. Optimum cell number on the membrane was 5.0 x 10(8) cells. The steady-state current was obtained when concentration of FeSO4 was above 3.6 mM at pH 3. The sensor response of T. ferrooxidans immobilized membrane for 5.0 microM KCN was within an error of 10% for 30 membranes. A linear relationship was obtained at KCN concentration in the range of 0.5-3.0 microM in a flow-type monitoring system. Minimum detectable concentrations of KCN, Na2S, and NaN3 were 0.5, 1.2, and 0.07 microM, respectively. The monitoring system contained two biosensors and these sensors were cleaned with sulfuric acid (pH 1.5) twice a day. This treatment could remove fouling on microbial immobilized membrane by natural water and ferrous precipitation in the flow cell. This flow-type monitoring sensor was operated continuously for 5 months. Also, T. ferrooxidans immobilized membrane can be stored for one month at 4 degrees C when preserved with wet absorbent cotton under argon gas.

  4. Effect of Heavy metals on the iron oxidizing ability of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Part 1, Effect of silver. Technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    De, G.C.; Pesic, B.

    1992-12-01

    The effect of silver ions on the iron oxidizing ability of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied using electrochemical and other physics-chemical techniques. Electrochemical investigation was conducted using a method based on redox potential change. Experiments were performed by adding an aliquot of separately prepared concentrate of the bacteria into the solution of ferrous ion and monitoring the redox potential for at least one hour. Pyrite was used as the indicator electrode. Parameters examined were pH, microbial cell density, ferrous, ferric and silver ion concentration, temperature and preconditioning period of the bacteria with silver ions, etc. Results obtained demonstrate that the rate of ferrous ion oxidation is dependent on pH (optimum pH range is 1.5--2.0) and the substrate (i.e. Fe(II)) to microbial cell concentration ratio. The mechanism of the bacteria mediated oxidation of ferrous iron is remarkably sensitive to temperature changes. At the vicinity of the optimum temperature (i.e. 25{degree}C), the reaction is likely to be controlled by the diffusion of Fe (II) ions through the cell wall of the bacteria, whereas below the range 18--25{degree}C, reaction kinetics may be the rate controlling factor. In the presence of 10 mg/L silver, the reaction may be kinetically controlled over the temperature range 5.5--25{degree}C. Inhibition of microbial FE(II) oxidation in the presence of silver may take place via a mixed mechanism in which silver may bind with both the enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex.

  5. Short communication: Viability of culture organisms in honey-enriched acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type fermented camel milk.

    PubMed

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this research was to monitor the survival during refrigerated storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in cultured dairy foods made from camel and, for comparison, cow milks supplemented with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) honey and fermented by an acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type culture. Two liters of dromedary camel milk and 2 L of cow milk were heated to 90 °C and held for 10 min, then cooled to 40 °C. One half of both types of milk was fortified with black locust honey at the rate of 5.0% (wt/vol), whereas the other half was devoid of honey and served as a control. The camel and cow milks with and without honey were subsequently inoculated with ABT-5 culture and were fermented at 37 °C until a pH value of 4.6 was reached. Thereafter, the probiotic fermented milks were cooled to 15 °C in ice water and were each separated into 18 fractions that were transferred in sterile, tightly capped centrifuge tubes. After 24 h of cooling at 8 °C (d 0), the samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Three tubes of all 4 products (i.e., fermented camel and cow milks with and without honey) were taken at each sampling time (i.e., following 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d of storage), and the counts of characteristic microorganisms and those of certain spoilage microbes (yeasts, molds, coliforms, Escherichia coli) were enumerated. The entire experimental program was repeated twice. The results showed that addition of black locust honey at 5% to heat-treated camel and cow milks did not influence the growth and survival of starter streptococci during production and subsequent refrigerated storage of fermented ABT milks. In contrast, honey improved retention of viability of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 in the camel milk-based product during storage at 4 °C up to 5 wk. No spoilage organisms were detected in any of the samples tested

  6. The hsp 16 gene of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus is differently regulated by salt, high temperature and acidic stresses, as revealed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Arena, Mattia Pia; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs) in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C), bile (0.3% w/v), hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl), and low pH value (pH 4). The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR) sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA) homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE) elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group.

  7. Use of PCR primers and probes based on the 23S rRNA and internal transcription spacer (ITS) gene sequence for the detection and enumerization of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum in feed supplements.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Lai, Chieh-Hsien; Yu, Bi; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2010-06-01

    Novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed from the 16S-23S internal transcription spacer (ITS) rRNA and 23S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for the specific detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Molecular weights of the PCR products were 221 and 599 bp, respectively. Strains of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum obtained from the culture center, dairy products, infant stool and other samples, could be identified with these PCR primers. DNAs from other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species including strains of Lactobacillus pentosus which was closely related to L. plantarum, and bacteria species other than LAB, would not generate the false positive results. When this PCR primer set was used for the detection of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum in feed supplement or feed starter samples, reliable results were obtained. Furthermore, when these L. acidophilus or L. plantarum specific primers were used as DNA probes for the colony hybridization of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, the viable cells of these LAB species in culture and feed supplements or starter products could be identified and enumerized. The method described here thus offers a rapid and economic way to inspect and assure the quality of the feed supplements or fermentation starters.

  8. The human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 secretes a nonbacteriocin antibacterial substance(s) active in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bernet-Camard, M F; Liévin, V; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L; Hudault, S

    1997-01-01

    The adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells (M. F. Bernet, D. Brassard, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, Gut 35:483-489, 1994). Here, we demonstrate that strain LA1 developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium. We present evidence that the spent culture supernatant of strain LA1 (LA1-SCS) contained antibacterial components active against S. typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was insensitive to proteases and independent of lactic acid production. PMID:9212421

  9. A novel unsaturated fatty acid hydratase toward C16 to C22 fatty acids from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akiko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Park, Si-Bum; Takeuchi, Michiki; Kitamura, Nahoko; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy FAs, one of the gut microbial metabolites of PUFAs, have attracted much attention because of their various bioactivities. The purpose of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria with the ability to convert linoleic acid (LA) to hydroxy FAs. A screening process revealed that a gut bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus NTV001, converts LA mainly into 13-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and resulted in the identification of the hydratase responsible, fatty acid hydratase 1 (FA-HY1). Recombinant FA-HY1 was purified, and its enzymatic characteristics were investigated. FA-HY1 could convert not only C18 PUFAs but also C20 and C22 PUFAs. C18 PUFAs with a cis carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ12 position were converted into the corresponding 13-hydroxy FAs. Arachidonic acid and DHA were converted into the corresponding 15-hydroxy FA and 14-hydroxy FA, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterial FA hydratase that can convert C20 and C22 PUFAs into the corresponding hydroxy FAs. These novel hydroxy FAs produced by using FA-HY1 should contribute to elucidating the bioactivities of hydroxy FAs. PMID:25966711

  10. Relative efficiency of yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, hydrolyzed-lactose milk, and a commercial lactase tablet in alleviating lactose maldigestion.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I; Rao, D R; Vankineni, P

    1989-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of commercially available plain yogurt (Y), sweet acidophilus milk (SAM), hydrolyzed-lactose milk (HLM), a lactase tablet (LT), and whole milk (WM) was evaluated in 10 lactose-intolerant black subjects. In a 5 x 5 Latin square design, hourly breath hydrogen excretion (BHE) was measured for 5 h after the subjects consumed the above products (18 g lactose in each except HLM, which had 5 g). Mean BHE (ppm) for Y, SAM, LT, HLM, and WM were 12, 37, 29, 18, and 33, respectively. There was a significant (p less than 0.05) positive correlation of 0.808 between the symptoms reported and the mean peak BHE. However, the correlation between the symptoms and diagnosis by history was not significant. Although Y was as effective as HLM in minimizing lactose maldigestion, it was the least accepted by the subjects in sensory evaluations. Results of this study also indicate that microbial endogenous lactase in yogurt is superior to exogenous commercial lactase in alleviating lactose maldigestion.

  11. Yogurt containing bioactive molecules produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 exerts a protective effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeinhom, Mohamed; Tellez, Angela M; Delcenserie, Veronique; El-Kholy, A M; El-Shinawy, S H; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-10-01

    An active fraction extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 cell-free spent medium (LAla-5AF) was incorporated in a dairy matrix and tested to assess its antivirulent effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Mice in experimental groups were fed for 4 days with yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. On the fifth day, mice were challenged with a single dose (10(7) CFU per mouse) of E. coli O157:H7. The clinical manifestations of the infection were significantly less severe in mice fed the yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. EHEC attachment and colonization was attenuated by LAla-5AF. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production was down-regulated, which might indicate a protective effect in the kidney during EHEC infection. To investigate the mechanisms associated with the in vivo effects observed, LAla-5AF was tested by reverse transcription real-time PCR to confirm its effects on the expression of several virulence genes of EHEC O157. The results showed that these fractions were able to down-regulate several virulence genes of EHEC, including stxB2, qseA, luxS, tir, ler, eaeA, and hlyB.

  12. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  13. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  14. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-03

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h.

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). Conclusion: All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the

  16. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties.

  17. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Psyllium on the Viability of Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Alginate-Polyl Lysine Beads

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Jaleh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Maghsoodi, Maryam; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Psylliumseeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique. Beads were characterized in terms of size, encapsulation efficiency, integrity and bacterial survival in harsh conditions. Results: Beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.85 ± 0.05 to 2.40 ± 0.18 mm with encapsulation efficiency higher than 96% were achieved. Psyllium concentrations in beads did not produce constant trend in bead sizes. Surface topography by SEM showed that substitution of psyllium enhanced integrity of obtained beads. Psyllium successfully protected the bacteria against acidic condition and lyophilization equal to alginate in the beads. Better survivability with beads of alginate/psyllium-poly-l-lysine was achieved with around 2 log rise in bacterial count in acid condition compared to the corresponding single coat beads. Conclusion: Alginate/psyllium (1:2) beads with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency of the bacteria have been achieved. Presence of psyllium produced a much smoother and integrated surface texture for the beads with sufficient protection of the bacteria against acidic condition as much as alginate. Considering the health benefits of psyllium and its prebiotic activity, psyllium can be beneficially replaced in part for alginate in probiotic coating. PMID:27766217

  19. Gut microbiota of healthy elderly NSAID users is selectively modified with the administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Marika; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia D; Nikkilä, Janne; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Rautonen, Nina; Lahtinen, Sampo J

    2012-08-01

    Ageing changes gut microbiota composition and alters immune system function. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics may improve the health status of elderly individuals by modifying the intestinal environment and the microbiota composition, and by stimulating the immune system. In this work, we studied the effects of synbiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota of healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-one elders were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic dietary supplement or a placebo in addition to their usual diet for a 2-week period. The synbiotic product consisted of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and the prebiotic lactitol and was ingested twice a day, with a total daily dose of 10 g lactitol and 2 × 10(10) cells of probiotic bacteria. Before, during and after the intervention period fecal quantities of six phylogenetic bacterial groups were determined using quantitative PCR, and relative changes in total microbiota composition were assessed by percent guanine-plus-cytosine profiling. The microbiota profiles showed certain relative changes within the microbial community, and indicated an increase of bifidobacteria levels during synbiotic supplementation. Quantification by PCR confirmed the in changes in the microbiota composition; for example increases in total levels of endogenous bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were recorded. Throughout the 6-week study period there was a decrease unrelated to intervention in the Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale bacterial group levels and Clostridium cluster XIVab levels, but this decrease appeared to be halted during the synbiotic intervention. In conclusion, putatively beneficial changes in microbiota were observed in the elderly subjects supplemented with the synbiotic product.

  20. Effect of moderate electric field frequency and growth stage on the cell membrane permeability of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Laleh; Sastry, Sudhir K; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    Changes in growth kinetics and metabolic activity of microorganisms under the presence of a moderate electric field (MEF) have been hypothesized as being due to temporary permeabilization of cell membranes. We investigated herein the effects of frequency and growth stage on cell membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus acidophilus OSU 133 during MEF fermentation. Cells were stained with two fluorescent nucleic acid stains: the green, nonselective, cell membrane permeable SYTO 9, and the red, cell membrane impermeable propidium iodide (PI). Fluorescence exhibition post-treatment was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Total plate counting was done to determine whether or not the permeabilized population represented live cells. Fermentation treatments investigated were conventional (control) and MEF (2 V/cm, 45, 60, 1,000, 10,000 Hz) at 30 degrees C. Studies were conducted at 45 Hz for lag, exponential, and stationary phases of growth. Low frequency MEF treated cells exhibited significantly greater numbers of red cell counts than conventional treatments; further, no significant differences existed in viable counts between MEF and conventional treatments, suggesting that the red counts represent permeabilized live cells. MEF treatments at the early stage of bacterial growth at 45 Hz exhibited the maximum permeabilization followed by treatments at 60 Hz. MEF treated samples at frequencies higher than 60 Hz did not exhibit red fluorescence. Cells at lag phase showed the greatest susceptibility to permeabilization followed by those at exponential phase. No evidence of electroporation was observed during the stationary phase. To our knowledge, these observations provide the first evidence that cell membrane permeabilization occurs under the presence of electric fields as low as those under MEF.

  1. S-layer protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356: purification, expression in Escherichia coli, and nucleotide sequence of the corresponding gene.

    PubMed Central

    Boot, H J; Kolen, C P; van Noort, J M; Pouwels, P H

    1993-01-01

    The cell surfaces of several Lactobacillus species are covered by a regular layer composed of a single species of protein, the S-protein. The 43-kDa S-protein of the neotype strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, which originated from the pharynx of a human, was purified. Antibodies generated against purified S-protein were used to screen a lambda library containing chromosomal L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 DNA. Several phages showing expression of this S-protein in Escherichia coli were isolated. A 4.0-kb DNA fragment of one of those phages hybridized to a probe derived from an internal tryptic fragment of the S-protein. The slpA gene, coding for the surface layer protein, was located entirely on the 4.0-kb fragment as shown by deletion analysis. The nucleotide sequence of the slpA gene was determined and appeared to encode a protein of 444 amino acids. The first 24 amino acids resembled a putative secretion signal, giving rise to a mature S-protein of 420 amino acids (44.2 kDa). The predicted isoelectric point of 9.4 is remarkably high for an S-protein but is in agreement with the data obtained during purification. The expression of the entire S-protein or of large, C-terminally truncated S-proteins is unstable in E. coli. Images PMID:8407780

  2. The structure and immunomodulatory activity on intestinal epithelial cells of the EPSs isolated from Lactobacillus helveticus sp. Rosyjski and Lactobacillus acidophilus sp. 5e2.

    PubMed

    Patten, Daniel A; Leivers, Shaun; Chadha, Marcus J; Maqsood, Mohammed; Humphreys, Paul N; Laws, Andrew P; Collett, Andrew

    2014-01-30

    The Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus acidophilus sp. 5e2 and Lactobacillus helveticus sp. Rosyjski both secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs) into their surrounding environments during growth. A number of EPSs have previously been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory activity with professional immune cells, such as macrophages, but only limited studies have been reported of their interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. An investigation of the immunomodulatory potential of pure EPSs, isolated from cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus sp. 5e2 and Lactobacillus helveticus sp. Rosyjski, with the HT29-19A intestinal epithelial cell line are reported here. For the first time the structure of the EPS from Lactobacillus helveticus sp. Rosyjski which is a hetropolysaccharide with a branched pentasaccharide repeat unit containing d-glucose, d-galactose and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine is described. In response to exposure to lactobacilli EPSs HT29-19A cells produce significantly increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. Additionally, the EPSs differentially modulate the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors. Finally, the pre-treatment of HT29-19A cells with the EPSs sensitises the cells to subsequent challenge with bacterial antigens. The results reported here suggest that EPSs could potentially play a role in intestinal homeostasis via a specific interaction with intestinal epithelial cells.

  3. Production of 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid from linoleic acid by whole recombinant cells expressing linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Park, Jin-Byung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-08-20

    Linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 11470 converted linoleic acid to hydroxyl fatty acid, which was identified as 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (13-HOD) by GC-MS and NMR. The expression of linoleate 13-hydratase gene in Escherichia coli was maximized by using pACYC plasmid and super optimal broth with catabolite repression (SOC) medium containing 40mM Mg(2+). To optimize induction conditions, recombinant cells were cultivated at 37°C, 1mM isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside was added at 2h, and the culture was further incubated at 16°C for 18h. Recombinant cells expressing linoleate 13-hydratase from L. acidophilus were obtained under the optimized expression conditions and used for 13-HOD production from linoleic acid. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 6.0, 40°C, 0.25% (v/v) Tween 40, 25gl(-1) cells, and 100gl(-1) linoleic acid, and under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 79gl(-1) 13-HOD for 3h with a conversion yield of 79% (w/w), a volumetric productivity of 26.3gl(-1)h(-1), and a specific productivity of 1.05g g-cells(-1)h(-1). To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant cells produced hydroxy fatty acid with the highest concentration and productivity reported so far.

  4. Effect of salt on cell viability and membrane integrity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum as observed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of varying sodium chloride concentrations (0-5%) on viability and membrane integrity of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, using conventional technique and flow cytometry. Double staining of cells by carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) enabled to evaluate the effect of NaCl on cell esterase activity and membrane integrity. Observations from conventional culture technique were compared with findings from flow cytometric analysis on the metabolic activities of the cells and a correlation was observed between culturability and dye extrusion ability of L. casei and B. longum. However, a certain population of L. acidophilus was viable as per the plate count method but its efflux activity was compromised. Esterase activity of most bacteria reduced significantly (P < 0.05) during one week storage at NaCl concentrations greater than 3.5%. The study revealed that L. casei was least affected by higher NaCl concentrations among the three probiotic bacteria, as opposed to B. longum where the cF extrusion performance was greatly reduced during 1 wk storage. The metabolic activity and salt resistance of L. casei was found to be highest among the bacteria studied.

  5. Use of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei for a potential probiotic legume-based fermented product using pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Parra, K; Ferrer, M; Piñero, M; Barboza, Y; Medina, L M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as an appropriate substrate in the production of a legume-based fermented product with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314 or Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and then to ascertain the effects of the addition of ingredients such as powdered milk and banana or strawberry sauce. The products were analyzed for viable cell counts, pH, and sensory attributes during product manufacture and throughout the refrigerated storage period at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Nine types of products were produced. At the end of the storage period, the viability of L. acidophilus was above 7 log CFU/g in the presence of milk and 20% sucrose fruit sauce. For products with L. casei, the lack of ingredients such as milk caused no significant loss in viability; however, a high concentration of sucrose in the fruit sauce was an important factor in maintaining a high L. casei population. L. casei had high viability and good sensory attributes. Both strains could be considered suitable for a pigeon pea-based fermented potential probiotic product and a low-cost protein source.

  6. Lactobacillus acidophilus Increases the Anti-apoptotic Micro RNA-21 and Decreases the Pro-inflammatory Micro RNA-155 in the LPS-Treated Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Mehdi; Hodjati, Hossein; Sajedi Khanian, Mahdi; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-06-01

    Given the anti-inflammatory and protective role of probiotics in atherosclerosis and the regulatory role of micro RNA (miRNA) in endothelial cell (dys) functions, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) on cellular death and the expression of miRNA-21, 92a, 155, and 663 in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (Ec-LPS). LPS-treated and untreated HUVECs were cultured in the presence of different La conditions such as La-conditioned media (LaCM), La water extract (LaWE), La culture-filtered (LaFS) and unfiltered supernatants (LaUFS). After 24 h, apoptosis, necrosis and the levels of the mentioned miRNAs were measured using flow cytometry and real-time PCR methods, respectively. LaCM decreased apoptosis, necrosis and inflammatory miR-155 and conversely increased anti-apoptotic miR-21 in Ec-LPS-treated HUVECs. Association analysis revealed negative correlations between necrosis and the levels of miR-21, miR-92a, and miR-155. The beneficial effects of L. acidophilus on the ECs death and expression of atherosclerosis related miRNAs in these cells imply a new aspect of its regulation in cardiovascular diseases rather than previously described ones and suggest this probiotic bacterium as a candidate in the preventative therapy of atherosclerosis.

  7. The other way around: probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restrict progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice via activiation of CD8 alpha+ immune cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the immune-modulating effects of feeding a novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) in rumi...

  8. The other way around: Probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restricts progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice through activation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine immune effects of feeding novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). We hypothesized that fe...

  9. Yogurt Containing the Probacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus Combined with Natural Antioxidants Mitigates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elsaad, Nashwa M; Abd Elhameed, Ahmed G; El-Karef, Amr; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2015-09-01

    Probiotics and antioxidants have a definite improving effect in cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at mitigating doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac function through consuming a functional food. Five groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used along 22 weeks. Group I received 30 g/kg/day food enriched with yogurt, green tea extract, and carrots (80, 0.84, and 100 g/kg diet, respectively) from the first week, group II received carvedilol 30 mg/kg/day orally from week 17, group III received both carvedilol and tested food, and groups IV and V were +ve and -ve control groups, respectively. In week 17, cardiomyopathy was induced by i.p. injection of 2.5 mg/kg doxorubicin every 48 h for 2 weeks. Histopathological and electrophysiological examinations and biochemical analysis were done. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant effect, heart failure compensatory mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed. Tested food normalized time between the start of Q wave and the end of T wave on electrocardiogram (QT interval) and heart rate compared to the doxorubicin group (P<.05). It also improved hypertrophy indicated by a significant (P<.05) decrease in heart/body weight ratio, angiotensin-II (Ang-II), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) serum levels. Histopathological examination of cardiac sections from the tested food group revealed less marked vacuolization and low perivascular fibrosis percentage (0.7803 ± 0.04). A significant (P<.001) decrease in serum creatine kinase-membrane bound, lactate dehydrogenase, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was observed in addition to an increase in serum Na(+)/K(+) ATP1A1 and cardiac reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Tested food also lowered the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum levels significantly (P<.01). Probiotic food containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, green tea, and carrots can improve

  10. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiayun; Li, Haihua; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of diets containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function. A total of 150 piglets (initial body weight (BW) 7.53 ± 0.21 kg) were allotted to one of the following diets, including a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg Flavomycin, or basal diet plus 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 % L. acidophilus. On day 28 of the trial, the pigs were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (200 μg/kg body weight) followed by blood collection 3 h later. Diets with either antibiotics, 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus increased (P < 0.05) the final BW and decreased (P < 0.05) feed gain ratio (F/G) compared with the control group. Pigs fed diets containing antibiotic or Lactobacillus had greater average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. The rectal content Lactobacillus counts for pigs fed diet containing Lactobacillus were significant higher (P < 0.01) than those fed antibiotic or control diet. Feeding the Lactobacillus diets decreased the Escherichia coli counts of rectal content (P < 0.01). Pigs fed diets containing 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus decreased serum DAO activity (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. Serum IL-10 concentration was enhanced in pigs fed the diet with Lactobacillus compared to pigs fed the control diet and antibiotic diet. Feeding a diet with Lactobacillus reduced (P < 0.05) IFN-γ concentration compared to the control diet. Inclusion of Lactobacillus in diets fed to pigs reduced TNF-α concentration compared with pigs fed no Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). These results indicate that feeding with L. acidophilus improved growth performance and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory status.

