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Sample records for acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase

  1. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Thomas, Steven R.; Nieves, Rafael A.; Himmel, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1, and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.

  2. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOEpatents

    Adney, W.S.; Thomas, S.R.; Nieves, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1994-11-22

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1], and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 9 figs.

  3. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Adney, W.S.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-01-04

    A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is presented. The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1] and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 7 figures.

  4. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from thermophilic bacterium acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Mohagheghi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.

  5. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  6. Quantitation of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase and Thermomonospora fusca E{sub 3} exoglucanase using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, R.A.; Chou, Y.C.; Himmel, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Two distinct quantitative indirect ELISAs were developed to determine the concentration of recombinant cellulose enzymes in culture filtrates. A monoclonal antibody (E1P7) was used as the primary antibody in developing an ELISA specific for Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase. Likewise, a polyclonal rabbit serum (Ab684) was used to develop an ELISA specific for Thermomonospora fusca E{sub 3} exoglucanase. Dose-response curves indicated a dynamic range for both assays between 0.01 and 0.08 {mu}g/mL (1-8 ng/assay) when purified enzymes were used as standards. These assays have been used to estimate concentrations of secreted recombinant E1 and/or E{sub 3} in culture supernatants of Streptomyces lividans strain TK24 in which the corresponding genes have been cloned and expressed.

  7. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  8. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2009-05-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  9. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-04-29

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  10. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; McCarter, Suzanne Lantz

    2008-07-01

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as Gux1. Gux1 has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified Gux1. Methods of making and using Gux1 polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  11. Thermostable purified endoglucanas from acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel

    1994-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068). The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.

  12. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. Results In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme β-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) gene, from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial E1 gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer, with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the E1 protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial E1 enzyme were obtained that expressed the gene at high levels without severely impairing plant growth and development. However, some transgenic plants exhibited a shorter stature and flowered earlier than the wild type plants. The E1 specific activities in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20-fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. A zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the E1 enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid for one hour at 39°C and another hour at 81°C yielded 43% more reducing sugars than wild type rice straw. Conclusion Taken together

  13. Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) production in transgenic tobacco plants by transcriptional, post-transcription and post-translational modification.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S; Quesenberry, Ryan D; Thomas, Steven R

    2005-10-01

    An attempt was made to obtain a high-level production of intact Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) in transgenic tobacco plants. The E1 expression was examined under the control of the constitutive and strong Mac promoter or light-inducible tomato Rubisco small sub-unit (RbcS-3C) promoter with its original or Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV) RNA4 5'-untranslated leader (UTL) and targeted to different sub-cellular compartments via transit peptides. The transit peptides included native E1, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole, apoplast, and chloroplast. E1 expression and its stability in transgenic plants were determined via E1 activity, protein immunoblotting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of sub-cellular compartments on E1 production and its stability were determined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors, where the E1 was under the control of Mac promoter, mannopine synthase transcription terminator, and one of the five transit peptides. Transgenic tobacco plants with an apoplastic transit peptide had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation, which was about 0.25% of total leaf soluble proteins estimated via E1 specific activity and protein gel blots. Intercellular fluid analyses confirmed that E1 signal peptide functioned properly in tobacco cells to secret E1 protein into the apoplast. By replacing RbcS-3C UTL with AMV RNA4 UTL E1 production was enhanced more than twofold, while it was less effective than the mannopine synthase UTL. It was observed that RbcS-3C promoter was more favorable for E1 expression in transgenic plants than the Mac promoter. E1 activity in dried tobacco seeds stored one year at room temperature was 45% higher than that observed immediately after harvesting, suggesting that E1 protein can be stored at room temperature for a long period. E1 stability in different sub-cellular compartments and the optimal combination of promoter, 5'-UTL, and sub-cellular compartmentation for

  14. Thermal tolerant cellulase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2006-06-13

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as GuxA. GuxA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified GuxA. Methods of making and using GuxA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  15. Thermal Tolerant Cellulase from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2006-06-13

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as GuxA. GuxA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified GuxA. Methods of making and using GuxA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  16. Expression of the Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii enhances its ability to deconstruct crystalline cellulose

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Daehwan; Young, Jenna; Cha, Minseok; Brunecky, Roman; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-08-13

    The Caldicellulosiruptor bescii genome encodes a potent set of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), found primarily as multi-domain enzymes that exhibit high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activity on and allow utilization of a broad range of substrates, including plant biomass without conventional pretreatment. CelA, the most abundant cellulase in the C. bescii secretome, uniquely combines a GH9 endoglucanase and a GH48 exoglucanase in one protein. The most effective commercial enzyme cocktails used in vitro to pretreat biomass are derived from fungal cellulases (cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases and a β-d-glucosidases) that act synergistically to release sugars for microbial conversion. The C. bescii genome contains six GH5more » domains in five different open reading frames. Four exist in multi-domain proteins and two as single catalytic domains. E1 is a GH5 endoglucanase reported to have high specific activity and simple architecture and is active at the growth temperature of C. bescii. E1 is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase linked to a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module shown to bind primarily to cellulosic substrates. As a result, we tested if the addition of this protein to the C. bescii secretome would improve its cellulolytic activity.« less

  17. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2006-09-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this mannanase as ManA. ManA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified ManA. Methods of making ManA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed. Methods of using mannanase A, including for the processing of food and for use in food stuffs as bulking agents and the like, are also disclosed.

  18. Methods of using thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Ding, Shih-You; Himmel, Michael E.

    2011-04-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  19. Cloning of cellulase genes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Lastick, S.M.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1996-05-07

    A process is described for moving fragments that code for cellulase activity from the genome of A. cellulolyticus to several plasmid vectors and the subsequent expression of active cellulase activity in E. coli. 5 figs.

  20. Cloning of cellulase genes from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Lastick, deceased, Stanley M.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel

    1996-01-01

    A process is described for moving fragments that code for cellulase activity from the genome of A. cellulolyticus to several plasmid vectors and the subsequent expression of active cellulase acitivty in E. coli.

  1. Expression of the Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii enhances its ability to deconstruct crystalline cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Young, Jenna; Cha, Minseok; Brunecky, Roman; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-08-13

    The Caldicellulosiruptor bescii genome encodes a potent set of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), found primarily as multi-domain enzymes that exhibit high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activity on and allow utilization of a broad range of substrates, including plant biomass without conventional pretreatment. CelA, the most abundant cellulase in the C. bescii secretome, uniquely combines a GH9 endoglucanase and a GH48 exoglucanase in one protein. The most effective commercial enzyme cocktails used in vitro to pretreat biomass are derived from fungal cellulases (cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases and a β-d-glucosidases) that act synergistically to release sugars for microbial conversion. The C. bescii genome contains six GH5 domains in five different open reading frames. Four exist in multi-domain proteins and two as single catalytic domains. E1 is a GH5 endoglucanase reported to have high specific activity and simple architecture and is active at the growth temperature of C. bescii. E1 is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase linked to a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module shown to bind primarily to cellulosic substrates. As a result, we tested if the addition of this protein to the C. bescii secretome would improve its cellulolytic activity.

  2. Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.; Skory, C. D.; Adney, W. S.; Thomas, S. R.; Tisserat, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. T.

    2007-01-01

    Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed. The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.

  3. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Steven R.; Laymon, Robert A.; Himmel, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

  4. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1996-07-16

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

  5. Structure of Acidothermus cellulolyticus family 74 glycoside hydrolase at 1.82 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Alahuhta, Markus; Adney, William S.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    Here, a 1.82 Å resolution X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 74 (GH74) enzyme from Acidothermus cellulolyticus is reported. The resulting structure was refined to an R factor of 0.150 and an R free of 0.196. Structural analysis shows that five related structures have been reported with a secondary-structure similarity of between 75 and 89%. The five similar structures were all either Clostridium thermocellum or Geotrichum sp. M128 GH74 xyloglucanases. Structural analysis indicates that the A. cellulolyticus GH74 enzyme is an endoxyloglucanase, as it lacks a characteristic loop that blocks one end of the active site in exoxyloglucanases. Superimposition with the C. thermocellum GH74 shows that Asp451 and Asp38 are the catalytic residues. PMID:24316824

  6. Low molecular weight thermostable .beta.-D-glucosidase from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Adney, William S.; Nieves, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight .beta.-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-.beta.-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5-54.5 kD as determineded by SDS-PAGE.

  7. Low molecular weight thermostable {beta}-D-glucosidase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Tucker, M.P.; Adney, W.S.; Nieves, R.A.

    1995-07-11

    A purified low molecular weight {beta}-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5--54.5 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE. 6 figs.

  8. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot

  9. Crystal structure of thermostable family 5 endocellulase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in complex with cellotetraose.

    PubMed

    Sakon, J; Adney, W S; Himmel, M E; Thomas, S R; Karplus, P A

    1996-08-20

    The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the thermostable endocellulase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in complex with cellotetraose has been solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined at 2.4 A resolution to an R-factor of 0.18 (Rfree = 0.24). E1cd is a member of the 4/7 superfamily of hydrolases, and as expected, its structure is an (alpha/beta)8 barrel, which constitutes a prototype for family 5-subfamily 1 cellulases. The cellotetraose molecule binds in a manner consistent with the expected Michaelis complex for the glycosylation half-reaction and reveals that all eight residues conserved in family 5 enzymes are involved in recognition of the glycosyl group attacked during cleavage. Whereas only three residues are conserved in the whole 4/7 superfamily (the Asn/Glu duo and the Glu from which the name is derived), structural comparisons show that all eight residues conserved in family 5 have functional equivalents in the other 4/7 superfamily members, strengthening the case that mechanistic details are conserved throughout the superfamily. On the basis of the structure, a detailed sequence of physical steps of the cleavage mechanism is proposed. A close approach of two key glutamate residues provides an elegant mechanism for the shift in the pKa of the acid/base for the glycosylation and deglycosylation half-reactions. Finally, purely structural based comparisons are used to show that significant differences exist in structural similarity scores resulting from different methods and suggest that caution should be exercised in interpreting such results in terms of implied evolutional relationships. PMID:8718854

  10. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Detter, John C; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Brettin, Thomas S; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S; Xu, Xin C; Lapidus, Alla; Pujic, Pierre; Berry, Alison M; Barabote, Ravi D; Leu, David; Normand, Phillipe

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  11. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David; Challacome, Jean F; Brettin, Thomas S; Barabote, Ravi D; Leu, David; Normand, Philippe; Necsula, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Xu, Xin C; Lapidus, Alla; Pujic, Pierre; Richardson, Paul; Berry, Alison M

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  12. Optimization of Acidothermus Celluloyticus Endoglucanase (E1) Production in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Transcriptional, Post-transcription and Post-Translational Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Thomas, S. R.

    2005-10-01

    Biochemical characteristics of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) and its physiological effects in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) has been studied previously. In an attempt to obtain a high level of production of intact E1 in transgenic plants, the E1 gene was expressed under the control of strong Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of manopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region) or tomato Rubisco small subunit (RbcS-3C) promoter with different 5’ untranslated leader (UTL) sequence and targeted to different subcellular comartmentations with various transit peptides. The expression of E1 protein in transgenic tobacco plants was determined via E1 activity, protein immunobloting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of different transit peptides on E1 protein production and its stability were examined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors with the same (Mac) promoter and transcription terminator (Tmas). Transgenic tobacco plants with apoplast transit peptide (Mm-apo) had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation , while E1 protein was more stable in transgenic plants with no transit peptide (Mm) than others. The E1 expression under tomato RbcS-3C promoter was higher than that under Mac promoter based on the average E1 activity, E1 protein accumulation, and RNA gel-blotting. The E1 expression was increased more than two fold when the 5’-UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene replaced the UTL of RbcS-3C promoter, while the UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene was less effective than the UTL of Mac promoter. The optimal combination of promoter, 5’-UTL, and subcellular compartmentation (transit peptide) for E1 protein production in transgenic tobacco plants are discussed.

  13. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  14. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Thomas, Steven R.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  15. Identification and characterization of core cellulolytic enzymes from Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Decker, Stephen R.; Taylor, Larry E.; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-10-09

    Background: Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. Results: Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysismore » of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (β-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. In Conclusion: Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A

  16. Identification and characterization of core cellulolytic enzymes from Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Decker, Stephen R.; Taylor, Larry E.; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-10-09

    Background: Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. Results: Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysis of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (β-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. In Conclusion: Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A and

  17. In planta expression of A. cellulolyticus Cel5A endocellulase reduces cell wall recalcitrance in tobacco and maize

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 5 endocellulase, E1 (Cel5A), from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was transformed into both Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays with expression targeted to the cell wall under a constitutive promoter. Here we explore the possibility that in planta expression of endocellulases will allow these enzymes to access their substrates during cell wall construction, rendering cellulose more amenable to pretreatment and enzyme digestion. Tobacco and maize plants were healthy and developed normally compared with the wild type (WT). After thermochemical pretreatment and enzyme digestion, transformed plants were clearly more digestible than WT, requiring lower pretreatment severity to achieve comparable conversion levels. Furthermore, the decreased recalcitrance was not due to post-pretreatment residual E1 activity and could not be reproduced by the addition of exogenous E1 to the biomass prior to pretreatment, indicating that the expression of E1 during cell wall construction altered the inherent recalcitrance of the cell wall. PMID:21269444

  18. Lactose enhances cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-08-01

    Acremonium cellulolyticus is a fungus that produces cellulase and has been exploited by enzyme industry. To promote cellulase production by A. cellulolyticus strain C-1, we evaluated the effects of the saccharides: Solka Floc (cellulose), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), pullulan, lactose, trehalose, sophorose, cellobiose, galactose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, and mixtures as carbon sources for cellulase production. Solka Floc with SSPS enhanced cellulase production. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase synthesis in this fungus, and the synergistic effects between lactose and Solka Floc was observed. Various enzyme activities and the protein composition of crude enzyme produced by cultures with or without addition of lactose were analyzed. The results showed that lactose addition greatly improves the production of various proteins with cellulase activity by A. cellulolyticus. To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of cellulases by lactose in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:18804052

