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Sample records for acidosis-induced neuronal death

  1. Tissue acidosis induces neuronal necroptosis via ASIC1a channel independent of its ionic conduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yu; Liu, Fan; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Li, Ying; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zhu, Michael X; Xu, Tian-Le

    2015-01-01

    Acidotoxicity is common among neurological disorders, such as ischemic stroke. Traditionally, Ca2+ influx via homomeric acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) was considered to be the leading cause of ischemic acidotoxicity. Here we show that extracellular protons trigger a novel form of neuronal necroptosis via ASIC1a, but independent of its ion-conducting function. We identified serine/threonine kinase receptor interaction protein 1 (RIP1) as a critical component of this form of neuronal necroptosis. Acid stimulation recruits RIP1 to the ASIC1a C-terminus, causing RIP1 phosphorylation and subsequent neuronal death. In a mouse model of focal ischemia, middle cerebral artery occlusion causes ASIC1a-RIP1 association and RIP1 phosphorylation in affected brain areas. Deletion of the Asic1a gene significantly prevents RIP1 phosphorylation and brain damage, suggesting ASIC1a-mediated RIP1 activation has an important role in ischemic neuronal injury. Our findings indicate that extracellular protons function as a novel endogenous ligand that triggers neuronal necroptosis during ischemia via ASIC1a independent of its channel function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05682.001 PMID:26523449

  2. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    PubMed Central

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  3. Non-specific inhibition of ischemia- and acidosis-induced intracellular calcium elevations and membrane currents by α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, butylated hydroxytoluene and trolox.

    PubMed

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-02-27

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses.

  4. α-Synuclein and neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    α-Synuclein is a small protein that has special relevance for understanding Parkinson disease and related disorders. Not only is α-synuclein found in Lewy bodies characteristic of Parkinson disease, but also mutations in the gene for α-synuclein can cause an inherited form of Parkinson disease and expression of normal α-synuclein can increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease in sporadic, or non-familial, cases. Both sporadic and familial Parkinson disease are characterized by substantial loss of several groups of neurons, including the dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra that are the target of most current symptomatic therapies. Therefore, it is predicted that α-synuclein, especially in its mutant forms or under conditions where its expression levels are increased, is a toxic protein in the sense that it is associated with an increased rate of neuronal cell death. This review will discuss the experimental contexts in which α-synuclein has been demonstrated to be toxic. I will also outline what is known about the mechanisms by which α-synuclein triggers neuronal damage, and identify some of the current gaps in our knowledge about this subject. Finally, the therapeutic implications of toxicity of α-synuclein will be discussed. PMID:19193223

  5. Metabolic Acidosis-Induced Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosisworsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. PMID:21352078

  6. Neuronal gap junctions play a role in the secondary neuronal death following controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Andrei B; Wang, Yongfu; Song, Ji-Hoon; Denisova, Janna V; Berman, Nancy E; Fontes, Joseph D

    2012-08-22

    In the mammalian CNS, excessive release of glutamate and overactivation of glutamate receptors are responsible for the secondary (delayed) neuronal death following neuronal injury, including ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and epilepsy. Recent studies in mice showed a critical role for neuronal gap junctions in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemia-mediated neuronal death. Here, using controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult mice, as a model of TBI, and Fluoro-Jade B staining for analysis of neuronal death, we set to determine whether neuronal gap junctions play a role in the CCI-mediated secondary neuronal death. We report that 24h post-CCI, substantial neuronal death is detected in a number of brain regions outside the injury core, including the striatum. The striatal neuronal death is reduced both in wild-type mice by systemic administration of mefloquine (a relatively selective blocker of neuronal gap junctions) and in knockout mice lacking connexin 36 (neuronal gap junction protein). It is also reduced by inactivation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (with LY341495) which, as reported previously, control the rapid increase in neuronal gap junction coupling following different types of neuronal injury. The results suggest that neuronal gap junctions play a critical role in the CCI-induced secondary neuronal death. PMID:22781494

  7. Life and death of neurons in the aging brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by extensive neuron death that leads to functional decline, but the neurobiological correlates of functional decline in normal aging are less well defined. For decades, it has been a commonly held notion that widespread neuron death in the neocortex and hippocampus is an inevitable concomitant of brain aging, but recent quantitative studies suggest that neuron death is restricted in normal aging and unlikely to account for age-related impairment of neocortical and hippocampal functions. In this article, the qualitative and quantitative differences between aging and Alzheimer's disease with respect to neuron loss are discussed, and age-related changes in functional and biochemical attributes of hippocampal circuits that might mediate functional decline in the absence of neuron death are explored. When these data are viewed comprehensively, it appears that the primary neurobiological substrates for functional impairment in aging differ in important ways from those in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Death of Neurons following Injury Requires Conductive Neuronal Gap Junction Channels but Not a Specific Connexin.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Joseph D; Ramsey, Jon; Polk, Jeremy M; Koop, Andre; Denisova, Janna V; Belousov, Andrei B

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade or genetic knockout of neuronal connexin 36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions reduces neuronal death caused by ischemia, traumatic brain injury and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity. However, whether Cx36 gap junctions contribute to neuronal death via channel-dependent or channel-independent mechanism remains an open question. To address this, we manipulated connexin protein expression via lentiviral transduction of mouse neuronal cortical cultures and analyzed neuronal death twenty-four hours following administration of NMDA (a model of NMDAR excitotoxicity) or oxygen-glucose deprivation (a model of ischemic injury). In cultures prepared from wild-type mice, over-expression and knockdown of Cx36-containing gap junctions augmented and prevented, respectively, neuronal death from NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemia. In cultures obtained form from Cx36 knockout mice, re-expression of functional gap junction channels, containing either neuronal Cx36 or non-neuronal Cx43 or Cx31, resulted in increased neuronal death following insult. In contrast, the expression of communication-deficient gap junctions (containing mutated connexins) did not have this effect. Finally, the absence of ethidium bromide uptake in non-transduced wild-type neurons two hours following NMDAR excitotoxicity or ischemia suggested the absence of active endogenous hemichannels in those neurons. Taken together, these results suggest a role for neuronal gap junctions in cell death via a connexin type-independent mechanism that likely relies on channel activities of gap junctional complexes among neurons. A possible contribution of gap junction channel-permeable death signals in neuronal death is discussed. PMID:26017008

  9. Death of Neurons following Injury Requires Conductive Neuronal Gap Junction Channels but Not a Specific Connexin

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Joseph D.; Ramsey, Jon; Polk, Jeremy M; Koop, Andre; Denisova, Janna V.; Belousov, Andrei B.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade or genetic knockout of neuronal connexin 36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions reduces neuronal death caused by ischemia, traumatic brain injury and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity. However, whether Cx36 gap junctions contribute to neuronal death via channel-dependent or channel-independent mechanism remains an open question. To address this, we manipulated connexin protein expression via lentiviral transduction of mouse neuronal cortical cultures and analyzed neuronal death twenty-four hours following administration of NMDA (a model of NMDAR excitotoxicity) or oxygen-glucose deprivation (a model of ischemic injury). In cultures prepared from wild-type mice, over-expression and knockdown of Cx36-containing gap junctions augmented and prevented, respectively, neuronal death from NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemia. In cultures obtained form from Cx36 knockout mice, re-expression of functional gap junction channels, containing either neuronal Cx36 or non-neuronal Cx43 or Cx31, resulted in increased neuronal death following insult. In contrast, the expression of communication-deficient gap junctions (containing mutated connexins) did not have this effect. Finally, the absence of ethidium bromide uptake in non-transduced wild-type neurons two hours following NMDAR excitotoxicity or ischemia suggested the absence of active endogenous hemichannels in those neurons. Taken together, these results suggest a role for neuronal gap junctions in cell death via a connexin type-independent mechanism that likely relies on channel activities of gap junctional complexes among neurons. A possible contribution of gap junction channel-permeable death signals in neuronal death is discussed. PMID:26017008

  10. Independent controls for neocortical neuron production and histogenetic cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Bhide, P. G.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of cells eliminated by histogenetic cell death during the first 2 postnatal weeks in areas 1, 3 and 40 of the mouse parietal neocortex. For each layer and for the subcortical white matter in each neocortical area, the number of dying cells per mm(2) was calculated and the proportionate cell death for each day of the 2-week interval was estimated. The data show that cell death proceeds essentially uniformly across the neocortical areas and layers and that it does not follow either the spatiotemporal gradient of cell cycle progression in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the cerebral wall, the source of neocortical neurons, or the 'inside-out' neocortical neuronogenetic sequence. Therefore, we infer that the control mechanisms of neocortical histogenetic cell death are independent of mechanisms controlling neuronogenesis or neuronal migration but may be associated with the ingrowth, expansion and a system-wide matching of neuronal connectivity. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Astrogliosis is a possible player in preventing delayed neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Ji, Kyung-Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Choi, Insup; Choi, Dong-Joo; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye

    2014-04-01

    Mitigating secondary delayed neuronal injury has been a therapeutic strategy for minimizing neurological symptoms after several types of brain injury. Interestingly, secondary neuronal loss appeared to be closely related to functional loss and/or death of astrocytes. In the brain damage induced by agonists of two glutamate receptors, N-ethyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and kainic acid (KA), NMDA induced neuronal death within 3 h, but did not increase further thereafter. However, in the KA-injected brain, neuronal death was not obviously detectable even at injection sites at 3 h, but extensively increased to encompass the entire hemisphere at 7 days. Brain inflammation, a possible cause of secondary neuronal damage, showed little differences between the two models. Importantly, however, astrocyte behavior was completely different. In the NMDA-injected cortex, the loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing (GFAP+) astrocytes was confined to the injection site until 7 days after the injection, and astrocytes around the damage sites showed extensive gliosis and appeared to isolate the damage sites. In contrast, in the KA-injected brain, GFAP+ astrocytes, like neurons, slowly, but progressively, disappeared across the entire hemisphere. Other markers of astrocytes, including S100β, glutamate transporter EAAT2, the potassium channel Kir4.1 and glutamine synthase, showed patterns similar to that of GFAP in both NMDA- and KA-injected cortexes. More importantly, astrocyte disappearance and/or functional loss preceded neuronal death in the KA-injected brain. Taken together, these results suggest that loss of astrocyte support to neurons may be a critical cause of delayed neuronal death in the injured brain. PMID:24802057

  12. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Emmrich, Julius V; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C

    2013-10-22

    Delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia contribute to stroke and dementia pathology, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Phagocytic removal of neurons is generally assumed to be beneficial and to occur only after neuronal death. However, we report herein that inhibition of phagocytosis can prevent delayed loss and death of functional neurons after transient brain ischemia. Two phagocytic proteins, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Milk fat globule EGF-like factor 8 (MFG-E8), were transiently up-regulated by macrophages/microglia after focal brain ischemia in vivo. Strikingly, deficiency in either protein completely prevented long-term functional motor deficits after cerebral ischemia and strongly reduced brain atrophy as a result of inhibiting phagocytosis of neurons. Correspondingly, in vitro glutamate-stressed neurons reversibly exposed the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine, leading to their phagocytosis by microglia; this neuronal loss was prevented in the absence of microglia and reduced if microglia were genetically deficient in MerTK or MFG-E8, both of which mediate phosphatidylserine-recognition. Thus, phagocytosis of viable neurons contributes to brain pathology and, surprisingly, blocking this process is strongly beneficial. Therefore, inhibition of specific phagocytic pathways may present therapeutic targets for preventing delayed neuronal loss after transient cerebral ischemia.

  13. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microglial activation and associated dopaminergic neurotoxicity were investigated. Using multiple well-established primary mesencephalic cultures, we tested whether human NM (HNM) could activate microglia, thereby provoking dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrated that in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, HNM caused dopaminergic neuronal damage characterized by the decreased dopamine uptake and reduced numbers and shorted dendrites of dopaminergic neurons. HNM-induced degeneration was relatively selective to dopaminergic neurons since the other types of neurons determined by either gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake and total neuronal numbers after staining showed smaller decrease. We demonstrated that HNM produced modest dopaminergic neurotoxicity in neuron-enriched cultures; in contrast, much greater neurotoxicity was observed in the presence of microglia. HNM-induced microglial activation was shown by morphological changes and production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. These results suggest that HNM, once released from damaged dopaminergic neurons, can be an potent endogenous activator involved in the reactivation of microglia, which may mediate disease progression. Thus, inhibition of reactive microglia can be a useful strategy for PD therapy. PMID:23276965

  14. FGF-2 induces neuronal death through upregulation of system xc-.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Albano, Rebecca; Lobner, Doug

    2014-02-14

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) upregulates system xc- selectively on astrocytes, which leads to increased cystine uptake, the substrate for glutathione production, and increased glutamate release. While increased intracellular glutathione can limit oxidative stress, the increased glutamate release can potentially lead to excitotoxicity to neurons. To test this hypothesis, mixed neuronal and glial cortical cultures were treated with FGF-2. Treatment with FGF-2 for 48 h caused a significant neuronal death in these cultures. Cell death was not observed in neuronal-enriched cultures, or astrocyte-enriched cultures, suggesting the toxicity was the result of neuron-glia interaction. Blocking system xc- eliminated the neuronal death as did the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), but not the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. When cultures were exposed directly to glutamate, both NBQX and memantine blocked the neuronal toxicity. The mechanism of this altered profile of glutamate receptor mediated toxicity by FGF-2 is unclear. The selective calcium permeable AMPA receptor antagonist 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM) failed to offer protection. The most likely explanation for the results is that 48 h FGF-2 treatment induces AMPA/kainate receptor toxicity through increased system xc- function resulting in increased release of glutamate. At the same time, FGF-2 alters the sensitivity of the neurons to glutamate toxicity in a manner that promotes selective AMPA/kainate receptor mediated toxicity.

  15. Sex stratified neuronal cultures to study ischemic cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Stacy L; Vest, Rebekah; Verma, Saurabh; Traystman, Richard J; Herson, Paco S

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome. PMID:24378980

  16. Mitochondria: the headquarters in ischemia-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Joaquin; de Groot, Piet W J; Galindo, Maria F

    2011-06-01

    Due to a lack of efficient treatments, searching for novel therapies against acute ischemic stroke represents one of the main fields in neuropharmacology. In this review we summarize and discuss the role of mitochondrial participation in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Mitochondria are regarded as the main link between cellular stress signals and the execution of programmed death of nerve cells. Since it was described that the release of mitochondrial proteins such as cytochrome c, apoptosis inducing factor and endonuclease G are key elements in cell death pathways, they have been the focus of cell death studies. Changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane result in a non-reversible step in cell death processes. Cytochrome c released from mitochondria binds in the cytoplasm to Apaf-1 to initiate the formation of an apoptosome, which then binds pro-caspase-9. Active caspase-9 cleaves "executioner" caspases, which in turn proceed to cleave key substrates in the cell. Thus, the identification of new targets might enable establishment of novel strategies for therapeutic research, in this case based on the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial pathways, to improve the development of compounds for treatment of ischemia.

  17. Axonal Dysfunction Precedes Motor Neuronal Death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Yuta; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Misawa, Sonoko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Watanabe, Keisuke; Amino, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Wide-spread fasciculations are a characteristic feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting motor axonal hyperexcitability. Previous excitability studies have shown increased nodal persistent sodium conductances and decreased potassium currents in motor axons of ALS patients, both of the changes inducing hyperexcitability. Altered axonal excitability potentially contributes to motor neuron death in ALS, but the relationship of the extent of motor neuronal death and abnormal excitability has not been fully elucidated. We performed multiple nerve excitability measurements in the median nerve at the wrist of 140 ALS patients and analyzed the relationship of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude (index of motor neuronal loss) and excitability indices, such as strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, recovery cycle and current-threshold relationships. Compared to age-matched normal controls (n = 44), ALS patients (n = 140) had longer strength-duration time constant (SDTC: a measure of nodal persistent sodium current; p < 0.05), greater threshold changes in depolarizing threshold electrotonus (p < 0.05) and depolarizing current threshold relationship (i.e. less accommodation; (p < 0.05), greater superexcitability (a measure of fast potassium current; p < 0.05) and reduced late subexcitability (a measure of slow potassium current; p < 0.05), suggesting increased persistent sodium currents and decreased potassium currents. The reduced potassium currents were found even in the patient subgroups with normal CMAP (> 5mV). Regression analyses showed that SDTC (R = -0.22) and depolarizing threshold electrotonus (R = -0.22) increased with CMAP decline. These findings suggest that motor nerve hyperexcitability occurs in the early stage of the disease, and precedes motor neuronal loss in ALS. Modulation of altered ion channel function could be a treatment option for ALS. PMID:27383069

  18. Axonal Dysfunction Precedes Motor Neuronal Death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Yuta; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Misawa, Sonoko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Watanabe, Keisuke; Amino, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Wide-spread fasciculations are a characteristic feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting motor axonal hyperexcitability. Previous excitability studies have shown increased nodal persistent sodium conductances and decreased potassium currents in motor axons of ALS patients, both of the changes inducing hyperexcitability. Altered axonal excitability potentially contributes to motor neuron death in ALS, but the relationship of the extent of motor neuronal death and abnormal excitability has not been fully elucidated. We performed multiple nerve excitability measurements in the median nerve at the wrist of 140 ALS patients and analyzed the relationship of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude (index of motor neuronal loss) and excitability indices, such as strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, recovery cycle and current-threshold relationships. Compared to age-matched normal controls (n = 44), ALS patients (n = 140) had longer strength-duration time constant (SDTC: a measure of nodal persistent sodium current; p < 0.05), greater threshold changes in depolarizing threshold electrotonus (p < 0.05) and depolarizing current threshold relationship (i.e. less accommodation; (p < 0.05), greater superexcitability (a measure of fast potassium current; p < 0.05) and reduced late subexcitability (a measure of slow potassium current; p < 0.05), suggesting increased persistent sodium currents and decreased potassium currents. The reduced potassium currents were found even in the patient subgroups with normal CMAP (> 5mV). Regression analyses showed that SDTC (R = -0.22) and depolarizing threshold electrotonus (R = -0.22) increased with CMAP decline. These findings suggest that motor nerve hyperexcitability occurs in the early stage of the disease, and precedes motor neuronal loss in ALS. Modulation of altered ion channel function could be a treatment option for ALS. PMID:27383069

  19. Neuronal death in the hippocampus is promoted by plasmin-catalyzed degradation of laminin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z L; Strickland, S

    1997-12-26

    Excess excitatory amino acids can provoke neuronal death in the hippocampus, and the extracellular proteases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasmin (ogen) have been implicated in this death. To investigate substrates for plasmin that might influence neuronal degeneration, extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expression was examined. Laminin is expressed in the hippocampus and disappears after excitotoxin injection. Laminin disappearance precedes neuronal death, is spatially coincident with regions that exhibit neuronal loss, and is blocked by either tPA-deficiency or infusion of a plasmin inhibitor, both of which also block neuronal degeneration. Preventing neuron-laminin interaction by infusion of anti-laminin antibodies into tPA-deficient mice restores excitotoxic sensitivity to their hippocampal neurons. These results indicate that disruption of neuron-ECM interaction via tPA/plasmin catalyzed degradation of laminin sensitizes hippocampal neurons to cell death.

  20. [Effect of hypertonic saline solution on delayed neuronal death].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, S; Ogata, H; Masawa, N

    1994-04-01

    This experiment was performed to investigate whether hypertonic saline has a preventive effect on delayed neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Twenty gerbils were used, and after being anesthetized by inhalation of 1% halothane, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 2.5 min. The animals were injected intravenously with 2 ml/kg of 10% NaCl immediately after reperfusion, and 2 ml/kg of physiological saline solution was used in the same manner in a control group. Five days later, histopathological changes in the CA1 subfield were observed by staining with hematoxylin-eosin and examining sections of the brain under a light microscope. Degenerative or necrotic pyramidal cells exhibited cell shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis, dark staining of the cytoplasm vacuolation and disappearance of the radial striated zone. The pyramidal cell degeneration rate in a 1 mm length of CA1 subfield was 95.6 +/- 1.6% in the ischemia-reperfusion-saline group and 7.1 +/- 3.0% in ischemia-reperfusion-hypertonic saline group, and the difference was statistically significant. This study verified that hypertonic saline prevented delayed neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of hippocampal area after ischemia-reperfusion.

  1. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide’s antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide’s direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  2. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide's antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide's direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17.

  3. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide's antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide's direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  4. One-hit stochastic decline in a mechanochemical model of cytoskeleton-induced neuron death III: diffusion pulse death zones.

    PubMed

    Lomasko, Tatiana; Lumsden, Charles J

    2009-01-01

    This is the third of three papers in which we study a mathematical model of cytoskeleton-induced neuron death. In the first two papers of this suite [Lomasko, T., Clarke, G., Lumsden, C., 2007a. One-hit stochastic decline in a mechanochemical model of cytoskeleton-induced neuron death I: cell fate arrival times. J. Theor. Biol. 249, 1-17, doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.05.031; Lomasko, T., Clarke, G., Lumsden, C., 2007b. One-hit stochastic decline in a mechanochemical model of cytoskeleton-induced neuron death II: transition state metastability. J. Theor. Biol. 249, 18-28, doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.05.032], we established that the mean-field limit of our model relates the known patterns of neuron decline to specific scales of cytoskeleton reorganization and cell-cell interaction by diffusible death factors. In the mean-field limit, the spatially variable concentration of diffusing death factor is replaced by a constant average value. Recent empirical advances now permit the actual diffusion of such factors to be followed in intact neuropil. In this paper we therefore extend the model beyond the mean-field limit, to include the diffusion dynamics of death factor bursts released from dying neurons. A range of novel tissue degeneration patterns is observed, for which we confirm and extend the mean-field prediction that sigmoidal patterns of neuron population decay are a principal hallmark of cell death in the presence of death factor release.

  5. Motor neuron death in ALS – programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al (2014) discover that familial and sporadic ALS derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  6. Respiratory function after selective respiratory motor neuron death from intrapleural CTB–saporin injections

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Vinit, Stéphane; Bauernschmidt, Lorene; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes progressive motor neuron degeneration, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. In rodent ALS models: 1) breathing capacity is preserved until late in disease progression despite major respiratory motor neuron death, suggesting unknown forms of compensatory respiratory plasticity; and 2) spinal microglia become activated in association with motor neuron cell death. Here, we report a novel experimental model to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on compensatory responses without many complications attendant to spontaneous motor neuron disease. In specific, we used intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB–SAP) to selectively kill motor neurons with access to the pleural space. Motor neuron survival, CD11b labeling (microglia), ventilatory capacity and phrenic motor output were assessed in rats 3–28 days after intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB–SAP (25 and 50 μg), or 2) unconjugated CTB and SAP (i.e. control; (CTB + SAP). CTB–SAP elicited dose-dependent phrenic and intercostal motor neuron death; 7 days post-25 μg CTB–SAP, motor neuron survival approximated that in end-stage ALS rats (phrenic: 36 ± 7%; intercostal: 56 ± 10% of controls; n = 9; p < 0.05). CTB–SAP caused minimal cell death in other brainstem or spinal cord regions. CTB–SAP: 1) increased CD11b fractional area in the phrenic motor nucleus, indicating microglial activation; 2) decreased breathing during maximal chemoreceptor stimulation; and 3) diminished phrenic motor output in anesthetized rats (7 days post-25 μg, CTB–SAP: 0.3 ± 0.07 V; CTB + SAP: 1.5 ± 0.3; n = 9; p < 0.05). Intrapleural CTB–SAP represents a novel, inducible model of respiratory motor neuron death and provides an opportunity to study compensation for respiratory motor neuron loss. PMID:25476493

  7. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi; Peters, Christoph; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. {yields} CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. {yields} CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. {yields} Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, the understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in axotomy

  8. Histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1) is a molecular switch between neuronal survival and death.

    PubMed

    Bardai, Farah H; Price, Valerie; Zaayman, Marcus; Wang, Lulu; D'Mello, Santosh R

    2012-10-12

    Both neuroprotective and neurotoxic roles have previously been described for histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1). Here we report that HDAC1 expression is elevated in vulnerable brain regions of two mouse models of neurodegeneration, the R6/2 model of Huntington disease and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)/p25 double-transgenic model of tauopathic degeneration, suggesting a role in promoting neuronal death. Indeed, elevating HDAC1 expression by ectopic expression promotes the death of otherwise healthy cerebellar granule neurons and cortical neurons in culture. The neurotoxic effect of HDAC1 requires interaction and cooperation with HDAC3, which has previously been shown to selectively induce the death of neurons. HDAC1-HDAC3 interaction is greatly elevated under conditions of neurodegeneration both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the knockdown of HDAC3 suppresses HDAC1-induced neurotoxicity, and the knockdown of HDAC1 suppresses HDAC3 neurotoxicity. As described previously for HDAC3, the neurotoxic effect of HDAC1 is inhibited by treatment with IGF-1, the expression of Akt, or the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). In addition to HDAC3, HDAC1 has been shown to interact with histone deacetylase-related protein (HDRP), a truncated form of HDAC9, whose expression is down-regulated during neuronal death. In contrast to HDAC3, the interaction between HDRP and HDAC1 protects neurons from death, an effect involving acquisition of the deacetylase activity of HDAC1 by HDRP. We find that elevated HDRP inhibits HDAC1-HDAC3 interaction and prevents the neurotoxic effect of either of these two proteins. Together, our results suggest that HDAC1 is a molecular switch between neuronal survival and death. Its interaction with HDRP promotes neuronal survival, whereas interaction with HDAC3 results in neuronal death. PMID:22918830

  9. Non-cell autonomous influence of the astrocyte system xc- on hypoglycaemic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Nicole A; Melchior, Shannon E; Hewett, James A; Hewett, Sandra J

    2012-02-08

    Despite longstanding evidence that hypoglycaemic neuronal injury is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that the excitotoxic neuronal death that follows GD (glucose deprivation) is initiated by glutamate extruded from astrocytes via system xc---an amino acid transporter that imports L-cystine and exports L-glutamate. Specifically, we find that depriving mixed cortical cell cultures of glucose for up to 8 h injures neurons, but not astrocytes. Neuronal death is prevented by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonism and is partially sensitive to tetanus toxin. Removal of amino acids during the deprivation period prevents--whereas addition of L-cystine restores--GD-induced neuronal death, implicating the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-. Indeed, drugs known to inhibit system xc- ameliorate GD-induced neuronal death. Further, a dramatic reduction in neuronal death is observed in chimaeric cultures consisting of neurons derived from WT (wild-type) mice plated on top of astrocytes derived from sut mice, which harbour a naturally occurring null mutation in the gene (Slc7a11) that encodes the substrate-specific light chain of system xc- (xCT). Finally, enhancement of astrocytic system xc- expression and function via IL-1β (interleukin-1β) exposure potentiates hypoglycaemic neuronal death, the process of which is prevented by removal of l-cystine and/or addition of system xc- inhibitors. Thus, under the conditions of GD, our studies demonstrate that astrocytes, via system xc-, have a direct, non-cell autonomous effect on cortical neuron survival.

  10. LIM kinase-2 induces programmed necrotic neuronal death via dysfunction of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-E; Ryu, H J; Kim, M J; Kang, T-C

    2014-07-01

    Although the aberrant activation of cell cycle proteins has a critical role in neuronal death, effectors or mediators of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-mediated death signal are still unknown. Here, we describe a previously unsuspected role of LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2) in programmed necrotic neuronal death. Downregulation of p27(Kip1) expression by Rho kinase (ROCK) activation induced cyclin D1/CDK4 expression levels in neurons vulnerable to status epilepticus (SE). Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex subsequently increased LIMK2 expression independent of caspase-3 and receptor interacting protein kinase 1 activity. In turn, upregulated LIMK2 impaired dynamic-related protein-1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial fission without alterations in cofilin phosphorylation/expression and finally resulted in necrotic neuronal death. Inhibition of LIMK2 expression and rescue of DRP1 function attenuated this programmed necrotic neuronal death induced by SE. Therefore, we suggest that the ROCK-p27(Kip1)-cyclin D1/CDK4-LIMK2-DRP1-mediated programmed necrosis may be new therapeutic targets for neuronal death.

  11. MITOCHONDRIA-DERIVED REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES MEDIATE CASPASE- DEPENDENT AND-INDEPENDENT NEURONAL DEATH

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Meagan J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria-targeted drugs that effectively decrease oxidative stress, protect mitochondrial energetics, and prevent neuronal loss may therefore lend therapeutic benefit to these currently incurable diseases. To investigate the efficacy of such drugs, we examined the effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ10 and MitoE2 on neuronal death induced by neurotrophin deficiency. Our results indicate that MitoQ10 blocked apoptosis by preventing increased mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and mitochondrial damage in nerve growth factor (NGF)-deprived sympathetic neurons, while MitoE2 was largely ineffective. In this paradigm, the most proximal point of divergence was the ability of MitoQ10 to scavenge mitochondrial superoxide (O2•−). MitoQ10 also prevented caspase-independent neuronal death in these cells demonstrating that the mitochondrial redox state significantly influences both apoptotic and nonapoptotic pathways leading to neuronal death. We suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may provide tools for delineating the role and significance of mitochondrial ROS in neuronal death and provide a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative conditions involving trophic factor deficits and multiple modes of cell death. PMID:25239010

  12. Bee Venom Protects against Rotenone-Induced Cell Death in NSC34 Motor Neuron Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, So Young; Lee, Kang-Woo; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-09-01

    Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is known to elevate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis via activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Bee venom (BV) extracted from honey bees has been widely used in oriental medicine and contains melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and phospholipase A₂. In this study, we tested the effects of BV on neuronal cell death by examining rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. NSC34 motor neuron cells were pretreated with 2.5 μg/mL BV and stimulated with 10 μM rotenone to induce cell toxicity. We assessed cell death by Western blotting using specific antibodies, such as phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-JNK, and cleaved capase-3 and performed an MTT assay for evaluation of cell death and mitochondria staining. Pretreatment with 2.5 μg/mL BV had a neuroprotective effect against 10 μM rotenone-induced cell death in NSC34 motor neuron cells. Pre-treatment with BV significantly enhanced cell viability and ameliorated mitochondrial impairment in rotenone-treated cellular model. Moreover, BV treatment inhibited the activation of JNK signaling and cleaved caspase-3 related to cell death and increased ERK phosphorylation involved in cell survival in rotenone-treated NSC34 motor neuron cells. Taken together, we suggest that BV treatment can be useful for protection of neurons against oxidative stress or neurotoxin-induced cell death. PMID:26402700

  13. Bee Venom Protects against Rotenone-Induced Cell Death in NSC34 Motor Neuron Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, So Young; Lee, Kang-Woo; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is known to elevate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis via activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Bee venom (BV) extracted from honey bees has been widely used in oriental medicine and contains melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and phospholipase A2. In this study, we tested the effects of BV on neuronal cell death by examining rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. NSC34 motor neuron cells were pretreated with 2.5 μg/mL BV and stimulated with 10 μM rotenone to induce cell toxicity. We assessed cell death by Western blotting using specific antibodies, such as phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-JNK, and cleaved capase-3 and performed an MTT assay for evaluation of cell death and mitochondria staining. Pretreatment with 2.5 μg/mL BV had a neuroprotective effect against 10 μM rotenone-induced cell death in NSC34 motor neuron cells. Pre-treatment with BV significantly enhanced cell viability and ameliorated mitochondrial impairment in rotenone-treated cellular model. Moreover, BV treatment inhibited the activation of JNK signaling and cleaved caspase-3 related to cell death and increased ERK phosphorylation involved in cell survival in rotenone-treated NSC34 motor neuron cells. Taken together, we suggest that BV treatment can be useful for protection of neurons against oxidative stress or neurotoxin-induced cell death. PMID:26402700

  14. Casein kinase 1 suppresses activation of REST in insulted hippocampal neurons and halts ischemia-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naoki; Hwang, Jee-Yeon; Gertner, Michael; Pontarelli, Fabrizio; Zukin, R Suzanne

    2014-04-23

    Repressor Element-1 (RE1) Silencing Transcription Factor/Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor (REST/NRSF) is a gene-silencing factor that is widely expressed during embryogenesis and plays a strategic role in neuronal differentiation. Recent studies indicate that REST can be activated in differentiated neurons during a critical window of time in postnatal development and in adult neurons in response to neuronal insults such as seizures and ischemia. However, the mechanism by which REST is regulated in neurons is as yet unknown. Here, we show that REST is controlled at the level of protein stability via β-TrCP-dependent, ubiquitin-based proteasomal degradation in differentiated neurons under physiological conditions and identify Casein Kinase 1 (CK1) as an upstream effector that bidirectionally regulates REST cellular abundance. CK1 associates with and phosphorylates REST at two neighboring, but distinct, motifs within the C terminus of REST critical for binding of β-TrCP and targeting of REST for proteasomal degradation. We further show that global ischemia in rats in vivo triggers a decrease in CK1 and an increase in REST in selectively vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons. Administration of the CK1 activator pyrvinium pamoate by in vivo injection immediately after ischemia restores CK1 activity, suppresses REST expression, and rescues neurons destined to die. Our results identify a novel and previously unappreciated role for CK1 as a brake on REST stability and abundance in adult neurons and reveal that loss of CK1 is causally related to ischemia-induced neuronal death. These findings point to CK1 as a potential therapeutic target for the amelioration of hippocampal injury and cognitive deficits associated with global ischemia. PMID:24760862

  15. Endogenous recovery after brain damage: molecular mechanisms that balance neuronal life/death fate.

    PubMed

    Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B; Penagos-Puig, Andrés; Ramírez-Jarquín, Josué O

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal survival depends on multiple factors that comprise a well-fueled energy metabolism, trophic input, clearance of toxic substances, appropriate redox environment, integrity of blood-brain barrier, suppression of programmed cell death pathways and cell cycle arrest. Disturbances of brain homeostasis lead to acute or chronic alterations that might ultimately cause neuronal death with consequent impairment of neurological function. Although we understand most of these processes well when they occur independently from one another, we still lack a clear grasp of the concerted cellular and molecular mechanisms activated upon neuronal damage that intervene in protecting damaged neurons from death. In this review, we summarize a handful of endogenously activated mechanisms that balance molecular cues so as to determine whether neurons recover from injury or die. We center our discussion on mechanisms that have been identified to participate in stroke, although we consider different scenarios of chronic neurodegeneration as well. We discuss two central processes that are involved in endogenous repair and that, when not regulated, could lead to tissue damage, namely, trophic support and neuroinflammation. We emphasize the need to construct integrated models of neuronal degeneration and survival that, in the end, converge in neuronal fate after injury. Under neurodegenerative conditions, endogenously activated mechanisms balance out molecular cues that determine whether neurons contend toxicity or die. Many processes involved in endogenous repair may as well lead to tissue damage depending on the strength of stimuli. Signaling mediated by trophic factors and neuroinflammation are examples of these processes as they regulate different mechanisms that mediate neuronal demise including necrosis, apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and autophagy. In this review, we discuss recent findings on balanced regulation and their involvement in neuronal death.

  16. Neuronal cell death in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Northington, Frances J; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Martin, Lee J

    2011-05-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. Therapeutic opportunities are very limited for neonatal and pediatric HIE. Specific neural systems and populations of cells are selectively vulnerable in HIE; however, the mechanisms of degeneration are unresolved. These mechanisms involve oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and the activation of several different cell death pathways. Decades ago the structural and mechanistic basis of the cellular degeneration in HIE was thought to be necrosis. Subsequently, largely due to advances in cell biology and to experimental animal studies, emphasis has been switched to apoptosis or autophagy mediated by programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms as important forms of degeneration in HIE. We have conceptualized based on morphological and biochemical data that this degeneration is better classified according to an apoptosis-necrosis cell death continuum and that programmed cell necrosis has prominent contribution in the neurodegeneration of HIE in animal models. It is likely that neonatal HIE evolves through many cell death chreodes influenced by the dynamic injury landscape. The relevant injury mechanisms remain to be determined in human neonatal HIE, though preliminary work suggests a complexity in the cell death mechanisms greater than that anticipated from experimental animal models. The accurate identification of the various cell death chreodes and their mechanisms unfolding within the immature brain matrix could provide fresh insight for developing meaningful therapies for neonatal and pediatric HIE. PMID:21520238

  17. Neuronal Cell Death in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Northington, Frances J.; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Martin, Lee J.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. Therapeutic opportunities are very limited for neonatal and pediatric HIE. Specific neural systems and populations of cells are selectively vulnerable in HIE; however, the mechanisms of degeneration are unresolved. These mechanisms involve oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and the activation of several different cell death pathways. Decades ago the structural and mechanistic basis of the cellular degeneration in HIE was thought to be necrosis. Subsequently, largely due to advances in cell biology and to experimental animal studies, emphasis has been switched to apoptosis or autophagy mediated by programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms as important forms of degeneration in HIE. We have conceptualized based on morphological and biochemical data that this degeneration is better classified according to an apoptosis-necrosis cell death continuum and that programmed cell necrosis has prominent contribution in the neurodegeneration of HIE in animal models. It is likely that neonatal HIE evolves through many cell death chreodes influenced by the dynamic injury landscape. The relevant injury mechanisms remain to be determined in human neonatal HIE, though preliminary work suggests a complexity in the cell death mechanisms greater than that anticipated from experimental animal models. The accurate identification of the various cell death chreodes and their mechanisms unfolding within the immature brain matrix could provide fresh insight for developing meaningful therapies for neonatal and pediatric HIE. PMID:21520238

  18. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice.

  19. Clinical implications of the involvement of tPA in neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Tsirka, S E

    1997-05-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the serine protease that converts inactive plasminogen to the protease plasmin, was recently shown to mediate neurodegeneration in the mouse hippocampus. Mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) display a dramatic resistance to a paradigm of excitotoxic neuronal death that involves intrahippocampal injection of the excitotoxin. This model is thought to reproduce the mechanism of neuronal death observed during acute (such as ischemic stroke) and degenerative (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) diseases of the nervous system. The requirement for the proteolytic activity of tPA to mediate neuronal death is acute in the adult mouse. Serine protease inhibitors, specific for tPA or the tPA/plasmin proteolytic cascade, are effective in conferring extensive neuroprotection following the excitotoxic injection. These findings suggest possible new ways for interfering with the neuronal death observed in the hippocampus as a result of excitotoxicity. In addition, tPA is produced in the hippocampus primarily by microglial cells, which become activated in response to the neuronal injury. Blocking microglial activation has been shown in other injury paradigms to protect against neuronal death, therefore suggesting another way to retard neurodegeneration in the CNS. Furthermore, after the insult has been inflicted and in the presence of a compromised blood-brain barrier macrophages (cells deriving from the same lineage as microglia) migrate into the brain, where they are thought to contribute to the neuronal cell loss by secreting neurotoxic molecules. If these macrophages/microglia expressed, however, a tPA inhibitor, rather than the possibly neurotoxic tPA, they might be able to protect the neurons from dying.

  20. Sources of trophic factors that induce limb regeneration and prevent amputation-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Sisken, B F; Fowler, I; Barr, E

    1986-06-01

    Segments of 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-day neural tube, or of 15-day peripheral nerve were implanted longitudinally into limb stumps of 4-day chick embryos whose right-wing buds were amputated at the future elbow region. Stumps of amputated limbs (ALs) implanted with 7-day heart or without implant served as controls. Effects of progressively older neural tube implants (NTIs) upon ALs and host spinal cord neurons were analyzed by area measurements of the peripheral limb field (PLF) and NTI and by cell counts of the host lateral motor column (LMC). Nine days postamputation, 2- and 4-day NTIs contained many neurons and induced epimorphic regeneration in more than one-fourth of the embryos. Six-day NTIs contained few neurons and induced only tissue regeneration. Eight-day NTIs and peripheral nerve containing only non-neuronal cells were as ineffective as controls in stimulating regeneration, although peripheral nerve did cause a significant increase in the peripheral field. The NTIs of all ages and implants of peripheral nerve were equally effective in protecting LMC neurons from amputation-induced cell death in the host spinal cord. The results may indicate that neurons of the implant induce limb regeneration and non-neuronal cells of the implant protect against LMC neuronal death.

  1. Inflammation without neuronal death triggers striatal neurogenesis comparable to stroke.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Katie Z; Ge, Ruimin; Monni, Emanuela; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Ahlenius, Henrik; Arvidsson, Andreas; Ekdahl, Christine T; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic stroke triggers neurogenesis from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of newly formed neuroblasts toward the damaged striatum where they differentiate to mature neurons. Whether it is the injury per se or the associated inflammation that gives rise to this endogenous neurogenic response is unknown. Here we showed that inflammation without corresponding neuronal loss caused by intrastriatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection leads to striatal neurogenesis in rats comparable to that after a 30 min middle cerebral artery occlusion, as characterized by striatal DCX+ neuroblast recruitment and mature NeuN+/BrdU+ neuron formation. Using global gene expression analysis, changes in several factors that could potentially regulate striatal neurogenesis were identified in microglia sorted from SVZ and striatum of LPS-injected and stroke-subjected rats. Among the upregulated factors, one chemokine, CXCL13, was found to promote neuroblast migration from neonatal mouse SVZ explants in vitro. However, neuroblast migration to the striatum was not affected in constitutive CXCL13 receptor CXCR5(-/-) mice subjected to stroke. Infarct volume and pro-inflammatory M1 microglia/macrophage density were increased in CXCR5(-/-) mice, suggesting that microglia-derived CXCL13, acting through CXCR5, might be involved in neuroprotection following stroke. Our findings raise the possibility that the inflammation accompanying an ischemic insult is the major inducer of striatal neurogenesis after stroke.

  2. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP+-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP+ treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP+ induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP+ at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP+-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP+ depending on extracellular glucose levels. PMID:26412968

  3. Low-Dose Bafilomycin Attenuates Neuronal Cell Death Associated with Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Harrington, Adam J.; Mader, Burton J.; Luker, Austin M.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Caldwell, Kim A.; Roth, Kevin A.; Shacka, John J.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown previously that the plecomacrolide antibiotics bafilomycin A1 and B1 significantly attenuate cerebellar granule neuron death resulting from agents that disrupt lysosome function. To further characterize bafilomycin-mediated cytoprotection, we examined its ability to attenuate the death of naïve and differentiated neuronal SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells from agents that induce lysosome dysfunction in vitro, and from in vivo dopaminergic neuron death in C. elegans. Low-dose bafilomycin significantly attenuated SH-SY5Y cell death resulting from treatment with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine amodiaquine and staurosporine. Bafilomycin also attenuated the chloroquine-induced reduction in processing of cathepsin D, the principal lysosomal aspartic acid protease, to its mature “active” form. Chloroquine induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and inhibited autophagic flux, effects that were attenuated upon treatment with bafilomycin and were associated with a significant decrease in chloroquine-induced accumulation of detergent-insoluble α-synuclein oligomers. In addition, bafilomycin significantly and dose-dependently attenuated dopaminergic neuron death in C. elegans resulting from in vivo over-expression of human wild-type α-synuclein. Together, our findings suggest that low-dose bafilomycin is cytoprotective in part through its maintenance of the autophagy-lysosome pathway, and underscores its therapeutic potential for treating Parkinson Disease and other neurodegenerative diseases that exhibit disruption of protein degradation pathways and accumulation of toxic protein species. PMID:20534000

  4. Neuronal life and death: an essential role for the p53 family.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Pozniak, C D; Walsh, G S

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the p53 tumor suppressor protein, and its related family member, p73, play an essential role in regulating neuronal apoptosis in both the developing and injured, mature nervous system. In the developing nervous system, they do so by regulating naturally-occurring cell death in neural progenitor cells and in postmitotic neurons, acting to ensure the apoptosis of cells that either do not appropriately undergo the progenitor to postmitotic neuron transition, or that fail to compete for sufficient quantities of trophic support. Somewhat surprisingly, in developing postmitotic neurons, p53 plays a proapoptotic role, while a naturally-occurring, truncated form of p73, DeltaNp73, antagonizes p53 and plays an anti-apoptotic role. In the mature nervous system, numerous studies indicate that p53 is essential for the neuronal death in response to a variety of insults, including DNA damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity. It is likely that all of these insults culminate in DNA damage, which may well be a common trigger for neuronal apoptosis. In this regard, the signaling pathways that are responsible for triggering p53-dependent neuronal apoptosis are starting to be elucidated, and involve cell cycle deregulation and activation of the JNK pathway. Finally, accumulating evidence indicates that p53 is perturbed in the CNS in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, leading to the hypothesis that longterm oxidative damage and/or excitotoxicity ultimately trigger p53-dependent apoptosis in the chronically degenerating nervous system.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of pentosan polysulphate on ischemia-related neuronal death of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sakurai-Yamashita, Yasuko; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Niwa, Masami

    2006-11-27

    Pentosan polysulphate (PPS) negatively charged sulphated glycosaminoglycan was studied in ischemia-related hippocampal neuronal death and compared with a low molecular weight of heparin, named dalteparin in rats. Transient global ischemia was produced by four vessel-occlusion, the occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries following the electrocautherization of the vertebral arteries. 3mg/kg of PPS or 300IU/kg of dalteparin was administered i.v. immediately after 7min-occlusion/reperfusion. Seven days after the operation, the animals were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde, and paraffinized coronal brain sections measuring 6microm in thickness were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal damage was then estimated as a ratio of the number of degenerated neurons to that of both the surviving and degenerated neurons in three distinct area of the CA1 subfield. The ratio of neuronal death increased with the length of the occlusion-time, at 5, 7 and 10min. Both PPS and dalteparin significantly inhibited the neuronal damage induced by 7min-occlusion. These results demonstrated that both PPS and dalteparin could thus protect brain neurons against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage thus suggesting that they may be potentially useful therapeutic agents for acute ischemic stroke.

  6. Neuronal life and death: an essential role for the p53 family.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Pozniak, C D; Walsh, G S

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the p53 tumor suppressor protein, and its related family member, p73, play an essential role in regulating neuronal apoptosis in both the developing and injured, mature nervous system. In the developing nervous system, they do so by regulating naturally-occurring cell death in neural progenitor cells and in postmitotic neurons, acting to ensure the apoptosis of cells that either do not appropriately undergo the progenitor to postmitotic neuron transition, or that fail to compete for sufficient quantities of trophic support. Somewhat surprisingly, in developing postmitotic neurons, p53 plays a proapoptotic role, while a naturally-occurring, truncated form of p73, DeltaNp73, antagonizes p53 and plays an anti-apoptotic role. In the mature nervous system, numerous studies indicate that p53 is essential for the neuronal death in response to a variety of insults, including DNA damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity. It is likely that all of these insults culminate in DNA damage, which may well be a common trigger for neuronal apoptosis. In this regard, the signaling pathways that are responsible for triggering p53-dependent neuronal apoptosis are starting to be elucidated, and involve cell cycle deregulation and activation of the JNK pathway. Finally, accumulating evidence indicates that p53 is perturbed in the CNS in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, leading to the hypothesis that longterm oxidative damage and/or excitotoxicity ultimately trigger p53-dependent apoptosis in the chronically degenerating nervous system. PMID:11279533

  7. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by tributyltin induces neuronal cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro Hino, Atsuko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the metabolite-sensing protein kinase family, is activated by energy deficiency and is abundantly expressed in neurons. The environmental pollutant, tributyltin chloride (TBT), is a neurotoxin, and has been reported to decrease cellular ATP in some types of cells. Therefore, we investigated whether TBT activates AMPK, and whether its activation contributes to neuronal cell death, using primary cultures of cortical neurons. Cellular ATP levels were decreased 0.5 h after exposure to 500 nM TBT, and the reduction was time-dependent. It was confirmed that most neurons in our culture system express AMPK, and that TBT induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced the neurotoxicity of TBT, suggesting that AMPK is involved in TBT-induced cell death. Next, the downstream target of AMPK activation was investigated. Nitric oxide synthase, p38 phosphorylation and Akt dephosphorylation were not downstream of TBT-induced AMPK activation because these factors were not affected by compound C, but glutamate release was suggested to be controlled by AMPK. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by TBT causes neuronal death through mediating glutamate release.

  8. METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED CELL DEATH: SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY IN NEURONAL SUBPOPULATIONS OF THE STRIATUM IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, J. P. Q.; XU, W.; ANGULO, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit and potent psychostimulant, which acts as an indirect dopamine agonist. In the striatum, METH has been shown to cause long lasting neurotoxic damage to dopaminergic nerve terminals and recently, the degeneration and death of striatal cells. The present study was undertaken to identify the type of striatal neurons that undergo apoptosis after METH. Male mice received a single high dose of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 h later. To demonstrate that METH induces apoptosis in neurons, we combined terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining with immunohistofluorescence for the neuronal marker neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). Staining for TUNEL and NeuN was colocalized throughout the striatum. METH induces apoptosis in approximately 25% of striatal neurons. Cell counts of TUNEL-positive neurons in the dorsomedial, ventromedial, dorsolateral and ventrolateral quadrants of the striatum did not reveal anatomical preference. The type of striatal neuron undergoing cell death was determined by combining TUNEL with immunohistofluorescence for selective markers of striatal neurons: dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, of apparent Mr 32,000, parvalbumin, choline acetyltransferase and somatostatin (SST). METH induces apoptosis in approximately 21% of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, of apparent Mr 32,000-positive neurons (projection neurons), 45% of GABA-parvalbumin-positive neurons in the dorsal striatum, and 29% of cholinergic neurons in the dorsal–medial striatum. In contrast, the SST-positive interneurons were refractory to METH-induced apoptosis. Finally, the amount of cell loss determined with Nissl staining correlated with the amount of TUNEL staining in the striatum of METH-treated animals. In conclusion, some of the striatal projection neurons and the GABA-parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons were removed by apoptosis in the aftermath of METH. This

  9. Expression level of P2X7 receptor is a determinant of ATP-induced death of mouse cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, A; Keno, Y; Marumiya, A; Sudo, Y; Uda, Y; Matsuda, K; Morita, Y; Furuta, T; Nishida, K; Nagasawa, K

    2016-04-01

    Activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a purinergic receptor, expressed by neurons is well-known to induce their death, but whether or not their sensitivity to ATP depends on its expression levels remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of the expression level of P2X7Rs on cell viability using pure neuron cultures, co-cultures with astrocytes derived from SJL- and ddY-strain mice, and mouse P2X7R-expressing HEK293T cell systems. Treatment of pure neuron cultures with 5mM ATP for 2h, followed by 3-h incubation in fresh medium, resulted in death of both types of neurons, and their death was prevented by administration of P2X7R-specific antagonists. In both SJL- and ddY-neurons, ATP-induced neuronal death was inhibited by a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A, mitochondrial dysfunction being involved in their death. The ATP-induced neuronal death was greater for SJL-neurons than for ddY-ones, this being correlated with the expression level of P2X7R in them, and the same results were obtained for the HEK293T cell systems. Co-culture of neurons with astrocytes increased the ATP-induced neuronal death compared to the case of pure neuron cultures. Overall, we reveal that neuronal vulnerability to ATP depends on the expression level of P2X7R, and co-existence of astrocytes exacerbates ATP-induced neuronal death.

  10. Dexamethasone enhances necrosis-like neuronal death in ischemic rat hippocampus involving μ-calpain activation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2014-11-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) leads to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell death which is aggravated by glucocorticoids (GC). It is unknown how GC affect apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the co-localization of activated caspase-3 (casp-3) with apoptosis- and necrosis-like cell death morphologies in CA1 of rats treated with dexamethasone prior to TFI (DPTI). In addition, apoptosis- (casp-9, casp-3, casp-3-cleaved PARP and cleaved α-spectrin 145/150 and 120kDa) and necrosis-related (calpain-specific casp-9 cleavage, μ-calpain upregulation and cleaved α-spectrin 145/150kDa) cell death mechanisms were investigated by Western blot analysis. DPTI expedited CA1 neuronal death from day 4 to day 1 and increased the magnitude of CA1 neuronal death from 66.2% to 91.3% at day 7. Furthermore, DPTI decreased the overall (days 1-7) percentage of dying neurons displaying apoptosis-like morphology from 4.7% to 0.3% and, conversely, increased the percentage of neurons with necrosis-like morphology from 95.3% to 99.7%. In animals subjected to TFI without dexamethasone (ischemia-only), 7.4% of all dying CA1 neurons were casp-3-immunoreactive (IR), of which 3.1% co-localized with apoptosis-like and 4.3% with necrosis-like changes. By contrast, DPTI decreased the percentage of dying neurons with casp-3 IR to 1.4%, of which 0.3% co-localized with apoptosis-like changes and 1.1% with necrosis-like changes. Western blot analysis from DPTI animals showed a significant elevation of μ-calpain, a calpain-produced necrosis-related casp-9 fragment (25kDa) and cleavage of α-spectrin into 145/150kDa fragments at day 4, whereas in ischemia-only animals a significant increase of casp-3-cleaved PARP, cleavage of α-spectrin into 145/150 and 120kDa fragments was detected at day 7. We conclude that DPTI, in addition to augmenting and expediting CA1 neuronal death, causes a shift from apoptosis-like cell death to necrosis involving μ-calpain activation.

  11. Regulation of ceramide-induced neuronal death: cell metabolism meets neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Gonzalo; Morales, Luis Carlos; Benítez, Bruno; Arboleda, Humberto

    2009-03-01

    The present review explores the role of ceramides in neuronal apoptosis, as well as the recent discovery of the signaling pathways involved in this process placing particular emphasis on the correlation between cellular metabolism and neuronal death. Endogenous levels of ceramides are increased following various pro-apoptotic stimuli which have been identified as potential causes of chronic and acute neurodegenerative diseases. Ceramides induce changes in multiple enzymes and cell signaling components. The early inhibition of the neuronal survival pathway regulated by phosphatidil-inositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B or AKT mediated by ceramide may be a relevant early event in the decision of neuronal survival/death. It may perturb several molecular and metabolic functions. In particular it might decrease glycolysis through rapid modulation of hexokinase activity. This would in turn generate limited amounts of mitochondrial substrates leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis. Subtle and early metabolic alterations caused by inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway mediated by ceramide may potentially work with genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Together they may be determinant steps in downstream events leading to neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, reinforcement of the PI3K/AKT pathway could constitute an important neuroprotective strategy.

  12. Pro-NGF secreted by astrocytes promotes motor neuron cell death

    PubMed Central

    Domeniconi, Marco; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Chao, Moses V.

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that motor neurons depend for their survival on many trophic factors. In this study, we show that the precursor form of NGF (proNGF) can induce the death of motor neurons via engagement of the p75 neurotrophin receptor. The pro-apoptotic activity was dependent upon the presence of sortilin, a p75 co-receptor expressed on motor neurons. One potential source of proNGF is reactive astrocytes, which upregulate the levels of proNGF in response to peroxynitrite, an oxidant and producer of free radicals. Indeed, motor neuron viability was sensitive to conditioned media from cultured astrocytes treated with peroxynitrite and this effect could be reversed using a specific antibody against the pro-domain of proNGF. These results are consistent with a role for activated astrocytes and proNGF in the induction of motor neuron death and suggest a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of motor neuron disease. PMID:17188890

  13. Induced expression of neuronal membrane attack complex and cell death by Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Sullivan, T; Lee, C M; Meri, S; Shiosaki, K; Lin, C W

    1998-06-15

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) and complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC) are co-localized in senile plaques of brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. But the relationship between A beta and complement activation is unclear. We have used human neurotypic cells, differentiated SH-SY5Y, as a model system to examine regulation of neuronal MAC expression and cell death by A beta. We demonstrated that mRNAs (C1q, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9) and proteins (C1q, C3 and C9) for the major components of the classical complement cascade are present in the SH-SY5Y neurotypic cells, indicating that neuronal cells can synthesize the necessary proteins required for MAC formation. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies showed the A beta-induced neuronal MAC expression on the SH-SY5Y cells after CD59 was removed by PIPLC or blocked by anti-CD59 antibody. Meanwhile, increased A beta-induced neuronal cell death was observed following treatment with anti-CD59. Taken together, these results suggest that A beta activates neuronal complement cascade to induce MAC, and a deficiency of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, e.g., CD59, may increase the vulnerability of neurons to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:9689469

  14. TRPV1 Activation in Primary Cortical Neurons Induces Calcium-Dependent Programmed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Jun Hong; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2013-03-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a receptor that detects capsaicin, a pungent component of chili peppers, and noxious heat. Although its function in the primary nociceptor as a pain receptor is well established, whether TRPV1 is expressed in the brain is still under debate. In this study, the responses of primary cortical neurons were investigated. Here, we report that 1) capsaicin induces caspase-3-dependent programmed cell death, which coincides with increased production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite ; that 2) the prolonged capsaicin treatment induces a steady increase in the degree of capase-3 activation, which is prevented by the removal of capsaicin; 3) and that blocking calcium entry and calcium-mediated signaling prevents capsaicin-induced cell death. These results indicate that cortical neurons express TRPV1 whose prolonged activation causes cell death. PMID:23585723

  15. Reduced expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 and collapsin response mediator protein 1 promotes death of spinal cord neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurnellas, M P; Li, H; Jain, M R; Giraud, S N; Nicot, A B; Ratnayake, A; Heary, R F; Elkabes, S

    2010-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying neuronal pathology and death in the spinal cord (SC) during inflammation remain elusive. We previously showed the important role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) in the survival of SC neurons, in vitro. We also postulated that a decrease in PMCA2 expression could cause neuronal death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The current studies were undertaken to define the specific contribution of PMCA2 to degeneration of SC neurons, the effectors downstream to PMCA2 mediating neuronal death and the triggers that reduce PMCA2 expression. We report that knockdown of PMCA2 in SC neurons decreases collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) levels. This is followed by cell death. Silencing of CRMP1 expression also leads to neuronal loss. Kainic acid reduces both PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels and induces neuronal death. Administration of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist, at onset or peak of EAE, restores the decreased PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels to control values and ameliorates clinical deficits. Thus, our data link the reduction in PMCA2 expression with perturbations in the expression of CRMP1 and the ensuing death of SC neurons. This represents an additional mechanism underlying AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity with relevance to neurodegeneration in EAE. PMID:20489728

  16. Methoxychlor and fenvalerate induce neuronal death by reducing GluR2 expression.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kanae; Kotake, Yaichiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Ishida, Keishi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    GluR2, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, plays important roles in neuronal survival. We previously showed that exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to several chemicals decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal toxicity. Methoxychlor, the bis-p-methoxy derivative of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid chemical, have been used commercially as agricultural pesticides in several countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term methoxychlor and fenvalerate exposure on neuronal glutamate receptors. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with 1 or 10 µM methoxychlor and fenvalerate for 9 days selectively decreased GluR2 protein expression; the expression of other AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4 did not change under the same conditions. Importantly, the decreases in GluR2 protein expression were also observed on the cell surface membrane where AMPA receptors typically function. In addition, both chemicals decreased neuronal viability, which was blocked by pretreatment with 1-naphtylacetylspermine, an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors, and MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that long-term exposure to methoxychlor and fenvalerate decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal death via overactivation of GluR2-lacking AMPA and NMDA receptors.