  11. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.

  12. Effect of denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on growth and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M

    2013-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.

  13. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing espA-Tir-M Confers Protection against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruqin; Zhang, Yiduo; Long, Beiguo; Li, Yawen; Wu, Yuhua; Duan, Siqin; Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xianbo; Fan, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7) causes hemorrhagic colitis and the formation of characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in humans. Given the severe sequelae of EHEC O157:H7 infection, it is critical to develop effective vaccines for human use. However, for achieving this goal many hurdles need to be addressed, such as the type or subset of antigens, adjuvant, and the delivery route. We developed a candidate vaccine by inserting the bivalent antigen espA-Tir-M composed of espA and the Tir central domain into Lactobacillus acidophilus. The recombinant L. acidophilus (LA-ET) was safe in a cell model and excluded EHEC O157:H7 from LoVo cells at rates of nearly 94 and 60% in exclusion and competition assays, respectively. LA-ET inhibited the induction of A/E lesions by EHEC O157:H7 cells in vitro. Oral immunization with LA-ET induced higher levels of specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice. Moreover, LA-ET enhanced interferon-γ and interleukin-4 and -10 production, which was associated with mixed helper T (Th1/Th2) cell responses, and protected against EHEC O157:H7 colonization and infection in mice at a rate of 80%. Histopathological analyses revealed that orally administered LA-ET reduced or inhibited A/E lesions and toxin-induced systemic injury. These findings demonstrate that LA-ET induces both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice and is therefore a promising vaccine against EHEC O157:H7 infection. PMID:28360900

  14. Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-05-25

    The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use.

  15. Influence of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and inulin on the technological, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory features of creamy goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ilsa C; Oliveira, Maria E G; Madruga, Marta S; Gullón, Beatriz; Pacheco, Maria T B; Gomes, Ana M P; Batista, Ana S M; Pintado, Maria M E; Souza, Evandro L; Queiroga, Rita C R E

    2016-10-12

    The effects of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and inulin on the quality characteristics of creamy goat cheese during refrigerated storage were evaluated. The manufactured cheeses included the addition of starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris - R-704) (CC); starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05 and inulin (CLA); starter culture, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CBB); or starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CLB). In the synbiotic cheeses (CLA, CBB and CLB), the counts of L. acidophilus LA-05 and B. lactis BB-12 were greater than 6log CFU g(-1), the amount of inulin was greater than 6 g per 100 g, and the firmness was reduced. The cheeses evaluated had high brightness values (L*), with a predominance of yellow (b*). CC had higher contents of proteins, lipids and minerals compared to the other cheeses. There was a decrease in the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and an increase of medium-chain (MCFAs) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in the synbiotic cheeses compared to CC. The amount of conjugated linoleic acid increased in CLA, CBB and CLB. The highest depth of proteolysis and the greatest changes in the release of free amino acids were found in CLB. The addition of inulin and probiotics, alone or in co-culture, did not affect the cheese acceptance. Inulin and probiotics can be used together for the production of creamy goat cheese without negatively affecting the general quality characteristics of the product, and to add value because of its synbiotic potential.

  16. Flagella and pili of iron-oxidizing thiobacilli isolated from a uranium mine in northern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    DiSpirito, A.A.; Silver, M.; Voss, L.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    1982-05-01

    Five strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which included three recent isolates from a uranium mine, possessed flagella. Three of the strains had several pili per cell. The dimensions, fine structure, and orientation of the flagella were different. Both polar and peritrichous flagella were observed, indicating strain-dependent ultrastructural variation in acidophilic thiobacilli. Neither flagella nor pili were detected in eight other strains of T. ferrooxidans and two strains of Thiobacillus acidophilus by electron microscopy, although all of the cultures contained motile cells.

  17. In vitro fermentation of rice bran combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus 14 150B or Bifidobacterium longum 05 by the canine faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ogué-Bon, Eva; Khoo, Christina; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A

    2011-03-01

    The fermentability of rice bran (RB), alone or in combination with one of two probiotics, by canine faecal microbiota was evaluated in stirred, pH-controlled, anaerobic batch cultures. RB enhanced the levels of bacteria detected by probes Bif164 (bifidobacteria) and Lab158 (lactic acid bacteria); however, addition of the probiotics did not have a significant effect on the predominant microbial counts compared with RB alone. RB sustained levels of Bifidobacterium longum 05 throughout the fermentation; in contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus 14 150B levels decreased significantly after 5-h fermentation. RB fermentation induced changes in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile. However, RB combined with probiotics did not alter the SCFA levels compared with RB alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of samples obtained at 24 h showed a treatment effect with RB, which was not observed in the RB plus probiotic systems. Overall, the negative controls displayed lower species richness than the treatment systems and their banding profiles were distinct. This study illustrates the ability of a common ingredient found in pet food to modulate the canine faecal microbiota and highlights that RB may be an economical alternative to prebiotics for use in dog food.

  18. Unveiling of novel regio-selective fatty acid double bond hydratases from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in the selective oxyfunctionalization of mono- and di-hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Hye-Jin; Park, Chul-Soon; Hong, Seung-Hye; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is the first time demonstration of cis-12 regio-selective linoleate double-bond hydratase. Hydroxylation of fatty acids, abundant feedstock in nature, is an emerging alternative route for many petroleum replaceable products thorough hydroxy fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and lactones. However, chemical route for selective hydroxylation is still quite challenging owing to low selectivity and many environmental concerns. Hydroxylation of fatty acids by hydroxy fatty acid forming enzymes is an important route for selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of fatty acids. Therefore, novel fatty acid hydroxylation enzymes should be discovered. The two hydratase genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were identified by genomic analysis, and the expressed two recombinant hydratases were identified as cis-9 and cis-12 double-bond selective linoleate hydratases by in vitro functional validation, including the identification of products and the determination of regio-selectivity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters. The two different linoleate hydratases were the involved enzymes in the 10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid biosynthesis. Linoleate 13-hydratase (LHT-13) selectively converted 10 mM linoleic acid to 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid with high titer (8.1 mM) and yield (81%). Our study will expand knowledge for microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes and facilitate the designed production of the regio-selective hydroxy fatty acids for useful chemicals from polyunsaturated fatty acid feedstocks.

  19. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  20. Inhibition of H9N2 Virus Invasion into Dendritic Cells by the S-Layer Protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Huang, Lulu; Zhu, Liqi; Mou, Chunxiao; Hou, Qihang; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer) protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion. The invasion and replication of the H9N2 virus in mouse DCs was successfully demonstrated. However, the invasion of H9N2 virus into DCs could be inhibited by treatment with the S-layer protein prior to infection, which was verified by the reduced hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) mRNA expression, and nucleoprotein (NP) protein expression in the DCs. Furthermore, treatment with the S-layer protein increases the Mx1, Isg15, and Ddx58 mRNA expressions, and remits the inflammatory process to inhibit H9N2 AIV infection. In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signaling pathway. Thus, the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is a promising biological antiviral material for AIV prevention.

  1. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Foye, Ondulla T; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C; Walker, W Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2012-08-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling.

  2. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β -Glycoside Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

  3. Inhibition of H9N2 Virus Invasion into Dendritic Cells by the S-Layer Protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Huang, Lulu; Zhu, Liqi; Mou, Chunxiao; Hou, Qihang; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer) protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion. The invasion and replication of the H9N2 virus in mouse DCs was successfully demonstrated. However, the invasion of H9N2 virus into DCs could be inhibited by treatment with the S-layer protein prior to infection, which was verified by the reduced hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) mRNA expression, and nucleoprotein (NP) protein expression in the DCs. Furthermore, treatment with the S-layer protein increases the Mx1, Isg15, and Ddx58 mRNA expressions, and remits the inflammatory process to inhibit H9N2 AIV infection. In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signaling pathway. Thus, the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is a promising biological antiviral material for AIV prevention. PMID:27826541

  4. Transcriptional and functional analysis of oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase and formyl-CoA transferase genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M; Hassan, Hosni M; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2006-03-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene (oxc) was identified in the genome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Physiological analysis of a mutant harboring a deleted version of the frc gene confirmed that frc expression specifically improves survival in the presence of oxalic acid at pH 3.5 compared with the survival of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the frc mutant was unable to degrade oxalate. These genes, which have not previously been described in lactobacilli, appear to be responsible for oxalate degradation in this organism. Transcriptional analysis using cDNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that mildly acidic conditions were a prerequisite for frc and oxc transcription. As a consequence, oxalate-dependent induction of these genes occurred only in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 5.5. Where genome information was available, other lactic acid bacteria were screened for frc and oxc genes. With the exception of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium lactis, none of the other strains harbored genes for oxalate utilization.

  5. Live encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus cells in yogurt for therapeutic oral delivery: preparation and in vitro analysis of alginate-chitosan microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Bhathena, Jasmine; Prakash, Satya

    2007-09-01

    Targeted delivery of live microencapsulated bacterial cells has strong potential for application in treating various diseases, including diarrhea, kidney failure, liver failure, and high cholesterol, among others. This study investigates the potential of microcapsules composed of two natural polymers, alginate and chitosan (AC), and the use of these artificial cells in yogurt for delivery of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterial live cells. Results show that the integrity of AC microcapsules was preserved after 76 h of mechanical shaking in MRS broth and after 12 h and 24 h in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Using an in vitro computer-controlled simulated human gastrointestinal (GI) model, we found 8.37 log CFU/mL of viable bacterial cells were present after 120 min of gastric exposure and 7.96 log CFU/mL after 360 min of intestinal exposure. In addition, AC microcapsules composed of chitosan 10 and 100 at various concentrations were subjected to 4-week storage in 2% milk fat yogurt or 0.85% physiological solution. It was found that 9.37 log CFU/mL of cells encapsulated with chitosan 10 and 8.24 log CFU/mL of cells encapsulated with chitosan 100 were alive after 4 weeks. The AC capsule composed of 0.5% chitosan 10 provided the highest bacterial survival of 9.11 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks. Finally, an investigation of bacterial viability over 72 h in different pH buffers yielded highest survival of 6.34 log CFU/mL and 10.34 log CFU/mL at pH 8 for free and AC-encapsulated cells, respectively. We conclude from these findings that encapsulation allows delivery of a higher number of bacteria to desired targets in the GI tract and that microcapsules containing bacterial cells are good candidates for oral artificial cells for bacterial cell therapy.

  6. Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Renu; Talapatra, Kesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples.

  7. Design and validation of an orally administrated active L. fermentum-L. acidophilus probiotic formulation using colorectal cancer Apc (Min/+) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kahouli, Imen; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Westfall, Susan; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A; Prakash, Satya

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have beneficial properties in attenuating the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, functional evidence to support such effects for some probiotic bacteria are relatively unknown. Here, we document a significant antioxidant, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314 and Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 on CRC cells, particularly when used in combination (La-Lf). Furthermore, a superior synergistic activity on the inhibition of tumor growth and modulation of cell proliferation and epithelial markers in the Apc (Min/+) CRC mouse model was explored, based on the expression levels of Ki-67, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) proteins. The anti-cancer activity of La-Lf co-culture was significantly enhanced in vitro with significant reduced proliferation (38.8 ± 6.9 %, P = 0.009) and increased apoptosis (413 RUL, P < 0.001) towards cancer cells, as well as significant protection of normal colon cell growth from toxic treatment (18.6 ± 9.8 %, P = 0.001). La-Lf formulation (10(10)cfu/animal/day) altered aspects of intestinal tumorigenesis by significantly reducing intestinal tumor multiplicity (1.7-fold, P = 0.016) and downregulating cellular proliferation markers, including β-catenin (P = 0.041) and Ki-67 (P = 0.008). In conclusion, La-Lf showed greater protection against intestinal tumorigenesis supporting a potential use as a biotherapeutic for the prevention of CRC.

  8. Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2001-01-22

    The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host's mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) to degrade mucin in vitro was evaluated, in order to assess their potential pathogenicity and local toxicity. The LAB strains were incubated in medium containing hog gastric mucin (HGM, 0.3%) at 37 degrees C for 48 h, following which any decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentration in the ethanol-precipitated portion of the culture medium was determined, using phenol-sulphuric acid and bicinchonic acid (BCA) protein assays, respectively. The change in molecular weight of mucin glycoproteins, following incubation with the test strains, was monitored by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In order to expose any ability of the test strains to degrade mucin visually and more directly, the test strains were also cultured on agarose containing 0.3% HGM and incubated anaerobically for 72 h at 37 degrees C. No significant change in the carbohydrate or protein concentration in mucin substrates was found following incubation with the test strains. No mucin fragments were derived from the mucin suspension incubated with test strains, and no mucinolysis zone was identified on agarose. These results demonstrate that the potential probiotic LAB strains tested here were unable to degrade gastrointestinal mucin in vitro, which suggests that these novel probiotic candidates are likely to be non-invasive and non-toxic at the mucosal interface.

  9. Dual functions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™ at the intermediate dose in protection against rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with a human rotavirus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangning; Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Kocher, Jacob; Bui, Tammy; Jones, Dorothy; Pelzer, Kevin; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine dose effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (LA) ™ strain on rotavirus-specific antibody and B cell responses in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with an oral attenuated human rotavirus (AttHRV). Methods Pigs were inoculated with AttHRV vaccine in conjunction with high dose LA (14 doses, total 2.2×109 colony forming units [CFU]), intermediate dose LA (9 doses, total 3.2×106 CFU), low dose LA (5 doses, total 2.1×106 CFU) or without LA feeding. Protection against rotavirus shedding and diarrhea was assessed upon challenge with a virulent HRV. Rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and memory B cells in ileum, spleen and blood of the pigs were measured and compared among treatment groups. Results The intermediate dose LA (MidLA), but not high or low dose LA, significantly reduced rotavirus diarrhea (MidLA only group) and significantly improved the protection conferred by AttHRV vaccine (MidLA+AttHRV group). Associated with the increased protection, MidLA significantly enhanced rotavirus-specific antibody, ASC and memory B cell responses to AttHRV vaccine. High or low dose LA did not enhance virus-specific antibody and ASC responses, hence did not improve the vaccine efficacy. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of dose selection and indicate that certain specific lactobacilli strains at the appropriate dose have the dual function of reducing rotavirus diarrhea and enhancing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24126832

  10. High dose and low dose Lactobacilli acidophilus exerted differential immune modulating effects on T cell immune responses induced by an oral human rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Li, Yanru; Kocher, Jacob; Lin, Lin; Yang, Xingdong; Yuan, Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Strain-specific effects of probiotics in pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses have been well recognized. Several proinflammatory Lactobacillus strains have been shown to act as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. However, dose effects of probiotics in modulating immune responses are not clearly understood. This study examined the dose effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) NCFM strain on T cell immune responses to rotavirus vaccination in a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model. Methods Frequencies of IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and IL-10 and TGF-β producing CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- regulatory T (Treg) cell responses were determined in the intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues of Gn pigs vaccinated with an oral human rotavirus vaccine in conjunction with low dose (5 feedings; up to 106 colony forming units [CFU]/dose) or high dose (14 feedings; up to 109 CFU/dose) or without LA feeding. Results Low dose LA significantly promoted IFN-γ producing T cell responses and down-regulated Treg cell responses and their TGF-β and IL-10 productions in all the tissues compared to the high dose LA and control groups. To the contrary, high dose LA increased the frequencies of Treg cells in most of the tissues compared to the control groups. The dose effects of LA on IFN-γ producing T cell and CD4+CD25- Treg cell immune responses were similar in the intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues and were independent from the vaccination. Conclusion Thus the same probiotic strain in different doses can either promote or suppress IFN-γ producing T cell or Treg cell immune responses. These findings have significant implications in the use of probiotic lactobacilli as immunostimulatory versus immunoregulatory agents. Probiotics can be ineffective or even detrimental if not used at the optimal dosage for the appropriate purposes. PMID:22178726

  11. The effect of NaCl substitution with KCl on proteinase activities of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant at different pH levels and salt concentrations: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ayyash, M M; Sherkat, F; Shah, N P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl at different pH levels and salt concentrations on proteinase activity of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant of the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei. de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth aliquots were mixed with 2 pure salts (NaCl and KCl) and 2 salt concentrations at 2 concentration levels (5 and 10%), inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei, and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 22 h. The cultures were then centrifuged at 4,000×g for 30 min, and the collected cell pellets were used to prepare cell-wall proteinases and the supernatants used as a source of supernatant (extracellular) proteinases. The proteolytic activity and protein content of both portions were determined. After incubation of both portions with 3 milk caseins (α-, β-, κ-casein), the supernatants were individually subjected to analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and proteolytic activity using the o-phthalaldehyde method. Significant differences were observed in ACE-inhibitory and proteolytic activities between salt substitution treatments of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant from both probiotic strains at the same salt concentration and pH level.

  12. Effect of tween series on growth and Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus F0221 in the presence of bile salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Yan; Zhang, Lan-Wei; Du, Ming; Han, Xue; Yi, Hua-Xi; Guo, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Yan-He; Shan, Yu-Juan; Hou, Ai-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11 CLA) producing bacteria have attracted much attention as novel probiotics which have shown beneficial effects on host health. However, bile salts are able to inhibit bacterial growth and c9, t11 CLA production. For recovering growth and c9, t11 CLA production of Lactobacillus acidophilus F0221 in the presence of bile salts, Tween series (Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60 and Tween 80) were added in growth culture containing 0.3% oxgall. Results showed that the viable counts were significantly (P < 0.05) recovered to 8.58-8.75 log CFU/mL in the presence of all Tween treatments. However, recovery of c9, t11 CLA production was only demonstrated in the presence of Tween 80 (72.89 μg/mL). Stepwise increasing oxgall in a concentrations range from 0.1% to 0.9% according to human intestinal physiological environments, Tween 80 still showed significant (P < 0.05) recovery ability on growth (8.91-8.04 log CFU/mL) and c9, t11 CLA (69.22-34.27 μg/mL) production. The effect of Tween 80 on growth and production was also investigated in the presence of different types of bile salts (sodium salts of cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), chendeoxycholic acid (CDCA), glycocholic acid (GCA) and taurocholic acid (TCA)). Results showed that Tween 80 could significantly (P < 0.05) recover c9, t11 CLA production in the presence of all types of bile salts, but the Tween 80 could only significantly (P < 0.05) recover viable counts of the strain in the presence of CA, DCA and CDCA. This recovery ability could be attributed to the protection of leakage of intracellular material. Additionally, although bile salts inhibited growth and c9, t11 CLA production by the growing cell, it promoted the c9, t11 CLA production by the resting cell.

  13. The maltodextrin transport system and metabolism in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and production of novel alpha-glucosides through reverse phosphorolysis by maltose phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Baumann, Martin J; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Schols, Henk; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Hachem, Maher A; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Duus, Jens Ø; Svensson, Birte

    2009-12-01

    A gene cluster involved in maltodextrin transport and metabolism was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which encoded a maltodextrin-binding protein, three maltodextrin ATP-binding cassette transporters and five glycosidases, all under the control of a transcriptional regulator of the LacI-GalR family. Enzymatic properties are described for recombinant maltose phosphorylase (MalP) of glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65), which is encoded by malP (GenBank: AAV43670.1) of this gene cluster and produced in Escherichia coli. MalP catalyses phosphorolysis of maltose with inversion of the anomeric configuration releasing beta-glucose 1-phosphate (beta-Glc 1-P) and glucose. The broad specificity of the aglycone binding site was demonstrated by products formed in reverse phosphorolysis using various carbohydrate acceptor substrates and beta-Glc 1-P as the donor. MalP showed strong preference for monosaccharide acceptors with equatorial 3-OH and 4-OH, such as glucose and mannose, and also reacted with 2-deoxy glucosamine and 2-deoxy N-acetyl glucosamine. By contrast, none of the tested di- and trisaccharides served as acceptors. Disaccharide yields obtained from 50 mmbeta-Glc 1-P and 50 mm glucose, glucosamine, N-acetyl glucosamine, mannose, xylose or l-fucose were 99, 80, 53, 93, 81 and 13%, respectively. Product structures were determined by NMR and ESI-MS to be alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-Glcp (maltose), alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-GlcNp (maltosamine), alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-GlcNAcp (N-acetyl maltosamine), alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-Manp, alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-Xylp and alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)- L-Fucp, the three latter being novel compounds. Modelling using L. brevis GH65 as the template and superimposition of acarbose from a complex with Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum GH15 glucoamylase suggested that loop 3 of MalP involved in substrate recognition blocked the binding of candidate acceptors larger than monosaccharides.