  19. Crystal structure of Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) GH family 11 xylanase.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Misumi; Akita, Fusamichi; Maeno, Yuka; Inoue, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) is one of the mesophilic fungi that can produce high levels of cellulose-related enzymes and are expected to be used for the degradation of polysaccharide biomass. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus detected seven open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to xylanases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11. The gene encoding the GH11 xylanase C (TcXylC) with the highest activity was used for overproduction and purification of the recombinant enzyme, permitting solving of the crystal structure to a resolution of 1.98 Å. In the asymmetric unit, two kinds of the crystal structures of the xylanase were identified. The main structure of the protein showed a β-jelly roll structure. We hypothesize that one of the two structures represents the open form and the other shows the close form. The changing of the flexible region between the two structures is presumed to induce and accelerate the enzyme reaction. The specificity of xylanase toward the branched xylan is discussed in the context of this structural data and by comparison with the other published structures of xylanases. PMID:25138599

  20. Characterization of a feruloyl esterase B from Talaromyces cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Yoshida, Erika; Fukada, Hiroaki; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tokura, Mitsunori; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A feruloyl esterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl (feruloyl) group from esterified sugars in plant cell walls. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a high cellulolytic-enzyme producing fungus. However, there is no report for feruloyl esterase activity of T. cellulolyticus. Analysis of the genome database of T. cellulolyticus identified a gene encoding a putative feruloyl esterase B. The recombinant enzyme was prepared using a T. cellulolyticus homologous expression system and characterized. The purified enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity toward p-nitrophenyl acetate, p-nitrophenyl trans-ferulate, methyl ferulate, rice husk, and bagasse. HPLC assays showed that the enzyme released ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from hydrothermal-treated rice husk and bagasse. Trichoderma sp. is well-known high cellulolytic-enzyme producing fungus useful for the lignocellulosic biomass saccharification. Interestingly, no feruloyl esterase has been reported from Trichoderma sp. The results show that this enzyme is expected to be industrially useful for biomass saccharification. PMID:26110915

  1. Endoglucanases: insights into thermostability for biofuel applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining bioethanol from cellulosic biomass involves numerous steps, among which the enzymatic conversion of the polymer to individual sugar units has been a main focus of the biotechnology industry. Among the cellulases that break down the polymeric cellulose are endoglucanases that act synergistically for subsequent hydrolytic reactions. The endoglucanases that have garnered relatively more attention are those that can withstand high temperatures, i.e., are thermostable. Although our understanding of thermostability in endoglucanases is incomplete, some molecular features that are responsible for increased thermostability have been recently identified. This review focuses on the investigations of endoglucanases and their implications for biofuel applications. PMID:24070146

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Talaromyces cellulolyticus Strain Y-94, a Source of Lignocellulosic Biomass-Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Koike, Hideaki; Sawayama, Shigeki; Yano, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) is a promising fungus for cellulase production. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus strain Y-94. The genome is 36.4 Mbp long and contains genes for several enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and amylases. PMID:25720677

  3. Thermostability in endoglucanases is fold-specific

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endoglucanases are involved in the initial stages of cellulose breakdown, an essential step in the bioprocessing of lignocellulosic plant materials into bioethanol. Although these enzymes are economically important, we currently lack a basic understanding of how some endoglucanases can sustain their...

  4. Method for increasing thermostability in cellulase ennzymes

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Thomas, Steven R.; Baker, John O.; Himmel, Michael E.; Chou, Yat-Chen

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme comprising the catalytic domain of the full size E1 enzyme demonstrates enhanced thermostability and is produced by two methods. The first method of producing the new modified E1 is proteolytic cleavage to remove the cellulose binding domain and linker peptide of the full size E1. The second method of producing the new modified E1 is genetic truncation of the gene encoding the full size E1 so that the catalytic domain is expressed in the expression product.

  5. Method for increasing thermostability in cellulase ennzymes

    DOEpatents

    Adney, W.S.; Thomas, S.R.; Baker, J.O.; Himmel, M.E.; Chou, Y.C.

    1998-01-27

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme comprising the catalytic domain of the full size E1 enzyme demonstrates enhanced thermostability and is produced by two methods. The first method of producing the new modified E1 is proteolytic cleavage to remove the cellulose binding domain and linker peptide of the full size E1. The second method of producing the new modified E1 is genetic truncation of the gene encoding the full size E1 so that the catalytic domain is expressed in the expression product. 8 figs.

  6. Molecular study on cloned endoglucanase gene from rumen bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ozkose, Emin; Akyol, Ismail; Ekinci, Mehmet Sait

    2004-01-01

    An endoglucanase gene was subcloned from anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens strain 17. To express endoglucanase gene in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus bovis JB1, an endoglucanase gene fragment was inserted into pVA838-based shuttle vectors. Removal of endoglucanase gene promoter and expression of endoglucanase by promoter of S. bovis JB1 alpha-amylase gene (pACMCS) was also achieved. Survival of constructs pVACMCI, pTACMC and pACMCS, which carry endoglucanase gene, and stability of endoglucanase gene in S. bovis JB1, were observed. Maximal endoglucanase activities from S. bovis JB1/pVACMCI were 2- to 3-fold higher than from E. coli/pVACMCI. Specific cell activity of E. coli/pACMCS was found to be approximately 2- to -3 fold higher than the both E. coli/pVACMCI and E. coli/pTACMC. Specific cell activity of S. bovis JB1/pACMCS was also found to be approximately 2-fold higher than the both S. bovis/pVACMCI and S. bovis JB1/pTACMC. PMID:15925902

  7. Sequence, structure and dynamics analysis of thermostability in endoglucanases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endoglucanases are crucial enzymes used in the production of biofuels from cellulosic biomass, a process that requires thermostability at high processing temperatures. Despite the economic importance of these industrial proteins, we currently lack a basic understanding of how some endoglucanases can...

  8. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  9. Characterization of a novel endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the production and characterization of endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum using different lignocellulose biomasses. We purified a novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrolyzing endoglucanase from the white-rot fungus G. lucidum when the medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) wheat bran. Endoglucanase was purified 12.5-fold via ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-100, and Q-Sepharose column chromatography with a final yield of 15%. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the endoglucanase had a molecular mass of 64.0 kDa. The optimal activity of purified endoglucanase was at pH 5.0 and 35 °C, though it was stable between pH 4.0-7.0 and temperatures of 30-60 °C. The purified enzyme was specific to CMC as a suitable substrate. The metal ions Hg(2+), Fe(2+), and Cr(2+) inhibited enzyme activity, while Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) enhanced enzyme activity. The endoglucanase showed high activity and stability in the presence of different surfactants and non-polar hydrophobic organic solvents. This endoglucanase is tolerant to high temperature, metal ions, surfactants, and solvents, suggesting that it is appropriate for use in biomass conversion for biofuel production under harsh environmental conditions. PMID:25895101

  10. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2015-11-17

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2015-02-10

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2014-07-15

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan

    2015-09-22

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cell comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Processive Endoglucanases Mediate Degradation of Cellulose by Saccharophagus degradans▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brian J.; Zhang, Haitao; Longmire, Atkinson G.; Moon, Young Hwan; Hutcheson, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi are thought to degrade cellulose through the activity of either a complexed or a noncomplexed cellulolytic system composed of endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases. The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 produces a multicomponent cellulolytic system that is unusual in its abundance of GH5-containing endoglucanases. Secreted enzymes of this bacterium release high levels of cellobiose from cellulosic materials. Through cloning and purification, the predicted biochemical activities of the one annotated cellobiohydrolase Cel6A and the GH5-containing endoglucanases were evaluated. Cel6A was shown to be a classic endoglucanase, but Cel5H showed significantly higher activity on several types of cellulose, was the highest expressed, and processively released cellobiose from cellulosic substrates. Cel5G, Cel5H, and Cel5J were found to be members of a separate phylogenetic clade and were all shown to be processive. The processive endoglucanases are functionally equivalent to the endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases required for other cellulolytic systems, thus providing a cellobiohydrolase-independent mechanism for this bacterium to convert cellulose to glucose. PMID:19617364

  16. Cellulose-inducible xylanase Xyl10A from Acremonium cellulolyticus: Purification, cloning and homologous expression.

    PubMed

    Kishishita, Seiichiro; Yoshimi, Miho; Fujii, Tatsuya; Taylor, Larry E; Decker, Stephen R; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Cellulose-inducible endo-β-1,4-xylanase (Xyl10A) from the mesophilic fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus was purified, characterized, and expressed by a homologous expression system. A. cellulolyticus CF-2612 produces a high level of xylanase upon induction by Solka-Floc cellulose. To identify this xylanase, the major fraction showing xylanase activity was purified from the CF-2612 culture supernatant, and its gene was identified from the genome sequence. Amino acid sequence homology of Xyl10A revealed that the purified xylanase, designated Xyl10A, exhibited significant homology to family 10 of the glycoside hydrolases (GH10), possessing a cellulose-binding module 1 in the C-terminal region. The xyl10A gene was cloned and expressed in A. cellulolyticus under the control of a glucoamylase promoter. Two recombinant Xyl10As (rXyl10A-I, 53kDa, and rXyl10A-II, 51kDa) were purified that have slightly different molecular weights based on SDS-PAGE. The rXyl10As had the same physicochemical and enzymatic properties as wtXyl10A: high thermostability (Tm 80.5°C), optimum pH 5.0 and specific activity 232-251U/mg for birchwood xylan. The molecular weights of N-deglycosylated rXyl10As were consistent with that of wild-type Xyl10A (wtXyl10A, 51kDa). PMID:24211645

  17. Dynamics of endoglucanase catalytic domains: implications towards thermostability.

    PubMed

    Yennamalli, Ragothaman M; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Sen, Taner Z

    2011-12-01

    Thermostable endoglucanases play a crucial role in the production of biofuels to breakdown plant cellulose. Analyzing their structure-dynamics relationship can inform about the origins of their thermostability. Although tertiary structures of many endoglucanase proteins are available, the relationship between thermostability, structure, and dynamics is not explored fully. We have generated elastic network models for thermostable and mesostable endoglucanases with the (αβ)₈ fold in substrate bound and unbound states. The comparative analyses shed light on the relation between protein dynamics, thermostability, and substrate binding. We observed specific differences in the dynamic behavior of catalytic residues in slow modes: while both the nucleophile and the acid/base donor residues show positively correlated motions in the thermophile, their dynamics is uncoupled in the mesophile. Our proof-of-concept comparison study suggests that global dynamics can be harnessed to further our understanding of thermostability. PMID:22066537

  18. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2016-02-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2010-06-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Paul; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Micheal; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2014-02-25

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2015-04-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  3. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  4. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2012-02-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shagasi, Tarana

    2015-06-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity, catalytic domains, cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains.

  6. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2015-03-10

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  8. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  10. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Paul; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena

    2010-11-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2013-06-18

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2008-11-11

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  13. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-10-05

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  14. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-10-12

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  15. Induction of Mannanase, Xylanase, and Endoglucanase Activities in Sclerotium rolfsii

    PubMed Central

    Sachslehner, Alois; Nidetzky, Bernd; Kulbe, Klaus D.; Haltrich, Dietmar

    1998-01-01

    Induction of mannanase, xylanase, and cellulase (endoglucanase) synthesis in the plant-pathogenic basidiomycete Sclerotium rolfsii was studied by incubating noninduced, resting mycelia with a number of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. The simultaneous formation of these three endoglycanases could be provoked by several polysaccharides structurally resembling the carbohydrate constituents of lignocellulose (e.g., mannan and cellulose), by various disaccharide catabolites of these lignocellulose constituents (e.g., cellobiose, mannobiose, and xylobiose), or by structurally related disaccharides (e.g., lactose, sophorose, and galactosyl-β-1,4-mannose), as well as by l-sorbose. Synthesis of mannanase, xylanase, and endoglucanase always occurred concomitantly and could not be separated by selecting an appropriate inducer. Various structurally different inducing carbohydrates promoted the excretion of the same multiple isoforms of endoglycanases, as judged from the similar banding patterns obtained in zymogram analyses of enzyme preparations obtained in response to these different inducers and resolved by analytical isoelectric focusing. Whereas enhanced xylanase and endoglucanase formation is strictly dependent on the presence of suitable inducers, increased levels of mannanase are excreted by S. rolfsii even under noninducing, derepressed conditions, as shown in growth experiments with glucose as the substrate. Significant mannanase formation commenced only when glucose was exhausted from the medium. Under these conditions, only very low, presumably constitutive levels of xylanase and endoglucanase were formed. Although the induction of the three endoglycanases is very closely related in S. rolfsii, it was concluded that there is no common, coordinated regulatory mechanism that controls the synthesis of mannanase, xylanase, and endoglucanase. PMID:16349502

  16. Efficient expression of a Paenibacillus barcinonensis endoglucanase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mormeneo, María; Pastor, Fi Javier; Zueco, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The endoglucanase coded by celA (GenBank Access No. Y12512) from Paenibacillus barcinonensis, an enzyme with good characteristics for application on paper manufacture from agricultural fibers, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using different domains of the cell wall protein Pir4 as translational fusion partners, to achieve either secretion or cell wall retention of the recombinant enzyme. Given the presence of five potential N-glycosylation sites in the amino acid sequence coded by celA, the effect of glycosylation on the enzymatic activity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated by expressing the recombinant fusion proteins in both, standard and glycosylation-deficient strains of S. cerevisiae. Correct targeting of the recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western immunoblot using Pir-specific antibodies, while enzymatic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose was demonstrated on plate assays, zymographic analysis and colorimetric assays. Hyperglycosylation of the enzyme when expressed in the standard strain of S. cerevisiae did not affect activity, and values of 1.2 U/ml were obtained in growth medium supernatants in ordinary batch cultures after 24 h. These values compare quite favorably with those described for other recombinant endoglucanases expressed in S. cerevisiae. This is one of the few reports describing the expression of Bacillus cellulases in S. cerevisiae, since yeast expressed recombinant cellulases have been mostly of fungal origin. It is also the first report of the yeast expression of this particular endoglucanase. PMID:21701899

  17. Enhancing cellulase production by overexpression of xylanase regulator protein gene, xlnR, in Talaromyces cellulolyticus cellulase hyperproducing mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    We obtained strains with the xylanase regulator gene, xlnR, overexpressed (HXlnR) and disrupted (DXlnR) derived from Talaromyces cellulolyticus strain C-1, which is a cellulase hyperproducing mutant. Filter paper degrading enzyme activity and cellobiohydrolase I gene expression was the highest in HXlnR, followed by C-1 and DXlnR. These results indicate that the enhancement of cellulase productivity was succeeded by xlnR overexpression. PMID:27309759

  18. Cloning and characterization of a recombinant family 5 endoglucanase from Bacillus licheniformis strain B-41361

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a family 5 endoglucanase, cel5A, was cloned from the moderate thermophile Bacillus licheniformis strain B-41361. The primary structure of the translated cel5A gene predicts a 49 amino acid putative secretion signal and a 485 residue endoglucanase consisting of an N-terminal family...