  17. Procaspase-activating compound 1 induces a caspase-3-dependent cell death in cerebellar granule neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Gulzeb; Akselsen, Oyvind W.; Hansen, Trond V.; Paulsen, Ragnhild E.

    2010-09-15

    Procaspase-activating compound 1, PAC-1, has been introduced as a direct activator of procaspase-3 and has been suggested as a therapeutic agent against cancer. Its activation of procaspase-3 is dependent on the chelation of zinc. We have tested PAC-1 and an analogue of PAC-1 as zinc chelators in vitro as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 and induce cell death in chicken cerebellar granule neuron cultures. These neurons are non-dividing, primary cells with normal caspase-3. The results reported herein show that PAC-1 chelates zinc, activates procaspase-3, and leads to caspase-3-dependent cell death in neurons, as the specific caspase-3-inhibitor Ac-DEVD-cmk inhibited both the caspase-3 activity and cell death. Thus, chicken cerebellar granule neurons is a suitable model to study mechanisms of interference with apoptosis of PAC-1 and similar compounds. Furthermore, the present study also raises concern about potential neurotoxicity of PAC-1 if used in cancer therapy.

  18. Long-term treadmill exercise overcomes ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Kim, Hong; Kim, Jee-Youn; Yoon, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Chul; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2005-04-13

    It has been suggested that exercise may ameliorate neurologic impairment by impeding neuronal loss following various brain insults. In the present study, the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on short-term memory and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following transient global ischemia in gerbils was investigated. A step-down inhibitory avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were used for this study. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid arteries of gerbils for 5 min. Gerbils in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. The present results reveal that treadmill exercise for 4 weeks improved short-term memory by suppressing the ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. Here in this study, we show that long-term treadmill exercise for 4 weeks overcomes the ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and thus facilitates the recovery of short-term memory impairment induced by ischemic cerebral injury.

  19. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. )

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  20. Cell Death, Neuronal Plasticity and Functional Loading in the Development of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Research on the precise timing and regulation of neuron production and maturation in the vestibular and visual systems of Wistar rats and several inbred strains of mice (C57B16 and Pallid mutant) concentrated upon establishing a timing baseline for mitotic development of the neurons of the vestibular nuclei and the peripheral vestibular sensory structures (maculae, cristae). This involved studies of the timing and site of neuronal cell birth and preliminary studies of neuronal cell death in both central and peripheral elements of the mammalian vestibular system. Studies on neuronal generation and maturation in the retina were recently added to provide a mechanism for more properly defining the in utero' developmental age of the individual fetal subject and to closely monitor potential transplacental effects of environmentally stressed maternal systems. Information is given on current efforts concentrating upon the (1) perinatal period of development (E18 thru P14) and (2) the role of cell death in response to variation in the functional loading of the vestibular and proprioreceptive systems in developing mammalian organisms.

  1. Cardiac arrest triggers hippocampal neuronal death through autophagic and apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Derong; Shang, Hanbing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of neuronal death induced by ischemic injury remains unknown. We investigated whether autophagy and p53 signaling played a role in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, in a rat model of 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Increased autophagosome numbers, expression of lysosomal cathepsin B, cathepsin D, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) suggested autophagy in hippocampal cells. The expression of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and its target genes: Bax, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) were upregulated following CA. The p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) significantly reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and PUMA) and autophagic proteins (LC3-II and DRAM) that generally increase following CA. PFT-α also reduced hippocampal neuronal damage following CA. Similarly, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which inhibits autophagy and bafilomycin A1 (BFA), which inhibits lysosomes, significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal damage after CA. These results indicate that CA affects both autophagy and apoptosis, partially mediated by p53. Autophagy plays a significant role in hippocampal neuronal death induced by cerebral I/R following asphyxial-CA. PMID:27273382

  2. Cardiac arrest triggers hippocampal neuronal death through autophagic and apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Derong; Shang, Hanbing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of neuronal death induced by ischemic injury remains unknown. We investigated whether autophagy and p53 signaling played a role in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, in a rat model of 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Increased autophagosome numbers, expression of lysosomal cathepsin B, cathepsin D, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) suggested autophagy in hippocampal cells. The expression of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and its target genes: Bax, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) were upregulated following CA. The p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) significantly reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and PUMA) and autophagic proteins (LC3-II and DRAM) that generally increase following CA. PFT-α also reduced hippocampal neuronal damage following CA. Similarly, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which inhibits autophagy and bafilomycin A1 (BFA), which inhibits lysosomes, significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal damage after CA. These results indicate that CA affects both autophagy and apoptosis, partially mediated by p53. Autophagy plays a significant role in hippocampal neuronal death induced by cerebral I/R following asphyxial-CA. PMID:27273382

  3. Death receptors and caspases but not mitochondria are activated in the GDNF- or BDNF-deprived dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-ying; Saarma, Mart; Arumäe, Urmas

    2008-07-23

    Neurotrophic factors, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but the death pathways activated in the dopaminergic neurons by deprivation of these factors are poorly studied. We show here that deprivation of GDNF or BDNF triggers a novel mitochondria-independent death pathway in the cultured embryonic dopaminergic neurons: cytochrome c was not released from the mitochondria to cytosol, proapoptotic protein Bax was not activated, and overexpressed Bcl-xL did not block the death. Caspases were critically required, because the death was completely blocked by caspase inhibitor BAF [boc-aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone] and overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of caspase-9, -3, and -7 significantly blocked the death. Also, the death receptor pathway was involved, because blockage of caspase-8 or FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain), an adapter required for caspase-8 activation, inhibited death induced by GDNF or BDNF deprivation. Ligation of Fas by agonistic anti-Fas antibody induced apoptosis in the GDNF- or BDNF-maintained neurons, and inhibition of Fas by Fas-Fc chimera blocked the death of GDNF- or BDNF-deprived neurons, whereas FAIM(L) (long isoform of Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule) could control the activity of Fas in the dopaminergic neurons.

  4. Disrupted autophagy after spinal cord injury is associated with ER stress and neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S; Sarkar, C; Dinizo, M; Faden, A I; Koh, E Y; Lipinski, M M; Wu, J

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner. Autophagy flux is necessary for normal neuronal homeostasis and its dysfunction contributes to neuronal cell death in several neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated autophagy has been reported after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, its mechanism, cell type specificity and relationship to cell death are unknown. Using a rat model of contusive SCI, we observed accumulation of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes starting at posttrauma day 1. This was accompanied by a pronounced accumulation of autophagy substrate protein p62, indicating that early elevation of autophagy markers reflected disrupted autophagosome degradation. Levels of lysosomal protease cathepsin D and numbers of cathepsin-D-positive lysosomes were also decreased at this time, suggesting that lysosomal damage may contribute to the observed defect in autophagy flux. Normalization of p62 levels started by day 7 after SCI, and was associated with increased cathepsin D levels. At day 1 after SCI, accumulation of autophagosomes was pronounced in ventral horn motor neurons and dorsal column oligodendrocytes and microglia. In motor neurons, disruption of autophagy strongly correlated with evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As autophagy is thought to protect against ER stress, its disruption after SCI could contribute to ER-stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Consistently, motor neurons showing disrupted autophagy co-expressed ER-stress-associated initiator caspase 12 and cleaved executioner caspase 3. Together, these findings indicate that SCI causes lysosomal dysfunction that contributes to autophagy disruption and associated ER-stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:25569099

  5. Role of tissue plasminogen activator/plasmin cascade in delayed neuronal death after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Nobuo; Urano, Tetsumei

    We studied the possible involvement of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)/plasmin system on both delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus and the associated enhancement of locomotor activity in rats, after transient forebrain ischemia induced by a four-vessel occlusion (FVO). Seven days after FVO, locomotor activity was abnormally increased and, after 10 days, pyramidal cells were degraded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. FVO increased the t-PA antigen level and its activity in the hippocampus, which peaked at 4 h. Both the enhanced locomotor activity and the degradation of pyramidal cells were significantly suppressed by intracerebroventricular injection of aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor, at 4 h but not during FVO. These results suggest the importance of the t-PA/plasmin cascade during the early pathological stages of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Instigates the Rotenone Induced Oxidative Apoptotic Neuronal Death: a Study in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Gupta, Sonam; Biswas, Joyshree; Sharma, Sharad; Singh, Sarika

    2016-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rotenone-induced oxidative neuronal death in rat brain. Rotenone (6 μg/3 μl) was administered intranigrally, unilaterally (right side) in SD rat brain. Neuronal morphology, expression level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers like glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α/eIF2α) and cleaved caspase-12 were estimated in the rat brain. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) were estimated to assess the rotenone induced oxidative stress. Apoptotic death of neurons was assessed by estimating the mRNA level of caspase-3. Rotenone administration caused altered neuronal morphology, decreased expression of TH, augmented ROS level, decreased level of GSH and decreased activities of GPx and GRd enzymes which were significantly attenuated with the pretreatment of ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Significantly increased levels of GRP78, GADD, dephosphorylated eIF2α and cleaved caspase-12 was also observed after rotenone administration, which was inhibited with the pretreatment of salubrinal. Rotenone-induced increased mRNA level of caspase-3 was also attenuated by pretreatment of salubrinal. Findings suggested that salubrinal treatment significantly inhibited the rotenone-induced neurotoxicity implicating that ER stress initiates the rotenone-induced oxidative stress and neuronal death. PMID:26446018

  7. Impaired autophagy flux is associated with neuronal cell death after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zhao, Zaorui; Aungst, Stephanie; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Faden, Alan I; Lipinski, Marta M

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of autophagy contributes to neuronal cell death in several neurodegenerative and lysosomal storage diseases. Markers of autophagy are also increased after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its mechanisms and function are not known. Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) brain injury in GFP-Lc3 (green fluorescent protein-LC3) transgenic mice, we observed accumulation of autophagosomes in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus between 1 and 7 d. This accumulation was not due to increased initiation of autophagy but rather to a decrease in clearance of autophagosomes, as reflected by accumulation of the autophagic substrate SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1). This was confirmed by ex vivo studies, which demonstrated impaired autophagic flux in brain slices from injured as compared to control animals. Increased SQSTM1 peaked at d 1–3 but resolved by d 7, suggesting that the defect in autophagy flux is temporary. The early impairment of autophagy is at least in part caused by lysosomal dysfunction, as evidenced by lower protein levels and enzymatic activity of CTSD (cathepsin D). Furthermore, immediately after injury both autophagosomes and SQSTM1 accumulated predominantly in neurons. This was accompanied by appearance of SQSTM1 and ubiquitin-positive puncta in the affected cells, suggesting that, similar to the situation observed in neurodegenerative diseases, impaired autophagy may contribute to neuronal injury. Consistently, GFP-LC3 and SQSTM1 colocalized with markers of both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in neuronal cells proximal to the injury site. Taken together, our data indicated for the first time that autophagic clearance is impaired early after TBI due to lysosomal dysfunction, and correlates with neuronal cell death. PMID:25484084

  8. [Neuronal death in the neocortex of drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients].

    PubMed

    Lorigados Pedre, L; Orozco Suárez, S; Morales Chacón, L; García Maeso, I; Estupiñán Diaz, B; Bender del Busto, J E; Pavón Fuentes, N; Paula Piñero, B; Rocha Arrieta, L

    2008-11-01

    Introduction. Participation of apoptotic death mechanisms in drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (DRTLE) is currently under great debate. We have investigated if there is neuronal loss and the immunodetection to different markers in neocortical tissue death in eigth patients with DRTLE. The neocortexes of five patients deceased due to non-neurological causes, paired in age and gender were evaluated as control tissue. Methods. The evaluation of neuronal loss was made by means of a stereological study and with immunohistochemical techniques with the synaptophysin marker. Immunopositivity to different apoptotic markers (annexin V, caspase 3 and 8, bcl-2 and p53) and detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation (TUNEL) were analyzed and double labeling with synaptophysin was performed in every case. The results were evaluated with confocal microscope and analyzed with the Zeiss LSM 5 Image Browser Program, 2.80.1113 (Germany). Results. A statistically significant decrease in the total number of cells (p < 0.05) and the synaptophysin cells+ (p<0.01) in the neocortex (layer IV) of the patients with DRTLE when compared with the control tissue was found. No significant differences were found in the apoptotic markers bcl-2, p53, caspase 3 and 8 for any of the neocortex layers while there was a statistically significant increase in the number of TUNEL cells+ (p<0.05) and annexin V+ (p<0.05) in the neocortical layer IV of the patients. Conclusions. This group of evidence speaks in favor of the existence of an effect on the neuronal number in the neocortex layer IV that may be associated with noncaspase dependent apoptotic death process, without being able to rule out death by necrosis. Key words: Drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Apoptosis. Necrosis. Neuronal loss. Neurología 2008;23(9):555-565.

  9. Minocycline attenuates microglial response and reduces neuronal death after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian-yan; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qing; Yao, Shang-long

    2015-04-01

    The possible role of minocycline in microglial activation and neuronal death after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice was investigated in this study. The mice were given potassium chloride to stop the heart beating for 8 min to achieve CA, and they were subsequently resuscitated with epinephrine and chest compressions. Forty adult C57BL/6 male mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): sham-operated group, CA/CPR group, CA/CPR+minocycline group, and CA/CPR+vehicle group. Animals in the latter two groups were intraperitoneally injected with minocycline (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (normal saline) 30 min after recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Twenty-four h after CA/CPR, the brains were removed for histological evaluation of the hippocampus. Microglial activation was evaluated by detecting the expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1) by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal death was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hippocampus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the neuronal death was aggravated, most microglia were activated and TNF-α levels were enhanced in the hippocampus CA1 region of mice subjected to CA/CPR as compared with those in the sham-operated group (P<0.05). Administration with minocycline 30 min after ROSC could significantly decrease the microglial response, TNF-α levels and neuronal death (P<0.05). It was concluded that early administration with minocycline has a strong therapeutic potential for CA/CPR-induced brain injury.

  10. Role of Environmental Chemical Insult in Neuronal Cell Death and Cytoskeleton Damage.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw Htet; Tsukahara, Shinji; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Nohara, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tanoue, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Environmental influences, such as chemical exposure, have long been considered potential risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders, including neuromuscular diseases. However, no definitive links between environmental chemical exposure and a pathogenic mechanism of neurodegenerative disease has yet been established. In this study, we describe that exposure to arsenic, an environmental pollutant naturally found in drinking water, induces neuronal cell death and alteration of morphology, particularly neurite outgrowth and in the cytoskeleton of neurons. Since progressive cell loss accompanied by the alteration of neuronal structures and cytoskeleton is considered the major pathologic feature of neurodegenerative disorders, arsenic-induced neurotoxicity might contribute to an etiologic mechanism of some neurodegenerative diseases. Further, we discuss the importance of in vitro assay, particularly an embryonic toxicity test, for assessing the neurotoxicity of chemicals, because most of chemicals found in our environment remain to be evaluated regarding their neurotoxicity risk for neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Neuronal death and perinatal lethality in voltage-gated sodium channel alpha(II)-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Planells-Cases, R; Caprini, M; Zhang, J; Rockenstein, E M; Rivera, R R; Murre, C; Masliah, E; Montal, M

    2000-06-01

    Neural activity is crucial for cell survival and fine patterning of neuronal connectivity during neurodevelopment. To investigate the role in vivo of sodium channels (NaCh) in these processes, we generated knockout mice deficient in brain NaChalpha(II). NaChalpha(II)(-/-) mice were morphologically and organogenically indistinguishable from their NaChalpha(+/-) littermates. Notwithstanding, NaChalpha(II)(-/-) mice died perinatally with severe hypoxia and massive neuronal apoptosis, notably in the brainstem. Sodium channel currents recorded from cultured neurons of NaChalpha(II)(-/-) mice were sharply attenuated. Death appears to arise from severe hypoxia consequent to the brainstem deficiency of NaChalpha(II). NaChalpha(II) expression is, therefore, redundant for embryonic development but essential for postnatal survival.

  12. Role of Environmental Chemical Insult in Neuronal Cell Death and Cytoskeleton Damage.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw Htet; Tsukahara, Shinji; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Nohara, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tanoue, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Environmental influences, such as chemical exposure, have long been considered potential risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders, including neuromuscular diseases. However, no definitive links between environmental chemical exposure and a pathogenic mechanism of neurodegenerative disease has yet been established. In this study, we describe that exposure to arsenic, an environmental pollutant naturally found in drinking water, induces neuronal cell death and alteration of morphology, particularly neurite outgrowth and in the cytoskeleton of neurons. Since progressive cell loss accompanied by the alteration of neuronal structures and cytoskeleton is considered the major pathologic feature of neurodegenerative disorders, arsenic-induced neurotoxicity might contribute to an etiologic mechanism of some neurodegenerative diseases. Further, we discuss the importance of in vitro assay, particularly an embryonic toxicity test, for assessing the neurotoxicity of chemicals, because most of chemicals found in our environment remain to be evaluated regarding their neurotoxicity risk for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26235574

  13. Involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the acidosis-induced efflux of ATP from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jie; Le, Gengyun; Ballard, Heather J

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of acidosis on the efflux of ATP from skeletal muscle. Infusion of lactic acid to the perfused hindlimb muscles of anaesthetised rats produced dose-dependent decreases in pH and increases in the interstitial ATP of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle: 10 mm lactic acid reduced the venous pH from 7.22 ± 0.04 to 6.97 ± 0.02 and increased interstitial ATP from 38 ± 8 to 67 ± 11 nm. The increase in interstitial ATP was well-correlated with the decrease in pH (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05). Blockade of cellular uptake of lactic acid using α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid abolished the lactic acid-induced ATP release, whilst infusion of sodium lactate failed to depress pH or increase interstitial ATP, suggesting that intracellular pH depression, rather than lactate, stimulated the ATP efflux. Incubation of cultured skeletal myoblasts with 10 mm lactic acid significantly increased the accumulation of ATP in the bathing medium from 0.46 ± 0.06 to 0.76 ± 0.08 μm, confirming the skeletal muscle cells as the source of the released ATP. Acidosis-induced ATP efflux from the perfused muscle was abolished by CFTRinh-172, a specific inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of both KATP channels and CFTR, but it was not affected by atractyloside, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP transporter. Silencing of the CFTR gene using an siRNA abolished the acidosis-induced increase in ATP release from cultured myoblasts. CFTR expression on skeletal muscle cells was confirmed using immunostaining in the intact muscle and Western blotting in the cultured cells. These data suggest that depression of the intracellular pH of skeletal muscle cells stimulates ATP efflux, and that CFTR plays an important role in the release mechanism. PMID:20819945

  14. Glycyrrhizin attenuates kainic Acid-induced neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lidan; Jin, Yinchuan; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2013-06-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene that is present in the roots and rhizomes of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. Recently, we demonstrated that GL produced the neuroprotective effects with the suppression of microglia activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction in the postischemic brain with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and improved motor impairment and neurological deficits. In the present study, we investigated whether GL has a beneficial effect in kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death model. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 0.94 nmole (0.2 µg) of KA produced typical neuronal death in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In contrast, administration of GL (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before KA administration significantly suppressed the neuronal death, and this protective effect was more stronger at 50 mg/kg. Moreover, the GL-mediated neuroprotection was accompanied with the suppression of gliosis and induction of proinflammatory markers (COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α). The anti-inflammatory and anti-excitotoxic effects of GL were verified in LPS-treated primary microglial cultures and in NMDA- or KA-treated primary cortical cultures. Together these results suggest that GL confers the neuroprotection through the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-excitotoxic effects in KA-treated brain. PMID:23833559

  15. ENA/VASP downregulation triggers cell death by impairing axonal maintenance in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Franco, D Lorena; Rezával, Carolina; Cáceres, Alfredo; Schinder, Alejandro F; Ceriani, M Fernanda

    2010-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases encompass a broad variety of motor and cognitive disorders that are accompanied by death of specific neuronal populations or brain regions. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these complex disorders remain largely unknown. In a previous work we searched for novel Drosophila genes relevant for neurodegeneration and singled out enabled (ena), which encodes a protein involved in cytoskeleton remodeling. To extend our understanding on the mechanisms of ENA-triggered degeneration we now investigated the effect of silencing ena ortholog genes in mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that ENA/VASP downregulation led to neurite retraction and concomitant neuronal cell death through an apoptotic pathway. Remarkably, this retraction initially affected the axonal structure, showing no effect on dendrites. Reduction in ENA/VASP levels blocked the neuritogenic effect of a specific RhoA kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, thus suggesting that these proteins could participate in the Rho-signaling pathway. Altogether these observations demonstrate that ENA/VASP proteins are implicated in the establishment and maintenance of the axonal structure and that a change on their expression levels triggers neuronal degeneration.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis against kainic acid-neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Juárez, Angélica; Chamorro, Germán; Alva-Sánchez, Claudia; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Pacheco-Rosado, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Context Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (SP) is a cyanobacterium which has attracted attention because of its nutritional value and pharmacological properties. It was previously reported that SP reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus and protects against damaging neurobehavioural effects of systemic kainic acid (KA). It is widely known that the systemic administration of KA induces neuronal damage, specifically in the CA3 hippocampal region. Objective The present study determines if the SP sub-chronic treatment has neuroprotective properties against KA. Materials and methods Male SW mice were treated with SP during 24 d, at doses of 0, 200, and 800 mg/kg, once daily, and with KA (35 mg/kg, ip) as a single dose on day 14. After the treatment, a histological analysis was performed and the number of atrophic neuronal cells in CA3 hippocampal region was quantified. Results Pretreatment with SP does not protect against seizures induced by KA. However, mortality in the SP 200 and the SP 800 groups was of 20%, while for the KA group, it was of 60%. A single KA ip administration produced a considerable neuronal damage, whereas both doses of SP sub-chronic treatment reduced the number of atrophic neurons in CA3 hippocampal region with respect to the KA group. Discussion The SP neurobehaviour improvement after KA systemic administration correlates with the capacity of SP to reduce KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. This neuroprotection may be related to the antioxidant properties of SP. Conclusion SP reduces KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. PMID:26799655

  17. Uncoupling neuronal death and dysfunction in Drosophila models of neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Amit K; Guo, Caiwei; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Ye, Hui; Senturk, Mumine; Zuo, Zhongyuan; Li, Yarong; Chatterjee, Shreyasi; Botas, Juan; Jackson, George R; Bellen, Hugo J; Shulman, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Common neurodegenerative proteinopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are characterized by the misfolding and aggregation of toxic protein species, including the amyloid beta (Aß) peptide, microtubule-associated protein Tau (Tau), and alpha-synuclein (αSyn) protein. These factors also show toxicity in Drosophila; however, potential limitations of prior studies include poor discrimination between effects on the adult versus developing nervous system and neuronal versus glial cell types. In addition, variable expression paradigms and outcomes hinder systematic comparison of toxicity profiles. Using standardized conditions and medium-throughput assays, we express human Tau, Aß or αSyn selectively in neurons of the adult Drosophila retina and monitor age-dependent changes in both structure and function, based on tissue histology and recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG), respectively. We find that each protein causes a unique profile of neurodegenerative pathology, demonstrating distinct and separable impacts on neuronal death and dysfunction. Strikingly, expression of Tau leads to progressive loss of ERG responses whereas retinal architecture and neuronal numbers are largely preserved. By contrast, Aß induces modest, age-dependent neuronal loss without degrading the retinal ERG. αSyn expression, using a codon-optimized transgene, is characterized by marked retinal vacuolar change, progressive photoreceptor cell death, and delayed-onset but modest ERG changes. Lastly, to address potential mechanisms, we perform transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal potential degenerative changes at the ultrastructural level. Surprisingly, Tau and αSyn each cause prominent but distinct synaptotoxic profiles, including disorganization or enlargement of photoreceptor terminals, respectively. Our findings highlight variable and dynamic properties of neurodegeneration triggered by these disease-relevant proteins in vivo, and suggest

  18. Desipramine Protects Neuronal Cell Death and Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mes23.5 Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Huang, Bor-Ren; Lin, Chingju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Ho; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2012-01-01

    Background Desipramine is known principally as a tricyclic antidepressant drug used to promote recovery of depressed patients. It has also been used in a number of other psychiatric and medical conditions. The present study is the first to investigate the neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Methodology/Principal Findings Mes23.5 dopaminergic cells were used to examine neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Western blot, reverse transcription-PCR, MTT assay, siRNA transfection and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were carried out to assess the effects of desipramine. Desipramine induces endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and mRNA expression in concentration- and time-dependent manners. A different type of antidepressant SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), fluoxetine also shows similar effects of desipramine on HO-1 expression. Moreover, desipramine induces HO-1 expression through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Desipramine also increases NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) accumulation in the nucleus and enhances Nrf2-DNA binding activity. Moreover, desipramine-mediated increase of HO-1 expression is reduced by transfection with siRNA against Nrf2. On the other hand, pretreatment of desipramine protects neuronal cells against rotenone- and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuronal death. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 activity by a HO-1 pharmacological inhibitor, ZnPP IX, attenuates the neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Otherwise, activation of HO-1 activity by HO-1 activator and inducer protect 6-OHDA-induced neuronal death. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that desipramine-increased HO-1 expression is mediated by Nrf2 activation through the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Our results also suggest that desipramine provides a novel effect of neuroprotection, and neurodegenerative process might play an important role in depression disorder. PMID:23209658

  19. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-08-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  20. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-01-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  1. Increased neuronal death and disturbed axonal growth in the Polμ-deficient mouse embryonic retina

    PubMed Central

    Baleriola, Jimena; Álvarez-Lindo, Noemí; de la Villa, Pedro; Bernad, Antonio; Blanco, Luis; Suárez, Teresa; de la Rosa, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death occurs naturally at different stages of neural development, including neurogenesis. The functional role of this early phase of neural cell death, which affects recently differentiated neurons among other cell types, remains undefined. Some mouse models defective in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair present massive cell death during neural development, occasionally provoking embryonic lethality, while other organs and tissues remain unaffected. This suggests that DSBs occur frequently and selectively in the developing nervous system. We analyzed the embryonic retina of a mouse model deficient in the error-prone DNA polymerase μ (Polμ), a key component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair system. DNA DSBs were increased in the mutant mouse at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), as well as the incidence of cell death that affected young neurons, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Polμ−/− mice also showed disturbed RGC axonal growth and navigation, and altered distribution of the axonal guidance molecules L1-CAM and Bravo (also known as Nr-CAM). These findings demonstrate that Polμ is necessary for proper retinal development, and support that the generation of DSBs and their repair via the NHEJ pathway are genuine processes involved in neural development. PMID:27172884

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Key Role in Rotenone-Induced Apoptotic Death of Neurons.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Gupta, Sonam; Biswas, Joyshree; Joshi, Neeraj; Swarnkar, Supriya; Nath, Chandishwar; Singh, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    Rotenone, a pesticide, causes neurotoxicity via the mitochondrial complex-I inhibition. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rotenone-induced neuronal death. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitrite level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA damage were assessed in rotenone-treated neuro-2A cells. Protein levels of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), and phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit α (eIF2-α) were estimated to assess the ER stress. To confirm the apoptotic death of neurons, mRNA levels of caspase-9, caspase-12 and caspase-3 were estimated. Further, to confirm the involvement of ER stress, neuro-2A cells were pretreated with ER stress inhibitor salubrinal. Co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin was also given to assess the role of oxidative stress in rotenone-induced apoptosis. Rotenone (0.1, 0.5, and 1 μM) treatment to neurons caused significantly decreased cell viability, increased cytotoxicity, increased ROS generation, increased expression of GRP78 and GADD, DNA damage and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3 which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment of salubrinal (25 μM). Rotenone-induced dephosphorylation of eIF2α was also inhibited with salubrinal treatment. However, pretreatment of salubrinal did not affect the rotenone-induced increased nitrite levels, decreased MMP and caspase-9 activation. Co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin (1 mM) did not offer attenuation against rotenone-induced increased expression of caspase-9, caspase-12 and caspase-3. In conclusion, results indicated that ER stress plays a key role in rotenone-induced neuronal death, rather than oxidative stress. Graphical Abstract Pictorial presentation showed the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS

  3. Oxidative response of neutrophils to platelet-activating factor is altered during acute ruminal acidosis induced by oligofructose in heifers

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Claudia; Carretta, María Daniella; Alarcón, Pablo; Conejeros, Ivan; Gallardo, Diego; Hidalgo, Alejandra Isabel; Tadich, Nestor; Cáceres, Dante Daniel; Hidalgo, María Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is one of the main mechanisms used to kill microbes during innate immune response. D-lactic acid, which is augmented during acute ruminal acidosis, reduces platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding in bovine neutrophils in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate whether acute ruminal acidosis induced by acute oligofructose overload in heifers interferes with ROS production and L-selectin shedding in blood neutrophils. Blood neutrophils and plasma were obtained by jugular venipuncture, while ruminal samples were collected using rumenocentesis. Lactic acid from plasma and ruminal samples was measured by HPLC. PAF-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding were measured in vitro in bovine neutrophils by a luminol chemiluminescence assay and flow cytometry, respectively. A significant increase in ruminal and plasma lactic acid was recorded in these animals. Specifically, a decrease in PAF-induced ROS production was observed 8 h after oligofructose overload, and this was sustained until 48 h post oligofructose overload. A reduction in PAF-induced L-selectin shedding was observed at 16 h and 32 h post oligofructose overload. Overall, the results indicated that neutrophil PAF responses were altered in heifers with ruminal acidosis, suggesting a potential dysfunction of the innate immune response. PMID:25013355

  4. Antihelminthic Benzimidazoles Are Novel HIF Activators That Prevent Oxidative Neuronal Death via Binding to Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Aleyasin, Hossein; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S.; Kumar, Amit; Sleiman, Sama; Basso, Manuela; Ma, Thong; Siddiq, Ambreena; Chinta, Shankar J.; Brochier, Camille; Langley, Brett; Haskew-Layton, Renee; Bane, Susan L.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Gazaryan, Irina; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Andersen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pharmacological activation of the adaptive response to hypoxia is a therapeutic strategy of growing interest for neurological conditions, including stroke, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We screened a drug library with known safety in humans using a hippocampal neuroblast line expressing a reporter of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription. Results: Our screen identified more than 40 compounds with the ability to induce hypoxia response element-driven luciferase activity as well or better than deferoxamine, a canonical activator of hypoxic adaptation. Among the chemical entities identified, the antihelminthic benzimidazoles represented one pharmacophore that appeared multiple times in our screen. Secondary assays confirmed that antihelminthics stabilized the transcriptional activator HIF-1α and induced expression of a known HIF target gene, p21cip1/waf1, in post-mitotic cortical neurons. The on-target effect of these agents in stimulating hypoxic signaling was binding to free tubulin. Moreover, antihelminthic benzimidazoles also abrogated oxidative stress-induced death in vitro, and this on-target effect also involves binding to free tubulin. Innovation and Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that tubulin-binding drugs can activate a component of the hypoxic adaptive response, specifically the stabilization of HIF-1α and its downstream targets. Tubulin-binding drugs, including antihelminthic benzimidazoles, also abrogate oxidative neuronal death in primary neurons. Given their safety in humans and known ability to penetrate into the central nervous system, antihelminthic benzimidazoles may be considered viable candidates for treating diseases associated with oxidative neuronal death, including stroke. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 121–134. PMID:24766300

  5. Effects of Alda-1, an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Agonist, on Hypoglycemic Neuronal Death.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuhiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Tsujita, Mika; Kanazawa, Masato; Toriyabe, Masafumi; Koyama, Misaki; Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE) is caused by a lack of glucose availability to neuronal cells, and no neuroprotective drugs have been developed as yet. Studies on the pathogenesis of HE and the development of new neuroprotective drugs have been conducted using animal models such as the hypoglycemic coma model and non-coma hypoglycemia model. However, both models have inherent problems, and establishment of animal models that mimic clinical situations is desirable. In this study, we first developed a short-term hypoglycemic coma model in which rats could be maintained in an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) state for 2 min and subsequent hyperglycemia without requiring anti-seizure drugs and an artificial ventilation. This condition caused the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a cytotoxic aldehyde, in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and a marked increase in neuronal death as evaluated by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining. We also investigated whether N-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide (Alda-1), a small-molecule agonist of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, could attenuate 4-HNE levels and reduce hypoglycemic neuronal death. After confirming that EEG recordings remained isoelectric for 2 min, Alda-1 (8.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) was administered intravenously with glucose to maintain a blood glucose level of 250 to 270 mg/dL. Fewer 4-HNE and FJB-positive cells were observed in the cerebral cortex of Alda-1-treated rats than in DMSO-treated rats 24 h after glucose administration (P = 0.002 and P = 0.020). Thus, activation of the ALDH2 pathway could be a molecular target for HE treatment, and Alda-1 is a potentially neuroprotective agent that exerts a beneficial effect on neurons when intravenously administered simultaneously with glucose. PMID:26083658

  6. Cabergoline, Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist, Prevents Neuronal Cell Death under Oxidative Stress via Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Haruki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shingo; Katanuma, Yusuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Potent antioxidants may therefore be effective in the treatment of such diseases. Cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antiparkinson drug, has been studied using several cell types including mesencephalic neurons, and is recognized as a potent radical scavenger. Here, we examined whether cabergoline exerts neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress through a receptor-mediated mechanism in cultured cortical neurons. We found that neuronal death induced by H2O2 exposure was inhibited by pretreatment with cabergoline, while this protective effect was eliminated in the presence of a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor, spiperone. Activation of ERK1/2 by H2O2 was suppressed by cabergoline, and an ERK signaling pathway inhibitor, U0126, similarly protected cortical neurons from cell death. This suggested the ERK signaling pathway has a critical role in cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, increased extracellular levels of glutamate induced by H2O2, which might contribute to ERK activation, were reduced by cabergoline, while inhibitors for NMDA receptor or L-type Ca2+ channel demonstrated a survival effect against H2O2. Interestingly, we found that cabergoline increased expression levels of glutamate transporters such as EAAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that cabergoline has a protective effect on cortical neurons via a receptor-mediated mechanism including repression of ERK1/2 activation and extracellular glutamate accumulation induced by H2O2. PMID:24914776

  7. Effects of Alda-1, an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Agonist, on Hypoglycemic Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Tetsuhiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Tsujita, Mika; Kanazawa, Masato; Toriyabe, Masafumi; Koyama, Misaki; Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE) is caused by a lack of glucose availability to neuronal cells, and no neuroprotective drugs have been developed as yet. Studies on the pathogenesis of HE and the development of new neuroprotective drugs have been conducted using animal models such as the hypoglycemic coma model and non-coma hypoglycemia model. However, both models have inherent problems, and establishment of animal models that mimic clinical situations is desirable. In this study, we first developed a short-term hypoglycemic coma model in which rats could be maintained in an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) state for 2 min and subsequent hyperglycemia without requiring anti-seizure drugs and an artificial ventilation. This condition caused the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a cytotoxic aldehyde, in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and a marked increase in neuronal death as evaluated by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining. We also investigated whether N-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide (Alda-1), a small-molecule agonist of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, could attenuate 4-HNE levels and reduce hypoglycemic neuronal death. After confirming that EEG recordings remained isoelectric for 2 min, Alda-1 (8.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) was administered intravenously with glucose to maintain a blood glucose level of 250 to 270 mg/dL. Fewer 4-HNE and FJB-positive cells were observed in the cerebral cortex of Alda-1-treated rats than in DMSO-treated rats 24 h after glucose administration (P = 0.002 and P = 0.020). Thus, activation of the ALDH2 pathway could be a molecular target for HE treatment, and Alda-1 is a potentially neuroprotective agent that exerts a beneficial effect on neurons when intravenously administered simultaneously with glucose. PMID:26083658

  8. In vivo optical signatures of neuronal death in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Alexander J; Castello, Nicholas A; Lee, Grace; Green, Kim N; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard; LaFerla, Frank; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Background There currently is a need for cost-effective, quantitative techniques to evaluate the gradual progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Measurement techniques based on diffuse optical spectroscopy can detect blood perfusion and brain cellular composition changes, through measuring the absorption (µa) and reduced scattering (µs′) coefficients, respectively, using non-ionizing near-infrared light. Previous work has shown that brain perfusion deficits in an AD mouse model can be detected. The objective of this study was to determine if µs′ is sensitive to the inflammation and neuron death found in AD. Methods We used spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to form quantitative maps of µa and µs′ in 3-month old male CaM/Tet-DTA mice harboring transgenes for the doxycyline-regulated neuronal expression of diphtheria toxin. When doxycycline is removed from the diet, CaM/Tet-DTA mice develop progressive neuronal loss in forebrain neurons. Mice (n = 5) were imaged longitudinally immediately prior to and after 23 days of lesion induction, and µa and µs′ (30 wavelengths, 650–970 nm) were compared to properties obtained from Tet-DTA controls (n = 5). Neuron death and infiltration of inflammatory cells in brain cortical slices was confirmed with immunohistochemistry. Results No significant difference in baseline scattering and absorption were measured between CaM/Tet-DTA mice and controls. After 23 days of lesion induction, brain cortical µs′ was 11–16% higher in the CaM/Tet-DTA mice than in controls (P < 0.03). Longitudinal imaging showed no significant difference in µs′ between the first and 23rd day of imaging in controls. Removing doxycycline from the diet was associated with a significant decrease in total hemoglobin concentrations (119 ± 9 µM vs. 91 ± 8 µM) (P < 0.05) in controls, but not in CaM/Tet-DTA mice. Conclusions Neuronal death and brain inflammation are associated with increased tissue

  9. Involvement of inhibitory PAS domain protein in neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Torii, S; Kasai, S; Suzuki, A; Todoroki, Y; Yokozawa, K; Yasumoto, K-I; Seike, N; Kiyonari, H; Mukumoto, Y; Kakita, A; Sogawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory PAS domain protein (IPAS), a repressor of hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent transcription under hypoxia, was found to exert pro-apoptotic activity in oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, physiological and pathological processes associated with this activity are not known. Here we show that IPAS is a key molecule involved in neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD). IPAS was ubiquitinated by Parkin for proteasomal degradation following carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone treatment. Phosphorylation of IPAS at Thr12 by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) was required for ubiquitination to occur. Activation of the PINK1–Parkin pathway attenuated IPAS-dependent apoptosis. IPAS was markedly induced in the midbrain following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and IPAS-deficient mice showed resistance to MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). A significant increase in IPAS expression was found in SNpc neurons in patients with sporadic PD. These results indicate a mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:27551449

  10. Chronic stress enhances microglia activation and exacerbates death of nigral dopaminergic neurons under conditions of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease linked to progressive movement disorders and is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction that is believed to contribute to its pathogenesis. Since sensitivity to inflammation is not the same in all brain structures, the aim of this work was to test whether physiological conditions as stress could enhance susceptibility to inflammation in the substantia nigra, where death of dopaminergic neurons takes place in Parkinson’s disease. Methods To achieve our aim, we induced an inflammatory process in nonstressed and stressed rats (subject to a chronic variate stress) by a single intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide, a potent proinflammogen. The effect of this treatment was evaluated on inflammatory markers as well as on neuronal and glial populations. Results Data showed a synergistic effect between inflammation and stress, thus resulting in higher microglial activation and expression of proinflammatory markers. More important, the higher inflammatory response seen in stressed animals was associated with a higher rate of death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, the most characteristic feature seen in Parkinson’s disease. This effect was dependent on glucocorticoids. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that stress sensitises midbrain microglia to further inflammatory stimulus. This suggests that stress may be an important risk factor in the degenerative processes and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24565378

  11. Crocin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Soeda, S; Ochiai, T; Paopong, L; Tanaka, H; Shoyama, Y; Shimeno, H

    2001-11-01

    Crocus sativus L. is used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat some disorders of the central nervous system. Crocin is an ethanol-extractable component of Crocus sativus L.; it is reported to prevent ethanol-induced impairment of learning and memory in mice. In this study, we demonstrate that crocin suppresses the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on neuronally differentiated PC-12 cells. PC-12 cells dead from exposure to TNF-alpha show apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. These hallmark features of cell death did not appear in cells treated in the co-presence of 10 microM crocin. Moreover, crocin suppressed the TNF-alpha-induced expression of Bcl-Xs and LICE mRNAs and simultaneously restored the cytokine-induced reduction of Bcl-X(L) mRNA expression. The modulating effects of crocin on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins led to a marked reduction of a TNF-alpha-induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Crocin also blocked the cytochrome c-induced activation of caspase-3. To learn how crocin exhibits these anti-apoptotic actions in PC-12 cells, we tested the effect of crocin on PC-12 cell death induced by daunorubicin. We found that crocin inhibited the effect of daunorubicin as well. Our findings suggest that crocin inhibits neuronal cell death induced by both internal and external apoptotic stimuli.

  12. Ceramide and neurodegeneration: Susceptibility of neurons and oligodendrocytes to cell damage and death

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Arundhati; Hogan, Edward L.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are marked by extensive neuronal apoptosis and gliosis. Although several apoptosis-inducing agents have been described, understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying modes of cell death is incomplete. A major breakthrough in delineation of the mechanism of cell death came from elucidation of the sphingomyelin (SM)-ceramide pathway that has received worldwide attention in recent years. The SM pathway induces apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, and growth arrest depending upon cell and receptor types, and on downstream targets. Sphingomyelin, a plasma membrane constituent, is abundant in mammalian nervous system, and ceramide, its primary catabolic product released by activation of either neutral or acidic sphingomyelinase, serves as a potential lipid second messenger or mediator molecule modulating diverse cellular signaling pathways. Neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase) is a key enzyme in the regulated activation of the SM cycle and is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. In a context of increasing clarification of the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, we thought that it would be useful to review details of recent findings that we and others have made concerning different pro-apoptotic neurotoxins including proinflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-induced SM hydrolysis and ceramide production that induce cell death in human primary neurons and primary oligodendrocytes: redox sensitive events. What has and is emerging is a vista of therapeutically important ceramide regulation affecting a variety of different neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:19147160

  13. Environmental enrichment increases doublecortin-associated new neurons and decreases neuronal death without modifying anxiety-like behavior in mice chronically exposed to toluene.

    PubMed

    Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Flores-Serrano, Zoraida; Ortiz-Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Toluene misuse is a health problem worldwide with broad effects at the level of the central nervous system; however, therapeutic alternatives for inhalant abusers are limited. Chronic use of volatile substances is associated with different neurological and cognitive alterations, being anxiety a psychiatric condition with high prevalence. At cellular level toluene reduces neurogenesis and induces neuronal death. On the other hand, environmental enrichment has demonstrated to produce positive effects at behavioral and neuronal levels. Thus, the aim of the present work was to model alterations occasioned after repeated exposure to toluene (anxiety, reduction in neurogenesis - measured as doublecortin-labeled cells - and neuronal death). Subsequently, the influence of environmental enrichment on these effects was evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to toluene vapors from 1 to 4 weeks. Effects on anxiety were evaluated with the burying behavior test, whereas neurogenesis and hippocampal cell death were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, using anti-doublecortin or anti-active-Caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. Results showed that chronic toluene exposure increased anxiety in the burying behavior test; additionally, toluene decreased neurogenesis and enhanced neuronal death. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhanced the anxiety like response in air-exposed mice but did not modify the toluene anxiety response. Additionally, EE enhanced neurogenesis in toluene-pretreated animals at the same level to that found in animals unexposed to toluene and decreased neuronal death. Overall, the present study showed that environmental enrichment positively impacts some effects produced by repeated exposure to toluene.

  14. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Achour, Imène; Arel-Dubeau, Anne-Marie; Renaud, Justine; Legrand, Manon; Attard, Everaldo; Germain, Marc; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE), the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We also investigated OLE’s ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model. PMID:27517912

  15. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model.

    PubMed

    Achour, Imène; Arel-Dubeau, Anne-Marie; Renaud, Justine; Legrand, Manon; Attard, Everaldo; Germain, Marc; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE), the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We also investigated OLE's ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model. PMID:27517912

  16. Sex-dependent mitophagy and neuronal death following rat neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Demarest, T G; Waite, E L; Kristian, T; Puche, A C; Waddell, J; McKenna, M C; Fiskum, G

    2016-10-29

    Males are more susceptible than females to long-term cognitive deficits following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), but the influence of sex on mitochondrial quality control (MQC) after HI is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mitophagy is sexually dimorphic and neuroprotective 20-24h following the Rice-Vannucci model of rat neonatal HI at postnatal day 7 (PN7). Mitochondrial and lysosomal morphology and degree of co-localization were determined by immunofluorescence in the cerebral cortex. No difference in mitochondrial abundance was detected in the cortex after HI. However, net mitochondrial fission increased in both hemispheres of female brain, but was most extensive in the ipsilateral hemisphere of male brain following HI. Basal autophagy, assessed by immunoblot for the autophagosome marker LC3BI/II, was greater in males suggesting less intrinsic reserve capacity for autophagy following HI. Autophagosome formation, lysosome size, and TOM20/LAMP2 co-localization were increased in the contralateral hemisphere following HI in female, but not male brain. An accumulation of ubiquitinated mitochondrial protein was observed in male, but not female brain following HI. Moreover, neuronal cell death with NeuN/TUNEL co-staining occurred in both hemispheres of male brain, but only in the ipsilateral hemisphere of female brain after HI. In summary, mitophagy induction and neuronal cell death are sex dependent following HI. The deficit in elimination of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria in the male brain following HI may contribute to male vulnerability to neuronal death and long-term neurobehavioral deficits following HIE.

  17. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Ayano; Yamada, Mao; Fujimori, Ko; Miyamoto, Yuya; Kusumoto, Toshihide; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Inui, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    L-PGDS [lipocalin-type PGD (prostaglandin D) synthase] is a dual-functional protein, acting as a PGD2-producing enzyme and a lipid transporter. L-PGDS is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and can bind a wide variety of lipophilic molecules. In the present study we demonstrate the protective effect of L-PGDS on H2O2-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. L-PGDS expression was increased in H2O2-treated neuronal cells, and the L-PGDS level was highly associated with H2O2-induced apoptosis, indicating that L-PGDS protected the neuronal cells against H2O2-mediated cell death. A cell viability assay revealed that L-PGDS protected against H2O2-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the titration of free thiols in H2O2-treated L-PGDS revealed that H2O2 reacted with the thiol of Cys65 of L-PGDS. The MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight)-MS spectrum of H2O2-treated L-PGDS showed a 32 Da increase in the mass relative to that of the untreated protein, showing that the thiol was oxidized to sulfinic acid. The binding affinities of oxidized L-PGDS for lipophilic molecules were comparable with those of untreated L-PGDS. Taken together, these results demonstrate that L-PGDS protected against neuronal cell death by scavenging reactive oxygen species without losing its ligand-binding function. The novel function of L-PGDS could be useful for the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22248185

  18. Phosphorylation of CHIP at Ser20 by Cdk5 promotes tAIF-mediated neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, C; Yun, N; Lee, J; Youdim, M B H; Ju, C; Kim, W-K; Han, P-L; Oh, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase and its dysregulation is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Likewise, C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is linked to neurological disorders, serving as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for targeting damaged or toxic proteins for proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that CHIP is a novel substrate for Cdk5. Cdk5 phosphorylates CHIP at Ser20 via direct binding to a highly charged domain of CHIP. Co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assays reveal that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation disrupts the interaction between CHIP and truncated apoptosis-inducing factor (tAIF) without affecting CHIP's E3 ligase activity, resulting in the inhibition of CHIP-mediated degradation of tAIF. Lentiviral transduction assay shows that knockdown of Cdk5 or overexpression of CHIP(S20A), but not CHIP(WT), attenuates tAIF-mediated neuronal cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Thus, we conclude that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of CHIP negatively regulates its neuroprotective function, thereby contributing to neuronal cell death progression following neurotoxic stimuli.

  19. TRPV1 stimulation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, Hisashi; Yamaoka, Tomoko; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Sasaoka, Hirotoshi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2008-12-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) functions as a polymodal nociceptor and is activated by several vanilloids, including capsaicin, protons and heat. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the brain, their roles remain unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of TRPV1 in cytotoxic processes using TRPV1-expressing cultured rat cortical neurons. Capsaicin induced severe neuronal death with apoptotic features, which was completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and was dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. Interestingly, nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity, even when applied 2-4 h after the capsaicin. ERK inhibitor PD98059 and several antioxidants, but not the JNK and p38 inhibitors, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity. Together, these data indicate that TRPV1 activation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical cultures via L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel opening, Ca{sup 2+} influx, ERK phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species production.

  20. Lysosomes and α-synuclein form a dangerous duet leading to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are (i) characterized by a selective neuronal vulnerability to degeneration in specific brain regions; and (ii) likely to be caused by disease-specific protein misfolding. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of intraneuronal proteinacious cytoplasmic inclusions, called Lewy Bodies (LB). α-Synuclein, an aggregation prone protein, has been identified as a major protein component of LB and the causative for autosomal dominant PD. Lysosomes are responsible for the clearance of long-lived proteins, such as α-synuclein, and for the removal of old or damaged organelles, such as mitochondria. Interestingly, PD-linked α-synuclein mutants and dopamine-modified wild-type α-synuclein block its own degradation, which result in insufficient clearance, leading to its aggregation and cell toxicity. Moreover, both lysosomes and lysosomal proteases have been found to be involved in the activation of certain cell death pathways. Interestingly, lysosomal alterations are observed in the brains of patients suffering from sporadic PD and also in toxic and genetic rodent models of PD-related neurodegeneration. All these events have unraveled a causal link between lysosomal impairment, α-synuclein accumulation, and neurotoxicity. In this review, we emphasize the pathophysiological mechanisms connecting α-synuclein and lysosomal dysfunction in neuronal cell death. PMID:25177278

  1. Hyperoxic Reperfusion after Global Cerebral Ischemia Promotes Inflammation and Long-Term Hippocampal Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Hazelton, Julie L.; Balan, Irina; Elmer, Greg I.; Kristian, Tibor; Rosenthal, Robert E.; Krause, Gary; Sanderson, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this study we tested the hypothesis that long-term neuropathological outcome is worsened by hyperoxic compared to normoxic reperfusion in a rat global cerebral ischemia model. Adult male rats were anesthetized and subjected to bilateral carotid arterial occlusion plus bleeding hypotension for 10 min. The rats were randomized to one of four protocols: ischemia/normoxia (21% oxygen for 1 h), ischemia/hyperoxia (100% oxygen for 1 h), sham/normoxia, and sham/hyperoxia. Hippocampal CA1 neuronal survival and activation of microglia and astrocytes were measured in the hippocampi of the animals at 7 and 30 days post-ischemia. Morris water maze testing of memory was performed on days 23–30. Compared to normoxic reperfusion, hyperoxic ventilation resulted in a significant decrease in normal-appearing neurons at 7 and 30 days, and increased activation of microglia and astrocytes at 7, but not at 30, days of reperfusion. Behavioral deficits were also observed following hyperoxic, but not normoxic, reperfusion. We conclude that early post-ischemic hyperoxic reperfusion is followed by greater hippocampal neuronal death and cellular inflammatory reactions compared to normoxic reperfusion. The results of these long-term outcome studies, taken together with previously published results from short-term experiments performed with large animals, support the hypothesis that neurological outcome can be improved by avoiding hyperoxic resuscitation after global cerebral ischemia such as that which accompanies cardiac arrest. PMID:20059303

  2. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  3. Antihistamine terfenadine potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx, oxygen radical formation, and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Trelles, R; Novelli, A; Vega, J A; Marini, A; Fernández-Sánchez, M T

    2000-10-13

    We previously reported that the histamine H1 receptor antagonist terfenadine enhances the excitotoxic response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists in cerebellar neurons. Here we investigated whether this unexpected action of terfenadine relates to its antihistamine activity, and which specific events in the signal cascade coupled to NMDA receptors are affected by terfenadine. Low concentrations of NMDA (100 microM) or glutamate (15 microM) that were only slightly (<20%) toxic when added alone, caused extensive cell death in cultures pre-exposed to terfenadine (5 microM) for 5 h. Terfenadine potentiation of NMDA receptor response was mimicked by other H1 antagonists, including chlorpheniramine (25 microM), oxatomide (20 microM), and triprolidine (50 microM), was prevented by histamine (1 mM), and did not require RNA synthesis. Terfenadine increased NMDA-mediated intracellular calcium and cGMP synthesis by approximately 2.4 and 4 fold respectively. NMDA receptor-induced cell death in terfenadine-treated neurons was associated with a massive production of hydrogen peroxides, and was significantly inhibited by the application of either (+)-alpha-tocopherol (200 microM) or the endogenous antioxidant melatonin (200 microM) 15 min before or up to 30 min after receptor stimulation. This operational time window suggests that an enduring production of reactive oxygen species is critical for terfenadine-induced NMDA receptor-mediated neurodegeneration, and strengthens the importance of antioxidants for the treatment of excitotoxic injury. Our results also provide direct evidence for antihistamine drugs enhancing the transduction signaling activated by NMDA receptors in cerebellar neurons.