  14. Leaching of Copper Ore by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Biaha, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative laboratory exercise based upon the procedures copper manufacturers employ to increase copper production is described. The role of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in biogeologic process is emphasized. Safety considerations when working with bacteria are included. (KR)

  15. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.; Oliver, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide the fundamental information on the mechanisms of bacterial leaching of pyrite. The knowledge of how bacterial leaching of pyrite functions is essential for design and development of a technology for coal cleaning with bacteria. The features of major electrochemical techniques will be examined to find out if any of them can provide a diagnostic information on the mechanisms of related reactions. The research was focused on how to improve the chemical activity of bacteria. Two major approaches were undertaken. One was to provide more nutrient salts. It was anticipated that by providing higher amounts of nutrients the concentration and the activity of bacteria would increase. The other approach was to provide fresh environment to bacteria for the growth. Before the experiments it was decided to first examine their activity with time. However, there was no literature information available on this subject. The effect of the solution pH, was also studied. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of mineral-pyrite with T. ferrooxidans were studied by using a cyclic voltametry technique. The interactions with bacteria were examined during the entire growth stage of bacterial (fermentation). The pyrite surface invariably drastically changed its properties at the second day of fermentation. Beyond two days of fermentation, the cyclic voltamograms were insensitive to convective diffusion produced by stirring. The product layer was examined by SEM, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The SEM study revealed that bacteria populated the pyrite surface at an extremely high density levels. The high density of bacteria, and the solid reaction products formed on the pyrite surface created conditions for pore diffusion which explained why the CVs became insensitive to convective diffusion in solution (stirring). The X-ray diffraction study confirmed jarosite as a product layer. A mechanism of T. ferrooxidans cells serving as nucleation sites for jarosite formation is proposed. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferroxidans reactions with pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.; Oliver, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide the fundamental information on the mechanisms of bacterial leaching of pyrite. The knowledge of how bacterial leaching of pyrite functions is essential for design and development of a technology for coal cleaning with bacteria. The features of major electrochemical techniques will be examined to find out if any of them can provide a diagnostic information on the mechanisms of related reactions. This quarter the activity of T. ferrooxidans with duration of fermentation was examined. It was found that there were three distinct stages of fermentation. 1 fig.

  18. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide the fundamental information on the mechanisms of bacterial leaching of pyrite. The knowledge of how bacterial leaching of pyrite functions is essential for design and development of a technology for coal cleaning with bacteria. The features of major electrochemical techniques will be examined to find out if any of them can provide a diagnostic information on the mechanisms of related reactions.

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed.

  20. Synbiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus+Lactobacillus acidophilus+inulin) attenuates oxidative stress and colonic damage in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced colon carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Verma, Angela; Shukla, Geeta

    2014-11-01

    The inexorable increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer has led to growing interest in its prevention by natural interventions. Thus, the present study was designed with the aim of delineating the antioxidative and antitumorigenic effects of synbiotics in experimental colon carcinogenesis. It was observed that administration of a synbiotic, before 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats, led to increased body weight and growth rate, and decreased tumor incidence compared with the DMH-only-treated group of animals. Most notably, the level of malondialdehyde, a measure of lipid peroxidation, decreased, and levels of the antioxidants, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase increased in animals in the Lactobacillus acidophilus+DMH, inulin+DMH, and synbiotic+DMH groups compared with DMH-only-treated animals. Histopathological observations of the colon also documented fewer dysplastic changes and increased the number of goblet cells in the probiotic-treated, prebiotic-treated, and synbiotic-treated animals compared with DMH-only-treated animals. Taken together, the present study shows that the use of synbiotics is a better prophylactic strategy than the use of probiotic and prebiotic alone because of the greater increase in antioxidants associated with the higher degree of attenuation of DMH-induced tumorigenesis.

  1. Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Krych, Lukasz; Röytiö, Henna; Forssten, Sofia; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren; Svensson, Birte; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is synbiotics, have been reported to modulate gut microbiota of humans. In this study, effects of a novel synbiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of human gut microbiota were investigated. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled cross-over study and received synbiotic [Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (10(9) CFU) and cellobiose (5 g)] or placebo daily for 3 weeks. Fecal samples were collected and lactobacilli numbers were quantified by qPCR. Furthermore, 454 tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. The synbiotic increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. and relative abundances of the genera Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Eubacterium while the genus Dialister was decreased (P < 0.05). No other effects were found on microbiota composition. Remarkably, however, the synbiotic increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, measured by gas chromatography, while short-chain fatty acids were not affected.

  2. Effect of salt stress on morphology and membrane composition of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and their adhesion to human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of NaCl reduction (10.0, 7.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 0% NaCl) and its substitution with KCl (50% substitution at each given concentration) on morphology of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in membrane composition, including fatty acids and phospholipids, were investigated using gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Adhesion ability of these bacteria to human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells, as affected by NaCl and its substitution with KCl, was also evaluated. Bacteria appeared elongated and the intracellular content appeared contracted when subjected to salt stress, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Fatty acid content was altered with an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid content on increasing the NaCl-induced stress. Among the phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol was reduced, whereas phosphatidylinositol and cardioplipin were increased when the bacteria were subjected to salt stress. There was a significant reduction in adhesion ability of the bacteria to Caco-2 cells when cultured in media supplemented with NaCl; however, the adhesion ability was improved on substitution with KCl at a given total salt concentration. The findings provide insights into bacterial membrane damage caused by NaCl.

  3. A Decade of Experience in Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection at a Community Hospital Using the Probiotic Combination Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+).

    PubMed

    Maziade, Pierre-Jean; Pereira, Pascale; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2015-05-15

    In August 2003, the 284-bed community hospital Pierre-Le Gardeur (PLGH) in Quebec experienced a major outbreak associated with the Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI strain. Augmented standard preventive measures (SPMs) were not able to control this outbreak. It was decided in February 2004 to give to every adult inpatient on antibiotics, without any exclusion, a probiotic (Bio-K+: Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2) within 12 hours of the antibiotic prescription. Augmented SPMs were continued. The use of the probiotic in addition to SPMs was associated with a marked reduction of C. difficile infection (CDI). During the 10 years of observation, 44 835 inpatients received Bio-K+, and the CDI rate at PLGH declined from 18.0 cases per 10,000 patient-days and remained at low mean levels of 2.3 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Additionally, 10-year data collected by the Ministry of Health in Quebec comparing the CDI rate between Quebec hospitals showed that CDI rates at PLGH were consistently and continuously lower compared with those at similar hospitals. Blood cultures were monitored at PLGH for Lactobacillus bacteremia through the 10 years' experience, and no Lactobacillus bacteremias were detected. Despite the limitation of an observational study, we concluded that the probiotic Bio-K+ was safe and effective in decreasing our primary CDI rate.

  4. The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea) as a Model Study.

    PubMed

    Hunaefi, Dase; Akumo, Divine N; Riedel, Heidi; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-09-26

    High rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity has been achieved by applying jasmonic acid and yeast extract elicitors to the in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aritatus (IOSC). The highest RA accumulation from three solvents was detected in IOSC after treatment with yeast extract (5 g/L). HPLC analysis clearly confirmed a drastic increase in RA subjected to yeast extract elicitation. Therefore, this yeast extract elicited IOSC was chosen for a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation study as a model system. This selected IOSC was subjected to different types of LAB fermentations (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) for different periods of time 24, 48 and 72 h. The LAB fermentations consisted of solid state fermentations (SSF) and liquid state fermentations (LSF) in a Digital Control Unit (DCU) fermenter system. The aim was to determine the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Results indicated that all types of LAB fermentation decreased the level of RA and total phenolics, however, a slight increase in total flavonoids and flavonols was observed in SSF samples. HPLC results confirmed that the longer the fermentation, the greater the reduction in RA content. The highest reduction was obtained in the sample of LSF inoculated with L. plantarum for a period of 72 h. The temperature of fermentation (37 °C) was predicted as contributing to the declining level in RA content. The loss in RA was concomitant with a loss of total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity). These results indicate that RA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  5. The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea) as a Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunaefi, Dase; Akumo, Divine N.; Riedel, Heidi; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    High rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity has been achieved by applying jasmonic acid and yeast extract elicitors to the in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aritatus (IOSC). The highest RA accumulation from three solvents was detected in IOSC after treatment with yeast extract (5 g/L). HPLC analysis clearly confirmed a drastic increase in RA subjected to yeast extract elicitation. Therefore, this yeast extract elicited IOSC was chosen for a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation study as a model system. This selected IOSC was subjected to different types of LAB fermentations (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) for different periods of time 24, 48 and 72 h. The LAB fermentations consisted of solid state fermentations (SSF) and liquid state fermentations (LSF) in a Digital Control Unit (DCU) fermenter system. The aim was to determine the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Results indicated that all types of LAB fermentation decreased the level of RA and total phenolics, however, a slight increase in total flavonoids and flavonols was observed in SSF samples. HPLC results confirmed that the longer the fermentation, the greater the reduction in RA content. The highest reduction was obtained in the sample of LSF inoculated with L. plantarum for a period of 72 h. The temperature of fermentation (37 °C) was predicted as contributing to the declining level in RA content. The loss in RA was concomitant with a loss of total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity). These results indicate that RA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of this plant. PMID:26787613

  6. Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 modulate gene expression of subset specific transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of obese and overweight people.

    PubMed

    Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mofid, Vahid; Hossein zadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Bidad, Katayoon; Najafi, Forouzan; Gheflati, Zahra; Chamari, Maryam; Salehi, Eisa

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are believed to have interaction with immune cells through sustained effects on gene expression of different cytokines and transcription factors. The present randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial was performed recruiting 75 individuals with BMI 25-35, who were randomly assigned to the following three groups: Group 1 (n = 25) who consumed regular yogurt as part of a low calorie diet [RLCD], group 2 (n = 25) who received probiotic yogurt with a LCD [PLCD] and group 3 (n = 25) who consumed probiotic yogurt without LCD [PWLCD] for 8 week. Participants in PLCD and PWLCD groups received 200 g/day yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium Bb12, and lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) cfu/gr. The expression of the FOXP3, T-bet, GATA3, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and ROR-γt in PBMCs genes were assessed, before and after intervention. In three groups, ROR-γt expression was reduced (P = 0.007) and FOXP3 was increased (P < 0.001). The expression of TNFα, TGFβ, and GATA3 genes did not change among all groups after intervention. Interestingly, the expression of T-bet gene, which was significantly decreased in PLCD and PWLCD groups (P < 0.001), whereas gene expression of IFN-γ decreased in all three groups. Our results suggest that weight loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cell subset specific gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells among overweight and obese individuals.

  7. Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum modulates the formation of aberrant crypt foci, mucin-depleted foci, and cell proliferation on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kruzliak, Peter; Kumari, Archana

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are pre-neoplastic lesions identified in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents and in humans at high risk for colon cancer. The present study was carried out to divulge the protective potential of the probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 alone or in combination with piroxicam (PXC) on the development of early biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having 24 animals. The rats were fed with buffalo milk or probiotic supplement (20 grams) alone or as an adjunct with PXC in addition to a basal diet ad libitum for 32 weeks. Group I was offered buffalo milk (BM) and served as the control group. Group II was administered DMH along with BM and served as the DMH-control group; group III was administered BM-DMH-PXC, in which besides administering BM-DMH, PXC was also offered. Group IV was offered probiotic LaBb Dahi and DMH, and group V was offered both probiotic LaBb Dahi and PXC along with DMH. The rats were euthanized at the 8(th), 16(th), and 32(nd) week of the experiment and examined for development of ACF, aberrant crypts per ACF (AC/ACF), mucin-depleted foci (MDF), large MDF, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index. Administration of DMH in rats induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF and MDF) and increased the PCNA index in colorectal tissue. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the number of ACF, AC/ACF, MDF, large MDF, and PCNA labeling index were observed in the probiotic LaBb Dahi group compared with the DMH control group. Feeding rats with LaBb Dahi or treatment with PXC diminished the initiation and progression of DMH-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and the PCNA index, and treatment with

  8. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. [Thiobacillus cuprinus

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. ); Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1991-03-13

    The objective of this project is to produce one or more microorganisms capable of removing the organic and inorganic sulfur in coal. The original specific technical objectives of the project were to: clone and characterize the genes encoding the enzymes of the 4S'' pathway (sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate) for release of organic sulfur from coal; return multiple copies of genes to the original host to enhance the biodesulfurization activity of the organism; transfer this pathway into a fast-growing chemolithotrophic bacterium; conduct a batch-mode optimization/analysis of scale-up variables.

  9. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. [Thiobacillus cuprinus

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Fry, I.J.; Tranuero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. ); Chakravanty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1991-09-13

    The objective of this project is to produce one or more microorganisms capable of removing the organic and inorganic sulfur in coal. The original specific technical objectives of the project were to: clone and characterize the genes encoding the enzymes of the 4S'' pathway (sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate) for release of organic sulfur from coal; return multiple copies of genes to the original host to enhance the biodesulfurization activity of that organism; transfer this pathway into a fast-growing chemolithotropic bacterium; conduct a batch-mode optimization/analysis of scale-up variables.

  10. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. [Rhodococcus, thiobacillus

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Fry, I.; Wyza, R.E.; Palmer, D.T.; Zupancic, T.J.; Conkle, H.N.

    1990-06-14

    The objective of this project is to produce one or more microorganisms capable of removing the organic and inorganic sulfur in coal. The original specific technical objectives of the project were to: clone and characterize the genes encoding the enzymes of the 4S'' pathway (sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate) for release of organic sulfur from coal; return multiple copies of genes to the original host to enhance the biodesulfurization activity of that organism; transfer this pathway into a fast-growing chemolithotropic bacterium; conduct a batch-mode optimization/analysis of scale-up variables.

  11. Electrochemistry of a semiconductor chalcopyrite concentrate leaching by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Using carbon-paste-CuFeS{sub 2} electrodes and a cyclic voltammetric technique, it was found that a large number of intermediate electrochemical oxidation reactions were associated with the dissolution of chalcopyrite in presence and absence of bacteria. The effects of concentrations of copper, ferrous and ferric ions, as well as of agitation on the peaks of cyclic voltammograms were measured. It was established that chalcopyrite oxidation was solid-state controlled as suggested by the data of chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric measurements. The activation energy of solid state diffusion of chalcopyrite leaching was determined by the Sand's method to be {triangle}E{sub a} = 20.5 kJ. The leaching mechanism is discussed in terms of solid-state properties (energy bonding) of the n-type semiconductor chalcopyrite and energy density states of redox systems of acidic bacterial leach media. A generalized model for the mechanism of chalcopyrite leaching in presence and absence of bacteria is presented. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Leaching of pyrite by acidophilic heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria in pure and mixed cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Bacelar-Nicolau, P.; Johnson, D.B.

    1999-02-01

    Seven strains of heterotrophic iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria were examined to determine their abilities to promote oxidative dissolution of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) when they were grown in pure cultures and in mixed cultures with sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus spp. Only one of the isolates (strain T-24) oxidized pyrite when it was grown in pyrite-basal salts medium. However, when pyrite-containing cultures were supplemented with 0.02% (wt/vol) yeast extract, most of the isolates oxidized pyrite, and one (strain T-24) promoted rates of mineral dissolution similar to the rates observed with the iron-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus ferroxidans. Pyrite oxidation by another isolate (strain T-21) occurred in cultures containing between 0.005 and 0.05% (wt/vol) yeast extract but was completely inhibited in cultures containing 0.5% yeast extract. Ferrous iron was also needed for mineral dissolution by the iron-oxidizing heterotrophs, indicating that these organisms oxidize pyrite via the indirect mechanism. Mixed cultures of three isolates (strains T-21, T-232, and T-24) and the sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans promoted pyrite dissolution; since neither strains T-21 and T-23 nor T. thiooxidans could oxidize this mineral in yeast extract-free media, this was a novel example of bacterial synergism. Mixed cultures of strains T-21 and T-23 and the sulfur-oxidizing mixotroph Thiobacillus acidophilus also oxidized pyrite but to a lesser extent than did mixed cultures containing T. thiooxidans. Pyrite leaching by strain T -23 grown in an organic compound-rich medium and incubated either shaken or unshaken was also assessed. The potential environmental significance of iron-oxidizing heterotrophs in accelerating pyrite oxidation is discussed.

  13. Respiratory enzymes of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Progress report, March 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1986-12-01

    The kinetic rate law constant for the one electron reduction of rusticyanin by ferrous ion was determined. Three stable forms of ferrous ion predominate at the pH growth range of the bacterium in the presence of the sulfate/bisulfate conjugate pair: aqueous hexoaquo ferrous ion, a soluble neutral ferrous-sulfate complex, and a positively charged ferrous-bisulfate complex. All three forms of ferrous ion reduce the rusticyanin with kinetic behavior consistent with a reversible second-order reaction, with no evidence for precursor complex formation. The apparent second-order rate constants for reduction of the rusticyanin are in the order (FeSO/sub 4/) > (FeHSO/sub 4/)/sup 1 +/ much greater than Fe/sup 2 +/. Since the predominant form of ferrous ion at the optimal pH (2.0) for growth of the organism is the ferrous-sulfate complex, one may conclude that this complex is the principal reductant of rusticyanin.

  14. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite. Technical progress report, September 1991--January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to provide the fundamental information on the mechanisms of bacterial leaching of pyrite. The knowledge of how bacterial leaching of pyrite functions is essential for design and development of a technology for coal cleaning with bacteria. The features of major electrochemical techniques will be examined to find out if any of them can provide a diagnostic information on the mechanisms of related reactions.

  15. Electrochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans reactions with pyrite. Technical progress report, January 1992--April, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to provide the fundamental information on the mechanisms of bacterial leaching of pyrite. The knowledge of how bacterial leaching of pyrite functions is essential for design and development of a technology for coal cleaning with bacteria. The features of major electrochemical techniques will be examined to find out if any of them can provide a diagnostic information on the mechanisms of related reactions.

  16. Evidence of biogenic corrosion of titanium after exposure to a continuous culture of thiobacillus ferrooxidans grown in thiosulfate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J M; Martin, S I; Masterson, B

    2000-12-07

    Experiments were undertaken to evaluate extreme conditions under which candidate materials intended for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository might be susceptible to corrosion by endogenous microorganisms. Thiobucillus ferrooxidans, a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, was grown in continuous culture using thiosulfate as an energy source; thiosulfate is oxidized to sulfate as a metabolic endproduct by this organism. Culture conditions were optimized to produce a high-density, metabolically active culture throughout a period of long term incubation in the presence of Alloy 22 (a high nickel-based alloy) and Titanium grade 7 (Tigr7) material coupons. After seven months incubation under these conditions, material coupons were withdrawn and analyzed by high resolution microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analyses. Alloy 22 coupons showed no detectable signs of corrosion. Tigr7, however, demonstrated distinct roughening of the coupon surface, and [presumably solubilized and precipitated] titanium was detected on Alloy 22 coupons incubated in the same T. ferrooxiduns culture vessel. Control coupons of these materials incubated in sterile thiosulfate medium did not demonstrate any signs of corrosion, thus showing that observed corrosive effects were due to the T. ferrooxidans metabolic activities. T. ferrooxidans intermediates of thiosulfate oxidation or sulfate may have caused the corrosive effects observed on Tigr7.

  17. 75 FR 11919 - Qimonda 200 MM Facility, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tokyo Electron America, Nikon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Repair Services, Exel Logistics, Xperts, Inc., KLA-Tencor Craftcorps, Inc., Colonial Webb, Novellus... Precision, Ebara Technologies, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. PSI Repair Services, Exel Logistics, Xperts... Repair Services, Exel Logistics, Xperts, Inc., KLA-Tensor, Craftcorps, Inc., Colonial Webb,...

  18. [Protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on development of infection, caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Kostiuk, O P; Chernyshova, L I; Slukvin, I I

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of protective action of Lactobacillus have been studied during development of the generalized infection induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in CBA mice after weaning. The mice were infected intragastrically during the first day after weaning (1 x 10(9) bacterias per mice). Suspensions of Lactobacillus were introduced before and after infection during 10 days (1 x 10(6) bacterias per mice). It has been shown that introduction of Lactobacillus substantially decreased the level of the gut contamination by Klebsiella, prevented generalization of infection and death of animals. Significant higher levels of IgA in the blood serum, IgA and IgM in the gut content, percentage of splenocytes, expressing surface IgM and IgG were observed on the 7th day as compared with those in animals without Lactobacillus. Significantly lower percentage of splenocytes, expressing CD4 antigen was also observed. On the 11th day after infection the mice receiving lactobacillus have shown a tendency to an increase of IgA in the gut content, significantly lower concentrations of IgM in the gut content and a higher level of IgA to the blood serum as compared with the control. Other characteristics were comparable to those of the control group. A conclusion is made that introduction of Lactobacillus prevents development of the Klebsiella infection and protects the immune system from excessive antigenic action.

  19. [The role of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the prevention and adjuvant therapy of certain infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Halmy, C; Halmy, L

    1998-09-27

    Authors call attention to the role of lactic acid bacteria in the prevention and adjuvant therapy of certain infective diseases. It has special importance in the prevention and adjuvant therapy of new-born and childhood enteritis, different urogenital inflammations and antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Administration of lactic acid bacteria create eubiosis between the human organism and the world of bacteria, that is, eubacteriosis is developed instead of a pathogen flora, assuring normal physiologic functions for the well-being of the organism.

  20. Reprogramming Intestinal Immunity by Novel L. Acidophilus Strains Results in Protective Immunity against Colon Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    important advances in detection, surgery and chemotherapy. An imbalance of commensal bacteria and their gene products underlie mucosal and, in...compelling evidence in defining the SlpA of this NCK2025 strain as playing the critical role in the protection against murine colitis and polyposis. Thus, we...the natural mouse microbiota, which was not evident in Signr3-/- mice (Fig. 6C-D). Importantly, both NCK2187 and its purified SlpA also significantly

  1. Transformation of heavy metals and the formation of secondary iron minerals during pig manure bioleaching by the co-inoculation acidophilic thiobacillus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Deng, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Bioleaching of heavy metals from pig manure using a mixture of harmless iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an air-lift reactor was conducted. The transformation of heavy metals and the formation of secondary Fe minerals during bioleaching were also investigated in the present study. The removal efficiencies of Zn, Cu, and Mn from pig manure were 95.1%, 80.9%, and 87.5%, respectively. Zn mainly existed in the form of Fe-Mn oxides in fresh pig manure; most of the pig manure-borne Cu was in organic matter form; Mn existed mainly in Fe-Mn oxides, carbonates, and residual forms. The pig manure can be applied to land more safely after bioleaching because the heavy metals mainly existed in stable forms. The removal efficiencies Zn, Cu, and Mn had good relationships with pH and oxidation reduction potential during bioleaching. A mixture ofjarosite and schwertmannite was found in the bioleached pig manure, which might have an adverse effect on the solubilization efficiency of toxic metals from pig manure. The bioleaching process using a mixture of harmless iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was shown to be a very feasible technology for the removal of heavy metals from pig manure.