  19. Properties of a Clostridium thermocellum Endoglucanase Produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, W H; Gräbnitz, F; Staudenbauer, W L

    1986-06-01

    A cellulase gene of Clostridium thermocellum was transferred to Escherichia coli by molecular cloning with bacteriophage lambda and plasmid vectors and shown to be indentical with the celA gene. The celA gene product was purified from extracts of plasmid-bearing E. coli cells by heat treatment and chromatography on DEAE-Trisacryl. It was characterized as a thermophilic endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, the properties of which closely resemble those of endoglucanase A previously isolated from C. thermocellum supernatants. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme purified from E. coli exhibited two protein bands with molecular weights of 49,000 and 52,000. It had a temperature optimum at 75 degrees C and was stable for several hours at 60 degrees C. Endoglucanase activity was optimal between pH 5.5 and 6.5. The enzyme was insensitive against end product inhibition by glucose and cellobiose and remarkably resistant to the denaturing effects of detergents and organic solvents. It was capable of degrading, in addition to cellulosic substrates, glucans with alternating beta-1,4 and beta-1,3 linkages such as barley beta-glucan and lichenan. PMID:16347088

  20. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP) is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Results Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF) as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v) of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8–12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50–300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7–46.3 g/l and 0.15–0.18 (g ethanol/g SF), respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50–300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5–35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12–0.19 (g/g) respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. Conclusion A. cellulolyticus

  1. Production of endoglucanase by the native strains of Streptomyces isolates in submerged fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chellapandi, P.; Jani, Himanshu M.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulase is a complex enzyme system, commercially produced by filamentous fungi under solid-state and submerged cultivation. It has wide applicability in textile, food and beverage industry for effective saccharification process. In this study, cellulolytic enzyme activity, particularly endoglucanase of 26 Streptomyces strains isolated from garden soil was examined, including two isolates selected on the basis of potential cellulolytic activity on Bennett’s agar medium. To enhance the endoglucanase formation in broth culture, different conditions including carbon and nitrogen sources, and growth conditions were tested. The maximum endoglucanase activity (11.25-11.90 U/mL) was achieved within 72-88 h in fermentation medium containing Tween-80, followed by phosphate sources. Both cellulolytic Streptomyces isolates gave almost equal quantity of enzyme in all trials. However the effect of medium ingredients on endoglucanase induction diverged with strains in some extent. PMID:24031191

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Strain Rt8.B8, Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Strain Wai35.B1, and "Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus".

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura L; Izquierdo, Javier A; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Conway, Jonathan M; Cottingham, Robert W; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, I-Min A; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Shapiro, Nicole; Nordberg, Henrik P; Cantor, Michael N; Hua, Susan X; Woyke, Tanja; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria capable of lignocellulose deconstruction. Currently, complete genome sequences for eleven Caldicellulosiruptor species are available. Here, we report genome sequences for three additional Caldicellulosiruptor species: Rt8.B8 DSM 8990 (New Zealand), Wai35.B1 DSM 8977 (New Zealand), and "Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus" strain NA10 DSM 8991 (Japan). PMID:25977428

  3. Biomass in Multifunction Crop Plants: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-163

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, S. R.

    2011-10-01

    An array of cellulase, hemicellulase, and accessory enzymes were tested for their ability to increase the conversion levels and rates of biomass to sugar after being subjected to thermochemical pretreatment. The genes were cloned by Oklahoma State University and expressed, purified, and tested at NREL. Several enzymes were noted to be effective in increasing conversion levels, however expression levels were typically very low. The overall plan was to express these enzymes in corn as a possible mechanism towards decreased recalcitrance. One enzyme, cel5A endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was transformed into both tobacco and corn. The transgenic corn stover and tobacco were examined for their susceptibility to thermochemical pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion.

  4. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a putative endoglucanase in Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-zi; Lan, Lan; Lin, Chen-zeng; Wu, Yu-bing; Lin, Xiong-jie; Ebbole, Daniel; Lu, Guo-dong; Wang, Zong-hua

    2008-04-01

    Microbial pathogens secrete an array of cell wall-degrading enzymes to break down the structure of the host cell wall to facilitate colonization of the host tissue. To better understand their role in the pathogenesis, a putative endoglucanase from Magnaporthe grisea was characterized in this paper. SignalP-3.0 analysis indicates that the protein encoded by gene MGG_02532.5 in M. grisea (named MgEGL1 for M. grisea endoglucanase 1) contains a secretory signal peptide. Multiple alignment shows that MgEGL1 has high level of homology to endoglucanases (EC 3.1.1.4) from Aspergillus nidulans and Trichoderma reesei. The three proteins share a conserved catalytic domain, but only the one from T. reesei contains a cellulose binding module. MgEGL1 was constitutively expressed with the highest level in mycelia and the lowest in conidia. Interestingly, the MgEGL1 RNA could be alternatively processed when cultured in vitro and after infection of rice. Expression analysis confirmed that the MgEGL1 is a secreted protein. Its endoglucanase activity was assayed by Congo red plates, and further confirmed by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The finding in this paper will provide the basis for further determination of the biochemical properties of the endoglucanase protein and its relevant function in fungal pathogenesis. PMID:18247030

  5. In silico Identification and Taxonomic Distribution of Plant Class C GH9 Endoglucanases

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Siddhartha; Sharma, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase 9 superfamily, mainly comprising the endoglucanases, is represented in all three domains of life. The current division of GH9 enzymes, into three subclasses, namely A, B, and C, is centered on parameters derived from sequence information alone. However, this classification is ambiguous, and is limited by the paralogous ancestry of classes B and C endoglucanases, and paucity of biochemical and structural data. Here, we extend this classification schema to putative GH9 endoglucanases present in green plants, with an emphasis on identifying novel members of the class C subset. These enzymes cleave the β(1 → 4) linkage between non-terminal adjacent D-glucopyranose residues, in both, amorphous and crystalline regions of cellulose. We utilized non redundant plant GH9 enzymes with characterized molecular data, as the training set to construct Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The parameters that were used for predicting dominant enzyme function, were derived from this training set, and subsequently refined on 147 sequences with available expression data. Our knowledge-based approach, can ascribe differential endoglucanase activity (A, B, or C) to a query sequence with high confidence, and was used to construct a local repository of class C GH9 endoglucanases (GH9C = 241) from 32 sequenced green plants. PMID:27570528

  6. Recombinant expression and characterization of a novel endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Muddassar; Ahmed, Sibtain; Khan, Muhammad Imran Mahmood; Jamil, Amer

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work was to produce high levels of endoglucanase in Escherichia coli for its potential usage in different industrial applications. Endoglucanase gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 by PCR. The isolated putative endoglucanase gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1,701 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 567 amino acids with a molecular mass of 63-kDa. The gene was cloned into pET-28a(+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant endoglucanase were 50 °C and 9, respectively which makes it very attractive for using in bio-bleaching and pulp industry. It had a K M of 1.76 μmol and V max 0.20 μmol/min with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The activity of recombinant endoglucanse was enhanced by Mg2+, Ca2+, isopropanol and Tween 20 and inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and SDS. The activity of this recombinant endoglucanase was significantly higher than wild type. Therefore, this recombinant enzyme has potential for many industrial applications involving biomass conversions, due to characteristic of broad pH and higher temperature stability. PMID:24493451

  7. In silico Identification and Taxonomic Distribution of Plant Class C GH9 Endoglucanases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Siddhartha; Sharma, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase 9 superfamily, mainly comprising the endoglucanases, is represented in all three domains of life. The current division of GH9 enzymes, into three subclasses, namely A, B, and C, is centered on parameters derived from sequence information alone. However, this classification is ambiguous, and is limited by the paralogous ancestry of classes B and C endoglucanases, and paucity of biochemical and structural data. Here, we extend this classification schema to putative GH9 endoglucanases present in green plants, with an emphasis on identifying novel members of the class C subset. These enzymes cleave the β(1 → 4) linkage between non-terminal adjacent D-glucopyranose residues, in both, amorphous and crystalline regions of cellulose. We utilized non redundant plant GH9 enzymes with characterized molecular data, as the training set to construct Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The parameters that were used for predicting dominant enzyme function, were derived from this training set, and subsequently refined on 147 sequences with available expression data. Our knowledge-based approach, can ascribe differential endoglucanase activity (A, B, or C) to a query sequence with high confidence, and was used to construct a local repository of class C GH9 endoglucanases (GH9C = 241) from 32 sequenced green plants. PMID:27570528

  8. A Novel Cellulosomal Scaffoldin from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus That Contains a Family 9 Glycosyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shi-You; Bayer, Edward A.; Steiner, David; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael

    1999-01-01

    A novel cellulosomal scaffoldin gene, termed cipV, was identified and sequenced from the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. Initial identification of the protein was based on a combination of properties, including its high molecular weight, cellulose-binding activity, glycoprotein nature, and immuno-cross-reactivity with the cellulosomal scaffoldin of Clostridium thermocellum. The cipV gene is 5,748 bp in length and encodes a 1,915-residue polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 199,496. CipV contains an N-terminal signal peptide, seven type I cohesin domains, an internal family III cellulose-binding domain (CBD), and an X2 module of unknown function in tandem with a type II dockerin domain at the C terminus. Surprisingly, CipV also possesses at its N terminus a catalytic module that belongs to the family 9 glycosyl hydrolases. Sequence analysis indicated the following. (i) The repeating cohesin domains are very similar to each other, ranging between 70 and 90% identity, and they also have about 30 to 40% homology with each of the other known type I scaffoldin cohesins. (ii) The internal CBD belongs to family III but differs from other known scaffoldin CBDs by the omission of a 9-residue stretch that constitutes a characteristic loop previously associated with the scaffoldins. (iii) The C-terminal type II dockerin domain is only the second such domain to have been discovered; its predicted “recognition codes” differ from those proposed for the other known dockerins. The putative calcium-binding loop includes an unusual insert, lacking in all the known type I and type II dockerins. (iv) The X2 module has about 60% sequence homology with that of C. thermocellum and appears at the same position in the scaffoldin. (v) Unlike the other known family 9 catalytic modules of bacterial origin, the CipV catalytic module is not accompanied by a flanking helper module, e.g., an adjacent family IIIc CBD or an immunoglobulin-like domain

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of endoglucanase genes from an industrial fungus, Aspergillus kawachii.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukari; Hinoki, Yumi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2003-09-01

    Three endoglucanase genes (cel5A, cel5B, and cel61A) were cloned from an industrial fungus, Aspergillus kawachii. Yeasts transformed with these cDNAs showed endoglucanase activity in medium. Cel5A and Cel61A contained a type 1 cellulose-binding domain (CBD1) at the C-terminus of the enzyme. The putative catalytic regions of Cel5A and Cel5B showed homology with various endoglucanases belonging glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Cel5B showed high homology with Cel5A in catalytic region, but it lacked CBD1 and linker. The cel5A contained four introns, whereas cel5B contained five introns. The putative catalytic region of Cel61A showed homology with enzymes belonging to GH61. The cel61A contained no introns. PMID:14519993

  10. Role of endoglucanases in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 virulence on Saintpaulia ionantha.

    PubMed

    Boccara, M; Aymeric, J L; Camus, C

    1994-03-01

    The role of endoglucanases (endoglucanases Z and Y) in Erwinia chrysanthemi pathogenicity on Saintpaulia ionantha was assessed by mutagenizing cloned cel genes (celZ and celY) and recombining them with the chromosomal alleles. Strains with an omega interposon in celZ, a deletion in celY, or a double cel mutant were as virulent as the wild-type strain. However, in the strain with a deletion in celY, a delay in the appearance of symptoms was observed, and then maceration progressed as in plants infected with the wild-type strain, suggesting that E. chrysanthemi endoglucanases play a minor role in soft rot disease development. PMID:8113196

  11. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

  12. Structure, dynamics, and specificity of endoglucanase D from Clostridium cellulovorans.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Brumm, Phillip; Smith, Robert W; Dyer, Kevin; Hura, Greg L; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Phillips, George N

    2013-11-15

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose is a critical step in the biological conversion of plant biomass into an abundant renewable energy source. An understanding of the structural and dynamic features that cellulases utilize to bind a single strand of crystalline cellulose and hydrolyze the β-1,4-glycosidic bonds of cellulose to produce fermentable sugars would greatly facilitate the engineering of improved cellulases for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass. Endoglucanase D (EngD) from Clostridium cellulovorans is a modular enzyme comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module, which is attached via a flexible linker. Here, we present the 2.1-Å-resolution crystal structures of full-length EngD with and without cellotriose bound, solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of the full-length enzyme, the characterization of the active cleft glucose binding subsites, and substrate specificity of EngD on soluble and insoluble polymeric carbohydrates. SAXS data support a model in which the linker is flexible, allowing EngD to adopt an extended conformation in solution. The cellotriose-bound EngD structure revealed an extended active-site cleft that contains seven glucose-binding subsites, but unlike the majority of structurally determined endocellulases, the active-site cleft of EngD is partially enclosed by Trp162 and Tyr232. EngD variants, which lack Trp162, showed a significant reduction in activity and an alteration in the distribution of cellohexaose degradation products, suggesting that Trp162 plays a direct role in substrate binding. PMID:23751954

  13. Interactions of Endoglucanases with Amorphous Cellulose Films Resolved by Neutron Reflectometry and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Gang; Liu, Zelin; Kent, Michael S; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Michael, Jablin; Jaclyn, Murton K; Halbert, Candice E; Datta, Supratim; Chao, Wang; Brown, Page

    2012-01-01

    A study of the interaction of four endoglucanases with amorphous cellulose films by neutron reflectometry (NR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) is reported. The endoglucanases include a mesophilic fungal endoglucanase (Cel45A from H. insolens), a processive endoglucanase from a marine bacterium (Cel5H from S. degradans), and two from thermophilic bacteria (Cel9A from A. acidocaldarius and Cel5A from T. maritima). The use of amorphous cellulose is motivated by the promise of ionic liquid pretreatment as a second generation technology that disrupts the native crystalline structure of cellulose. The endoglucanases displayed highly diverse behavior. Cel45A and Cel5H, which possess carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), penetrated and digested within the bulk of the films to a far greater extent than Cel9A and Cel5A, which lack CBMs. While both Cel45A and Cel5H were active within the bulk of the films, striking differences were observed. With Cel45A, substantial film expansion and interfacial broadening were observed, whereas for Cel5H the film thickness decreased with little interfacial broadening. These results are consistent with Cel45A digesting within the interior of cellulose chains as a classic endoglucanase, and Cel5H digesting predominantly at chain ends consistent with its designation as a processive endoglucanase.