  4. Mitochondrial Translocation of High Mobility Group Box 1 Facilitates LIM Kinase 2-Mediated Programmed Necrotic Neuronal Death.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Hye-Won; Ko, Ah-Reum; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts a signaling molecule regulating a wide range of inflammatory responses in extracellular space. HMGB1 also stabilizes nucleosomal structure and facilitates gene transcription. Under pathophysiological conditions, nuclear HMGB1 is immediately transported to the cytoplasm through chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Recently, we have reported that up-regulation of LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2) expression induces HMGB1 export from neuronal nuclei during status epilepticus (SE)-induced programmed neuronal necrosis in the rat hippocampus. Thus, we investigated whether HMGB1 involves LIMK2-mediated programmed neuronal necrosis, but such role is not reported. In the present study, SE was induced by pilocarpine in rats that were intracerebroventricularly infused with saline, control siRNA, LIMK2 siRNA or leptomycin B (LMB, a CRM1 inhibitor) prior to SE induction. Thereafter, we performed Fluoro-Jade B staining, western blots and immunohistochemical studies. LIMK2 knockdown effectively attenuated SE-induced neuronal death and HMGB1 import into mitochondria accompanied by inhibiting nuclear HMGB1 release and abnormal mitochondrial elongation. LMB alleviated SE-induced neuronal death and nuclear HMGB1 release. However, LMB did not prevent mitochondrial elongation induced by SE, but inhibited the HMGB1 import into mitochondria. The efficacy of LMB was less effective to attenuate SE-induced neuronal death than that of LIMK2 siRNA. These findings indicate that nuclear HMGB1 release and the subsequent mitochondrial import may facilitate and deteriorate programmed necrotic neuronal deaths. The present data suggest that the nuclear HMGB1 release via CRM1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the programmed necrotic neuronal death induced by SE. PMID:27147971

  5. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Protects Neurons From Excitotoxic Death through Inhibition of NMDARs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingtao; Ma, Zhiyuan; Fu, Zhongxiao; Gao, Su; Yang, Liu; Jin, Yan; Sun, Hui; Wang, Chaoyun; Fan, Weiming; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Qing-Yin; Bi, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Excessive glutamate release causes overactivation of N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), leading to excitatory neuronal damage in cerebral ischemia. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a compound extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L., has been reported to exert a neuroprotective effect in many pathological conditions, including brain ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of HSYA's effect on neurons remains elusive. In the present study, we conducted experiments using patch-clamp recording of mouse hippocampal slices. In addition, we performed Ca2+ imaging, Western blots, as well as mitochondrial-targeted circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein transfection into cultured hippocampal neurons in order to decipher the physiological mechanism underlying HSYA's neuroprotective effect. Through the electrophysiology experiments, we found that HSYA inhibited NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid A-type receptor-mediated currents. This inhibitory effect of HSYA on NMDARs was concentration dependent. HSYA did not show any preferential inhibition of either N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2A- or N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B- subunit-containing NMDARs. Additionally, HSYA exhibits a facilitatory effect on paired NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. Furthermore, HSYA reduced the magnitude of NMDAR-mediated membrane depolarization currents evoked by oxygen-glucose deprivation, and suppressed oxygen-glucose deprivation–induced and NMDAR-dependent ischemic long-term potentiation, which is believed to cause severe reperfusion damage after ischemia. Through the molecular biology experiments, we found that HSYA inhibited the NMDA-induced and NMDAR-mediated intracellular Ca2+ concentration increase in hippocampal cultures, reduced apoptotic and necrotic cell deaths, and prevented mitochondrial damage. Together, our data

  6. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Protects Neurons From Excitotoxic Death through Inhibition of NMDARs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingtao; Ma, Zhiyuan; Fu, Zhongxiao; Gao, Su; Yang, Liu; Jin, Yan; Sun, Hui; Wang, Chaoyun; Fan, Weiming; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Qing-Yin; Bi, Guoqiang; Ma, Chun-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Excessive glutamate release causes overactivation of N-methyld-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), leading to excitatory neuronal damage in cerebral ischemia. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a compound extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L., has been reported to exert a neuroprotective effect in many pathological conditions, including brain ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of HSYA's effect on neurons remains elusive. In the present study, we conducted experiments using patch-clamp recording of mouse hippocampal slices. In addition, we performed Ca(2+) imaging, Western blots, as well as mitochondrial-targeted circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein transfection into cultured hippocampal neurons in order to decipher the physiological mechanism underlying HSYA's neuroprotective effect.Through the electrophysiology experiments, we found that HSYA inhibited NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid A-type receptor-mediated currents. This inhibitory effect of HSYA on NMDARs was concentration dependent. HSYA did not show any preferential inhibition of either N-methyld-aspartate receptor subtype 2A- or N-methyld-aspartate receptor subtype 2B- subunit-containing NMDARs. Additionally, HSYA exhibits a facilitatory effect on paired NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. Furthermore, HSYA reduced the magnitude of NMDAR-mediated membrane depolarization currents evoked by oxygen-glucose deprivation, and suppressed oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced and NMDAR-dependent ischemic long-term potentiation, which is believed to cause severe reperfusion damage after ischemia. Through the molecular biology experiments, we found that HSYA inhibited the NMDA-induced and NMDAR-mediated intracellular Ca(2+)concentration increase in hippocampal cultures, reduced apoptotic and necrotic cell deaths, and prevented mitochondrial damage. Together, our data

  7. Oligodendrocytes contribute to motor neuron death in ALS via SOD1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ferraiuolo, Laura; Meyer, Kathrin; Sherwood, Thomas W.; Vick, Jonathan; Likhite, Shibi; Frakes, Ashley; Miranda, Carlos J.; Braun, Lyndsey; Heath, Paul R.; Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Askwith, Candice C.; McTigue, Dana; Kaspar, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we show that, in vitro, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mouse oligodendrocytes induce WT motor neuron (MN) hyperexcitability and death. Moreover, we efficiently derived human oligodendrocytes from a large number of controls and patients with sporadic and familial ALS, using two different reprogramming methods. All ALS oligodendrocyte lines induced MN death through conditioned medium (CM) and in coculture. CM-mediated MN death was associated with decreased lactate production and release, whereas toxicity in coculture was lactate-independent, demonstrating that MN survival is mediated not only by soluble factors. Remarkably, human SOD1 shRNA treatment resulted in MN rescue in both mouse and human cultures when knockdown was achieved in progenitor cells, whereas it was ineffective in differentiated oligodendrocytes. In fact, early SOD1 knockdown rescued lactate impairment and cell toxicity in all lines tested, with the exclusion of samples carrying chromosome 9 ORF 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansions. These did not respond to SOD1 knockdown nor did they show lactate release impairment. Our data indicate that SOD1 is directly or indirectly involved in ALS oligodendrocyte pathology and suggest that in this cell type, some damage might be irreversible. In addition, we demonstrate that patients with C9ORF72 represent an independent patient group that might not respond to the same treatment. PMID:27688759

  8. Rescuing neuronal cell death by RAIDD- and PIDD- derived peptides and its implications for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae-Ho; Lim, In-Hye; Kim, Chang Min; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-Ae; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-2 is known to be involved in oxidative-stress mediated neuronal cell death. In this study, we demonstrated that rotenone-induced neuronal cell death is mediated by caspase-2 activation via PIDDosome formation. Our newly designed TAT-fused peptides, which contains wild-type helix number3 (H3) from RAIDD and PIDD, blocked the PIDDosome formation in vitro. Furthermore, peptides inhibited rotenone-induced caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in neuronal cells. These results suggest that PIDD- or RAIDD-targeted peptides might be effective at protecting against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Our peptides are novel neuronal cell apoptosis inhibitors that might serve as a prototype for development of drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27502430

  9. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 downregulation correlates with thalamic neuronal death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rat.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masashi; Kurokawa, Haruna; Shimada, Akinori; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Hajime; Morita, Takehito

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. These microglial alterations and astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation were also observed in tissue without obvious neuronal death in kainic acid-treated rats. These results suggest the possible role of glutamate excitotoxicity in neuronal death in the midline thalamic region following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus due to astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation following microglial activation showing upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS.

  10. ASK1 is essential for endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death triggered by expanded polyglutamine repeats

    PubMed Central

    Nishitoh, Hideki; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Tobiume, Kei; Saegusa, Kaoru; Takeda, Kohsuke; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Hori, Seiji; Kakizuka, Akira; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2002-01-01

    Expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats that encode polyglutamine is the underlying cause of at least nine inherited human neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxias. PolyQ fragments accumulate as aggregates in the cytoplasm and/or in the nucleus, and induce neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanism of polyQ-induced cell death is controversial. Here, we show the following: (1) polyQ with pathogenic repeat length triggers ER stress through proteasomal dysfunction; (2) ER stress activates ASK 1 through formation of an IRE1–TRAF2–ASK1 complex; and (3) ASK1−/− primary neurons are defective in polyQ-, proteasome inhibitor-, and ER stress-induced JNK activation and cell death. These findings suggest that ASK1 is a key element in ER stress-induced cell death that plays an important role in the neuropathological alterations in polyQ diseases. PMID:12050113

  11. APP Overexpression Causes Aβ-Independent Neuronal Death through Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ning; Jiao, Song; Gumaste, Ankita; Bai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a central hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is thought to be the cause of the observed neurodegeneration. Many animal models have been generated that overproduce Aβ yet do not exhibit clear neuronal loss, questioning this Aβ hypothesis. We previously developed an in vivo mouse model that expresses a humanized amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) showing robust apoptosis and olfactory dysfunction by 3 weeks of age, which is consistent with early OSN loss and smell deficits, as observed in AD patients. Here we show, by deleting the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in two distinct transgenic mouse models, that hAPP-induced apoptosis of OSNs is Aβ independent and remains cell autonomous. In addition, we reveal that the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is responsible for hAPP-induced OSN death, as marked by mitochondrial damage and caspase-9 activation. Given that hAPP expression causes OSN apoptosis despite the absence of BACE1, we propose that Aβ is not the sole cause of hAPP-induced neurodegeneration and that the early loss of olfactory function in AD may be based on a cell-autonomous mechanism, which could mark an early phase of AD, prior to Aβ accumulation. Thus, the olfactory system could serve as an important new platform to study the development of AD, providing unique insight for both early diagnosis and intervention. PMID:27517085

  12. APP Overexpression Causes Aβ-Independent Neuronal Death through Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ning; Jiao, Song; Gumaste, Ankita; Bai, Li; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a central hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is thought to be the cause of the observed neurodegeneration. Many animal models have been generated that overproduce Aβ yet do not exhibit clear neuronal loss, questioning this Aβ hypothesis. We previously developed an in vivo mouse model that expresses a humanized amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) showing robust apoptosis and olfactory dysfunction by 3 weeks of age, which is consistent with early OSN loss and smell deficits, as observed in AD patients. Here we show, by deleting the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in two distinct transgenic mouse models, that hAPP-induced apoptosis of OSNs is Aβ independent and remains cell autonomous. In addition, we reveal that the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is responsible for hAPP-induced OSN death, as marked by mitochondrial damage and caspase-9 activation. Given that hAPP expression causes OSN apoptosis despite the absence of BACE1, we propose that Aβ is not the sole cause of hAPP-induced neurodegeneration and that the early loss of olfactory function in AD may be based on a cell-autonomous mechanism, which could mark an early phase of AD, prior to Aβ accumulation. Thus, the olfactory system could serve as an important new platform to study the development of AD, providing unique insight for both early diagnosis and intervention. PMID:27517085

  13. Robustness, Death of Spiral Wave in the Network of Neurons under Partial Ion Channel Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Chun-Ni; Pu, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    The development of spiral wave in a two-dimensional square array due to partial ion channel block (Potassium, Sodium) is investigated, the dynamics of the node is described by Hodgkin—Huxley neuron and these neurons are coupled with nearest neighbor connection. The parameter ratio xNa (and xK), which defines the ratio of working ion channel number of sodium (potassium) to the total ion channel number of sodium (and potassium), is used to measure the shift conductance induced by channel block. The distribution of statistical variable R in the two-parameter phase space (parameter ratio vs. poisoning area) is extensively calculated to mark the parameter region for transition of spiral wave induced by partial ion channel block, the area with smaller factors of synchronization R is associated the parameter region that spiral wave keeps alive and robust to the channel poisoning. Spiral wave keeps alive when the poisoned area (potassium or sodium) and degree of intoxication are small, distinct transition (death, several spiral waves coexist or multi-arm spiral wave emergence) occurs under moderate ratio xNa (and xK) when the size of blocked area exceeds certain thresholds. Breakup of spiral wave occurs and multi-arm of spiral waves are observed when the channel noise is considered.

  14. Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Michael S; Wong, Margaret C; Tabata, Rena C; Garry, Robert F; Shaw, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Gulf War illness (GWI) affects a significant percentage of veterans of the 1991 conflict, but its origin remains unknown. Associated with some cases of GWI are increased incidences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders. Whereas many environmental factors have been linked to GWI, the role of the anthrax vaccine has come under increasing scrutiny. Among the vaccine's potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene. To examine whether these compounds might contribute to neuronal deficits associated with GWI, an animal model for examining the potential neurological impact of aluminum hydroxide, squalene, or aluminum hydroxide combined with squalene was developed. Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. All mice were subjected to a battery of motor and cognitive-behavioral tests over a 6-mo period postinjections. Following sacrifice, central nervous system tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry for evidence of inflammation and cell death. Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength measured by the wire-mesh hang test (final deficit at 24 wk; about 50%). Significant cognitive deficits in water-maze learning were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group (4.3 errors per trial) compared with the controls (0.2 errors per trial) after 20 wk. Apoptotic neurons were identified in aluminum-injected animals that showed significantly increased activated caspase-3 labeling in lumbar spinal cord (255%) and primary motor cortex (192%) compared with the controls. Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord. The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an

  15. Mn (III) Tetrakis (4-Benzoic Acid) Porphyrin Protects Against Neuronal and Glial Oxidative Stress and Death after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Valluru, Lokanatha; Diao, Yao; Hachmeister, Jorge E.; Liu, Danxia

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the ability of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), to protect against neuronal and glial oxidative stress and death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Nine different doses of MnTBAP were administered into the intrathecal space of the rat spinal cord immediately following moderate SCI to establish dose - response curves for prevention of lipid peroxidation and neuron death. An optimal dose was determined by comparing the effectiveness of MnTBAP protection among doses. The optimal dose was then administered and the cords were removed 24 h post-administration and processed for staining. The cells in the cord sections at different distances from the epicenter were counted to obtain the spatial profiles of MnTBAP protection. Comparison of the counts between MnTBAP- and vehicle-treated groups in the sections double immuno-fluorescence-stained with oxidative and cellular markers demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced numbers of nitrotyrosine- and DNP-positive (stained with an antibody against 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH)-labeled protein carbonyls) neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Comparison of the counts between the two treatments in the sections immuno-stained with cellular markers revealed that MnTBAP significantly increased numbers of neurons, motoneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neuronal than glial cell death. Post-injury treatment with the optimal dose of MnTBAP at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-SCI demonstrated that the effective time window for reducing protein nitration and neuron death was at least 12 h. Our results demonstrated that MnTBAP combats oxidative stress, thereby attenuating all types of cell death after SCI. PMID:22483303

  16. Rhinacanthus nasutus protects cultured neuronal cells against hypoxia induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Brimson, James M; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2011-07-26

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) is an herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, known for its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species in cells and is a leading cause of neuronal damage. Cell death caused by hypoxia has been linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including some forms of dementia and stroke, as well as the build up of reactive oxygen species which can lead to diseases such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzeheimer's disease. In this study we used an airtight culture container and the Mitsubishi Gas Company anaeropack along with the MTT assay, LDH assay and the trypan blue exlusion assay to show that 1 and 10 µg mL⁻¹ root extract of R. nasutus is able to significantly prevent the death of HT-22 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, and 0.1 to 10 µg mL⁻¹ had no toxic effect on HT-22 under normal conditions, whereas 100 µg mL⁻¹ reduced HT-22 cell proliferation. We also used H₂DCFDA staining to show R. nasutus can reduce reactive oxygen species production in HT-22 cells.

  17. Necroptosis drives motor neuron death in models of both sporadic and familial ALS

    PubMed Central

    Re, Diane B.; Verche, Virginia Le; Yu, Changhao; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Politi, Kristin A.; Phani, Sudarshan; Ikiz, Burcin; Hoffmann, Lucas; Koolen, Martijn; Nagata, Tetsuya; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Nagy, Peter; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Kariya, Shingo; Wichterle, Hynek; Henderson, Christopher E.; Przedborski, Serge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Most cases of neurodegenerative disease are sporadic, hindering the use of genetic mouse models to analyze disease mechanisms. Focusing on the motor neuron (MN) disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) we therefore devised a fully humanized co-culture model composed of human adult primary sporadic ALS (sALS) astrocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived MNs. The model reproduces the cardinal features of human ALS: sALS astrocytes, but not those from control patients, trigger selective death of MNs. The mechanisms underlying this non-cell-autonomous toxicity were investigated in both astrocytes and MNs. Although causal in familial ALS (fALS), SOD1 does not contribute to the toxicity of sALS astrocytes. Death of MNs triggered by either sALS or fALS astrocytes occurs through necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis involving receptor-interacting protein 1 and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein. The necroptotic pathway therefore constitutes a novel potential therapeutic target for this incurable disease. PMID:24508385

  18. Arctic ground squirrel neuronal progenitor cells resist oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced death

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Kelly L; Wells, Matthew; McGee, Rebecca; Ross, Austin P; Kelleher-Andersson, Judith

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of ischemia/reperfusion on arctic ground squirrel (AGS) neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs), we subjected these cultured cells to oxygen and glucose deprivation. METHODS: AGS NPCs were expanded and differentiated into NPCs and as an ischemia vulnerable control, commercially available human NPCs (hNPCs) were seeded from thawed NPCs. NPCs, identified by expression of TUJ1 were seen at 14-21 d in vitro (DIV). Cultures were exposed to control conditions, hypoxia, oxygen and glucose deprivation or glucose deprivation alone or following return to normal conditions to model reperfusion. Cell viability and death were assessed from loss of ATP as well as from measures of alamarBlue® and lactate dehydrogenase in the media and from counts of TUJ1 positive cells using immunocytochemistry. Dividing cells were identified by expression of Ki67 and phenotyped by double labeling with GFAP, MAP2ab or TUJ1. RESULTS: We report that when cultured in NeuraLife™, AGS cells remain viable out to 21 DIV, continue to express TUJ1 and begin to express MAP2ab. Viability of hNPCs assessed by fluorescence alamarBlue (arbitrary units) depends on both glucose and oxygen availability [viability of hNPCs after 24 h oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) with return of oxygen and glucose decreased from 48151 ± 4551 in control cultures to 43481 ± 2413 after OGD, P < 0.05]. By contrast, when AGS NPCs are exposed to the same OGD with reperfusion at 14 DIV, cell viability assessed by alamarBlue increased from 165305 ± 11719 in control cultures to 196054 ± 13977 after OGD. Likewise AGS NPCs recovered ATP (92766 ± 6089 in control and 92907 ± 4290 after modeled reperfusion; arbitrary luminescence units), and doubled in the ratio of TUJ1 expressing neurons to total dividing cells (0.11 ± 0.04 in control cultures vs 0.22 ± 0.2 after modeled reperfusion, P < 0.05). Maintaining AGS NPCs for a longer time in culture lowered resistance to injury, however, did not impair

  19. Homocysteine-NMDA receptor mediated activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2009-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and neurological abnormalities. However the underlying cellular mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine can promote neuronal death is not clear. In the present study we have examined the role of NMDA receptor mediated activation of the extracellular-signal regulated mitogen activated protein (ERK MAP) kinase pathway in homocysteine-dependent neurotoxicity. The study demonstrates that in neurons L-homocysteine-induced cell death is mediated through activation of NMDA receptors. The study also shows that homocysteine-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation and resultant Ca2+ influx leads to rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation attenuates homocysteine mediated neuronal cell death thereby demonstrating that activation of ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway is an intermediate step that couples homocysteine mediated NMDA receptor stimulation to neuronal death. The findings also show that cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), a pro-survival transcription factor and a downstream target of ERK, is only transiently activated following homocysteine exposure. The sustained activation of ERK but a transient activation of CREB together suggest that exposure to homocysteine initiates a feedback loop that shuts off CREB signaling without affecting ERK phosphorylation and thereby facilitates homocysteine mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19508427

  20. KCa2 channels activation prevents [Ca2+]i deregulation and reduces neuronal death following glutamate toxicity and cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dolga, A M; Terpolilli, N; Kepura, F; Nijholt, I M; Knaus, H-G; D'Orsi, B; Prehn, J H M; Eisel, U L M; Plant, T; Plesnila, N; Culmsee, C

    2011-01-01

    Exacerbated activation of glutamate receptor-coupled calcium channels and subsequent increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) are established hallmarks of neuronal cell death in acute and chronic neurological diseases. Here we show that pathological [Ca2+]i deregulation occurring after glutamate receptor stimulation is effectively modulated by small conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels. We found that neuronal excitotoxicity was associated with a rapid downregulation of KCa2.2 channels within 3 h after the onset of glutamate exposure. Activation of KCa2 channels preserved KCa2 expression and significantly reduced pathological increases in [Ca2+]i providing robust neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a critical role for KCa2 channels in excitotoxic neuronal cell death and propose their activation as potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21509037

  1. Temporal profiles of neuronal degeneration, glial proliferation, and cell death in hNFL(+/+) and NFL(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    McLean, Jesse R; Sanelli, Teresa R; Leystra-Lantz, Cheryl; He, Bei Ping; Strong, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Neurofilament (NF) aggregate formation within motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of both the sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relationship between aggregate formation and both microglial and astrocytic proliferation, as well as additional neuropathological features of ALS, is unknown. To examine this, we have used transgenic mice that develop NF aggregates, through either a lack of the low-molecular-weight NF subunit [NFL (-/-)] or the overexpression of human NFL [hNFL (+/+)]. Transgenic and wild-type C57bl/6 mice were examined from 1 month to 18 months of age, and the temporal pattern of motor neuron degeneration, microglial and astrocytic proliferation, and heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) expression characterized. We observed three overlapping phases in both transgenic mice, including transient aggregate formation, reactive microgliosis, and progressive motor neuron loss. However, only NFL (-/-) mice demonstrated significant astrogliosis and HSP-70 upregulation in both motor neurons and astrocytes. These in vivo models suggest that the development of NF aggregates in motor neurons leads to motor neuron death, but that the interaction between the degenerating motor neurons and the adjacent non-neuronal cells may differ significantly depending on the etiology of the NF aggregate itself.

  2. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists counteract LPS-induced neuronal death in retinal cultures by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kunizo; Wood, John P M; Osborne, Neville N

    2003-09-26

    Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 72 h was shown to dose-dependently increase nitric oxide production from 6-day-old retinal cultures. Cell death, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and an increase in neuronal labelling for TUNEL, was elevated concurrently. During treatment there was an increase of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and glial fibrillary acidic protein labelling in glial cells and a reduction in the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive neurones. The NOS inhibitors, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, dexamethasone and indomethacin potently inhibited both nitric oxide stimulation and cell death caused by LPS. In this study, the beta(2)- (ICI-18551), beta(1)- (betaxolol) and mixed beta(1)/beta(2)- (timolol, metipranolol) adrenergic receptor antagonists were all shown to attenuate LPS-induced LDH release from these cultures, but to have no effect on LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production. This effect was mimicked by the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. Interestingly, the beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, salbutamol, arterenol and isoproterenol were also able to attenuate cell death caused by LPS. Moreover, these compounds also inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide release. These studies suggest that LPS stimulates nitric oxide release from cultured retinal glial cells and that this process leads to neurone death. beta-adrenergic receptor agonists prevent the effects of LPS by inhibiting the stimulation of nitric oxide production. The data also suggest that beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists can attenuate LPS-induced death of neurones, but that these compounds act in a manner that is neurone-dependent, is mimicked by blockade of calcium channels and is independent of the stimulation of nitric oxide release.

  3. [Death].

    PubMed

    Ribas, Jordi Domingo

    2003-12-01

    Intercultural factors are essential for reflection. In this article, the authors deals with a more direct vision on the special edition about Grief and Mourning, about the topic which lies in the depths of all of our consciences: death and the question what lies beyond death? The author provides us elements to reflect about concepts, some accepted in various cases, rejected in others, but always polemical, which help us to penetrate farther into the real mystery of life: death and what follows death.

  4. Time course and mechanism of hippocampal neuronal death in an in vitro model of status epilepticus: Role of NMDA receptor activation and NMDA dependent calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Lou, Jeffrey K.; Mian, Ali; Blair, Robert E.; Sombati, Sompong; Attkisson, Elisa; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is especially vulnerable to seizure-induced damage and excitotoxic neuronal injury. This study examined the time course of neuronal death in relationship to seizure duration and the pharmacological mechanisms underlying seizure-induced cell death using low magnesium (Mg2+) induced continuous high frequency epileptiform discharges (in vitro status epilepticus) in hippocampal neuronal cultures. Neuronal death was assessed using cell morphology and Fluorescein diacetate-Propidium iodide staining. Effects of low Mg2+ and various receptor antagonists on spike frequency were assessed using patch clamp electrophysiology. We observed a linear and time-dependent increase in neuronal death with increasing durations of status epilepticus. This cell death was dependent upon extracellular calcium that entered primarily through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor channel subtype. Neuronal death was significantly decreased by co-incubation with the NMDA receptor antagonists and was also inhibited by reduction of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) during status epilepticus. In contrast, neuronal death from in vitro status epilepticus was not significantly prevented by inhibition of other glutamate receptor subtypes or voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly this NMDA-Ca2+ dependent neuronal death was much more gradual in onset compared to cell death from excitotoxic glutamate exposure. The results provide evidence that in vitro status epilepticus results in increased activation of the NMDA-Ca2+ transduction pathway leading to neuronal death in a time dependent fashion. The results also indicate that there is a significant window of opportunity during the initial time of continuous seizure activity to be able to intervene, protect neurons and decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated with status epilepticus. PMID:18289526

  5. Volume regulated anion channel currents of rat hippocampal neurons and their contribution to oxygen-and-glucose deprivation induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiu; Cao, H James; Kimelberg, Harold K; Zhou, Min

    2011-01-01

    Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC) are widely expressed chloride channels that are critical for the cell volume regulation. In the mammalian central nervous system, the physiological expression of neuronal VRAC and its role in cerebral ischemia are issues largely unknown. We show that hypoosmotic medium induce an outwardly rectifying chloride conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The induced chloride conductance was sensitive to some of the VRAC inhibitors, namely, IAA-94 (300 µM) and NPPB (100 µM), but not to tamoxifen (10 µM). Using oxygen-and-glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate ischemic conditions in slices, VRAC activation appeared after OGD induced anoxic depolarization (AD) that showed a progressive increase in current amplitude over the period of post-OGD reperfusion. The OGD induced VRAC currents were significantly inhibited by inhibitors for glutamate AMPA (30 µM NBQX) and NMDA (40 µM AP-5) receptors in the OGD solution, supporting the view that induction of AD requires an excessive Na(+)-loading via these receptors that in turn to activate neuronal VRAC. In the presence of NPPB and DCPIB in the post-OGD reperfusion solution, the OGD induced CA1 pyramidal neuron death, as measured by TO-PRO-3-I staining, was significantly reduced, although DCPIB did not appear to be an effective neuronal VRAC blocker. Altogether, we show that rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons express functional VRAC, and ischemic conditions can initial neuronal VRAC activation that may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage. PMID:21347298

  6. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc- Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Trista L; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A; Hewett, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc(-)) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc(-) expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes--either cultured alone or with neurons--to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc(-) mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death.

  7. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor protects against apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial damage in ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis pathway, plays a brain and neuronal protective role in ischemic stroke. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect after ischemia in the primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Using apoptotic cell death assay, fluorescent imaging, molecular biology, mitochondrial biogenesis measurements and Western blotting analysis, our results show that the overexpression of PBEF in neurons can significantly promote neuronal survival, reduce the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei and inhibit the activation of capase-3 after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We further found that the overexpression of PBEF can suppress glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, the loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and the reduction of PGC-1 and NRF-1 expressions. Furthermore, these beneficial effects by PBEF are dependent on its enzymatic activity of NAD+ synthesis. In summary, our study demonstrated that PBEF ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death through inhibiting caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic signaling pathways and suppressing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of PBEF, and helps to identify potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:27576732

  8. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor protects against apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial damage in ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD(+) biosynthesis pathway, plays a brain and neuronal protective role in ischemic stroke. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect after ischemia in the primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Using apoptotic cell death assay, fluorescent imaging, molecular biology, mitochondrial biogenesis measurements and Western blotting analysis, our results show that the overexpression of PBEF in neurons can significantly promote neuronal survival, reduce the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei and inhibit the activation of capase-3 after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We further found that the overexpression of PBEF can suppress glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, the loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and the reduction of PGC-1 and NRF-1 expressions. Furthermore, these beneficial effects by PBEF are dependent on its enzymatic activity of NAD(+) synthesis. In summary, our study demonstrated that PBEF ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death through inhibiting caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic signaling pathways and suppressing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of PBEF, and helps to identify potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:27576732

  9. Prototypical antipsychotic drugs protect hippocampal neuronal cultures against cell death induced by growth medium deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Bastianetto, Stéphane; Danik, Marc; Mennicken, Françoise; Williams, Sylvain; Quirion, Rémi

    2006-01-01

    Background Several clinical studies suggested that antipsychotic-based medications could ameliorate cognitive functions impaired in certain schizophrenic patients. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of various dopaminergic receptor antagonists – including atypical antipsychotics that are prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia – in a model of toxicity using cultured hippocampal neurons, the hippocampus being a region of particular relevance to cognition. Results Hippocampal cell death induced by deprivation of growth medium constituents was strongly blocked by drugs including antipsychotics (10-10-10-6 M) that display nM affinities for D2 and/or D4 receptors (clozapine, haloperidol, (±)-sulpiride, domperidone, clozapine, risperidone, chlorpromazine, (+)-butaclamol and L-741,742). These effects were shared by some caspases inhibitors and were not accompanied by inhibition of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, (-)-raclopride and remoxipride, two drugs that preferentially bind D2 over D4 receptors were ineffective, as well as the selective D3 receptor antagonist U 99194. Interestingly, (-)-raclopride (10-6 M) was able to block the neuroprotective effect of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (10-6 M). Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that D2-like receptors, particularly the D4 subtype, mediate the neuroprotective effects of antipsychotic drugs possibly through a ROS-independent, caspase-dependent mechanism. PMID:16573831

  10. XBP1 mitigates aminoglycoside-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, N; Duscha, S; Boukari, H; Meyer, M; Xie, J; Wei, G; Schrepfer, T; Roschitzki, B; Boettger, E C; Schacht, J

    2015-01-01

    Here we study links between aminoglycoside-induced mistranslation, protein misfolding and neuropathy. We demonstrate that aminoglycosides induce misreading in mammalian cells and assess endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Genome-wide transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed upregulation of genes related to protein folding and degradation. Quantitative PCR confirmed induction of UPR markers including C/EBP homologous protein, glucose-regulated protein 94, binding immunoglobulin protein and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing, which is crucial for UPR activation. We studied the effect of a compromised UPR on aminoglycoside ototoxicity in haploinsufficient XBP1 (XBP1+/−) mice. Intra-tympanic aminoglycoside treatment caused high-frequency hearing loss in XBP1+/− mice but not in wild-type littermates. Densities of spiral ganglion cells and synaptic ribbons were decreased in gentamicin-treated XBP1+/− mice, while sensory cells were preserved. Co-injection of the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated hearing loss. These results suggest that aminoglycoside-induced ER stress and cell death in spiral ganglion neurons is mitigated by XBP1, masking aminoglycoside neurotoxicity at the organismal level. PMID:25973683

  11. Hijacking microglial glutathione by inorganic arsenic impels bystander death of immature neurons through extracellular cystine/glutamate imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikas; Gera, Ruchi; Kushwaha, Rajesh; Sharma, Anuj Kumar; Patnaik, Satyakam; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic-induced altered microglial activity leads to neuronal death, but the causative mechanism remains unclear. The present study showed, arsenic-exposed (10 μM) microglial (N9) culture supernatant induced bystander death of neuro-2a (N2a), which was further validated with primary microglia and immature neuronal cultures. Results indicated that arsenic-induced GSH synthesis by N9 unfavorably modified the extracellular milieu for N2a by lowering cystine and increasing glutamate concentration. Similar result was observed in N9-N2a co-culture. Co-exposure of arsenic and 250 μM glutamate, less than the level (265 μM) detected in arsenic-exposed N9 culture supernatant, compromised N2a viability which was rescued by cystine supplementation. Therefore, microglia executes bystander N2a death by competitive inhibition of system Xc- (xCT) through extracellular cystine/glutamate imbalance. We confirmed the role of xCT in mediating bystander N2a death by siRNA inhibition studies. Ex-vivo primary microglia culture supernatant from gestationally exposed mice measured to contain lower cystine and higher glutamate compared to control and N-acetyl cysteine co-treated group. Immunofluorescence staining of brain cryosections from treated group showed more dead immature neurons with no such effect on microglia. Collectively, we showed, in presence of arsenic microglia alters cystine/glutamate balance through xCT in extracellular milieu leading to bystander death of immature neurons. PMID:27477106

  12. Hijacking microglial glutathione by inorganic arsenic impels bystander death of immature neurons through extracellular cystine/glutamate imbalance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas; Gera, Ruchi; Kushwaha, Rajesh; Sharma, Anuj Kumar; Patnaik, Satyakam; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic-induced altered microglial activity leads to neuronal death, but the causative mechanism remains unclear. The present study showed, arsenic-exposed (10 μM) microglial (N9) culture supernatant induced bystander death of neuro-2a (N2a), which was further validated with primary microglia and immature neuronal cultures. Results indicated that arsenic-induced GSH synthesis by N9 unfavorably modified the extracellular milieu for N2a by lowering cystine and increasing glutamate concentration. Similar result was observed in N9-N2a co-culture. Co-exposure of arsenic and 250 μM glutamate, less than the level (265 μM) detected in arsenic-exposed N9 culture supernatant, compromised N2a viability which was rescued by cystine supplementation. Therefore, microglia executes bystander N2a death by competitive inhibition of system Xc(-) (xCT) through extracellular cystine/glutamate imbalance. We confirmed the role of xCT in mediating bystander N2a death by siRNA inhibition studies. Ex-vivo primary microglia culture supernatant from gestationally exposed mice measured to contain lower cystine and higher glutamate compared to control and N-acetyl cysteine co-treated group. Immunofluorescence staining of brain cryosections from treated group showed more dead immature neurons with no such effect on microglia. Collectively, we showed, in presence of arsenic microglia alters cystine/glutamate balance through xCT in extracellular milieu leading to bystander death of immature neurons. PMID:27477106

  13. The maintenance of specific aspects of neuronal function and behavior is dependent on programmed cell death of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woon Ryoung; Park, Ok-Hee; Choi, Sukwoo; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Soon Kwon; Lee, Kea Joo; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hyun Taek; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Sun, Woong

    2009-04-01

    A considerable number of new neurons are generated daily in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus, but only a subset of these survive, as many adult-generated neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD). However, the significance of PCD in the adult brain for the functionality of DG circuits is not known. Here, we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of Bax-knockout (Bax-KO) mice in which PCD of post-mitotic neurons is prevented. The continuous increase in DG cell numbers in Bax-KO mice resulted in the readjustment of afferent and efferent synaptic connections, represented by age-dependent reductions in the dendritic arborization of DG neurons and in the synaptic contact ratio of mossy fibers with CA3 dendritic spines. These neuroanatomical changes were associated with reductions in synaptic transmission and reduced performance in a contextual fear memory task in 6-month-old Bax-KO mice. These results suggest that the elimination of excess DG neurons via Bax-dependent PCD in the adult brain is required for the normal organization and function of the hippocampus.

  14. The maintenance of specific aspects of neuronal function and behavior is dependent on programmed cell death of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woon Ryoung; Park, Ok-hee; Choi, Sukwoo; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Soon Kwon; Lee, Kea Joo; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hyun Taek; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Sun, Woong

    2009-01-01

    A considerable number of new neurons are generated daily in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus, but only a subset of these survive, as many adult-generated neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD). However, the significance of PCD in the adult brain for the functionality of DG circuits is not known. Here we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of Bax-KO mice in which PCD of post-mitotic neurons is prevented. The continuous increase in DG cell numbers in Bax-KO mice, resulted in the readjustment of afferent and efferent synaptic connections, represented by age-dependent reductions in the dendritic arborization of DG neurons and in the synaptic contact ratio of mossy fibers (MF) with CA3 dendritic spines. These neuroanatomical changes were associated with reductions in synaptic transmission and reduced performance in a contextual fear memory task in 6-month old Bax-KO mice. These results suggest that the elimination of excess DG neurons via Bax-dependent PCD in the adult brain is required for the normal organization and function of the hippocampus. PMID:19519627

  15. The Ketone Body, β-Hydroxybutyrate Stimulates the Autophagic Flux and Prevents Neuronal Death Induced by Glucose Deprivation in Cortical Cultured Neurons.

    PubMed

    Camberos-Luna, Lucy; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Montiel, Teresa; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Massieu, Lourdes

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the major energy substrate in brain, however, during ketogenesis induced by starvation or prolonged hypoglycemia, the ketone bodies (KB), acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can substitute for glucose. KB improve neuronal survival in diverse injury models, but the mechanisms by which KB prevent neuronal damage are still not well understood. In the present study we have investigated whether protection by the D isomer of BHB (D-BHB) against neuronal death induced by glucose deprivation (GD), is related to autophagy. Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradation process activated during nutritional stress, which leads to the digestion of damaged proteins and organelles providing energy for cell survival. Results show that autophagy is activated in cortical cultured neurons during GD, as indicated by the increase in the levels of the lipidated form of the microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II), and the number of autophagic vesicles. At early phases of glucose reintroduction (GR), the levels of p62 declined suggesting that the degradation of the autophagolysosomal content takes place at this time. In cultures exposed to GD and GR in the presence of D-BHB, the levels of LC3-II and p62 rapidly declined and remained low during GR, suggesting that the KB stimulates the autophagic flux preventing autophagosome accumulation and improving neuronal survival.

  16. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is Required for Programmed Cell Death and Clearance of Developmentally-Transient Peptidergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function, is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 product (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein best established to function in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic connections. In the Drosophila FXS disease model, loss of functionally-conserved dFMRP causes synaptic overgrowth and overelaboration in pigment dispersing factor (PDF) peptidergic neurons in the adult brain. Here, we identify a very different component of PDF neuron misregulation in dfmr1 mutants: the aberrant retention of normally developmentally-transient PDF tritocerebral (PDF-TRI) neurons. In wild-type animals, PDF-TRI neurons in the central brain undergo programmed cell death and complete, processive clearance within days of eclosion. In the absence of dFMRP, a defective apoptotic program leads to constitutive maintenance of these peptidergic neurons. We tested whether this apoptotic defect is circuit-specific by examining crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon circuits, which are similarly developmentally-transient and normally eliminated immediately post-eclosion. In dfmr1 null mutants, CCAP/bursicon neurons also exhibit significantly delayed clearance dynamics, but are subsequently eliminated from the nervous system, in contrast to the fully persistent PDF-TRI neurons. Thus, the requirement of dFMRP for the retention of transitory peptidergic neurons shows evident circuit specificity. The novel defect of impaired apoptosis and aberrant neuron persistence in the Drosophila FXS model suggests an entirely new level of “pruning” dysfunction may contribute to the FXS disease state. PMID:21596027

  17. GSK-3β-induced Tau pathology drives hippocampal neuronal cell death in Huntington's disease: involvement of astrocyte–neuron interactions

    PubMed Central

    L'Episcopo, F; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Tirolo, C; Pulvirenti, A; Giugno, R; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Serapide, M F; Cisbani, G; Barker, R A; Cicchetti, F; Marchetti, B

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has emerged as a critical factor in several pathways involved in hippocampal neuronal maintenance and function. In Huntington's disease (HD), there are early hippocampal deficits both in patients and transgenic mouse models, which prompted us to investigate whether disease-specific changes in GSK-3β expression may underlie these abnormalities. Thirty-three postmortem hippocampal samples from HD patients (neuropathological grades 2–4) and age- and sex-matched normal control cases were analyzed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCRs (qPCRs) and immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo studies looking at hippocampal pathology and GSK-3β were also undertaken in transgenic R6/2 and wild-type mice. We identified a disease and stage-dependent upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA and protein levels in the HD hippocampus, with the active isoform pGSK-3β-Tyr216 being strongly expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and astrocytes at a time when phosphorylation of Tau at the AT8 epitope was also present in these same neurons. This upregulation of pGSK-3β-Tyr216 was also found in the R6/2 hippocampus in vivo and linked to the increased vulnerability of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. In addition, the increased expression of GSK-3β in the astrocytes of R6/2 mice appeared to be the main driver of Tau phosphorylation and caspase3 activation-induced neuronal death, at least in part via an exacerbated production of major proinflammatory mediators. This stage-dependent overactivation of GSK-3β in HD-affected hippocampal neurons and astrocytes therefore points to GSK-3β as being a critical factor in the pathological development of this condition. As such, therapeutic targeting of this pathway may help ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD. PMID:27124580

  18. GSK-3β-induced Tau pathology drives hippocampal neuronal cell death in Huntington's disease: involvement of astrocyte-neuron interactions.

    PubMed

    L'Episcopo, F; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Tirolo, C; Pulvirenti, A; Giugno, R; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Serapide, M F; Cisbani, G; Barker, R A; Cicchetti, F; Marchetti, B

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has emerged as a critical factor in several pathways involved in hippocampal neuronal maintenance and function. In Huntington's disease (HD), there are early hippocampal deficits both in patients and transgenic mouse models, which prompted us to investigate whether disease-specific changes in GSK-3β expression may underlie these abnormalities. Thirty-three postmortem hippocampal samples from HD patients (neuropathological grades 2-4) and age- and sex-matched normal control cases were analyzed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCRs (qPCRs) and immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo studies looking at hippocampal pathology and GSK-3β were also undertaken in transgenic R6/2 and wild-type mice. We identified a disease and stage-dependent upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA and protein levels in the HD hippocampus, with the active isoform pGSK-3β-Tyr(216) being strongly expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and astrocytes at a time when phosphorylation of Tau at the AT8 epitope was also present in these same neurons. This upregulation of pGSK-3β-Tyr(216) was also found in the R6/2 hippocampus in vivo and linked to the increased vulnerability of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. In addition, the increased expression of GSK-3β in the astrocytes of R6/2 mice appeared to be the main driver of Tau phosphorylation and caspase3 activation-induced neuronal death, at least in part via an exacerbated production of major proinflammatory mediators. This stage-dependent overactivation of GSK-3β in HD-affected hippocampal neurons and astrocytes therefore points to GSK-3β as being a critical factor in the pathological development of this condition. As such, therapeutic targeting of this pathway may help ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD. PMID:27124580

  19. Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Mechanical Percussion Trauma in Cultured Neurons is not Preceded by Alterations in Glucose, Lactate and Glutamine Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, A R; Bak, L K; Rama Rao, K V; Waagepetersen, H S; Schousboe, A; Norenberg, M D

    2016-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological disorder that usually presents in acute and chronic forms. Brain edema and associated increased intracranial pressure in the early phase following TBI are major consequences of acute trauma. On the other hand, neuronal injury, leading to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, that usually develop months to years after single or repetitive episodes of head trauma, are major consequences of chronic TBI. The molecular mechanisms responsible for TBI-induced injury, however, are unclear. Recent studies have suggested that early mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent energy failure play a role in the pathogenesis of TBI. We therefore examined whether oxidative metabolism of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate or glutamine is altered early following in vitro mechanical percussion-induced trauma (5 atm) to neurons (4-24 h), and whether such events contribute to the development of neuronal injury. Cell viability was assayed using the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), together with fluorescence-based cell staining (calcein and ethidium homodimer-1 for live and dead cells, respectively). Trauma had no effect on the LDH release in neurons from 1 to 18 h. However, a significant increase in LDH release was detected at 24 h after trauma. Similar findings were identified when traumatized neurons were stained with fluorescent markers. Additionally (13)C-labeling of glutamate showed a small, but statistically significant decrease at 14 h after trauma. However, trauma had no effect on the cycling ratio of the TCA cycle at any time-period examined. These findings indicate that trauma does not cause a disturbance in oxidative metabolism of any of the substrates used for neurons. Accordingly, such metabolic disturbance does not appear to contribute to the neuronal death in the early stages following trauma. PMID:26729365

  20. Differential regulation of AKT, MAPK and GSK3β during C2-ceramide-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Gonzalo; Cárdenas, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Yeldy; Morales, Luis Carlos; Matheus, Luisa; Arboleda, Humberto

    2010-12-01

    Evidence has implicated apoptosis as a mechanism underlying cell demise in diverse neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Endogenous toxins and other stress signals activate the sphingomyelin pathway increasing the levels of ceramide, an important regulator of cell death. In the present paper we have analysed the contribution of PI3K/AKT-GSK3β and MAPK (ERK and JNK) pathways to cell death in a catecholaminergic cell line following exposure to C(2)-ceramide. We also explored the potential neuroprotective action of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3). We demonstrated that C(2)-ceramide-induced cell death is associated to an early decrease in phosphorylation (inhibition) of PI3K/AKT and ERK, followed by phosphorylation (activation) of JNK and de-phosphorylation (activation) of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β). NT3 and IGF-1 increased survival at early time points, but only IGF-1 is capable to attenuate C(2)-ceramide-mediated neuronal death, and this neuroprotection is associated to strong and permanent activation of AKT and inhibition of GSK3β. In conclusion, C(2)-ceramide initiates a series of events including an early inactivation of PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways followed by activation of JNK and activation of GSK3β and neuronal death, changes that are counteracted by IGF-1.

  1. A rare mutation in UNC5C predisposes to late-onset Alzheimer's disease and increases neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Wetzel-Smith, Monica K; Hunkapiller, Julie; Bhangale, Tushar R; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Maloney, Janice A; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Sa, Susan M; Yaylaoglu, Murat B; Foreman, Oded; Ortmann, Ward; Rathore, Nisha; Hansen, David V; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Haines, Jonathan; Farrer, Lindsay A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Goate, Alison; Behrens, Timothy W; Cruchaga, Carlos; Watts, Ryan J; Graham, Robert R

    2014-12-01

    We have identified a rare coding mutation, T835M (rs137875858), in the UNC5C netrin receptor gene that segregated with disease in an autosomal dominant pattern in two families enriched for late-onset Alzheimer's disease and that was associated with disease across four large case-control cohorts (odds ratio = 2.15, Pmeta = 0.0095). T835M alters a conserved residue in the hinge region of UNC5C, and in vitro studies demonstrate that this mutation leads to increased cell death in human HEK293T cells and in rodent neurons. Furthermore, neurons expressing T835M UNC5C are more susceptible to cell death from multiple neurotoxic stimuli, including β-amyloid (Aβ), glutamate and staurosporine. On the basis of these data and the enriched hippocampal expression of UNC5C in the adult nervous system, we propose that one possible mechanism in which T835M UNC5C contributes to the risk of Alzheimer's disease is by increasing susceptibility to neuronal cell death, particularly in vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease brain. PMID:25419706

  2. NMDA-Receptors Are Involved in Cu2+/Paraquat-Induced Death of Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons.

    PubMed

    Stelmashook, E V; Genrikhs, E E; Aleksandrova, O P; Amelkina, G A; Zelenova, E A; Isaev, N K

    2016-08-01

    Rat cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were not sensitive to CuCl2 (1-10 µM, 24 h), whereas paraquat (150 µM) decreased neuronal survival to 79 ± 3% of control level. Simultaneous treatment of CGNs with paraquat and CuCl2 (2, 5, or 10 µM Cu2+/paraquat) caused significant copper dose-dependent death, lowering their survival to 56 ± 4, 37 ± 3, or 16 ± 2%, respectively, and stimulating elevated production of free radicals in CGNs. Introduction of vitamin E, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (MK-801), and also removal of glutamine from the incubation medium decreased toxicity of Cu2+/paraquat mixture. However, addition of Cu2+ into the incubation medium did not affect CGNs death caused by glutamate. These data emphasize that excessive copper in the brain may trigger oxidative stress, which in turn results in release of glutamate, overstimulation of glutamate receptors, and neuronal death. PMID:27677558

  3. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal-Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerpa, Verónica J; Aylwin, María de la Luz O; Beltrán-Castillo, Sebastián; Bravo, Eduardo U; Llona, Isabel R; Richerson, George B; Eugenín, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine may link maternal cigarette smoking with respiratory dysfunctions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure blunts ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and reduces central respiratory chemoreception in mouse neonates at Postnatal Days 0 (P0) to P3. This suggests that raphe neurons, which are altered in SIDS and contribute to central respiratory chemoreception, may be affected by nicotine. We therefore investigated whether prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure affects the activity, electrical properties, and chemosensitivity of raphe obscurus (ROb) neurons in mouse neonates. Osmotic minipumps, implanted subcutaneously in 5- to 7-day-pregnant CF1 mice, delivered nicotine bitartrate (60 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or saline (control) for up to 28 days. In neonates, ventilation was recorded by head-out plethysmography, c-Fos (neuronal activity marker), or serotonin autoreceptors (5HT1AR) were immunodetected using light microscopy, and patch-clamp recordings were made from raphe neurons in brainstem slices under normocarbia and hypercarbia. Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure decreased the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses at P1-P5, reduced both the number of c-Fos-positive ROb neurons during eucapnic normoxia at P1-P3 and their hypercapnia-induced recruitment at P3, increased 5HT1AR immunolabeling of ROb neurons at P3-P5, and reduced the spontaneous firing frequency of ROb neurons at P3 without affecting their CO2 sensitivity or their passive and active electrical properties. These findings reveal that prenatal-perinatal nicotine reduces the activity of neonatal ROb neurons, likely as a consequence of increased expression of 5HT1ARs. This hypoactivity may change the functional state of the respiratory neural network leading to breathing vulnerability and chemosensory failure as seen in SIDS.

  4. Quantitative analysis of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal subfields of SHRSP and SHR.

    PubMed

    Daisu, Mitsuhiro; Hatta, Toshihisa; Sakurai-Yamashita, Yasuko; Nabika, Toru; Moritake, Kouzo

    2009-06-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia and reperfusion induces delayed neuronal death (DND) in the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) subfield of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). The vulnerability to DND is potentially related to the genetic susceptibility to stroke in this strain. To elucidate the mechanism of DND in SHRSP, however, it is essential to establish a method for quantitative evaluation of DND, which is not available yet. Male SHRSPs and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at 12 weeks of age were used in the experiment. The bilateral common carotid arteries were surgically occluded with aneurysmal clips for 10 min. The brain was taken out 7 days after the experiment of the transient ischemia, and was sliced into serial coronal sections. Quantitative estimation of the number of viable pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA2/3 subfields was performed based on the stereology with a random and systematic sampling. The transient ischemia and reperfusion (TIR) significantly reduced the number of viable pyramidal cells in CA1 of SHRSP (61000 +/- 20100 in TIR vs. 128500 +/- 21900 in the sham-operation, P < 0.000001 by Student's t-test), while no significant difference was observed in SHR (140300 +/- 30800 in TIR vs. 128200 +/- 16700 in the sham-operation, P = 0.35). Further analysis revealed a dorsal-ventral gradient in the distribution of DND in CA1 of SHRSP with the most severe change in the dorsal area. The quantitative measurement using a stereological method is useful in the precise evaluation of DND in SHRSP. This method can be applied in the studies of effects of medical treatments on the 'ischemia/reperfusion' insult.

  5. Inhibition of HIF-prolyl-4-hydroxylases prevents mitochondrial impairment and cell death in a model of neuronal oxytosis

    PubMed Central

    Neitemeier, S; Dolga, A M; Honrath, B; Karuppagounder, S S; Alim, I; Ratan, R R; Culmsee, C

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial impairment induced by oxidative stress is a main characteristic of intrinsic cell death pathways in neurons underlying the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, protection of mitochondrial integrity and function is emerging as a promising strategy to prevent neuronal damage. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylases (HIF-PHDs) by adaptaquin inhibits lipid peroxidation and fully maintains mitochondrial function as indicated by restored mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, reduced formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and preserved mitochondrial respiration, thereby protecting neuronal HT-22 cells in a model of glutamate-induced oxytosis. Selective reduction of PHD1 protein using CRISPR/Cas9 technology also reduced both lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial impairment, and attenuated glutamate toxicity in the HT-22 cells. Regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) expression levels and related target genes may mediate these beneficial effects. Overall, these results expose HIF-PHDs as promising targets to protect mitochondria and, thereby, neurons from oxidative cell death. PMID:27148687

  6. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Trista L.; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A.; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc−) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death. PMID:26553727

  7. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. PMID:27601894

  8. Stress-induced nuclear translocation of CDK5 suppresses neuronal death by downregulating ERK activation via VRK3 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haengjin; Kim, Wanil; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dohyun; Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Sangjune; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Although extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activity is generally associated with cell survival, prolonged ERK activation induced by oxidative stress also mediates neuronal cell death. Here we report that oxidative stress-induced cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation stimulates neuroprotective signaling via phosphorylation of vaccinia-related kinase 3 (VRK3) at Ser 108. The binding of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase to phosphorylated VRK3 increased its affinity for phospho-ERK and subsequently downregulated ERK activation. Overexpression of VRK3 protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. However the CDK5 was unable to phosphorylate mutant VRK3, and thus the mutant forms of VRK3 could not attenuate apoptotic process. Suppression of CDK5 activity results in increase of ERK activation and elevation of proapoptotic protein Bak expression in mouse cortical neurons. Results from VRK3-deficient neurons were further confirmed the role of VRK3 phosphorylation in H2O2-evoked ERK regulation. Importantly, we showed an association between phospho-VRK3 levels and the progression of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Together our work reveals endogenous protective mechanism against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death and suggest VRK3 as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27346674

  9. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.

  10. Remote limb preconditioning protects against ischemia-induced neuronal death through ameliorating neuronal oxidative DNA damage and parthanatos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei; Xu, Wei; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Lei; Ren, Chuancheng

    2016-07-15

    Remote limb preconditioning (RPC) ameliorates ischemia-induced cerebral infarction and promotes neurological function recovery; however, the mechanism of RPC hasn't been fully understood, which limits its clinical application. The present study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanism of RPC through testing its effects on neuronal oxidative DNA damage and parthanatos in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. Infarct volume was investigated by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and neuronal survival was evaluated by Nissl staining. Oxidative DNA damage was investigated via analyzing the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Besides, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA laddering were utilized to evaluate neuronal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we tested whether RPC regulated poly(ADP-ribose) polymer (PAR) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) pathway; thus, PAR expression, AIF translocation and AIF/histone H2AX (H2AX) interaction were investigated. The results showed that RPC exerted neuroprotective effects by ameliorating oxidative DNA damage and neuronal parthanatos; additionally, RPC suppressed PAR/AIF pathway through reducing AIF translocation and AIF/H2AX interaction. The present study further exposed neuroprotective mechanism of RPC, and provided new evidence for the research on RPC and ICS. PMID:27288768

  11. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Interact with Metal Ions to Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Death in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Cremades, Nunilo; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Serene; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Banushi, Blerida; Little, Daniel; Devine, Michael J.; Gissen, Paul; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein aggregation and oxidative stress are both key pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease, although the mechanism by which misfolded proteins induce oxidative stress and neuronal death remains unknown. In this study, we describe how aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-S) from its monomeric form to its soluble oligomeric state results in aberrant free radical production and neuronal toxicity. Results: We first demonstrate excessive free radical production in a human induced pluripotent stem-derived α-S triplication model at basal levels and on application of picomolar doses of β-sheet-rich α-S oligomers. We probed the effects of different structural species of α-S in wild-type rat neuronal cultures and show that both oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-S are capable of generating free radical production, but that only the oligomeric form results in reduction of endogenous glutathione and subsequent neuronal toxicity. We dissected the mechanism of oligomer-induced free radical production and found that it was interestingly independent of several known cellular enzymatic sources. Innovation: The oligomer-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was entirely dependent on the presence of free metal ions as addition of metal chelators was able to block oligomer-induced ROS production and prevent oligomer-induced neuronal death. Conclusion: Our findings further support the causative role of soluble amyloid oligomers in triggering neurodegeneration and shed light into the mechanisms by which these species cause neuronal damage, which, we show here, can be amenable to modulation through the use of metal chelation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 376–391. PMID:26564470

  12. A Water-Ethanol Extract from the Willow Bracket Mushroom, Phellinus igniarius (Higher Basidiomycetes), Reduces Transient Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, In Yeol; Lee, Bo Eun; Sohn, Min; Park, Hyoung Jin; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius (Piwep) after transient cerebral ischemia. Ph. Igniarius, which has a history of traditional medicinal use, contains immunomodulatory compounds that have been described to have effects on the human immune system. Using a model of transient cerebral ischemia induced by both common carotid artery occlusion and hypovolemia, a water-ethanol extract precipitate of Ph. Igniarius (Piwep) was delivered intraperitoneally immediately after the insult and was injected subsequently every other day for the experimental course. Neuronal death was examined by Fluoro-Jade B staining 1 week after the insult. Piwep injection lead to decreased hippocampal neuronal death, suppression of oxidative injury, activation of microglia, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We conclude that Piwep potently inhibits hippocampal neuronal death following ischemia and may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating stroke-induced neuron death in the clinical setting.