  2. Suitability of high pressure-homogenized milk for the production of probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Francesca; Burns, Patricia; Serrazanetti, Diana; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment for food preservation and diversification. In order to evaluate its potential for the production of fermented milks carrying probiotic bacteria, four types of fermented milks were manufactured from HPH treated and heat treated (HT) milk with and without added probiotics. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses were carried out during the refrigerated period (35 d at 4 degrees C). HPH application to milk did not modify the viability of the probiotic cultures but did increase the cell loads of the starter cultures (ca. 1 log order) compared with traditional products. The coagula from HPH-milk was significantly more compacted (P<0.05) (higher firmness) than that obtained with HT-milk, and it had the highest values of consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity indexes compared with fermented milks produced without HPH treatment. All the samples received high sensory analysis scores for each descriptor considered. HPH treatment of milk can potentially diversify the market for probiotic fermented milks, especially in terms of texture parameters.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Calotropis gigentica against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus: An in vitro comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Tandon, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Vishal; Bhat, Kishore G; Kappadi, Damodhar; Chandrashekhar, Pavitra; Dorwal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate in vitro antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigentica. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of the ethanolic extract was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli casei by using disc diffusion method. Results: Ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigentica showed 16 mm and 14 mm of minimum inhibition zone at 1.25% concentration for S. mutans and lactobacilli, respectively. Conclusion: Calotropis gigentica was found to effective against S. mutans and lactobacilli. PMID:26752839

  4. Site-specific mutagenesis and functional analysis of active sites of sulfur oxygenase reductase from Gram-positive moderate thermophile Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijun; Guo, Wenbin; Xu, Changan; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Xinhua

    2013-12-14

    Sequence alignments revealed that the conserved motifs of SORSa which formed an independent branch between archaea and Gram-negative bacteria SORs according to the phylogenetic relationship were similar with the archaea and Gram-negative bacteria SORs. In order to investigate the active sites of SORSa, cysteines 31, 101 and 104 (C31, C101, C104), histidines 86 and 90 (H86 and H90) and glutamate 114 (E114) of SORSa were chosen as the target amino acid residues for site-specific mutagenesis. The wild type and six mutant SORs were expressed in E. coli BL21, purified and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. Enzyme activity determination revealed that the active sites of SORSa were identical with the archaea and Gram-negative bacteria SORs reported. Replacement of any cysteine residues reduced SOR activity by 53-100%, while the mutants of H86A, H90A and E114A lost their enzyme activities largely, only remaining 20%, 19% and 32% activity of the wild type SOR respectively. This study will enrich our awareness for active sites of SOR in a Gram-positive bacterium.

  5. Effect of short term supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10 on resistance to influenza infection in young and old mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impairment of the immune function in the aged animals contributes to a decreased ability to clear pathogens when infection occurs. Probiotics have been shown to improve the immune response in animal models. We, therefore, determined the effect of 8 wks of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus a...

  6. The effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) on the availability of minerals from Dutch-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Aljewicz, Marek; Siemianowska, Ewa; Cichosz, Grażyna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    The use of probiotic cultures in the production of Dutch-type cheeses did not lead to significant changes in their chemical composition but it lowered their acidity. The availability of calcium and magnesium analyzed by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was 19 and 35%, respectively; the availability of phosphorus was significantly higher, at >90%. The use of probiotic cultures significantly increased the availability of calcium (~2.5%), phosphorus (~6%), and magnesium (~18%). The in vitro method supports accurate determination of the effect of the Lactobacillus spp. cultures on the availability of mineral compounds ingested with Dutch-type cheese.

  7. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  8. Importance of Hydrogen Sulfide, Thiosulfate, and Methylmercaptan for Growth of Thiobacilli during Simulation of Concrete Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Sand, W

    1987-07-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete surfaces caused by thiobacilli was reproduced in simulation experiments. At 9 months after inoculation with thiobacilli, concrete blocks were severely corroded. The sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, and methylmercaptan were tested for their corrosive action. With hydrogen sulfide, severe corrosion was noted. The flora was dominated by Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Thiosulfate led to medium corrosion and a dominance of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus intermedius. Methylmercaptan resulted in negligible corrosion. A flora of heterotrophs and fungi grew on the blocks. This result implies that methylmercaptan cannot be degraded by thiobacilli.

  9. Importance of Hydrogen Sulfide, Thiosulfate, and Methylmercaptan for Growth of Thiobacilli during Simulation of Concrete Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete surfaces caused by thiobacilli was reproduced in simulation experiments. At 9 months after inoculation with thiobacilli, concrete blocks were severely corroded. The sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, and methylmercaptan were tested for their corrosive action. With hydrogen sulfide, severe corrosion was noted. The flora was dominated by Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Thiosulfate led to medium corrosion and a dominance of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus intermedius. Methylmercaptan resulted in negligible corrosion. A flora of heterotrophs and fungi grew on the blocks. This result implies that methylmercaptan cannot be degraded by thiobacilli. PMID:16347391

  10. Triage and Treatment of Combined Injury in Mass Casualty Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-01

    heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus used (108 microbes per 1 ml growth media, s.c.). Increase of 30-day survival accordingly composed 42% and 53...Rad.Biol. Radioecol. (in press). Boudagov R.S., Oulianova L.P., Pospelova V.V et al. Biopreparation based in Lactobacillus acidophilus - new remedy for...particularly valuable [35]. Results of our previous investigation revealed that single subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus

  11. Survey of Microcleaning Methods for Application to Army Coal-Fired Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    research consist mainly of the bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Thiobacillus ferroxidarts. Of the two forms of sulfur found in coal--organic and...Researchers at Ohio State University (OSU) reported that Sulfolobus acidocaldarius removed 75 percent of the total sulfur in 3 to 6 days.2 3 Both... Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a heterotrophic organism and thus cannot significantly decrease the inorganic sulfur content of coal. The Thiobacillus

  12. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  13. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  14. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp., to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  15. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts. Quarterly report, September--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp., to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  16. Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium-fortified soymilk.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anne Lise; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagandra P; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

    2010-08-01

    The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed.

  17. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  18. Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A porous synbiotic matrix was prepared by lyophilization of alginate and pectin or fructan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides cross-linked with calcium. These synbiotic matrices were excellent physical structures to support the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (1426) and Lactobacillus reuteri (...

  19. Multivariate analysis of proteolysis patterns differentiated the impact of six strains of probiotic bacteria on a semi-hard cheese.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, C V; Hynes, E R; Candioti, M C; Zalazar, C A

    2009-06-01

    The individual contribution of 6 strains of probiotic bacteria (3 of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 3 of the Lactobacillus casei group) to proteolysis patterns in a semi-hard cheese was assessed. Control cheeses (without probiotics) and 2 types of experimental cheeses (with the addition of probiotics either directly to milk or by a 2-step fermentation method) were manufactured. Cheeses containing Lb. acidophilus showed the most extensive peptidolysis, which was evidenced by changes in the peptide profiles and a noticeable increase of free amino acids compared with control cheeses. The strains of the Lb. casei group showed a lower contribution to cheese peptidolysis, which consisted mainly of free amino acid increase. Two-step fermentation improved peptidolytic activity for only one of the cultures of Lb. acidophilus tested. The addition of Lb. acidophilus strains into cheese may be suitable not only for their beneficial health effect but also for their influence on secondary proteolysis, consistent with acceleration of ripening and improved flavor formation.

  20. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment.

  1. Susceptibility of Oral Bacteria to an Antimicrobial Decapeptide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    coccus mitis ATCC 15913, Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T, Lactoba- cillus salivarius ATCC 29602, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43571 and...exhibited an ED99 (the dose at which 99% killing was observed after 15 min at 37 8C) of 6.25 gml1 against selected strains of Lactobacillus salivarius...broth microdilution assay. Growth of the cariogenic bacteria S.mutansATCC 25175T, S. sobrinus and L. acidophilus was also inhibited effectively by Fig

  2. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 2. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR SULFATE REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both the active and abandoned mining operations. The wastew...

  3. Effect of inoculum and sulfide type on simultaneous hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and nitrogen removal from swine slurry and microbial mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Wei, Benping; Chen, Ziai; Deng, Liangwei; Song, Li; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Yi; Pu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yunhong

    2015-12-01

    Four reactors were initiated to study the effect of inoculum and sulfide type on the simultaneous hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and nitrogen removal from swine slurry (Ssu-Nir) process. Anaerobic sludge, aerobic sludge, and water were used as inocula, and Na2S and biogas were used as a sulfide substrate, respectively. Additionally, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to explore the bacterial diversity. The results showed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus, 42.2-84.4 %) were dominant in Ssu-Nir process and led to the excellent performance. Aerobic sludge was more suitable for inoculation of the Ssu-Nir process because it is better for rapidly enriching dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus, 54.4 %), denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (40.0 %) and denitrifiers (23.9 %). Lower S(2-) removal efficiency (72.6 %) and NO3 (-) removal efficiency (<90 %) of the Ssu-Nir process were obtained using biogas as a sulfide substrate than when Na2S was used. For the Ssu-Nir process with biogas as the sulfide substrate, limiting H2S absorption caused a high relative abundance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, Thiobacillus (84.8 %) and Thiobacillus sayanicus (39.6 %), which in turn led to low relative abundance of denitrifiers (1.6 %) and denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (24.4 %), low NO3 (-) removal efficiency, and eventually poor performance.

  4. Biodegradation of Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    compounds at high salt concentrations. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 54:267-277 (1988). 21 (I"a) cremaM,~ as. . Uhiticer, NJ., Strohmaier, FE., and lien., RP...and reevaluation of Thiobacillus MS1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 52:281-293 (1986). (24) Kanagawa, T. and Kelly, DP. Breakdown of dimethyl sulphide by

  5. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. Eleventh quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-08-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA`s of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  6. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 1. METAL PRECIPITATION FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewater...

  7. Discrimination between 34S and 32S during bacterial metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, B; Cox, J; Gest, H; Hayes, J M

    1986-01-01

    Sulfur isotope effects during the oxidation of thiosulfate by Thiobacillus versutus were found to be negligible. This result is considered in relation to other oxidative and reductive processes to assess which reactions are most likely to control the isotopic compositions of sulfur compounds in microbial sulfureta. PMID:3941049

  8. Biotreatment of refinery spent sulfidic caustics

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Rajganesh, B.; Woolsey, M.; Plato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Caustics are used in petroleum refinering to remove hydrogen sulfide from various hydrocarbon streams. Spent sulfidic caustics from two Conoco refineries have been successfully biotreated on bench and pilot scale, resulting in neutralization and removal of active sulfides. Sulfides were completely oxidized to sulfate by Thiobacillus denitrificans. Microbial oxidation of sulfide produced acid, which at least partially neutralized the caustic.

  9. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs.

  10. Probiotics for Rectal Volume Variation During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Wontaek; Nam, Jiho; Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Juhye; Park, Dahl; Jeon, Hosang; Ha, Honggu; Kim, Taenam; Kim, Dongwon

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus on the percentage volume change of the rectum (PVC{sub R}), a crucial factor of prostate movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients managed with tomotherapy as a radical treatment were enrolled in the study to take a probiotic capsule containing 1.0 × 10{sup 8} colony-forming units of L acidophilus or a placebo capsule twice daily. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 78 Gy in 39 fractions. The PVC{sub R}, defined as the difference in rectal volume between the planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily megavoltage CT images, was analyzed. Results: Forty patients were randomized into 2 groups. The L acidophilus group showed significantly lower median rectal volume and median PVC{sub R} values than the placebo group. L acidophilus showed a significant reduction effect on the PVC{sub R} (P<.001). However, the radiation therapy fraction number did not significantly influence the PVC{sub R}. Conclusions: L acidophilus was useful in reducing the PVC{sub R}, which is the most important determining factor of prostate position, during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  11. In vitro fermentation of prebiotic oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Sims, Ian M; Ryan, Jason L J; Kim, Sang H

    2014-02-01

    The utilisation of various prebiotic oligosaccharides by probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated in order to determine the synbiotic potential of various prebiotic/probiotic combinations. Analysis by HPLC and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cell-free medium taken during growth of the three probiotic bacteria showed differences in the consumption of the various oligosaccharides. Analysis of galactooligosaccharides showed that both L. rhamnosus and B. lactis consumed mostly mono- and di-saccharide, while L. acidophilus consumed oligosaccharides up to trisaccharide. Both B. lactis and L. acidophilus utilised fructooligosaccharides and inulin, but showed different patterns of oligosaccharide consumption. Only L. rhamnosus grew on β-glucan oligosaccharides and preferentially consumed the trisaccharide. The results indicate the synbiotic potential of the various probiotic/prebiotic combinations, particularly L. acidophilus/galactooligosaccharides, L. acidophilus/fructooligosaccharides or inulin and L. rhamnosus/β-glucan oligosaccharides.

  12. Nutritional quality of lupine (Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa) as affected by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C; Marcus, D; Guzmán, E; Campos, R; von Bäer, D; Trugo, L

    1991-12-01

    The effects of selected NRRL strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. cellobiosus and L. fermentum upon oligosaccharide, phytate and alkaloid contents, as well as on the nutritive value of lupine, were investigated. Lupine was processed to a 12% total solids suspension, inoculated with 1% (v/v) cultures and fermented until a final desired pH of 4.5. L. acidophilus B-2092 and L. buchneri B-1837 growth was related to a significant sucrose breakdown and decreases of phytates, whereas L. acidophilus B-1910 and L. fermentum B-585 reduced the content of flatulence oligosaccharides. The activity of L. acidophilus B-1910 was particularly associated with lowering of alkaloids and increase of riboflavin. Lactic acid fermentation produced slight changes in lysine and methionine contents. No significant differences in net protein ratio values and protein digestibility were found between fermented and unfermented lupine (P less than 0.05). A 1:1 ratio mixture of B-1910 and B-2092 strains of L. acidophilus lead to a final fermented lupine with nutritional advantages to those given by the individual cultures.

  13. Study on the Influence of Tea Extract on Probiotics in Skim Milk: From Probiotics Propagation to Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gong, Guangyu; Ma, Chengjie; Liu, Zhenmin; Cai, Jie

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) on the growth of probiotics in skim milk was examined. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb02, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used in this study. The introduction of TE in milk significantly stimulated the propagation and acidification of L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM. The antioxidant capacities and the total free amino acid contents of all fermented milk products were enhanced by the addition of TE; however, there were different antioxidant properties and free amino acid contents of fermented milk samples fermented by different bacteria. With a 9% (w/w) level, the fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM showed larger numbers of viable cells and faster acidifying rates, as well as excellent antioxidant capacity and abundant free amino acids.  The stimulative effects of TE on probiotics can be considered for industrial purposes and has practical implications for commercial applications.

  14. Factors involved in adherence of lactobacilli to human Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, J D; Klaenhammer, T R

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative assay performed with bacterial cells labelled with [3H]thymidine was used to investigate factors involved in the adherence of human isolates Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4 and NCFM/N2 and Lactobacillus gasseri ADH to human Caco-2 intestinal cells. For all three strains, adherence was concentration dependent, greater at acidic pH values, and significantly greater than adherence of a control dairy isolate, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 1489. Adherence of L. acidophilus BG2FO4 and NCFM/N2 was decreased by protease treatment of the bacterial cells, whereas adherence of L. gasseri ADH either was not affected or was enhanced by protease treatment. Putative surface layer proteins were identified on L. acidophilus BG2FO4 and NCFM/N2 cells but were not involved in adherence. Periodate oxidation of bacterial cell surface carbohydrates significantly reduced adherence of L. gasseri ADH, moderately reduced adherence of L. acidophilus BG2FO4, and had no effect on adherence of L. acidophilus NCFM/N2. These results indicate that Lactobacillus species adhere to human intestinal cells via mechanisms which involve different combinations of carbohydrate and protein factors on the bacterial cell surface. The involvement of a secreted bridging protein, which has been proposed as the primary mediator of adherence of L. acidophilus BG2FO4 in spent culture supernatant (M.-H. Coconnier, T. R. Klaenhammer, S. Kernéis, M.-F. Bernet, and A. L. Servin, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:2034-2039, 1992), was not confirmed in this study. Rather, a pH effect on Caco-2 cells contributed significantly to the adherence of this strain in spent culture supernatant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7811085

  15. Probiotic in lamb rennet paste enhances rennet lipolytic activity, and conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic acid content in Pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Albenzio, M; Quinto, M; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2009-04-01

    Cheeses manufactured using traditional lamb rennet paste, lamb rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, and lamb rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium longum were characterized for the lipolytic pattern during ripening. Lipase activity of lamb rennet paste, lamb rennet containing Lb. acidophilus, and lamb rennet containing a mix of bifidobacteria was measured in sheep milk cream substrate. Rennet paste containing probiotics showed a lipase activity 2-fold greater than that displayed by traditional rennet. Total free fatty acid (FFA) in sheep milk cream was lower in lamb rennet paste (981 microg/g of milk cream) than in lamb rennet containing Lb. acidophilus (1,382.4 microg/g of milk cream) and in lamb rennet containing a mix of bifidobacteria (1,227.5 microg/g of milk cream) according to lipase activity of lamb rennet paste. The major increase of FFA in all cheeses occurred during the first 30 d of ripening with the greatest values being observed for C16:0, C18:0 C18:1. At 60 d of ripening all cheeses showed a reduction in the amount of free fatty acids; in particular, total free fatty acids underwent a decrease of more than 30% from 30 to 60 d in cheeses manufactured using traditional lamb rennet paste, whereas the same parameter decreased 10% in cheeses manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing Lb. acidophilus and cheeses manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of B. lactis and B. longum. Cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by the greatest levels of total conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) 9-cis, 11-trans CLA and 9-trans, 11-trans CLA, whereas cheese containing bifidobacteria displayed the greatest levels of free linoleic acid. Rennet pastes containing viable cells of Lb. acidophilus and a mix of B. lactis and B. longum were able to influence the amount of FFA and CLA in Pecorino cheese during ripening.

  16. Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in lamb rennet paste: effects on the quality of Pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Albenzio, M; Bevilacqua, A; Corbo, M R; Sevi, A

    2012-07-01

    Lamb rennet pastes containing encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis were produced for Pecorino cheese manufacture from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk. Cheeses were denoted as RP cheese when made with traditional rennet paste, RP-L cheese when made with rennet paste containing L. acidophilus culture, and RP-B cheese when made with rennet paste containing a mix of B. lactis and B. longum. Biochemical features of Pecorino cheese were studied at 1, 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of cheese ripening. The effect of encapsulation and bead addition to rennet acted on a different way on the viability of probiotic. Lactobacillus acidophilus retained its viability for 4 to 5 d and then showed a fast reduction; on the other hand, B. longum and B. lactis experienced kinetics characterized by an initial death slope, followed by a tail effect due to acquired resistance. At 1 d of ripening, the levels of L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria in cheese were the lowest, and then increased, reaching the highest levels after 30 d; such cell loads were maintained throughout the ripening for L. acidophilus, whereas bifidobacteria experienced a decrease of about 1 log cfu/g at the end of ripening. Enzymatic activities and biochemical features of cheeses were influenced by the type of rennet used for cheesemaking. Greater enzymatic activity was recorded in RP-L and RP-B cheese due to the presence of probiotic bacteria released from alginate beads. A positive correlation was found between enzymatic activities and water-soluble nitrogen and proteose-peptone in RP-B and RP-L cheeses; water-soluble nitrogen and proteose-peptone were the highest in RP-B. Principal component analysis distinguished RP-L from the other cheeses on the basis of the conjugated linoleic acid content, which was higher in the RP-L due to the ability of L. acidophilus to produce conjugated linoleic acid in the cheese matrix.

  17. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF.

  18. Biodesulfurization of rubber materials

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E. ); Raghavan, D. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in municipal waste treatment is the recycling of polymeric waste materials. The present study has demonstrated the applicability of biotechnological principles in the desulfurization of rubber using shake flask and Warburg respirometric techniques. In terms of oxygen uptake and specific rate of oxygen uptake, it was found that the mixed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans was more efficient in this process than the individual pure cultures of these bacteria. Furthermore, the mixed cultures resulted in ten times higher sulfur removals from rubber relative to those of sterile controls. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of biodesulfurization of rubber. It is expected that the development of this process may provide a solution to recycling of car tire materials. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. A large sample of spent catalyst has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of energy at the Pittsburgh energy Technology Center. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  20. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Quarterly report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. A large sample of spent catalyst has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of energy at the Pittsburgh energy Technology Center. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  1. Isolation and identification of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria and their use in microbial deacidification of wines from domestic vineyards.

    PubMed

    Drozdz, Iwona; Makarewicz, Malgorzata; Tuszyński, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify various bacteria isolated from grapes and their wines. Additionally we investigated the capacity of lactic acid bacteria for microbiological deacidification of wines produced in Poland. We have identified Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. During the microbial deacidification process, we observed decreases of total acidity and increases of volatile acidity, with statistically significant changes noted for O. oeni in Marechal Foch and Seyval Blanc, and for Lb. acidophilus in Frontenac. On the other hand, a statistically significant increase in pH was observed in Marechal Foch and Seyval Blanc following deacidification by O. oeni.

  2. Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on Calotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. latex against selected cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Garg, Akanksha A.; Thakkar, Arpit M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antibacterial potential of the chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and aqueous extracts of Calotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. was evaluated by using five cariogenic bacteria, Actinomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The chloroform extracted fraction of latex showed inhibitory effect against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC value of 0.032 and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative investigation on structure elucidation of bioactive compound using IR, NMR and GC–MS techniques revealed the presence of methyl nonanoate, a saturated fatty acid. PMID:23961166

  3. Andean yacon root (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Endl) fructooligosaccharides as a potential novel source of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Campos, David; Noratto, Giuliana; Chirinos, Rosana; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2003-08-27

    The ability of three known probiotic strains (two lactobacilli and one bifidobacterium) to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Endl) was compared to commercial FOS in this study. Results indicate that Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-1910, Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-4496, and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 were able to ferment yacon root FOS. FOS consumption apparently depended on the degree of polymerization and the initial FOS composition. L. plantarum NRRL B-4496 and L. acidophilus NRRL B-1910 completely utilized 1-kestose molecules, while B. bifidum was able to utilize 1-kestose molecules as well as molecules with a higher degree of polymerization.