  14. Engineering a family 9 processive endoglucanase from Paenibacillus barcinonensis displaying a novel architecture.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Cadena, Edith Marleny; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L; Diaz, Pilar; Pastor, F I Javier

    2010-04-01

    Cel9B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a modular endoglucanase with a novel molecular architecture among family 9 enzymes that comprises a catalytic domain (GH9), a family 3c cellulose-binding domain (CBM3c), a fibronectin III-like domain repeat (Fn3(1,2)), and a C-terminal family 3b cellulose-binding domain (CBM3b). A series of truncated derivatives of endoglucanase Cel9B have been constructed and characterized. Deletion of CBM3c produced a notable reduction in hydrolytic activity, while it did not affect the cellulose-binding properties as CBM3c did not show the ability to bind to cellulose. On the contrary, CBM3b exhibited binding to cellulose. The truncated forms devoid of CBM3b lost cellulose-binding ability and showed a reduced activity on crystalline cellulose, although activity on amorphous celluloses was not affected. Endoglucanase Cel9B produced only a small ratio of insoluble products from filter paper, while most of the reducing ends produced by the enzyme were released as soluble sugars (91%), indicating that it is a processive enzyme. Processivity of Cel9B resides in traits contained in the tandem of domains GH9-CBM3c, although the slightly reduced processivity of truncated form GH9-CBM3c suggests a minor contribution of domains Fn3(1,2) or CBM3b, not contained in it, on processivity of endoglucanase Cel9B. PMID:19957081

  15. Amino terminal region of Phytophthora sojae cel12 endoglucanase confers tissue collapse function in Nicotiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora encodes an unusually large number of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), with many large gene families resulting from duplication events. There are ten copies of GH 12 (cel12) present in Phytophthora sojae. This is the only pathogen endoglucanase family to which plants produce an inhibitory pr...

  16. Endoglucanase and total cellulase from newly isolated Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei: production, characterization, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Kupski, Larine; Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Buffon, Jaqueline Garda; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2014-01-01

    A multienzymatic complex production was evaluated, as well as endoglucanase and total cellulase characterization, during solid-state fermentation of rice industry wastes with Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 (newly isolated microorganism) and Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 (control). R. oryzae produced enzymes with higher activity at 15 h of fermentation (5.1 and 2.3 U g(-1) to endoglucanase and total cellulase), while T. reesei produced them at 55 h (15.3 and 2.8 U g(-1) to endoglucanase and total cellulase). The optimum temperature for total cellulase and endoglucanase was 60 °C. For Trichoderma and Rhizopus, the optimum pH was 5.0 and 6.0 for total cellulase and 6.0 and 5.0 for endoglucanase, respectively. The enzymes produced by Rhizopus presented higher stability at the temperature range evaluated (25-100 °C); the endoglucanase KM value was 20 times lower than the one found for Trichoderma. The characterization of the cellulolytic enzymes from the fungal species native of rice husk revealed that they can be more efficient than the genetically modified enzymes when rice husk and rice bran are used as substrates. PMID:24092451

  17. The global regulator LaeA controls production of citric acid and endoglucanases in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Linde, Tore; Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen

    2016-08-01

    The global regulatory protein LaeA is known for regulating the production of many kinds of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species, as well as sexual and asexual reproduction, and morphology. In Aspergillus carbonarius, it has been shown that LaeA regulates production of ochratoxin. We have investigated the regulatory effect of LaeA on production of citric acid and cellulolytic enzymes in A. carbonarius. Two types of A. carbonarius strains, having laeA knocked out or overexpressed, were constructed and tested in fermentation. The knockout of laeA significantly decreased the production of citric acid and endoglucanases, but did not reduce the production of beta-glucosidases or xylanases. The citric acid accumulation was reduced with 74-96 % compared to the wild type. The endoglucanase activity was reduced with 51-78 %. Overexpression of LaeA seemed not to have an effect on citric acid production or on cellulose or xylanase activity. PMID:27169528

  18. Co-expression of Endoxylanase and Endoglucanase in Scheffersomyces stipitis and Its Application in Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Roongsawang, Niran

    2015-12-01

    Scheffersomyces stipitis strain BCC15191 is considered as a biotechnologically valuable yeast for its ability to ferment glucose and xylose, the main sugar components in plant biomass, to ethanol. However, the wild strain lacks of endogenous cellulases and hemicellulases that limited biomass utilization. In order to improve biomass degrading ability of S. stipitis BCC15191, new integrative plasmids harboring constitutive TEF1 promoter and codon-optimized zeocin or hygromycin antibiotic resistance genes were developed. Aspergillus niger endoxylanase and Aspergillus aculeatus endoglucanase activities were demonstrated in transformant cells expressing codon-optimized genes. S. stipitis co-expressing endoxylanase and endoglucanase was able to grow in medium containing xylan and β-glucan as carbon sources and directly produced ethanol with yields of 2.7 g/L. It could also use pretreated corncob as a carbon source for ethanol production. These results suggested that recombinant S. stipilis is possible for consolidated bioprocessing of biomass. PMID:26378014

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of endoglucanase III from Trichoderma harzianum

    PubMed Central

    Vizoná Liberato, Marcelo; Cardoso Generoso, Wesley; Malagó, Wilson; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Endoglucanases are enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and are important components of the cellulolytic complex. In contrast to other members of the complex, they cleave internal β-1,4-glycosidic bonds in the cellulose polymer, allowing cellulose to be used as an energy source. Since biomass is an important renewable source of energy, the structural and functional characterization of these enzymes is of interest. In this study, endoglucanase III from Trichoderma harzianum was produced in Pichia pastoris and purified. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.54, b = 55.57, c = 157.3 Å, were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and an X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.07 Å resolution. PMID:22442229

  20. Characterization of modular bifunctional processive endoglucanase Cel5 from Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396.

    PubMed

    Ghatge, Sunil Subhash; Telke, Amar Anandrao; Kang, Seo-Hee; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun-Woo; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-05-01

    Cel5 from marine Hahella chejuensis is composed of glycoside hydrolase family-5 (GH5) catalytic domain (CD) and two carbohydrate binding modules (CBM6-2). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The optimum endoglucanase and xylanase activities of recombinant Cel5 were observed at 65 °C, pH 6.5 and 55 °C, pH 5.5, respectively. It exhibited K m of 1.8 and 7.1 mg/ml for carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan, respectively. The addition of Ca(2+) greatly improved thermostability and endoglucanase activity of Cel5. The Cel5 retained 90 % of its endoglucanase activity after 24 h incubation in presence of 5 M concentration of NaCl. Recombinant Cel5 showed production of cellobiose after hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates (soluble/insoluble) and methylglucuronic acid substituted xylooligosaccharides after hydrolysis of glucuronoxylans by endo-wise cleavage. These results indicated that Cel5 as bifunctional enzyme having both processive endoglucanase and xylanase activities. The multidomain structure of Cel5 is clearly distinguished from the GH5 bifunctional glycoside hydrolases characterized to date, which are single domain enzymes. Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggested presence of two conserved binding sites with different substrate specificities in CBM6-2 and a single catalytic site in CD. Residues Glu132 and Glu219 were identified as key catalytic amino acids by sequence alignment and further verified by using site directed mutagenesis. CBM6-2 plays vital role in catalytic activity and thermostability of Cel5. The bifunctional activities and multiple substrate specificities of Cel5 can be utilized for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into soluble sugars. PMID:24343767

  1. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of endoglucanase genes from Fibrobacter succinogenes AR1.

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchioli, R; Watson, K

    1991-01-01

    A cosmid gene library was constructed in Escherichia coli from genomic DNA isolated from the ruminal anaerobe Fibrobacter succinogenes AR1. Clones were screened on carboxymethyl cellulose, and 8 colonies that produced large clearing zones and 25 colonies that produced small clearing zones were identified. Southern blot hybridization revealed the existence of at least three separate genes encoding cellulase activity. pRC093, which is representative of cosmid clones that produce large clearing zones, was subcloned in pGem-1, and the resulting hybrid pRCEH directed synthesis of endoglucanase activity localized on a 2.1-kb EcoRI-HindIII insert. Activity was expressed from this fragment when it was cloned in both orientations in pGem-1 and pGem-2, indicating that F. succinogenes promoters functioned successfully in E. coli. A high level of endoglucanase activity was detected on acid-swollen cellulose, ball-milled cellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose; and a moderate level was detected on filter paper, Avicel, lichenan, and xylan. Most activity (80%) was localized in the periplasm of E. coli, with low but significant levels (16%) being detected in the extracellular medium. The periplasmic endoglucanase had an estimated molecular weight of 46,500, had an optimum temperature of 39 degrees C, and exhibited activity over a broad pH range, with a maximum at pH 5.0. Images PMID:2014986

  2. Isolation and characterization of a novel endoglucanase from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Fan, Yongxin; Zheng, Haoying; Du, Fengguang; Zhang, Ke-qin; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Linfeng; Zhang, Man; Niu, Qiuhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel gene (designated as cen219) encoding endoglucanase was isolated from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus metagenomic library by functional screening. Sequence analysis revealed that cen219 encoded a protein of 367 amino acids. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified endoglucanase suggested that Cen219 was a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for endoglucanase activity of Cen219 was separately 50 °C and 6.0. It was stable from 30 to 50 °C, and from pH 4.0 to 7.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Mn(2+) and dramatically reduced by detergent SDS and metals Fe(3+), Cu(2+) or Hg(2+). The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of β-1, 3-, and β-1, 4-linked polysaccharides, with varying activities. Activities towards microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper were relatively high, while the highest activity was towards oat gum. The Km and Vmax of Cen219 towards CMC was 17.37 mg/ml and 333.33 U/mg, respectively. The findings have an insight into understanding the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions in B. xylophilus species. The properties also make Cen219 an interesting enzyme for biotechnological application. PMID:24386096

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Endoglucanase from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Metagenomic Library

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haoying; Du, Fengguang; Zhang, Ke-qin; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Linfeng; Zhang, Man; Niu, Qiuhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel gene (designated as cen219) encoding endoglucanase was isolated from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus metagenomic library by functional screening. Sequence analysis revealed that cen219 encoded a protein of 367 amino acids. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified endoglucanase suggested that Cen219 was a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for endoglucanase activity of Cen219 was separately 50°C and 6.0. It was stable from 30 to 50°C, and from pH 4.0 to 7.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Mn2+ and dramatically reduced by detergent SDS and metals Fe3+, Cu2+ or Hg2+. The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of β-1, 3-, and β-1, 4-linked polysaccharides, with varying activities. Activities towards microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper were relatively high, while the highest activity was towards oat gum. The Km and Vmax of Cen219 towards CMC was 17.37 mg/ml and 333.33 U/mg, respectively. The findings have an insight into understanding the molecular basis of host–parasite interactions in B. xylophilus species. The properties also make Cen219 an interesting enzyme for biotechnological application. PMID:24386096

  4. Expression and characterization of a recombinant endoglucanase from western corn rootworm, in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Valencia Jiménez, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Siegfried, Blair D

    2014-01-01

    The endoglucanase cDNA, Dvv-ENGase I, from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte was expressed using the GS115 methylotrophic strain of Pichia pastoris. The Dvv-ENGase I gene was cloned into the integrative plasmid pPICZαA under the control of AOX1, which is a methanol-inducible promoter. Positive clones were selected for their ability to produce the recombinant endoglucanase upon continuous methanol induction. The secreted recombinant insect endoglucanase Dvv-ENGase I has an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa. The recombinant endo-1,4-β-glucanase (ENGase) was able to digest the substrates: hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and Whatman No. 1 filter paper. A higher accumulation of reducing sugar was evident when the P. pastoris expression medium contained HEC (1%) instead of CMC (1%). An enzymatic activity band was detected after performing electrophoretic separation under nondenaturing conditions. The biological activity of the recombinant Dvv-ENGase I was influenced by the presence of protease inhibitors in the culture medium. PMID:25434035

  5. Molecular characterization of a fungicidal endoglucanase from the cyanobacterium Calothrix elenkinii.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Chitra; Gupta, Vishal; Kumar, Kanika; Prasanna, Radha

    2013-10-01

    A gene responsible for fungicidal activity was identified in the cyanobacterial strain Calothrix elenkinii RPC1, which had shown promise as a biocontrol agent. Functional screening of the genomic library revealed fungicidal (against Pythium aphanidermatum) and endoglucanase activities in two clones. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1,044 bp, encoding 348 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 38 kDa. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the putative gene (cael1) showed 99% similarity with the β-1,4-endoglucanase from Anabaena laxa RPAN8 and 97% with the glucanase belonging to the peptidase M20 family of Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc sp. PCC7120, respectively. The putative promoters, ribosomal binding sites and a signal peptide of 22 amino acid residues were identified, revealing the secretory nature of the protein. The phylogenetic tree indicated a close relationship of the gene with Bacillus sp. This study is the first to report on the characterization of an endoglucanase in Calothrix sp. PMID:23839085

  6. Identification of an Extracellular Endoglucanase That Is Required for Full Virulence in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongling; Zhuo, Tao; Fan, Xiaojing; Zou, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker disease, which is characterized by the formation of water-soaked lesions, white or yellow spongy pustules and brown corky canker. In this work, we report the contribution of extracellular endoglucanase to canker development during infection. The ectopic expression of nine putative cellulases in Escherichia coli indicated that two endoglucanases, BglC3 and EngXCA, show carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Both bglC3 and engXCA genes were transcribed in X. citri subsp. citri, however, only BglC3 protein was detected outside the cell in western blot analysis. The deletion of bglC3 gene resulted in complete loss of extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase activity and delayed the onset of canker symptoms in both infiltration- and wound-inoculation assays. When growing in plant tissue, the cell density of bglC3 mutant was lower than that of the wild type. Our data demonstrated that BglC3 is an extracellular endoglucanase required for the full virulence of X. citri subsp. citri. PMID:26950296