  13. A Water-Ethanol Extract from the Willow Bracket Mushroom, Phellinus igniarius (Higher Basidiomycetes), Reduces Transient Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, In Yeol; Lee, Bo Eun; Sohn, Min; Park, Hyoung Jin; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius (Piwep) after transient cerebral ischemia. Ph. Igniarius, which has a history of traditional medicinal use, contains immunomodulatory compounds that have been described to have effects on the human immune system. Using a model of transient cerebral ischemia induced by both common carotid artery occlusion and hypovolemia, a water-ethanol extract precipitate of Ph. Igniarius (Piwep) was delivered intraperitoneally immediately after the insult and was injected subsequently every other day for the experimental course. Neuronal death was examined by Fluoro-Jade B staining 1 week after the insult. Piwep injection lead to decreased hippocampal neuronal death, suppression of oxidative injury, activation of microglia, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We conclude that Piwep potently inhibits hippocampal neuronal death following ischemia and may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating stroke-induced neuron death in the clinical setting. PMID:26756300

  14. Gray matter oligodendrocyte progenitors and neurons die caspase-3 mediated deaths subsequent to mild perinatal hypoxic/ischemic insults.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Raymond P; Levison, Steven W

    2005-01-01

    With significant improvements in neonatal care, fewer infants sustain severe injury as a consequence of hypoxia/ischemia (H/I). However, the majority of experimental studies have inflicted moderate to severe injuries, or they have assessed damage to the caudal forebrain; therefore, to better understand how a mild H/I episode affects the structures and cells of the rostral forebrain, we assessed the relative vulnerabilities of cells in the neocortex, striatum, corpus callosum, choroid plexus and subventricular zone (SVZ). To inflict mild H/I injury, the right common carotid artery was ligated followed by 1 h of hypoxia (8% O(2)) at 37 degrees C. Regional vulnerabilities were assessed using TUNEL, active caspase-3 and hematoxylin and eosin staining at 24 and 48 h of recovery. Scattered columns of cell death were observed in the neocortex with deep-layer neurons more vulnerable than more superficial neurons. The majority of these dying neurons appeared to be dying apoptotic rather than necrotic deaths. In addition, approximately 1/3 of the apoptotic cells in the neocortex were O4+ oligodendrocyte progenitors. We also observed a decrease in NG2 staining within the affected regions of the forebrain. By contrast, active caspase-3+/S-100beta+ astrocytes were not observed. Neurons and O4+ oligodendrocyte progenitors also died apoptotic deaths within the striatum. The lining cells of the choroid plexus also sustained damage. Elevated numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in the most lateral region of the SVZ and some of these dying cells were O4+. The most novel finding of this study, that oligodendrocyte progenitors in the gray matter are damaged and eliminated as a consequence of perinatal H/I, provides new insights into the histopathology and neurological deficits observed in infants who sustain mild H/I brain injuries.

  15. Elevated P75NTR expression causes death of engrailed-deficient midbrain dopaminergic neurons by Erk1/2 suppression

    PubMed Central

    Alavian, Kambiz N; Sgadò, Paola; Alberi, Lavinia; Subramaniam, Srinivasa; Simon, Horst H

    2009-01-01

    Background The homeodomain transcription factors Engrailed-1 and Engrailed-2 are required for the survival of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons in a cell-autonomous and gene-dose-dependent manner. Homozygote mutant mice, deficient of both genes (En1-/-;En2-/-), die at birth and exhibit a loss of all mesDA neurons by mid-gestation. In heterozygote animals (En1+/-;En2-/-), which are viable and fertile, postnatal maintenance of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is afflicted, leading to a progressive degeneration specific to this subpopulation and Parkinson's disease-like molecular and behavioral deficits. Results In this work, we show that the dose of Engrailed is inversely correlated to the expression level of the pan-neurotrophin receptor gene P75NTR (Ngfr). Loss of mesDA neurons in the Engrailed-null mutant embryos is caused by elevated expression of this neurotrophin receptor: Unusually, in this case, the cell death signal of P75NTR is mediated by suppression of Erk1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activity. The reduction in expression of Engrailed, possibly related to the higher levels of P75NTR, also decreases mitochondrial stability. In particular, the dose of Engrailed determines the sensitivity to cell death induced by the classic Parkinson-model toxin MPTP and to inhibition of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Conclusion Our study links the survival function of the Engrailed genes in developing mesDA neurons to the regulation of P75NTR and the sensitivity of these neurons to mitochondrial insult. The similarities to the disease etiology in combination with the nigral phenotype of En1+/-;En2-/- mice suggests that haplotype variations in the Engrailed genes and/or P75NTR that alter their expression levels could, in part, determine susceptibility to Parkinson's disease. PMID:19291307

  16. NRA-2, a Nicalin Homolog, Regulates Neuronal Death by Controlling Surface Localization of Toxic Caenorhabditis elegans DEG/ENaC Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Shaunak; Yeola, Shrutika; Zhang, Wenying; Bianchi, Laura; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivated DEG/ENaCs induce neuronal death through excessive cation influx and disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Caenorhabditis elegans DEG/ENaC MEC-4 is hyperactivated by the (d) mutation and induces death of touch neurons. The analogous substitution in MEC-10 (MEC-10(d)) co-expressed in the same neurons is only mildly neurotoxic. We exploited the lower toxicity of MEC-10(d) to identify RNAi knockdowns that enhance neuronal death. We report here that knock-out of the C. elegans nicalin homolog NRA-2 enhances MEC-10(d)-induced neuronal death. Cell biological assays in C. elegans neurons show that NRA-2 controls the distribution of MEC-10(d) between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface. Electrophysiological experiments in Xenopus oocytes support this notion and suggest that control of channel distribution by NRA-2 is dependent on the subunit composition. We propose that nicalin/NRA-2 functions in a quality control mechanism to retain mutant channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, influencing the extent of neuronal death. Mammalian nicalin may have a similar role in DEG/ENaC biology, therefore influencing pathological conditions like ischemia. PMID:24567339

  17. Transcriptional changes during neuronal death and replacement in the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ranjit S; Bose, Soma C; Nickell, Melissa D; McIntyre, Jeremy C; Hardin, Debra H; Harris, Andrew M; McClintock, Timothy S

    2005-12-01

    The olfactory epithelium has the unusual ability to replace its neurons.We forced replacement of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by bulbectomy. Microarray, bioinformatics, and in situ hybridization techniques detected a rapid shift in favor of pro-apoptotic proteins, a progressive immune response by macrophages and dendritic cells, and identified or predicted 439 mRNAs enriched in olfactory sensory neurons, including gene silencing factors and sperm flagellar proteins. Transcripts encoding cell cycle regulators, axonogenesis proteins, and transcription factors and signaling proteins that promote proliferation and differentiation were increased at 5-7 days after bulbectomy and were expressed by basal progenitor cells or immature neurons. The transcription factors included Nhlhl, Hes6, Lmycl, c-Myc, Mxd4, Idl,Nmycl, Cited2, c-Myb, Mybll, Tead2, Dpl, Gata2, Lmol, and Soxll. The data reveal significant similarities with embryonic neurogenesis and make several mechanistic predictions, including the roles of the transcription factors in the olfactory sensory neuron lineage.

  18. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  19. Involvement of cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb mediated by PI3K/AKT pathway activation in Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death in cultured hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chenchen Xing Tairan Tang Mingliang Yong Wu Yan Dan Deng Hongmin Wang Huili Wang Ming Chen Jutao Ruan Diyun

    2008-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is widely recognized as a neurotoxicant. One of the suggested mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity is apoptotic cell death. And the mechanism by which Pb{sup 2+} causes neuronal death is not well understood. The present study sought to examine the obligate nature of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and its select upstream signal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in the death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+}. Our data showed that lead treatment of primary hippocampal cultures results in dose-dependent cell death. Inhibition of CDK4 prevented Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death significantly but was incomplete. In addition, we demonstrated that the levels of cyclin D1 and pRb/p107 were increased during Pb{sup 2+} treatment. These elevated expression persisted up to 48 h, returning to control levels after 72 h. We also presented pharmacological and morphological evidences that cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb/p107 were required for such kind of neuronal death. Addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (30 {mu}M) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly rescued the cultured hippocampal neurons from death caused by Pb{sup 2+}. And that Pb{sup 2+}-elicited phospho-AKT (Ser473) participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and partial pRb/p107 expression. These results provide evidences that cell cycle elements play a required role in the death of neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+} and suggest that certain signaling elements upstream of cyclin D1/CDK4 are modified and/or required for this form of neuronal death.

  20. HDAC2 selectively regulates FOXO3a-mediated gene transcription during oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengyi; Zhao, Siqi; Yan, Feng; Cheng, Jinbo; Huang, Li; Chen, Hong; Liu, Qingsong; Ji, Xunming; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2015-01-21

    All neurodegenerative diseases are associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) is a key transcription factor involved in neuronal apoptosis. However, how FOXO3a forms complexes and functions in oxidative stress processing remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) forms a physical complex with FOXO3a, which plays an important role in FOXO3a-dependent gene transcription and oxidative stress-induced mouse cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) apoptosis. Interestingly, we also found that HDAC2 became selectively enriched in the promoter region of the p21 gene, but not those of other target genes, and inhibited FOXO3a-mediated p21 transcription. Furthermore, we found that oxidative stress reduced the interaction between FOXO3a and HDAC2, leading to an increased histone H4K16 acetylation level in the p21 promoter region and upregulated p21 expression in a manner independent of p53 or E2F1. Phosphorylation of HDAC2 at Ser 394 is important for the HDAC2-FOXO3a interaction, and we found that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion reduced phosphorylation of HDAC2 at Ser 394 and mitigated the HDAC2-FOXO3a interaction in mouse brain tissue. Our study reveals the novel regulation of FOXO3a-mediated selective gene transcription via epigenetic modification in the process of oxidative stress-induced cell death, which could be exploited therapeutically.

  1. A rare mutation in UNC5C predisposes to Alzheimer’s disease and increases neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel-Smith, MK; Hunkapiller, J; Bhangale, TR; Srinivasan, K; Maloney, JA; Atwal, JK; Sa, SM; Yaylaoglu, MB; Foreman, O; Ortmann, W; Rathore, N; Hansen, DV; Tessier-Lavigne, M; Mayeux, R; Pericak-Vance, M; Haines, J; Farrer, LA; Schellenberg, GD; Goate, A; Behrens, TW

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a rare coding mutation, T835M (rs137875858), in the Netrin receptor UNC5C that segregated with disease in an autosomal dominant pattern in two families enriched for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), and was associated with disease across four large case/control cohorts (OR = 2.15, Pmeta= 0.0095). T835M alters a conserved residue in the hinge region of UNC5C, and in vitro studies demonstrate that this mutation leads to increased cell death in several cell types, including neurons. Furthermore, neurons expressing T835M UNC5C are more susceptible to multiple neurodegenerative stimuli, including β-Amyloid (Aβ). Based on these data and the enriched hippocampal expression of UNC5C in the adult nervous system, we propose one possible mechanism in which T835M UNC5C contributes to the risk of Alzheimer’s disease is by increasing susceptibility to neuronal cell death, particularly in vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer’s brain. PMID:25419706

  2. Transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins regulate microglial activation and dopaminergic neuronal death in a Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Meeyoung; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Son, Ora; Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kim, Joon; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain substantia nigra. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against oxidation by destroying biologically active phospholipids with potential protective effects against oxidative stress-induced inflammatory disorders. In a previous study, we constructed protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion PEP-1-PON1 protein to transduce PON1 into cells and tissue. In this study, we examined the role of transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein in repressing oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response in microglial BV2 cells after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we identified the functions of transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins which include, mitigating mitochondrial damage, decreasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and protecting against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein reduced MMP-9 expression and protected against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model. Taken together, these results suggest a promising therapeutic application of PEP-1-PON1 proteins against PD and other inflammation and oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases.

  3. 1–42 β-Amyloid peptide requires PDK1/nPKC/Rac 1 pathway to induce neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Manterola, L; Hernando-Rodríguez, M; Ruiz, A; Apraiz, A; Arrizabalaga, O; Vellón, L; Alberdi, E; Cavaliere, F; Lacerda, H M; Jimenez, S; Parada, L A; Matute, C; Zugaza, J L

    2013-01-01

    1–42 β-Amyloid (Aβ1–42) peptide is a key molecule involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Some of its effects are manifested at the neuronal morphological level. These morphological changes involve loss of neurites due to cytoskeleton alterations. However, the mechanism of Aβ1–42 peptide activation of the neurodegenerative program is still poorly understood. Here, Aβ1–42 peptide-induced transduction of cellular death signals through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphoinositol-dependent kinase (PDK)/novel protein kinase C (nPKC)/Rac 1 axis is described. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 and nPKC activities blocks Rac 1 activation and neuronal cell death. Our results provide insights into an unsuspected connection between PDK1, nPKCs and Rac 1 in the same signal-transduction pathway and points out nPKCs and Rac 1 as potential therapeutic targets to block the toxic effects of Aβ1–42 peptide in neurons. PMID:23340502

  4. 1-42 β-amyloid peptide requires PDK1/nPKC/Rac 1 pathway to induce neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Manterola, L; Hernando-Rodríguez, M; Ruiz, A; Apraiz, A; Arrizabalaga, O; Vellón, L; Alberdi, E; Cavaliere, F; Lacerda, H M; Jimenez, S; Parada, L A; Matute, C; Zugaza, J L

    2013-01-22

    1-42 β-Amyloid (Aβ(1-42)) peptide is a key molecule involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Some of its effects are manifested at the neuronal morphological level. These morphological changes involve loss of neurites due to cytoskeleton alterations. However, the mechanism of Aβ(1-42) peptide activation of the neurodegenerative program is still poorly understood. Here, Aβ(1-42) peptide-induced transduction of cellular death signals through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphoinositol-dependent kinase (PDK)/novel protein kinase C (nPKC)/Rac 1 axis is described. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 and nPKC activities blocks Rac 1 activation and neuronal cell death. Our results provide insights into an unsuspected connection between PDK1, nPKCs and Rac 1 in the same signal-transduction pathway and points out nPKCs and Rac 1 as potential therapeutic targets to block the toxic effects of Aβ(1-42) peptide in neurons.

  5. Role of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Rat Hippocampal Neuronal Death After Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Yulin; Ge, Xinjie; Wang, Menglu

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is reportedly involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and many neurological diseases. However, the role of the MCU in epilepsy remains unknown. In this study, we found that the MCU inhibitor Ru360 significantly attenuated neuronal death and exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on rat hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), while the MCU activator spermine increased seizure-induced neuronal death and apoptosis. In addition, Ru360 decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampi. Moreover, Ru360 restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c (CytC) release in epileptic hippocampi. However, spermine treatment exerted an opposite effect on seizure-induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and CytC release compared with Ru360 treatment. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that MCU inhibition exerts a neuroprotective effect on seizure-induced brain injury possibly through the mitochondria/ROS/CytC pathway.

  6. Selective 14-3-3γ induction quenches p-β-catenin Ser37/Bax-enhanced cell death in cerebral cortical neurons during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lai, X J; Ye, S Q; Zheng, L; Li, L; Liu, Q R; Yu, S B; Pang, Y; Jin, S; Li, Q; Yu, A C H; Chen, X Q

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-induced cell death is a major cause of disability or death after stroke. Identifying the key intrinsic protective mechanisms induced by ischemia is critical for the development of effective stroke treatment. Here, we reported that 14-3-3γ was a selective ischemia-inducible survival factor in cerebral cortical neurons reducing cell death by downregulating Bax depend direct 14-3-3γ/p-β-catenin Ser37 interactions in the nucleus. 14-3-3γ, but not other 14-3-3 isoforms, was upregulated in primary cerebral cortical neurons upon oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) as measured by quantitative PCR, western blot and fluorescent immunostaining. The selective induction of 14-3-3γ in cortical neurons by OGD was verified by the in vivo ischemic stroke model. Knocking down 14-3-3γ alone or inhibiting 14-3-3/client interactions was sufficient to induce cell death in normal cultured neurons and exacerbate OGD-induced neuronal death. Ectopic overexpression of 14-3-3γ significantly reduced OGD-induced cell death in cultured neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer demonstrated that endogenous 14-3-3γ bound directly to more p-β-catenin Ser37 but not p-Bad, p-Ask-1, p-p53 and Bax. During OGD, p-β-catenin Ser37 but not p-β-catenin Ser45 was increased prominently, which correlated with Bax elevation in cortical neurons. OGD promoted the entry of 14-3-3γ into the nuclei, in correlation with the increase of nuclear p-β-catenin Ser37 in neurons. Overexpression of 14-3-3γ significantly reduced Bax expression, whereas knockdown of 14-3-3γ increased Bax in cortical neurons. Abolishing β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser37 (S37A) significantly reduced Bax and cell death in neurons upon OGD. Finally, 14-3-3γ overexpression completely suppressed β-catenin-enhanced Bax and cell death in neurons upon OGD. Based on these data, we propose that the 14-3-3γ/p-β-catenin Ser37/Bax axis determines cell survival or death of neurons during ischemia

  7. Chronic metabolic acidosis increases the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in humans by stimulating its production rate. Critical role of acidosis-induced renal hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed Central

    Krapf, R; Vetsch, R; Vetsch, W; Hulter, H N

    1992-01-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis results in metabolic bone disease, calcium nephrolithiasis, and growth retardation. The pathogenesis of each of these sequelae is poorly understood in humans. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic extrarenal metabolic acidosis on the regulation of 1,25-(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate metabolism in normal humans. Chronic extrarenal metabolic acidosis was induced by administering two different doses of NH4Cl [2.1 (low dose) and 4.2 (high dose) mmol/kg body wt per d, respectively] to four male volunteers each during metabolic balance conditions. Plasma [HCO3-] decreased by 4.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter in the low dose and by 9.1 +/- 0.3 mmol/liter (P < 0.001) in the high dose group. Metabolic acidosis induced renal hypophosphatemia, which strongly correlated with the severity of acidosis (Plasma [PO4] on plasma [HCO3-]; r = 0.721, P < 0.001). Both metabolic clearance and production rates of 1,25-(OH)2D increased in both groups. In the high dose group, the percentage increase in production rate was much greater than the percentage increase in metabolic clearance rate, resulting in a significantly increased serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration. A strong inverse correlation was observed for serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration on both plasma [PO4] (r = -0.711, P < 0.001) and plasma [HCO3-] (r = -0.725, P < 0.001). Plasma ionized calcium concentration did not change in either group whereas intact serum parathyroid hormone concentration decreased significantly in the high dose group. In conclusion, metabolic acidosis results in graded increases in serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration by stimulating its production rate in humans. The increased production rate is explained by acidosis-induced hypophosphatemia/cellular phosphate depletion resulting at least in part from decreased renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. The decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels in more severe acidosis may be the consequence of hypophosphatemia and

  8. Levodopa deactivates enzymes that regulate thiol-disulfide homeostasis and promotes neuronal cell death: implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sabens, Elizabeth A; Distler, Anne M; Mieyal, John J

    2010-03-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss, is attributed to oxidative stress, diminished glutathione (GSH) levels, mitochondrial dysfunction, and protein aggregation. Treatment of PD involves chronic administration of Levodopa (l-DOPA) which is a pro-oxidant and may disrupt sulfhydryl homeostasis. The goal of these studies is to elucidate the effects of l-DOPA on thiol homeostasis in a model akin to PD, i.e., immortalized dopaminergic neurons (SHSY5Y cells) with diminished GSH content. These neurons exhibit hypersensitivity to l-DOPA-induced cell death, which is attributable to concomitant inhibition of the intracellular thiol disulfide oxidoreductase enzymes. Glutaredoxin (Grx) was deactivated in a dose-dependent fashion, but its content was unaffected. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase (GR) activity was not altered. Selective knockdown of Grx resulted in an increased level of apoptosis, documenting the role of the Grx system in neuronal survival. l-DOPA treatments also led to decreased activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR), concomitant with diminution of their cellular contents. Selective chemical inhibition of TR activity led to an increased level of apoptosis, documenting the Trx system's contribution to neuronal viability. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition at the molecular level, we treated the each isolated enzyme with oxidized l-DOPA. GR, Trx, and TR activities were little affected. However, Grx was inactivated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion indicative of irreversible adduction of dopaquinone to its nucleophilic active-site Cys-22, consistent with the intracellular loss of Grx activity but not Grx protein content after l-DOPA treatment. Overall l-DOPA is shown to impair the collaborative contributions of the Grx and Trx systems to neuron survival.

  9. Chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii induces death of submucosal enteric neurons and damage in the colonic mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; Hermes-Uliana, Catchia; Barreto Zago, Maísa Cristina; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Miranda-Neto, Marcílio Hubner; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2016-05-01

    Intestinal epithelial secretion is coordinated by the submucosal plexus (SMP). Chemical mediators from SMP regulate the immunobiological response and direct actions against infectious agents. Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic infection with T. gondii on the morphometry of the mucosa and the submucosal enteric neurons in the proximal colon of rats. Male adult rats were distributed into a control group (n = 10) and an infected group (n = 10). Infected rats received orally 500 oocysts of T. gondii (ME-49). After 36 days, the rats were euthanized and samples of the proximal colon were processed for histology to evaluate mucosal thickness in sections. Whole mounts were stained with methylene blue and subjected to immunohistochemistry to detect vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The total number of submucosal neurons decreased by 16.20%. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons increased by 26.95%. Intraepithelial lymphocytes increased by 62.86% and sulfomucin-producing goblet cells decreased by 22.87%. Crypt depth was greater by 43.02%. It was concluded that chronic infection with T. gondii induced death and hypertrophy in the remaining submucosal enteric neurons and damage to the colonic mucosa of rats.

  10. Motor neuron cell death in a mouse model of FALS is not mediated by the p53 cell survival regulator.

    PubMed

    Prudlo, J; Koenig, J; Gräser, J; Burckhardt, E; Mestres, P; Menger, M; Roemer, K

    2000-10-01

    Mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) causes selective motor neuron loss through unknown mechanisms of cell damage. Damaged neurons frequently undergo apoptosis mediated by the p53 cell survival regulator. We therefore studied whether motor neuron disease (MND) in mice expressing the human SOD1 mutant G93A is dependent on p53 by crossing G93A mice with p53-knockout mice. Since p53-/- mice's life expectance is usually shorter (160+/-49 days, n=11) than the time at which the G93A mice die from MND (212+/-50 days, n=7), only a few of the G93A/p53-/- double transgenics were expected to live to experience MND. Nevertheless, four of the 22 G93A/p53-/- mice succumbed to MND after 160+/-28 days, as expected under these conditions of competing death risks if the absence of p53 fails to protect from MND. Thus, MND in mice expressing G93A does not require p53. This conclusion is supported by histology: pre-symptomatic G93A mice display disease-associated vacuoles within the dendrites of motor neurons regardless of p53 status.

  11. The Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 protects against excitotoxicity-induced neuronal death in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae; Park, Sun-Young; Son, Hyeonwi; Shin, Hyun Joo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Roh, Gu Seob

    2013-04-01

    Rho-associated coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitors reportedly prevent neurodegeneration, and abnormal ROCK activation in the central nervous system induces neurite collapse and retraction. However, it is unclear whether the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 directly protects hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. Here, we determined the effects of Y-27632 on neuroprotection following kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures in mice and during glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in HT22 cells. One day after Y-27632 injection, mice were treated with KA and killed 1-2 days later. Fluoro-Jade B and rapid Golgi staining showed that Y-27632 protected against KA-induced neurodegeneration and neurite dystrophy. Y-27632 inhibited increases in hippocampal RhoA and ROCK2 in KA-treated mice as determined by western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed ROCK2-positive neurons and astrocytes in the KA-treated hippocampus. In HT22 cells, Y-27632 also protected neurons and neurite formation during glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. These results indicate that ROCK inhibition modulates neurite growth and protects neurons from excitotoxicity-induced cell death.

  12. Thioredoxin-2 Modulates Neuronal Programmed Cell Death in the Embryonic Chick Spinal Cord in Basal and Target-Deprived Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pirson, Marc; Debrulle, Stéphanie; Clippe, André; Clotman, Frédéric; Knoops, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin-2 (Trx2) is a mitochondrial protein using a dithiol active site to reduce protein disulfides. In addition to the cytoprotective function of this enzyme, several studies have highlighted the implication of Trx2 in cellular signaling events. In particular, growing evidence points to such roles of redox enzymes in developmental processes taking place in the central nervous system. Here, we investigate the potential implication of Trx2 in embryonic development of chick spinal cord. To this end, we first studied the distribution of the enzyme in this tissue and report strong expression of Trx2 in chick embryo post-mitotic neurons at E4.5 and in motor neurons at E6.5. Using in ovo electroporation, we go on to highlight a cytoprotective effect of Trx2 on the programmed cell death (PCD) of neurons during spinal cord development and in a novel cultured spinal cord explant model. These findings suggest an implication of Trx2 in the modulation of developmental PCD of neurons during embryonic development of the spinal cord, possibly through redox regulation mechanisms. PMID:26540198

  13. Amelioration of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death by chloroform fraction of bay leaves (Laurus nobilis).

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Sung-Jin; Nam, Kung-Woo; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki-bong; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Mar, Woongchon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Laurus nobilis chloroform fraction (LNCF) protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and brain slices from rats were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), followed by reoxgenation with and without LNCF. The viabilities of SH-SY5Y cells and brain slices from the rats were 58.5±4.9% and 79.7±5.9% in the group subjected to OGD, and 80.4±0.4% and 97.2±1.9% at 4 µg/ml of LNCF, respectively. LNCF also significantly inhibited death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) dephosphorylation. Pretreatment with LNCF at 4 mg/kg significantly decreased infarct size by 79% of vehicle control in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo model. LNCF is a neuroprotective drug candidate against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage.

  14. Role of Rac1 GTPase in JNK signaling and delayed neuronal cell death following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Guang; Wang, Ruimin; Han, Dong; Dong, Yan; Brann, Darrell W

    2009-04-10

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the role of Rac1 in POSH/MLK/JNK signaling and delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemia. Temporal studies revealed that Rac1 GTPase activation was significantly elevated in hippocampus CA1 at 10 min to 72 h after cerebral ischemia reperfusion, with peak levels 30 min to 6 h after reperfusion. Total Rac1 protein levels were not significantly changed following cerebral ischemia. Rac1 has been shown to interact with POSH (plenty of SH3s), a scaffold protein that binds to and regulates MLK3 and JNK activation. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) studies revealed that POSH-Rac1-MLK3 complex formation displayed a significant and prolonged elevation after reperfusion, with a correlative increase in phosphorylation/activation of MLK3 as compared to sham controls. Intracerebroventricular administration of Rac1 antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) significantly attenuated Rac1 levels and Rac1 activation at 30 min after reperfusion, with a correlated significant attenuation of POSH-MLK3-Rac1 complex formation and MLK3 activation in hippocampus CA1. Infusion of Rac1 AS-ODNs also significantly attenuated post-ischemic activation of JNK, downstream of MLK3, and strongly protected the hippocampus CA1 from ischemic damage. Missense oligos had no effect on any of the parameters measured. The Rac1 AS-ODNs results were further confirmed by administration of a Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766), which markedly attenuated activation of Rac1 and JNK, and significantly attenuated apoptotic delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemia. As a whole, these studies demonstrate an important role for Rac1 in activation of the prodeath MLK3-JNK kinase signaling pathway and delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemia.

  15. Protection of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress and nigrostriatal neuronal death by chronic Coenzyme Q{sub 10} pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Binukumar, BK; Gupta, Nidhi; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-10-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of developing Parkinson's diseases. Oxidative stress generated as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previously, we reported that chronic dichlorvos exposure causes mitochondrial impairments and nigrostriatal neuronal death in rats. The present study was designed to test whether Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) administration has any neuroprotective effect against dichlorvos mediated nigrostriatal neuronal death, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, and motor dysfunction. Male albino rats were administered dichlorvos by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight over a period of 12 weeks. Results obtained there after showed that dichlorvos exposure leads to enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, decreased dopamine and its metabolite levels resulting in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Pretreatment by Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (4.5 mg/kg ip for 12 weeks) to dichlorvos treated animals significantly attenuated the extent of nigrostriatal neuronal damage, in terms of decreased ROS production, increased dopamine and its metabolite levels, and restoration of motor dysfunction when compared to dichlorvos treated animals. Thus, the present study shows that Coenzyme Q{sub 10} administration may attenuate dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation and motor dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant action. - Highlights: > CoQ{sub 10} administration attenuates dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegenaration. > CoQ{sub 10} pre treatment leads to preservation of TH-IR neurons. > CoQ{sub 10} may decrease oxidative damage and {alpha}-synuclin aggregation. > CoQ{sub 10} treatment enhances motor function and protects rats from catalepsy.

  16. Spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal injury induced by DFP in rats: A model for delayed neuronal cell death following acute OP intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yonggang; Lein, Pamela J.; Liu Cuimei; Bruun, Donald A.; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Ford, Gregory; Ford, Byron D.

    2011-06-15

    Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins cause acute cholinergic toxicity and seizures resulting in delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. Testing novel strategies for protecting against delayed effects of acute OP intoxication has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of cellular injury after acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, im) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg, im) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg, ip) administration. All DFP-treated animals exhibited moderate to severe seizures within minutes after DFP injection but survived up to 72 h. AChE activity was significantly depressed in the cortex, hippocampus, subcortical brain tissue and cerebellum at 1 h post-DFP injection and this inhibition persisted for up to 72 h. Analysis of neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) labeling revealed delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, cortex, amygdala and thalamus, but not the cerebellum, starting at 4 h and persisting until 72 h after DFP treatment, although temporal profiles varied between brain regions. At 24 h post-DFP injection, the pattern of FJB labeling corresponded to TUNEL staining in most brain regions, and FJB-positive cells displayed reduced NeuN immunoreactivity but were not immunopositive for astrocytic (GFAP), oligodendroglial (O4) or macrophage/microglial (ED1) markers, demonstrating that DFP causes a region-specific delayed neuronal injury mediated in part by apoptosis. These findings indicate the feasibility of this model for testing neuroprotective strategies, and provide insight regarding therapeutic windows for effective pharmacological intervention following acute OP intoxication. - Research Highlights: > DFP induced neuronal FJB labeling starting at 4-8 h after treatment > The pattern of DFP-induced FJB labeling closely corresponded to TUNEL staining > FJB

  17. In vivo contributions of BH3-only proteins to neuronal death following seizures, ischemia, and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Tobias; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Prehn, Jochen H M; Henshall, David C

    2011-01-01

    The Bcl-2 homology (BH) domain 3-only proteins are a proapoptotic subgroup of the Bcl-2 gene family, which regulate cell death via effects on mitochondria. The BH3-only proteins react to various cell stressors and promote cell death by binding and inactivating antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and direct activation of proapoptotic multi-BH domain proteins such as Bax. Here, we review the in vivo evidence for their involvement in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus and contrast it to ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Seizures in rodents activate three potent proapoptotic BH3-only proteins: Bid, Bim, and Puma. Analysis of damage after seizures in mice singly deficient for each BH3-only protein supports a causal role for Puma and to a lesser extent Bim but, surprisingly, not Bid. In ischemia and trauma, where core aspects of the pathophysiology of cell death overlap, multiple BH3-only proteins are also activated and Bid has been shown to be required for neuronal death. The findings suggest that while each neurologic insult activates multiple BH3-only proteins, there may be specificity in their functional contribution. Future challenges include evaluating the remaining BH3-only proteins, explaining different causal contributions, and, if possible, exploring neurologic outcomes in mouse models deficient for multiple BH3-only proteins. PMID:21364604

  18. Transcriptional changes during neuronal death and replacement in the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ranjit S; Bose, Soma C; Nickell, Melissa D; McIntyre, Jeremy C; Hardin, Debra H; Harris, Andrew M; McClintock, Timothy S

    2005-09-01

    The olfactory epithelium has the unusual ability to replace its neurons. We forced replacement of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by bulbectomy. Microarray, bioinformatics, and in situ hybridization techniques detected a rapid shift in favor of pro-apoptotic proteins, a progressive immune response by macrophages and dendritic cells, and identified or predicted 439 mRNAs enriched in olfactory sensory neurons, including gene silencing factors and sperm flagellar proteins. Transcripts encoding cell cycle regulators, axonogenesis proteins, and transcription factors and signaling proteins that promote proliferation and differentiation were increased at 5--7 days after bulbectomy and were expressed by basal progenitor cells or immature neurons. The transcription factors included Nhlh 1, Hes 6, Lmyc 1, c-Myc, Mxd 4, Id 1, Nmyc 1, Cited 2, c-Myb, Mybl 1, Tead 2, Dp 1, Gata 2, Lmo 1, and Sox1 1. The data reveal significant similarities with embryonic neurogenesis and make several mechanistic predictions, including the roles of the transcription factors in the olfactory sensory neuron lineage.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO's improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  20. Calpastatin inhibits motor neuron death and increases survival of hSOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mala V; Campbell, Jabbar; Palaniappan, Arti; Kumar, Asok; Nixon, Ralph A

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease with a poorly understood cause and no effective treatment. Given that calpains mediate neurodegeneration in other pathological states and are abnormally activated in ALS, we investigated the possible ameliorative effects of inhibiting calpain over-activation in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic (Tg) mice in vivo by neuron-specific over-expression of calpastatin (CAST), the highly selective endogenous inhibitor of calpains. Our data indicate that over-expression of CAST in hSOD1(G93A) mice, which lowered calpain activation to levels comparable to wild-type mice, inhibited the abnormal breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins (spectrin, MAP2 and neurofilaments), and ameliorated motor axon loss. Disease onset in hSOD1(G93A) /CAST mice compared to littermate hSOD1(G93A) mice is delayed, which accounts for their longer time of survival. We also find that neuronal over-expression of CAST in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice inhibited production of putative neurotoxic caspase-cleaved tau and activation of Cdk5, which have been implicated in neurodegeneration in ALS models, and also reduced the formation of SOD1 oligomers. Our data indicate that inhibition of calpain with CAST is neuroprotective in an ALS mouse model. CAST (encoding calpastatin) inhibits hyperactivated calpain to prevent motor neuron disease operating through a cascade of events as indicated in the schematic, with relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We propose that over-expression of CAST in motor neurons of hSOD1(G93A) mice inhibits activation of CDK5, breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins (NFs, MAP2 and Tau) and regulatory molecules (Cam Kinase IV, Calcineurin A), and disease-causing proteins (TDP-43, α-Synuclein and Huntingtin) to prevent neuronal loss and delay neurological deficits. In our experiments, CAST could also inhibit cleavage of Bid, Bax, AIF to prevent mitochondrial, ER and lysosome-mediated cell death mechanisms. Similarly, CAST

  1. (WNK)ing at death: With-no-lysine (Wnk) kinases in neuropathies and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    Members of With-no-lysine (WNK) family of serine-threonine kinase are key regulators of chloride ion transport in diverse cell types, controlling the activity and the surface expression of cation-chloride (Na(+)/K(+)-Cl(-)) co-transporters. Mutations in WNK1 and WNK4 are linked to a hereditary form of hypertension, and WNKs have been extensively investigated pertaining to their roles in renal epithelial ion homeostasis. However, some members of the WNK family and their splice isoforms are also expressed in the mammalian brain, and have been implicated in aspects of hereditary neuropathy as well as neuronal and glial survival. WNK2, which is exclusively enriched in neurons, is well known as an anti-proliferative tumor suppressor. WNK3, on the other hand, appears to promote cell survival as its inhibition enhances neuronal apoptosis. However, loss of WNK3 has been recently shown to reduce ischemia-associated brain damage. In this review, I surveyed the potentially context-dependent roles of WNKs in neurological disorders and neuronal survival. PMID:27131446

  2. Microarray expression profiling in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Bokyung; Oh, Chang-Ki; Choi, Won-Seok; Chung, In Kwon; Youdim, Moussa B H; Oh, Young J

    2011-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To discover potential key molecules in this process, we utilized cDNA microarray technology to obtain an expression profile of transcripts in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. Using a self-organizing map algorithm, data mining and clustering were combined to identify distinct functional subgroups of genes. We identified alterations in the expression of 81 genes in eight clusters. Among these genes, we verified protein expression patterns of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 and sequestosome 1 using both cell culture and rat brain models of PD. Immunological analyses revealed increased expression levels as well as aggregated distribution patterns of these gene products in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated dopaminergic neurons. In addition to the identification of other proteins that are known to be associated with protein aggregation, our results raise the possibility that a more widespread set of proteins may be associated with the generation of protein aggregates in dying neurons. Further research to determine the functional roles of other altered gene products within the same cluster as well as the seven remaining clusters may provide new insights into the neurodegeneration that underlies PD pathogenesis.

  3. Endothelial cell loss is not a major cause of neuronal and glial cell death following contusion injury of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Casella, Gizelda T B; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Wood, Patrick M

    2006-11-01

    Contusion of the spinal cord causes an immediate local loss of neurons and disruption of vasculature; additional loss continues thereafter. To explore the possibility of a causal link between delayed endothelial cell (EC) death and secondary neural cell loss, we evaluated neural and endothelial cell survival, and measured inflammatory cell infiltration, at times up to 48 h after contusion injury to the adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Female Fischer rats (200 g), subjected to moderate (10 g x 12.5 mm) weight drop injuries by the MASCIS (NYU) impactor, were analyzed at 15 min and at 1, 8, 24 and 48 h. ECs, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neutrophils and activated macrophages/microglia were counted in transverse sections. At the injury site, 90% of all neurons died within 48 h of injury; no medium-large diameter neurons survived beyond 48 h. EC death occurred with kinetics similar to glial cell death. Because, in the injury site, most cell death occurred before 8 h, it preceded inflammatory cell infiltration. Three millimeters rostral and caudal to the injury epicenter neuronal numbers were stable for 8 h, and a sharp decrease in neuronal numbers beginning at 8 h strongly correlated with the onset of inflammatory cell infiltration. Glial and blood vessel numbers remained relatively stable in these areas up to 48 h. These results suggest that the loss of ECs during the first 48 h after a contusion injury is not a major cause of neuronal and glial cell death and, in tissue adjacent to the epicenter, inflammatory cell infiltration leads to neuronal loss. PMID:16872600

  4. Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Hemendinger, Richelle A. Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2011-03-15

    Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

  5. Intra-parenchymal ferrous iron infusion causes neuronal atrophy, cell death and progressive tissue loss: implications for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Caliaperumal, Jayalakshmi; Ma, Yonglie; Colbourne, Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke causing considerable tissue destruction from mechanical trauma and secondary degeneration. Free iron, released over days from degrading erythrocytes, causes free radicals that likely contribute to delayed injury. Indeed, an intracerebral injection of iron rapidly kills cells and causes cerebral edema. We expanded upon these observations by: determining a dose-response relationship of iron infusion, examining the structural appearance of surviving striatal neurons, and evaluating injury over months. First, we measured 24-h edema in rats given 3.8, 19.0 or 38.0 μg infusions of FeCl₂ (i.e., 30 μL of a 1, 5 or 10 mmol/L solution). Second, rats were given these infusions (vs. saline controls) followed by behavioral assessment and histology at 7 days. Third, dendritic structure was measured in Golgi-Cox stained neurons at 7 days after a 0.95-μg dose (30 μL of a 0.25 mmol/L solution). Last, rats survived 7 or 60 days post-injection (19.0 μg) for histological assessment. Larger doses of iron caused greater injury, but this was generally not reflected in behavior that indicated similar deficits among the 3.8-38.0 μg groups. Similarly, edema occurred but was not linearly related to dose. Even after a low iron dose the surviving neurons in the peri-injury zone were considerably atrophied (vs. contralateral side and controls). Finally, continuing tissue loss occurred over weeks with prominent neuronal death and iron-positive cells (e.g., macrophages) at 60 days. Iron alone may account for the chronic degeneration found after ICH in rodent models.

  6. The translational repressor eIF4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2) correlates with selective delayed neuronal death after ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ayuso, María Irene; Martínez-Alonso, Emma; Cid, Cristina; de Leciñana, Maria Alonso; Alcázar, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Transient brain ischemia induces an inhibition of translational rates and causes delayed neuronal death in selective regions and cognitive deficits, whereas these effects do not occur in resistant areas. The translational repressor eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-2 (4E-BP2) specifically binds to eIF4E and is critical in the control of protein synthesis. To link neuronal death to translation inhibition, we study the eIF4E association with 4E-BP2 under ischemia reperfusion in a rat model of transient forebrain ischemia. Upon reperfusion, a selective neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region was induced, while it did not occur in the cerebral cortex. Confocal microscopy analysis showed a decrease in 4E-BP2/eIF4E colocalization in resistant cortical neurons after reperfusion. In contrast, in vulnerable CA1 neurons, 4E-BP2 remains associated to eIF4E with a higher degree of 4E-BP2/eIF4E colocalization and translation inhibition. Furthermore, the binding of a 4E-BP2 peptide to eIF4E induced neuronal apoptosis in the CA1 region. Finally, pharmacological-induced protection of CA1 neurons inhibited neuronal apoptosis, decreased 4E-BP2/eIF4E association, and recovered translation. These findings documented specific changes in 4E-BP2/eIF4E association during ischemic reperfusion, linking the translation inhibition to selective neuronal death, and identifying 4E-BP2 as a novel target for protection of vulnerable neurons in ischemic injury. PMID:23591646

  7. MicroRNA-125b regulates microglia activation and motor neuron death in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, C; Napoli, G; Amadio, S; Spalloni, A; Apolloni, S; Longone, P; Volonté, C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the means by which microglia self-regulate the neuroinflammatory response helps modulating their reaction during neurodegeneration. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), classical NF-κB pathway is related to persistent microglia activation and motor neuron injury; however, mechanisms of negative control of NF-κB activity remain unexplored. One of the major players in the termination of classical NF-κB pathway is the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20, which has recognized anti-inflammatory functions. Lately, microRNAs are emerging as potent fine-tuners of neuroinflammation and reported to be regulated in ALS, for instance, by purinergic P2X7 receptor activation. In this work, we uncover an interplay between miR-125b and A20 protein in the modulation of classical NF-κB signaling in microglia. In particular, we establish the existence of a pathological circuit in which termination of A20 function by miR-125b strengthens and prolongs the noxious P2X7 receptor-dependent activation of NF-κB in microglia, with deleterious consequences on motor neurons. We prove that, by restoring A20 levels, miR-125b inhibition then sustains motor neuron survival. These results introduce miR-125b as a key mediator of microglia dynamics in ALS. PMID:26794445

  8. Cytokine-mediated survival from lethal herpes simplex virus infection: role of programmed neuronal death.

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, K D; Gurushanthaiah, D; Howes, E L; Lewandowski, G A; Reed, J C; Bloom, F E; Sarvetnick, N E

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for cytokine-mediated antiviral effects are not fully understood. We approached this problem by studying the outcome of intraocular herpes simplex (HSV) infection in transgenic mice that express interferon gamma in the photoreceptor cells of the retina. These transgenic mice showed selective survival from lethal HSV-2 infection manifested in both eyes, the optic nerve, and the brain. Although transgenic mice developed greater inflammatory responses to the virus in the eyes, inflammation and viral titers in their brains were equivalent to nontransgenic mice. However, survival of transgenic mice correlated with markedly lower numbers of central neurons undergoing apoptosis. The protooncogene Bcl2 was found to be induced in the HSV-2-infected brains of transgenic mice, allowing us to speculate on its role in fostering neuronal survival in this model. These observations imply a complex interaction between cytokine, virus, and host cellular factors. Our results suggest a cytokine-regulated salvage pathway that allows for survival of infected neurons. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7724576

  9. Morphine Enhances HIV-1SF162-Mediated Neuron Death and Delays Recovery of Injured Neurites

    PubMed Central

    Masvekar, Ruturaj R.; El-Hage, Nazira; Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after initial systemic infection; within the CNS parenchyma infected and/or activated perivascular macrophages, microglia and astrocytes release viral and cellular toxins that drive secondary toxicity in neurons and other cell types. Our previous work has largely modeled HIV-neuropathology using the individual viral proteins Tat or gp120, with murine striatal neurons as targets. To model disease processes more closely, the current study uses supernatant from HIV-1-infected cells. Supernatant from HIV-1SF162-infected differentiated-U937 cells (HIV+sup) was collected and p24 level was measured by ELISA to assess the infection. Injection drug abuse is a significant risk factor for HIV-infection, and opiate drug abusers show increased HIV-neuropathology, even with anti-retroviral treatments. We therefore assessed HIV+sup effects on neuronal survival and neurite growth/pruning with or without concurrent exposure to morphine, an opiate that preferentially acts through µ-opioid receptors. Effects of HIV+sup ± morphine were assessed on neuronal populations, and also by time-lapse imaging of individual cells. HIV+sup caused dose-dependent toxicity over a range of p24 levels (10–500 pg/ml). Significant interactions occurred with morphine at lower p24 levels (10 and 25 pg/ml), and GSK3β was implicated as a point of convergence. In the presence of glia, selective neurotoxic measures were significantly enhanced and interactions with morphine were also augmented, perhaps related to a decreased level of BDNF. Importantly, the arrest of neurite growth that occurred with exposure to HIV+sup was reversible unless neurons were continuously exposed to morphine. Thus, while reducing HIV-infection levels may be protective, ongoing exposure to opiates may limit recovery. Opiate interactions observed in this HIV-infective environment were similar, though not entirely concordant, with Tat/gp120 interactions reported previously, suggesting unique interactions

  10. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  11. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2012-07-15

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K{sub 3}) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of

  12. Motor neuron cell death in wobbler mutant mice follows overexpression of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor for thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Festoff, B. W.; D'Andrea, M. R.; Citron, B. A.; Salcedo, R. M.; Smirnova, I. V.; Andrade-Gordon, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are actively sought for new therapeutic strategies. Transgenic, knockout and genetic mouse models greatly aid our understanding of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death. A naturally occurring, autosomal recessive mutant, known as wobbler, and mice transgenic for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 mutations are available, but the molecular mechanisms remain equally unknown. Both phenotypes are detectable after birth. Wobbler is detectable in the third week of life, when homozygotes (wr/wr) exhibit prominent gliosis and significant motor neuron loss in the cervical, but not in lumbar, spinal cord segments. To address molecular mechanisms, we evaluated "death signals" associated with the multifunctional serine protease, thrombin, which leads to apoptotic motor neuronal cell death in culture by cleavage of a G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thrombin activities were determined with chromogenic substrate assays, Western immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were performed with anti-PAR-1 to observe localizations of the receptor and anti-GFAP staining was used to monitor astrocytosis. PAR-1 mRNA levels and locations were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridizations. Cell death was monitored with in situ DNA fragmentation assays. RESULTS: In preliminary studies we found a 5-fold increase in PAR-1 mRNA in cervical spinal cords from wr/wr, compared with wild-type (wt) littermates. Our current studies suggested that reactive astrocytosis and motor neuron cell death were causally linked with alterations in thrombin signaling. PAR-1 protein expression was increased, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and confirmed with in situ hybridization, in phenotypic wr/wr motor neurons, compared with wt, but not in astrocytes. This increase was much greater in cervical, compared with lumbar

  13. Muscarinic M1 receptor partially modulates higher sensitivity to cadmium-induced cell death in primary basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase variants dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadon, María José; Díaz, María Jesús; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, Gloria Gómez; García, Jimena; Lobo, Margarita; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium is a toxic compound reported to produce cognitive dysfunctions, though the mechanisms involved are unknown. In a previous work we described how cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces greater cell death in primary cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain. It also induces cell death in SN56 cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain through M1R blockage, alterations in the expression of AChE variants and GSK-3β, and an increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels. It was observed that the silencing or blockage of M1R altered ChAT activity, GSK-3β, AChE splice variants gene expression, and Aβ and Tau protein formation. Furthermore, AChE-S variants were associated with the same actions modulated by M1R. Accordingly, we hypothesized that cholinergic transmission blockage and higher sensitivity to cadmium-induced cell death of primary basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is mediated by M1R blockage, which triggers this effect through alteration of the expression of AChE variants. To prove this hypothesis, we evaluated, in primary culture from the basal forebrain region, whether M1R silencing induces greater cell death in cholinergic neurons than cadmium does, and whether in SN56 cells M1R mediates the mechanisms described so as to play a part in the cadmium induction of cholinergic transmission blockage and cell death in this cell line through alteration of the expression of AChE variants. Our results prove that M1R silencing by cadmium partially mediates the greater cell death observed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Moreover, all previously described mechanisms for blocking cholinergic transmission and inducing cell death on SN56 cells after cadmium exposure are partially mediated by M1R through the alteration of AChE expression. Thus, our results may explain cognitive dysfunctions observed in cadmium toxicity. PMID:27377441

  14. Repair of oxidative DNA damage, cell-cycle regulation and neuronal death may influence the clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aderbal R T; Santos, Ana Cecília Feio; Farfel, Jose M; Grinberg, Lea T; Ferretti, Renata E L; Campos, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques; Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Rocha, Rafael M; Carraro, Dirce M; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Brentani, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline associated with a featured neuropathology (neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles). Several studies have implicated oxidative damage to DNA, DNA repair, and altered cell-cycle regulation in addition to cell death in AD post-mitotic neurons. However, there is a lack of studies that systematically assess those biological processes in patients with AD neuropathology but with no evidence of cognitive impairment. We evaluated markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG, H2AX), DNA repair (p53, BRCA1, PTEN), and cell-cycle (Cdk1, Cdk4, Cdk5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, p27Kip1, phospho-Rb and E2F1) through immunohistochemistry and cell death through TUNEL in autopsy hippocampal tissue samples arrayed in a tissue microarray (TMA) composed of three groups: I) "clinical-pathological AD" (CP-AD)--subjects with neuropathological AD (Braak ≥ IV and CERAD = B or C) and clinical dementia (CDR ≥ 2, IQCODE>3.8); II) "pathological AD" (P-AD)--subjects with neuropathological AD (Braak ≥ IV and CERAD = B or C) and without cognitive impairment (CDR 0, IQCODE<3.2); and III) "normal aging" (N)--subjects without neuropathological AD (Braak ≤ II and CERAD 0 or A) and with normal cognitive function (CDR 0, IQCODE<3.2). Our results show that high levels of oxidative DNA damage are present in all groups. However, significant reductions in DNA repair and cell-cycle inhibition markers and increases in cell-cycle progression and cell death markers in subjects with CP-AD were detected when compared to both P-AD and N groups, whereas there were no significant differences in the studied markers between P-AD individuals and N subjects. This study indicates that, even in the setting of pathological AD, healthy cognition may be associated with a preserved repair to DNA damage, cell-cycle regulation, and cell death in post-mitotic neurons. PMID:24936870

  15. Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Alterations in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells Infected with Sindbis Virus: Implications to Viral Replication and Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Silva da Costa, Leandro; Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; Da Poian, Andrea T.; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic resources crucial for viral replication are provided by the host. Details of the mechanisms by which viruses interact with host metabolism, altering and recruiting high free-energy molecules for their own replication, remain unknown. Sindbis virus, the prototype of and most widespread alphavirus, causes outbreaks of arthritis in humans and serves as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases induced by alphaviruses in mice. In this work, respirometric analysis was used to evaluate the effects of Sindbis virus infection on mitochondrial bioenergetics of a mouse neuroblastoma cell lineage, Neuro 2a. The modulation of mitochondrial functions affected cellular ATP content and this was synchronous with Sindbis virus replication cycle and cell death. At 15 h, irrespective of effects on cell viability, viral replication induced a decrease in oxygen consumption uncoupled to ATP synthesis and a 36% decrease in maximum uncoupled respiration, which led to an increase of 30% in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Decreased proton leak associated to complex I respiration contributed to the apparent improvement of mitochondrial function. Cellular ATP content was not affected by infection. After 24 h, mitochondria dysfunction was clearly observed as maximum uncoupled respiration reduced 65%, along with a decrease in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Suppressed respiration driven by complexes I- and II-related substrates seemed to play a role in mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite the increase in glucose uptake and glycolytic flux, these changes were followed by a 30% decrease in ATP content and neuronal death. Taken together, mitochondrial bioenergetics is modulated during Sindbis virus infection in such a way as to favor ATP synthesis required to support active viral replication. These early changes in metabolism of Neuro 2a cells may form the molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction and Sindbis

  16. S-Nitrosylation—Mediated Redox Transcriptional Switch Modulates Neurogenesis and Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Cieplak, Piotr; Chan, Shing Fai; Kalashnikova, Evgenia; Liao, Lujian; Saleem, Sofiyan; Han, Xuemei; Clemente, Arjay; Nutter, Anthony; Sances, Sam; Brechtel, Christopher; Haus, Daniel; Haun, Florian; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Huang, Xiayu; Li, Hao; Zaremba, Jeffrey D.; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong; Nikzad, Rana; Harrop, Anne; McKercher, Scott R.; Godzik, Adam; Yates, John R.; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Redox-mediated posttranslational modifications represent a molecular switch that controls major mechanisms of cell function. Nitric oxide (NO) can mediate redox reactions via S-nitrosylation, representing transfer of an NO group to a critical protein thiol. NO is known to modulate neurogenesis and neuronal survival in various brain regions in disparate neurodegenerative conditions. However, a unifying molecular mechanism linking these phenomena remains unknown. Here we report that S-nitrosylation of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors acts as a redox switch to inhibit both neurogenesis and neuronal survival. Structure-based analysis reveals that MEF2 dimerization creates a pocket, facilitating S-nitrosylation at an evolutionally conserved cysteine residue in the DNA binding domain. S-Nitrosylation disrupts MEF2-DNA binding and transcriptional activity, leading to impaired neurogenesis and survival in vitro and in vivo. Our data define a novel molecular switch whereby redox-mediated posttranslational modification controls both neurogenesis and neurodegeneration via a single transcriptional signaling cascade. PMID:25001280

  17. TLR4-activated microglia require IFN-γ to induce severe neuronal dysfunction and death in situ.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Ismini E; Lewen, Andrea; Galow, Lukas V; Cesetti, Tiziana; Scheffel, Jörg; Regen, Tommy; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Kann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Microglia (tissue-resident macrophages) represent the main cell type of the innate immune system in the CNS; however, the mechanisms that control the activation of microglia are widely unknown. We systematically explored microglial activation and functional microglia-neuron interactions in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, i.e., postnatal cortical tissue that lacks adaptive immunity. We applied electrophysiological recordings of local field potential and extracellular K(+) concentration, immunohistochemistry, design-based stereology, morphometry, Sholl analysis, and biochemical analyses. We show that chronic activation with either bacterial lipopolysaccharide through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or leukocyte cytokine IFN-γ induces reactive phenotypes in microglia associated with morphological changes, population expansion, CD11b and CD68 up-regulation, and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) release. Notably, these reactive phenotypes only moderately alter intrinsic neuronal excitability and gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz), which emerge from precise synaptic communication of glutamatergic pyramidal cells and fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons, in local hippocampal networks. Short-term synaptic plasticity and extracellular potassium homeostasis during neural excitation, also reflecting astrocyte function, are unaffected. In contrast, the coactivation of TLR4 and IFN-γ receptors results in neuronal dysfunction and death, caused mainly by enhanced microglial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO release, because iNOS inhibition is neuroprotective. Thus, activation of TLR4 in microglia in situ requires concomitant IFN-γ receptor signaling from peripheral immune cells, such as T helper type 1 and natural killer cells, to unleash neurotoxicity and inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. Our findings provide crucial mechanistic insight into the complex process of microglia activation, with

  18. The long form of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule is expressed specifically in neurons and protects them against death receptor-triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Segura, Miguel F; Sole, Carme; Pascual, Marta; Moubarak, Rana S; Perez-Garcia, M Jose; Gozzelino, Raffaella; Iglesias, Victoria; Badiola, Nahuai; Bayascas, Jose R; Llecha, Nuria; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Jose; Soriano, Eduardo; Yuste, Victor J; Comella, Joan X

    2007-10-17

    Death receptors (DRs) and their ligands are expressed in developing nervous system. However, neurons are generally resistant to death induction through DRs and rather their activation promotes neuronal outgrowth and branching. These results suppose the existence of DRs antagonists expressed in the nervous system. Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM(S)) was first identified as a Fas antagonist in B-cells. Soon after, a longer alternative spliced isoform with unknown function was identified and named FAIM(L). FAIM(S) is widely expressed, including the nervous system, and we have shown previously that it promotes neuronal differentiation but it is not an anti-apoptotic molecule in this system. Here, we demonstrate that FAIM(L) is expressed specifically in neurons, and its expression is regulated during the development. Expression could be induced by NGF through the extracellular regulated kinase pathway in PC12 (pheochromocytoma cell line) cells. Contrary to FAIM(S), FAIM(L) does not increase the neurite outgrowth induced by neurotrophins and does not interfere with nuclear factor kappaB pathway activation as FAIM(S) does. Cells overexpressing FAIM(L) are resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by DRs such as Fas or tumor necrosis factor R1. Reduction of endogenous expression by small interfering RNA shows that endogenous FAIM(L) protects primary neurons from DR-induced cell death. The detailed analysis of this antagonism shows that FAIM(L) can bind to Fas receptor and prevent the activation of the initiator caspase-8 induced by Fas. In conclusion, our results indicate that FAIM(L) could be responsible for maintaining initiator caspases inactive after receptor engagement protecting neurons from the cytotoxic action of death ligands.

  19. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1-3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  20. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  1. Retinoic acid receptor-α signalling antagonizes both intracellular and extracellular amyloid-β production and prevents neuronal cell death caused by amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, C I; Goncalves, M B; Clarke, E; Dogruel, M; Kalindjian, S B; Thomas, S A; Maden, M; Corcoran, J P T

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain, neuronal cell loss and cognitive decline. We show here that retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α signalling in vitro can prevent both intracellular and extracellular Aβ accumulation. RARα signalling increases the expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10, an α-secretase that processes the amyloid precursor protein into the non-amyloidic pathway, thus reducing Aβ production. We also show that RARα agonists are neuroprotective, as they prevent Aβ-induced neuronal cell death in cortical cultures. If RARα agonists are given to the Tg2576 mouse, the normal Aβ production in their brains is suppressed. In contrast, neither RARβ nor γ-agonists affect Aβ production or Aβ-mediated neuronal cell death. Therefore, RARα agonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of AD.