  4. SIGNing a symbiotic treaty with gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes hold great promise for the treatment of a wide range of immune and inflammatory disorders. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Lightfoot and colleagues report how the food-grade bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus helps the immune system to limit experimental colitis in mice through interaction between SIGNR3 and surface layer protein A (SlpA) in L. acidophilus. These results pave the way for future development of novel therapies for inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25736375

  5. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N.; Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  6. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. ); Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  7. Microbial removal of no.sub.x from gases

    DOEpatents

    Sublette, Kerry L.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process by which a gas containing nitric oxide is contacted with an anaerobic microbial culture of denitrifying bacteria to effect the chemical reduction of the nitric oxide to elemental nitrogen. The process is particularly suited to the removal of nitric oxide from flue gas streams and gas streams from nitric acid plants. Thiobacillus dentrificians as well as other bacteria are disclosed for use in the process.

  8. Microbial- and thiosulfate-mediated dissolution of mercury sulfide minerals and transformation to gaseous mercury

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Adiari I.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Zhang, Tong; Lamborg, Carl H.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that poses significant environmental and human health risks. Soils and sediments, where Hg can exist as the Hg sulfide mineral metacinnabar (β-HgS), represent major Hg reservoirs in aquatic environments. Metacinnabar has historically been considered a sink for Hg in all but severely acidic environments, and thus disregarded as a potential source of Hg back to aqueous or gaseous pools. Here, we conducted a combination of field and laboratory incubations to identify the potential for metacinnabar as a source of dissolved Hg within near neutral pH environments and the underpinning (a)biotic mechanisms at play. We show that the abundant and widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus extensively colonized metacinnabar chips incubated within aerobic, near neutral pH creek sediments. Laboratory incubations of axenic Thiobacillus thioparus cultures led to the release of metacinnabar-hosted Hg(II) and subsequent volatilization to Hg(0). This dissolution and volatilization was greatly enhanced in the presence of thiosulfate, which served a dual role by enhancing HgS dissolution through Hg complexation and providing an additional metabolic substrate for Thiobacillus. These findings reveal a new coupled abiotic-biotic pathway for the transformation of metacinnabar-bound Hg(II) to Hg(0), while expanding the sulfide substrates available for neutrophilic chemosynthetic bacteria to Hg-laden sulfides. They also point to mineral-hosted Hg as an underappreciated source of gaseous elemental Hg to the environment. PMID:26157421

  9. Highlights in the History of U.S. Army Dentistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    community it is valued as one of the instruments of situational analysis. Published records of military dental history are very few, and dentists...pioneering research showing the relationship between Lactobacillus acidophilus and dental caries . World War II (8 December...Phase II of the Army Oral Health Maintenance Program (AOHMP) was implemented, calling for the birth-month dental examination and preventively

  10. Characterization of Selected Lactobacillus Strains for Use as Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minyu; Yun, Bohyun; Moon, Jae-Hak; Park, Dong-June; Lim, Kwangsei; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria from various sources and to identify strains for use as probiotics. Ten Lactobacillus strains were selected and their properties such as bile tolerance, acid resistance, cholesterol assimilation activity, and adherence to HT-29 cells were assessed to determine their potential as probiotics. Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. casei MB3, L. sakei MA9, L. sakei CH8, and L. acidophilus M23 were found to show full tolerance to the 0.3% bile acid. All strains without L. acidophilus M23 were the most acid-tolerant strains. After incubating the strains at pH 2.5 for 2 h, their viability decreased by 3 Log cells. Some strains survived at pH 2.5 in the presence of pepsin and 0.3% bile acid. Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. acidophilus KU41, L. acidophilus M23, L. fermentum NS2, L. plantarum M13, and L. plantarum NS3 were found to reduce cholesterol levels by >50% in vitro. In the adhesion assay, Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. casei MB3, L. sakei MA9, and L. sakei CH8 showed higher adhesion activities after 2 h of co-incubation with the intestinal cells. The results of this comprehensive analysis shows that this new probiotic strain named, Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829 could be a promising candidate for dairy products. PMID:26761878

  11. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride), Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus have been present in orally administered OTC...

  12. [Antibacterial properties of two conventional and two high copper dental amalgams].

    PubMed

    Günyakti, N; Misirligil, A; Gökay, O

    1989-05-01

    Two conventional and two high copper dental amalgams (Non gamma 2) has been investigated for their antibacterial properties. The high copper dental amalgam, Ana 2000 possessed a very small range of antibacterial propertie against Lac. acidophilus and Staph. epidermidis, while other amalgams found to have no antibacterial activity against the ten tested microorganism strains.

  13. Identification of Lactobacillus UFV H2B20 (probiotic strain) using DNA-DNA hybridization

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, J.T.; Uetanabaro, A.P. T.; de Moraes, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization tests were performed for identification of the species of the probiotic Lactobacillus UFV H2b20 strain. Using these two tests, we concluded that this strain, originally considered Lact. acidophilus, should be classified as Lact. delbrueckii. PMID:24031263

  14. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    The effect of ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, amikacin, and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus 5/4, Bifidobadenum longum 44) on intestinal microflora...methods, increased survival parameters of the mice. The effect of lactobacilli was higher under gnotobiological isolation. Lactobacilli suppressed the...intestinal counts and translocation of gram-negative enterics, but not streptococci. A lomefloxacin/lactobacilli combination showed effects similar to lomefloxacin alone.

  15. Enhanced growth of lactobacilli in soymilk upon immobilization on agrowastes.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Ahmad, Rosma; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-04-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agrowastes from durian (Durio zibethinus), cempedak (Artocarpus champeden), and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) as immobilizers for lactobacilli grown in soymilk. Rinds from the agrowastes were separated from the skin, dried, and ground (150 microm) to form powders and used as immobilizers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that lactobacilli cells were attached and bound to the surface of the immobilizers. Immobilized cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411 were inoculated into soymilk, stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) and growth properties were evaluated over 168 h. Soymilk inoculated with nonimmobilized cells was used as the control. Utilization of substrates, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, and changes in pH were evaluated in soymilk over 186 h. Immobilized lactobacilli showed significantly better growth (P < 0.05) compared to the control, accompanied by higher production of lactic and acetic acids in soymilk. Soymilk containing immobilized cells showed greater reduction of soy sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose compared to the control (P < 0.05).

  16. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  17. Probiotic Bovamine fine-tunes the ruminal microbiome for enhanced fermentation and immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effect of Bovamine, Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii strain strain NP24, feeding on the microbial composition of the digestive system microbiota of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202 days on time 0). To examine the underly...

  18. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  19. Summary Report on Visit to Departamento de Investigation Centro Ramon Y Cajal Madrid, Spain.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-30

    Over one hundred colonies of Gram negative bacteria ( Lactobacillus acidophilus ) were cultured at 380 C in Petri dishes for 72 hours. The inoculum...within the various laboratories. He was particularly excited about studies using Lactobacillus bacteria and the work involving Drosophila melanogaster...therapy (0-40 Gauss) caUsed a 40 %reduction in the number of Lactobacillus colonies. ........................ . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . RAT MODEL TO

  20. Effects of Long-Term Low-Level Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure on Rats. Volume 1. Design, Facilities, and Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    ssp. rhamnosus Lactobacillus acidophilus Bacteroides fragilis ssp. ovatus Streptococcus faecalis ssp. liquefaciens Streptococcus lactis ssp...microflora: 55 *1 ’ " " ,qr ,. " ._’ " ". ’ " .- ’-." .’ ...-.- • ’. ’-J-.’ ’--’ . - .’ - .-- ’ -" " " ’-." -• " ’-.°-V.- -. ’ . ’-- Lactobacillus casei

  1. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  2. Protection of probiotic bacteria in a synbiotic matrix following aerobic storage at 4 deg C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The survival of single strains of Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri was investigated in synbiotics that included 10 mg/mL of fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin and pectic-oligosaccharides in an alginate matrix under refrigerated (4 C) ae...

  3. Evaluation of newly isolated probiotics in the protection against experimental intestinal trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    El Temsahy, Mona M; Ibrahim, Iman R; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda; Abdel Bary, Amany; Abdel Salam, Sara A

    2015-12-15

    The potential use of probiotics in controlling enteric infections has generated tremendous interest in the last decade. The protective efficacy of seven oral doses of two newly isolated Egyptian probiotic strains; Lactobacillus acidophilus P110 (L. acidophilus) and Lactobacillus plantarum P164 (L. plantarum) versus Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 (L. casei) - against experimental intestinal trichinellosis - was assessed via parasitological, immunological and histopathological parameters, after verifying their in vivo safety and intestinal colonization. Parasitologically, the highest adult count reduction was observed in L. plantarum-fed infected sub-subgroup (56.98, 65.42 and 69.02%) - on the 5th, 12th and 17th days post infection (P.I.), respectively. Lesser percentage reductions were recorded in both the L. casei-fed infected sub-subgroup (36.19, 23.68 and 31.58%) and L. acidophilus-fed infected sub-subgroup (36.50, 11.8 and 7.61%) at the same intervals. On the 28th day post challenge, the highest larval count reduction was in L. plantarum-fed infected sub-subgroup (87.92%). While lower percentage yet still significant were observed in the L. casei-fed infected (74.88%) and L. acidophilus-fed infected sub-subgroups (60.98%). Immunologically, serum IFN-γ levels in the probiotic-fed non infected sub-subgroups were higher than those in the probiotic-fed infected sub-subgroups. Both showed higher levels of IFN-γ than the non probiotic-fed sub-subgroups. Histopathologically, intestinal sections of the probiotic-fed infected sub-subgroups showed amelioration of the inflammation and damage resulting from Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection. Results indicate that, through mechanical and immunological mechanisms, L. plantarum showed parasitological and histopathological protective superiority with respect to both L. casei and L. acidophilus against murine T. spiralis infection.

  4. Intestinal pathway of internalisation of lactic acid bacteria and gut mucosal immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Perdigòn, G; Medina, M; Vintiñi, E; Valdez, J C

    2000-01-01

    The induction of the gut mucosal immune response is dependent on the antigen interacting with the M cells of Peyer's patches and with the immune cells associated with this lymphoid organ. In previous studies we showed that the mucosal immunostimulation by LAB varied depending upon the strain being studied. Some of them increased the inflammatory immune response and others enhanced the level of secretory antibody (S-IgA). Our aim was to determine the pathway of the internalisation of LAB strains in the intestine, to provide a basis for understing the different behaviour exhibited by them. The presence of LAB on Peyer's patches or in the immune cells associated with the villi of small intestine was determined using fluorescein-labelled bacteria and by transmission electron microscopy. Mice were dosed orally by intubation, with 101 cells of labelled single strains of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. For electron microscopy studies unlabelled bacteria were used. Histological preparations of the small and large intestine were performed 1 hour after administration of the bacteria. Fluorescent bacteria of L. casei and S. thermophilus were found only in Peyer's patches while L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus were observed in Peyer's patches and in the small intestine. L. acidophilus was also found in the large intestine. We confirmed these findings by electron microscopy. We determined that for L. casei the pathway of internalisation was via the M and FAE cells of Peyer's patches, while for S. thermophilus, L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus the interaction with the immune cells of Peyer's patches was through the follicle associated epithelium (FAE). L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus also interacted with the epithelial cells of the small intestine and L. acidophilus with epithelial cells of the large intestine. These results

  5. STUDIES ON THE METABOLISM OF AUTOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, K. G.

    1942-01-01

    In a study of chemosynthesis (the fixation of CO2 by autotrophic bacteria in the dark) in Thiobacillus thiooxidans, the data obtained support the following conclusions: 1. CO2 can be fixed by "resting cells" of Thiobacillus thiooxidans; the fixation is not "growth bound." 2. The physiological condition of the cell is of considerable importance in determining CO2 fixation. 3. CO2 fixation can occur in the absence of oxidizable sulfur in "young" cells. The extent of this fixation appears to be dependent upon the pCO2. 4. CO2 fixation can also occur under anaerobic conditions and the presence of sulfur does not influence such fixation. 5. However, in the CO2 fixation by cells in the absence of sulfur, only a limited amount of CO2 can be fixed. This amount is approximately 40 µl. CO2 per 100 micrograms bacterial nitrogen. After a culture has utilized this amount of CO2 it no longer has the ability to fix CO2 but releases it during its respiration. 6. Relatively short periods of sulfur oxidation can restore the ability of cells to fix CO2 under conditions where sulfur oxidation is prevented. 7. It is possible to oxidize sulfur in the absence of CO2 and to store the energy thus formed within the cell. It is then possible to use this energy at a later time for the fixation of CO2 in the entire absence of sulfur oxidation. 8. Cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans respiring on sulfur utilize CO2 in a reaction which proceeds to a zero concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. 9. CO2 may act as an oxidizing agent for sulfur. 10. Hydrogen is not utilized by the organism. 11. It is possible to selectively inhibit sulfur oxidation and CO2 fixation. PMID:19873324

  6. Microbial- and thiosulfate-mediated dissolution of mercury sulfide minerals and transformation to gaseous mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Adiari I.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Zhang, Tong; Lamborg, Carl H.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2015-06-23

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that poses significant environmental and human health risks. Soils and sediments, where Hg can exist as the Hg sulfide mineral metacinnabar (β-HgS), represent major Hg reservoirs in aquatic environments. Metacinnabar has historically been considered a sink for Hg in all but severely acidic environments, and thus disregarded as a potential source of Hg back to aqueous or gaseous pools. In this study, we conducted a combination of field and laboratory incubations to identify the potential for metacinnabar as a source of dissolved Hg within near neutral pH environments and the underpinning (a)biotic mechanisms at play. We show that the abundant and widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus extensively colonized metacinnabar chips incubated within aerobic, near neutral pH creek sediments. Laboratory incubations of axenic Thiobacillus thioparus cultures led to the release of metacinnabar-hosted Hg(II) and subsequent volatilization to Hg(0). This dissolution and volatilization was greatly enhanced in the presence of thiosulfate, which served a dual role by enhancing HgS dissolution through Hg complexation and providing an additional metabolic substrate for Thiobacillus. These findings reveal a new coupled abiotic-biotic pathway for the transformation of metacinnabar-bound Hg(II) to Hg(0), while expanding the sulfide substrates available for neutrophilic chemosynthetic bacteria to Hg-laden sulfides. Lastly, they also point to mineral-hosted Hg as an underappreciated source of gaseous elemental Hg to the environment.

  7. Microbial- and thiosulfate-mediated dissolution of mercury sulfide minerals and transformation to gaseous mercury

    DOE PAGES

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Adiari I.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Zhang, Tong; ...

    2015-06-23

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that poses significant environmental and human health risks. Soils and sediments, where Hg can exist as the Hg sulfide mineral metacinnabar (β-HgS), represent major Hg reservoirs in aquatic environments. Metacinnabar has historically been considered a sink for Hg in all but severely acidic environments, and thus disregarded as a potential source of Hg back to aqueous or gaseous pools. In this study, we conducted a combination of field and laboratory incubations to identify the potential for metacinnabar as a source of dissolved Hg within near neutral pH environments and the underpinning (a)biotic mechanismsmore » at play. We show that the abundant and widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus extensively colonized metacinnabar chips incubated within aerobic, near neutral pH creek sediments. Laboratory incubations of axenic Thiobacillus thioparus cultures led to the release of metacinnabar-hosted Hg(II) and subsequent volatilization to Hg(0). This dissolution and volatilization was greatly enhanced in the presence of thiosulfate, which served a dual role by enhancing HgS dissolution through Hg complexation and providing an additional metabolic substrate for Thiobacillus. These findings reveal a new coupled abiotic-biotic pathway for the transformation of metacinnabar-bound Hg(II) to Hg(0), while expanding the sulfide substrates available for neutrophilic chemosynthetic bacteria to Hg-laden sulfides. Lastly, they also point to mineral-hosted Hg as an underappreciated source of gaseous elemental Hg to the environment.« less

  8. Control of acid mine drainage using surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This news sheet describes US Bureau of Mines work on the reduction or prevention of acid mine drainage from coal refuse piles and surface mines by inhibiting the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. It has been found that the direct application of a dilute surfactant or detergent solution to coal refuse piles or overburden can be an effective preventive measure or can reduce water treatment costs by controlling acid drainage at its source. Of the anionic surfactants tested to date, sodium lauryl sulphate appears to be the most effective. Alpha olefin sulphonate and alkyl benzene sulphonate are acceptable alternatives. The results of field trials are presented.

  9. Bacterial Oxidation of Pyritic Materials in Coal.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M P; Rogoff, M H; Wender, I

    1961-11-01

    Applicability of the manometric method for studying the oxidation of pyritic material in the presence of bacteria has been demonstrated. Resting cells of Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans accelerated the oxidation of coal pyrites and coarsely crystalline marcasite, but were inactive on coarsely crystalline pyrite. Resting cells of Thiobacillus thiooxidans were inactive on all pyrites tested. Oxidation rates in the presence of Ferrobacillus were increased by reducing the particle size of pyritic samples, and, in one case, by removing the CaCO(3) from a calcite-containing sample.

  10. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Lynne V.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI) and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus). None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. PMID:27025619

  11. Interval sampling of breath hydrogen (H2) as an index of lactose malabsorption in lactase-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Payne, D L; Manion, C; Morrison, R D; Nichols, M A

    1981-08-01

    Interval sampling of breath hydrogen content was used in lactose malabsorbers: (1) to compare hydrogen responses following increasing oral doses of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions; (2) to determine the reproducibility of interval breath sampling, and (3) to compare carbohydrate malabsorption following ingestion of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Significant differences in breath hydrogen responses due to increasing amounts of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions were observed. The individual breath hydrogen responses were reproducible using the same lactose dose on different days. There was no significant difference in breath hydrogen responses or symptoms following administration of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Breath hydrogen sampling at intervals, as performed in these studies, provides a sensitive and reproducible index of lactose malabsorption.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms.

  13. Immunotherapeutic effect of the lactobacillus vaccine, Solco Trichovac, in trichomoniasis is not mediated by antibodies cross reacting with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Gombosová, A; Demes, P; Valent, M

    1986-01-01

    According to the producers of the lactobacillus vaccine, Solco Trichovac, its therapeutic effect in trichomoniasis is achieved by antibodies that are induced by the vaccination and cross react with Trichomonas vaginalis. Common antigens of Lactobacillus acidophilus from Solco Trichovac vaccine and T vaginalis were therefore sought by three different seroreactions. Immune serum against Lacidophilus obtained by vaccinating two healthy human volunteers and two rabbits with the original Solco Trichovac vaccine, as well as hyperimmune rabbit antiserum to T vaginalis, were tested with each of the two micro-organisms. No evidence of antigenic similarity between L acidophilus and T vaginalis was obtained with either serum in any of the three serological tests. A non-specific immunostimulatory effect therefore seems to be a more probable explanation of the mode of action of Solco Trichovac vaccine. PMID:3522408

  14. Probiotics in the Space Food System: Delivery, Microgravity Effects, and the Potential Benefit to Crew Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    As mission distance and duration increase, the need grows for non-invasive disease prevention and immunomodulation, especially given the limited medical response capability expected for these missions and the immune dysregulation documented in crew. Additionally, changes in diet, lifestyle, antibiotic usage, and the environmental stresses during spaceflight may alter crewmembers' intestinal microbiome. The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers, with the potential to counteract the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Based on previous studies that demonstrated unique microbiological responses to the low shear environment of spaceflight, probiotic organisms hold the potential to induce enhanced beneficial responses through mechanisms, such as beneficial interactions with human immune cells and repression of colonization of pathogens on the mucosa. The work presented here will begin to address two research gaps related to providing probiotics in spaceflight: 1) delivery, and 2) the effect of the low shear microgravity environment on probiotic attributes. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected for investigation due to its wide commercial use and documented benefits that include inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens and mucosal stimulation of immune cells. The delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. In order to demonstrate the potential of the space food system to deliver viable probiotic bacteria to crewmembers, the probiotic L. acidophilus was packaged in high barrier flight packaging in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) or retained in commercial capsule form. Viable cells were enumerated over 8 months of storage at 22, 4, and -80ºC. The survival of L. acidophilus rehydrated in NFDM

  15. Effect of probiotic strains of lacto- and bifidobacteria on the activity of macrophages and other parameters of immunity in cases of staphylococcosis.

    PubMed

    Mokrozub, V V; Lazarenko, L M; Babenko, L P; Shynkarenko-Sichel, L M; Olevinska, Z M; Timoshok, N O; Pidgorskyi, V S; Spivak, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMVB-7281, Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280, Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279, Bifidobacterium animales VKL and B. animales VKB strains on the models of experimental staphylococcosis infection in mice were determined. It was found that after the mice, infected with staphylococcus, were treated by some probiotic strains of lacto- and bifidobacteria, a normalization of functional activity of phagoctic cells system and increase of the endogenous interferon production were observed. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMVB-7281, L. casei IMVB-7280, L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, B. animales VKB and B. animales VKL are promising for the development of probiotics, effective against staphylococci and for the immunity correction.

  16. Bioactivity of water soluble extracts and some characteristics of white cheese during the ripening period as effected by packaging type and probiotic adjunct cultures.

    PubMed

    Erkaya, Tuba; Şengul, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the chemical composition, proteolysis and in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme-(ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of white cheeses made using probiotic adjunct cultures (Bifidobacterium bifidum DSMZ 20456 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079) were investigated. The cheeses were ripened in a vacuum package or brine for 120 d at 4 °C. The cheese samples maintained the probiotic characteristics of the viable cells as >106 cfu/g even after ripening for 120 d. The proteolysis degrees in terms of water-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (WSN/TN), trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN) and phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN) values in the cheeses increased throughout the ripening. The highest levels of proteolysis were found in cheese made using Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 and ripened in a vacuum package. ACE-inhibitory activity of the water soluble extracts (WSEs) of the cheeses increased significantly (P < 0·05) throughout the ripening (IC50 values 82·78-140·99 μg/ml). Use of Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 and packaging under vacuum significantly increased the percentage of ACE inhibiting activity. WSEs had DPPH scavenging activity (the IC50 values were 2·41-5·39 mg/ml and the inhibition values were 5·10-10·38%), increasing up to 60 d ripening. In the present study, it was observed that Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 was more effective than Bifido. bifidum DSMZ 20456 in terms of the cheese characteristics investigated.