  7. Isolation and characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase from a metagenomic library of goat rumen.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Huang, Shuai; Jiang, Haiqin; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Lvmu; Wang, Juhua; Fan, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    A cellulase gene (cel28a) was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome library of goat rumen microorganisms, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The gene has a length of 1596 bp obtained using a genome walking Kit and encodes a protein of 509 amino acids with a calculated MW of 55 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence was homologous with cellulases belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5). The expressed protein showed activity toward carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and xylan, suggesting non-specific endoglucanase activity. The optimal conditions for endoglucanase and xylanase activities were 50 °C and pH 5.0. The metal ions (Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+) and Co(2+)) stimulated the cellulase activity of cel28a, while the other metal ions and chemicals (Ni(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), SDS and EDTA) inhibited the cellulase activity. Further examination of substrate preference showed a higher activity with CMC, oat spelt xylan and birchwood xylan than with filter paper and microcrystalline cellulose, again suggesting that the protein was an endoglucanase with xylanase activity. PMID:26712627

  8. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

  9. Intronless celB from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum encodes a modular family A endoglucanase.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L; Xue, G P; Orpin, C G; Black, G W; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G P

    1994-01-01

    The cDNA designated celB from the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum contained a single open reading frame of 1422 bp coding for a protein (CelB) of M(r) 53,070. CelB expressed by Escherichia coli harbouring the full-length gene hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose in the manner of an endoglucanase, but was most active against barley beta-glucan. It also released reducing sugar from xylan and lichenan, but was inactive against crystalline cellulose, laminarin, mannan, galactan and arabinan. The rate of hydrolysis of cellulo-oligosaccharides by CelB increased with increasing chain length from cellotriose to cellopentaose. The predicted structure of CelB contained features indicative of modular structure. The first 360 residues of CelB constituted a fully functional catalytic domain that was homologous with bacterial endoglucanases belonging to cellulase family A, including five which originate from three different species of anaerobic rumen bacteria. Downstream from this domain, and linked to it by a serine/threonine-rich hinge, was a non-catalytic domain containing short tandem repeats, homologous to the C-terminal repeats contained in xylanase A from the same anaerobic fungus. Unlike previous fungal cellulases, genomic celB was devoid of introns. This lack of introns and the homology of its encoded product with rumen bacterial endoglucanases suggest that acquisition of celB by the fungus may at some stage have involved horizontal gene transfer from a prokaryote to N. particiarum. Images Figure 4 PMID:8297343

  10. Expression of endoglucanases in Pichia pastoris under control of the GAP promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant-derived biomass is a potential alternative to fossil feedstocks for a greener economy. Enzymatic saccharification of biomass has been studied extensively and endoglucanases have been found to be a prerequisite for quick initial liquefaction of biomass under industrial conditions. Pichia pastoris, widely used for heterologous protein expression, can be utilized for fungal endoglucanase production. The recently marketed PichiaPink™ expression system allows for rapid clone selection, and employs the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter to ensure high protein expression levels. However, methanol is toxic and poses a fire hazard, issues which become more significant at an industrial scale. It is possible to eliminate these risks and still maintain high productivity by switching to the constitutive GAP promoter. Results In the present study, a plasmid carrying the constitutive GAP promoter was created for PichiaPink™. We then studied expression of two endoglucanases, AfCel12A from Aspergillus fumigatus and TaCel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus, regulated by either the AOX1 promoter or the GAP promoter. Initial experiments in tubes and small bioreactors showed that the levels of AfCel12A obtained with the constitutive promoter were similar or higher, compared to the AOX1 promoter, whereas the levels of TaCel5A were somewhat lower. After optimization of cultivation conditions using a 15-l bioreactor, the recombinant P. pastoris strains utilizing the GAP promoter produced ca. 3–5 g/l of total secreted protein, with CMCase activity equivalent to 1200 nkat/ml AfCel12A and 170 nkat/ml TaCel5A. Conclusions We present a strategy for constitutive recombinant protein expression in the novel PichiaPink™ system. Both AfCel12A and TaCel5A were successfully expressed constitutively in P. pastoris under the GAP promoter. Reasonable protein levels were reached after optimizing cultivation conditions. PMID:24742273

  11. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. PMID:24318365

  12. Three-dimensional structure of RBcel1, a metagenome-derived psychrotolerant family GH5 endoglucanase

    PubMed Central

    Delsaute, Maud; Berlemont, Renaud; Dehareng, Dominique; Van Elder, Dany; Galleni, Moreno; Bauvois, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    RBcel1 is an endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) that was recently identified from a soil metagenome library from the Antarctic. Unlike its closest structural homologue (Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus), this enzyme was reported to be able to catalyze transglycosylation reactions and has putatively been implicated in the bacterial cellulose-synthesis process. Here, the structure of RBcel1 at 1.4 Å resolution, solved by molecular replacement, is reported. The structure and putative substrate-binding site are described and compared with those of other GH5_5 subfamily members. PMID:23908022

  13. Synergistic Cellulose Hydrolysis Dominated by a Multi-Modular Processive Endoglucanase from Clostridium cellulosi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Kun-Di; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrance of biomass feedstock remains a challenge for microbial conversion of lignocellulose into biofuel and biochemicals. Clostridium cellulosi, one thermophilic bacterial strain dominated in compost, could hydrolyze lignocellulose at elevated temperature by secreting more than 38 glycoside hydrolases belong to 15 different families. Though one multi-modular endoglucanase CcCel9A has been identified from C. cellulosi CS-4-4, mechanism of synergistic degradation of cellulose by various cellulases from strain CS-4-4 remains elusive. In this study, CcCel9A, CcCel9B, and CcCel48A were characterized as processive endoglucanase, non-processive endoglucanase, and exoglucanase, respectively. To understand how they cooperate with each other, we estimated the approximate concentration ratio on the zymogram and optimized it using purified enzymes in vitro. Synergism between individual glycoside hydrolase during cellulose hydrolysis in the mixture was observed. CcCel9A and CcCel48A could degrade cellulose chain from non-reducing ends and reducing ends, respectively, to cello-oligosaccharide. CcCel9B could cut cellulose chain randomly and cello-oligosaccharides with varied length were released. In addition, a β-glucosidase BlgA from Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32 which could cleave cello-oligosaccharides including G2-G6 to glucose was added to the enzyme mixture to remove the product inhibition of its partners. The combination and ratios of these cellulases were optimized based on the release rate of glucose. Hydrolysis of corn stalk was conducted by a four-component cocktail (CcCel9A:CcCel9B:CcCel48A:BlgA = 25:25:10:18), and only glucose was detected as main production by using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Processive endoglucanase CcCel9A, dominated in secretome of C. cellulosi, showed good potential in developing cellulase cocktail due to its exquisite cooperation with various cellulases. PMID:27379062

  14. Legionella pneumophila Secretes an Endoglucanase That Belongs to the Family-5 of Glycosyl Hydrolases and Is Dependent upon Type II Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of cell-free culture supernatants revealed that Legionella pneumophila strains secrete an endoglucanase activity. L. pneumophila lspF mutants were deficient for this activity, indicating that the endoglucanase is secreted by the bacterium’s type II protein secretion system. Inactivation of celA, encoding a member of the family-5 of glycosyl hydrolases, abolished the endoglucanase activity in L. pneumophila culture supernatants. The cloned celA gene conferred activity upon recombinant Escherichia coli. Thus, CelA is the major secreted endoglucanase of L. pneumophila. Mutants inactivated for celA grew normally in protozoa and macrophage, indicating that CelA is not required for the intracellular phase of L. pneumophila. The CelA endoglucanase is one of at least 25 proteins secreted by the type II system of L. pneumophila and the seventeenth type of enzyme effector associated with this pathway. Only a subset of the other Legionella species tested expressed secreted endoglucanase activity, suggesting that the type II secretion output differs among the different legionellae. Overall, this study represents the first documentation of an endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) being produced by a strain of Legionella. PMID:19817866

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of an endoglucanase in the phytopathogenic fungus Pyrenochaeta lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Valente, Maria Teresa; Infantino, Alessandro; Aragona, Maria

    2011-08-01

    Many fungal plant pathogens secrete an array of cell wall degrading enzymes mainly involved in the pathogenesis. In this work, a cDNA clone encoding an extracellular endo-1,4-β-glucanase (named PlEGL1) from the causal agent of the Corky Root Rot of tomato, Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, was isolated and characterized, in order to understand its putative role in the pathogenesis and its mechanism of action. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acidic sequence shows a high homology with other endoglucanases from different phytopathogenic fungi and detects a well-defined conserved domain of the Glycosyl Hydrolase family 61 (GH61). In vitro, Plegl1 gene transcription is correlated to a cellulolytic activity of the fungus, regulated, in its turn, by the presence of sugar and/or cellulose in the culture medium. In the infected plants, expression level of Plegl1 is positively correlated to the development of the disease. PlEGL1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was purified and tested for its cellulolytic ability, showing a very weak activity, in agreement with all the endoglucanases belonging to GH61 family. The finding in this paper will provide the basis for further determination of biochemical properties of the PlEGL1 protein and its possible involvement in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:21544619

  16. Characteristics of bifunctional acidic endoglucanase (Cel5B) from Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2012-07-01

    The endoglucanase (Cel5B) from the filamentous fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was cloned and expressed without a signal peptide, and alanine residue 22 converted to glutamine in Pichia pastoris GS115. The DNA sequence of Cel5B had an open reading frame of 1,077 bp, encoding a protein of 359 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 47 kDa. On the basis of sequence similarity, Cel5B displayed active site residues at Glu-175 and Glu-287. Both residues lost full hydrolytic activity when replaced with alanine through point mutation. The purified recombinant Cel5B showed very high specific activity, about 80- to 1,000-fold and 13- to 70-fold in comparison with other endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolase, on carboxymethylcellulose and filter paper, respectively, at pH 3.5 and 55°C. Cel5B displayed bifunctional characteristics under acidic conditions. The kinetic properties of the enzyme determined using a Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that Cel5B is a catalytically efficient cellulolytic enzyme. These results suggest that Cel5B has high bifunctional endo- and exoglucanase activity under acidic conditions and is a good candidate for bioconversion of lignocellulose. PMID:22395898

  17. Characterization of a thermostable endoglucanase produced by Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Maryam; Hemmat, Jafar; Seifati, Seyed Morteza; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to isolate and evaluate the cellulase activity of cellulolytic bacteria in hot springs of Dehloran, Ilam province, Iran. Water and sludge samples were collected from the hot springs and the bacterial enrichment was performed in a medium containing rice barn and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The cultures were incubated at 50 °C in aerobic conditions. The bacteria were isolated on CMC agar (1%) medium. Cellulase assay of the isolates was measured by the evaluation of endoglucanase enzyme activity, which is also called as carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The isolated thermotolerant bacteria were then identified and optimized for the production of CMCase. Moreover, stabilizing elements of the enzyme were identified with in silico approach. The chosen isolate was identified as Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9. The identified strain produced the most thermostable CMCase at a concentration of 5.6 g/L of ammonium sulfate, 9 g/L CMCase or 12 g/L rice bran, 0/6% Tween-80, and 0.2% sucrose. The produced enzyme showed 80% of the residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 65 °C. In silico data indicated that the remaining residual activity was due to the redundant stabilizing elements in the protein structure. Consequently, I. variabilis can be isolated from the extreme environment and has a thermostable endoglucanase which may be used for various applications after studying them. PMID:26691485

  18. Functional and structural analyses of a 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guizhi; Li, Qian; Shang, Na; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Weidong; Zheng, Yingying; Han, Xu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Jin, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a saprotrophic white-rot fungus which contains a rich set of cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we screened an array of potential 1,4-β-endoglucanases from G. lucidum based on the gene annotation library and found that one candidate gene, GlCel5A, exhibits CMC-hydrolyzing activity. The recombinant GlCel5A protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is able to hydrolyze CMC and β-glucan but not xylan and mannan. The enzyme exhibits optimal activity at 60°C and pH 3-4, and retained 50% activity at 80 and 90°C for at least 15 and 10min. The crystal structure of GlCel5A and its complex with cellobiose, solved at 2.7 and 2.86Å resolution, shows a classical (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold as seen in other members of glycoside hydrolase family 5. The complex structure contains a cellobiose molecule in the +1 and +2 subsites, and reveals the interactions with the positive sites of the enzyme. Collectively, the present work provides the first comprehensive characterization of an endoglucanase from G. lucidum that possesses properties for industrial applications, and strongly encourages further studying in the cellulolytic enzyme system of G. lucidum. PMID:26992795

  19. Modulating the thermostability of Endoglucanase I from Trichoderma reesei using computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bayram Akcapinar, Gunseli; Venturini, Alessandro; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Sezerman, Ugur O

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades, effective cellulose degradation became a major point of interest due to the properties of cellulose as a renewable energy source and the widespread application of cellulases (the cellulose degrading enzymes) in many industrial processes. Effective bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into soluble sugars for ethanol production requires use of thermostable and highly active cellulases. The library of current cellulases includes enzymes that can work at acidic and neutral pH in a wide temperature range. However, only few cellulases are reported to be thermostable. In order to alleviate this, we have performed a hybrid approach for the thermostabilization of a key cellulase, Endoglucanase I (EGI) from Trichoderma reesei. We combined in silico and in vitro experiments to modulate the thermostability of EGI. Four different predictive algorithms were used to set up a library of mutations. Three thermostabilizer mutations (Q126F, K272F, Q274V) were selected and molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature and high temperatures were performed to analyze the effect of the mutations on enzyme structure and stability. The mutations were then introduced into the endoglucanase 1 gene, using site-directed mutagenesis, and the effect of the mutations on enzyme structure and stability were determined. MD simulations supported the fact that Q126F, K272F and Q274V mutations have a thermostabilizing effect on the protein structure. Experimental studies validated that all of the mutants exhibited higher thermostability compared with native EGI albeit with a decrease in specific activity. PMID:25784767

  20. Characterization of a thermostable endoglucanase produced by Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Maryam; Hemmat, Jafar; Seifati, Seyed Morteza; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and evaluate the cellulase activity of cellulolytic bacteria in hot springs of Dehloran, Ilam province, Iran. Water and sludge samples were collected from the hot springs and the bacterial enrichment was performed in a medium containing rice barn and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The cultures were incubated at 50 °C in aerobic conditions. The bacteria were isolated on CMC agar (1%) medium. Cellulase assay of the isolates was measured by the evaluation of endoglucanase enzyme activity, which is also called as carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The isolated thermotolerant bacteria were then identified and optimized for the production of CMCase. Moreover, stabilizing elements of the enzyme were identified with in silico approach. The chosen isolate was identified as Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9. The identified strain produced the most thermostable CMCase at a concentration of 5.6 g/L of ammonium sulfate, 9 g/L CMCase or 12 g/L rice bran, 0/6% Tween-80, and 0.2% sucrose. The produced enzyme showed 80% of the residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 65 °C. In silico data indicated that the remaining residual activity was due to the redundant stabilizing elements in the protein structure. Consequently, I. variabilis can be isolated from the extreme environment and has a thermostable endoglucanase which may be used for various applications after studying them. PMID:26691485