  2. The glutaminergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic but not cholinergic neurons are susceptible to anaesthesia-induced cell death in the rat developing brain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z-W; Shu, Y; Li, M; Guo, X; Pac-Soo, C; Maze, M; Ma, D

    2011-02-01

    Neuronal cell death induced by anaesthetics in the developing brain was evident in previous pre-clinical studies. However, the neuronal cell types involved in anaesthesia-induced neuronal cell death remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell apoptosis induced by anaesthetic exposure in specific brain regions in rats. Separate cohorts of 7-day-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rat pups were randomly assigned to two groups: Naive and anaesthetics alone (70% nitrous oxide and 0.75% isoflurane exposure for 6 h). The brains were sectioned and the slices that contained the basal forebrain, substantia nigra, cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) subarea of hippocampus or cingulate cortex were selected and subsequently subjected to double-labelled fluorescent immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase, dopamine, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGLUT1) or glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) together with caspase 3, respectively. Compared to the naive control, anaesthetic exposure significantly increased the number of caspase-3 positive cells in the CA1 subarea of hippocampus, cingulate cortex, and substantia nigra, but not in the basal forebrain. 54% and 14% of apoptotic cells in the CA1 subarea of hippocampus were GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons respectively. In the cingulate cortex, 30% and 37% of apoptotic cells were GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons respectively. In the substantia nigra, 22% of apoptotic cells were dopaminergic neurons. Our data suggests, anaesthetic exposure significantly increases neuroapoptosis of glutamatergic, GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the developing brain but not that of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. PMID:21056635

  3. A role for 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, in disruption of ion homeostasis and neuronal death induced by amyloid beta-peptide.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Lovell, M A; Markesbery, W R; Uchida, K; Mattson, M P

    1997-01-01

    Peroxidation of membrane lipids results in release of the aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), which is known to conjugate to specific amino acids of proteins and may alter their function. Because accumulating data indicate that free radicals mediate injury and death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and because amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) can promote free radical production, we tested the hypothesis that HNE mediates A beta 25-35-induced disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis and cell death. A beta induced large increases in levels of free and protein-bound HNE in cultured hippocampal cells. HNE was neurotoxic in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and this toxicity was specific in that other aldehydic lipid peroxidation products were not neurotoxic. HNE impaired Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity and induced an increase of neuronal intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. HNE increased neuronal vulnerability to glutamate toxicity, and HNE toxicity was partially attenuated by NMDA receptor antagonists, suggesting an excitotoxic component to HNE neurotoxicity. Glutathione, which was previously shown to play a key role in HNE metabolism in nonneuronal cells, attenuated the neurotoxicities of both A beta and HNE. The antioxidant propyl gallate protected neurons against A beta toxicity but was less effective in protecting against HNE toxicity. Collectively, the data suggest that HNE mediates A beta-induced oxidative damage to neuronal membrane proteins, which, in turn, leads to disruption of ion homeostasis and cell degeneration. PMID:8978733

  4. A beacon of hope in stroke therapy-Blockade of pathologically activated cellular events in excitotoxic neuronal death as potential neuroprotective strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Ashfaqul; Hossain, M Iqbal; Ameen, S Sadia; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas; Ng, Dominic C H; Chueh, Anderly C; Roulston, Carli; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2016-04-01

    Excitotoxicity, a pathological process caused by over-stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, is a major cause of neuronal loss in acute and chronic neurological conditions such as ischaemic stroke, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. Effective neuroprotective drugs to reduce excitotoxic neuronal loss in patients suffering from these neurological conditions are urgently needed. One avenue to achieve this goal is to clearly define the intracellular events mediating the neurotoxic signals originating from the over-stimulated glutamate receptors in neurons. In this review, we first focus on the key cellular events directing neuronal death but not involved in normal physiological processes in the neurotoxic signalling pathways. These events, referred to as pathologically activated events, are potential targets for the development of neuroprotectant therapeutics. Inhibitors blocking some of the known pathologically activated cellular events have been proven to be effective in reducing stroke-induced brain damage in animal models. Notable examples are inhibitors suppressing the ion channel activity of neurotoxic glutamate receptors and those disrupting interactions of specific cellular proteins occurring only in neurons undergoing excitotoxic cell death. Among them, Tat-NR2B9c and memantine are clinically effective in reducing brain damage caused by some acute and chronic neurological conditions. Our second focus is evaluation of the suitability of the other inhibitors for use as neuroprotective therapeutics. We also discuss the experimental approaches suitable for bridging our knowledge gap in our current understanding of the excitotoxic signalling mechanism in neurons and discovery of new pathologically activated cellular events as potential targets for neuroprotection.

  5. Morphological characteristics of eosinophilic neuronal death after transient unilateral forebrain ischemia in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanling; Wang, Zongli; Li, Fuying; Sun, Liyuan

    2016-06-01

    Various types of eosinophilic neurons (ENs) are found in the post-ischemic brain. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the temporal and spatial profile of ENs, the expression of TUNEL staining and ultrastructural characteristics in the core and peripheral regions of the cortex post-ischemia. Unilateral forebrain ischemia was induced in Mongolian gerbils by transient common carotid artery occlusions, and the brains from 3 h to 2 weeks post-ischemia were prepared for morphometric, electron microscopy (EM) and TUNEL staining of the ENs. Light microscopy showed that ENs with minimally abnormal nuclei and swollen cell bodies appeared at 3 h in the ischemic core and at 12 h in the periphery. Thereafter, ENs with pyknosis and irregular atrophic cytoplasm peaked at 12 h, pyknosis with scant cytoplasm peaked at 4 days, and TUNEL-positive staining was observed in the ischemic core. In the ischemic periphery, ENs had slightly atrophic cytoplasm and sequentially developed pyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis over 1 week. These cells were also positive for TUNEL. In EM, severe organelle dilation and vacuolization preceded chromatin fragmentation in the ischemic core, while chromatin fragmentation and homogenization were the vital characteristics in the ischemic periphery. There might be two region-dependent pathways for EN changes in the post-ischemic brain: pyknosis with cytoplasmic shrinkage in the core and nuclear disintegration with slightly atrophic cytoplasm in the periphery. These pathways were comparable to necrosis and proceeded from non-classical apoptosis to necrosis, respectively.

  6. Vitamin B-6 nutrition, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), and neuronal cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, C.L.; Guilarte, T.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Neonatal vitamin B-6 restriction results in CNS neurochemical and neuropathological impairment including ataxia, tremor, and seizures. Coincident with the onset of neurological signs, there is a dramatic increase in the CNS levels of 3HK, an endogenous tryptophan metabolite which has been reported to possess convulsant and cytotoxic properties. Previous studies have shown that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plays a critical role in 3HK toxicity. In 3HK exposed cell cultures, toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be produced intracellularly by the action of cellular oxidases or on either side of the cell membrane by iron-catalyzed autooxidation of 3HK. Alternatively, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be required as a cosubstrate for the peroxidative oxidation of 3HK to a toxic quinoneimine. In order to address the issue of the site and mode of action of 3HK toxicity, the authors have examined the effects of treatments administered before and after exposure to 3HK such that their effects must reflect actions confined within the intracellular compartment. The results show that the toxicity of 3HK was attenuated by post-treatment with catalase and by pre-treatment with desferrioxamine or horseradish peroxidase. These results support a direct role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in 3HK toxicity and suggest that cell death results from toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the intracellular compartment.

  7. Topiramate attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats via duplex protection against inflammation and neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Guo, Song-Xue; Li, Jian-Ru; Du, Hang-Gen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun

    2015-10-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death.

  8. Topiramate attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats via duplex protection against inflammation and neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Guo, Song-Xue; Li, Jian-Ru; Du, Hang-Gen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun

    2015-10-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. PMID:26086367

  9. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti

  10. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Instability and Death of Spiral Wave in a Two-Dimensional Array of Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Ni; Ma, Jun; Tang, Jun; Li, Yan-Long

    2010-02-01

    Spiral wave could be observed in the excitable media, the neurons are often excitable within appropriate parameters. The appearance and formation of spiral wave in the cardiac tissue is linked to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia that can denervate into polymorphic tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The neuronal system often consists of a large number of neurons with complex connections. In this paper, we theoretically study the transition from spiral wave to spiral turbulence and homogeneous state (death of spiral wave) in two-dimensional array of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron with completely nearest-neighbor connections. In our numerical studies, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed and selected as the initial state, then the bifurcation parameters are changed to different values to observe the transition from spiral wave to homogeneous state, breakup of spiral wave and weak change of spiral wave, respectively. A statistical factor of synchronization is defined with the mean field theory to analyze the transition from spiral wave to other spatial states, and the snapshots of the membrane potentials of all neurons and time series of mean membrane potentials of all neurons are also plotted to discuss the change of spiral wave. It is found that the sharp changing points in the curve for factor of synchronization vs. bifurcation parameter indicate sudden transition from spiral wave to other states. And the results are independent of the number of neurons we used.

  11. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2013-01-01

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ~12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. PMID:22575170

  12. The regulation of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis by JNK/c-Jun pathway in β-amyloid-induced neuron death.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Rumana; Sanphui, Priyankar; Das, Hrishita; Saha, Pampa; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal loss in selective areas of brain underlies the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidences place oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) central to the disease. However, mechanism of neuron death in response to Aβ remains elusive. Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and induction of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun are reported in AD. However, targets of JNK/c-Jun in Aβ-induced neuron death are mostly unknown. Our study shows that pro-apoptotic proteins, Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) and Puma (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) are targets of c-Jun in Aβ-treated neurons. We demonstrate that the JNK/c-Jun pathway is activated, in cultures of cortical neurons following treatment with oligomeric Aβ and in AD transgenic mice, and that inhibition of this pathway by selective inhibitor blocks induction of Puma by Aβ. We also find that both JNK and p53 pathways co-operatively regulate Puma expression in Aβ-treated neurons. Moreover, we identified a novel AP1-binding site on rat puma gene which is necessary for direct binding of c-Jun with Puma promoter. Finally, we find that knocking down of c-Jun by siRNA provides significant protection from Aβ toxicity and that induction of Bim and Puma by Aβ in neurons requires c-Jun. Taken together, our results suggest that both Bim and Puma are target of c-Jun and elucidate the intricate regulation of Puma expression by JNK/c-Jun and p53 pathways in neurons upon Aβ toxicity. JNK/c-Jun pathway is shown to be activated in neurons of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and plays a vital role in neuron death in AD models. However, downstream targets of c-Jun in this disease have not been thoroughly elucidated. Our study shows that two important pro-apoptotic proteins, Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) and Puma (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) are targets of c-Jun in Aβ-treated neurons. We demonstrate that the JNK/c-jun pathway is activated, in cultures

  13. Hsp27 binding to the 3′UTR of bim mRNA prevents neuronal death during oxidative stress–induced injury: a novel cytoprotective mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, David; Jiménez-Mateos, Eva M.; Mooney, Claire M.; Velasco, Guillermo; Henshall, David C.; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons face a changeable microenvironment and therefore need mechanisms that allow rapid switch on/off of their cytoprotective and apoptosis-inducing signaling pathways. Cellular mechanisms that control apoptosis activation include the regulation of pro/antiapoptotic mRNAs through their 3′-untranslated region (UTR). This region holds binding elements for RNA-binding proteins, which can control mRNA translation. Here we demonstrate that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) prevents oxidative stress–induced cell death in cerebellar granule neurons by specific regulation of the mRNA for the proapoptotic BH3-only protein, Bim. Hsp27 depletion induced by oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) correlated with bim gene activation and subsequent neuronal death, whereas enhanced Hsp27 expression prevented these. This effect could not be explained by proteasomal degradation of Bim or bim promoter inhibition; however, it was associated with a specific increase in the levels of bim mRNA and with its binding to Hsp27. Finally, we determined that enhanced Hsp27 expression in neurons exposed to H2O2 or glutamate prevented the translation of a reporter plasmid where bim-3′UTR mRNA sequence was cloned downstream of a luciferase gene. These results suggest that repression of bim mRNA translation through binding to the 3′UTR constitutes a novel cytoprotective mechanism of Hsp27 during stress in neurons. PMID:25187648

  14. Methylglyoxal produced by amyloid-β peptide-induced nitrotyrosination of triosephosphate isomerase triggers neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guix, Francesc Xavier; Clarimón, Jordi; Miscione, Gian Pietro; Boada, Mercé; Gil-Gómez, Gabriel; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Molina, Henrik; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Vicente, Rubén; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates induce nitro-oxidative stress, contributing to the characteristic neurodegeneration found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most strongly nitrotyrosinated proteins in AD is the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme which regulates glycolytic flow, and its efficiency decreased when it is nitrotyrosinated. The main aims of this study were to analyze the impact of TPI nitrotyrosination on cell viability and to identify the mechanism behind this effect. In human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), we evaluated the effects of Aβ42 oligomers on TPI nitrotyrosination. We found an increased production of methylglyoxal (MG), a toxic byproduct of the inefficient nitro-TPI function. The proapoptotic effects of Aβ42 oligomers, such as decreasing the protective Bcl2 and increasing the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, were prevented with a MG chelator. Moreover, we used a double mutant TPI (Y165F and Y209F) to mimic nitrosative modifications due to Aβ action. Neuroblastoma cells transfected with the double mutant TPI consistently triggered MG production and a decrease in cell viability due to apoptotic mechanisms. Our data show for the first time that MG is playing a key role in the neuronal death induced by Aβ oligomers. This occurs because of TPI nitrotyrosination, which affects both tyrosines associated with the catalytic center.

  15. Protective effects of bupivacaine against kainic acid-induced seizure and neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Wu, Chia Chan; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Su Jane

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of glutamate is a critical element in the neuropathology of epilepsy, and bupivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, has been shown to inhibit the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. This study investigated whether bupivacaine produces antiseizure and antiexcitotoxic effects using a kainic acid (KA) rat model, an animal model used for temporal lobe epilepsy, and excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments. The results showed that administering bupivacaine (0.4 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to rats 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of KA (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and reduced the seizure score. In addition, bupivacaine attenuated KA-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the inhibition of microglial activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, bupivacaine shortened the latency of escaping onto the platform in the Morris water maze learning performance test. Collectively, these data suggest that bupivacaine has therapeutic potential for treating epilepsy.

  16. Inhibition of cell proliferation: a mechanism likely to mediate the prevention of neuronal cell death by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Mayo, J C; Sainz, R M; Uría, H; Antolín, I; Estéban, M M; Rodríguez

    1998-08-01

    In a previous work we demonstrated that melatonin is able to prevent apoptosis induced by low doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in undifferentiated and neuronal PC12 cells. We also reported how this neurohormone was able to prevent the decrease in the mRNA for antioxidant enzymes caused by 6-OHDA. Although the antioxidant capability of melatonin seems to be clearly implicated in its antiapoptotic activity, literature suggests that its antiproliferative property could also be involved in its prevention of apoptosis. In the present work we demonstrated that melatonin is able to inhibit cell proliferation in undifferentiated PC12 cells, decreasing cell number and the total amount of DNA, and the mRNA for the histone H4, which are known to increase during DNA synthesis. Melatonin does not decrease the number of cells in nonproliferating PC12 cells, indicating that it does not cause cell death. Additionally, we demonstrate that other inhibitors of cell proliferation, as well as other antioxidants, are able to mimic the antiapoptotic effect of melatonin. This is interpreted to mean that melatonin acts by both mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis caused by 6-OHDA and the findings support the hypothesis of a relationship between oxidative stress and regulation of the cell cycle.

  17. Methylglyoxal produced by amyloid-β peptide-induced nitrotyrosination of triosephosphate isomerase triggers neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guix, Francesc Xavier; Clarimón, Jordi; Miscione, Gian Pietro; Boada, Mercé; Gil-Gómez, Gabriel; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Molina, Henrik; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Vicente, Rubén; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates induce nitro-oxidative stress, contributing to the characteristic neurodegeneration found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most strongly nitrotyrosinated proteins in AD is the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme which regulates glycolytic flow, and its efficiency decreased when it is nitrotyrosinated. The main aims of this study were to analyze the impact of TPI nitrotyrosination on cell viability and to identify the mechanism behind this effect. In human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), we evaluated the effects of Aβ42 oligomers on TPI nitrotyrosination. We found an increased production of methylglyoxal (MG), a toxic byproduct of the inefficient nitro-TPI function. The proapoptotic effects of Aβ42 oligomers, such as decreasing the protective Bcl2 and increasing the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, were prevented with a MG chelator. Moreover, we used a double mutant TPI (Y165F and Y209F) to mimic nitrosative modifications due to Aβ action. Neuroblastoma cells transfected with the double mutant TPI consistently triggered MG production and a decrease in cell viability due to apoptotic mechanisms. Our data show for the first time that MG is playing a key role in the neuronal death induced by Aβ oligomers. This occurs because of TPI nitrotyrosination, which affects both tyrosines associated with the catalytic center. PMID:24614897

  18. Deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene is sufficient to cause oxidative stress, delayed differentiation and neuronal death in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Gottwald, Magdalena; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired neuronal migration and cell death are commonly observed in patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs), and in mouse models of this diseases. In Pex11β-deficient mice, we observed that the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene (Pex11β+/− heterozygous mice) caused cell death in primary neuronal cultures prepared from the neocortex and cerebellum, although to a lesser extent as compared with the homozygous-null animals (Pex11β−/− mice). In corresponding brain sections, cell death was rare, but differences between the genotypes were similar to those found in vitro. Because PEX11β has been implicated in peroxisomal proliferation, we searched for alterations in peroxisomal abundance in the brain of heterozygous and homozygous Pex11β-null mice compared with wild-type animals. Deletion of one allele of the Pex11β gene slightly increased the abundance of peroxisomes, whereas the deletion of both alleles caused a 30% reduction in peroxisome number. The size of the peroxisomal compartment did not correlate with neuronal death. Similar to cell death, neuronal development was delayed in Pex11β+/− mice, and to a further extent in Pex11β−/− mice, as measured by a reduced mRNA and protein level of synaptophysin and a reduced protein level of the mature isoform of MAP2. Moreover, a gradual increase in oxidative stress was found in brain sections and primary neuronal cultures from wild-type to heterozygous to homozygous Pex11β-deficient mice. SOD2 was upregulated in neurons from Pex11β+/− mice, but not from Pex11β−/− animals, whereas the level of catalase remained unchanged in neurons from Pex11β+/− mice and was reduced in those from Pex11β−/− mice, suggesting a partial compensation of oxidative stress in the heterozygotes, but a failure thereof in the homozygous Pex11β−/− brain. In conclusion, we report the alterations in the brain caused by the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene. Our data

  19. S phase entry causes homocysteine-induced death while ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein functions anti-apoptotically to protect neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weizhen

    2010-01-01

    A major phenotype seen in neurodegenerative disorders is the selective loss of neurons due to apoptotic death and evidence suggests that inappropriate re-activation of cell cycle proteins in post-mitotic neurons may be responsible. To investigate whether reactivation of the G1 cell cycle proteins and S phase entry was linked with apoptosis, we examined homocysteine-induced neuronal cell death in a rat cortical neuron tissue culture system. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a physiological risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. We found that in response to homocysteine treatment, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 2 translocated to the nucleus, and p27 levels decreased. Both cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 2 regained catalytic activity, the G1 gatekeeper retinoblastoma protein was phosphorylated and DNA synthesis was detected, suggesting transit into S phase. Double-labelling immunofluorescence showed a 95% co-localization of anti-bromodeoxyuridine labelling with apoptotic markers, demonstrating that those cells that entered S phase eventually died. Neurons could be protected from homocysteine-induced death by methods that inhibited G1 phase progression, including down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 or 2 activity by small molecule inhibitors, or use of the c-Abl kinase inhibitor, Gleevec™, which blocked cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 nuclear translocation. However, blocking cell cycle progression post G1, using DNA replication inhibitors, did not prevent apoptosis, suggesting that death was not preventable post the G1-S phase checkpoint. While homocysteine treatment caused DNA damage and activated the DNA damage response, its mechanism of action was distinct from that of more traditional DNA damaging agents, such as camptothecin, as it was p53-independent. Likewise, inhibition of the DNA damage sensors, ataxia-telangiectasia mutant and ataxia telangiectasia

  20. REST alleviates neurotoxic prion peptide-induced synaptic abnormalities, neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal death partially via LRP6-mediated Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiqi; Zhu, Ting; Zhou, Xiangmei; Barrow, Paul; Yang, Wei; Cui, Yongyong; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of infectious neurodegenerative diseases characterized by multiple neuropathological hallmarks including synaptic damage, spongiform degeneration and neuronal death. The factors and mechanisms that maintain cellular morphological integrity and protect against neurodegeneration in prion diseases are still unclear. Here we report that after stimulation with the neurotoxic PrP106-126 fragment in primary cortical neurons, REST translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and protects neurons from harmful effects of PrP106-126. Overexpression of REST reduces pathological damage and abnormal biochemical alterations of neurons induced by PrP106-126 and maintains neuronal viability by stabilizing the level of pro-survival protein FOXO1 and inhibiting the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm and the activation of Capase3. Conversely, knockdown of REST exacerbates morphological damage and inhibits the expression of FOXO1. Additionally, by overexpression or knockdown of LRP6, we further show that LRP6-mediated Wnt-β-catenin signaling partly regulates the expression of REST. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time novel neuroprotective function of REST in prion diseases and hypothesise that the LRP6-Wnt-β-catenin/REST signaling plays critical and collaborative roles in neuroprotection. This signaling of neuronal survival regulation could be explored as a viable therapeutic target for prion diseases and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26919115

  1. Overexpression of hsp27 Rescued Neuronal Cell Death and Reduction in Life- and Health-Span in Drosophila melanogaster Against Prolonged Exposure to Dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Saini, Sanjay; Khatoon, Rehana; Sharma, Divya; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Kar Chowdhuri, Debapratim

    2016-07-01

    Long-term exposure to dichlorvos (O,O-dimethyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP), an organophosphate pesticide) is reported to exert neurotoxicity, i.e., generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative damage, and neuronal cell death along with life- and health-span reduction in nontarget organisms including humans. However, studies on genetic modulation towards neuroprotection against prolonged DDVP exposure are elusive. Hsp27 (a small heat shock protein) is involved in various cellular processes and thus has attained emphasis as a therapeutic target. We aimed to examine the protective effect of hsp27 overexpression against prolonged DDVP exposure using an in vivo model Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were exposed to 15.0 ng/ml DDVP for a prolonged period to examine neuronal cell death, locomotor performance, and lifespan. After prolonged exposure, cell death, ROS level, glutathione depletion, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate level (NADPH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities were examined in fly brain tissues at different days of age (days 10, 20, and 30). Flies with ubiquitous overexpression of hsp27 showed better resistance (improved lifespan and locomotor performance) in comparison to that targeted to motor neurons and nervous system. These flies also exhibited lesser intracellular ROS level and glutathione depletion by restoring G6PD activity, NADPH level, and TrxR activity in their brains thereby resisted neuronal cell death. Conversely, hsp27 knockdown flies exhibited reversal of the above endpoints. The study evidenced the neuroprotective efficacy of hsp27 overexpression against prolonged DDVP exposure and favored Hsp27 as a therapeutic target towards achieving better organismal (including human) health against long-term chemical exposure.

  2. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  3. Protection of hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death by β-hydroxybutyrate involves the preservation of energy levels and decreased production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Julio-Amilpas, Alberto; Montiel, Teresa; Soto-Tinoco, Eva; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Massieu, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in brain but in certain circumstances such as prolonged fasting and the suckling period alternative substrates can be used such as the ketone bodies (KB), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetoacetate. It has been shown that KB prevent neuronal death induced during energy limiting conditions and excitotoxicity. The protective effect of KB has been mainly attributed to the improvement of mitochondrial function. In the present study, we have investigated the protective effect of D-BHB against neuronal death induced by severe noncoma hypoglycemia in the rat in vivo and by glucose deprivation (GD) in cortical cultures. Results show that systemic administration of D-BHB reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in distinct cortical areas and subregions of the hippocampus and efficiently prevents neuronal death in the cortex of hypoglycemic animals. In vitro results show that D-BHB stimulates ATP production and reduces ROS levels, while the nonphysiologic isomer of BHB, L-BHB, has no effect on energy production but reduces ROS levels. Data suggest that protection by BHB, not only results from its metabolic action but is also related to its capability to reduce ROS, rendering this KB as a suitable candidate for the treatment of ischemic and traumatic injury. PMID:25649993

  4. Protection of hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death by β-hydroxybutyrate involves the preservation of energy levels and decreased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Julio-Amilpas, Alberto; Montiel, Teresa; Soto-Tinoco, Eva; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Massieu, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in brain but in certain circumstances such as prolonged fasting and the suckling period alternative substrates can be used such as the ketone bodies (KB), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetoacetate. It has been shown that KB prevent neuronal death induced during energy limiting conditions and excitotoxicity. The protective effect of KB has been mainly attributed to the improvement of mitochondrial function. In the present study, we have investigated the protective effect of D-BHB against neuronal death induced by severe noncoma hypoglycemia in the rat in vivo and by glucose deprivation (GD) in cortical cultures. Results show that systemic administration of D-BHB reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in distinct cortical areas and subregions of the hippocampus and efficiently prevents neuronal death in the cortex of hypoglycemic animals. In vitro results show that D-BHB stimulates ATP production and reduces ROS levels, while the nonphysiologic isomer of BHB, L-BHB, has no effect on energy production but reduces ROS levels. Data suggest that protection by BHB, not only results from its metabolic action but is also related to its capability to reduce ROS, rendering this KB as a suitable candidate for the treatment of ischemic and traumatic injury.

  5. Evidence for the spontaneous production but massive programmed cell death of new neurons in the subcallosal zone of the postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woon Ryoung; Chun, Sung Kun; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyun; Ono, Katsuhiko; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Sun, Woong

    2011-02-01

    In the last 10 years, many studies have reported that neural stem/progenitor cells spontaneously produce new neurons in a subset of adult brain regions, including the hippocampus, olfactory bulb (OB), cerebral cortex, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, white matter and amygdala in several mammalian species. Although adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and OB has been clearly documented, its occurrence in other brain regions is controversial. In the present study, we identified a marked accumulation of new neurons in the subcallosal zone (SCZ) of Bax-knockout mice in which programmed cell death (PCD) of adult-generated hippocampal and OB neurons has been shown to be completely prevented. By contrast, in the SCZ of wild-type (WT) mice, only a few immature (but no mature) newly generated neurons were observed, suggesting that virtually all postnatally generated immature neurons in the SCZ were eliminated by Bax-dependent PCD. Treatment of 2-month-old WT mice with a caspase inhibitor, or with the neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor, promoted the survival of adult-generated neurons, suggesting that it is the absence of sufficient neurotrophic signaling in WT SCZ that triggers the Bax-dependent, apoptotic PCD of newly generated SCZ neurons. Furthermore, following focal traumatic brain injury to the posterior brain, SCZ neurogenesis in WT mice was increased, and a subset of these newly generated neurons migrated toward the injury site. These data indicate that the adult SCZ maintains a neurogenic potential that could contribute to recovery in the brain in response to the injury-induced upregulation of neurotrophic signaling.

  6. Enhancing mitochondrial calcium buffering capacity reduces aggregation of misfolded SOD1 and motor neuron cell death without extending survival in mouse models of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Han, Joo Seok; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Vetto, Anne P; Lee, Sandra K; Tseng, Eva; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-03-13

    Mitochondria have been proposed as targets for toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive, fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons. A decrease in the capacity of spinal cord mitochondria to buffer calcium (Ca(2+)) has been observed in mice expressing ALS-linked mutants of SOD1 that develop motor neuron disease with many of the key pathological hallmarks seen in ALS patients. In mice expressing three different ALS-causing SOD1 mutants, we now test the contribution of the loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-buffering capacity to disease mechanism(s) by eliminating ubiquitous expression of cyclophilin D, a critical regulator of Ca(2+)-mediated opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore that determines mitochondrial Ca(2+) content. A chronic increase in mitochondrial buffering of Ca(2+) in the absence of cyclophilin D was maintained throughout disease course and was associated with improved mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduced mitochondrial swelling, and retention of normal morphology. This was accompanied by an attenuation of glial activation, reduction in levels of misfolded SOD1 aggregates in the spinal cord, and a significant suppression of motor neuron death throughout disease. Despite this, muscle denervation, motor axon degeneration, and disease progression and survival were unaffected, thereby eliminating mutant SOD1-mediated loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering capacity, altered mitochondrial morphology, motor neuron death, and misfolded SOD1 aggregates, as primary contributors to disease mechanism for fatal paralysis in these models of familial ALS. PMID:23486940

  7. A beacon of hope in stroke therapy-Blockade of pathologically activated cellular events in excitotoxic neuronal death as potential neuroprotective strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Ashfaqul; Hossain, M Iqbal; Ameen, S Sadia; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas; Ng, Dominic C H; Chueh, Anderly C; Roulston, Carli; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2016-04-01

    Excitotoxicity, a pathological process caused by over-stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, is a major cause of neuronal loss in acute and chronic neurological conditions such as ischaemic stroke, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. Effective neuroprotective drugs to reduce excitotoxic neuronal loss in patients suffering from these neurological conditions are urgently needed. One avenue to achieve this goal is to clearly define the intracellular events mediating the neurotoxic signals originating from the over-stimulated glutamate receptors in neurons. In this review, we first focus on the key cellular events directing neuronal death but not involved in normal physiological processes in the neurotoxic signalling pathways. These events, referred to as pathologically activated events, are potential targets for the development of neuroprotectant therapeutics. Inhibitors blocking some of the known pathologically activated cellular events have been proven to be effective in reducing stroke-induced brain damage in animal models. Notable examples are inhibitors suppressing the ion channel activity of neurotoxic glutamate receptors and those disrupting interactions of specific cellular proteins occurring only in neurons undergoing excitotoxic cell death. Among them, Tat-NR2B9c and memantine are clinically effective in reducing brain damage caused by some acute and chronic neurological conditions. Our second focus is evaluation of the suitability of the other inhibitors for use as neuroprotective therapeutics. We also discuss the experimental approaches suitable for bridging our knowledge gap in our current understanding of the excitotoxic signalling mechanism in neurons and discovery of new pathologically activated cellular events as potential targets for neuroprotection. PMID:26899498

  8. Quinazoline-based tricyclic compounds that regulate programmed cell death, induce neuronal differentiation, and are curative in animal models for excitotoxicity and hereditary brain disease

    PubMed Central

    Vainshtein, A; Veenman, L; Shterenberg, A; Singh, S; Masarwa, A; Dutta, B; Island, B; Tsoglin, E; Levin, E; Leschiner, S; Maniv, I; Pe’er, L; Otradnov, I; Zubedat, S; Aga-Mizrachi, S; Weizman, A; Avital, A; Marek, I; Gavish, M

    2015-01-01

    Expanding on a quinazoline scaffold, we developed tricyclic compounds with biological activity. These compounds bind to the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and protect U118MG (glioblastoma cell line of glial origin) cells from glutamate-induced cell death. Fascinating, they can induce neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells (cell line of pheochromocytoma origin with neuronal characteristics) known to display neuronal characteristics, including outgrowth of neurites, tubulin expression, and NeuN (antigen known as ‘neuronal nuclei’, also known as Rbfox3) expression. As part of the neurodifferentiation process, they can amplify cell death induced by glutamate. Interestingly, the compound 2-phenylquinazolin-4-yl dimethylcarbamate (MGV-1) can induce expansive neurite sprouting on its own and also in synergy with nerve growth factor and with glutamate. Glycine is not required, indicating that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are not involved in this activity. These diverse effects on cells of glial origin and on cells with neuronal characteristics induced in culture by this one compound, MGV-1, as reported in this article, mimic the diverse events that take place during embryonic development of the brain (maintenance of glial integrity, differentiation of progenitor cells to mature neurons, and weeding out of non-differentiating progenitor cells). Such mechanisms are also important for protective, curative, and restorative processes that occur during and after brain injury and brain disease. Indeed, we found in a rat model of systemic kainic acid injection that MGV-1 can prevent seizures, counteract the process of ongoing brain damage, including edema, and restore behavior defects to normal patterns. Furthermore, in the R6-2 (transgenic mouse model for Huntington disease; Strain name: B6CBA-Tg(HDexon1)62Gpb/3J) transgenic mouse model for Huntington disease, derivatives of MGV-1 can increase lifespan by >20% and reduce incidence of abnormal movements. Also in vitro

  9. Rapamycin prevents cadmium-induced neuronal cell death via targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong; Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Sujuan; Luo, Yan; Chen, Long; Huang, Shile

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, contributes to neurodegeneration. Rapamycin, a macrocyclic lactone, has shown preventive effect on Cd-induced neuronal cell death. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that rapamycin prevented Cd-induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells. Coincidently, rapamycin markedly blocked Cd-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6K1 and 4E-BP1 in the cells. Expression of a rapamycin-resistant and kinase-active mTOR (S2035T, mTOR-T), but not a rapamycin-resistant and kinase-dead mTOR (S2035T/D2357E, mTOR-TE), conferred resistance to rapamycin inhibition of Cd-induced cell death, implying that the preventive effect of rapamycin on Cd-induced neurotoxicity is mTOR kinase activity-dependent. It appeared that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 were involved in the inhibitory activity of rapamycin, as silencing raptor, rictor or raptor/rictor enhanced rapamycin's blockage of Cd-induced cell death. Furthermore, downregulation of S6K1, ectopic expression of constitutively hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1 or dominant negative Akt, or co-treatment with Akt inhibitor also potentiated the rapamycin's inhibitory effect. The findings indicate that rapamycin prevents Cd-induced neuronal cell death via suppressing both mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways. Our results highlight that rapamycin may be exploited for the prevention of Cd-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Therapeutic targeting of oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases abrogates ATF4-dependent neuronal death and improves outcomes after brain hemorrhage in several rodent models.

    PubMed

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Alim, Ishraq; Khim, Soah J; Bourassa, Megan W; Sleiman, Sama F; John, Roseleen; Thinnes, Cyrille C; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Demetriades, Marina; Neitemeier, Sandra; Cruz, Dana; Gazaryan, Irina; Killilea, David W; Morgenstern, Lewis; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Schallert, Timothy; Tappero, Ryan V; Zhong, Jian; Cho, Sunghee; Maxfield, Frederick R; Holman, Theodore R; Culmsee, Carsten; Fong, Guo-Hua; Su, Yijing; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun; Cave, John W; Schofield, Christopher J; Colbourne, Frederick; Coppola, Giovanni; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2016-03-01

    Disability or death due to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is attributed to blood lysis, liberation of iron, and consequent oxidative stress. Iron chelators bind to free iron and prevent neuronal death induced by oxidative stress and disability due to ICH, but the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. We show that the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase domain (HIF-PHD) family of iron-dependent, oxygen-sensing enzymes are effectors of iron chelation. Molecular reduction of the three HIF-PHD enzyme isoforms in the mouse striatum improved functional recovery after ICH. A low-molecular-weight hydroxyquinoline inhibitor of the HIF-PHD enzymes, adaptaquin, reduced neuronal death and behavioral deficits after ICH in several rodent models without affecting total iron or zinc distribution in the brain. Unexpectedly, protection from oxidative death in vitro or from ICH in vivo by adaptaquin was associated with suppression of activity of the prodeath factor ATF4 rather than activation of an HIF-dependent prosurvival pathway. Together, these findings demonstrate that brain-specific inactivation of the HIF-PHD metalloenzymes with the blood-brain barrier-permeable inhibitor adaptaquin can improve functional outcomes after ICH in several rodent models.

  11. An involvement of BDNF and PI3-K/Akt in the anti-apoptotic effect of memantine on staurosporine-evoked cell death in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Szymanska, M; Budziszewska, B; Lason, W

    2009-07-01

    Memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist possesses neuroprotective properties, but the exact mechanisms of its beneficial action on neuronal survival are poorly recognized. In the present study, some intracellular mechanisms of memantine effects on staurosporine-evoked cell death were investigated in primary cortical neurons. Memantine (0.1-2 muM) suppressed neuronal apoptosis evoked by staurosporine in 7 DIV cortical neurons, whereas other antagonists of NMDA receptor, MK-801 (1 muM) and AP-5 (100 muM) were ineffective. The anti-apoptotic effects of memantine were not connected with any changes in cytoplasmic calcium concentration or reactive oxygen species level. The immunoblot analysis showed that the staurosporine induced a decrease in p-Akt protein kinase level and that this effect was reversed by memantine treatment. Moreover, the PI3-K inhibitors, wortmannin and LY 294002 attenuated the anti-apoptotic action of memantine on staurosporine-induced cell damage. Furthermore, the ELISA studies showed increased cellular and released BDNF protein level after combined treatment with memantine and staurosporine. There was no effect of memantine on the activation and expression of other protein kinases involved in the mechanism of cellular survival, i.e. ERK1/2, JNK and GSK3-beta. The obtained data suggest an NMDAR-independent action of memantine in attenuation of neuronal apoptosis and point to the engagement of BDNF and PI3-K/Akt pathway in these processes.

  12. Kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration and activation of inflammatory processes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor does not prevent neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Juha T; Ruohonen, Saku; Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Plysjuk, Anna; Lopez-Picon, Francisco R; Holopainen, Irma E

    2011-06-01

    In the postnatal rodent hippocampus status epilepticus (SE) leads to age- and region-specific excitotoxic neuronal damage, the precise mechanisms of which are still incompletely known. Recent studies suggest that the activation of inflammatory responses together with glial cell reactivity highly contribute to excitotoxic neuronal damage. However, pharmacological tools to attenuate their activation in the postnatal brain are still poorly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of inflammatory mediators in kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs). A specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS-398) was used to study whether or not it could ameliorate neuronal death. Our results show that KA treatment (24 h) resulted in a dose-dependent degeneration of CA3a/b pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, COX-2 immunoreactivity was pronouncedly enhanced particularly in CA3c pyramidal neurons, microglial and astrocyte morphology changed from a resting to active appearance, the expression of the microglial specific protein, Iba1, increased, and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production increased. These indicated the activation of inflammatory processes. However, the expression of neither proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), nor the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 mRNA was significantly altered by KA treatment as studied by real-time PCR. Despite activation of an array of inflammatory processes, neuronal damage could not be rescued either with the combined pre- and co-treatment with a specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. Our results suggest that KA induces activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes in immature OHCs, and that the timing of anti-inflammatory treatment to achieve neuroprotection is a challenge due to developmental properties and the complexity of inflammatory processes activated by

  13. Histone hyperacetylation up-regulates protein kinase Cδ in dopaminergic neurons to induce cell death: relevance to epigenetic mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2014-12-12

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

  14. Resveratrol prevents cadmium activation of Erk1/2 and JNK pathways from neuronal cell death via protein phosphatases 2A and 5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Ruijie; Sun, Chenxia; Zhang, Hai; Xu, Chong; Liu, Wen; Gao, Wei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces neurodegenerative disorders. Resveratrol, a natural product, has been found to exert neuroprotective effects. However, little is known regarding the effect of resveratrol on Cd-evoked neurotoxicity. Here, we show that resveratrol effectively reversed Cd-elicited cell viability reduction, morphological change, nuclear fragmentation and condensation, as well as activation of caspase-3 in neuronal cells, implying neuroprotection against Cd-poisoning by resveratrol. Further research revealed that both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) were involved in the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on Cd-induced cell death, as selective inhibitors of Erk1/2 (U0126) and JNK (SP600125), or over-expression of dominant negative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) or dominant negative c-Jun potentiated resveratrol's prevention of Cd-induced phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2, as well as cell death in neuronal cells. Interestingly, resveratrol potently rescued the cells from Cd-induced suppression of protein phosphatases 2A (PP2A) and 5 (PP5) activity. Over-expression of PP2A or PP5 strengthened the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on Cd-induced activation of Erk1/2 and/or JNK, as well as cell death. The results indicate that resveratrol prevents Cd-induced activation of Erk1/2 and JNK pathways and neuronal cell death in part via activating PP2A and PP5. Our findings strongly support the notion that resveratrol may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. The anti-inflammatory activity of duloxetine, a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, prevents kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal death in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Soo; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Hong, Seongkweon; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Choong-Hyun

    2015-11-15

    Duloxetine (DXT), a potent serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is widely used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. In the present study, we examined the effects of DXT treatment on seizure behavior and excitotoxic neuronal damage in the mouse hippocampal CA3 region following intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA) injection. DXT treatment showed no effect on KA-induced behavioral seizure activity. However, treatment with 10mg/kg DXT reduced KA-induced neuronal death in the hippocampal CA3 region at 72h after KA administration, and treatment with 20 and 40mg/kg DXT showed a noticeable neuroprotection in the hippocampal CA3 region after KA injection. In addition, KA-induced activations of microglia and astrocytes as well as KA-induced increases of TNF-α and IL-1β levels were also suppressed by DXT treatment. These results indicate that DXT displays the neuroprotective effect against KA-induced excitotoxic neuronal death through anti-inflammatory action. PMID:26453128

  16. Neuroprotection comparison of chlorogenic acid and its metabolites against mechanistically distinct cell death-inducing agents in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Taram, Faten; Winter, Aimee N; Linseman, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    While the number of patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease is increasing, there are currently no effective treatments that significantly limit the neuronal cell death underlying these diseases. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound found in high concentration in coffee, is known to possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of CGA and its major metabolites in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons. We show that CGA and caffeic acid displayed a dramatic protective effect against the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside. In marked contrast, ferulic acid and quinic acid had no protective effect against this nitrosative stress. While CGA and quinic acid had no protective effect against glutamate-induced cell death, caffeic acid and ferulic acid significantly protected neurons from excitotoxicity. Finally, caffeic acid was the only compound to display significant protective activity against hydrogen peroxide, proteasome inhibition, caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These results indicate that caffeic acid displays a much broader profile of neuroprotection against a diverse range of stressors than its parent polyphenol, CGA, or the other major metabolites, ferulic acid and quinic acid. We conclude that caffeic acid is a promising candidate for testing in pre-clinical models of neurodegeneration. PMID:27444557

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-1 protects against prion peptide-induced cell death in neuronal cells via inhibition of Bax translocation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Gyu; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Moon, Myung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Seog-Jin; Park, Sang-Youel

    2012-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of the most important components of bovine colostrum. It exhibits antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities. Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and increasing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study examined the protective effect of IGF-1 on residues 106-126 of the cellular prion protein [PrP (106-126)]-mediated mitochondrial neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells, treatment with PrP (106-126) decreased the cell viability and IGF-1 pretreatment markedly blocked the PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal cell death. IGF-1 inhibited PrP (106-126)-induced intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial oxidative stress. In addition, IGF-1 blocked the translocation of the Bax protein to the mitochondria induced by PrP (106-126). These results demonstrate that IGF-1 protects neuronal cells against PrP (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity through an antioxidative effect and blockage of mitochondrial Bax translocation. The results also suggest that regulation of IGF-1 secretion may have a therapeutic potential in the management of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:22895829

  18. Temporal Resolution of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, and Neuronal Death in the Retinas of Mice Inoculated with Scrapie.

    PubMed

    West Greenlee, M Heather; Lind, Melissa; Kokemuller, Robyn; Mammadova, Najiba; Kondru, Naveen; Manne, Sireesha; Smith, Jodi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Greenlee, Justin

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there is a lack of pathological landmarks to describe the progression of prion disease in vivo. Our goal was to use an experimental model to determine the temporal relationship between the transport of misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) from the brain to the retina, the accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the retina, the response of the surrounding retinal tissue, and loss of neurons. Retinal samples from mice inoculated with RML scrapie were collected at 30, 60, 90, 105, and 120 days post inoculation (dpi) or at the onset of clinical signs of disease (153 dpi). Retinal homogenates were tested for prion seeding activity. Antibody staining was used to assess accumulation of PrP(Sc) and the resulting response of retinal tissue. Loss of photoreceptors was used as a measure of neuronal death. PrP(Sc) seeding activity was first detected in all samples at 60 dpi. Accumulation of PrP(Sc) and coincident activation of retinal glia were first detected at 90 dpi. Activation of microglia was first detected at 105 dpi, but neuronal death was not detectable until 120 dpi. Our results demonstrate that by using the retina we can resolve the temporal separation between several key events in the pathogenesis of prion disease. PMID:27521336

  19. Loss of the transcription factor Meis1 prevents sympathetic neurons target-field innervation and increases susceptibility to sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Bouilloux, Fabrice; Thireau, Jérôme; Ventéo, Stéphanie; Farah, Charlotte; Karam, Sarah; Dauvilliers, Yves; Valmier, Jean; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Richard, Sylvain; Marmigère, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Although cardio-vascular incidents and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the leading causes of premature death in the general population, the origins remain unidentified in many cases. Genome-wide association studies have identified Meis1 as a risk factor for SCD. We report that Meis1 inactivation in the mouse neural crest leads to an altered sympatho-vagal regulation of cardiac rhythmicity in adults characterized by a chronotropic incompetence and cardiac conduction defects, thus increasing the susceptibility to SCD. We demonstrated that Meis1 is a major regulator of sympathetic target-field innervation and that Meis1 deficient sympathetic neurons die by apoptosis from early embryonic stages to perinatal stages. In addition, we showed that Meis1 regulates the transcription of key molecules necessary for the endosomal machinery. Accordingly, the traffic of Rab5(+) endosomes is severely altered in Meis1-inactivated sympathetic neurons. These results suggest that Meis1 interacts with various trophic factors signaling pathways during postmitotic neurons differentiation. PMID:26857994

  20. Loss of the transcription factor Meis1 prevents sympathetic neurons target-field innervation and increases susceptibility to sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bouilloux, Fabrice; Thireau, Jérôme; Ventéo, Stéphanie; Farah, Charlotte; Karam, Sarah; Dauvilliers, Yves; Valmier, Jean; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Richard, Sylvain; Marmigère, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Although cardio-vascular incidents and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the leading causes of premature death in the general population, the origins remain unidentified in many cases. Genome-wide association studies have identified Meis1 as a risk factor for SCD. We report that Meis1 inactivation in the mouse neural crest leads to an altered sympatho-vagal regulation of cardiac rhythmicity in adults characterized by a chronotropic incompetence and cardiac conduction defects, thus increasing the susceptibility to SCD. We demonstrated that Meis1 is a major regulator of sympathetic target-field innervation and that Meis1 deficient sympathetic neurons die by apoptosis from early embryonic stages to perinatal stages. In addition, we showed that Meis1 regulates the transcription of key molecules necessary for the endosomal machinery. Accordingly, the traffic of Rab5+ endosomes is severely altered in Meis1-inactivated sympathetic neurons. These results suggest that Meis1 interacts with various trophic factors signaling pathways during postmitotic neurons differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11627.001 PMID:26857994

  1. Auraptene and Other Prenyloxyphenylpropanoids Suppress Microglial Activation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Semba, Tomoki; Toyoda, Nobuki; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using an intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD-like mouse model, we investigated whether AUR, 7-IP, and GOFA suppress microglial activation and protect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the SN. We successfully showed that these prenyloxyphenylpropanoids exhibited these prospective abilities, suggesting the potential of these compounds as neuroprotective agents for patients with PD. PMID:27763495

  2. Minocycline attenuates both OGD-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-induced cell death in ischemic neuronal injury in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Ito, Takashi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Morimoto, Yoko; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Oyama, Yoko; Takenouchi, Kazunori; Miura, Naoki; Arimura, Noboru; Nawa, Yuko; Meng, Xiaojie; Shrestha, Binita; Arimura, Shinichiro; and others

    2009-07-24

    High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a non-histone DNA-binding protein, is massively released into the extracellular space from neuronal cells after ischemic insult and exacerbates brain tissue damage in rats. Minocycline is a semisynthetic second-generation tetracycline antibiotic which has recently been shown to be a promising neuroprotective agent. In this study, we found that minocycline inhibited HMGB1 release in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated PC12 cells and triggered the activation of p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). The ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor U-0126 and p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 blocked HMGB1 release in response to OGD. Furthermore, HMGB1 triggered cell death in a dose-dependent fashion. Minocycline significantly rescued HMGB1-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In light of recent observations as well as the good safety profile of minocycline in humans, we propose that minocycline might play a potent neuroprotective role through the inhibition of HMGB1-induced neuronal cell death in cerebral infarction.

  3. S-Nitrosylation of parkin as a novel regulator of p53-mediated neuronal cell death in sporadic Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, a neuroprotective protein with dual functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and transcriptional repressor of p53, are linked to familial forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We hypothesized that oxidative posttranslational modification of parkin by environmental toxins may contribute to sporadic PD. Results We first demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of parkin decreased its activity as a repressor of p53 gene expression, leading to upregulation of p53. Chromatin immunoprecipitation as well as gel-shift assays showed that parkin bound to the p53 promoter, and this binding was inhibited by S-nitrosylation of parkin. Additionally, nitrosative stress induced apoptosis in cells expressing parkin, and this death was, at least in part, dependent upon p53. In primary mesencephalic cultures, pesticide-induced apoptosis was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In a mouse model of pesticide-induced PD, both S-nitrosylated (SNO-)parkin and p53 protein levels were increased, while administration of a NOS inhibitor mitigated neuronal death in these mice. Moreover, the levels of SNO-parkin and p53 were simultaneously elevated in postmortem human PD brain compared to controls. Conclusions Taken together, our data indicate that S-nitrosylation of parkin, leading to p53-mediated neuronal cell death, contributes to the pathophysiology of sporadic PD. PMID:23985028

  4. MiR-592 Regulates the Induction and Cell Death-Promoting Activity of p75NTR in Neuronal Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Irmady, Krithi; Jackman, Katherine A.; Padow, Victoria A.; Shahani, Neelam; Martin, Laura Andres; Cerchietti, Leandro; Unsicker, Klaus; Iadecola, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR has been implicated in mediating neuronal apoptosis after injury to the CNS. Despite its frequent induction in pathologic states, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that regulate p75NTR expression after injury. Here, we show that after focal cerebral ischemia in vivo or oxygen–glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal slices or neurons, p75NTR is rapidly induced. A concomitant induction of proNGF, a ligand for p75NTR, is also observed. Induction of this ligand/receptor system is pathologically relevant, as a decrease in apoptosis, after oxygen–glucose deprivation, is observed in hippocampal neurons or slices after delivery of function-blocking antibodies to p75NTR or proNGF and in p75NTR and ngf haploinsufficient slices. Furthermore, a significant decrease in infarct volume was noted in p75NTR−/− mice compared with the wild type. We also investigated the regulatory mechanisms that lead to post-ischemic induction of p75NTR. We demonstrate that induction of p75NTR after ischemic injury is independent of transcription but requires active translation. Basal levels of p75NTR in neurons are maintained in part by the expression of microRNA miR-592, and an inverse correlation is seen between miR-592 and p75NTR levels in the adult brain. After cerebral ischemia, miR-592 levels fall, with a corresponding increase in p75NTR levels. Importantly, overexpression of miR-592 in neurons decreases the level of ischemic injury-induced p75NTR and attenuates activation of pro-apoptotic signaling and cell death. These results identify miR-592 as a key regulator of p75NTR expression and point to a potential therapeutic candidate to limit neuronal apoptosis after ischemic injury. PMID:24573298

  5. Marked changes in dendritic structure and spine density precede significant neuronal death in vulnerable cortical pyramidal neuron populations in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Matthew J; Mu, Erica W H; Noakes, Peter G; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Bellingham, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by the death of upper (corticospinal) and lower motor neurons (MNs) with progressive muscle weakness. This incurable disease is clinically heterogeneous and its aetiology remains unknown. Increased excitability of corticospinal MNs has been observed prior to symptoms in human and rodent studies. Increased excitability has been correlated with structural changes in neuronal dendritic arbors and spines for decades. Here, using a modified Golgi-Cox staining method, we have made the first longitudinal study examining the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the motor cortex, medial pre-frontal cortex, somatosensory cortex and entorhinal cortex of hSOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls at postnatal (P) days 8-15, 28-35, 65-75 and 120. Progressive decreases in dendritic length and spine density commencing at pre-symptomatic ages (P8-15 or P28-35) were observed in layer V pyramidal neurons within the motor cortex and medial pre-frontal cortex of SOD1 mice compared to WT mice. Spine loss without concurrent dendritic pathology was present in the pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex from disease-onset (P65-75). Our results from the SOD1 model suggest that dendritic and dendritic spine changes foreshadow and underpin the neuromotor phenotypes present in ALS and may contribute to the varied cognitive, executive function and extra-motor symptoms commonly seen in ALS patients. Determining if these phenomena are compensatory or maladaptive may help explain differential susceptibility of neurons to degeneration in ALS. PMID:27488828

  6. Amyloid-β reduces the expression of neuronal FAIM-L, thereby shifting the inflammatory response mediated by TNFα from neuronal protection to death

    PubMed Central

    Carriba, P; Jimenez, S; Navarro, V; Moreno-Gonzalez, I; Barneda-Zahonero, B; Moubarak, R S; Lopez-Soriano, J; Gutierrez, A; Vitorica, J; Comella, J X

    2015-01-01

    The brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a cytokine that has a dual function in neuronal cells. On one hand, TNFα can activate neuronal apoptosis, and on the other hand, it can protect these cells against amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity. Given the dual behavior of this molecule, there is some controversy regarding its contribution to the pathogenesis of AD. Here we examined the relevance of the long form of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule (FAIM) protein, FAIM-L, in regulating the dual function of TNFα. We detected that FAIM-L was reduced in the hippocampi of patients with AD. We also observed that the entorhinal and hippocampal cortex of a mouse model of AD (PS1M146LxAPP751sl) showed a reduction in this protein before the onset of neurodegeneration. Notably, cultured neurons treated with the cortical soluble fractions of these animals showed a decrease in endogenous FAIM-L, an effect that is mimicked by the treatment with Aβ-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs). The reduction in the expression of FAIM-L is associated with the progression of the neurodegeneration by changing the inflammatory response mediated by TNFα in neurons. In this sense, we also demonstrate that the protection afforded by TNFα against Aβ toxicity ceases when endogenous FAIM-L is reduced by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or by treatment with ADDLs. All together, these results support the notion that levels of FAIM-L contribute to determine the protective or deleterious effect of TNFα in neuronal cells. PMID:25675299

  7. Amyloid-β reduces the expression of neuronal FAIM-L, thereby shifting the inflammatory response mediated by TNFα from neuronal protection to death.

    PubMed

    Carriba, P; Jimenez, S; Navarro, V; Moreno-Gonzalez, I; Barneda-Zahonero, B; Moubarak, R S; Lopez-Soriano, J; Gutierrez, A; Vitorica, J; Comella, J X

    2015-02-12

    The brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a cytokine that has a dual function in neuronal cells. On one hand, TNFα can activate neuronal apoptosis, and on the other hand, it can protect these cells against amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity. Given the dual behavior of this molecule, there is some controversy regarding its contribution to the pathogenesis of AD. Here we examined the relevance of the long form of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule (FAIM) protein, FAIM-L, in regulating the dual function of TNFα. We detected that FAIM-L was reduced in the hippocampi of patients with AD. We also observed that the entorhinal and hippocampal cortex of a mouse model of AD (PS1(M146L)xAPP(751sl)) showed a reduction in this protein before the onset of neurodegeneration. Notably, cultured neurons treated with the cortical soluble fractions of these animals showed a decrease in endogenous FAIM-L, an effect that is mimicked by the treatment with Aβ-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs). The reduction in the expression of FAIM-L is associated with the progression of the neurodegeneration by changing the inflammatory response mediated by TNFα in neurons. In this sense, we also demonstrate that the protection afforded by TNFα against Aβ toxicity ceases when endogenous FAIM-L is reduced by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or by treatment with ADDLs. All together, these results support the notion that levels of FAIM-L contribute to determine the protective or deleterious effect of TNFα in neuronal cells.