  17. Cloning, phenotypic expression, and DNA sequence of the gene for lactacin F, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Muriana, P M; Klaenhammer, T R

    1991-01-01

    Lactacin F is a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus 11088. A 63-mer oligonucleotide probe deduced from the N-terminal lactacin F amino acid sequence was used to clone the putative laf structural gene from plasmid DNA of a lactacin F-producing transconjugant, L. acidophilus T143. One clone, NCK360, harbored a recombinant plasmid, pTRK160, which contained a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment of the size expected from hybridization experiments. An Escherichia coli-L. acidophilus shuttle vector was constructed, and a subclone (pTRK162) containing the 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment was introduced by electroporation into two lactacin F-negative strains, L. acidophilus 89 and 88-C. Lactobacillus transformants containing pTRK162 expressed lactacin F activity and immunity. Bacteriocin produced by the transformants exhibited an inhibitory spectrum and heat stability identical to those of the wild-type bacteriocin. An 873-bp region of the 2.2-kb fragment was sequenced by using a 20-mer degenerate lactacin F-specific primer to initiate sequencing from within the lactacin F structural gene. Analysis of the resulting sequence identified an open reading frame which could encode a protein of 75 amino acids. The 25 N-terminal amino acids for lactacin F were identified within the open reading frame along with an N-terminal extension, possibly a signal sequence. The lactacin F N-terminal sequence, through the remainder of the open reading frame (57 amino acids; 6.3 kDa), correlated extremely well with composition analyses of purified lactacin F which also predicted a size of 51 to 56 amino acid residues. Molecular characterization of lactacin F identified a small hydrophobic peptide that may be representative of a common bacteriocin class in lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:1900281

  18. Activity of human beta-defensin 3 alone or combined with other antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Batoni, Giovanna; Esin, Semih; Luperini, Filippo; Pardini, Manuela; Bottai, Daria; Florio, Walter; Giuca, Maria Rita; Gabriele, Mario; Campa, Mario

    2003-10-01

    The in vitro activities of human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3) alone or combined with lysozyme, metronidazole, amoxicillin, and chlorhexidine were investigated with the oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. hBD-3 showed bactericidal activity against all of the bacterial species tested. The bactericidal effect was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with the antimicrobial agents mentioned above.

  19. Comparative assessment of antibacterial activity of different glass ionomer cements on cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Jadhav, Harish Chaitram; Deshmukh, Manjiri Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Glass ionomer cements (GICs), which are biocompatible and adhesive to the tooth surface, are widely used nowadays for tooth restoration. They inhibit the demineralization and promote the remineralization of the tooth structure adjacent to the restoration, as well as interfere with bacterial growth. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess and compare the antimicrobial activity of three commercially available GICs against two cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods An agar plate diffusion test was used for evaluating the antimicrobial effect of three different GICs (Fuji IX, Ketac Molar, and d-tech) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). Thirty plates were prepared and divided into two groups. The first group was inoculated with S. mutans, and the second group was inoculated with L. acidophilus. These plates were then incubated at 37℃ for 24 hours. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition that formed around each well were recorded in millimeters (mm). Results The zones of inhibition for Fuji IX, Ketac Molar, and d-tech on S. mutans were found to be 10.84 ± 0.22 mm, 10.23 ± 0.15 mm, and 15.65 ± 0.31 mm, respectively, whereas those for L. acidophilus were found to be 10.43 ± 0.12 mm, 10.16 ± 0.11 mm, and 15.57 ± 0.13 mm, respectively. Conclusions D-tech cement performed better in terms of the zone of bacterial inhibition against the two test bacteria, than the other two tested glass ionomers. PMID:27847749

  20. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Total weight gain,%- ’ Mean daily weight gain,2 *KEB Thymus index Blood serum lysozyme, Hemoglobin, g/1 Number of leucocytes in 1 liter...34yev serum -yeast broth, containing 0.5 mg% cobalt chloride. The purpose of our work was to study the biological value of the propionic-acidophilus...level was determined by the Perry turbodimetric method as modified by Grant, the total protein level of the blood serum was investigated by a

  1. Spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Brazilian Sapindus saponaria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sapindus saponaria is used traditionally for curing ulcers, external wounds and inflammations. The spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas activity of S. saponaria and its effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated. Methods Water-ethanol (WE) and butanolic (BE) extracts, as well as a purified sample of saponins (SP) from S. saponaria were tested for spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas activity and for their effect on L. acidophilus. Results WE, BE and SP immobilized spermatozoa at a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 2.5 (gram %) for extracts and 1.25 (gram %) for SP. The effective concentrations that caused 50% immobilization of spermatozoa (EC50) were 0.5 (gram %) for WE and SP, and 0.1 (gram %) for BE. The compounds were effective against Trichomonas vaginalis (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration = 0.156 mg/mL for WE and BE, and 0.078 mg/mL for SP against a clinical strain (CS); and 0.312, 0.156 and 0.078 mg/mL for WE, BE and SP, respectively, against an ATCC strain). In all concentrations tested, the growth of L. acidophilus was not reduced. Conclusion The in vitro study proved the spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas activity of S. saponaria. Complementary in vivo studies should be made for establish the use as a vaginal spermicide, particularly in Brazil and Latin America. PMID:23890053

  2. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  3. A study on the prevention of salmonella infection by using the aggregation characteristics of lactic Acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2013-06-01

    Salmonella is one of the major pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning. This study investigated whether heat-killed as well as live Lactobacillus protects host animal against Salmonella infection. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillusacidophilus was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks before the rats were inoculated with Salmonella. Rise in body temperature was moderate in the group that was treated with heat-killed bacteria as compared to the Salmonella control group. The mean amount of feed intake and water consumption of each rat in the heat-killed bacteria group were nearly normal. The number of fecal Salmonellae was comparable between the live and the heat-killed L. acidophilus groups. This finding shows that L. acidophilus facilitates the excretion of Salmonella. Moreover, the levels of pro inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, in the heat-killed L. acidophilus group were significantly lower when compared to the levels in the Salmonella control group. These results indicate that nonviable lactic acid bacteria also could play an important role in preventing infections by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella.

  4. Probiotics in milk replacer influence lamb immune function and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Annicchiarico, G; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of milk replacer (MR) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mix of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum on lamb immune response and on lamb meat quality. A 6-week-trial was conducted on 40 male Comisana lambs, divided into four groups, fed maternal milk (MM), MR, MR with L. acidophilus supplementation (MRL) and MR with a mix (1 : 1) of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum subsp. longum supplementations (MRB). Lambs fed MR containing a mix of bifidobacteria showed the highest in vivo cellular immune response to phytohemagglutinin, whereas MM and MRB showed the highest antibody response to ovalbumin. At day 11 of the trial, MRL displayed the highest value of Interleukin-10; differences disappeared among groups subsequently. Blood cholesterol levels in lambs fed MR containing L. acidophilus was almost halved compared with that found in MM and MR groups. Meat from artificially reared lambs was characterized by trans-11 18:1 and total conjugated 18:2n-6, whereas meat from the dam-suckled lambs was characterized by 14:0, cis-9 14:1 and 16:0. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in meat of MR, MRL and MRB than in MM lambs. Meat from artificially reared lamb fed MR containing probiotics showed an improved fatty acid profile for human diet.

  5. Divergence in codon usage of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed. PMID:8152923

  6. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  7. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities.

  8. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

  9. Survivability of probiotics encapsulated in alginate gel microbeads using a novel impinging aerosols method.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Coombes, Allan; Bostrom, Thor; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2011-01-31

    Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in cross-linked alginate beads is of major interest for improving the survivability in harsh acid and bile environment and also in food matrices. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM were produced by a novel technique based on dual aerosols of alginate solution and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Extruded macro beads (approximately 2mm diameter) produced by the conventional method and micro beads produced by novel aerosols technique offered comparable protection to L. rhamnosus in high acid and bile environment. Chitosan coating of micro beads resulted in a significant increase in survival time of L. rhamnosus from 40 to 120 min in acid condition and the reduction in cell numbers was confined to 0.94 log over this time. Alginate macro beads are more effective than micro beads in protecting L. acidophilus against high acid and bile. Chitosan coating of micro beads resulted in similar protection to L. acidophilus in macro beads in acid and extended the survival time from 90 to at least 120 min. Viability of this organism in micro beads was 3.5 log after 120 min. The continuous processing capability and scale-up potential of the dual aerosol technique offers potential for an efficient encapsulation of probiotics in very small alginate micro beads below sensorial detection limits while still being able to confer effective protection in acid and bile environment.

  10. Evaluation of culture media for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Süle, Judit; Kõrösi, Tímea; Hucker, Attila; Varga, László

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides-mupirocin lithium salt (TOS-MUP) and MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agars, along with several other culture media, for selectively enumerating bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species commonly used to make fermented milks. Pure culture suspensions of a total of 13 dairy bacteria strains, belonging to eight species and five genera, were tested for growth capability under various incubation conditions. TOS-MUP agar was successfully used for the selective enumeration of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and B. breve M-16 V. MRS-CC agar showed relatively good selectivity for Lactobacillus acidophilus, however, it also promoted the growth of Lb. casei strains. For this reason, MRS-CC agar can only be used as a selective medium for the enumeration of Lb. acidophilus if Lb. casei is not present in a product at levels similar to or exceeding those of Lb. acidophilus. Unlike bifidobacteria and coccus-shaped LAB, all the lactobacilli strains involved in this work were found to grow well in MRS pH 5.4 agar incubated under anaerobiosis at 37 °C for 72 h. Therefore, this method proved to be particularly suitable for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus spp.

  11. Assessing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe availability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Laparra, J M; Glahn, R P; Miller, D D

    2009-03-01

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and 2 probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L. acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed or not with supplemental inulin (4%, w/w), and then subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin, pH 2; pancreatin, pH 7.2). Subsequently, the digests were incubated overnight with and without B. infantis or L. acidophilus. Ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells was used to evaluate Fe uptake. Total soluble phenols (Folin-Ciocalteau) and phytate (HPLC-electrochemical detection) were quantified, and the flavonoids profile (HPLC-PDA/UV detection) was monitored in the digests. Supplemental inulin did not affect Fe uptake from white nor red beans. Incubation with B. infantis increased total soluble phenols (TSP) in the digests and decreased Fe uptake. Incubation with L. acidophilus decreased TSP in the digest and increased Fe uptake. Variations in Fe uptake were not associated with soluble phytate concentrations in the digests. The largest change in flavonoids profile were found in the digests incubated with L. acidophilus, which decreased the soluble concentration of astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside). These results suggest that certain probiotics could increase Fe uptake from common beans.

  12. Effects of inulin and oligofructose on the rheological characteristics and probiotic culture survival in low-fat probiotic ice cream.

    PubMed

    Akalin, A S; Erişir, D

    2008-05-01

    The effects of supplementation of oligofructose or inulin on the rheological characteristics and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in low-fat ice cream stored at -18 degrees C for 90 d were studied. Addition of oligofructose or inulin to ice cream mix significantly increased apparent viscosity and overrun and developed the melting properties in ice cream during storage (P < 0.05). However, the highest increase in firmness, the lowest change in melting properties, and the longest 1st dripping time were obtained in probiotic ice cream containing inulin (P < 0.05). Some textural properties have also improved especially by the end of storage. Freezing process caused a significant decrease in the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 (P < 0.05). Oligofructose significantly improved the viability of L. acidophilus La-5 and B. animalis Bb-12 in ice cream mix (P < 0.05). Although the viable numbers for both bacteria decreased throughout the storage, the minimum level of 10(6) CFU/g was maintained for B. animalis Bb-12 in only ice cream with oligofructose during storage.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  14. Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma Treatment for Deactivation of Oral Bacteria and Improvement of Dental Composite Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing Song; Li, H.; Ritts, A. C.; Yang, B.; Chen, M.; Hong, L.; Xu, C.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.

    This paper reviews our recent research results of using non-thermal ­atmospheric plasmas for oral bacterial deactivation and for composite restoration improvement. Oral bacteria of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) with an initial bacterial population density between 1.0 × 108 and 5.0 × 108 cfu/ml were seeded on various media and their survivability with plasma exposure was examined. The plasma exposure time for a 99.9999% cell reduction was less than 15 s for S. mutans and within 5 min for L. acidophilus. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. After dental composite application and light curing, the teeth were then sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for microtensile test. Student Newman Keuls (SNK) tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment of the dentin surfaces. These findings indicated that non-thermal atmospheric plasma technology is very promising for dental clinical applications.

  15. Effect of intestinal colonisation by two Lactobacillus strains on the immune response of gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, R S; Lima, M; Gomes de Oliveira, N L; Miyoshi, A; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Nunes, A C

    2014-12-01

    The effect of intestinal colonisation on the immune system was investigated in germ-free mice monoassociated with Lactobacillus strains isolated from calf faeces. Single doses of Lactobacillus acidophilus L36 or Lactobacillus salivarius L38 were administered to germ-free mice by intragastric gavage. Ten days later, the mice were euthanised. Gene expression levels of interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12b, IL-17a, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified in segments of the small and large intestines by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All the mice were colonised rapidly after Lactobacillus administration with intestinal counts ranging from 6.53 to 8.26 log cfu/g. L. acidophilus L36 administration increased the expression of cytokines involved with the Th2 (IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-β1) and Th17 (IL-17a, TNF-α and IL-6) inflammatory response, whereas L. salivarius L38 appeared to stimulate a pattern of less diversified cytokines in the intestine. Intragastric gavage of L. acidophilus L36 and L. salivarius L38 induced similar levels of colonisation in the digestive tracts of germ-free mice but stimulated different immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. The different immunomodulation patterns might facilitate the potential use of these lactobacilli as probiotics to treat distinct pathological conditions, for example protection against Citrobacter rodentium infection by stimulating IL-17 production.

  16. S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus sp. inhibit bacterial infection by blockage of DC-SIGN cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M

    2016-11-01

    Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells.

  17. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  19. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p < 0.001) bacteria growth compared to commercially available composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans. PMID:28053976

  20. Enzyme-Linked Immunofiltration Assay To Estimate Attachment of Thiobacilli to Pyrite

    PubMed Central

    Dziurla, Marie-Antoinette; Achouak, Wafa; Lam, Bach-Tuyet; Heulin, Thierry; Berthelin, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA) has been developed in order to estimate directly and specifically Thiobacillus ferrooxidans attachment on sulfide minerals. This method derives from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay but is performed on filtration membranes which allow the retention of mineral particles for a subsequent immunoenzymatic reaction in microtiter plates. The polyclonal antiserum used in this study was raised against T. ferrooxidans DSM 583 and recognized cell surface antigens present on bacteria belonging to the genus Thiobacillus. This antiserum and the ELIFA allowed the direct quantification of attached bacteria with high sensitivity (104 bacteria were detected per well of the microtiter plate). The mean value of bacterial attachment has been estimated to be about 105 bacteria mg−1 of pyrite at a particle size of 56 to 65 μm. The geometric coverage ratio of pyrite by T. ferrooxidans ranged from 0.25 to 2.25%. This suggests an attachment of T. ferrooxidans on the pyrite surface to well-defined limited sites with specific electrochemical or surface properties. ELIFA was shown to be compatible with the measurement of variable levels of adhesion. Therefore, this method may be used to establish adhesion isotherms of T. ferrooxidans on various sulfide minerals exhibiting different physicochemical properties in order to understand the mechanisms of bacterial interaction with mineral surfaces. PMID:9687454

  1. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant is run and operated by Southern Clean Fuels. A large sample of spent catalyst from this facility has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the No content of this particular sample is too low for the current studies and no new catalyst has since been obtained. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  2. Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. Tenth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-02-07

    The original conception of the work was that genetic determinants of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate (``4S``) pathway in Pseudomonas spp. would be cloned in vivo and then transferred to Thiobacillus spp. This ambition remains an appealing prospect; however, fulfilling that ambition has been confounded by an instability observed in the DbtS{sup +} phenotype in Pseudomonas spp. But the persisting interest in the phenotype has lead to isolation of fresh strains which have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. One strain in particular, N1-36, has been the focus of extensive characterizations in long-term cultures. During the present quarter, seven cultures maintained in a ``fermentor`` for a week or longer have been run to determine rate and extent of growth, extent of conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) or dibenzosulfone (DBTO{sub 2}) to monohydroxybiphenyl (OH-BP), effect of pH maintained at 6.0, and the effect of adding glucose to cultures in which the amount of glucose had been diminished by bacterial consumption. In addition, a study of the effectiveness of using R68.445 as a vehicle for in vivo cloning of genes was completed this semester, and introduction of DbtS{sup +} determinants into Thiobacillus spp. continues to be an important goal.

  3. Compositions and Abundances of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoirs with Different Temperatures in China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huimei; Gao, Peike; Chen, Zhaohui; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28210252

  4. Compositions and Abundances of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoirs with Different Temperatures in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huimei; Gao, Peike; Chen, Zhaohui; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs.

  5. Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, November 1, 1985--March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.; Revis, N.

    1986-12-31

    This progress report contains an account of recent research efforts carried out at the Oak Ridge Research Institute, to raise antibodies in New Zealand White Rabbits which are specific for various strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. It is then intended to use the antibodies, in a subsequent phase of the project, to develop one or more ELISAs, which would be used to analyze, both in the laboratory and in the field, the numbers and extent of dispersion of these microorganisms at acid mine drainage sites. This is important because it is the metabolic consequences of unrestricted dissemination of these bacteria which are responsible in large measure for the environmentally damaging acid run-off. Efforts to control the proliferation of these microorganisms have been relatively unfocused up to the present, because of the lack of suitably discriminating methods of assaying the effects of treatment. In this report, the authors describe the work carried out in the first section of the project, which has been concerned with the raising of the antibodies to the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cultures. They given an account of how the various cultures were grown, how they were treated before being injected into rabbits, the injection protocol, how the animals were bled, and how the formation of IgG and its degree of specificity was assessed. Finally, they describe how large quantities of the various IgG fractions were prepared, and how and where they were stored.

  6. Phospholipid anaysis of extant microbiota for monitoring in situ bioremediation effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkart, H.C.; Ringelberg, D.B.; Stair, J.O.; Sutton, S.D..; Pfiffner, S.M.; White, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Two sites undergoing bioremediation were studied using the signature lipid biomarker (SLB) technique. This technique isolates microbial lipid moieties specifically related to viable biomass and to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic biosynthetic pathways. The first site was a South Pacific atoll heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The second site was a mine waste reclamation area. The SLB technique was applied to quantitate directly the viable biomass, community structure, and nutritional/physiological status of the microbiota in the soils and subsurface sediments of these sites. All depths sampled at the Kwajalein Atoll site showed an increase in biomass that correlated with the co-addition of air, water, and nutrients. Monoenoic fatty acids increased in abundance with the nutrient amendment, which suggested an increase in gram-negative bacterial population. Ratios of specific phospholipid fatty acids indicative of nutritional stress decreased with the nutrient amendment. Samples taken from the mine reclamation site showed increases in total microbial biomass and in Thiobacillus biomass in the plots treated with lime and bactericide, especially when a cover soil was added. The plot treated with bactericide and buffered lime without the cover soil showed some decrease in Thiobacillus numbers, but was still slightly higher than that observed in the control plots.

  7. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts. Quarterly report, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant is run and operated by Southern Clean Fuels. A large sample of spent catalyst from this facility has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the No content of this particular sample is too low for the current studies. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  8. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant is run and operated by Southern Clean Fuels. A large sample of spent catalyst from this facility has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the No content of this particular sample is too low for the current studies. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  9. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1995-07-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types were the subject of the contract. The first was a Ni-No catalyst support on alumina (Shell 324), the catalyst used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The second material was an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the Mo content of this particular sample was too low for the current studies and the studies at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center have been discontinued. The object of the contract was to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans , but also other Thiobacillus spp. and possibly Sulfolobus and other potential microorganisms, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which could be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  10. STUDIES ON THE METABOLISM OF AUTOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, K. G.; LePage, G. A.; Umbreit, W. W.

    1942-01-01

    The data of this paper indicate that: 1. The "energy of activation" (µ) of sulfur oxidation by the autotrophic bacterium, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, is similar to that of other respirations. 2. The pH of the menstruum does not influence the respiration on sulfur between the limits of pH 2 to 4.8 once contact between the bacterial cell and the sulfur particle has been established but it does influence the rate at which such contact occurs. 3. The pO2 has little effect upon the respiration of this organism. 4. Most organic materials have no detectable effect upon the respiration of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, but the organic acids of terminal respiration seem to stimulate the respiration in the absence of oxidizable sulfur and certain of them inhibit sulfur oxidation. 5. In so far as inhibitor studies on intact cells are trustworthy, sulfur oxidation goes through iron-containing systems similar to cytochrome. It is possible that the oxygen contained in the sulfuric acid formed during sulfur oxidation is derived from the oxygen of the water. PMID:19873331

  11. Kinetics of the Removal of Iron Pyrite from Coal by Microbial Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Faust, Bruce C.; Panda, Fern A.; Koo, Hong H.; Tsuchiya, Henry M.