  1. Biophysical and biochemical studies of a major endoglucanase secreted by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Rosseto, Flávio Rodolfo; Manzine, Livia Regina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Endoglucanases are the main cellulolytic enzymes secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). The major endoglucanase exported by this bacterium into an external milieu is an enzyme XccCel5A, which belongs to GH5 family subfamily 1 and is encoded by the gene engXCA. We purified XccCel5A using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography and identified it by zymogram analysis. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed that XccCel5A is stable in a wide pH range and up to about 55°C and denatures at the higher temperatures. The optimal conditions for enzyme activity were identified as T=45°C and pH=7.0. Under the optimum conditions the catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) of the enzyme was determined as 5.16×10(4)s(-1)M(-1) using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a substrate. Our SAXS studies revealed extended tadpole-shape molecular assembly, typical for cellulases, and allowed to determine an overall shape of the enzyme and a relative position of the catalytic and cellulose binding domains. PMID:27444323

  2. An Acidic Thermostable Recombinant Aspergillus nidulans Endoglucanase Is Active towards Distinct Agriculture Residues

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Eveline Queiroz de Pinho; Rubini, Marciano Regis; Mello-de-Sousa, Thiago Machado; Duarte, Gilvan Caetano; de Faria, Fabrícia Paula; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio Jose

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is poorly exploited as a source of enzymes for lignocellulosic residues degradation for biotechnological purposes. This work describes the A. nidulans Endoglucanase A heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris, the purification and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Active recombinant endoglucanase A (rEG A) was efficiently secreted as a 35 kDa protein which was purified through a two-step chromatography procedure. The highest enzyme activity was detected at 50°C/pH 4. rEG A retained 100% of activity when incubated at 45 and 55°C for 72 h. Purified rEG A kinetic parameters towards CMC were determined as Km = 27.5 ± 4.33 mg/mL, Vmax = 1.185 ± 0.11 mmol/min, and 55.8 IU (international units)/mg specific activity. Recombinant P. pastoris supernatant presented hydrolytic activity towards lignocellulosic residues such as banana stalk, sugarcane bagasse, soybean residues, and corn straw. These data indicate that rEG A is suitable for plant biomass conversion into products of commercial importance, such as second-generation fuel ethanol. PMID:23936633

  3. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  4. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  5. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the fourth scaffoldin A cohesin from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus in complex with a dockerin from a family 5 glycoside hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Bule, Pedro; Correia, Ana; Cameron, Kate; Alves, Victor D.; Cardoso, Vânia; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Najmudin, Shabir

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosomes are cell-bound multienzyme complexes secreted by anaerobic bacteria that play a crucial role in carbon turnover by degrading plant cell walls to simple sugars. Integration of cellulosomal components occurs via highly ordered protein–protein interactions between cohesin modules located in a molecular scaffold and dockerin modules found in cellulosomal enzymes. Acetivibrio cellulolyticus possesses a complex cellulosome arrangement which is organized by a primary enzyme-binding scaffoldin (ScaA), two anchoring scaffoldins (ScaC and ScaD) and an unusual adaptor scaffoldin (ScaB). A dockerin from a family 5 glycoside hydrolase (GH5), which was engineered to inactivate one of the two putative cohesin-binding interfaces, complexed with one of the ScaA cohesins from A. cellulolyticus has been purified and crystallized, and data were processed to a resolution of 1.57 Å in the orthorhombic space group P212121. PMID:25084383

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus cellulosomal type II cohesin module: two versions having different linker lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Noach, Ilit; Alber, Orly; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Levy-Assaraf, Maly; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Frolow, Felix

    2008-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of two protein constructs of the second type II cohesin module from A. cellulolyticus ScaB are described. Both constructs contain the native N-terminal linker, but only one of them contains the full-length 45-residue C-terminal linker; the other contains a five-residue segment of this linker. The second type II cohesin module of the cellulosomal scaffoldin polypeptide ScaB from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus (CohB2) was cloned into two constructs: one containing a short (five-residue) C-terminal linker (CohB2-S) and the second incorporating the full native 45-residue linker (CohB2-L). Both constructs encode proteins that also include the full native six-residue N-terminal linker. The CohB2-S and CohB2-L proteins were expressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic crystal system, but with different unit cells and symmetries: space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 90.36, b = 68.65, c = 111.29 Å for CohB2-S and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 with unit-cell parameters a = 68.76, b = 159.22, c = 44.21 Å for CohB2-L. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. The asymmetric unit of CohB2-S contains three cohesin molecules, while that of CohB2-L contains two molecules.

  7. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  8. Integration and expression of alpha-amylase and endoglucanase genes in the Lactobacillus plantarum chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Scheirlinck, T; Mahillon, J; Joos, H; Dhaese, P; Michiels, F

    1989-01-01

    A commercial grass silage starter strain of Lactobacillus plantarum was transformed by high-frequency electroporation with plasmids containing an alpha-amylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus and an endoglucanase gene from Clostridium thermocellum. Both genes were expressed from their native regulatory signals, and active enzymes were found in the supernatant. However, the segregational stability of the transforming plasmids was rather low. Therefore, the transforming genes were inserted in the L. plantarum chromosome by means of single homologous recombination. In the majority of the transformants, this led to extremely stable segregation and expression of the transforming genes, without generating secondary mutations in the host. Increased selective pressure led to tandem amplification of the transforming DNA. The transformed strains demonstrated the ability of L. plantarum to express heterologous gene products; they can be used to detect the inoculum in silage ecology studies; and they demonstrate the feasibility of engineering truly cellulolytic silage starter bacteria. Images PMID:2679379

  9. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii produces an endoglucanase that is required for full virulence in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a xylem-dwelling bacterium, is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt and blight of sweet corn. The goal of this study was to characterize the only gene in the P. stewartii subsp. stewartii genome predicted to encode an endoglucanase (EGase); this gene was designated engY. Culture supernatants from P. stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli expressing recombinant EngY protein possessed both EGase and xylanase activities. Deletion of engY abolished EGase and xylanase activity, demonstrating that EngY appears to be the major EGase or xylanase produced by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Most importantly, our results show that EngY contributes to movement in the xylem and disease severity during the wilting phase of Stewart's wilt but is not required for water-soaked lesion formation. PMID:22122328

  10. Characterization of two endoglucanases for the classification of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida Waki.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Shin-ichi; Ikarashi, Yuki; Yarimizu, Jun; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Ogasawara, Wataru; Morikawa, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei are vermicomposting species that are used as model animals for testing chemical material toxicology. Eisenia spp. are grown commercially in various fields in Japan. However, these two species have not been classified because it is difficult to distinguish them morphologically; thus, all bred earthworms are called E. fetida. However, it has been proposed that these two species have different expression regulation mechanisms. Here, we classified a sample of earthworms purchased from several farms, confirming that both E. fetida and E. andrei are present in Japanese earthworm breeding programs. We also characterized two highly active endoglucanases (EfEG1 and EfEG2) from the E. fetida Waki strain, which contained strong fibrinolytic enzymes for improving human health. We confirmed that EfEG1 is 1371 bp long and belongs to GHF9. Thus, E. fetida Waki may have commercial application for biomass utilization and as a dietary health supplement. PMID:26295166

  11. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L−1) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L−1, resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  12. Complete genome sequence of a low-temperature active and alkaline-stable endoglucanase-producing Paenibacillus sp. strain IHB B 3084 from the Indian Trans-Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hena; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Rana, Aditi; Kaushal, Kanishak; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Gulati, Arvind

    2016-07-20

    A genome of 5.88Mb with 46.83% G+C content is reported for an endoglucanase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain IHB B 3084 isolated from the cold environments of the Indian Trans-Himalayas. The psychrotrophic bacterium produces low-temperature active and alkaline-stable endoglucanases of industrial importance. The genomic data has provided insight into genomic basis of cellulase production and survival of the bacterium in the cold environments. PMID:27114323

  13. Enhanced thermostability of mesophilic endoglucanase Z with a high catalytic activity at active temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jung; Joo, Ji Eun; Jeon, Sang Duck; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Um, Young Soon; Han, Sung Ok

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study for therrmostable mutants of mesophilic endoglucanase EngZ from Clostridium cellulovorans using by site-directed mutagenesis. K94R, S365P and their double mutant K94R/S365P had a wide range of active temperatures (30-60°C). In addition, the optimal temperature of K94R/S365P was increased by 7.5°C. K94R/S365P retained 78.3% relative activity at 70°C, while the wild type retained only 5.8%. Especially, K94R/S365P remained 45.1-fold higher activity than the wild type at 70°C. In addition, K94R/S365P was 3.1-fold higher activity than the wild type at 42.5°C, which is the optimal temperature of the wild type. K94R/S365P showed also stimulated in 2.5-fold lower concentration of CaCl2 and delayed aggregation temperature in the presence of CaCl2 compared to the wild type. In pH stability, K94R/S365P was not influenced, but the optimum pH was transferred from pH 7 to pH 6. In long-term hydrolysis, K94R/S365P reduced the newly released reducing sugar yields after 12h reaction; however, the yields consistently increased until 72h. Finally, the total reducing sugar of K94R/S365P was 5.0-fold higher than the wild type at 50°C, pH6. EngZ (K94R/S365P) can support information to develop thermostability of GH9 endoglucanase with a high catalytic efficiency as the potential industrial bioprocess candidate. PMID:26808019

  14. Insights into Exo- and Endoglucanase Activities of Family 6 Glycoside Hydrolases from Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Feliu, Julia; Doan, Annick; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bey, Mathieu; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Podospora anserina is a coprophilous fungus that grows at late stages on droppings of herbivores. Its genome encodes a large diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Among them, four genes encode glycoside hydrolases from family 6 (GH6), the members of which comprise putative endoglucanases and exoglucanases, some of them exerting important functions for biomass degradation in fungi. Therefore, this family was selected for functional analysis. Three of the enzymes, P. anserina Cel6A (PaCel6A), PaCel6B, and PaCel6C, were functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. All three GH6 enzymes hydrolyzed crystalline and amorphous cellulose but were inactive on hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannan, galactomannan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, arabinan, xylan, and pectin. PaCel6A had a catalytic efficiency on cellotetraose comparable to that of Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A), but PaCel6B and PaCel6C were clearly less efficient. PaCel6A was the enzyme with the highest stability at 45°C, while PaCel6C was the least stable enzyme, losing more than 50% of its activity after incubation at temperatures above 30°C for 24 h. In contrast to TrCel6A, all three studied P. anserina GH6 cellulases were stable over a wide range of pHs and conserved high activity at pH values of up to 9. Each enzyme displayed a distinct substrate and product profile, highlighting different modes of action, with PaCel6A being the enzyme most similar to TrCel6A. PaCel6B was the only enzyme with higher specific activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) than on Avicel and showed lower processivity than the others. Structural modeling predicts an open catalytic cleft, suggesting that PaCel6B is an endoglucanase. PMID:23645193

  15. Processivity and enzymatic mode of a glycoside hydrolase family 5 endoglucanase from Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Ding, Shaojun

    2013-02-01

    EG1 is a modular glycoside hydrolase family 5 endoglucanase from Volvariella volvacea consisting of an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1) and a catalytic domain (CD). The ratios of soluble to insoluble reducing sugar produced from filter paper after 8 and 24 h of exposure to EG1 were 6.66 and 8.56, respectively, suggesting that it is a processive endoglucanase. Three derivatives of EG1 containing a core domain only or additional CBMs were constructed in order to evaluate the contribution of the CBM to the processivity and enzymatic mode of EG1 under stationary and agitated conditions. All four enzymatic forms exhibited the same mode of action on both soluble and insoluble cellulosic substrates with cellobiose as a main end product. An additional CBM fused at either the N or C terminus reduced specific activity toward soluble and insoluble celluloses under stationary reaction conditions. Deletion of the CBM significantly decreased enzyme processivity. Insertion of an additional CBM also resulted in a dramatic decrease in processivity in enzyme-substrate reaction mixtures incubated for 0.5 h, but this effect was reversed when reactions were allowed to proceed for longer periods (24 h). Further significant differences were observed in the substrate adsorption/desorption patterns of EG1 and enzyme derivatives equipped with an additional CBM under agitated reaction conditions. An additional family 1 CBM improved EG1 processivity on insoluble cellulose under highly agitated conditions. Our data indicate a strong link between high adsorption levels and low desorption levels in the processivity of EG1 and possibly other processive endoglucanses. PMID:23204424

  16. Processivity and Enzymatic Mode of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Endoglucanase from Volvariella volvacea

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    EG1 is a modular glycoside hydrolase family 5 endoglucanase from Volvariella volvacea consisting of an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1) and a catalytic domain (CD). The ratios of soluble to insoluble reducing sugar produced from filter paper after 8 and 24 h of exposure to EG1 were 6.66 and 8.56, respectively, suggesting that it is a processive endoglucanase. Three derivatives of EG1 containing a core domain only or additional CBMs were constructed in order to evaluate the contribution of the CBM to the processivity and enzymatic mode of EG1 under stationary and agitated conditions. All four enzymatic forms exhibited the same mode of action on both soluble and insoluble cellulosic substrates with cellobiose as a main end product. An additional CBM fused at either the N or C terminus reduced specific activity toward soluble and insoluble celluloses under stationary reaction conditions. Deletion of the CBM significantly decreased enzyme processivity. Insertion of an additional CBM also resulted in a dramatic decrease in processivity in enzyme-substrate reaction mixtures incubated for 0.5 h, but this effect was reversed when reactions were allowed to proceed for longer periods (24 h). Further significant differences were observed in the substrate adsorption/desorption patterns of EG1 and enzyme derivatives equipped with an additional CBM under agitated reaction conditions. An additional family 1 CBM improved EG1 processivity on insoluble cellulose under highly agitated conditions. Our data indicate a strong link between high adsorption levels and low desorption levels in the processivity of EG1 and possibly other processive endoglucanses. PMID:23204424