  8. Genistein inhibition of OGD-induced brain neuron death correlates with its modulation of apoptosis, voltage-gated potassium and sodium currents and glutamate signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Ling; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yu-Xiang; He, Cong-Cong; Tian, Kun; Wang, Hong-Gang; An, Di; Heng, Bin; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2016-07-25

    In the present study, we established an in vitro model of hypoxic-ischemia via exposing primary neurons of newborn rats to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and observing the effects of genistein, a soybean isoflavone, on hypoxic-ischemic neuron viability, apoptosis, voltage-activated potassium (Kv) and sodium (Nav) currents, and glutamate receptor subunits. The results indicated that OGD exposure reduced the viability and increased the apoptosis of brain neurons. Meanwhile, OGD exposure caused changes in the current-voltage curves and current amplitude values of voltage-activated potassium and sodium currents; OGD exposure also decreased GluR2 expression and increased NR2 expression. However, genistein at least partially reversed the effects caused by OGD. The results suggest that hypoxic-ischemia-caused neuronal apoptosis/death is related to an increase in K(+) efflux, a decrease in Na(+) influx, a down-regulation of GluR2, and an up-regulation of NR2. Genistein may exert some neuroprotective effects via the modulation of Kv and Nav currents and the glutamate signal pathway, mediated by GluR2 and NR2. PMID:27238724

  9. Pancortin-2 interacts with WAVE1 and Bcl-xL in a mitochondria-associated protein complex that mediates ischemic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Aiwu; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Liu, Dong; Khatri, Rina G; Mustafa, Khadija; Kwak, Seung; Ling, Huai-Ping; Gonzales, Cathleen; Xin, Ouyang; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Guo, Zhihong; Mark, Robert J; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-02-14

    The actin-modulating protein Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein verprolin homologous-1 (WAVE1) and a novel CNS-specific protein, pancortin, are highly enriched in adult cerebral cortex, but their functions are unknown. Here we show that WAVE1 and pancortin-2 interact in a novel cell death cascade in adult, but not embryonic, cerebral cortical neurons. Focal ischemic stroke induces the formation of a protein complex that includes pancortin-2, WAVE1, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. The three-protein complex is associated with mitochondria resulting in increased association of Bax with mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and neuronal apoptosis. In pancortin null mice generated using a Cre-loxP system, ischemia-induced WAVE1-Bcl-xL interaction is diminished, and cortical neurons in these mice are protected against ischemic injury. Thus, pancortin-2 is a mediator of ischemia-induced apoptosis of neurons in the adult cerebral cortex and functions in a novel mitochondrial/actin-associated protein complex that sequesters Bcl-xL. PMID:17301160

  10. Loss of C9ORF72 impairs autophagy and synergizes with polyQ Ataxin-2 to induce motor neuron dysfunction and cell death.

    PubMed

    Sellier, Chantal; Campanari, Maria-Letizia; Julie Corbier, Camille; Gaucherot, Angeline; Kolb-Cheynel, Isabelle; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Ruffenach, Frank; Page, Adeline; Ciura, Sorana; Kabashi, Edor; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

    2016-06-15

    An intronic expansion of GGGGCC repeats within the C9ORF72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). Ataxin-2 with intermediate length of polyglutamine expansions (Ataxin-2 Q30x) is a genetic modifier of the disease. Here, we found that C9ORF72 forms a complex with the WDR41 and SMCR8 proteins to act as a GDP/GTP exchange factor for RAB8a and RAB39b and to thereby control autophagic flux. Depletion of C9orf72 in neurons partly impairs autophagy and leads to accumulation of aggregates of TDP-43 and P62 proteins, which are histopathological hallmarks of ALS-FTD SMCR8 is phosphorylated by TBK1 and depletion of TBK1 can be rescued by phosphomimetic mutants of SMCR8 or by constitutively active RAB39b, suggesting that TBK1, SMCR8, C9ORF72, and RAB39b belong to a common pathway regulating autophagy. While depletion of C9ORF72 only has a partial deleterious effect on neuron survival, it synergizes with Ataxin-2 Q30x toxicity to induce motor neuron dysfunction and neuronal cell death. These results indicate that partial loss of function of C9ORF72 is not deleterious by itself but synergizes with Ataxin-2 toxicity, suggesting a double-hit pathological mechanism in ALS-FTD.

  11. Reciprocal modulation of C/EBP-α and C/EBP-β by IL-13 in activated microglia prevents neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung Chuan; Yang, Cheng Ning; Hung, Yi Wen; Lee, Wen Jane; Tien, Hsing Ru; Shen, Chin Chang; Sheehan, Jason; Chou, Chiang Ting; Sheu, Meei Ling

    2013-11-01

    In response to aggravation by activated microglia, IL-13 can significantly enhance ER stress induction, apoptosis, and death via reciprocal signaling through CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α) and C/EBP-beta (C/EBP-β). This reciprocal signaling promotes neuronal survival. Since the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/heme oxygenase 1 (PPAR-γ/HO-1) by IL-13 plays a crucial role in the promotion of and protection from activated microglia, respectively; here, we investigated the role of IL-13 in regulating C/EBPs in activated microglia and determined its correlation with neuronal function. The results revealed that IL-13 significantly enhanced C/EBP-α/COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in LPS-treated microglial cells. Paradoxically, IL-13 abolished C/EBP-β/PPAR-γ/HO-1 expression. IL-13 also enhanced ER stress-evoked calpain activation by promoting the association of C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ. SiRNA-C/EBP-α effectively reversed the combined LPS-activated caspase-12 activation and IL-13-induced apoptosis. In contrast, siRNA-C/EBP-β partially increased microglial cell apoptosis. By NeuN immunochemistry and CD11b staining, there was improvement in the loss of CA3 neuronal cells after intrahippocampal injection of IL-13. This suggests that IL-13-enhanced PLA2 activity regulates COX-2/PGE2 expression through C/EBP-α activation. In parallel, ER stress-related calpain downregulates the PPAR-γ/HO-1 pathway via C/EBP-β and leads to aggravated death of activated microglia via IL-13, thereby preventing cerebral inflammation and neuronal injury. PMID:23881867

  12. On involvement of transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in photodynamic therapy-induced death of crayfish neurons and satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Berezhnaya, Elena; Neginskaya, Marya; Kovaleva, Vera; Sharifulina, Svetlana; Ischenko, Irina; Komandirov, Maxim; Rudkovskii, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly B

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently used in the treatment of brain tumors. However, not only malignant cells but also neighboring normal neurons and glial cells are damaged during PDT. In order to study the potential role of transcription factors-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)-in photodynamic injury of normal neurons and glia, we photosensitized the isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor consisting of a single sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells. Application of different inhibitors and activators showed that transcription factors NF-κB (inhibitors caffeic acid phenethyl ester and parthenolide, activator betulinic acid), AP-1 (inhibitor SR11302), and STAT-3 (inhibitors stattic and cucurbitacine) influenced PDT-induced death and survival of neurons and glial cells in different ways. These experiments indicated involvement of NF-κB in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and apoptosis of glial cells. However, in glial cells, it played the antinecrotic role. AP-1 was not involved in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and glia, but mediated glial apoptosis. STAT-3 was involved in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells and necrosis of neurons and glia. Therefore, signaling pathways that regulate cell death and survival in neurons and glial cells are different. Using various inhibitors or activators of transcription factors, one can differently influence the sensitivity and resistance of neurons and glial cells to PDT. PMID:26160345

  13. On involvement of transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in photodynamic therapy-induced death of crayfish neurons and satellite glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnaya, Elena; Neginskaya, Marya; Kovaleva, Vera; Sharifulina, Svetlana; Ischenko, Irina; Komandirov, Maxim; Rudkovskii, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently used in the treatment of brain tumors. However, not only malignant cells but also neighboring normal neurons and glial cells are damaged during PDT. In order to study the potential role of transcription factors-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)-in photodynamic injury of normal neurons and glia, we photosensitized the isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor consisting of a single sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells. Application of different inhibitors and activators showed that transcription factors NF-κB (inhibitors caffeic acid phenethyl ester and parthenolide, activator betulinic acid), AP-1 (inhibitor SR11302), and STAT-3 (inhibitors stattic and cucurbitacine) influenced PDT-induced death and survival of neurons and glial cells in different ways. These experiments indicated involvement of NF-κB in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and apoptosis of glial cells. However, in glial cells, it played the antinecrotic role. AP-1 was not involved in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and glia, but mediated glial apoptosis. STAT-3 was involved in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells and necrosis of neurons and glia. Therefore, signaling pathways that regulate cell death and survival in neurons and glial cells are different. Using various inhibitors or activators of transcription factors, one can differently influence the sensitivity and resistance of neurons and glial cells to PDT.

  14. BIT/SHPS-1 promotes antiapoptotic effect of BDNF on low potassium-induced cell death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Suzuki, Shingo; Araki, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masashi; Kojima, Masami; Hatanaka, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    Brain immunoglobulin-like molecule with tyrosine-based activation motifs/SHP substrate 1 (BIT/SHPS-1) is a neuronal adhesion molecule that is highly expressed in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs); however its function in CGNs remains unclear. Our previous studies indicated that BIT/SHPS-1 is able to modulate the antiapoptotic effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on CNS neurons by cell type-specific mechanisms. In this article, we have studied the role of BIT/SHPS-1 in the antiapoptotic function of BDNF on low potassium (LK)-induced cell death of cultured CGNs which is an in vitro model system of neuronal apoptosis during brain development. Cultured rat CGNs were transduced with wild-type rat BIT/SHPS-1 (BIT/SHPS-1(WT)), its 4F-mutant (BIT/SHPS-1(4F), in which all cytoplasmic tyrosine residues were substituted with phenylalanine), or nuclear localization signal-attached beta-galactosidase (NLS-LacZ, as control)-expressing adenoviruses. Expression of BIT/SHPS-1(WT) and BIT/SHPS-1(4F) alone did not affect steady-state cell viability. Tyrosine phosphorylation of BIT/SHPS-1 was only detected in BIT/SHPS-1(WT)-expressing cultures in the presence and the absence of BDNF. When subjected to LK in the presence of BDNF, BIT/SHPS-1(WT)- and BIT/SHPS-1(4F)-expressing cultures showed a significant resistance to cell death, while the control virus-transfected culture did not. In addition, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of BDNF on BIT/SHPS-1(WT)-, and BIT/SHPS-1(4F)-expressing cultures. These results demonstrated that in both tyrosine phosphorylation-independent and PI3-K-dependent manners, BIT/SHPS-1 promotes the antiapoptotic effect of BDNF on the LK-induced cell death of CGNs.

  15. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the TrkA pathway: In vitro and in vivo effects of TrkA pathway activators

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Masatake; Usuki, Fusako

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxin which induces cell death specific for the nervous systems. Here we show that MeHg causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) pathway, and that compounds activating the TrkA pathway prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage in vitro and in vivo. We first investigated the mechanism of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in differentiating neurons using PC12 cells. Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. Further, MeHg-induced apoptosis was preceded by inhibition of neurite extension, as determined by ELISA analyses of the neurite-specific protein neurofilament triplet H protein (NF-H). To determine the mechanism of MeHg-induced apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of MeHg on the TrkA pathway, which is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and viability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that, like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor K252a, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA and its downstream effectors. Furthermore, GM1 ganglioside and its analog MCC-257, which enhance TrkA phosphorylation, overcame the effect of MeHg in neurons, supporting the involvement of the TrkA pathway in MeHg-induced nerve damage. Finally, we demonstrated that MCC-257 rescued the clinical sign and pathological changes in MeHg-exposed rats. These findings indicate that MeHg-induced apoptosis in neuron is triggered by inhibition of the TrkA pathway, and that GM1 ganglioside and MCC-257 effectively prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage. - Highlights: • Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. • Inhibition of neurite extension was involved in MeHg-induced apoptosis. • Like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA. • GM1 ganglioside and its analog effectively prevented MeHg-induced nerve damage.

  16. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 μM) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ► Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ► Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  17. Impairment of enzymatic antioxidant defenses is associated with bilirubin-induced neuronal cell death in the cerebellum of Ugt1 KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, G; Codarin, E; Antoniali, G; Vascotto, C; Vodret, S; Arena, S; Cesaratto, L; Scaloni, A; Tell, G; Muro, A F

    2015-01-01

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and eventually death by kernicterus. Despite extensive studies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity are still poorly defined. To fill this gap, we investigated the molecular processes underlying neuronal injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal jaundice, which develops hyperbilirubinemia as a consequence of a null mutation in the Ugt1 gene. These mutant mice show cerebellar abnormalities and hypoplasia, neuronal cell death and die shortly after birth because of bilirubin neurotoxicity. To identify protein changes associated with bilirubin-induced cell death, we performed proteomic analysis of cerebella from Ugt1 mutant and wild-type mice. Proteomic data pointed-out to oxidoreductase activities or antioxidant processes as important intracellular mechanisms altered during bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. In particular, they revealed that down-representation of DJ-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins 2 and 6 was associated with hyperbilirubinemia in the cerebellum of mutant mice. Interestingly, the reduction in protein levels seems to result from post-translational mechanisms because we did not detect significant quantitative differences in the corresponding mRNAs. We also observed an increase in neuro-specific enolase 2 both in the cerebellum and in the serum of mutant mice, supporting its potential use as a biomarker of bilirubin-induced neurological damage. In conclusion, our data show that different protective mechanisms fail to contrast oxidative burst in bilirubin-affected brain regions, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:25950469

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen and hyperbaric air treatment result in comparable neuronal death reduction and improved behavioral outcome after transient forebrain ischemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Malek, Michal; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Zyszkowski, Marcin; Ziembowicz, Apolonia; Salinska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Anoxic brain injury resulting from cardiac arrest is responsible for approximately two-thirds of deaths. Recent evidence suggests that increased oxygen delivered to the brain after cardiac arrest may be an important factor in preventing neuronal damage, resulting in an interest in hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. Interestingly, increased oxygen supply may be also reached by application of normobaric oxygen (NBO) or hyperbaric air (HBA). However, previous research also showed that the beneficial effect of hyperbaric treatment may not directly result from increased oxygen supply, leading to the conclusion that the mechanism of hyperbaric prevention of brain damage is not well understood. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of HBO, HBA and NBO treatment on gerbil brain condition after transient forebrain ischemia, serving as a model of cardiac arrest. Thereby, we investigated the effects of repetitive HBO, HBA and NBO treatment on hippocampal CA1 neuronal survival, brain temperature and gerbils behavior (the nest building), depending on the time of initiation of the therapy (1, 3 and 6 h after ischemia). HBO and HBA applied 1, 3 and 6 h after ischemia significantly increased neuronal survival and behavioral performance and abolished the ischemia-evoked brain temperature increase. NBO treatment was most effective when applied 1 h after ischemia; later application had a weak or no protective effect. The results show that HBO and HBA applied between 1 and 6 h after ischemia prevent ischemia-evoked neuronal damage, which may be due to the inhibition of brain temperature increase, as a result of the applied rise in ambient pressure, and just not due to the oxygen per se. This perspective is supported by the finding that NBO treatment was less effective than HBO or HBA therapy. The results presented in this paper may pave the way for future experimental studies dealing with pressure and temperature regulation.

  19. Amyloid beta-peptide impairs ion-motive ATPase activities: evidence for a role in loss of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and cell death.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Hensley, K; Butterfield, D A; Mattson, M P

    1995-09-01

    The amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) that accumulates as insoluble plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease can be directly neurotoxic and can increase neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxic insults. The mechanism of A beta toxicity is unclear but is believed to involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of calcium homeostasis. We now report that exposure of cultured rat hippocampal neurons to A beta 1-40 or A beta 25-35 causes a selective reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity which precedes loss of calcium homeostasis and cell degeneration. Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced within 30 min of exposure to A beta 25-35 and declined to less than 40% of basal level by 3 hr. A beta did not impair other Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities or Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Experiments with ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase, demonstrated that impairment of this enzyme was sufficient to induce an elevation of [Ca2+]i and neuronal injury. Impairment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity appeared to be causally involved in the elevation of [Ca2+]i and neurotoxicity since suppression of Na+ influx significantly reduced A beta- and ouabain-induced [Ca2+]i elevation and neuronal death. Neuronal degeneration induced by ouabain appeared to be of an apoptotic form as indicated by nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. The antioxidant free radical scavengers vitamin E and propylgallate significantly attenuated A beta-induced impairment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, elevation of [Ca2+]i and neurotoxicity, suggesting a role for ROS. Finally, exposure of synaptosomes from postmortem human hippocampus to A beta resulted in a significant and specific reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, without affecting other Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities or Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These data suggest that impairment of ion-motive ATPases may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:7666206

  20. Thimerosal induces DNA breaks, caspase-3 activation, membrane damage, and cell death in cultured human neurons and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Baskin, David S; Ngo, Hop; Didenko, Vladimir V

    2003-08-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercurial compound used as a preservative in biomedical preparations. Little is known about the reactions of human neuronal and skin cells to its micro- and nanomolar concentrations, which can occur after using thimerosal-containing products. A useful combination of fluorescent techniques for the assessment of thimerosal toxicity is introduced. Short-term thimerosal toxicity was investigated in cultured human cerebral cortical neurons and in normal human fibroblasts. Cells were incubated with 125-nM to 250-microM concentrations of thimerosal for 45 min to 24 h. A 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) dye exclusion test was used to identify nonviable cells and terminal transferase-based nick-end labeling (TUNEL) to label DNA damage. Detection of active caspase-3 was performed in live cell cultures using a cell-permeable fluorescent caspase inhibitor. The morphology of fluorescently labeled nuclei was analyzed. After 6 h of incubation, the thimerosal toxicity was observed at 2 microM based on the manual detection of the fluorescent attached cells and at a 1-microM level with the more sensitive GENios Plus Multi-Detection Microplate Reader with Enhanced Fluorescence. The lower limit did not change after 24 h of incubation. Cortical neurons demonstrated higher sensitivity to thimerosal compared to fibroblasts. The first sign of toxicity was an increase in membrane permeability to DAPI after 2 h of incubation with 250 microM thimerosal. A 6-h incubation resulted in failure to exclude DAPI, generation of DNA breaks, caspase-3 activation, and development of morphological signs of apoptosis. We demonstrate that thimerosal in micromolar concentrations rapidly induce membrane and DNA damage and initiate caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human neurons and fibroblasts. We conclude that a proposed combination of fluorescent techniques can be useful in analyzing the toxicity of thimerosal.

  1. Evidence that OGG1 glycosylase protects neurons against oxidative DNA damage and cell death under ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Croteau, Deborah L; Souza-Pinto, Nadja; Pitta, Michael; Tian, Jingyan; Wu, Christopher; Jiang, Haiyang; Mustafa, Khadija; Keijzers, Guido; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Mattson, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is a major DNA glycosylase involved in base-excision repair (BER) of oxidative DNA damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used OGG1-deficient (OGG1−/−) mice to examine the possible roles of OGG1 in the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic and oxidative stress. After exposure of cultured neurons to oxidative and metabolic stress levels of OGG1 in the nucleus were elevated and mitochondria exhibited fragmentation and increased levels of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and reduced membrane potential. Cortical neurons isolated from OGG1−/− mice were more vulnerable to oxidative insults than were OGG1+/+ neurons, and OGG1−/− mice developed larger cortical infarcts and behavioral deficits after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion compared with OGG1+/+ mice. Accumulations of oxidative DNA base lesions (8-oxoG, FapyAde, and FapyGua) were elevated in response to ischemia in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres, and to a greater extent in the contralateral cortex of OGG1−/− mice compared with OGG1+/+ mice. Ischemia-induced elevation of 8-oxoG incision activity involved increased levels of a nuclear isoform OGG1, suggesting an adaptive response to oxidative nuclear DNA damage. Thus, OGG1 has a pivotal role in repairing oxidative damage to nuclear DNA under ischemic conditions, thereby reducing brain damage and improving functional outcome. PMID:20736962

  2. Involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and nitric oxide synthase in dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Kumar, Sachin; Dikshit, Madhu

    2010-01-01

    The primary pathology in Parkinson's disease patients is significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra through multiple mechanisms. We previously have demonstrated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the role of NO in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons during the early time period after administration of 6-OHDA and LPS. Measurement of dopamine and its metabolites, TH immunolabeling, cytochrome-c release, mitochondrial complex-I and caspase-3 activity assessment was performed in both the 6-OHDA- and LPS-induced experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Significant decreases in dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunolabeling and mitochondrial complex-I activity were observed, with increase in cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation. Dopmaine and its metabolite levels, mitochondrial complex-I activity and caspase-3 activity were significantly reversed with treatment of the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. The reduction in the extent of cytochrome-c release responded variably to NOS inhibition in both the models. The results obtained suggest that NO contributes to mitochondria-mediated neuronal apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA and LPS in rats. PMID:20594414

  3. Diabetes augments cognitive dysfunction in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by increasing neuronal cell death: implication of cilostazol for diabetes mellitus-induced dementia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Min Kyeong; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jung Nam; Kim, Jin Ok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Hahn Young; Han, Jung-Soo; Shin, Chan Young; Han, Seol-Heui

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is a vascular risk factor that may increase the risk of dementia through its associations with vascular dementia. We tested whether cognitive impairment could be exacerbated in combined injury using a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion with diabetes. We also determined whether a potent inhibitor of type III phosphodiesterase could prevent the cognitive decline caused by this combined injury. We used Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model of type II diabetes (T2DM) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a control. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). At 24weeks, the non-diabetic and T2DM rats were randomly assigned into groups for the following experiments: analysis I (1) sham non-diabetic rats (n=8); (2) hypoperfused non-diabetic rats (n=9); (3) sham T2DM rats (n=8); (4) hypoperfused T2DM rats (n=9); analysis II- (1) sham T2DM rats without treatment (n=8); (2) cilostazol-treated T2DM rats (n=8); (3) hypoperfused T2DM rats (n=9); and (4) hypoperfused T2DM rats and cilostazol treatment (n=9). The rats were orally administered cilostazol (50mg/kg) or vehicle once a day for 2weeks after 24weeks. Rats performed Morris water maze tasks, and neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation were investigated via Western blots and histological investigation. Spatial memory impairment was exacerbated synergistically in the hypoperfused T2DM group compared with the hypoperfused non-diabetic group and sham T2DBM group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, neuronal cell death was increased in the hippocampus of the hypoperfused T2DM group. Cilostazol, a PDE-3 inhibitor, improved the memory impairments through inhibition of neuronal cell death, activation of CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression in the hypoperfused T2DM group. Our experimental results support the

  4. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Ciniglia, Claudia; Reccia, Mafalda G; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Ruta graveolens L. Induces Death of Glioblastoma Cells and Neural Progenitors, but Not of Neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A. B.; Colucci-D’Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens’ effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue’s noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25785932

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired oxidative-reduction activity, degeneration, and death in human neuronal and fetal cells induced by low-level exposure to thimerosal and other metal compounds

    PubMed Central

    Geier, D.A.; King, P.G.; Geier, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thimerosal (ethylmercurithiosalicylic acid), an ethylmercury (EtHg)-releasing compound (49.55% mercury (Hg)), was used in a range of medical products for more than 70 years. Of particular recent concern, routine administering of Thimerosal-containing biologics/childhood vaccines have become significant sources of Hg exposure for some fetuses/infants. This study was undertaken to investigate cellular damage among in vitro human neuronal (SH-SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 1321N1 astrocytoma) and fetal (nontransformed) model systems using cell vitality assays and microscope-based digital image capture techniques to assess potential damage induced by Thimerosal and other metal compounds (aluminum (Al) sulfate, lead (Pb)(II) acetate, methylmercury (MeHg) hydroxide, and mercury (Hg)(II) chloride) where the cation was reported to exert adverse effects on developing cells. Thimerosal-associated cellular damage was also evaluated for similarity to pathophysiological findings observed in patients diagnosed with autistic disorders (ADs). Thimerosal-induced cellular damage as evidenced by concentration- and time-dependent mitochondrial damage, reduced oxidative–reduction activity, cellular degeneration, and cell death in the in vitro human neuronal and fetal model systems studied. Thimerosal at low nanomolar (nM) concentrations induced significant cellular toxicity in human neuronal and fetal cells. Thimerosal-induced cytoxicity is similar to that observed in AD pathophysiologic studies. Thimerosal was found to be significantly more toxic than the other metal compounds examined. Future studies need to be conducted to evaluate additional mechanisms underlying Thimerosal-induced cellular damage and assess potential co-exposures to other compounds that may increase or decrease Thimerosal-mediated toxicity. PMID:24532866

  7. Polyozellin, a key constituent of the edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex, attenuates glutamate-induced mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cell death.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Polyozellus multiplex (PM), a Korean edible mushroom, has biological activities such as chemoprevention of stomach cancer, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and reduction of prolyl endopeptidase activity. However, there are little reports on the protective effects of PM or its constituents against glutamate-induced mouse hippocampal neuronal cell (HT22) death. In this study, polyozellin (PZ), a key constituent of PM, was applied to glutamate-treated HT22 cells to evaluate its neuroprotective mechanisms. PZ (25 μM) dramatically increased the HT22 cell viability when the cell death was induced by 5 mM glutamate for 12 h, which was mediated by inhibition of Ca(2+) influx, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation. PZ also regulated expression of Bid, Bcl-2, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These data suggest that PM and its constituent PZ might be useful for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Carvedilol, a third-generation β-blocker prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death and activates Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Ying; Chen, Ziwei; Tan, Min; Liu, Anmin; Chen, Meihui; Liu, Jun; Pi, Rongbiao; Fang, Jianpei

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Carvedilol significantly prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death. •Carvedilol significantly decreased the production of ROS. •Carvedilol activated Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Carvedilol increased the protein levels of HO-1 and NQO-1. -- Abstract: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker with pleiotropic activities has been shown to exert neuroprotective effect due to its antioxidant property. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of carvedilol is still not fully uncovered. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. Here we investigated the effect of carvedilol on oxidative stress-induced cell death (glutamate 2 mM and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 600 μM) and the activity of Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 hippocampal cells. Carvedilol significantly increased cell viability and decreased ROS in HT22 cells exposed to glutamate or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, carvedilol activated the Nrf2/ARE pathway in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1(NQO-1), two downstream factors of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Collectively, our results indicate that carvedilol protects neuronal cell against glutamate- and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced neurotoxicity possibly through activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

  9. Effects of the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist dexefaroxan on neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of the adult rat in vivo: selective protection against neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S; Moyse, E; Jourdan, F; Colpaert, F; Martel, J C; Marien, M

    2003-01-01

    A dysfunction of noradrenergic mechanisms originating in the locus coeruleus has been hypothesised to be the critical factor underlying the evolution of central neurodegenerative diseases [Colpaert FC (1994) Noradrenergic mechanism Parkinson's disease: a theory. In: Noradrenergic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (Briley M, Marien M, eds) pp 225-254. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press Inc.]. alpha(2)-Adrenoceptor antagonists, presumably in part by facilitating central noradrenergic transmission, afford neuroprotection in vivo in models of cerebral ischaemia, excitotoxicity and devascularization-induced neurodegeneration. The present study utilised the rat olfactory bulb as a model system for examining the effects of the selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist dexefaroxan upon determinants of neurogenesis (proliferation, survival and death) in the adult brain in vivo. Cell proliferation (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling) and cell death associated with DNA fragmentation (terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase-catalysed 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick end-labelling assay) were quantified following a 7-day treatment with either vehicle or dexefaroxan (0.63 mg/kg i.p., three times daily), followed by a 3-day washout period. The number of terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase-catalysed 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick end-labelling-positive nuclei in the olfactory bulb was lower in dexefaroxan-treated rats, this difference being greatest and significant in the subependymal layer (-52%). In contrast, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive nuclei were more numerous (+68%) in the bulbs of dexefaroxan-treated rats whilst no differences were detected in the proliferating region of the subventricular zone. Terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase-catalysed 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick end-labelling combination with glial fibrillary acidic protein or neuronal-specific antigen immunohistochemistry revealed that terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase

  10. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek; Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  11. ROCK2 is a major regulator of axonal degeneration, neuronal death and axonal regeneration in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Koch, J C; Tönges, L; Barski, E; Michel, U; Bähr, M; Lingor, P

    2014-01-01

    The Rho/ROCK/LIMK pathway is central for the mediation of repulsive environmental signals in the central nervous system. Several studies using pharmacological Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors have shown positive effects on neurite regeneration and suggest additional pro-survival effects in neurons. However, as none of these drugs is completely target specific, it remains unclear how these effects are mediated and whether ROCK is really the most relevant target of the pathway. To answer these questions, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors to specifically downregulate ROCK2 and LIM domain kinase (LIMK)-1 in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vitro and in vivo. We show here that specific knockdown of ROCK2 and LIMK1 equally enhanced neurite outgrowth of RGCs on inhibitory substrates and both induced substantial neuronal regeneration over distances of more than 5 mm after rat optic nerve crush (ONC) in vivo. However, only knockdown of ROCK2 but not LIMK1 increased survival of RGCs after optic nerve axotomy. Moreover, knockdown of ROCK2 attenuated axonal degeneration of the proximal axon after ONC assessed by in vivo live imaging. Mechanistically, we demonstrate here that knockdown of ROCK2 resulted in decreased intraneuronal activity of calpain and caspase 3, whereas levels of pAkt and collapsin response mediator protein 2 and autophagic flux were increased. Taken together, our data characterize ROCK2 as a specific therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and demonstrate new downstream effects of ROCK2 including axonal degeneration, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24832597

  12. Neuroprotective action of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kalda, A; Kaasik, A; Vassiljev, V; Pokk, P; Zharkovsky, A

    2000-01-24

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) non-selective agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocycloheptane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid [(1S, 3R)ACPD] and group I selective receptor agonist 3, 5-dihydrophenylglycine (DHPG) effectively attenuated oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced death of the cultured cerebellar granule cells. Furthermore, (1S,3R)ACPD (100 microM) reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Antiapoptotic action of (1S,3R)ACPD was prevented by the group I selective antagonist (RS)-1-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 100 microM) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BMI, 1 microM).

  13. Protective effect of S-allyl-L-cysteine against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death is mediated by inhibition of calpain.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toru; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Endo-Umeda, Kaori; Miyagishi, Hiroko; Ishige, Kumiko; Makishima, Makoto; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2014-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, implicated in various neurodegenerative processes, increases the level of intracellular Ca(2+) and leads to activation of calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease. We have shown previously that S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) in aged garlic extracts significantly protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons (HPNs) against ER stress-induced neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effect of SAC was compared with those of the related antioxidant compounds, L-cysteine (CYS) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on calpain activity in HPNs and also in vitro. SAC, but not CYS or NAC, reversibly restored the survival of HPNs and increased the degradation of α-spectrin, a substrate for calpain, induced by tunicamycin, a typical ER stress inducer. Activities of μ- and m-calpains in vitro were also concentration dependently suppressed by SAC, but not by CYS or NAC. At submaximal concentration, although ALLN (5 pM), which blocks the active site of calpain, and calpastatin (100 pM), an endogenous calpain-inhibitor protein, additively inhibited μ-calpain activity in vitro in combination with SAC, the effect of PD150606 (25 μM), which prevents interaction of Ca(2+) with the Ca(2+)-binding site of calpain, was unaffected by SAC. In contrast, SAC (1 mM) significantly reversed the effect of PD150606 at a concentration that elicited supramaximal inhibition (100 μM), but did not affect ALLN (1 nM)- and calpastatin (100 nM)-induced inhibition of μ-calpain activity. These results suggest that the protective effects of SAC against ER stress-induced neuronal cell death are not attributable to antioxidant activity, but to suppression of calpain through interaction with its Ca(2+)-binding site. PMID:24287800

  14. Redox regulation of mitochondrial fission, protein misfolding, synaptic damage, and neuronal cell death: potential implications for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Normal mitochondrial dynamics consist of fission and fusion events giving rise to new mitochondria, a process termed mitochondrial biogenesis. However, several neurodegenerative disorders manifest aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in morphological abnormalities often associated with deficits in mitochondrial mobility and cell bioenergetics. Rarely, dysfunctional mitochondrial occur in a familial pattern due to genetic mutations, but much more commonly patients manifest sporadic forms of mitochondrial disability presumably related to a complex set of interactions of multiple genes (or their products) with environmental factors (G × E). Recent studies have shown that generation of excessive nitric oxide (NO), in part due to generation of oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein or overactivity of the NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptor, can augment mitochondrial fission, leading to frank fragmentation of the mitochondria. S-Nitrosylation, a covalent redox reaction of NO with specific protein thiol groups, represents one mechanism contributing to NO-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, bioenergetic failure, synaptic damage, and eventually neuronal apoptosis. Here, we summarize our evidence in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and animal models showing that NO contributes to mitochondrial fragmentation via S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a protein involved in mitochondrial fission. These findings may provide a new target for drug development in AD. Additionally, we review emerging evidence that redox reactions triggered by excessive levels of NO can contribute to protein misfolding, the hallmark of a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and Parkinson’s disease. For example, S-nitrosylation of parkin disrupts its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and thereby affects Lewy body formation and neuronal cell death. PMID:20177970

  15. Impaired hypercarbic and hypoxic responses from developmental loss of cerebellar Purkinje neurons: Implications for sudden infant death syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calton, M.; Dickson, P.; Harper, R.M.; Goldowitz, D.; Mittleman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired responsivity to hypercapnia or hypoxia is commonly considered a mechanism of failure in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The search for deficient brain structures mediating flawed chemosensitivity typically focuses on medullary regions; however, a network that includes Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex and its associated cerebellar nuclei also helps mediate responses to CO2 and O2 challenges, and assists integration of cardiovascular and respiratory interactions. Although cerebellar nuclei contributions to chemoreceptor challenges in adult models are well described, Purkinje cell roles in developing models are unclear. We used a model of developmental cerebellar Purkinje cell loss to determine if such loss influenced compensatory ventilatory responses to hypercapnic and hypoxic challenges. Twenty-four Lurcher mutant mice and wildtype controls were sequentially exposed to 2% increases in CO2 (0%-8%), or 2% reductions in O2 (21%-13%) over four minutes, with return to room air (21% O2 / 79% N2 / 0% CO2) between each exposure. Whole-body plethysmography was used to continuously monitor tidal volume (TV) and breath frequency (f). Increased f to hypercapnia was significantly lower in Mutants, slower to initiate, and markedly lower in compensatory periods, except for very high (8%) CO2 levels. The magnitude of TV changes to increasing CO2 appeared smaller in Mutants, but only approached significance. Smaller, but significant differences emerged in response to hypoxia, with Mutants showing smaller TV when initially exposed to reduced O2, and lower f following exposure to 17% O2. Since cerebellar neuropathology appears in SIDS victims, developmental cerebellar neuropathology may contribute to SIDS vulnerability. PMID:25132500

  16. The Membrane-Active Tri-Block Copolymer Pluronic F-68 Profoundly Rescues Rat Hippocampal Neurons from Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation-Induced Death through Early Inhibition of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shelat, Phullara B.; Plant, Leigh D.; Wang, Janice C.; Lee, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F-68, an 80% hydrophilic member of the Pluronic family of polyethylene-polypropylene-polyethylene tri-block copolymers, protects non-neuronal cells from traumatic injuries and rescues hippocampal neurons from excitotoxic and oxidative insults. F-68 interacts directly with lipid membranes and restores membrane function after direct membrane damage. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of Pluronic F-68 in rescuing rat hippocampal neurons from apoptosis after oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD progressively decreased neuronal survival over 48 h in a severity-dependent manner, the majority of cell death occurring after 12 h after OGD. Administration of F-68 for 48 h after OGD rescued neurons from death in a dose-dependent manner. At its optimal concentration (30 μm), F-68 rescued all neurons that would have died after the first hour after OGD. This level of rescue persisted when F-68 administration was delayed 12 h after OGD. F-68 did not alter electrophysiological parameters controlling excitability, NMDA receptor-activated currents, or NMDA-induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations. However, F-68 treatment prevented phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and BAX translocation to mitochondria, indicating that F-68 alters apoptotic mechanisms early in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The profound neuronal rescue provided by F-68 after OGD and the high level of efficacy with delayed administration indicate that Pluronic copolymers may provide a novel, membrane-targeted approach to rescuing neurons after brain ischemia. The ability of membrane-active agents to block apoptosis suggests that membranes or their lipid components play prominent roles in injury-induced apoptosis. PMID:23884935

  17. miR-497 and miR-302b Regulate Ethanol-induced Neuronal Cell Death through BCL2 Protein and Cyclin D2*

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sanjay; Pandey, Ankita; Shukla, Aruna; Talwelkar, Sarang S.; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pant, Aditya B.; Parmar, Devendra

    2011-01-01

    In chronic alcoholism, brain shrinkage and cognitive defects because of neuronal death are well established, although the sequence of molecular events has not been fully explored yet. We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in ethanol-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells. Ethanol-sensitive miRNAs in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, were identified using real-time PCR-based TaqMan low-density arrays. Long-term exposure to ethanol (0.5% v/v for 72 h) produced a maximum increase in expression of miR-497 (474-fold) and miR-302b (322-fold). Similar to SH-SY5Y, long-term exposure to ethanol induced miR-497 and miR-302b in IMR-32, another human neuroblastoma cell line. Using in silico approaches, BCL2 and cyclin D2 (CCND2) were identified as probable target genes of these miRNAs. Cotransfection studies with 3′-UTR of these genes and miRNA mimics have demonstrated that BCL2 is a direct target of miR-497 and that CCND2 is regulated negatively by either miR-302b or miR-497. Overexpression of either miR-497 or miR-302b reduced expression of their identified target genes and increased caspase 3-mediated apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. However, overexpression of only miR-497 increased reactive oxygen species formation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced cytochrome c release (mitochondria-related events of apoptosis). Moreover, ethanol induced changes in miRNAs, and their target genes were substantially prevented by pre-exposure to GSK-3B inhibitors. In conclusion, our studies have shown that ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis follows both the mitochondria-mediated (miR-497- and BCL2-mediated) and non-mitochondria-mediated (miR-302b- and CCND2-mediated) pathway. PMID:21878650

  18. The essential role of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and its regulation by FoxO3a transcription factor in β-amyloid-induced neuron death.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Rumana; Sanphui, Priyankar; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2014-04-11

    Neurodegeneration underlies the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The molecules responsible for such neurodegeneration in AD brain are mostly unknown. Recent findings indicate that the BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family play an essential role in various cell death paradigms, including neurodegeneration. Here we report that Puma (p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), an important member of the BH3-only protein family, is up-regulated in neurons upon toxic β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) exposure both in vitro and in vivo. Down-regulation of Puma by specific siRNA provides significant protection against neuron death induced by Aβ(1-42). We further demonstrate that the activation of p53 and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathways induce Puma. The transcription factor FoxO3a, which is activated when PI3K/Akt signaling is inhibited, directly binds with the Puma gene and induces its expression upon exposure of neurons to oligomeric Aβ(1-42). Moreover, Puma cooperates with another BH3-only protein, Bim, which is already implicated in AD. Our results thus suggest that Puma is activated by both p53 and PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathways and cooperates with Bim to induce neuron death in response to Aβ(1-42).

  19. PKA Inhibitor H89 (N-[2-p-bromocinnamylamino-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide) Attenuates Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuronal Cell Death following Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Cheon, So Yeong; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which activates prosurvival signaling proteins, has been implicated in the expression of long-term potentiation and hippocampal long-term memory. It has come to light that H89 commonly known as the PKA inhibitor have diverse roles in the nervous system that are unrelated to its role as a PKA inhibitor. We have investigated the role of H89 in ischemic and reperfusion injury. First, we examined the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and synaptophysin in mouse brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. Next, we examined the role of H89 pretreatment on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), PSD95, MAP2, and the apoptosis regulators Bcl2 and cleaved caspase-3 in cultured neuroblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia and reperfusion injury. In addition, we investigated the alteration of AKT activation in H89 pretreated neuroblastoma cells under hypoxia and reperfusion injury. The data suggest that H89 may contribute to brain recovery after ischemic stroke by regulating neuronal death and proteins related to synaptic plasticity. PMID:26448879

  20. Selective blockade of CaMKII-alpha inhibits NMDA-induced caspase-3-dependent cell death but does not arrest PARP-1 activation or loss of plasma membrane selectivity in rat retinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Dennis J

    2009-02-23

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMKII-alpha) has been implicated in a number of receptor mediated events in neurons. Pharmacological blockade of CaMKII-alpha has been shown to prevent phosphorylation of NMDA-R2A and R2B receptor subunits, suggesting that this enzyme may be linked to receptor trafficking of glutamate receptors and serve as a regulatory protein for neuronal cell death. In the retina, inhibition of CaMKII-alpha has been reported to be neuroprotective against NMDA-induced cell death by preventing the activation of the caspase-3 dependent pathway. However, the effects of CaMKII-alpha blockade on the caspase-3 independent, PARP-1 dependent and the non-programmed cell death pathways have not previously been investigated. In the present study, blockade of CaMKII-alpha with the highly specific antagonist myristoylated autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) was used in a rat in vivo model of retinal toxicity to compare the effects of on NMDA-induced caspase-3-dependent, PARP-1 dependent and the non-programmed (necrosis) cell death pathways. Results confirmed that AIP fully attenuates caspase-3 activation for at least 8 h following NMDA insult and also significantly improves retinal ganglion cell survival. However, this blockade had little effect on reducing the loss of plasma membrane selectivity (LPMS, e.g. necrosis) in cells located in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers and did not alter NMDA-induced PARP-1 hyperactivation, or prevent TUNEL labeling following a moderate NMDA-insult. These findings support a specific role for CaMKII-alpha in mediating the caspase-3 dependent cell death pathway and provide evidence that it is not directly linked to the signaling of either the PARP-1 dependent or the non-programmed cell death pathways.

  1. Heat shock protein 70 protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation-induced nitric oxide synthase II expression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2014-02-01

    Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may eventually lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. Based on an animal model of status epilepticus, our laboratory showed previously that sustained hippocampal seizure activity activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and upregulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) II gene expression, leading to apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. The present study examined the potential modulatory role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, kainic acid (KA) was microinjected unilaterally into the hippocampal CA3 subfield to induce prolonged bilateral seizure activity. Expression of HSP70 was elevated as early as 1h after the elicitation of sustained seizure activity, followed by a progressive elevation that peaked at 24h. Pretreatment with an antisense oligonucleotide against hsp70 decreased the HSP70 expression, and significantly augmented IκB kinase (IKK) activity and phosphorylation of IκBα, alongside enhanced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB in the hippocampal CA3 neurons and glial cells. These cellular events were followed by enhanced upregulation of NOS II and peroxynitrite expression 3h after sustained seizure activity that led to an increase of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampal CA3 neurons 7days after experimental status epilepticus. We concluded that HSP70 protects against apoptotic cell death induced by NF-κB activation and NOS II-peroxynitrite signaling cascade in the hippocampal CA3 and glial cells following experimental status epilepticus via suppression of IKK activity and deactivation of IκBα.

  2. Nifedipine and nimodipine protect dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons against axotomy-induced cell death in rat vibrosections via modulating inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Daschil, Nina; Humpel, Christian

    2014-09-18

    Neurodegeneration of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons is a major hallmark in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, respectively. A dysregulation in calcium homeostasis may be part of this process and counteracting calcium influx may have neuroprotective properties in both diseases. Therefore, we investigated the putative neuroprotective or neurotoxic activity of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) inhibitors on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons in a rat organotypic vibrosection model. Sagittal or coronal vibrosections (200 μm thick) of postnatal day 10 rats were cultured on 0.4 μm semipermeable membranes for 2 weeks with 10 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or glial-cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to maintain survival of cholinergic or dopaminergic neurons, respectively. Thereafter, sections were incubated with 0.1, 1 or 10 μM isradipine, nicardipine or verapamil for 2 weeks to explore cytotoxicity. Alternatively, in order to explore neuroprotective activity, vibrosections were incubated without growth factors but with isradipine or verapamil or with nicardipine, nimodipine or nifedipine from the beginning for 4 weeks. Our data show that all LTCC inhibitors exhibited no neurotoxic effect on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Further, LTCC inhibitors did not have any neuroprotective activity on cholinergic neurons. However, nimodipine and nifedipine significantly enhanced the survival of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) but not ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, while nicardipine, isradipine and verapamil had no effect. Nifedipine (and more potently GDNF) reduced inflammatory cytokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, tumor necrosis factor-α), but did not influence oxidative stress or caspase-3 activity and did not interfere with iron-mediated overload. Our data show that nifedipine and nimodipine are very potent to enhance the survival of axotomized SN neurons, possibly influencing inflammatory processes.

  3. Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and Purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, A; Shetty, A K; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-11-01

    N,N-Diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin have been implicated as potential neurotoxic agents that may have played an important role in the development of illnesses in some veterans of the Persian Gulf War. To determine the effect of subchronic dermal application of these chemicals on the adult brain, we evaluated histopathological alterations in the brain of adult male rats following a daily dermal dose of DEET (40 mg/kg in 70% ethanol) or permethrin (0.13 mg/kg in 70% ethanol) or a combination of the two for 60 days. Control rats received a daily dermal dose of 70% ethanol for 60 days. Animals were perfused and brains were processed for morphological and histopathological analyses following the above regimen. Quantification of the density of healthy (or surviving) neurons in the motor cerebral cortex, the dentate gyrus, the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus, and the cerebellum revealed significant reductions in all three treated groups compared with the control group. Further, animals receiving either DEET or permethrin exhibited a significant number of degenerating (eosinophilic) neurons in the above brain regions. However, degenerating neurons were infrequent in animals receiving both DEET and permethrin, suggesting that neuronal cell death occurs earlier in animals receiving combined DEET and permethrin than in animals receiving either DEET or permethrin alone. The extent of neuron loss in different brain regions was similar among the three treatment groups except the dentate gyrus, where neurodegeneration was significantly greater with exposure to DEET alone. The neuron loss in the motor cerebral cortex and the CA1 subfield of all treated groups was also corroborated by a significant decrease in microtubule associated protein 2-immunoreactive elements (15-52% reduction), with maximal reductions occurring in rats receiving DEET alone; further, the surviving neurons in animals receiving both DEET and permethrin exhibited wavy and beaded dendrites

  4. Metformin Prevents Dopaminergic Neuron Death in MPTP/P-Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease via Autophagy and Mitochondrial ROS Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Su, Cunjin; Qiao, Chen; Bian, Yaqi; Ding, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous study demonstrated that metabolic inflammation exacerbates dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in type 2 diabetes mice. Metformin, a typical oral hypoglycemic agent for diabetes, has been regarded as an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase and a regulator of systemic energy metabolism. Although metformin plays potential protective effects in many disorders, it is unclear whether metformin has a therapeutic role in dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Methods: In the present study, a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid-induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease was established to explore the neuroprotective effect of metformin on dopaminergic neurons in substania nigra compacta. We next cultured SH-SY5Y cells to investigate the mechanisms for the neuroprotective effect of metformin. Results: We showed that treatment with metformin (5mg/mL in drinking water) for 5 weeks significantly ameliorated the degeneration of substania nigra compacta dopaminergic neurons, increased striatal dopaminergic levels, and improved motor impairment induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid. We further found that metformin inhibited microglia overactivation-induced neuroinflammation in substania nigra compacta of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid Parkinson’s disease mice, which might contribute to the protective effect of metformin on neurodegeneration. Furthermore, metformin (2mM) activated AMP-activated protein kinase in SH-SY5Y cells, in turn inducing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II-mediated autophagy and eliminating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Consequently, metformin alleviated MPP+-induced cytotoxicity and attenuated neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that metformin may be a pluripotent and promising drug for dopaminergic neuron degeneration, which will give us insight into the potential of

  5. Cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on primary neuronal cells of the forebrain: the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors and apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Ken-ichi; Funada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids has become an issue of public concern. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on mouse brain neuronal cells. Cytotoxicity induced by synthetic cannabinoid (CP-55,940, CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8, HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-210, AM-2201, and MAM-2201) was examined using forebrain neuronal cultures. These synthetic cannabinoids induced cytotoxicity in the forebrain cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity was suppressed by preincubation with the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, but not with the selective CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Furthermore, annexin-V-positive cells were found among the treated forebrain cells. Synthetic cannabinoid treatment induced the activation of caspase-3, and preincubation with a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity. These synthetic cannabinoids induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism in the forebrain cultures. Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids towards primary neuronal cells is mediated by the CB1 receptor, but not by the CB2 receptor, and further suggest that caspase cascades may play an important role in the apoptosis induced by these synthetic cannabinoids. In conclusion, excessive synthetic cannabinoid abuse may present a serious acute health concern due to neuronal damage or deficits in the brain.

  6. Cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on primary neuronal cells of the forebrain: the involvement of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors and apoptotic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Tomiyama, Ken-ichi; Funada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids has become an issue of public concern. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on mouse brain neuronal cells. Cytotoxicity induced by synthetic cannabinoid (CP-55,940, CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8, HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-210, AM-2201, and MAM-2201) was examined using forebrain neuronal cultures. These synthetic cannabinoids induced cytotoxicity in the forebrain cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity was suppressed by preincubation with the selective CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251, but not with the selective CB{sub 2} receptor antagonist AM630. Furthermore, annexin-V-positive cells were found among the treated forebrain cells. Synthetic cannabinoid treatment induced the activation of caspase-3, and preincubation with a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity. These synthetic cannabinoids induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism in the forebrain cultures. Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids towards primary neuronal cells is mediated by the CB{sub 1} receptor, but not by the CB{sub 2} receptor, and further suggest that caspase cascades may play an important role in the apoptosis induced by these synthetic cannabinoids. In conclusion, excessive synthetic cannabinoid abuse may present a serious acute health concern due to neuronal damage or deficits in the brain. - Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids (classical cannabinoids, non-classical cannabinoids, and aminoalkylindole derivatives) induce cytotoxicity in mouse forebrain cultures. • Synthetic cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity towards forebrain cultures is mediated by the CB{sub 1} receptor, but not by the CB{sub 2} receptor, and involves caspase-dependent apoptosis. • A high concentration of synthetic cannabinoids may be toxic to neuronal cells that express CB{sub 1} receptors.

  7. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  8. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia.

  9. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  10. Antisense Proline-Arginine RAN dipeptides linked to C9ORF72-ALS/FTD form toxic nuclear aggregates that initiate in vitro and in vivo neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xinmei; Tan, Wenzhi; Westergard, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; ShamamandriMarkandaiah, Shashirekha; Shi, Yingxiao; Lin, Shaoyu; Shneider, Neil A.; Monaghan, John; Pandey, Udai B.; Pasinelli, Piera; Ichida, Justin K.; Trotti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Expanded GGGGCC nucleotide repeats within the C9ORF72 gene are the most common genetic mutation associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Sense and antisense transcripts of these expansions are translated to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DRPs). We employed primary cortical and motor neuron cultures, live-cell imaging, and transgenic fly models and found that the arginine-rich dipeptides, in particular Proline-Arginine (PR), are potently neurotoxic. Factors that anticipated their neurotoxicity included aggregation in nucleoli, decreased number of processing bodies, and stress granules formation, implying global translational dysregulation as path accountable for toxicity. Nuclear PR aggregates were also found in human-induced motor neurons and postmortem spinal cord tissues from C9ORF72 ALS and ALS/FTD patients. Intronic G4C2 transcripts, but not loss of C9ORF72 protein, are also toxic to motor and cortical neurons. Interestingly, G4C2 transcript-mediated neurotoxicity synergizes with that of PR aggregates, suggesting convergence of mechanisms. PMID:25521377

  11. Inhibition of autophagy and glycolysis by nitric oxide during hypoxia-reoxygenation impairs cellular bioenergetics and promotes cell death in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Gloria A; Liang, Qiuli; Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production is known to damage mitochondrial proteins and the autophagy repair pathway and so can potentially contribute to neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that protection against protein damage from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species under conditions of low oxygen by the autophagy pathway in neurons would be impaired by NO and enhance bioenergetic dysfunction. Rat primary cortical neurons had the same basal cellular respiration in hypoxia as in normoxia, whereas NO-exposed cells exhibited a gradual decrease in mitochondrial respiration in hypoxia. Upon reoxygenation, the respiration in NO-treated cells did not recover to prehypoxic levels. Hypoxia-reoxygenation in the presence of NO was associated with inhibition of autophagy, and the inability to recover during reoxygenation was exacerbated by an inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine. The effects of hypoxia could be recapitulated by inhibiting glycolytic flux under normoxic conditions. Under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions NO exposure induced immediate stimulation of glycolysis, but prolonged NO exposure, associated with irreversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in hypoxia, inhibited glycolysis. Importantly, we found that NO inhibited basal respiration under normoxic conditions only when glucose was absent from the medium or glycolysis was inhibited by 2-deoxy-d-glucose, revealing a novel NO-dependent mechanism for the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration that is modulated by glycolysis. Taken together these data suggest an oxygen-dependent interaction between mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and autophagy in protecting neuronal cells exposed to NO. Importantly, they indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction is intimately linked to a failure of glycolytic flux induced by exposure to NO. In addition, these studies provide new insights into the understanding of how autophagy and NO may play interactive roles in neuroinflammation-induced cellular

  12. Effects of KR-33028, a novel Na+/H+ exchanger-1 inhibitor, on glutamate-induced neuronal cell death and ischemia-induced cerebral infarct.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ha; Park, Sok; Park, Sung Lyea; Yoon, Jae-Seok; Lee, Min Goo; Lee, Sunkyung; Yi, Kyu Yang; Yoo, Sung Eun; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Soo Hwan; Baik, Eun Joo; Moon, Chang-Hyun; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2009-01-12

    We investigated the effects of a novel Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE-1) inhibitor KR-33028 on glutamate excitotoxicity in cultured neuron cells in vitro and cerebral infarct in vivo by comparing its potency with that of zoniporide, a well-known, highly potent NHE-1 inhibitor. KR-33028 inhibited NHE-1 activation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=2.2 nM), with 18-fold greater potency than that of zoniporide (IC(50)=40.7 nM). KR-33028 significantly attenuated glutamate-induced LDH release with approximately 100 times lower EC(25) than that of zoniporide in cortical neurons in vitro (EC(25) of 0.007 and 0.81 microM, respectively), suggesting its 100-fold greater potency than zoniporide in producing anti-necrotic effect. In addition, the EC(50) of KR-33028 for anti-apoptotic effect was 100 times lower than that of zoniporide shown by TUNEL positivity (0.005 and 0.62 microM, respectively) and caspase-3 activity (0.01 and 2.64 microM, respectively). Furthermore, the EC(50) value of KR-33028 against glutamate-induced intracellular Ca(2+) overload was also 100 times lower than that of zoniporide (EC(50) of 0.004 and 0.65 microM, respectively). In the in vivo cerebral infarct model (60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion), KR-33028 reduced infarct size in a dose-dependent manner. Its ED(25) value, however, was quite similar to that of zoniporide (ED(25) of 0.072 and 0.097 mg/kg, respectively). Hence these results suggest that the novel NHE-1 inhibitor, KR-33028, could be an efficient therapeutic tool to protect neuronal cells against ischemic injury.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor 1 rescues R28 retinal neurons from apoptotic death through ERK-mediated BimEL phosphorylation independent of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dejuan; Gong, Lijie; Arnold, Edith; Shanmugam, Sumathi; Fort, Patrice E; Gardner, Thomas W; Abcouwer, Steven F

    2016-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can provide long-term neurotrophic support by activation of Akt, inhibition of FoxO nuclear localization and suppression of Bim gene transcription in multiple neuronal systems. However, MEK/ERK activation can also promote neuron survival through phosphorylation of BimEL. We explored the contribution of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO and MEK/ERK/BimEL pathways in IGF-1 stimulated survival after serum deprivation (SD) of R28 cells differentiated to model retinal neurons. IGF-1 caused rapid activation of Akt leading to FoxO1/3-T32/T24 phosphorylation, and prevented FoxO1/3 nuclear translocation and Bim mRNA upregulation in response to SD. IGF-1 also caused MAPK/MEK pathway activation as indicated by ERK1/2-T202/Y204 and Bim-S65 phosphorylation. Overexpression of FoxO1 increased Bim mRNA expression and amplified the apoptotic response to SD without shifting the serum response curve. Inhibition of Akt activation with LY294002 or by Rictor knockdown did not block the protective effect of IGF-1, while inhibition of MEK activity with PD98059 prevented Bim phosphorylation and blocked IGF-1 protection. In addition, knockdown of Bim expression was protective during SD, while co-silencing of FoxO1 and Fox03 expression had little effect. Thus, the PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathway was not essential for protection from SD-induced apoptosis by IGF-1 in R28 cells. Instead, IGF-1 protection was dependent on activation of the MEK/ERK pathway leading to BimEL phosphorylation, which is known to prevent Bax/Bak oligomerization and activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. These studies demonstrate the requirement of the MEK/ERK pathway in a model of retinal neuron cell survival and highlight the cell specificity for IGF-1 signaling in this response. PMID:27511131

  14. The Neuroprotective Effects of Justicidin A on Amyloid Beta25-35-Induced Neuronal Cell Death Through Inhibition of Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Induction of Autophagy in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ming-Yao; Kim, Joonki; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2016-06-01

    Justicidin A is a structurally defined arylnaphthalide lignan, which has been shown anti-cancer activity; however, the neuroprotective effect of justicidin A is still untested. In this study, we investigated the action of justicidin A on amyloid beta (Aβ)25-35-induced neuronal cell death via inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with justicidin A significantly elevated cell viability in cells treated with Aβ25-35. Western blot data demonstrated that justicidin A inhibited the Aβ25-35-induced up-regulation the levels of hyperphosphorylation of tau in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, treatment with justicidin A significantly induced autophagy as measured by the increasing LC3 II/I ratio, an important autophagy marker. These studies showed that justicidin A inhibited activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β), which is an important kinase in up-stream signaling pathways; inhibited hyperphosphorylation of tau in AD; and enhanced activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is the key molecule for both hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy. These data provide the first evidence that justicidin A protects SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ25-35-induced neuronal cell death through inhibition of hyperphosphorylation of tau and induction of autophagy via regulation the activity of GSK-3β and AMPK, and they also provide some insights into the relationship between tau protein hyperphosphorylation and autophagy. Thus, we conclude that justicidin A may have a potential role for neuroprotection and, therefore, may be used as a therapeutic agent for AD. PMID:26887582

  15. Normal Molecular Specification and Neurodegenerative Disease-Like Death of Spinal Neurons Lacking the SNARE-Associated Synaptic Protein Munc18-1

    PubMed Central

    Law, Chris; Schaan Profes, Marcos; Levesque, Martin; Kaltschmidt, Julia A.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    The role of synaptic activity during early formation of neural circuits is a topic of some debate; genetic ablation of neurotransmitter release by deletion of the Munc18-1 gene provides an excellent model to answer the question of whether such activity is required for early circuit formation. Previous analysis of Munc18-1−/− mouse mutants documented their grossly normal nervous system, but its molecular differentiation has not been assessed. Munc18-1 deletion in mice also results in widespread neurodegeneration that remains poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the early stages of spinal motor circuit formation, including motor neuron specification, axon growth and pathfinding, and mRNA expression, are unaffected in Munc18-1−/− mice, demonstrating that synaptic activity is dispensable for early nervous system development. Furthermore, we show that the neurodegeneration caused by Munc18-1 loss is cell autonomous, consistent with apparently normal expression of several neurotrophic factors and normal GDNF signaling. Consistent with cell-autonomous degeneration, we demonstrate defects in the trafficking of the synaptic proteins Syntaxin1a and PSD-95 and the TrkB and DCC receptors in Munc18-1−/− neurons; these defects do not appear to cause ER stress, suggesting other mechanisms for degeneration. Finally, we demonstrate pathological similarities to Alzheimer's disease, such as altered Tau phosphorylation, neurofibrillary tangles, and accumulation of insoluble protein plaques. Together, our results shed new light upon the neurodegeneration observed in Munc18-1−/− mice and argue that this phenomenon shares parallels with neurodegenerative diseases. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we demonstrate the absence of a requirement for regulated neurotransmitter release in the assembly of early neuronal circuits by assaying transcriptional identity, axon growth and guidance, and mRNA expression in Munc18-1-null mice. Furthermore, we

  16. Relationship between the chemokine receptor CCR5 and microglia in neurological disorders: consequences of targeting CCR5 on neuroinflammation, neuronal death and regeneration in a model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2013-09-01

    Chemokines may play a role in leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during neuroinflammation and other neuropathological processes, such as epilepsy. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a member of CC-chemokine receptor family that binds several chemokines, including CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, MIP-1alpha), CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, MIP-1beta) and CCL5 (RANTES). The current review examines the relationship between CCR5 and the microglia in different neurological disorders and models of CNS injury. CCR5 expression is upregulated in different neurological diseases, where it is often immunolocalized in microglial cells. A multistep cascade couples CCR5 activation by chemokines to Ca(2+) increases in human microglia. Because changes in [Ca(2+)] (i) affect chemotaxis, secretion, and gene expression, pharmacologic modulation of this pathway may alter inflammatory and degenerative processes in the CNS. Consequently, targeting CCR5 by using CCR5 antagonists may attenuate critical aspects of neuroinflammation in different models of neurological disorders. To illustrate the interaction between CCR5 and microglia in the CNS, we used a model of excitotoxicity, and demonstrate the intimate involvement of CCR5 in neuron injury and inflammation attendant to kainic acid (KA)-induced neurotoxicity. CCR5 participates in neuronal injury caused by the excitotoxin, KA, brings inflammatory cells to the sites of KA-induced CNS injury, defines the extent of tissue loss after KA exposure and limits reparative responses. We used a SV40-derived vector carrying an interfering RNA (RNAi) that targets CCR5. Delivered directly to the bone marrow, this vector decreased CCR5 expression in circulating cells. Animals so treated showed greatly reduced expression of CCR5 and its ligands (MIP-1alpha and RANTES) in the CNS, including in the brain vasculature, decreased BBB leakage, demonstrated greater KA-stimulated neurogenesis and increased

  17. Death imagery and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R T; Hilgendorf, W A

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between positive/negative death imagery and death anxiety. Subjects were 179 undergraduate students at a large, private, midwestern university. Results reveal that on five measures of death anxiety the subjects with low death anxiety scores had significantly more positive death images than did those with high death anxiety scores. The few subjects who imagined death to be young (N = 14) had a significantly more positive image of death than those who perceived it to be an old person. Death was seen as male by 92% of the male respondents and 74% of the female respondents. Significant differences in death imagery and death anxiety were found between subjects enrolled in an introductory psychology course and those enrolled in a thanatology course. No sex differences in death anxiety or positive/negative death imagery were found.