    1981-01-01

    Different strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans were used to catalyze the oxidative dissolution of iron pyrite, FeS2, in nine different coal samples. Kinetic variables and parametric factors that were determined to have a pronounced effect on the rate and extent of oxidative dissolution at a fixed Po2 were: the bacterial strain, the nitrogen/phosphorus molar ratio, the partial pressure of CO2, the coal source, and the total reactive surface area of FeS2. The overall rate of leaching, which exhibited a first-order dependence on the total surface area of FeS2, was analyzed mathematically in terms of the sum of a biochemical rate, ν1, and a chemical rate, ν2. Results of this study show that bacterial desulfurization (90 to 98%) of coal samples which are relatively high in pyritic sulfur can be achieved within a time-frame of 8 to 12 days when pulp densities are ≤20% and particle sizes are ≤74 μm. The most effective strains of T. ferrooxidans were those that were isolated from natural systems, and T. ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was the most effective pure strain. The most effective nutrient media contained relatively low phosphate concentrations, with an optimal N/P molar ratio of 90:1. These results suggest that minimal nutrient additions may be required for a commercial desulfurization process. PMID:16345826

  12. Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Brezinsky

    2008-01-15

    The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was

  13. Surface scanning inspection system particle detection dependence on aluminum film morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Walter; Tran, Natalie; McGarvey, Steve

    2012-03-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) aluminum films present unique challenges when detecting particulate defects with a Surface Scanning Inspection System (SSIS). Aluminum (Al) films 4500Å thick were deposited on 300mm particle grade bare Si wafers at two temperatures using a Novellus Systems INOVA® NExT,.. Film surface roughness and morphology measurements were performed using a Veeco Vx310® atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM characterization found the high deposition temperature (TD) Al roughness (Root Mean Square 16.5 nm) to be five-times rougher than the low-TD Al roughness (rms 3.7 nm). High-TD Al had grooves at the grain boundaries that were measured to be 20 to 80 nm deep. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination, with a Hitachi RS6000 defect review SEM, confirmed the presence of pronounced grain grooves. SEM images established that the low-TD filmed wafers have fine grains (0.1 to 0.3 um diameter) and the high-TD film wafers have fifty-times larger equiaxed plateletshape grains (5 to 15 um diameter). Calibrated Poly-Styrene Latex (PSL) spheres ranging in size from 90 nm to 1 μm were deposited in circular patterns on the wafers using an aerosol deposition chamber. PSL sphere depositions at each spot were controlled to yield 2000 to 5000 counts. A Hitachi LS9100® dark field full wafer SSIS was used to experimentally determine the relationship of the PSL sphere scattered light intensity with S-polarized light, a measure of scattering cross-section, with respect to the calibrated PSL sphere diameter. Comparison of the SSIS scattered light versus PSL spot size calibration curves shows two distinct differences. Scattering cross-section (intensity) of the PSL spheres increased on the low-TD Al film with smooth surface roughness and the low-TD Al film defect detection sensitivity was 126 nm compared to 200 nm for the rougher high- TD Al film. This can be explained by the higher signal to noise attributed to the smooth low-TD Al. Dark field defect detection on

  14. Protection of probiotic bacteria in a synbiotic matrix following aerobic storage at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Chaluvadi, S; Hotchkiss, A T; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Phillips, J G; Liu, Ls; Yam, K L

    2012-09-01

    The survival of single strains of Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri was investigated in synbiotics that included 10 mg/ml of fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin and pectic-oligosaccharides in an alginate matrix under refrigerated (4 °C) aerobic storage conditions. When the matrices were cross-linked with calcium (45 mM), 102-103 cfu/ml of L. acidophilus and L. reuteri, and 0-103 cfu/ml of B. breve and B. longum survived refrigerated aerobic storage for 28 days. Following refrigerated storage, acetic (3-9 mM), butyric (0-2 mM), propionic (5-16 mM) and lactic acids (1-48 mM) were produced during the growth of probiotics in BHI broth at 37 °C, suggesting their metabolic activity after storage was stressed. When calcium cross-linking was not used in synbiotics, the matrix remained more gel-like after inoculation when compared to the calcium cross-linked matrix. At least 107 cfu/ml of probiotic bacteria survived after 21 days of storage within these gel-like alginate matrices. Significantly higher levels of B. breve, L. acidophilus and L. reuteri were obtained from the synbiotic matrices supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin and pectic-oligosaccharides compared to alginate alone. B. longum survival was the same (~7 logs) in all gel-like synbiotic matrices. These results show that synbiotics protected probiotic bacteria and extended their shelf-life under refrigerated aerobic conditions. Synbiotics represent a viable delivery vehicle for health-promoting bacteria.

  15. An improved method of microencapsulation and its evaluation to protect Lactobacillus spp. in simulated gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Chandramouli, V; Kailasapathy, K; Peiris, P; Jones, M

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of microencapsulation was developed to increase the efficacy of capsules in protecting the encapsulated bacteria under simulated gastric conditions. Lactobacillus acidophilus CSCC 2400 was encapsulated in calcium alginate and tested for its survival in simulated gastric conditions. The effects of different capsule sizes (200, 450, 1000 microm), different sodium alginate concentrations (0.75%, 1%, 1.5%, 1.8% and 2% w/v) and different concentrations of calcium chloride (0.1, 0.2, 1.0 M) on the viability of encapsulated bacteria were investigated. The viability of the cells in the microcapsules increased with an increase in alginate capsule size and gel concentration. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the viability of encapsulated cells when the concentration of calcium chloride was increased. Increase in cell load during encapsulation increased the number of bacterial survivors at the end of 3-h incubation in simulated gastric conditions. Hardening the capsule in calcium chloride solution for a longer time (8 h) had no impact on increasing the viability of encapsulated bacteria in a simulated gastric environment. The release of encapsulated cells at different phosphate buffer concentrations was also studied. When encapsulated L. acidophilus CSCC 2400 and L. acidophilus CSCC 2409 were subjected to low pH (pH 2) and high bile concentration (1.0% bile) under optimal encapsulation conditions (1.8% (w/v) alginate, 10(9) CFU/ml, 30 min hardening in 0.1 M CaCl(2) and capsule size 450 microm), there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in viable cell counts, compared to the free cells under similar conditions. Thus the encapsulation method described in this study may be effectively used to protect the lactobacillus from adverse gastric conditions.

  16. Physicochemical properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese manufactured with different probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Napolitano, F; Sevi, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce functional Scamorza cheese from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk by incorporating probiotic strains into the cheese matrix and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Gentile di Puglia ewe bulk milk was used for Scamorza cheese production. Cheeses were denoted S-CO for control Scamorza cheese, S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotic strain. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 7, and 15 d of ripening. Probiotic cell recovery in cheese was 7.55 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g and 9.09 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g in S-LA and S-BB cheese, respectively; probiotic cheeses also displayed the highest levels of lactic microflora. Reverse-phase HPLC chromatograms of the water-soluble nitrogen fraction showed a more complex profile in S-BB, with distinctive peaks in the early-eluting zone. The matured Scamorza cheese containing the mix of B. longum and B. lactis was characterized by significantly higher levels of Gln, Ser, Arg, Ile, and Leu, whereas cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by higher levels of Tyr and Met. Total FFA content was the highest in S-LA, intermediate in S-BB, and the lowest in S-CO cheese; in particular, Scamorza cheese containing Lb. acidophilus showed the highest level of vaccenic acid, oleic acid, and total conjugated linoleic acid. Probiotic bacteria survived through the technological phases of pasta filata cheese production, maintained their specific metabolic pathways, and conferred functional properties to Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

  17. Detection and Specific Enumeration of Multi-Strain Probiotics in the Lumen Contents and Mucus Layers of the Rat Intestine After Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Ji; Orlovich, David A; Tagg, John R; Fawcett, J Paul

    2009-12-01

    Although the detection of viable probiotic bacteria following their ingestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been well documented, their mucosal attachment in vivo is more difficult to assess. In this study, we investigated the survival and mucosal attachment of multi-strain probiotics transiting the rat GIT. Rats were administered a commercial mixture of the intestinal probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA742, Lactobacillus rhamnosus L2H and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 every 12 h for 3 days. Intestinal contents, mucus and faeces were tested 6 h, 3 days and 7 days after the last dose by strain-specific enumeration on selective media and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. At 6 h, viable cells and DNA corresponding to all four probiotics were detected in the faeces and in both the lumen contents and mucus layers of the ileum and colon. Viable probiotic cells of B. lactis and L. rhamnosus were detected for 7 days and L. acidophilus for 3 days after the last dose. B. lactis and L. rhamnosus persisted in the ileal mucus and colon contents, whereas the retention of L. acidophilus appeared to be relatively higher in colonic mucus. No viable cells of S. salivarius K12 were detected in any of the samples at either day 3 or 7. The study demonstrates that probiotic strains of intestinal origin but not of oral origin exhibit temporary colonisation of the rat GIT and that these strains may have differing relative affinities for colonic and ileal mucosa.

  18. Development of probiotic dairy beverages: rheological properties and application of mathematical models in sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castro, W F; Cruz, A G; Bisinotto, M S; Guerreiro, L M R; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Cunha, R L; Deliza, R

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry-flavored probiotic dairy beverages (2% vol/vol Lactobacillus acidophilus) were produced using 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% (vol/vol) whey in their formulations. Mathematical models (survival analysis, minimal significant difference, and mean global acceptance) were used to identify the optimal (sensorially) whey concentration in probiotic beverages. Fifty-five consumers evaluated acceptance of the beverages using hybrid 9-point hedonic scales. In addition, Lb. acidophilus were enumerated and pH was determined. Rheological behavior is an important characteristic for the processing and sensory acceptance of dairy beverages, varying with the presence of additives, fermentation process (time, bacterial strain), and whey concentrations used. All beverages presented minimal counts of 8 log cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus, and pH ranged from 4.09 to 4.14. Increasing the whey content increased the fragility of the gel structure, probably because of the replacement of casein by whey proteins, once the concentrations of other ingredients in formulation were fixed. Whey content had a significant effect on acceptance of the probiotic dairy beverages; beverages with whey contents greater than 65% resulted in lower acceptance by consumers. The model of mean global acceptance presented 2 solutions with high sensory scores: beverages with 12 and 65% whey, the latter being of interest because it allows greater use of the whey by-product. The Weibull distribution presented a prediction of whey concentration of 49%, with higher sensory acceptance. The methodologies used in this research were shown to be useful in determining the constituents of food formulations, especially for whey-based probiotic beverages.

  19. Inhibitory effect of iron-oxidizing bacteria on ferrous-promoted chalcopyrite leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Hirota, Masahiko; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Tsunekawa, Masami

    1999-08-20

    A substantial amount of copper is obtained by dump leaching of low-grade ore that would otherwise become waste. It is generally accepted that iron-oxidizing bacteria. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, enhance chalcopyrite leaching. However, this article details a case of the bacteria suppressing chalcopyrite leaching. Bacterial leaching experiments were performed with sulfuric acid solutions containing 0 or 0.04 mol/dm{sup 3} ferrous sulfate. Without ferrous sulfate, the bacteria enhance copper extraction and oxidation of ferrous ions released from chalcopyrite. However, the bacteria suppressed chalcopyrite leaching when ferrous sulfate was added. This is mainly due to the bacterial consumption of ferrous ions which act as a promoter for chalcopyrite oxidation with dissolved oxygen. Coprecipitation of copper ions with jarosite formed by the bacterial ferrous oxidation also causes the bacterial suppression of copper extraction.

  20. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia from gas mixtures by co-immobilized cells using a new configuration of two biotrickling filters.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, M; Gómez, J M; Aroca, G; Cantero, D

    2009-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of H(2)S and NH(3) was investigated using two biotrickling filters packed with polyurethane foam cubes. One biotrickling filter was inoculated with Thiobacillus thioparus ATCC 23645 for the removal of H(2)S (BTT) and the other filter with Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718 for the removal of NH(3) (BNE). Three different configurations were studied by modification of the gas line and recirculation medium line. The best results were obtained with the BNE biotrickling filter after the co-immobilization of the two bacteria. A removal efficiency of 100% for 230 ppmv of NH(3) and 129 ppmv of H(2)S was reached at an EBRT of 60 seconds. The results obtained show that it is possible to co-immobilize both microorganisms using the same recirculation medium and remove successfully H(2)S and NH(3) from a gas mixture.

  1. Simultaneous combined microbial removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Sublette, K.L.

    1991-12-31

    A program is under way at the University of Tulsa to develop a viable process concept whereby a microbial process can impact on the problem of flue gas desulfurization and NO{sub x} removal. We have previously reported studies of SO{sub 2} reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and NO{sub x} reduction by Thiobacillus denitrificans. One potential process concept is the simultaneous combined removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from cooled flue gas by contact with cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SO{sub 2}{r_arrow}H{sub 2}S) and T. denitrificans (H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 4}{sup -2}) as cultures-in-series or in coculture in a single contacting stage. Each of these contacting schemes has been investigated.

  2. A typical flat-panel membrane bioreactor with a composite membrane for sulfur removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian; Xiao, Yuan; Song, Jimin; Miao, Junhe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to provide a concrete study to understand the effects of operation on biofilm morphology and microstructure and degradation efficiency for the disposal of sulfur dioxide produced by coal-fired power plants. For this purpose, a flat-panel reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a composite membrane consisting of a dense layer and a support layer was designed; the membrane bioreactors inoculated with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were further conducted for the removal of sulfur dioxide. Dry weight, active biomass, pressure drop, removal efficiency, morphology and structure of the formed biofilms were investigated and analyzed over period of biofilm formation. The results found that the dry weight, biomass, pressure drops and removal efficiency increased rapidly during biofilm formation, remained relatively stable in the stabilization period of biofilm growth, and finally reached 0.085 g, 7.00 μg, 180 Pa, and 78%, respectively. Our results suggested the MBR is available for flue-gas desulfurization.

  3. Sulfur Chemistry in Bacterial Leaching of Pyrite

    PubMed Central

    Schippers, A.; Jozsa, P.; Sand, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of pyrite bioleaching by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, an organism without sulfur-oxidizing capacity, besides the production of tetra- and pentathionate, a considerable accumulation of elemental sulfur occurred. A similar result was obtained for chemical oxidation assays with acidic, sterile iron(III) ion-containing solutions. In the case of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, only slight amounts of elemental sulfur were detectable because of the organism's capacity to oxidize sulfur compounds. In the course of oxidative, chemical pyrite degradation under alkaline conditions, the accumulation of tetrathionate, trithionate, and thiosulfate occurred. The data indicate that thiosulfate, trithionate, tetrathionate, and disulfane-monosulfonic acid are key intermediate sulfur compounds in oxidative pyrite degradation. A novel (cyclic) leaching mechanism is proposed which basically is indirect. PMID:16535406

  4. Biochemistry of Dissimilatory Sulfur Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Blake II, R.

    2003-05-30

    The long term goals of this research were to define the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during the dissimilatory oxidation of sulfur practiced by various species of the thiobacilli. Specific adhesion of the thiobacilli to elemental sulfur was studied by electrical impedance, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry, and optical trapping methods. The conclusion is that the thiobacilli appear to express specific receptors that enable the bacteria to recognize and adhere to insoluble sulfur. The enzyme tetrathionate oxidase was purified from two species of the thiobacilli. Extensive structural and functional studies were conducted on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase purified from cell-free extracts of Thiobacillus denitrificans. The kinetic mechanism of rhodanese was studied.

  5. Performance of Denitrifying Microbial Fuel Cell with Biocathode over Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huimin; Zhao, Jianqiang; Li, Fenghai; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 54.80 ± 0.01 g m−3 d−1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode. PMID:27047462

  6. Microbial community structure and dynamics in a mixotrophic nitrogen removal process using recycled spent caustic under different loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Sora; Yu, Jaecheul; Byun, Imgyu; Cho, Sunja; Park, Taejoo; Lee, Taeho

    2011-08-01

    A laboratory-scale Bardenpho process was established to investigate the proper nitrogen loading rate (NLR) when modified spent caustic (MSC) is applied as electron donor and alkalinity source for denitrification. MSC injection induced autotrophic nitrogen removal with sulfur as electron donor and heterotrophic denitrification. The nitrogen removal rate (NRR) did not increase proportionally to NLR. Based on the total nitrogen concentration in the effluent observed in the trials with MSC, the NLR in the influent should not exceed 0.15 kg N/m(3)d in order to satisfy water quality regulations. Microbial communities in the anoxic reactors were characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified by the polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from sludge samples. Microbial diversity was lower as MSC dosage was increased, and the injection of MSC caused an increase in SOB belonging to the genus Thiobacillus which is responsible for denitrification using sulfur.

  7. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  8. Sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrification: diversity, biochemistry, and engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Herbert Han-Ping

    2010-11-01

    Sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrification refers to the chemolithotrophic process coupling denitrification with the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Ever since 1904, when Thiobacillus denitrificans was isolated, autotrophic denitrifiers and their uncultured close relatives have been continuously identified from highly diverse ecosystems including hydrothermal vents, deep sea redox transition zones, sediments, soils, inland soda lakes, etc. Currently, 14 valid described species within α-, β-, γ-, and ε-Proteobacteria have been identified as capable of autotrophic denitrification. Autotrophic denitrification is also widely applied in environmental engineering for the removal of sulfide and nitrate from different water environments. This review summarizes recent researches on autotrophic denitrification, highlighting its diversity, metabolic traits, and engineering applications.

  9. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the numbers of chemolithotrophic bacteria at acid-mine-drainage sites. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.C.; Revis, N.W.; Holdsworth, G.

    1990-09-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is a prominent member of a group of chemo-lithotrophic bacteria that bear principal responsibility for the formation of acid mine drainage. A prototype enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for enumerating and qualifying T. ferrooxidans was assembled and characterized. The immunoassay protocol consisted of sequential incubations of the sample with (i) the primary antibody, (ii) the enzyme-labeled secondary antibody, and (iii) a chromogenic substrate specific for the enzyme lable. The necessary reagents comprised primary polyclonal rabbit antibodies directed against T. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, alkaline phosphatase-copled goat anti-rabbit polyclonal antibodies, and phenolphrhalein monophosphate. The ELISA developed herein correctly identified whether iron-oxidizing bacteria were present in each of 4 samples supplied and analyzed by an independent laboratory. Sufficient preliminary data was obtained to warrant further research and development activities.

  10. Isolation of sulfur reducing and oxidizing bacteria found in contaminated drywall.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dennis G; Shane, John; Straus, David C; Kilburn, Kaye H; Bolton, Vincent; Sutton, John S; Guilford, Frederick T

    2010-02-05

    Drywall from China has been reported to release sulfur producing products which are corrosive to metals, result in noxious odors, and represent a significant health risk. It has been reported that these emissions produce medical symptoms such as respiratory or asthma type problems, sinusitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and vision problems in home owners and their household pets. We report here a method of identifying a causative agent for these emissions by sampling affected gypsum wallboard and subjecting those samples to Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction [RT-PCR] studies. Specific DNA probes and primers have been designed and patented that detect a specific iron and sulfur reducing bacterium (i.e., Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). One hundred percent of affected drywall samples obtained from homes located in the southeastern United States tested positive for the presence of T. ferrooxidans. All negative controls consisting of unaffected wallboard and internal controls, Geotrichum sp., tested negative within our limits of detection.

  11. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Final Report: Molecular mechanisms and kinetics of microbial anaerobic nitrate-dependent U(IV) and Fe(II) oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, Peggy A.; Asta, Maria P.; Kanematsu, Masakazu; Beller, Harry; Zhou, Peng; Steefel, Carl

    2015-02-27

    In this project, we combined molecular genetic, spectroscopic, and microscopic techniques with kinetic and reactive transport studies to describe and quantify biotic and abiotic mechanisms underlying anaerobic, nitrate-dependent U(IV) and Fe(II) oxidation, which influences the long-term efficacy of in situ reductive immobilization of uranium at DOE sites. In these studies, Thiobacillus denitrificans, an autotrophic bacterium that catalyzes anaerobic U(IV) and Fe(II) oxidation, was used to examine coupled oxidation-reduction processes under either biotic (enzymatic) or abiotic conditions in batch and column experiments with biogenically produced UIVO2(s). Synthesis and quantitative analysis of coupled chemical and transport processes were done with the reactive transport modeling code Crunchflow. Research focused on identifying the primary redox proteins that catalyze metal oxidation, environmental factors that influence protein expression, and molecular-scale geochemical factors that control the rates of biotic and abiotic oxidation.

  13. Bioextraction of cobalt from complex metal sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.; Noah, K.S.; Wichlacz, P.L.; Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    The present study has investigated the bioleachability of naturally occurring cobaltite and synthetic cobalt sulfides using 29 pedigree and ``wild type`` strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. On the basis of a screening test, five strains of bacteria were selected for assessing the effects of leach parameters (pH, ferrous and ferric sulfates, ammonium sulfate, bipotassium hydrogen phosphate, and substrate concentrations) on cobalt extraction from Blackbird Mine ore and concentrate. The mechanisms of cobalt extraction were explained in terms of direct and indirect modes of bacterial activity, and the chemistry involved in these processes was identified. Using various size fractions of a high-grade cobaltite, the kinetic parameters of cobalt extraction were derived for the effect of specific surface area to be V{sub m} = 376 mg dm{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1} and K 1.27 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1}.

  14. Genetic transfer in acidophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, F.F.; Glenn, A.W.; Bulmer, D.; Ward, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of microorganisms to recover metals from ores, as well as to remove sulfur from coal. These so-called bioleaching processes are mediated by a number of bacteria. The best-studied of these organisms are acidophiles including Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species. Our laboratory has focused on developing genetic strategies to allow the manipulation of acidophilic bacteria to improve and augment their utility in large scale operations. We have recently been successful in employing conjugation for interbacterial transfer of genetic information, as well as in directly transforming Acidiphilium by use of electroporation. We are now testing the properties of IncPl, IncW and IncQ plasmid vectors in Acidiphilium to determine their relative usefulness in routine manipulation of acidophiles and transfer between organisms. This study also allows us to determine the natural ability of these bacteria to transfer genetic material amongst themselves in their particular environment. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Bioextraction of cobalt from complex metal sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.; Noah, K.S.; Wichlacz, P.L.; Torma, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The present study has investigated the bioleachability of naturally occurring cobaltite and synthetic cobalt sulfides using 29 pedigree and wild type'' strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. On the basis of a screening test, five strains of bacteria were selected for assessing the effects of leach parameters (pH, ferrous and ferric sulfates, ammonium sulfate, bipotassium hydrogen phosphate, and substrate concentrations) on cobalt extraction from Blackbird Mine ore and concentrate. The mechanisms of cobalt extraction were explained in terms of direct and indirect modes of bacterial activity, and the chemistry involved in these processes was identified. Using various size fractions of a high-grade cobaltite, the kinetic parameters of cobalt extraction were derived for the effect of specific surface area to be V[sub m] = 376 mg dm[sup [minus]3] h[sup [minus]1] and K 1.27 m[sup 2] g[sup [minus]1].