  17. Origin of Initial Burst in Activity for Trichoderma reesei endo-Glucanases Hydrolyzing Insoluble Cellulose*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Leigh; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Damgaard, Heidi Delcomyn; Baumann, Martin J.; Olsen, Søren Nymand; Borch, Kim; Lassen, Søren Flensted; Sweeney, Matt; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Westh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis have longbeen described by an initial fast hydrolysis rate, tapering rapidly off, leading to a process that takes days rather than hours to complete. This behavior has been mainly attributed to the action of cellobiohydrolases and often linked to the processive mechanism of this exo-acting group of enzymes. The initial kinetics of endo-glucanases (EGs) is far less investigated, partly due to a limited availability of quantitative assay technologies. We have used isothermal calorimetry to monitor the early time course of the hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose by the three main EGs from Trichoderma reesei (Tr): TrCel7B (formerly EG I), TrCel5A (EG II), and TrCel12A (EG III). These endo-glucanases show a distinctive initial burst with a maximal rate that is about 5-fold higher than the rate after 5 min of hydrolysis. The burst is particularly conspicuous for TrCel7B, which reaches a maximal turnover of about 20 s−1 at 30 °C and conducts about 1200 catalytic cycles per enzyme molecule in the initial fast phase. For TrCel5A and TrCel12A the extent of the burst is 2–300 cycles per enzyme molecule. The availability of continuous data on EG activity allows an analysis of the mechanisms underlying the initial kinetics, and it is suggested that the slowdown is linked to transient inactivation of enzyme on the cellulose surface. We propose, therefore, that the frequency of structures on the substrate surface that cause transient inactivation determine the extent of the burst phase. PMID:22110134

  18. Characterization of a novel manganese dependent endoglucanase belongs in GH family 5 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Duc; Nguyen, Cu Le; Park, Han-Sung; Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Choi, Myoung-Suk; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Park, Seung-Moon

    2016-02-01

    The cDNA encoding a putative glycoside hydrolase family 5, which has been predicted to be an endoglucanase (PcEg5A), was cloned from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PcEg5A contains a carbohydrate-binding domain and two important amino acids, E209 and E319, playing as proton donor and nucleophile in substrate catalytic domain. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the recombinant endoglucanase 5A (rPcEg5A) has a molecular size of 43 kDa which corresponds with the theoretical calculation. Optimum pH and temperature were found to be 4.5-6.0, and 50°C-60°C, respectively. Moreover, rPcEg5A exhibited maximal activity in the pH range of 3.0-8.0, whereas over 50% of activity still remained at 20°C and 80°C. rPcEg5A was stable at 60°C for 12 h incubation, indicating that rPcEg5A is a thermostable enzyme. Manganese ion enhanced the enzyme activity by 77%, indicating that rPcEg5A is a metal dependent enzyme. The addition of rPcEg5A to cellobiase (cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase) resulted in a 53% increasing saccharification of NaOH-pretreated barley straw, whereas the glucose release was 47% higher than that cellobiase treatment alone. Our study suggested that rPcEg5A is an enzyme with great potential for biomass saccharification. PMID:26173955

  19. X-ray Structure and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Endoglucanase 3 from Trichoderma harzianum: Structural Organization and Substrate Recognition by Endoglucanases That Lack Cellulose Binding Module

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Érica T.; Stankovic, Ivana; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Liberato, Marcelo V.; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Pereira, Nei; Polikarpov, Igor; Skaf, Munir S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass holds a promise for the production of second-generation ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis, but its utilization as a biofuel resource is currently limited to a large extent by the cost and low efficiency of the cellulolytic enzymes. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms of the enzymatic process. It is well known that most cellulases possess a catalytic core domain and a carbohydrate binding module (CBM), without which the enzymatic activity can be drastically reduced. However, Cel12A members of the glycosyl hydrolases family 12 (GHF12) do not bear a CBM and yet are able to hydrolyze amorphous cellulose quite efficiently. Here, we use X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to unravel the molecular basis underlying the catalytic capability of endoglucanase 3 from Trichoderma harzianum (ThEG3), a member of the GHF12 enzymes that lacks a CBM. A comparative analysis with the Cellulomonas fimi CBM identifies important residues mediating interactions of EG3s with amorphous regions of the cellulose. For instance, three aromatic residues constitute a harboring wall of hydrophobic contacts with the substrate in both ThEG3 and CfCBM structures. Moreover, residues at the entrance of the active site cleft of ThEG3 are identified, which might hydrogen bond to the substrate. We advocate that the ThEG3 residues Asn152 and Glu201 interact with the substrate similarly to the corresponding CfCBM residues Asn81 and Arg75. Altogether, these results show that CBM motifs are incorporated within the ThEG3 catalytic domain and suggest that the enzymatic efficiency is associated with the length and position of the substrate chain, being higher when the substrate interact with the aromatic residues at the entrance of the cleft and the catalytic triad. Our results provide guidelines for rational protein engineering aiming to improve interactions of GHF12 enzymes with cellulosic substrates. PMID:23516599

  20. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of the catalytic domain of major extracellular endoglucanase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    PubMed Central

    Rosseto, Flávio R.; Puhl, Ana C.; Andrade, Maxuel O.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Cellulases, such as endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases, are important enzymes used in the process of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass. The bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris expresses a large number of hydrolases and the major endoglucanase (XccEG), a member of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5), is the most strongly secreted extracellularly. In this work, the native XccEG was purified from the extracellular extract and crystallization assays were performed on its catalytic domain. A complete data set was collected on an in-house X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 174.66, b = 141.53, c = 108.00 Å, β = 110.49°. The Matthews coefficient suggests a solvent content of 70.1% and the presence of four protein subunits in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23385754

  1. Co-expression of endoglucanase and β-glucosidase in Corynebacterium glutamicum DM1729 towards direct lysine fermentation from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Anusree, Murali; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is the development of a consolidated bioprocess for the production of lysine with recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum DM1729 strains expressing endoglucanase and β-glucosidase genes. Here, the endoglucanase genes from Xanthomonas campestris XCC3521 and XCC2387 and betaglucosidase gene from Saccharophagus degradans Sde1394 were cloned in C. glutamicum DM1729 and expressed either extracellularly or on cell surface. The highest β-glucosidase activity of 9±0.5U/OD600 of 1 and endoglucanase activity of 5.5±0.8U was obtained in C. glutamicum DM 1729 (pVWEx1-TATXCC2387) (pEKEx3-PorC-Sde1394) when cellobiose (20g/L) alone or in combination with carboxymethyl cellulose (20g/L) was used as the carbon sources respectively. The overall efforts resulted in a lysine titre of 5.9±0.5mM. The ability of the constructs to utilize carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose for growth and amino acid production proves the concept of utilization of C. glutamicum as a biocatalyst in the lignocellulosic biorefinery. PMID:27020126

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a multidomain endoglucanase from Paenibacillus sp BP-23: evaluation of its performance in pulp refining.

    PubMed

    Pastor, F I; Pujol, X; Blanco, A; Vidal, T; Torres, A L; Díaz, P

    2001-01-01

    The gene celB encoding an endoglucanase from Paenibacillus sp. BP-23 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a 4161 bp DNA fragment containing the celB gene was determined, revealing an open reading frame of 2991 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 106,927 Da. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of endoglucanase B with known beta-glycanase sequences showed that the encoded enzyme is a modular protein and exhibits high homology to enzymes belonging to family 9 cellulases. The celB gene product synthesized in E. coli showed high activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and lichenan while low activity was found on Avicel. Activity was enhanced in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ and showed its maximum at 53 degrees C and pH 5.5. The effect of the cloned enzyme in modifying the physical properties of pulp and paper from Eucalyptus was tested (CelB treatment). An increase in mechanical strength of paper and a decrease in pulp dewatering properties were found, indicating that CelB treatment can be considered as a biorefining. Treatment with CelB gave rise to an improvement in paper strength similar to that obtained with 1,000 revolutions increase in mechanical refining. Comparison with the performances of recently developed endoglucanase A from the same strain and with a commercial cellulase showed that CelB produced the highest refining effect. PMID:11234960

  3. Expression of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase gene in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii and characterization of the genetically modified probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Cho, J S; Choi, Y J; Chung, D K

    2000-04-01

    Endoglucanase A from Clostridium thermocellum resistant to pancreatic proteinase was selected out of a range of microbial cellulases expressed in lactobacilli. Two Lactobacillus-E. coli expression vectors, harboring the endoglucanase gene from C. thermocellum under the control of its own promoter (pSD1) and the Lactococcus lactis lac A promoter (pSD2), were constructed separately. Intestinal Lactobacillus strains, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii, were electrotransformed with pSD1 and pSD2, and the stability of each plasmid was evaluated. The endoglucanase activities of 0.722 and 0.759 U/ml were respectively found in culture medium of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii containing pSD1, and of 0.407 U/ml in medium of L. gasseri harboring pSD2. When the probiotic characteristics such as acid-tolerance, bile-salt tolerance, and antibiotic susceptibility were investigated, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were resistant to low pHs of 2 and 3. Also, L. johnsonii was bile-salt resistant in the presence of 0.5% oxgall and porcine bile extract. L. johnsonii and L. gasseri showed a rather homogeneous resistant pattern against tested antibiotics. Both strains were resistant to amikacin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and colistin. PMID:10688695

  4. Heterologous expression and characterization of a novel halotolerant, thermostable, and alkali-stable GH6 endoglucanase from Thermobifida halotolerans.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Qing-Wen; Xian, Wen-Dong; Hozzein, Wael N; Zhou, En-Min; Ming, Hong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-04-01

    A novel endoglucanase gene was cloned from Thermobifida halotolerans YIM 90462(T), designated as thcel6A for being a member of glycoside hydrolase family 6. The gene was 1332 bp long and encoded a 443-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 45.9 kDa. The purified recombinant endoglucanase had optimal activity at 55 °C and pH 8.5. Thcel6A showed high hydrolytic activities at 25-55 °C and retained 58% of initial activity after incubation at 90 °C for 1 h. It retained more than 80% of activity after incubation for 12 h at pH values from 4 to 12. Thcel6A displayed higher hydrolytic activities in 5-15% NaCl (w/v) than at 0% NaCl. Activity increased 2.5-fold after incubation with 20% (w/v) NaCl at 37 °C for 10 min. These properties suggest that this novel endoglucanase has potential for specific industrial application. PMID:25479702

  5. Cloning and expression of low temperature active endoglucanase EG5C from Paenibacillus sp. IHB B 3084.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hena; Kasana, Ramesh C; Dutt, Som; Gulati, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    The endoglucanase gene designated as EG5C encoding cold active endoglucanase produced by Paenibacillus sp. IHB B 3084 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The gene consisting of 1719bp open reading frame encoded a protein of 573 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 63.5kDa. The presence of N-terminal catalytic domain of the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5) and C-terminal carbohydrate binding X2 domain suggested the modular nature of the enzyme. The native signal peptide of EG5C was capable of efficiently secreting the enzyme with near equal activities in the cytoplasmic and extracellular fractions. The recombinant enzyme purified 9.46 fold to homogeneity with 22.33% yield gave 7.758IU/mg specific activity. The enzyme was stable over the broad pH range of 4-12 with more than 50% residual activity. The optimal activity was at 40°C with 70% relative activity at 5°C. The low temperature activity despite the shorter linker region suggested a novel cold adaptation mechanism by the enzyme. The enzyme displayed higher activity on carboxymethylcellulose than avicel which is useful in maintaining the tensile strength of fiber. The efficient secretion and low temperature activity offer prospect for large-scale production and industrial application of the endoglucanase. PMID:26234579

  6. Cellulase complex of the fungus Chrysosporium lucknowense: isolation and characterization of endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Bukhtojarov, F E; Ustinov, B B; Salanovich, T N; Antonov, A I; Gusakov, A V; Okunev, O N; Sinitsyn, A P

    2004-05-01

    Using different chromatographic techniques, eight cellulolytic enzymes were isolated from the culture broth of a mutant strain of Chrysosporium lucknowense: six endoglucanases (EG: 25 kD, pI 4.0; 28 kD, pI 5.7; 44 kD, pI 6.0; 47 kD, pI 5.7; 51 kD, pI 4.8; 60 kD, pI 3.7) and two cellobiohydrolases (CBH I, 65 kD, pI 4.5; CBH II, 42 kD, pI 4.2). Some of the isolated cellulases were classified into known families of glycoside hydrolases: Cel6A (CBH II), Cel7A (CBH I), Cel12A (EG28), Cel45A (EG25). It was shown that EG44 and EG51 are two different forms of one enzyme. EG44 seems to be a catalytic module of an intact EG51 without a cellulose-binding module. All the enzymes had pH optimum of activity in the acidic range (at pH 4.5-6.0), whereas EG25 and EG47 retained 55-60% of the maximum activity at pH 8.5. Substrate specificity of the purified cellulases against carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), beta-glucan, Avicel, xylan, xyloglucan, laminarin, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside was studied. EG44 and EG51 were characterized by the highest CMCase activity (59 and 52 U/mg protein). EG28 had the lowest CMCase activity (11 U/mg) amongst the endoglucanases; however, this enzyme displayed the highest activity against beta-glucan (125 U/mg). Only EG51 and CBH I were characterized by high adsorption ability on Avicel cellulose (98-99%). Kinetics of Avicel hydrolysis by the isolated cellulases in the presence of purified beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus japonicus was studied. The hydrolytic efficiency of cellulases (estimated as glucose yield after a 7-day reaction) decreased in the following order: CBH I, EG60, CBH II, EG51, EG47, EG25, EG28, EG44. PMID:15193129

  7. Production and characterization of cellulases and hemicellulases by Acremonium cellulolyticus using rice straw subjected to various pretreatments as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Kenichiro; Yano, Shinichi; Fang, Xu; Endo, Takashi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2011-02-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are key enzymes in the production of alternative fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass-an abundant renewable resource. Carbon source selection is an important factor in the production of cellulases and hemicellulases. Rice straw--a potential ethanol source--has recently gained considerable interest in Asian countries. Here, we investigated the production of cellulases by using rice straw subjected to various pretreatments as substrates in order to produce cellulases at low costs; we also identified the enzymes' characteristics. Rice straw cutter milled to <3mm was pretreated by wet disk milling, dry ball milling, or hot-compressed water treatment (HCWT). Pretreated rice straw and commercial cellulose, Solka Floc (SF), were used as carbon sources for cellulase production by the fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus. Filter paper cellulase, β-xylanase, and β-xylosidase production from ball- and disk-milled samples were higher than those from SF. Enzymatic activity was absent in cultures where HCWT rice straw was used as carbon source. Wet disk-milled rice straw cultures were more suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw than SF cultures. Thus, wet disk milling may be a suitable pretreatment for producing substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis and generating inexpensive carbon sources for cellulase production. PMID:22112826

  8. Enhanced production of Trichoderma reesei endoglucanases and use of the new cellulase preparations in producing the stonewashed effect on denim fabric.