  18. Treadmill exercise inhibits apoptotic neuronal cell death with suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the retinas of the diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Ko, Il-Gyu; Cho, Jung-Wan; Davis, Ronald W.; Hwang, Gwang-Yon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most important microvascular complications in diabetes, and it is the major cause of visual loss. Physical exercise is known to ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic syndromes such as diabetic mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and apoptotic cell death in the retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 in each group): control group, STZ-induce diabetes group, STZ-induced diabetes and treadmill exercise group. To induce diabetes in the experimental animals, a single intraperitioneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg) was given to each animal. The rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day during 1 week starting 6 weeks after STZ injection. In the present results, VEGF expression in the retinas was increased by induction of diabetes. The numbers of caspase-3-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the retinas were also enhanced by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise significantly decreased VEGF expression and suppressed the number of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the retinas of diabetic rats. In the present study, we have shown that treadmill exercise might alleviate the progression of diabetic retinopathy through suppressing VEGF expression and apoptotic cell death in the retinas of the diabetic rats. PMID:24278883

  19. Cell death in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Bredesen, Dale E.; Rao, Rammohan V.; Mehlen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease trigger neuronal cell death through endogenous suicide pathways. Surprisingly, although the cell death itself may occur relatively late in the course of the degenerative process, the mediators of the underlying cell-death pathways have shown promise as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:17051206

  20. Synapse-to-neuron ratio is inversely related to neuronal density in mature neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Cullen, D Kacy; Gilroy, Meghan E; Irons, Hillary R; Laplaca, Michelle C

    2010-11-01

    Synapse formation is a fundamental process in neurons that occurs throughout development, maturity, and aging. Although these stages contain disparate and fluctuating numbers of mature neurons, tactics employed by neuronal networks to modulate synapse number as a function of neuronal density are not well understood. The goal of this study was to utilize an in vitro model to assess the influence of cell density and neuronal maturity on synapse number and distribution. Specifically, cerebral cortical neurons were plated in planar culture at densities ranging from 10 to 5000 neurons/mm², and synapse number and distribution were evaluated via immunocytochemistry over 21 days in vitro (DIV). High-resolution confocal microscopy revealed an elaborate three-dimensional distribution of neurites and synapses across the heights of high-density neuronal networks by 21 DIV, which were up to 18 μm thick, demonstrating the complex degree of spatial interactions even in planar high-density cultures. At 7 DIV, the mean number of synapses per neuron was less than 5, and this did not vary as a function of neuronal density. However, by 21 DIV, the number of synapses per neuron had jumped 30- to 80-fold, and the synapse-to-neuron ratio was greatest at lower neuronal densities (< 500 neurons/mm²; mean approximately 400 synapses/neuron) compared to mid and higher neuronal densities (500-4500 neurons/mm²; mean of approximately 150 synapses/neuron) (p<0.05). These results suggest a relationship between neuronal density and synapse number that may have implications in the neurobiology of developing neuronal networks as well as processes of cell death and regeneration.

  1. Inhibition of N-Methyl-D-aspartate-induced Retinal Neuronal Death by Polyarginine Peptides Is Linked to the Attenuation of Stress-induced Hyperpolarization of the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John; Wong, Kwoon Y; Rupasinghe, Chamila N; Tiwari, Rakesh; Zhao, Xiwu; Berberoglu, Eren D; Sinkler, Christopher; Liu, Jenney; Lee, Icksoo; Parang, Keykavous; Spaller, Mark R; Hüttemann, Maik; Goebel, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    It is widely accepted that overactivation of NMDA receptors, resulting in calcium overload and consequent mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal ganglion neurons, plays a significant role in promoting neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma. Calcium has been shown to initiate a transient hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential triggering a burst of reactive oxygen species leading to apoptosis. Strategies that enhance cell survival signaling pathways aimed at preventing this adverse hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential may provide a novel therapeutic intervention in retinal disease. In the retina, brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to be neuroprotective, and our group previously reported a PSD-95/PDZ-binding cyclic peptide (CN2097) that augments brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced pro-survival signaling. Here, we examined the neuroprotective properties of CN2097 using an established retinal in vivo NMDA toxicity model. CN2097 completely attenuated NMDA-induced caspase 3-dependent and -independent cell death and PARP-1 activation pathways, blocked necrosis, and fully prevented the loss of long term ganglion cell viability. Although neuroprotection was partially dependent upon CN2097 binding to the PDZ domain of PSD-95, our results show that the polyarginine-rich transport moiety C-R(7), linked to the PDZ-PSD-95-binding cyclic peptide, was sufficient to mediate short and long term protection via a mitochondrial targeting mechanism. C-R(7) localized to mitochondria and was found to reduce mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, and the generation of reactive oxygen species, promoting survival of retinal neurons.

  2. Subtoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury through TrkB receptor- and calmodulin-mediated PI-3K/Akt pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Quan-Guang; Li, Chong; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subtoxic NMDA moderated the neuronal survival in vitro and vivo. We performed this experiment to clarify the precise mechanism underlie subtoxic NMDA delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury. We found that pretreatment of NMDA (100 mg/kg) increased the number of the surviving CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampus at 5 days of reperfusion. This dose of NMDA could also enhance Akt activation after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Here, we examined the possible mechanism that NMDA induced Akt activation. On the one hand, we found NMDA receptor-mediated Akt activation was associated with increased expression of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and activation of its high-affinity receptor TrkB after I/R in the hippocampus CA1 region, which could be held down by TrkB receptor antagonist K252a. On the other hand, we found that NMDA enhanced the binding of Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) to p85 (the regulation subunit of PI-3K), which led to the activation of Akt. W-13, an active CaM inhibitor, prevented the combination of CaM and p85 and subsequent Akt activation. Furthermore, NMDA receptor-mediated Akt activation was reversed by combined treatment with LY294002, the specific blockade of PI-3K. Taken together, our results suggested that subtoxic NMDA exerts the neuroprotective effect via activation of prosurvival PI-3K/Akt pathway against ischemic brain injury, and BDNF-TrkB signaling and Ca2+-dependent CaM cascade might contribute to NMDA induced activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway.

  3. Inhibition of N-Methyl-d-aspartate-induced Retinal Neuronal Death by Polyarginine Peptides Is Linked to the Attenuation of Stress-induced Hyperpolarization of the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Potential*

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, John; Wong, Kwoon Y.; Rupasinghe, Chamila N.; Tiwari, Rakesh; Zhao, Xiwu; Berberoglu, Eren D.; Sinkler, Christopher; Liu, Jenney; Lee, Icksoo; Parang, Keykavous; Spaller, Mark R.; Hüttemann, Maik; Goebel, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that overactivation of NMDA receptors, resulting in calcium overload and consequent mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal ganglion neurons, plays a significant role in promoting neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma. Calcium has been shown to initiate a transient hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential triggering a burst of reactive oxygen species leading to apoptosis. Strategies that enhance cell survival signaling pathways aimed at preventing this adverse hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential may provide a novel therapeutic intervention in retinal disease. In the retina, brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to be neuroprotective, and our group previously reported a PSD-95/PDZ-binding cyclic peptide (CN2097) that augments brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced pro-survival signaling. Here, we examined the neuroprotective properties of CN2097 using an established retinal in vivo NMDA toxicity model. CN2097 completely attenuated NMDA-induced caspase 3-dependent and -independent cell death and PARP-1 activation pathways, blocked necrosis, and fully prevented the loss of long term ganglion cell viability. Although neuroprotection was partially dependent upon CN2097 binding to the PDZ domain of PSD-95, our results show that the polyarginine-rich transport moiety C-R(7), linked to the PDZ-PSD-95-binding cyclic peptide, was sufficient to mediate short and long term protection via a mitochondrial targeting mechanism. C-R(7) localized to mitochondria and was found to reduce mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, and the generation of reactive oxygen species, promoting survival of retinal neurons. PMID:26100636

  4. The Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Michael J.; Rakheja, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL's, Batten disease) represent a group of severe neurodegenerative diseases, which mostly present in childhood. The phenotypes are similar and include visual loss, seizures, loss of motor and cognitive function, and early death. At autopsy, there is massive neuronal loss with characteristic storage in…

  5. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1-100μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination.

  6. Programmed cell death in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-02-23

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an evolutionarily conserved contributor to nervous system development. In the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, PCD is the basis of the neurotrophic theory, whereby cell death results from a surplus of neurons relative to target and competition for neurotrophic factors. In addition to stochastic cell death, PCD can be intrinsically determined by cell lineage or position and timing in both invertebrate and vertebrate central nervous systems. The underlying PCD molecular mechanisms include intrinsic transcription factor cascades and regulators of competence/susceptibility to cell death. Here, we provide a framework for understanding neural PCD from its regulation to its functions.

  7. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  8. Vestibular Neuronitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear Additional Content Medical News Vestibular Neuronitis By Lawrence R. Lustig, MD NOTE: This ... Drugs Herpes Zoster Oticus Meniere Disease Purulent Labyrinthitis Vestibular Neuronitis Vestibular neuronitis is a disorder characterized by ...

  9. The inhibition of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) biosynthesis, rather than enhancing striatal damage, protects striatal neurons from malonate-induced death: a potential role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent metabolism of 2-AG

    PubMed Central

    Valdeolivas, S; Pazos, M R; Bisogno, T; Piscitelli, F; Iannotti, F A; Allarà, M; Sagredo, O; Di Marzo, V; Fernández-Ruiz, J

    2013-01-01

    The cannabinoid CB2 receptor, which is activated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), protects striatal neurons from apoptotic death caused by the local administration of malonate, a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD). In the present study, we investigated whether endocannabinoids provide tonic neuroprotection in this HD model, by examining the effect of O-3841, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipases, the enzymes that catalyse 2-AG biosynthesis, and JZL184 or OMDM169, two inhibitors of 2-AG inactivation by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The inhibitors were injected in rats with the striatum lesioned with malonate, and several biochemical and morphological parameters were measured in this brain area. Similar experiments were also conducted in vitro in cultured M-213 cells, which have the phenotypic characteristics of striatal neurons. O-3841 produced a significant reduction in the striatal levels of 2-AG in animals lesioned with malonate. However, surprisingly, the inhibitor attenuated malonate-induced GABA and BDNF deficiencies and the reduction in Nissl staining, as well as the increase in GFAP immunostaining. In contrast, JZL184 exacerbated malonate-induced striatal damage. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was induced in the striatum 24 h after the lesion simultaneously with other pro-inflammatory responses. The COX-2-derived 2-AG metabolite, prostaglandin E2 glyceryl ester (PGE2-G), exacerbated neurotoxicity, and this effect was antagonized by the blockade of PGE2-G action with AGN220675. In M-213 cells exposed to malonate, in which COX-2 was also upregulated, JZL184 worsened neurotoxicity, and this effect was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib or AGN220675. OMDM169 also worsened neurotoxicity and produced measurable levels of PGE2-G. In conclusion, the inhibition of 2-AG biosynthesis is neuroprotective in rats lesioned with malonate, possibly through the counteraction of the formation of pro-neuroinflammatory PGE2-G, formed from COX-2

  10. The inhibition of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) biosynthesis, rather than enhancing striatal damage, protects striatal neurons from malonate-induced death: a potential role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent metabolism of 2-AG.

    PubMed

    Valdeolivas, S; Pazos, M R; Bisogno, T; Piscitelli, F; Iannotti, F A; Allarà, M; Sagredo, O; Di Marzo, V; Fernández-Ruiz, J

    2013-10-17

    The cannabinoid CB2 receptor, which is activated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), protects striatal neurons from apoptotic death caused by the local administration of malonate, a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD). In the present study, we investigated whether endocannabinoids provide tonic neuroprotection in this HD model, by examining the effect of O-3841, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipases, the enzymes that catalyse 2-AG biosynthesis, and JZL184 or OMDM169, two inhibitors of 2-AG inactivation by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The inhibitors were injected in rats with the striatum lesioned with malonate, and several biochemical and morphological parameters were measured in this brain area. Similar experiments were also conducted in vitro in cultured M-213 cells, which have the phenotypic characteristics of striatal neurons. O-3841 produced a significant reduction in the striatal levels of 2-AG in animals lesioned with malonate. However, surprisingly, the inhibitor attenuated malonate-induced GABA and BDNF deficiencies and the reduction in Nissl staining, as well as the increase in GFAP immunostaining. In contrast, JZL184 exacerbated malonate-induced striatal damage. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was induced in the striatum 24 h after the lesion simultaneously with other pro-inflammatory responses. The COX-2-derived 2-AG metabolite, prostaglandin E2 glyceryl ester (PGE2-G), exacerbated neurotoxicity, and this effect was antagonized by the blockade of PGE2-G action with AGN220675. In M-213 cells exposed to malonate, in which COX-2 was also upregulated, JZL184 worsened neurotoxicity, and this effect was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib or AGN220675. OMDM169 also worsened neurotoxicity and produced measurable levels of PGE2-G. In conclusion, the inhibition of 2-AG biosynthesis is neuroprotective in rats lesioned with malonate, possibly through the counteraction of the formation of pro-neuroinflammatory PGE2-G, formed from COX-2

  11. Neuronal beacon.

    PubMed

    Black, B; Mondal, A; Kim, Y; Mohanty, S K

    2013-07-01

    The controlled navigation of the axonal growth cone of a neuron toward the dendrite of its synaptic partner neuron is the fundamental process in forming neuronal circuitry. While a number of technologies have been pursued for axonal guidance over the past decades, they are either invasive or not controllable with high spatial and temporal resolution and are often limited by low guidance efficacy. Here, we report a neuronal beacon based on light for highly efficient and controlled guidance of cortical primary neurons.

  12. Life and Death of a Neuron

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the adult brain is still an unproven theory. But others think the evidence offers intriguing possibilities ... All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the ...

  13. Acidosis induces reprogramming of cellular metabolism to mitigate oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of oncogenic and environmental factors alter tumor metabolism to serve the distinct cellular biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs present during oncogenesis. Extracellular acidosis is a common microenvironmental stress in solid tumors, but little is known about its metabolic influence, particularly when present in the absence of hypoxia. In order to characterize the extent of tumor cell metabolic adaptations to acidosis, we employed stable isotope tracers to examine how acidosis impacts glucose, glutamine, and palmitate metabolism in breast cancer cells exposed to extracellular acidosis. Results Acidosis increased both glutaminolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, which contribute metabolic intermediates to drive the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and ATP generation. Acidosis also led to a decoupling of glutaminolysis and novel glutathione (GSH) synthesis by repressing GCLC/GCLM expression. We further found that acidosis redirects glucose away from lactate production and towards the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). These changes all serve to increase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production and counter the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) present under acidosis. The reduced novel GSH synthesis under acidosis may explain the increased demand for NADPH to recycle existing pools of GSH. Interestingly, acidosis also disconnected novel ribose synthesis from the oxidative PPP, seemingly to reroute PPP metabolites to the TCA cycle. Finally, we found that acidosis activates p53, which contributes to both the enhanced PPP and increased glutaminolysis, at least in part, through the induction of G6PD and GLS2 genes. Conclusions Acidosis alters the cellular metabolism of several major metabolites, which induces a significant degree of metabolic inflexibility. Cells exposed to acidosis largely rely upon mitochondrial metabolism for energy generation to the extent that metabolic intermediates are redirected away from several other critical metabolic processes, including ribose and glutathione synthesis. These alterations lead to both a decrease in cellular proliferation and increased sensitivity to ROS. Collectively, these data reveal a role for p53 in cellular metabolic reprogramming under acidosis, in order to permit increased bioenergetic capacity and ROS neutralization. Understanding the metabolic adaptations that cancer cells make under acidosis may present opportunities to generate anti-tumor therapeutic agents that are more tumor-specific. PMID:24359630

  14. Death duties

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kathryn A.; Eden, David

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians are often called upon to pronounce and certify the deaths of patients. Inadequate knowledge of the Coroners Act (in the province of Ontario) and of the correct process of certifying death can make physicians uncomfortable when confronted with these tasks. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To educate family physicians about how to perform the administrative tasks required of them when patients die. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The program included an educational video, a tutorial outlining the process of death certification, and discussion with a regional coroner about key features of the Coroners Act. In small groups, participants worked through cases of patient deaths in which they were asked to determine whether a coroner needed to be involved, to determine the manner of death, and to complete a mock death certificate for each case. CONCLUSION All participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the workshop and thought the main objective of the program had been achieved. Results of a test given 3 months after the workshop showed substantial improvement in participants’ knowledge of the coroner’s role and of the process of death certification. PMID:17872782

  15. Evidence for Role of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in Nucleus Ambiguus Neurons: Essential Differences in Anesthetized versus Awake Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Altmann, Joseph B.; Chitravanshi, Vineet; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are widely expressed in several brain regions including medulla; their role in physiology and pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We examined the effect of acidic pH of 6.2 on the medullary neurons involved in parasympathetic cardiac control. Our results indicate that retrogradely-labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus are depolarized by acidic pH. In addition, acidic saline of pH 6.2 increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by promoting Ca2+ influx in nucleus ambiguus neurons. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of acidic artificial cerebrospinal fluid (pH 6.2) into the nucleus ambiguus decreases the heart rate in conscious rats, whereas it has no effect in anesthetized animals. Pretreatment with either amiloride or benzamil, two widely used ASIC blockers, abolishes both the in vitro and in vivo effects elicited by pH 6.2. Our findings support a critical role for ASIC in modulation of cardiac vagal tone and provide a potential mechanism for acidosis-induced bradycardia, while identifying important differences in the response to acidic pH between anesthetized and conscious rats. PMID:24752669

  16. Polyphenolic Antioxidants and Neuronal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ataie, Amin; Shadifar, Mohammad; Ataee, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages, modulate intracellular signaling and ultimately leads to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. To review antioxidants preventive effects on oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases we accumulated data from international medical journals and academic informations’ sites. According to many studies, antioxidants could reduce toxic neuronal damages and many studies confirmed the efficacy of polyphenol antioxidants in fruits and vegetables to reduce neuronal death and to diminish oxidative stress. This systematic review showed the antioxidant activities of phytochemicals which play as natural neuroprotectives with low adverse effects against some neurodegenerative diseases as Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases. PMID:27303602

  17. Polyphenolic Antioxidants and Neuronal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ataie, Amin; Shadifar, Mohammad; Ataee, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages, modulate intracellular signaling and ultimately leads to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. To review antioxidants preventive effects on oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases we accumulated data from international medical journals and academic informations' sites. According to many studies, antioxidants could reduce toxic neuronal damages and many studies confirmed the efficacy of polyphenol antioxidants in fruits and vegetables to reduce neuronal death and to diminish oxidative stress. This systematic review showed the antioxidant activities of phytochemicals which play as natural neuroprotectives with low adverse effects against some neurodegenerative diseases as Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases. PMID:27303602

  18. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Neonatal death ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Complications & Loss ...

  19. Neuronal polarization.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tetsuya; Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-06-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with structurally and functionally distinct processes called axons and dendrites. This polarization underlies the directional flow of information in the central nervous system, so the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarization is crucial for correct development and function. Great progress in our understanding of how neurons establish their polarity has been made through the use of cultured hippocampal neurons, while recent technological advances have enabled in vivo analysis of axon specification and elongation. This short review and accompanying poster highlight recent advances in this fascinating field, with an emphasis on the signaling mechanisms underlying axon and dendrite specification in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Neuronal uptake of serum albumin is associated with neuron damage during the development of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zanhua; Liu, Jinjie; Wang, Suping; Liu, Sibo; Zhao, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that brain blood barrier dysfunction following the onset of seizures may lead to serum albumin extravasation into the brain. However, the effect of albumin extravasation on the development of epilepsy is yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have predominantly focused on the effect of albumin absorption by astrocytes; however, the present study investigated the effects of neuronal uptake of albumin in vitro and in kainic acid-induced Sprague-Dawley rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, electroencephalogram recordings were conducted to record seizure onset, Nissl and Evans blue staining were used to detect neuronal damage and albumin extravasation, respectively, and double immunofluorescence was used to explore neuronal absorption of albumin. Cell counting was also conducted in vitro to determine whether albumin contributes to neuronal death. The results of the present study indicated that extravasated serum albumin was absorbed by neurons, and the neurons that had absorbed albumin died and were dissolved 28 days after seizure onset in vivo. Furthermore, significant neuronal death was detected after albumin absorption in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggested that albumin may be absorbed by neurons following the onset of seizures. Furthermore, the results indicated that neuronal albumin uptake may be associated with neuronal damage and death in epileptic seizures. Therefore, attenuating albumin extravasation following epileptic seizures may reduce brain damage and slow the development of epilepsy. PMID:27446263

  1. Primary Culture of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gaven, Florence; Marin, Philippe; Claeysen, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons represent less than 1% of the total number of neurons in the brain. This low amount of neurons regulates important brain functions such as motor control, motivation, and working memory. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). This progressive neuronal loss is unequivocally associated with the motors symptoms of the pathology (bradykinesia, resting tremor, and muscular rigidity). The main agent responsible of dopaminergic neuron degeneration is still unknown. However, these neurons appear to be extremely vulnerable in diverse conditions. Primary cultures constitute one of the most relevant models to investigate properties and characteristics of dopaminergic neurons. These cultures can be submitted to various stress agents that mimic PD pathology and to neuroprotective compounds in order to stop or slow down neuronal degeneration. The numerous transgenic mouse models of PD that have been generated during the last decade further increased the interest of researchers for dopaminergic neuron cultures. Here, the video protocol focuses on the delicate dissection of embryonic mouse brains. Precise excision of ventral mesencephalon is crucial to obtain neuronal cultures sufficiently rich in dopaminergic cells to allow subsequent studies. This protocol can be realized with embryonic transgenic mice and is suitable for immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, second messenger quantification, or neuronal death/survival assessment. PMID:25226064

  2. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  3. Neuronal gap junction coupling as the primary determinant of the extent of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), coupling of neurons by gap junctions (electrical synapses) increases during early postnatal development, then decreases, but increases in the mature CNS following neuronal injury, such as ischemia, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. Glutamate-dependent neuronal death also occurs in the CNS during development and neuronal injury, i.e., at the time when neuronal gap junction coupling is increased. Here, we review our recent studies on regulation of neuronal gap junction coupling by glutamate in developing and injured neurons and on the role of gap junctions in neuronal cell death. A modified model of the mechanisms of glutamate-dependent neuronal death is discussed, which includes neuronal gap junction coupling as a critical part of these mechanisms. PMID:24178243

  4. Calcium, iron and neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2007-01-01

    Calcium and iron play dual roles in neuronal function: they are both essential but when present in excess they cause neuronal damage and may even induce neuronal death. Calcium signals are required for synaptic plasticity, a neuronal process that entails gene expression and which is presumably the cellular counterpart of cognitive brain functions such as learning and memory. Neuronal activity generates cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium signals that in turn stimulate pathways that promote the transcription of genes known to participate in synaptic plasticity. In addition, evidence discussed in this article shows that iron deficiency causes learning and memory impairments that persist following iron repletion, indicating that iron is necessary for normal development of cognitive functions. Recent results from our group indicate that iron is required for long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons and that iron stimulates ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release through ROS produced via the Fenton reaction leading to stimulation of the ERK signaling pathway. These combined results support a coordinated action between iron and calcium in synaptic plasticity and raise the possibility that elevated iron levels may contribute to neuronal degeneration through excessive intracellular calcium increase caused by iron-induced oxidative stress. PMID:17505966

  5. Invariant death

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes. PMID:27785361

  6. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  7. [Mirror neurons].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  8. Acerogenin A from Acer nikoense Maxim Prevents Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Cell Death through Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Woo, Je-Tae; Kim, Youn-Chul; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative cell damage contributes to neuronal degeneration in many central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and ischemia. Inducible heme oxygenase (HO)-1 acts against oxidants that are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. The stem bark of Acer nikoense Maxim (Aceraceae) is indigenous to Japan; it has been used in folk medicine as a treatment of hepatic disorders and eye diseases. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Japanese folk medicine A. nikoense, showed neuroprotective effects and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by inducing the expression of HO-1 in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Furthermore, acerogenin A caused the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that acerogenin A effectively prevents glutamate-induced oxidative damage, and HO-1 induction via PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 pathways appears to play a key role in the protection of HT22 cells. Therefore, this study implies that the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway represents a biological target and that acerogenin A might be a candidate for the prevention of neurodegeneration.

  9. Death receptor 5 and neuroproliferation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanli; Li, Yongqiang; Zang, Jianfeng; Huang, Hongen; Deng, Jiexin; Cui, Zhanjun; Yu, Dongming; Deng, Jinbo

    2012-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Apo2 ligand is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain-containing transmembrane receptors, death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4, DR5). However, DR5 is also expressed in the developing CNS where it appears to play a role unrelated to apoptosis, and instead may be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. We report on the distribution of DR5 expression in mouse hippocampus, cerebellum, and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of olfactory bulb from embryonic (E) day 16 (E16) to postnatal (P) day (P180). At E16, DR5-positive cells were distributed widely in embryonic hippocampus with strong immunostaining in the developing dentate gyrus. In newborn hippocampus, DR5-positive cells were predominantly located in proliferative zones, such as dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, and RMS. After postnatal day 7 (P7), the number of DR5-positive cells decreased, and cells with intense fluorescence were primarily restricted to the subgranular layer (SGL), although the granular cell layer showed weak fluorescence. After P30, only few DR5-positive cells were found in SGL, and mature granule cells were negative for DR5 expression. To address whether DR5 expression is a restricted to progenitor cells and newborn neurons, we performed 5-bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. We report that proliferative cells in the SGL selectively express DR5, with lower levels of expression in cells positive for doublecortin, a marker of newborn neurons. In addition, the stem cells in intestine, cerebellum, and RMS were also demonstrated to be DR5-positive. In the meantime, in cerebellum, DR5-positive cells were also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker of proliferative Bergmann cells. We conclude that DR5 is selectively expressed by neuroprogenitor cells and newborn neurons, suggesting that the DR5 death receptor is likely to play a key role in neuroproliferation

  10. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...

  11. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  12. Death Education and Death Fear Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Louise

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the possibility of reducing the fear of death in early adolescents through a 12-lesson unit designed to assist the student to achieve an attitude of integration toward life and death. (NQ)

  13. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Nina; Corti, Olga; Sacchetti, Paola; Ardilla-Osorio, Hector; Sehat, Bita; Brice, Alexis; Arenas, Ernest

    2009-10-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra but the molecular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process remain elusive. Several reports suggest that cell cycle deregulation in post-mitotic neurons could lead to neuronal cell death. We now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial PD, regulates {beta}-catenin protein levels in vivo. Stabilization of {beta}-catenin in differentiated primary ventral midbrain neurons results in increased levels of cyclin E and proliferation, followed by increased levels of cleaved PARP and loss of DA neurons. Wnt3a signaling also causes death of post-mitotic DA neurons in parkin null animals, suggesting that both increased stabilization and decreased degradation of {beta}-catenin results in DA cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and {beta}-catenin-induced cell death.

  14. Neuron-derived IgG protects neurons from complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Li, Bingjie; McNutt, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Passive immunity of the nervous system has traditionally been thought to be predominantly due to the blood-brain barrier. This concept must now be revisited based on the existence of neuron-derived IgG. The conventional concept is that IgG is produced solely by mature B lymphocytes, but it has now been found to be synthesized by murine and human neurons. However, the function of this endogenous IgG is poorly understood. In this study, we confirm IgG production by rat cortical neurons at the protein and mRNA levels, with 69.0 ± 5.8% of cortical neurons IgG-positive. Injury to primary-culture neurons was induced by complement leading to increases in IgG production. Blockage of neuron-derived IgG resulted in more neuronal death and early apoptosis in the presence of complement. In addition, FcγRI was found in microglia and astrocytes. Expression of FcγR I in microglia was increased by exposure to neuron-derived IgG. Release of NO from microglia triggered by complement was attenuated by neuron-derived IgG, and this attenuation could be reversed by IgG neutralization. These data demonstrate that neuron-derived IgG is protective of neurons against injury induced by complement and microglial activation. IgG appears to play an important role in maintaining the stability of the nervous system.

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  16. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  17. Role of PPARγ in the Differentiation and Function of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Utreras, Elias; Cabezas-Opazo, Fabián A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal processes (neurites and axons) have an important role in brain cells communication and, generally, they are damaged in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence has showed that the activation of PPARγ pathway promoted neuronal differentiation and axon polarity. In addition, activation of PPARγ using thiazolidinediones (TZDs) prevented neurodegeneration by reducing neuronal death, improving mitochondrial function, and decreasing neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain. In this review, we will discuss important evidence that supports a possible role of PPARγ in neuronal development, improvement of neuronal health, and pain signaling. Therefore, activation of PPARγ is a potential target with therapeutic applications against neurodegenerative disorders, brain injury, and pain regulation. PMID:25246934

  18. Multidisciplinary Interventions in Motor Neuron Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, U. E.; Philip-Ephraim, E. E.; Oparah, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neuron disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper motor neuron in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. Death occurs 2–4 years after the onset of the disease. A complex interplay of cellular processes such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and impaired axonal transport are proposed pathogenetic processes underlying neuronal cell loss. Currently evidence exists for the use of riluzole as a disease modifying drug; multidisciplinary team care approach to patient management; noninvasive ventilation for respiratory management; botulinum toxin B for sialorrhoea treatment; palliative care throughout the course of the disease; and Modafinil use for fatigue treatment. Further research is needed in management of dysphagia, bronchial secretion, pseudobulbar affect, spasticity, cramps, insomnia, cognitive impairment, and communication in motor neuron disease. PMID:26317009

  19. Interaction of 2-APB, dantrolene, and TDMT with IP3R and RyR modulates ER stress-induced programmed cell death I and II in neuron-like PC12 cells: an experimental and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Niloufar; Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Kiaei, Mahmoud; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Ca(2+) is an essential second messenger, playing a fundamental role in maintaining cell viability and neuronal activity. Two specific endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play an important role in Ca(2+) regulation. In the present study, we provided a 3D structure of RyR and IP3R by homology modeling, and we predicted their interactions with a known neuroprotective compound, 3-thiomethyl-5,6-(dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazine (TDMT), as well as two inhibitors, dantrolene and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Interestingly, we found that dantrolene and 2-APB can bind to the IP3-binding domain of IP3R and RyR, while TDMT may directly block both channels by interacting with the putative resident domains in the pore. Cell culture experiments showed that these compounds could protect PC12 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis and activate autophagic pathways. Collectively, our computational (in silico) and cell culture studies suggest that RyR and IP3R are novel and promising targets to be used against neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and Nitrotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Shih; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. PMID:25167134

  1. Children and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.

    Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child…

  2. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Tara L; Kong, Lingling; Wang, Xueyong; Osborne, Melissa A; Crowder, Melissa E; Van Meerbeke, James P; Xu, Xixi; Davis, Crystal; Wooley, Joe; Goldhamer, David J; Lutz, Cathleen M; Rich, Mark M; Sumner, Charlotte J

    2012-06-20

    The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic dysfunction is due to SMN deficiency in motor neurons, muscle, or both, we generated three lines of conditional SMA mice with tissue-specific increases in SMN expression. All three lines of mice showed increased survival, weights, and improved motor behavior. While increased SMN expression in motor neurons prevented synaptic dysfunction at the NMJ and restored motor neuron somal synapses, increased SMN expression in muscle did not affect synaptic function although it did improve myofiber size. Together these data indicate that both peripheral and central synaptic integrity are dependent on motor neurons in SMA, but SMN may have variable roles in the maintenance of these different synapses. At the NMJ, it functions at the presynaptic terminal in a cell-autonomous fashion, but may be necessary for retrograde trophic signaling to presynaptic inputs onto motor neurons. Importantly, SMN also appears to function in muscle growth and/or maintenance independent of motor neurons. Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power.

  3. Nineteenth century research on cell death.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P G H; Clarke, S

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews research on cell death in the 19th C. The first report of cell death was by Vogt in 1842, which was remarkably soon after the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann between 1838 and 1842. Initial studies on cell death, including that of Vogt, focused on its occurrence in metamorphosis (Vogt, 1842; Prévost and Lebert, 1844; Weismann, 1863-1866) or in blatant pathology (Virchow, 1858), but as histological techniques improved it was found to be involved in more subtle roles in numerous situations including endochondral ossification (Stieda, 1872), ovarian follicle atresia (Flemming, 1885), cell turnover (Nissen, 1886), the wholesale loss of a population of sensory neurons in fish (Beard, 1889), and the naturally occurring histogenetic death of myocytes (Felix, 1889) and neurons (Collin, 1906). The current categorization of cell death into about three main morphological types has 19th century roots in that apoptosis was well described by Flemming (1885), who called it chromatolysis, and various authors including Noetzel (1895) proposed a threefold classification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Apoptosis: Four Decades Later". PMID:23069997

  4. Necrostatin-1 protection of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-ru; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Sheng-kui; Yang, Long; Yin, Jia-le; Cao, Jun-ping; Cheng, Yan-bo

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is characterized by programmed necrotic cell death and autophagic activation and might be involved in the death process of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that necrostatin-1 could block necroptosis and give protection to dopaminergic neurons. There is likely to be crosstalk between necroptosis and other cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pretreated with necroststin-1 1 hour before exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine. We examined cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression patterns of apoptotic and necroptotic death signaling proteins. The results showed that the autophagy/lysosomal pathway is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death process of PC12 cells. Mitochondrial disability induced overactive autophagy, increased cathepsin B expression, and diminished Bcl-2 expression. Necrostatin-1 within a certain concentration range (5–30 μM) elevated the viability of PC12 cells, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited excessive autophagy, reduced the expression of LC3-II and cathepsin B, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These findings suggest that necrostatin-1 exerted a protective effect against injury on dopaminergic neurons. Necrostatin-1 interacts with the apoptosis signaling pathway during this process. This pathway could be a new neuroprotective and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26330837

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Regulates Neuronal Circuit Development and Excitability.

    PubMed

    Murase, Sachiko; Lantz, Crystal L; Kim, Eunyoung; Gupta, Nitin; Higgins, Richard; Stopfer, Mark; Hoffman, Dax A; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-07-01

    In early postnatal development, naturally occurring cell death, dendritic outgrowth, and synaptogenesis sculpt neuronal ensembles into functional neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of the extracellular proteinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) affects each of these processes, resulting in maladapted neuronal circuitry. MMP-9 deletion increases the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons but decreases dendritic length and complexity. Parallel changes in neuronal morphology are observed in primary visual cortex and persist into adulthood. Individual CA1 neurons in MMP-9(-/-) mice have enhanced input resistance and a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Additionally, deletion of MMP-9 significantly increases spontaneous neuronal activity in awake MMP-9(-/-) mice and enhances response to acute challenge by the excitotoxin kainate. Our data document a novel role for MMP-9-dependent proteolysis: the regulation of several aspects of circuit maturation to constrain excitability throughout life.

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 regulates neuronal circuit development and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Sachiko; Lantz, Crystal; Kim, Eunyoung; Gupta, Nitin; Higgins, Richard; Stopfer, Mark; Hoffman, Dax A.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    In early postnatal development, naturally occurring cell death, dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis sculpt neuronal ensembles into functional neuronal circuits. Here we demonstrate that deletion of the extracellular proteinase MMP-9 affects each of these processes, resulting in maladapted neuronal circuitry. MMP-9 deletion increases the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons, but decreases dendritic length and complexity while dendritic spine density is unchanged. Parallel changes in neuronal morphology are observed in primary visual cortex, and persist into adulthood. Individual CA1 neurons in MMP-9−/− mice have enhanced input resistance and a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Additionally, deletion of MMP-9 significant increases spontaneous neuronal activity in awake MMP-9−/− mice and enhances response to acute challenge by the excitotoxin kainate. Thus MMP-9-dependent proteolysis regulates several aspects of circuit maturation to constrain excitability throughout life. PMID:26093382

  7. Neurotrophin signalling pathways regulating neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Kaplan, D R

    2001-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring neuronal death in mammals is regulated by the interplay between receptor-mediated prosurvival and proapoptotic signals. The neurotrophins, a family of growth factors best known for their positive effects on neuronal biology, have now been shown to mediate both positive and negative survival signals, by signalling through the Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptors, respectively. The mechanisms whereby these two neurotrophin receptors interact to determine neuronal survival have been difficult to decipher, largely because both can signal independently or coincidentally, depending upon the cell or developmental context. Nonetheless, the past several years have seen significant advances in our understanding of this receptor signalling system. In this review, we focus on the proapoptotic actions of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and on the interplay between Trk and p75NTR that determines neuronal survival.

  8. Neurotrophin signalling pathways regulating neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Kaplan, D R

    2001-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring neuronal death in mammals is regulated by the interplay between receptor-mediated prosurvival and proapoptotic signals. The neurotrophins, a family of growth factors best known for their positive effects on neuronal biology, have now been shown to mediate both positive and negative survival signals, by signalling through the Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptors, respectively. The mechanisms whereby these two neurotrophin receptors interact to determine neuronal survival have been difficult to decipher, largely because both can signal independently or coincidentally, depending upon the cell or developmental context. Nonetheless, the past several years have seen significant advances in our understanding of this receptor signalling system. In this review, we focus on the proapoptotic actions of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and on the interplay between Trk and p75NTR that determines neuronal survival. PMID:11529497

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  10. [Neuronal network].

    PubMed

    Langmeier, M; Maresová, D

    2005-01-01

    Function of the central nervous system is based on mutual relations among the nerve cells. Description of nerve cells and their processes, including their contacts was enabled by improvement of optical features of the microscope and by the development of impregnation techniques. It is associated with the name of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), J. Ev. Purkyne (1787-1869), Camillo Golgi (1843-1926), and Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934). Principal units of the neuronal network are the synapses. The term synapse was introduced into neurophysiology by Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952). Majority of the interactions between nerve cells is mediated by neurotransmitters acting at the receptors of the postsynaptic membrane or at the autoreceptors of the presynaptic part of the synapse. Attachment of the vesicles to the presynaptic membrane and the release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft depend on the intracellular calcium concentration and on the presence of several proteins in the presynaptic element.

  11. Suicide on death row.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).

  12. No life without death.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Peter H; Kamiński, Marcin; Kiessling, Michael; Gülow, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis-programed cell death-is the most common form of death in the body. Once apoptosis is induced, proper execution of the cell death program requires the coordinated activation and execution of multiple molecular processes. Here, we describe the pathways and the basic components of the death-inducing machinery. Since apoptosis is a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, an imbalance of apoptosis results in severe diseases like cancer, autoimmunity, and AIDS.

  13. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  14. Ablation of the Ferroptosis Inhibitor Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Neurons Results in Rapid Motor Neuron Degeneration and Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuji; Hambright, William Sealy; Na, Ren; Ran, Qitao

    2015-11-20

    Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), an antioxidant defense enzyme active in repairing oxidative damage to lipids, is a key inhibitor of ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of cell death involving lipid reactive oxygen species. Here we show that GPX4 is essential for motor neuron health and survival in vivo. Conditional ablation of Gpx4 in neurons of adult mice resulted in rapid onset and progression of paralysis and death. Pathological inspection revealed that the paralyzed mice had a dramatic degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord but had no overt neuron degeneration in the cerebral cortex. Consistent with the role of GPX4 as a ferroptosis inhibitor, spinal motor neuron degeneration induced by Gpx4 ablation exhibited features of ferroptosis, including no caspase-3 activation, no TUNEL staining, activation of ERKs, and elevated spinal inflammation. Supplementation with vitamin E, another inhibitor of ferroptosis, delayed the onset of paralysis and death induced by Gpx4 ablation. Also, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction appeared to be involved in ferroptosis of motor neurons induced by Gpx4 ablation. Taken together, the dramatic motor neuron degeneration and paralysis induced by Gpx4 ablation suggest that ferroptosis inhibition by GPX4 is essential for motor neuron health and survival in vivo.

  15. Ablation of the Ferroptosis Inhibitor Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Neurons Results in Rapid Motor Neuron Degeneration and Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuji; Hambright, William Sealy; Na, Ren; Ran, Qitao

    2015-11-20

    Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), an antioxidant defense enzyme active in repairing oxidative damage to lipids, is a key inhibitor of ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of cell death involving lipid reactive oxygen species. Here we show that GPX4 is essential for motor neuron health and survival in vivo. Conditional ablation of Gpx4 in neurons of adult mice resulted in rapid onset and progression of paralysis and death. Pathological inspection revealed that the paralyzed mice had a dramatic degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord but had no overt neuron degeneration in the cerebral cortex. Consistent with the role of GPX4 as a ferroptosis inhibitor, spinal motor neuron degeneration induced by Gpx4 ablation exhibited features of ferroptosis, including no caspase-3 activation, no TUNEL staining, activation of ERKs, and elevated spinal inflammation. Supplementation with vitamin E, another inhibitor of ferroptosis, delayed the onset of paralysis and death induced by Gpx4 ablation. Also, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction appeared to be involved in ferroptosis of motor neurons induced by Gpx4 ablation. Taken together, the dramatic motor neuron degeneration and paralysis induced by Gpx4 ablation suggest that ferroptosis inhibition by GPX4 is essential for motor neuron health and survival in vivo. PMID:26400084

  16. Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Andrew J; Ebert, Allison D

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to paralysis and early death due to reduced SMN protein. It is unclear why there is such a profound motor neuron loss, but recent evidence from fly and mouse studies indicate that cells comprising the whole sensory-motor circuit may contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells derived from SMA patients to test whether sensory neurons directly contribute to motor neuron loss. We generated sensory neurons from SMA induced pluripotent stem cells and found no difference in neuron generation or survival, although there was a reduced calcium response to depolarizing stimuli. Using co-culture of SMA induced pluripotent stem cell derived sensory neurons with control induced pluripotent stem cell derived motor neurons, we found no significant reduction in motor neuron number or glutamate transporter boutons on motor neuron cell bodies or neurites. We conclude that SMA sensory neurons do not overtly contribute to motor neuron loss in this human stem cell system.

  17. Mitochondrial and Cell Death Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by prominent age-related neurodegeneration in selectively vulnerable neural systems. Some forms of AD, PD, and ALS are inherited, and genes causing these diseases have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the neuronal cell death are unresolved. Morphological, biochemical, genetic, as well as cell and animal model studies reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and overlying genetic variations, triggering neurodegeneration according to a cell death matrix theory. In AD, alterations in enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial binding of Aβ and amyloid precursor protein have been reported. In PD, mutations in putative mitochondrial proteins have been identified and mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in neurons in the substantia nigra. In ALS, changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial cell death proteins. Transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This review summarizes how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to neuronal death in AD, PD, and ALS and could serve as a target for drug therapy. PMID:21258649

  18. Rapid Mechanically Controlled Rewiring of Neuronal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Magdesian, Margaret H.; Lopez-Ayon, G. Monserratt; Mori, Megumi; Boudreau, Dominic; Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Sanz, Ricardo; Miyahara, Yoichi; Barrett, Christopher J.; Fournier, Alyson E.; De Koninck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    CNS injury may lead to permanent functional deficits because it is still not possible to regenerate axons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Using rat neurons, microtools, and nanotools, we show that new, functional neurites can be created and precisely positioned to directly (re)wire neuronal networks. We show that an adhesive contact made onto an axon or dendrite can be pulled to initiate a new neurite that can be mechanically guided to form new synapses at up to 0.8 mm distance in <1 h. Our findings challenge current understanding of the limits of neuronal growth and have direct implications for the development of new therapies and surgical techniques to achieve functional regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain and spinal cord injury may lead to permanent disability and death because it is still not possible to regenerate neurons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Using microtools and nanotools we have developed a new method to rapidly initiate, elongate, and precisely connect new functional neuronal circuits over long distances. The extension rates achieved are ≥60 times faster than previously reported. Our findings have direct implications for the development of new therapies and surgical techniques to achieve functional regeneration after trauma and in neurodegenerative diseases. It also opens the door for the direct wiring of robust brain–machine interfaces as well as for investigations of fundamental aspects of neuronal signal processing and neuronal function. PMID:26791225

  19. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

  20. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R

    2012-12-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors-fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

  1. Human prion protein-induced autophagy flux governs neuron cell damage in primary neuron cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Ju-Hee; Nazim, Uddin MD; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Eo, Seong-Kug; Lee, John-hwa; Park, Sang-Youel

    2016-01-01

    An unusual molecular structure of the prion protein, PrPsc is found only in mammals with transmissible prion diseases. Prion protein stands for either the infectious pathogen itself or a main component of it. Recent studies suggest that autophagy is one of the major functions that keep cells alive and has a protective effect against the neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated that the effect of human prion protein on autophagy-lysosomal system of primary neuronal cells. The treatment of human prion protein induced primary neuron cell death and decreased both LC3-II and p62 protein amount indicating autophagy flux activation. Electron microscope pictures confirmed the autophagic flux activation in neuron cells treated with prion protein. Inhibition of autophagy flux using pharmacological and genetic tools prevented neuron cell death induced by human prion protein. Autophagy flux induced by prion protein is more activated in prpc expressing cells than in prpc silencing cells. These data demonstrated that prion protein-induced autophagy flux is involved in neuron cell death in prion disease and suggest that autophagy flux might play a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases including prion disease. PMID:27102156

  2. Acetaminophen Induces Apoptosis in Rat Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, Inmaculada; Santos, Pablo; Blanco, Almudena; Muñoz-Fernández, Maríangeles; Ceña, Valentín

    2010-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (AAP) is widely prescribed for treatment of mild pain and fever in western countries. It is generally considered a safe drug and the most frequently reported adverse effect associated with acetaminophen is hepatotoxicity, which generally occurs after acute overdose. During AAP overdose, encephalopathy might develop and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Our hypothesis is that AAP causes direct neuronal toxicity contributing to the general AAP toxicity syndrome. Methodology/Principal Findings We report that AAP causes direct toxicity on rat cortical neurons both in vitro and in vivo as measured by LDH release. We have found that AAP causes concentration-dependent neuronal death in vitro at concentrations (1 and 2 mM) that are reached in human plasma during AAP overdose, and that are also reached in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats for 3 hours following i.p injection of AAP doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg) that are below those required to induce acute hepatic failure in rats. AAP also increases both neuronal cytochrome P450 isoform CYP2E1 enzymatic activity and protein levels as determined by Western blot, leading to neuronal death through mitochondrial–mediated mechanisms that involve cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation. In addition, in vivo experiments show that i.p. AAP (250 and 500 mg/Kg) injection induces neuronal death in the rat cortex as measured by TUNEL, validating the in vitro data. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here establish, for the first time, a direct neurotoxic action by AAP both in vivo and in vitro in rats at doses below those required to produce hepatotoxicity and suggest that this neurotoxicity might be involved in the general toxic syndrome observed during patient APP overdose and, possibly, also when AAP doses in the upper dosing schedule are used, especially if other risk factors (moderate drinking, fasting, nutritional impairment) are present. PMID:21170329

  3. Neuroprotection by selective neuronal deletion of Atg7 in neonatal brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cuicui; Ginet, Vanessa; Sun, Yanyan; Koike, Masato; Zhou, Kai; Li, Tao; Li, Hongfu; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiaoyang; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Truttmann, Anita C.; Kroemer, Guido; Puyal, Julien; Blomgren, Klas; Zhu, Changlian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Perinatal asphyxia induces neuronal cell death and brain injury, and is often associated with irreversible neurological deficits in children. There is an urgent need to elucidate the neuronal death mechanisms occurring after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We here investigated the selective neuronal deletion of the Atg7 (autophagy related 7) gene on neuronal cell death and brain injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Neuronal deletion of Atg7 prevented HI-induced autophagy, resulted in 42% decrease of tissue loss compared to wild-type mice after the insult, and reduced cell death in multiple brain regions, including apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-dependent and -independent cell death. Moreover, we investigated the lentiform nucleus of human newborns who died after severe perinatal asphyxia and found increased neuronal autophagy after severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy compared to control uninjured brains, as indicated by the numbers of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3)-, LAMP1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1)-, and CTSD (cathepsin D)-positive cells. These findings reveal that selective neuronal deletion of Atg7 is strongly protective against neuronal death and overall brain injury occurring after HI and suggest that inhibition of HI-enhanced autophagy should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human newborns developing severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:26727396

  4. Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms and Approaches to Prevention of Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord. Hippocampal infection leads to long-term memory deficits in mice that survive, while motor neuron infection can lead to paralysis and death. Neuronal death is immune-mediated, rather than a direct consequence of virus infection, and associated with entry and differentiation of pathogenic T helper 17 cells in the nervous system. To modulate glutamate excitotoxicity, mice were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists or a glutamine antagonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 protected hippocampal neurons but not motor neurons, and mice still became paralyzed and died. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists GYKI-52466 and talampanel protected both hippocampal and motor neurons and prevented paralysis and death. Glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-l-norleucine protected hippocampal neurons and improved memory generation in mice surviving infection with an avirulent virus. Surprisingly, in all cases protection was associated with inhibition of the antiviral immune response, reduced entry of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, and delayed virus clearance, emphasizing the importance of treatment approaches that include prevention of immunopathologic damage. PMID:27114366

  5. Lifeguard/neuronal membrane protein 35 regulates Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in neurons via microdomain recruitment.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Miriam; Segura, Miguel F; Solé, Carme; Colino, Alicia; Comella, Joan X; Ceña, Valentín

    2007-10-01

    Fas ligand (FasL)-receptor system plays an essential role in regulating cell death in the developing nervous system, and it has been implicated in neurodegenerative and inflammatory responses in the CNS. Lifeguard (LFG) is a protein highly expressed in the hippocampus and the cerebellum, and it shows a particularly interesting regulation by being up-regulated during postnatal development and in the adult. We show that over-expression of LFG protected cortical neurons from FasL-induced apoptosis and decreased caspase-activation. Reduction of endogenous LFG expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cerebellar granular neurons to FasL-induced cell death and caspase-8 activation, and also increased sensitivity of cortical neurons. In differentiated cerebellar granular neurons, protection from FasL-induced cell death could be attributed exclusively to LFG and appears to be independent of FLICE inhibitor protein. Thus, LFG is an endogenous inhibitor of FasL-mediated neuronal death and it mediates the FasL resistance of CNS differentiated neurons. Finally, we also demonstrate that LFG is detected in lipid rafts microdomains, where it may interact with Fas receptor and regulate FasL-activated signaling pathways.

  6. Rodent CNS neuron development: Timing of cell birth and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Data obtained from a staged series of single paired injections of tritiated thymidine to pregnant Wistar rats or C57B16/j mice on selected embryonic days and several postnatal times are reported. All injected specimens were allowed to come to term, each litter culled to six pups and specimens were sacrificed on PN28, with fixation and embedding for paraffin and plastic embedding. The results are derived from serial paraffin sections of PN28 animals exposed to autoradiographic processing and plotted with respect to heavily labelled cell nuclei present in the selected brain stem nuclei and sensory ganglia. Counts from each time sample/structure are totalled and the percentage of cells in the total labelled population/structure represented by each injection time interval plotted.

  7. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  8. The Effects of Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  9. Differential sensitivity of immature and mature ventral mesencephalic neurons to rotenone induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Satish Bollimpelli, V; Kondapi, Anand K

    2015-12-25

    Rotenone induced neuronal toxicity in ventral mesencephalic (VM) dopaminergic (DA) neurons in culture is widely accepted as an important model for the investigation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about developmental stage dependent toxic effects of rotenone on VM neurons in vitro. The objective of present study is to investigate the effect of rotenone on developing VM neurons at immature versus mature stages. Primary VM neurons were cultured in the absence of glial cells. Exposure of VM neurons to rotenone for 2 days induced cell death in both immature and mature neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, but to a greater extent in mature neurons. While rotenone-treated mature VM neurons showed α-synuclein aggregation and sensitivity to DA neurons, immature VM neurons exhibited only DA neuronal sensitivity but not α-synuclein aggregation. In addition, on rotenone treatment, enhancement of caspase-3 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were higher in mature VM neurons than in immature neurons. These results suggest that even though both mature and immature VM neurons are sensitive to rotenone, their manifestations differ from each other, with only mature VM neurons exhibiting Parkinsonian conditions.