  16. Bioenergetic studies of sulfur reduction in the hyperthermophilic archaebacteria Pyrodictium brockii and Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Schicho, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    The central focus of this work was the investigation of the central energy generating pathways of two hyperthermophilic sulfidogenic archaebacteria, Pyrodictium brockii and Pyrococcus furiosus. A potential application of these organisms in the desulfurization of coals was investigated. An effective ;means of removing elemental sulfur (S[degrees]) was developed. Analytical and processing applications are discussed. The rates of sulfur removal by the hyperthermophiles were 5 fold those measured of the mesophile, Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The primary energy generating pathway of Pyrodicutium brockii has been termed hydrogen-sulfur autotrophy and is characterized by the oxidation of H[sub 2] and reduction of S[degrees]. The goals of this part of the work were to quantify the stoichiometry of this organism and to estimate Y[sub s[sup MAX

  17. [LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBIOTIC PREPARATION "BIFILACT-BILS" IN CAPSULATED FORM].

    PubMed

    Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E

    2016-01-01

    The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals.

  18. Probiotic fermentation: effect on antinutrients and digestibility of starch and protein of indigenously developed food mixture.

    PubMed

    Binita, R; Khetarpaul, N

    1997-01-01

    An indigenously developed food mixture which contained huskless barley flour, green gram dhal flour, skimmed milk powder and tomato pulp ("BGMT" mixture) was autoclaved, cooled and fermented with L. acidophilus at 37 degrees C for 24 h at a dosage of 100,000 cells/ml. This process markedly reduced the phytic acid and polyphenol content and significantly improved the in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. Starch digestibility almost doubled in the fermented mixture. A significant negative relationship was obtained between the contents of antinutrients and digestibility.

  19. Plasma Deactivation of Oral Bacteria Seeded on Hydroxyapatite Disks as Tooth Enamel Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Blumhagen, Adam; Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the plasma treatment effects on deactivation of oral bacteria seeded on a tooth enamel analogue. Methods A non-thermal atmospheric pressure argon plasma brush was used to treat two different Gram-positive oral bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The bacteria were seeded on hydroxyapatite (HA) disks used as tooth enamel analogue with three initial bacterial seeding concentrations: a low inoculum concentration between 2.1×108 and 2.4×108 cfu/mL, a medium inoculum concentration between 9.8×108 and 2.4×109 cfu/mL, and a high inoculum concentration between 1.7×1010 and 3.5×1010 cfu/mL. The bacterial survivability upon plasma exposure was examined in terms of plasma exposure time and oxygen addition into the plasmas. SEM was performed to examine bacterial morphological changes after plasma exposure. Results The experimental data indicated that 13 second plasma exposure time completely killed all the bacteria when initial bacterial seeding density on HA surfaces were less than 6.9×106 cfu/cm2 for L. acidophilus and 1.7×107 cfu/cm2 for S. mutans, which were resulted from low initial seeding inoculum concentration between 2.1×108 and 2.4×108 cfu/mL. Plasma exposure of the bacteria at higher initial bacterial seeding density obtained with high initial seeding inoculum concentration, however, only resulted in ~ 1.5 to 2 log reduction and ~ 2 to 2.5 log reduction for L. acidophilus and S. mutans, respectively. It was also noted that oxygen addition into the argon plasma brush did not affect the plasma deactivation effectiveness. SEM images showed that plasma deactivation mainly occurred with the top layer bacteria, while shadowing effects from the resulting bacterial debris reduced the plasma deactivation of the underlying bacteria. Clinical Significance The experimental results indicate that, with direct contact, nonthermal atmospheric pressure argon plasmas could rapidly and

  20. Antimicrobial properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins incorporated with silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sodagar, Ahmad; Khalil, Soufia; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Pourakbari, Babak; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effects of adding nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) and their mixture to poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to induce antimicrobial activity in acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: Acrylic specimens in size of 20 mm × 20 mm × 1 mm of 0.5% and 1% of nano-TiO2 (21 nm) and nano-SiO2 (20 nm) and their mixture (TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles) (1:1 w/w) were prepared from the mixture of acrylic liquid containing nanoparticles and acrylic powder. To obtain 0.5% and 1% concentration, 0.02 g and 0.04 g of the nanoparticles was added to each milliliter of the acrylic monomer, respectively. Antimicrobial properties of six specimens of these preparations, as prepared, were assessed against planktonic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min follow-up by broth dilution assay. The specimens of each group were divided into three subgroups: Dark, daylight, or ultraviolet A (UVA). The percent of bacterial reduction is found out from the counts taken at each time point. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis. Results: Exposure to PMMA containing the nanoparticles reduced the bacterial count by 3.2–99%, depending on the nanoparticles, bacterial types, and light conditions. Planktonic cultures of S. mutans and L. acidophilus exposed to PMMA containing 1% of TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001) (98% and 99%, respectively) in a time-dependent manner under UVA. The S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts did not significantly decrease in PMMA containing 0.5% nano-TiO2 and PMMA containing 0.5% nano-SiO2 in the dark. No statistically significant reduction (P > 0.05) was observed in the counts of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in PMMA without the nanoparticles exposed to UVA. Conclusions: PMMA resins incorporated with TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic

  1. Co-culture fermentation of peanut-soy milk for the development of a novel functional beverage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Libeck, Bárbara da Silva; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Most of the commercial probiotic products are dairy-based, and the development of non-dairy probiotic products could be an alternative for new functional products. The peanut-soy milk (PSM(1)) was inoculated with six different lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including probiotic strains and yeasts and fermentation was accomplished for 24h at 37 °C and afterwards, another 24h at ±4 °C. The Pediococcus acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1), Lactococcus lactis (CCT 0360), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR 32) probiotic LAB, and the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB 340) yogurt starter culture reached cell concentrations of about 8.3log CFU/mL during fermentation. However, these strains were not able to acidify the substrate when inoculated as pure culture. The Lactobacillus acidophilus (LACA 4) probiotic produced significant amounts of lactic acid (3.35 g/L) and rapidly lowered the pH (4.6). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (UFLA YFFBM 18.03) did not completely consume the available sugars in PSM and consequently produced low amounts of ethanol (0.24 g/L). In pure culture, S. cerevisiae (UFLA YFFBM 18.03), L. rhamnosus (LR 32), L. acidophilus (LACA 4), and P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1) promoted the increase of total amino acids (48.02%, 47.32%, 46.21% and, 44.07%, respectively). However, when in co-cultured, the strains consumed the free amino acids favoring their growth, and reaching the population of 8log CFU/mL in PSM. Lactic acid production increased, and 12 h was required to reach a pH value of 4.3. In general, the strains were more efficient in the use of available carbohydrates and release of metabolites in co-cultured than in single culture fermentations. An average of 58% and 78% of available carbohydrates was consumed when single and co-cultures were evaluated, respectively. Higher lactic acid contents were found in a binary culture of P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1) and L. acidophilus (LACA 4), and by co-culture of P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1), L

  2. Enumeration of Thiobacilli within pH-Neutral and Acidic Mine Tailings and Their Role in the Development of Secondary Mineral Soil

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Lemoine tailings of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada, were deposited as a pH-neutral mineral conglomerate consisting of aluminum-silicates, iron-aluminum-silicates, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These tailings are colonized by an active population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is localized to an acid zone occupying 40% of the tailings' surface. This population peaked at 7 × 108 most probable number per gram of tailings during July and August 1990 and extended to a depth of 40 cm from the surface. Examination of samples over this depth profile by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy revealed a microbially mediated mineral transition from sulfides (below 40 cm) to chlorides and phosphates (at the surface). Silicate minerals were unaltered by microbial action. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tight association between Thiobacillus species and the sulfide minerals, which helps account for their prominence in tailings environments. Accurate enumeration of T. ferrooxidans from tailings required the disruption of their bonding to the mineral interface. Vortexing of a 10% aqueous suspension of the tailings material prior to most-probable-number analysis best facilitated this release. Even though heavy metals were highly mobile under acidic conditions at the Lemoine tailings, it was evident by transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy that they were being immobilized as bona fide fine-grain minerals containing iron, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, and oxygen on bacterial surfaces and exopolymers. This biomineralization increased with increasing bacterial numbers and was most evident in the upper 3 cm of the acidic zone. Images PMID:16348721

  3. (1) Microbial removal of SO sub 2 and NO sub x from flue gas; (2) Microbial by-product recovery from regenerable processes for the simultaneous removal of SO sub 2 and NO sub x from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Suciu, D. . Engineering Development Center)

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this project has been to investigate the reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in coculture with mixed fermentative heterotrophs and the reduction of NO to elemental nitrogen by Thiobacillus denitrificans. The ultimate goal has been the development of a viable process concept whereby a microbial process could impact on the problem of flue gas desulfurization and NO{sub x} removal. It was observed that molasses will support the reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S by working cultures of D. desulfuricans. However, the sulfur contained in the molasses resulted in H{sub 2}S production in excess of that expected based on the SO{sub 2} feed. We demonstrated the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}) by Thiobacillus denitrificans. We also investigated the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO from a gas by contact of the gas with either D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans reactors-in-series or in co-culture. An economic evaluation of the microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} was performed comparing the microbial process to a conventional catalytic SO{sub 2} hydrogenation (with H{sub 2} generation from methane). Microbial SO{sub 2} reduction and conventional SO{sub 2} hydrogenation were estimated to have similar costs in terms of capital investment. However, annual operating costs for the microbial process were much higher than the conventional process, due primarily to the cost of raw materials. 52 refs., 38 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13.

  5. Evaluation of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans for Leaching

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Wolfgang; Rohde, Katrin; Sobotke, Birgit; Zenneck, Claus

    1992-01-01

    The importance of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans for leach processes has been evaluated by studying the lithotrophic flora of three mine biotopes and a heap leaching operation, by percolation experiments with inoculated, sterilized ore, and by morphological, physiological, and genetic investigations of pure and mixed cultures of L. ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. In biotopes of 20°C or above, Leptospirillum-like bacteria are as abundant as T. ferrooxidans. Leptospirilli represent at least one-half of the ferrous-iron-oxidizing population. Percolation experiments confirmed this result. Leptospirilli were as numerous as T. ferrooxidans. At reduced temperatures, the generation times of leptospirilli increase more so than those of T. ferrooxidans. At 14°C, Leptospirillum grows slowly and T. ferrooxidans dominates the population. Physiological investigations indicate that L. ferrooxidans is a strict chemolithoautotroph, metabolizing only ferrous iron and pyrite. Even an addition of 0.05% (wt/vol) yeast extract inhibited its growth. The maximum ferrous-iron-oxidizing activity of L. ferrooxidans amounts to about 40% of the activity of T. ferrooxidans. After growth on sulfidic ore, both species exhibit reduced iron-oxidizing activities, L. ferrooxidans exhibiting one-third and T. ferrooxidans exhibiting one-seventh of their maximum activities. Surprisingly, the absolute values are similar. For indirect leaching, L. ferrooxidans is as important as T. ferrooxidans. This was confirmed by the results of percolation experiments. L. ferrooxidans together with T. thiooxidans mobilized metals at least as well as T. ferrooxidans did. The best results were obtained with a mixed culture of all three species. Images PMID:16348642

  6. Permanent draft genome of Thermithiobaclillus tepidarius DSM 3134(T), a moderately thermophilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic member of the Acidithiobacillia.

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Hutt, Lee P; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, Tatiparthi; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Thermithiobacillus tepidarius DSM 3134(T) was originally isolated (1983) from the waters of a sulfidic spring entering the Roman Baths (Temple of Sulis-Minerva) at Bath, United Kingdom and is an obligate chemolithoautotroph growing at the expense of reduced sulfur species. This strain has a genome size of 2,958,498 bp. Here we report the genome sequence, annotation and characteristics. The genome comprises 2,902 protein coding and 66 RNA coding genes. Genes responsible for the transaldolase variant of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle were identified along with a biosynthetic horseshoe in lieu of Krebs' cycle sensu stricto. Terminal oxidases were identified, viz. cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3, EC 1.9.3.1) and ubiquinol oxidase (bd, EC 1.10.3.10). Metalloresistance genes involved in pathways of arsenic and cadmium resistance were found. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer accounting for 5.9 % of the protein-coding genes was found, including transfer from Thiobacillus spp. and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, isolated from the same spring. A sox gene cluster was found, similar in structure to those from other Acidithiobacillia - by comparison with Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus denitrificans, an additional gene between soxA and soxB was found, annotated as a DUF302-family protein of unknown function. As the Kelly-Friedrich pathway of thiosulfate oxidation (encoded by sox) is not used in Thermithiobacillus spp., the role of the operon (if any) in this species remains unknown. We speculate that DUF302 and sox genes may have a role in periplasmic trithionate oxidation.

  7. [The endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria: their structure and biological role].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D

    1994-01-01

    Main attention in the paper is paid to the study of lipid A, a component possessing endotoxic activity. Lipids A containing glucosamine disaccharide (representatives of Enterobacteriaceae family), and variants of lipid A differing from the toxic one either in the structure of carbohydrate core or in the spectrum of fatty acids are considered. They are either phototrophic, nodulating (Bradyrhyzobium species) or soil species (Nitrobacter and Thiobacillus) bacteria. Lipid A from lipopolysaccharides of over 25 species of bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas viridans, R. palustris, Pseudomonas diminuta, Phenylobacterium immobile, Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, etc.) contains 2.3-diamino-2.3-dideoxyglucose (lipid ADAG); glucosaminouronic acid was found in Rhizobium trifolii and galacturonic acid in R. leguminosarum bvs. phaseoli, trifolii and viceae. Mixed lipids (lipid A and lipid ADAG) were found in Campylobacter jejuni. Considerable variations were registered in the nature of fatty acids. Thus, 27-oxy-octacosanoic acid (27-OH-28 : 0) was found in lipid A of the studied species of Rhizobiaceae except for Azorhizobium caulinodans. No correlations between the composition of the carbohydrate core and presence of this acid were established. Implementation of the synthesis of a complete as well as of partial lipid A structures has confirmed authenticity of the described structures. Five different epitopes identified by antibodies are present in the hydrophilic part of lipid A. The structure and biological role of the outer and inner cores are considered separately, main attention being paid to identification of the role of the KDO-containing zone. Since O-specific polysaccharide is the most known lipopolysaccharide component from the viewpoint of the structure and biological activity, this material is given in a general form.

  8. Microbial sulfur transformations in sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Alicia M; Mikucki, Jill A; Achberger, Amanda M; Alekhina, Irina A; Barbante, Carlo; Christner, Brent C; Ghosh, Dhritiman; Michaud, Alexander B; Mitchell, Andrew C; Priscu, John C; Scherer, Reed; Skidmore, Mark L; Vick-Majors, Trista J; The Wissard Science Team

    2014-01-01

    Diverse microbial assemblages inhabit subglacial aquatic environments. While few of these environments have been sampled, data reveal that subglacial organisms gain energy for growth from reduced minerals containing nitrogen, iron, and sulfur. Here we investigate the role of microbially mediated sulfur transformations in sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), Antarctica, by examining key genes involved in dissimilatory sulfur oxidation and reduction. The presence of sulfur transformation genes throughout the top 34 cm of SLW sediments changes with depth. SLW surficial sediments were dominated by genes related to known sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophs. Sequences encoding the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene, involved in both dissimilatory sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation, were present in all samples and clustered into 16 distinct operational taxonomic units. The majority of APS reductase sequences (74%) clustered with known sulfur oxidizers including those within the "Sideroxydans" and Thiobacillus genera. Reverse-acting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rDSR) and 16S rRNA gene sequences further support dominance of "Sideroxydans" and Thiobacillus phylotypes in the top 2 cm of SLW sediments. The SLW microbial community has the genetic potential for sulfate reduction which is supported by experimentally measured low rates (1.4 pmol cm(-3)d(-1)) of biologically mediated sulfate reduction and the presence of APS reductase and DSR gene sequences related to Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfotomaculum. Our results also infer the presence of sulfur oxidation, which can be a significant energetic pathway for chemosynthetic biosynthesis in SLW sediments. The water in SLW ultimately flows into the Ross Sea where intermediates from subglacial sulfur transformations can influence the flux of solutes to the Southern Ocean.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus—Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus. PMID:26544973

  10. Relationship between microbial community dynamics and process performance during thermophilic sludge bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shen-Yi; Chou, Li-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metals can be removed from the sludge using bioleaching technologies at thermophilic condition, thereby providing an option for biotreatment of wasted sludge generated from wastewater treatment. The purposes of this study were to establish a molecular biology technique, real-time PCR, for the detection and enumeration of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during the thermophilic sludge bioleaching. The 16S rRNA gene for real-time PCR quantification targeted the bioleaching bacteria: Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Acidithiobacillus caldus. The specificity and stringency for thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were tested before the experiments of monitoring the bacterial community, bacterial number during the thermophilic sludge bioleaching and the future application on testing various environmental samples. The results showed that S. acidophilus was identified as the dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while A. caldus and S. thermosulfidooxidans occurred in relatively low numbers. The total number of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria increased during the thermophilic bioleaching process. Meanwhile, the decrease of pH, production of sulfate, degradation of SS/VSS, and solubilization of heavy metal were found to correlate well with the population of thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during the bioleaching process. The real-time PCR used in this study is a suitable method to monitor numbers of thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during the bioleaching process.

  11. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.

  12. Impact of Gluten-Friendly Bread on the Metabolism and Function of In Vitro Gut Microbiota in Healthy Human and Coeliac Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Costabile, Adele; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Gonzalez, Isidro; Landriscina, Loretta; Ciuffreda, Emanuela; D’Agnello, Paola; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena; Lamacchia, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper was to assess the in vitro response of healthy and coeliac human faecal microbiota to gluten-friendly bread (GFB). Thus, GFB and control bread (CB) were fermented with faecal microbiota in pH-controlled batch cultures. The effects on the major groups of microbiota were monitored over 48 h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the death kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium in a saline solution supplemented with GFB or CB were also assessed. The experiments in saline solution pinpointed that GFB prolonged the survival of L. acidophilus and exerted an antibacterial effect towards S. aureus and S. Typhimurium. Moreover, GFB modulated the intestinal microbiota in vitro, promoting changes in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria members in coeliac subjects. A final multivariate approach combining both viable counts and metabolites suggested that GFB could beneficially modulate the coeliac gut microbiome; however, human studies are needed to prove its efficacy. PMID:27632361

  13. Bacteriocin-mediated inhibition of Clostridium botulinum spores by lactic acid bacteria at refrigeration and abuse temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, A; Montville, T J

    1991-01-01

    The bacteriocinogenicity of Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454, Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 43200, P. pentosaceus ATCC 43201, Lactobacillus plantarum BN, L. plantarum LB592, L. plantarum LB75, and Lactobacillus acidophilus N2 against Clostridium botulinum spores at 4, 10, 15, and 35 degrees C was investigated by modified deferred and simultaneous antagonism methods. All the strains, except L. acidophilus N2, produced inhibition zones on lawns of C. botulinum spores at 30 degrees C. L. plantarum BN, L. lactis ATCC 11454, and P. pentosaceus ATCC 43200 and 43201 were bacteriocinogenic at 4, 10, and 15 degrees C. Supplementation of brain heart infusion agar with 0 to 5% NaCl increased the radii of inhibition zones during simultaneous antagonism assays. Detectable bacteriocin activities were extracted from freeze-thawed agar cultures of L. plantarum BN and L. lactis ATCC 11454 which had been grown at 4 and 10 degrees C. These results suggest that low levels of L. plantarum BN or L. lactis ATCC 11454, in the presence of 3 or 4% NaCl, could be formulated into minimally processed refrigerated food products for protection against possible botulism hazards. PMID:1785919

  14. Antiasthmatic Effects of Herbal Complex MA and Its Fermented Product MA128

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Bok-Kyu; Yang, Min Cheol; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if oral administration of the novel herbal medicine, MA, and its Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented product, MA128, have therapeutic properties for the treatment of asthma. Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by systemic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) followed by intratracheal, intraperitoneal, and aerosol allergen challenges. MA and MA128 were orally administered 6 times a week for 4 weeks. At 1 day after the last ovalbumin exposure, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed and samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung cells, and serum were collected for further analysis. We investigated the effect of MA and MA128 on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production, OVA-specific IgE production, and Th1/Th2 cytokine production in this mouse model of asthma. In BALB/c mice, we found that MA and MA128 treatment suppressed eosinophil infiltration into airways and blood, allergic airway inflammation and AHR by suppressing the production of IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, Eotaxin, and OVA-specific IgE, by upregulating the production of OVA-specific Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ), and by downregulating OVA-specific Th2 cytokine (IL-4) in the culture supernatant of spleen cells. The effectiveness of MA was increased by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:22203879

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Filling Materials Used in Primary Teeth Pulpotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied. PMID:25954072

  16. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P < 0.05); however, better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals. PMID:25992338

  17. Influence of microencapsulation and spray drying on the viability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition.

  18. A moderately thermophilic mixed microbial culture for bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate at high pulp density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of filling materials used in primary teeth pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied.

  20. Effects of bile salt deconjugation by probiotic strains on the survival of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens under simulated gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Xinlong; Zou, Yunyun; Cho, Youngjae; Ahn, Juhee

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of bile acid deconjugation by probiotic strains on the antibiotic susceptibility of antibiotic-sensitive and multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Eight probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium longum B6, Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH, Lactobacillus brevis KACC 10553, Lactobacillus casei KACC 12413, Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 25598, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Leuconostoc mesenteroides KACC 12312, and Pediococcus acidilactici KACC 12307, were used to examine bile acid tolerance. The ability to deconjugate bile acids was evaluated using both thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out to determine the synergistic inhibitory activity of deconjugated bile acids. L. acidophilus, L. brevis, and P. acidilactici showed the most tolerance to the conjugated bile acids. P. acidilactici deconjugated glycocholic acid and glycodeoxycholate from 3.18 and 3.09 mM to the detection limits, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility of selected foodborne pathogens was increased by increasing the concentration of deconjugated bile acids. The study results are useful for understanding the relationship between bile acid deconjugation by probiotic strains and antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of deconjugated bile acids, and they may be useful for designing new probiotic-antibiotic combination therapy based on bile acid deconjugation.