  10. Dynamics of strongly-coupled spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Bressloff, P C; Coombes, S

    2000-01-01

    We present a dynamical theory of integrate-and-fire neurons with strong synaptic coupling. We show how phase-locked states that are stable in the weak coupling regime can destabilize as the coupling is increased, leading to states characterized by spatiotemporal variations in the interspike intervals (ISIs). The dynamics is compared with that of a corresponding network of analog neurons in which the outputs of the neurons are taken to be mean firing rates. A fundamental result is that for slow interactions, there is good agreement between the two models (on an appropriately defined timescale). Various examples of desynchronization in the strong coupling regime are presented. First, a globally coupled network of identical neurons with strong inhibitory coupling is shown to exhibit oscillator death in which some of the neurons suppress the activity of others. However, the stability of the synchronous state persists for very large networks and fast synapses. Second, an asymmetric network with a mixture of excitation and inhibition is shown to exhibit periodic bursting patterns. Finally, a one-dimensional network of neurons with long-range interactions is shown to desynchronize to a state with a spatially periodic pattern of mean firing rates across the network. This is modulated by deterministic fluctuations of the instantaneous firing rate whose size is an increasing function of the speed of synaptic response. PMID:10636934

  11. Role of protein kinase C in the response of an isolated neuron to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, D. E.; Kolosov, M. S.; Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    2002-07-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in response of neuronal and glial cells to photosensitization with low concentration of sulphonated aluminium phthalocianine Photosens was investigated. Changes in neuron firing and in the structure of chromatin morphology of neuron and glial nuclei were studied using PKC activator 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13- acetate (TPA) or PKC inhibitors staurosporine, hypercinin or cheleythrine. Protein kinase C is shown to be involved in the neuronal and glial cell responses. Its activation by TPA decreased neuron lifetime, caused nucleus swelling characteristic for necrosis, strongly suppressed apoptotic death of glial cells, and induced gliosis. These effects were probably associated with PKC-induced Ca2+ entry into cytosol. The possible cell death mechanism in this case was nectosis. Inhibition of PK, oppositely, increased neuron lifetime and caused a moderate nucleus swelling. Cheleythrine exerted pro-apoptotic effect on the glial cells surrounding the neuron, whereas other PKC inhibitors, staurosporine and hypercini, suppressed apoptosis.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid induces necrosis and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Holtsberg, F W; Steiner, M R; Keller, J N; Mark, R J; Mattson, M P; Steiner, S M

    1998-01-01

    A diverse body of evidence indicates a role for the lipid biomediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the CNS. This study identifies and characterizes the induction of neuronal death by LPA. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons from embryonic rat brains with 50 microM LPA resulted in neuronal necrosis, as determined morphologically and by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. A concentration of LPA as low as 10 microM led to the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In contrast, treatment of neurons with 0.1 or 1.0 microM LPA resulted in apoptosis, as determined by chromatin condensation. In addition, neuronal death induced by 1 microM LPA was characterized as apoptotic on the basis of terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, externalization of phosphatidylserine, and protection against chromatin condensation, TUNEL staining, and phosphatidylserine externalization by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases, i.e., members of the interleukin-1beta converting enzyme family. Studies with antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors did not indicate a significant role for these receptors in apoptosis induced by 1 microM LPA. LPA (1 microM) also induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, pretreatment of neurons with cyclosporin A protected against the LPA-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, LPA, at pathophysiological levels, can induce neuronal apoptosis and could thereby participate in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9422348

  13. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  14. Conflicting Thoughts about Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

  15. Death Acceptance through Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

  16. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-02-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct.

  17. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  18. Death Writ Large

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  19. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  20. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  1. Reflections on Death Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskey, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The author comments on the need to discuss death openly in the classroom, noting that engaging students with the idea of coming to grips with the fact of their own death can prepare them for living, working, and loving more fully. (SH)

  2. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  3. The Sociology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    When we start to look at the issues associated with dying and death, we must do so in terms of the broadest parameters imaginable. Presented at the Conference on Death and Dying: Education, Counseling, and Care, December 1-3, 1976, Orlando, Florida. (Author)

  4. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  5. Natural death while driving.

    PubMed

    Oström, M; Eriksson, A

    1987-07-01

    Of sudden natural deaths while driving, 126 occurred during 1980 through 1985 in the northern half of Sweden. The mean age of the 69 car driver victims was 59 years, considerably higher than that of traumatic car deaths, and all but 2 were males. The mean age of 57 operators of other vehicles was 66 years, and of these, 6 were women. Seven car drivers were stricken during commercial employment. Most accidents occurred during daytime and the distribution of the weekdays was fairly even. Ischemic heart disease accounted for 112 deaths, and other cardiovascular diseases for an additional 9 deaths. Only 1/5 of the victims experienced previous symptoms of disease. Out of at least 31 other persons at risk in the car deaths, only 2 passengers suffered minor injuries. The trauma in the deceased was in most cases minor in both car and other vehicle deaths. Property damage was also minimal. At least 1/3 of the drivers were able to stop the car before becoming unconscious. In none of the car cases was alcohol detected in the blood, while alcohol was identified in at least 2 of the other vehicle victims. The findings here agree with previous studies that natural deaths at the wheel are fairly uncommon, and that the risk for other persons is not significant. The value of adequate postmortem examinations of drivers dying in traffic is stressed--natural deaths can otherwise be overlooked. PMID:3612079

  6. Death Obsession in Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

  7. Ability of retinal Müller glial cells to protect neurons against excitotoxicity in vitro depends upon maturation and neuron-glial interactions.

    PubMed

    Heidinger, V; Hicks, D; Sahel, J; Dreyfus, H

    1999-02-01

    Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory amino acid in the central nervous system. It has also been described as a potent toxin when present in high concentrations because excessive stimulation of its receptors leads to neuronal death. Glial influence on neuronal survival has already been shown in the central nervous system, but the mechanisms underlying glial neuroprotection are only partly known. When cells isolated from newborn rat retina were maintained in culture as enriched neuronal populations, 80% of the cells were destroyed by application of excitotoxic concentrations of glutamate. Massive neuronal death was also observed in newborn retinal cultures containing large numbers of glia, or when neurons were seeded onto feeder layers of purified cells prepared from immature (postnatal 8 day) rat retina. When newborn retinal neurons were seeded onto feeder layers of purified glial cells prepared from adult retinas, application of excitotoxic amino acids no longer led to neuronal death. Furthermore, neuronal death was not observed in mixed neuron/glial cultures prepared from adult retina. However, in all cases (newborn and adult) application of kainate led to amacrine cell-specific death. Activity of glutamine synthetase, a key glial enzyme involved in glutamate detoxification, was assayed in these cultures in the presence or absence of exogenous glutamate. Whereas pure glial cultures alone (from young or adult retina) showed low activity that was not stimulated by glutamate addition, mixed or co-cultured neurons and adult glia exhibited up to threefold higher levels of activity following glutamate treatment. These data indicate that two conditions must be satisfied to observe glial neuroprotection: maturation of glutamine synthetase expression, and neuron-glial signalling through glutamate-elicited responses. PMID:9932869

  8. Death in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M

    1990-01-01

    Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and death with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for death is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and death which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it. PMID:2287015

  9. Death in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    1990-12-01

    Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and death with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for death is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and death which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it.

  10. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Haltia, M; Somer, H; Palo, J; Johnson, W G

    1984-04-01

    A pair of female identical twins exhibited slurred speech, nystagmus, and oculogyral spasms starting at age 11. The patients then had episodic rage, extrapyramidal and lower motor neuron abnormalities, and grand mal seizures, but retained largely normal intelligence, until death at age 21. Severe loss of nigral and craniospinal motor neurons was noted postmortem. Round, eosinophilic, autofluorescent inclusion bodies, 3 to 10 microns in diameter, were observed in the nuclei of most nerve cell types of the central and peripheral nervous systems and retina. Ultrastructurally the inclusions appeared as masses of filaments without a limiting membrane, the constituent filaments having a diameter of 8.5 to 9.5 nm. Histochemical results suggested the presence of proteins with a high content of tryptophan. Four similar cases have been reported previously under various designations. We propose the name neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease for the disorder. PMID:6331275

  11. Effects of Death Education on Conscious and Unconscious Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adults (n=162) varying in extent of participation in didactic or experiential forms of death education versus those who had no such exposure to death and dying-related issues completed measures of conscious and unconscious death fears. Findings suggest that didactic death education was effective in altering death anxiety, although effects were…

  12. [Death experience. Antidote against fear to death].

    PubMed

    Fericgla, Josep M

    2003-12-01

    Fortunately, anthropology has brought to our modern society a higher interest for mankind's cultural dimension and the values which each people employ in order to make sense out of the changes which occur during our lives. It is this cultural dimension which permits men to develop our innate capacities and to become humans. However, in order to achieve this, we need experiences which are codified and interpreted by a values system which each individual has made his/her own. Some of these experiences take place inside cultural mores constructed expressly so that they are useful for one's lifestyle; these are known as rites. A rite, therefore, is an experience which leaves an impression, which implies social and biographical changes, which provides meaning to human beings' universal interests. Nonetheless, since rites usually are organized by diverse religions, it is convenient, as we enter the 21st Century, to speak about Experiences which Activate Structures as means to approach, to come to grasp with, some of the great causes of anxiety in humans: death and insanity. These Experiences which Activate Structures allow us to subjectively experiment, to conquer our fears and to be more conscious of our here and our now. Workshops on the Living Integration of One's Own Death are included in this context as an appropriate forum through which to approach death with knowledge and serenity, inducing changes in our own lifestyle as well and helping us to overcome situations of existential blockage.

  13. Unusual sudden death.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to usual sudden death seen in the course of coronary artery disease, individuals dying suddenly from other causes form a complex array of situations. In some the causes are readily identifiable. No simple pattern is available to identify the potential candidate, but on review of the many causes some moves by the physician may be helpful. For example, a more complete physical evaluation of young individuals participating in competitive athletics is in order. This is particularly true if the athlete reports an episode of unexplained syncope. This may well be the warning of a propensity towards sudden death under physical and emotional stress. Knowledge of the specific problems in underwater swimming and diving, in high altitude exposure and in various circumstances such as certain weight reduction diets and industrial exposures may lead to control of some types of unusual sudden death. Clearly, more studies are needed to give answers in so called crib death. As the incidence of usual sudden death falls, these unusual forms of sudden death will represent a more important fraction of sudden death in general. PMID:6537674

  14. Unnatural sudden infant death

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged—no regular income, receiving income support—and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment.

 PMID:10325752

  15. Eaten to death

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Charles; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-autophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) delivers cytoplasmic material to the lysosome for degradation, and has been implicated in many cellular processes, including stress, infection, survival, and death. While the regulation and role that autophagy plays in stress, infection, and survival is apparent, the regulation of and role that autophagy has during cell death remains relatively unclear. In this review, we highlight what is known about the role that autophagy can play during physiological cell death, and discuss the implications of better understanding cellular destruction that involves autophagy. PMID:25323556

  16. [Brain death and thanatology].

    PubMed

    Zwierlein, E

    1993-09-01

    New technologies in medicine dramatically open a twilight-zone of ignorance between life and death. The argument shows that the present definition of brain death as the death of a human person is a convention with a specific philosophy behind. You will meet the problem with more accuracy when referring to an ethics of intransparence that allows an individual decision with respect to certain qualified conditions. Only from this starting-point the informed ex ante consent for an organ donation seems to become the only conclusive but at the same time justified decision.

  17. Death writ large.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain processes. Obstacles to developing a systematic macrothanatology are identified. The 9-11-01 terrorist attacks on America are discussed as an example of mass death with complex correlates and consequences. Other examples are taken from the realms of war, disease, disaster, and extinction.

  18. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  19. Death and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show ...

  20. Hitler's Death Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  1. Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

  2. Death and Wheatgrass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jon T.

    2005-01-01

    The death of his father prompts the author and university professor to reflect on the acts of grieving and teaching. He offers a tribute to his deceased father while commenting on the importance of teaching in his life.

  3. Engrailed Homeoprotein Protects Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rekaik, Hocine; Blaudin de Thé, François-Xavier; Fuchs, Julia; Massiani-Beaudoin, Olivia; Prochiantz, Alain; Joshi, Rajiv L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Engrailed homeoproteins are expressed in adult dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. In Engrailed1 heterozygous mice, these neurons start dying at 6 weeks, are more sensitive to oxidative stress, and progressively develop traits similar to those observed following an acute and strong oxidative stress inflected to wild-type neurons. These changes include DNA strand breaks and the modification (intensity and distribution) of several nuclear and nucleolar heterochromatin marks. Engrailed1 and Engrailed2 are biochemically equivalent transducing proteins previously used to antagonize dopaminergic neuron death in Engrailed1 heterozygous mice and in mouse models of Parkinson disease. Accordingly, we show that, following an acute oxidative stress, a single Engrailed2 injection restores all nuclear and nucleolar heterochromatin marks, decreases the number of DNA strand breaks, and protects dopaminergic neurons against apoptosis. PMID:26411690

  4. How does the genetic assassin select its neuronal target?

    PubMed

    Stevens, James C; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Mead, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Through many different routes of analysis, including human familial studies and animal models, we are identifying an increasing number of genes that are causative for human neurodegenerative disease and are now in a position for many such disorders to dissect the molecular pathology that gives rise to neuronal death. Yet a paradox remains: The majority of the genes identified cause neurodegeneration in specific neuronal subtypes, but the genes themselves are ubiquitously expressed. Furthermore, the different mutations in the same gene may cause quite different types of neurodegeneration. Something in our understanding of neurodegenerative disease is clearly missing, and we refer to this as the phenomenon of "neuronal targeting." Here we discuss possible explanations for neuronal targeting, why specific neuronal subtypes are vulnerable to specific mutations in ubiquitously expressed genes. PMID:21373885

  5. Autoerotic deaths: four cases.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C T; Cadden, G A; Margolius, K A

    1994-07-01

    We describe the circumstances and post mortem medical findings of 4 unusual fatalities where death occurred during autoerotic practice. Three cases occurred in young to middle-aged men--hanging, electrocution and inhalation of a zucchini. The manner of death in each was accidental. The fourth case was an elderly man who died of ischemic heart disease, apparently whilst masturbating with a vacuum cleaner and a hair dryer.

  6. Neuron adhesion and strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Aracely; Jian, Kuihuan; Ko, Gladys; Liang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the neuron/material adhesion is important for neuron stimulation and growth. The current challenges remain in the lack of precision of measuring techniques and understanding the behavior of neuron. Here, we report a fluid shear method to investigate adhesion at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface. In this study, the adhesion of 12-day-old chick embryo-retina neurons cultured on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips was measured via parallel disk rotational flow. The shear stress experienced by the cells increases with the disk radius. There is a critical point along the radius (Rc) where the stress experienced by the neurons equals their adhesion. The measured Rc can be used to calculate the neuron adhesion. Our results demonstrate that neurons adhered to the poly-D-lysine had a strain hardening effect. The adhesive shear stress of the neuron-material increased with applied shear (τa). When the τa reached or exceeded the value of 40 dyn/cm2, the adhesion remained constant at approximately 30 dyn/cm2. The present work allowed us not only to quantify the adhesive strength and force but also to evaluate the value of strain hardening at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface.

  7. Funerals against death

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of death, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive – the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation – and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of death. While the eulogy’s accuracy is important, even more so – at least for some – is its authenticity, namely that the speaker has personal knowledge of the deceased. Whereas Davies analyses the power of professionally delivered ritual words against death, our data reveals how admired is the courage exercised by non-professionals in speaking against death, however faltering their words. Further, the very presence of a congregation whose members have known the deceased in diverse ways embodies a configurational eulogy, which we term relationships against death. We thus argue that funerals symbolically conquer death not only through words delivered by ritual specialists, but also through those who knew the deceased congregating and speaking. PMID:27019605

  8. Autophagic cell death exists

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Peter G.H.; Puyal, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The term autophagic cell death (ACD) initially referred to cell death with greatly enhanced autophagy, but is increasingly used to imply a death-mediating role of autophagy, as shown by a protective effect of autophagy inhibition. In addition, many authors require that autophagic cell death must not involve apoptosis or necrosis. Adopting these new and restrictive criteria, and emphasizing their own failure to protect human osteosarcoma cells by autophagy inhibition, the authors of a recent Editor’s Corner article in this journal argued for the extreme rarity or nonexistence of autophagic cell death. We here maintain that, even with the more stringent recent criteria, autophagic cell death exists in several situations, some of which were ignored by the Editor’s Corner authors. We reject their additional criterion that the autophagy in ACD must be the agent of ultimate cell dismantlement. And we argue that rapidly dividing mammalian cells such as cancer cells are not the most likely situation for finding pure ACD. PMID:22652592

  9. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  10. Death obsession in Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Arja, Nahida S; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-04-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N = 601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha reliability was .92, denoting high internal consistency. Among women, it yielded 1 factor, (General Death Obsession), whereas among men it yielded 3 factors: Death Rumination, Death Dominance, and Death Idea Repetition. Palestinian men and women attained significantly lower DOS mean scores than participants from 4 Arab countries: Egypt, Kuwait, Syria, and Lebanon in 7 out of 8 comparisons. However, Palestinian women had significantly higher DOS mean score than their Spanish, American and British counterparts, whereas Palestinian men had significantly higher mean DOS score than Spanish peers. The low DOS scores of Palestinians, in proportion to other Arab samples, may reflect their adaptation to strife and violence.

  11. Neuropathologic findings in postmortem studies of sudden death in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Thorn, M

    1997-11-01

    Death in patients with epilepsy may occur suddenly and unexpectedly. When no anatomic or chemically demonstrable cause for such a death is found at postmortem examination, the death may remain unexplained. Previous studies of general autopsy features in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) have reported increased lung and liver weights, pulmonary edema, hepatic fatty change, and small increases in heart weights. Neuropathologic findings include cerebral edema, lighter brain weights compared with age-matched controls, and various other structural brain lesions in 34% to almost 50% of cases. In an ongoing United Kingdom study, brains from 25 cases of SUDEP have been examined. Macroscopic abnormalities were identified in 70% of cases and included contusions, old infarcts, hippocampal sclerosis, cortical dysgenesis, vascular malformation, oligodendroglioma, neurodegenerative brain disease, and microcephaly. Histopathologic findings include evidence of acute neocortical and brainstem hypoxic neuronal changes. Similar changes in hippocampal and basal ganglia neurones have also been observed. These changes indicate a cerebral event occurring at least 4-6 h before death and are at odds with a "sudden" death which, by definition, occurs within 1 h. Because many SUDEP cases are unwitnessed, the exact time sequence of events is often unknown. This study confirms the high incidence of structural brain lesions in SUDEP cases. PMID:19909322

  12. Neuronal replacement from endogenous precursors in the adult brain after stroke.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Andreas; Collin, Tove; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Zaal; Lindvall, Olle

    2002-09-01

    In the adult brain, new neurons are continuously generated in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, but it is unknown whether these neurons can replace those lost following damage or disease. Here we show that stroke, caused by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult rats, leads to a marked increase of cell proliferation in the subventricular zone. Stroke-generated new neurons, as well as neuroblasts probably already formed before the insult, migrate into the severely damaged area of the striatum, where they express markers of developing and mature, striatal medium-sized spiny neurons. Thus, stroke induces differentiation of new neurons into the phenotype of most of the neurons destroyed by the ischemic lesion. Here we show that the adult brain has the capacity for self-repair after insults causing extensive neuronal death. If the new neurons are functional and their formation can be stimulated, a novel therapeutic strategy might be developed for stroke in humans. PMID:12161747

  13. Inhibiting cholesterol degradation induces neuronal sclerosis and epileptic activity in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chali, Farah; Djelti, Fathia; Eugene, Emmanuel; Valderrama, Mario; Marquer, Catherine; Aubourg, Patrick; Duykaerts, Charles; Miles, Richard; Cartier, Nathalie; Navarro, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Elevations in neuronal cholesterol have been associated with several degenerative diseases. An enhanced excitability and synchronous firing in surviving neurons are among the sequels of neuronal death in these diseases and also in some epileptic syndromes. Here, we attempted to increase neuronal cholesterol levels, using a short hairpin RNA to suppress expression of the enzyme cytochrome P450 family 46, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 gene (CYP46A1). This protein hydroxylates cholesterol and so facilitates transmembrane extrusion. A short hairpin RNA CYP46A1construction coupled to the adeno-associated virus type 5 was injected focally and unilaterally into mouse hippocampus. It was selectively expressed first in neurons of the cornu ammonis (hippocampus) (CA)3a region. Cytoplasmic and membrane cholesterol increased, and the neuronal soma volume increased and then decreased before pyramidal cells died. As CA3a pyramidal cells died, interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) events occurred during exploration and non-rapid eye movement sleep. With time, neuronal death spread to involve pyramidal cells and interneurons of the CA1 region. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with a delayed local expression of phosphorylated tau. Astrocytes were activated throughout the hippocampus and microglial activation was specific to regions of neuronal death. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with distinct aberrant EEG activity. During exploratory behaviour and rapid eye movement sleep, EEG oscillations at 7-10 Hz (theta) could accelerate to 14-21 Hz (beta) waves. They were accompanied by low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations of peak power at ~300 Hz and a range of 250-350 Hz. Although episodes of EEG acceleration were not correlated with changes in exploratory behaviour, they were followed in some animals by structured seizure-like discharges. These data strengthen links between increased cholesterol, neuronal sclerosis and epileptic behaviour.

  14. Inhibiting cholesterol degradation induces neuronal sclerosis and epileptic activity in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chali, Farah; Djelti, Fathia; Eugene, Emmanuel; Valderrama, Mario; Marquer, Catherine; Aubourg, Patrick; Duykaerts, Charles; Miles, Richard; Cartier, Nathalie; Navarro, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Elevations in neuronal cholesterol have been associated with several degenerative diseases. An enhanced excitability and synchronous firing in surviving neurons are among the sequels of neuronal death in these diseases and also in some epileptic syndromes. Here, we attempted to increase neuronal cholesterol levels, using a short hairpin RNA to suppress expression of the enzyme cytochrome P450 family 46, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 gene (CYP46A1). This protein hydroxylates cholesterol and so facilitates transmembrane extrusion. A short hairpin RNA CYP46A1construction coupled to the adeno-associated virus type 5 was injected focally and unilaterally into mouse hippocampus. It was selectively expressed first in neurons of the cornu ammonis (hippocampus) (CA)3a region. Cytoplasmic and membrane cholesterol increased, and the neuronal soma volume increased and then decreased before pyramidal cells died. As CA3a pyramidal cells died, interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) events occurred during exploration and non-rapid eye movement sleep. With time, neuronal death spread to involve pyramidal cells and interneurons of the CA1 region. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with a delayed local expression of phosphorylated tau. Astrocytes were activated throughout the hippocampus and microglial activation was specific to regions of neuronal death. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with distinct aberrant EEG activity. During exploratory behaviour and rapid eye movement sleep, EEG oscillations at 7-10 Hz (theta) could accelerate to 14-21 Hz (beta) waves. They were accompanied by low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations of peak power at ~300 Hz and a range of 250-350 Hz. Although episodes of EEG acceleration were not correlated with changes in exploratory behaviour, they were followed in some animals by structured seizure-like discharges. These data strengthen links between increased cholesterol, neuronal sclerosis and epileptic behaviour. PMID:25847620

  15. Bcl-2 accelerates the neuronal differentiation: new evidence approaching to the biofunction of bcl-2 in the neuronal system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Tsutomi, Y

    1998-08-10

    The proto-oncogene product Bcl-2 is unique in that it inhibits apoptosis rather than promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, we encountered a new possible role of Bcl-2 in the neuronal differentiation. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been known as the model of neuronal differentiation by the stimulation of NGF. Bcl-2 transfected PC12 (MB2) cells showed the accelerated neuronal differentiation, as compared with control PC12 (V4) cells. In addition, chemotherapeutic agents Taxol which has been known as neurotoxic compound, induced the acute neuronal cell atrophy and suppressed neuronal differentiation. This neuronal cell atrophy and suppression of neuronal differentiation were not due to apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, Bcl-2 rescued PC12 cells from both neuronal cell atrophy and suppression of neuronal differentiation. Taxol suppressed polymerization between neurofilament light and heavy (NF-L and NF-H), and MB2 cell extract rescued it. We, therefore, suggest the acceleration of polymerization between NF-L and NF-H as the new possible role of Bcl-2.

  16. Nineteenth century research on naturally occurring cell death and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P G; Clarke, S

    1996-02-01

    Research on naturally occurring cell death is older than current opinion gives credit. More than 100 nineteenth century publications deal with it, and we review most of these. Soon after the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann, Carl Vogt (1842) reported cell death in the notochord and adjacent cartilage of metamorphic toads. Subsequent landmark discoveries included the massive cell death that occurs in pupating diptera (Weismann 1864), chondrocyte death during endochondral ossification (Stieda 1872), phagocytosis associated with cell death in the muscles of metamorphic toads (Metschnikoff 1883), chromatolytic (apoptotic) cell death in ovarian follicles (Flemming 1885), the reinterpretation of "Sarkoplasten" as "Sarkolyten" in metamorphic amphibia (Mayer 1886), the programmed loss of an entire population of neurons in fish embryos (Beard 1889), the death of scattered myocytes and myofibres in mammalian muscle (Felix 1889), and the death of many motor and sensory neurons in chick embryos (Collin 1906). Other lines of nineteenth century research established concepts important for understanding cell death, notably trophic interactions between neurons and their targets, and intercellular competition. PMID:8742050

  17. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation from aerobic glycolysis to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Boyer, Leah; Jin, Mingji; Mertens, Jerome; Kim, Yongsung; Ma, Li; Ma, Li; Hamm, Michael; Gage, Fred H; Hunter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    How metabolism is reprogrammed during neuronal differentiation is unknown. We found that the loss of hexokinase (HK2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) expression, together with a switch in pyruvate kinase gene splicing from PKM2 to PKM1, marks the transition from aerobic glycolysis in neural progenitor cells (NPC) to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation. The protein levels of c-MYC and N-MYC, transcriptional activators of the HK2 and LDHA genes, decrease dramatically. Constitutive expression of HK2 and LDHA during differentiation leads to neuronal cell death, indicating that the shut-off aerobic glycolysis is essential for neuronal survival. The metabolic regulators PGC-1α and ERRγ increase significantly upon neuronal differentiation to sustain the transcription of metabolic and mitochondrial genes, whose levels are unchanged compared to NPCs, revealing distinct transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in the proliferation and post-mitotic differentiation states. Mitochondrial mass increases proportionally with neuronal mass growth, indicating an unknown mechanism linking mitochondrial biogenesis to cell size. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13374.001 PMID:27282387

  18. Motor Neurons that Multitask

    PubMed Central

    Goulding, Martyn

    2013-01-01

    Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion. PMID:23177952

  19. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition.

  20. [Deaths in hotels].

    PubMed

    Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.

  1. Metabolic acidosis-induced hypercalcemia in an azotemic patient with primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Mandana; Levine, Barton S.; Felsenfeld, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with Stage 3b chronic kidney disease and primary hyperparathyroidism treated with cinacalcet was admitted for acute cholecystitis. A cholecystostomy tube was placed, estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased, metabolic acidosis developed and ionized calcium increased from 1.33 to 1.76 mM despite cinacalcet administration. A sodium bicarbonate infusion corrected the metabolic acidosis restoring ionized calcium to normal despite no improvement in renal function. The correlation between the increase in serum bicarbonate and decrease in ionized calcium was r = −0.93, P < 0.001. In summary, severe hypercalcemia was attributable to metabolic acidosis increasing calcium efflux from bone while renal failure decreased the capacity to excrete calcium. PMID:25852894

  2. Acidosis-induced downregulation of hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 and ureagenesis from ammonia.

    PubMed

    Molinas, Sara M; Soria, Leandro R; Marrone, Julieta; Danielli, Mauro; Trumper, Laura; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that, during metabolic acidosis, the liver downregulates mitochondrial ammonia detoxification via ureagenesis, a bicarbonate-consuming process. Since we previously demonstrated that hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 channels (mtAQP8) facilitate the uptake of ammonia and its metabolism into urea, we studied whether mtAQP8 is involved in the liver adaptive response to acidosis. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were adapted to acidosis by exposing them to culture medium at pH 7.0 for 40 h. Control cells were exposed to pH 7.4. Hepatocytes exposed to acid medium showed a decrease in mtAQP8 protein expression (-30%, p < 0.05). Ureagenesis from ammonia was assessed by incubating the cells with (15)N-labeled ammonia and measuring (15)N-labeled urea synthesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. Reduced ureagenesis was found in acidified hepatocytes (-31%, p < 0.05). In vivo studies in rats subjected to 7 days acidosis also showed decreased protein expression of hepatic mtAQP8 (-50%, p < 0.05) and reduced liver urea content (-35%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hepatic mtAQP8 expression is downregulated in acidosis, a mechanism that may contribute to decreased ureagenesis from ammonia in response to acidosis.

  3. Diabetes Stimulates Osteoclastogenesis by Acidosis-Induced Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reni, Carlotta; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Meloni, Marco; Madeddu, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes have lower bone mineral density and higher risk of fractures. The role of osteoblasts in diabetes-related osteoporosis is well acknowledged whereas the role of osteoclasts (OCLs) is still unclear. We hypothesize that OCLs participate in pathological bone remodeling. We conducted studies in animals (streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice) and cellular models to investigate canonical and non-canonical mechanisms underlying excessive OCL activation. Diabetic mice show an increased number of active OCLs. In vitro studies demonstrate the involvement of acidosis in OCL activation and the implication of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). In vivo studies confirm the establishment of local acidosis in the diabetic bone marrow (BM) as well as the ineffectiveness of insulin in correcting the pH variation and osteoclast activation. Conversely, treatment with TRPV1 receptor antagonists re-establishes a physiological OCL availability. These data suggest that diabetes causes local acidosis in the BM that in turn increases osteoclast activation through the modulation of TRPV1. The use of clinically available TRPV1 antagonists may provide a new means to combat bone problems associated with diabetes. PMID:27468810

  4. Adolescent Russian roulette deaths.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A

    2010-03-01

    Adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, is a unique period both physically and emotionally. During this time of life, individuals are known to experiment and engage in risky behavior, sometimes with unforeseen morbidity and mortality. We also see suicide emerge as a manner of death in this age group. The most common method is gunshot wound and sometimes in the form of Russian roulette. Few studies have looked at deaths by Russian roulette, the victims, and scenarios. In particular, no study examines the adolescent victim of Russian roulette. To better understand and classify this entity, adolescent Russian roulette autopsy cases over a 20-year period were examined looking at the victims, scenarios, autopsy findings, cause and manner of death, and the weapons. All victims were males, ages 13 to 19 years, with a Black-to-White ratio of 1:1. No victim had a previous psychiatric history. Toxicology was positive for alcohol and/or marijuana in 50% of the victims. Friends were present when the victim shot himself which occurred in the home the majority of the time. In all but 1 case, premeditation of the game was involved as the victim provided the weapon for the roulette. The cause of death was gunshot wound to the head (6 to the right side, 1 to the mouth, 1 to the forehead), and the manner of death was suicide in 6 cases and accident in 2 cases. A review of the literature discusses the adolescent victim, suicide, and Russian roulette.

  5. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Edwin S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…

  6. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  7. The Impact of Death Education on Fear of Death and Death Anxiety Among Human Services Students.

    PubMed

    McClatchey, Irene Searles; King, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Human services professionals will undoubtedly work with the dying and bereaved populations at one time or other. Yet, they are poorly prepared to do so since death education, that is, lessons about the human and emotional aspects of death, its implications, and subsequent bereavement issues, is often not part of their curriculum. This nonequivalent comparison group study (N = 86) examined death fear and death anxiety among human services students before and after receiving death education using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in death anxiety among the group of students who participated in death education compared to those who did not.

  8. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals distinct injury responses in different types of DRG sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ganlu; Huang, Kevin; Hu, Youjin; Du, Guizhen; Xue, Zhigang; Zhu, Xianmin; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury leads to various injury-induced responses in sensory neurons including physiological pain, neuronal cell death, and nerve regeneration. In this study, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of mouse nonpeptidergic nociceptors (NP), peptidergic nociceptors (PEP), and large myelinated sensory neurons (LM) under both control and injury conditions at 3 days after sciatic nerve transection (SNT). After performing principle component and weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we categorized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into different subtypes and discovered co-regulated injury-response genes including novel regeneration associated genes (RAGs) in association with neuronal development, protein translation and cytoplasm transportation. In addition, we found significant up-regulation of the genes associated with cell death such as Pdcd2 in a subset of NP neurons after axotomy, implicating their actions in neuronal cell death upon nerve injury. Our study revealed the distinctive and sustained heterogeneity of transcriptomic responses to injury at single neuron level, implicating the involvement of different gene regulatory networks in nerve regeneration, neuronal cell death and neuropathy in different population of DRG neurons. PMID:27558660

  9. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals distinct injury responses in different types of DRG sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ganlu; Huang, Kevin; Hu, Youjin; Du, Guizhen; Xue, Zhigang; Zhu, Xianmin; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury leads to various injury-induced responses in sensory neurons including physiological pain, neuronal cell death, and nerve regeneration. In this study, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of mouse nonpeptidergic nociceptors (NP), peptidergic nociceptors (PEP), and large myelinated sensory neurons (LM) under both control and injury conditions at 3 days after sciatic nerve transection (SNT). After performing principle component and weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we categorized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into different subtypes and discovered co-regulated injury-response genes including novel regeneration associated genes (RAGs) in association with neuronal development, protein translation and cytoplasm transportation. In addition, we found significant up-regulation of the genes associated with cell death such as Pdcd2 in a subset of NP neurons after axotomy, implicating their actions in neuronal cell death upon nerve injury. Our study revealed the distinctive and sustained heterogeneity of transcriptomic responses to injury at single neuron level, implicating the involvement of different gene regulatory networks in nerve regeneration, neuronal cell death and neuropathy in different population of DRG neurons. PMID:27558660

  10. [Sexuality and death].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.

  11. [Sudden infant death syndrome].

    PubMed

    Espinosa Morett, A; Shkurovich, M; Carlos Ugartechea, J; Mallet Arelano, A; Salmón Rodríguez, L E

    1976-01-01

    This report is based on a review of the present situation of the sudden infant death syndrome through the presentation of four cases studied at the Unidad de Pediatría, Hospital General de México, S.S.A. All cases were in apparent good health before death. All babies were less than ten months of age. In three cases, necropsy was not performed, and the other one did not show significant abnormalities at the post-mortem examination. A complete review of the literature was made including: historical, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and pathological aspects. Special emphasis is made on the pathophysiology of the syndrome during MOR phase of sleep and muscular hypertrophy of the lungs arteriolae suggesting chronic hypoxia which are the most relevant theories in the sudden infant death syndrome. Psychological aspects and the family management by the physician and detection of possible future victims of the syndrome are finally discussed. PMID:973858

  12. Cocaine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodriguez, A

    1994-07-15

    Cocaine availability has been increasing in Spain in the past few years. A review of all the toxicological analyses carried out at the Madrid Department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, with subjects who had died of drugs from 1990 to 1992, found 533 persons who had cocaine in their blood and/or tissues; 450 (84%) deaths involved cocaine and heroin together whereas 83 (16%) deaths involved cocaine with an absence of heroin. This paper reports the circumstances, cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations in the blood and other toxicological findings for the two major groups of deaths where cocaine was found with an absence of heroin, i.e., possible overdose cases (35 cases) and traffic accidents (23 cases).

  13. Infant deaths in slings.

    PubMed

    Madre, Chrystèle; Rambaud, Caroline; Avran, David; Michot, Charlotte; Sachs, Philippe; Dauger, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Although the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) decreased markedly after campaigns to promote supine positioning during sleeping, it has remained unchanged over the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest a role for new causes such as suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment. Health authorities in several countries have issued warnings about slings used to carry infants. However, few reports of infant deaths in slings have been published in medical journals. Our paediatric intensive care unit has admitted two infants who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest while carried in a sling. Diagnostic investigations including a post-mortem examination established asphyxia as the mechanism of death. In conclusion, baby slings may carry a risk of SUDI, either by compression of the baby into a forward-flexed position or by direct suffocation. European recommendations for the cautious use of baby slings should be disseminated to families and professionals involved in caring for infants, as done recently in Australia, Canada, and the USA. PMID:24343674

  14. Death on Denali

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rodman; Mills, William J.; Rogers, Donald R.; Propst, Michael T.

    1978-01-01

    Between 1903 and 1975 about 1 percent of climbers on Mount McKinley (Denali) and Mount Foraker in Alaska died. In 1976 a total of ten (1.7 percent) of 587 mountaineers died, but this rate of death was not significantly higher than previously. Nineteen percent of climbers in 1976 suffered major or minor injuries, illness or death. Acute mountain sickness (AMS), frostbite and fractures were common. Thirty-three rescues or retrievals of bodies were mounted at a cost of more than $82,000. Inexperience (particularly with arctic mountaineering), poor leadership, faulty equipment and undue reliance on rescue by helicopter contributed to the alarming incidence of accident, illness and death on big peaks in Mount McKinley National Park in 1976. PMID:664648

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome: oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Reid, G M; Tervit, H

    1999-06-01

    In studies of oxidative stress in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) there were two major findings: (1) During normal post-natal development, there was a gradual decline in the number of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampus gyrus in the brain; (2) The total number of immunoreactive neurons was elevated in SIDS victims compared to age-matched controls in infants 6 months of age and under (1). SOD and neuronal aging and degeneration in the hippocampus and neocortex were features of SIDS, Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. In the SIDS study of infants from 3-6 months of age, the elevation of SOD in SIDS victims was significant, whereas no significant elevation of GSHPx was detected. An imbalance between SOD and GSHPx was said to be crucial in the prevention of toxicity of free radicals (1). Zinc-deficient cells cannot up-regulate gene expression of the scavenger enzymes SOD and GSHPx in cells exposed to high levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (2). GSHPx coupled to reduced nicotine adenine diphosphate (NADPH) regenerating systems via glutathione reductase is virtually able to guarantee an effective protection of biological structures against oxidative attack (22). When the capacity of the cell to regenerate GSH is exceeded - primarily due to an insufficient supply of NADPH-oxidised glutathione (GSSG) is released from the cell and protein synthesis turns off (20). We hypothesize that the increased incidence of aging and neuronal death and increased incidence of SOD and GSHPx reactive neurons in early post-natal development indicates an increased up-regulation of gene expression of scavenger enzymes during high exposure to oxidative stress after birth. GSH-dependent peroxide metabolism is linked to the pentose phosphate shunt via NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase (GR). GSHPx is a selenium containing enzyme which together with catalase (CAT) SOD and vitamin E

  16. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia.

  17. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:24294729

  18. [The death of Cleopatra].

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The image of a queen bitten by a snake is controversial and the facts, such as the swiftness of her death and her servants, and scientific experiments are in favour of a deadly poisoning. The author reminds that in the ancient texts the snake had sacred virtues and it was a symbolic image to embellish the suicide of the one who was sentenced to death by the Romans. Octaves set up the myth of a fatal bite which became an iconographic image for the cinema.

  19. Teaching about the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul; Eden, John Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the reasons for the death penalty, the reasons why the death penalty attracts so much attention, whether the death penalty is applied consistently, and the evidence that the application of the death penalty may be racially biased. Provides an accompanying article on "Teaching Ideas" by Ronald A. Banaszak. (CMK)

  20. Corticospinal mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Kraskov, A; Philipp, R; Waldert, S; Vigneswaran, G; Quallo, M M; Lemon, R N

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the properties of neurons with mirror-like characteristics that were identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) and recorded in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1) of three macaque monkeys. We analysed the neurons' discharge while the monkeys performed active grasp of either food or an object, and also while they observed an experimenter carrying out a similar range of grasps. A considerable proportion of tested PTNs showed clear mirror-like properties (52% F5 and 58% M1). Some PTNs exhibited 'classical' mirror neuron properties, increasing activity for both execution and observation, while others decreased their discharge during observation ('suppression mirror-neurons'). These experiments not only demonstrate the existence of PTNs as mirror neurons in M1, but also reveal some interesting differences between M1 and F5 mirror PTNs. Although observation-related changes in the discharge of PTNs must reach the spinal cord and will include some direct projections to motoneurons supplying grasping muscles, there was no EMG activity in these muscles during action observation. We suggest that the mirror neuron system is involved in the withholding of unwanted movement during action observation. Mirror neurons are differentially recruited in the behaviour that switches rapidly between making your own movements and observing those of others.

  1. Reducing synuclein accumulation improves neuronal survival after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fogerson, Stephanie M; van Brummen, Alexandra J; Busch, David J; Allen, Scott R; Roychaudhuri, Robin; Banks, Susan M L; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Morgan, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury causes neuronal death, limiting subsequent regeneration and recovery. Thus, there is a need to develop strategies for improving neuronal survival after injury. Relative to our understanding of axon regeneration, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote the survival of damaged neurons. To address this, we took advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal neurons whose large size permits detailed examination of post-injury molecular responses at the level of individual, identified cells. We report here that spinal cord injury caused a select subset of giant reticulospinal neurons to accumulate synuclein, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein best known for its atypical aggregation and causal role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and other diseases. Post-injury synuclein accumulation took the form of punctate aggregates throughout the somata and occurred selectively in dying neurons, but not in those that survived. In contrast, another synaptic vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, did not accumulate in response to injury. We further show that the post-injury synuclein accumulation was greatly attenuated after single dose application of either the "molecular tweezer" inhibitor, CLR01, or a translation-blocking synuclein morpholino. Consequently, reduction of synuclein accumulation not only improved neuronal survival, but also increased the number of axons in the spinal cord proximal and distal to the lesion. This study is the first to reveal that reducing synuclein accumulation is a novel strategy for improving neuronal survival after spinal cord injury.

  2. NEURON and Python.

    PubMed

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  3. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  4. Digital Language Death

    PubMed Central

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  5. Children's Concepts of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A total of 122 middle-class White boys and girls aged 3 through 12 years were interviewed to determine the nature and the development of their concepts of death and the impact of experience on those concepts. (Author/BH)

  6. Death of a Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    When Issaquah (Washington) superintendent, after battling a brain tumor, entered the hospital for the last time, school district had to develop a crisis plan to deal with the possible death of the superintendent. A contingency planning team developed a telephone tree for school officials to keep in close contact with teachers and administrators.…

  7. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  8. Death Penalty in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Amie L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)

  9. The Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the death penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)

  10. Death in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifel, Herman, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    In five articles, considers the history and nature of death in America. Discusses dilemmas that face the helping professions as a consequence of improving medical capability. Highlights the effects of social change upon the mourning experience. Discusses the hospice movement. (RC)

  11. Psychiatry on death row.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A H; Tozman, S

    1978-03-01

    The authors present the personal experiences of an attending physician in a Death Row in Ceylon (Sri-Lanka). Aspects of the execution scenario are presented and discussed with its implications for the protagonists: the condemned, witnesses, standers-by, authorities and society-at large.

  12. Cell-based optical assay for amyloid β-induced neuronal cell dysfunction using femtosecond-pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghee; Yoon, Jonghee; Choi, Chulhee

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is known as a key molecule related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Over time, the amyloid cascade disrupts essential function of mitochondria including Ca2+ homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, and eventually leads to neuronal cell death. However, there have been no methods that analyze and measure neuronal dysfuction in pathologic conditions quantitatively. Here, we suggest a cell-based optical assay to investigate neuronal function in AD using femtosecond-pulsed laser stimulation. We observed that laser stimulation on primary rat hippocampal neurons for a few microseconds induced intracellular Ca2+ level increases or produced intracellular ROS which was a primary cause of neuronal cell death depending on delivered energy. Although Aβ treatment alone had little effect on the neuronal morphologies and networks in a few hours, Aβ-treated neurons showed delayed Ca2+ increasing pattern and were more vulnerable to laser-induced cell death compared to normal neurons. Our results collectively indicate that femtosecond laser stimulation can be a useful tool to study neuronal dysfuction related to AD pathologies. We anticipate this optical method to enable studies in the early progression of neuronal impairments and the quantitative evaluation of drug effects on neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD and Parkinson's disease in a preclinical study.

  13. Inhibition of UDP/P2Y6 purinergic signaling prevents phagocytosis of viable neurons by activated microglia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Neniskyte, Urte; Hornik, Tamara; Brown, Guy C

    2014-09-01

    Microglia activated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 or -4 can cause neuronal death by phagocytosing otherwise-viable neurons-a form of cell death called "phagoptosis." UDP release from neurons has been shown to provoke microglial phagocytosis of neurons via microglial P2Y6 receptors, but whether inhibition of this process affects neuronal survival is unknown. We tested here whether inhibition of P2Y6 signaling could prevent neuronal death in inflammatory conditions, and whether UDP signaling can induce phagoptosis of stressed but viable neurons. We find that delayed neuronal loss and death in mixed neuronal/glial cultures induced by the TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid was prevented by: apyrase (to degrade nucleotides), Reactive Blue 2 (to inhibit purinergic signaling), or MRS2578 (to specifically block P2Y6 receptors). In each case, inflammatory activation of microglia was not affected, and the rescued neurons remained viable for at least 7 days. Blocking P2Y6 receptors with MRS2578 also prevented phagoptosis of neurons induced by 250 nM amyloid beta 1-42, 5 μM peroxynitrite, or 50 μM 3-morpholinosydnonimine (which releases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). Furthermore, the P2Y6 receptor agonist UDP by itself was sufficient to stimulate microglial phagocytosis and to induce rapid neuronal loss that was prevented by eliminating microglia or inhibiting phagocytosis. In vivo, injection of LPS into rat striatum induced microglial activation and delayed neuronal loss and blocking P2Y6 receptors with MRS2578 prevented this neuronal loss. Thus, blocking UDP/P2Y6 signaling is sufficient to prevent neuronal loss and death induced by a wide range of stimuli that activate microglial phagocytosis of neurons.

  14. Death understanding and fear of death in young children.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Griffiths, Maya

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the developmental acquisition of a mature concept of death, that is, understanding death as a biological event, affects young children's fear of death. Ninety children between the ages of 4 and 8 participated in an interview study in which their understanding of death and their fear of death were both assessed. Levels of general anxiety were also measured via parent report. A regression analysis indicated that more mature death understanding was associated with lower levels of death fear, when age and general anxiety were controlled. These data provide some empirical support for the widely held belief that discussing death and dying in biological terms is the best way to alleviate fear of death in young children.

  15. Novel role of neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 as a survival factor up-regulated in injured neurons.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Jeromin, Andreas; Smith, George; Kurushima, Hideaki; Koga, Hitoshi; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Nabekura, Junichi

    2006-03-27

    A molecular basis of survival from neuronal injury is essential for the development of therapeutic strategy to remedy neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we demonstrate that an EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 (NCS-1), one of the key proteins for various neuronal functions, also acts as an important survival factor. Overexpression of NCS-1 rendered cultured neurons more tolerant to cell death caused by several kinds of stressors, whereas the dominant-negative mutant (E120Q) accelerated it. In addition, NCS-1 proteins increased upon treatment with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and mediated GDNF survival signal in an Akt (but not MAPK)-dependent manner. Furthermore, NCS-1 is significantly up-regulated in response to axotomy-induced injury in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus neurons of adult rats in vivo, and adenoviral overexpression of E120Q resulted in a significant loss of surviving neurons, suggesting that NCS-1 is involved in an antiapoptotic mechanism in adult motor neurons. We propose that NCS-1 is a novel survival-promoting factor up-regulated in injured neurons that mediates the GDNF survival signal via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway.

  16. Neuronal Ca2+ disregulation in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Biessels, Geert Jan; ter Laak, Mariël P; Hamers, Frank P T; Gispen, Willem Hendrik

    2002-07-01

    The Ca(2+) hypothesis of brain ageing and dementia may account for part of the available data on the pathogenesis of dementia and certain neurodegenerative disorders. The hypothesis proposes that disturbances in the homeostasis of neuronal cytosolic free Ca(2+) are part of a final common pathway, ultimately leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. The hypothesis also proposes that a small change in cytosolic free Ca(2+) sustained over a long period of time will result in similar damage as a large change over a short period. Diabetes mellitus is associated with neurological complications in the peripheral and central nervous system, as reflected in peripheral neuropathy, modest cognitive impairments and an increased risk of dementia. In animal models of diabetes, learning impairments are associated with alterations in Ca(2+) -dependent forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Disturbances in the homeostasis of cytosolic free Ca(2+) may present a final common pathway in the multifactorial pathogenesis of neurological complications of diabetes, which involves vascular changes, oxidative stress, and non-enzymatic protein glycation. In line with the Ca(2+) hypothesis of neurodegenerative disorders, a prolonged, small increase in basal cytosolic Ca(2+) levels indeed exists in sensory neurones of diabetic animals. In addition, Ca(2+) dynamics are affected. Ca(2+) channel blockers, such as nimodipine, have been shown to improve experimental peripheral neuropathy, through a vascular mechanism, possibly in combination with direct neuronal effects. Preliminary studies indicate that nimodipine may also improve Ca(2+)-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  17. Are Some Neurons Hypersensitive to Metallic Nanoparticles?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered metallic nanomaterial particles (MENAP) represent a significant breakthrough in developing new products for use by consumers and industry. Skin application (e.g., via creams and sprays containing nanoparticles) may provide a key route of potential intake of MENAP and can lead to retrograde transport from nerve endings in the skin to the somatosensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This paper uses a novel theoretical model (stochastic threshold microdose [STM] model) to characterize survival of DRG neurons exposed in cell culture replicates to copper nanoparticles, based on published data. Cell death via autophagy is assumed here to occur as a result of the uptake (called hits) of the nanoparticles by mitochondria. Theoretical results are presented for the existence of a hypersensitive fraction (about 20%) of neurons that are killed in significant numbers when on average > 1 hit to the at-risk mitochondria occurs. Further, most hypersensitive neurons appear to be killed by a cumulative exposure of about 2,000 micromolar-hours and the remaining resistant cells may have dysfunctional mitochondria. Based on these theoretical findings, it is predicted that repeated exposure (e.g., over years) of the skin of humans to MENAP could lead to significant nervous system damage and related morbidity. PMID:22423227

  18. Variety of synchronous regimes in neuronal ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, M. A.; Osipov, G. V.; Suykens, J. A. K.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of oscillatory activity in neurons of the snail Helix pomatia. This model has a distinctive feature: It demonstrates multistability in oscillatory and silent modes that is typical for the thalamocortical neurons. A single neuron cell can demonstrate a variety of oscillatory activity: Regular and chaotic spiking and bursting behavior. We study collective phenomena in small and large arrays of nonidentical cells coupled by models of electrical and chemical synapses. Two single elements coupled by electrical coupling show different types of synchronous behavior, in particular in-phase and antiphase synchronous regimes. In an ensemble of three inhibitory synaptically coupled elements, the phenomenon of sequential synchronous dynamics is observed. We study the synchronization phenomena in the chain of nonidentical neurons at different oscillatory behavior coupled with electrical and chemical synapses. Various regimes of phase synchronization are observed: (i) Synchronous regular and chaotic spiking; (ii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting; and (iii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting with different numbers of spikes inside the bursts. We detect and study the effect of collective synchronous burst generation due to the cluster formation and the oscillatory death.

  19. Do "near death experiences" occur only near death?

    PubMed

    Gabbard, G O; Twemlow, S W; Jones, F C

    1981-06-01

    Near deaths experiences are being reported with increasing frequency, but whether the constellation of factors comprising these experiences is unique to near death situations is unknown. This investigation compared near death experiences to other out-of-body experiences to determine if there are unique features associated with near death experiences. Our results indicate that there are no characteristics which are exclusive to near death situations, but our analysis of t-tests is highly suggestive of a number of distinguishing features which differentiate near death experiences from other out-of-body experiences.

  20. Near-death experiences and the psychology of death.

    PubMed

    Tassell-Matamua, Natasha A

    Little is known about the psychological phenomenology of death. Reported across known history and in all cultures by those who have died or been close to death, NDEs challenge objective-mechanistic models by suggesting the phenomenology of death may involve a variety of complex psychological processes. This article discusses three notable characteristics of the NDE--loss of the fear of death, psychological sequelae, and complex conscious abilities--supporting this claim. The implications these have for advancing societal understandings of death are discussed, and their pragmatic application for professions where death is frequently encountered, such as palliative care, is addressed.

  1. PARP-1 Inhibition Attenuates Neuronal Loss, Microglia Activation and Neurological Deficits after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Loane, David J.; Zhao, Zaorui; Kabadi, Shruti V.; Hanscom, Marie; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Faden, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuronal cell death as well as microglial activation and related neurotoxicity that contribute to subsequent neurological dysfunction. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) induces neuronal cell death through activation of caspase-independent mechanisms, including release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and microglial activation. Administration of PJ34, a selective PARP-1 inhibitor, reduced cell death of primary cortical neurons exposed to N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a potent inducer of AIF-dependent cell death. PJ34 also attenuated lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced activation of BV2 or primary microglia, limiting NF-κB activity and iNOS expression as well as decreasing generation of reactive oxygen species and TNFα. Systemic administration of PJ34 starting as late as 24 h after controlled cortical impact resulted in improved motor function recovery in mice with TBI. Stereological analysis demonstrated that PJ34 treatment reduced the lesion volume, attenuated neuronal cell loss in the cortex and thalamus, and reduced microglial activation in the TBI cortex. PJ34 treatment did not improve cognitive performance in a Morris water maze test or reduce neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. Overall, our data indicate that PJ34 has a significant, albeit selective, neuroprotective effect after experimental TBI, and its therapeutic effect may be from multipotential actions on neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory pathways. PMID:24476502

  2. Clinacanthus nutans Protects Cortical Neurons Against Hypoxia-Induced Toxicity by Downregulating HDAC1/6.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Da; Wu, Jui-Sheng; Kao, Mei-Han; Chen, Jin-Jer; Sun, Grace Y; Ong, Wei-Yi; Lin, Teng-Nan

    2016-09-01

    Many population-based epidemiological studies have unveiled an inverse correlation between intake of herbal plants and incidence of stroke. C. nutans is a traditional herbal medicine widely used for snake bite, viral infection and cancer in Asian countries. However, its role in protecting stroke damage remains to be studied. Despite of growing evidence to support epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis and recovery of stroke, a clear understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still lacking. In the present study, primary cortical neurons were subjected to in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation and hypoxic neuronal death was used to investigate the interaction between C. nutans and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Using pharmacological agents (HDAC inhibitor/activator), loss-of-function (HDAC siRNA) and gain-of-function (HDAC plasmid) approaches, we demonstrated an early induction of HDAC1/2/3/8 and HDAC6 in neurons after OGD insult. C. nutans extract selectively inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 expression and attenuated neuronal death. Results of reporter analysis further revealed that C. nutans suppressed HDAC1 and HDAC6 transcription. Besides ameliorating neuronal death, C. nutans also protected astrocytes and endothelial cells from hypoxic-induced cell death. In summary, results support ability for C. nutans to suppress post-hypoxic HDACs activation and mitigate against OGD-induced neuronal death. This study further opens a new avenue for the use of herbal medicines to regulate epigenetic control of brain injury. PMID:27165113

  3. Calcium dysregulation contributes to neurodegeneration in FTLD patient iPSC-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Keiko; Sahara, Naruhiko; Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Tsukita, Kayoko; Kondo, Takayuki; Kutoku, Yumiko; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide; Kawakami, Koichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Yawata, Satoshi; Watanabe, Dai; Hasegawa, Masato; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Suhara, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Makoto; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene MAPT encoding tau, a microtubules-associated protein, cause a subtype of familial neurodegenerative disorder, known as frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathy (FTLD-Tau), which presents with dementia and is characterized by atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Although induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has facilitated the investigation of phenotypes of FTLD-Tau patient neuronal cells in vitro, it remains unclear how FTLD-Tau patient neurons degenerate. Here, we established neuronal models of FTLD-Tau by Neurogenin2-induced direct neuronal differentiation from FTLD-Tau patient iPSCs. We found that FTLD-Tau neurons, either with an intronic MAPT mutation or with an exonic mutation, developed accumulation and extracellular release of misfolded tau followed by neuronal death, which we confirmed by correction of the intronic mutation with CRISPR/Cas9. FTLD-Tau neurons showed dysregulation of the augmentation of Ca2+ transients evoked by electrical stimulation. Chemogenetic or pharmacological control of neuronal activity-relevant Ca2+ influx by the introduction of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) or by the treatment with glutamate receptor blockers attenuated misfolded tau accumulation and neuronal death. These data suggest that neuronal activity may regulate neurodegene