    PubMed

    Miettinen-Oinonen, Arja; Suominen, Pirkko

    2002-08-01

    Trichoderma reesei strains were constructed for production of elevated amounts of endoglucanase II (EGII) with or without cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI). The endoglucanase activity produced by the EGII transformants correlated with the copy number of the egl2 expression cassette. One copy of the egl2 expression cassette in which the egl2 was under the cbh1 promoter increased production of endoglucanase activity 2.3-fold, and two copies increased production about 3-fold above that of the parent strain. When the enzyme with elevated EGII content was used, an improved stonewashing effect on denim fabric was achieved. A T. reesei strain producing high amounts of EGI and -II activities without CBHI and -II was constructed by replacing the cbh2 locus with the coding region of the egl2 gene in the EGI-overproducing CBHI-negative strain. Production of endoglucanase activity by the EG-transformant strain was increased fourfold above that of the host strain. The filter paper-degrading activity of the endoglucanase-overproducing strain was lowered to below detection, presumably because of the lack of cellobiohydrolases. PMID:12147496

  9. Characterisation of a novel thermostable endoglucanase from Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis of potential application in bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Angela; Walsh, Gary

    2015-09-01

    A novel endoglucanase encoding gene was cloned from Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis and expressed in E. coli. The deduced amino acid sequence showed highest identity with α-L-arabinofuranosidase-like proteins from glycoside hydrolase family 51. The recombinant enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterised in terms of its potential suitability for lignocellulose hydrolysis at high temperature in the production of bioethanol. The purified enzyme displayed maximum activity at 80 °C and pH 3.6-4.5. Tween 20 was found to have a beneficial effect on enzyme activity and thermal stability. When incubated in the presence of 0.1% Tween 20, the enzyme retained full activity after 72 h at 70 °C and 78% of original activity after 72 h at 75 °C. Maximum activity was observed on carboxymethyl cellulose, and the purified enzyme also hydrolysed lichenan, barley β-glucan and xylan. The purified enzyme decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl cellulose when assessed at 70-85 °C and was capable of releasing reducing sugars from acid-pretreated straw at 70 and 75 °C. The results indicate the potential suitability of the enzyme for industrial application in the production of cellulosic bioethanol. PMID:25722023

  10. Cloning and sequencing of a Bacteroides ruminicola B(1)4 endoglucanase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, O; Russell, J B; Wilson, D B

    1990-01-01

    Bacteroides ruminicola B(1)4, a noncellulolytic rumen bacterium, produces an endoglucanase (carboxymethylcellulase [CMCase]) that is excreted into the culture supernatant. Cultures grown on glucose, fructose, maltose, mannose, and cellobiose had high specific activities of CMCase (greater than 3 mmol of reducing sugar per mg of protein per min), but its synthesis was repressed by sucrose. B. rumincola did not grow on either ball-milled or acid-swollen cellulose even though the CMCase could hydrolyze swollen cellulose. The CMCase gene was cloned into Escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for a protein of 40,481 daltons. The enzyme was overproduced in E. coli under the control of the tac promoter and purified to homogeneity. The N-terminal sequence, amino acid composition, and molecular weight of the purified enzyme were similar to the values predicted from the open reading frame of the DNA sequence. However, the CMCase present in B. ruminicola was found to have a monomer molecular weight of 88,000 by Western immunoblotting. This discrepancy appeared to have resulted from our having cloned only part of the CMCase gene into E. coli. The amino acid sequence of the CMCase showed homology to sequences of beta-glucanases from Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum. Images PMID:2361940

  11. Comparative analyses reveal a highly conserved endoglucanase in the cellulolytic genus Fibrobacter.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C; Stahl, D A

    1995-01-01

    An RNA probe complementary to the endoglucanase 3 gene (cel-3) of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 hybridized to chromosomal DNAs from isolates representing the genetic diversity of the genus. The probe was subsequently used to identify putative cel-3-containing clones from genomic libraries of representative Fibrobacter isolates. Comparative sequence analyses of the cloned cel-3 genes confirmed that cel-3 is conserved among Fibrobacter isolates and that the ancestral cel-3 gene appears to have coevolved with the genus, since the same genealogy was inferred from sequence comparisons of 16S rRNAs and cel-3 genes. Hybridization comparisons using a xylanase gene probe suggested similar conservation of this gene. Together the data indicate that the cellulolytic apparatus is conserved among Fibrobacter isolates and that comparative analyses of homologous elements of the apparatus from different members, in relationship to the now established phylogeny of the genus, could serve to better define the enzymatic basis of fiber digestion in this genus. PMID:7730288

  12. A thermostable GH45 endoglucanase from yeast: impact of its atypical multimodularity on activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene encoding an atypical multi-modular glycoside hydrolase family 45 endoglucanase bearing five different family 1 carbohydrate binding modules (CBM1), designated PpCel45A, was identified in the Pichia pastoris GS115 genome. Results PpCel45A (full-length open reading frame), and three derived constructs comprising (i) the catalytic module with its proximal CBM1, (ii) the catalytic module only, and (iii) the five CBM1 modules without catalytic module, were successfully expressed to high yields (up to 2 grams per litre of culture) in P. pastoris X33. Although the constructs containing the catalytic module displayed similar activities towards a range of glucans, comparison of their biochemical characteristics revealed striking differences. We observed a high thermostability of PpCel45A (Half life time of 6 h at 80°C), which decreased with the removal of CBMs and glycosylated linkers. However, both binding to crystalline cellulose and hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and cellohexaose were substantially boosted by the presence of one CBM rather than five. Conclusions The present study has revealed the specific features of the first characterized endo β-1,4 glucanase from yeast, whose thermostability is promising for biotechnological applications related to the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass such as consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:22145993

  13. Production, statistical optimization and application of endoglucanase from Rhizopus stolonifer utilizing coffee husk.

    PubMed

    Navya, P N; Pushpa, S Murthy

    2013-08-01

    Coffee cherry husk (CH) is one of the major by-products obtained from coffee processing industry and accounts to 43 ± 5.9% of cellulose. Screening of fungal organism for cellulase production was carried out and the potential organism was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer by internal transcribed spacer's (ITS)-5.8S rDNA analysis. A systematic study with response surface methodology (RSM) based on CCRD was used to study the interactions among the variables such as pH (3-7), moisture (40-80%) and progression duration (72-168 h) of the fermentation process to maximize the enzyme production. Under the optimized cultivation condition, R. stolonifer synthesized 22,109 U/gds. Model validations at optimum operating conditions showed excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted responses with a confidence level of 95%. Endoglucanase thus produced was utilized for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and maximum of 65.5 g/L of ethanol was obtained. This fungal cellulase has also reported to be efficient detergent additives and promising for commercial use. The present study demonstrates coffee husk as a significant bioprocess substrate. Statistical optimization with major parameters for cellulase production can be highly applicable for industrial scale. Furthermore, value addition to coffee husk with sustainable waste management leading to environment conservation can be achieved. PMID:23223909

  14. Insights on how the activity of an endoglucanase is affected by physical properties of insoluble celluloses.

    PubMed

    Bragatto, Juliano; Segato, Fernando; Cota, Junio; Mello, Danilo B; Oliveira, Marcelo M; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Squina, Fabio M; Driemeier, Carlos

    2012-05-31

    Cellulose physical properties like crystallinity, porosity, and particle size are known to influence cellulase activity, but knowledge is still insufficient for activity prediction from such measurable substrate characteristics. With the aim of illuminating enzyme-substrate relationships, this work evaluates a purified hyperthermophilic endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (from Pyrococcus furiosus) acting on 13 celluloses characterized for crystallinity and crystal width (by X-ray diffraction), wet porosity (by thermoporometry), and particle size (by light scattering). Activities are analyzed by the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation, which is justified by low enzyme-substrate affinity. Michaelis-Menten coefficients K(m) and k(cat) are reinterpreted in the context of heterogeneous cellulose hydrolysis. For a set of as-received and milled microcrystalline celluloses, activity is successfully described as a function of accessible substrate concentration, with accessibility proportional to K(m)(-1). Accessibility contribution from external particle areas, pore areas, and crystalline packing are discriminated to have comparable magnitudes, implying that activity prediction demands all these substrate properties to be considered. Results additionally suggest that looser crystalline packing increases the lengths of released cello-oligomers as well as the maximum endoglucanase specific activity (k(cat)). PMID:22577872

  15. Calcium-binding affinity and calcium-enhanced activity of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase D.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvaux, S; Beguin, P; Aubert, J P; Bhat, K M; Gow, L A; Wood, T M; Bairoch, A

    1990-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase D (EC 3.2.1.4: EGD), which is encoded by the celD gene, was found to bind Ca2+ with an association constant of 2.03 x 10(6) M-1. Ca2+ stimulated the activity of EGD towards swollen Avicel by 2-fold. In the presence of Ca2+, the Kd of the enzyme towards p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside and carboxymethylcellulose was decreased by 4-fold. Furthermore, Ca2+ increased the half-life of the enzyme at 75 degrees C from 13 to 47 min. Since the 3' sequence of celD encodes a duplicated region sharing similarities with the Ca2+-binding site of several Ca2+-binding proteins, a deleted clone was constructed and used to purify a truncated form of the enzyme which no longer contained the duplicated region. The truncated enzyme was very similar to EGD expressed from the intact gene with respect to activity, Ca2(+)-binding kinetics and Ca2+ effects on substrate binding and thermostability. Thus the latter parameters do not appear to be mediated through the duplicated conserved region. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2302168

  16. Purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular endoglucanase from the necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium myriotylum Dreschler.

    PubMed

    Geethu, C; Nair, R Aswati

    2014-12-01

    An extracellular endoglucanase (EG) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate was purified to homogeneity from the soft-rot causing oomycete P. myriotylum with maximum EG production observed in presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. The enzyme designated PmEG was observed to be monomeric with a molecular weight of 78 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Optimal activity of PmEG was determined at pH 5.0 and 25 °C with stability observed at pH extending over acidic to alkaline ranges viz., 3.0-10.0 and thermal stability upto 75 °C for 1 h. Optimal PmEG activity was obtained by addition of metal ions viz., Ca(2+) , Fe(3+) , Zn(2+) , Cu(2+) , Al(3+) , and also in presence of DTT and β-mercaptoethanol while it was inhibited by Cr(2+) . Various organic solvents, surfactants, and the oxidant, H2 O2 had little/no effect on PmEG activity reflecting its robustness and potential commercial significance. Kinetic constants of PmEG, Km and Vmax were determined as 1.1 mM and 407 µmol min(-1)  mg(-1) protein, respectively. Glucose was observed to cause mixed non-competitive inhibition of PmEG. PMID:25123590

  17. Incorporation of Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase into cell surface-displayed minicellulosomes in Pichia pastoris X33.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jingshen; Cao, Yicheng

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the yeast Pichia pastoris was genetically modified to assemble minicellulosomes on its cell surface by the heterologous expression of a truncated scaffoldin CipA from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis confirmed that CipA was targeted to the yeast cell surface and that NtEGD, the Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase that was fused with dockerin, interacted with CipA on the yeast cell surface, suggesting that the cohesin and dockerin domains and cellulose-binding module of C. acetobutylicum were functional in the yeasts. The enzymatic activities of the cellulases in the minicellulosomes that were displayed on the yeast cell surfaces increased dramatically following interaction with the cohesin-dockerin domains. Additionally, the hydrolysis efficiencies of NtEGD for carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystal cellulose, and filter paper increased up to 1.4-fold, 2.0-fold, and 3.2-fold, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the expression of C. acetobutylicum minicellulosomes in yeast and the incorporation of animal cellulases into cellulosomes. This strategy of heterologous cellulase incorporation lends novel insight into the process of cellulosome assembly. Potentially, the surface display of cellulosomes, such as that reported in this study, may be utilized in the engineering of S. cerevisiae for ethanol production from cellulose and additional future applications. PMID:24851815

  18. Transgenic Plants Lower the Costs of Cellulosic Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    A new transgenic maize was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass, as manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion. Expression of a single gene derived from bacteria in plants has resulted in transgenic plants that are easier and cheaper to convert into biofuels. Part of the high production cost of cellulosic biofuels is the relatively poor accessibility of substrates to enzymes due to the strong associations between plant cell wall components. This biomass recalcitrance makes costly thermochemical pretreatment necessary. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have created transgenic maize expressing an active glycosyl hydrolase enzyme, E1 endoglucanase, originally isolated from a thermophilic bacterium, Acidothermus cellulolyticus. This engineered feedstock was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass when subjected to reduced severity pretreatments and post-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis. This reduction in recalcitrance was manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion of wild-type biomass. The improvements observed are significant enough to positively affect the economics of the conversion process through decreased capital construction costs and decreased degradation products and inhibitor formation.

  19. Polarity Alteration of a Calcium Site Induces a Hydrophobic Interaction Network and Enhances Cel9A Endoglucanase Thermostability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Pei; Ma, Tien-Yang; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Structural calcium sites control protein thermostability and activity by stabilizing native folds and changing local conformations. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius survives in thermal-acidic conditions and produces an endoglucanase Cel9A (AaCel9A) which contains a calcium-binding site (Ser465 to Val470) near the catalytic cleft. By superimposing the Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bounded conformations of the calcium site, we found that Ca(2+) induces hydrophobic interactions between the calcium site and its nearby region by driving a conformational change. The hydrophobic interactions at the high-B-factor region could be enhanced further by replacing the surrounding polar residues with hydrophobic residues to affect enzyme thermostability and activity. Therefore, the calcium-binding residue Asp468 (whose side chain directly ligates Ca(2+)), Asp469, and Asp471 of AaCel9A were separately replaced by alanine and valine. Mutants D468A and D468V showed increased activity compared with those of the wild type with 0 mM or 10 mM Ca(2+) added, whereas the Asp469 or Asp471 substitution resulted in decreased activity. The D468A crystal structure revealed that mutation D468A triggered a conformational change similar to that induced by Ca(2+) in the wild type and developed a hydrophobic interaction network between the calcium site and the neighboring hydrophobic region (Ala113 to Ala117). Mutations D468V and D468A increased 4.5°C and 5.9°C, respectively, in melting temperature, and enzyme half-life at 75°C increased approximately 13 times. Structural comparisons between AaCel9A and other endoglucanases of the GH9 family suggested that the stability of the regions corresponding to the AaCel9A calcium site plays an important role in GH9 endoglucanase catalysis at high temperature. PMID:26729722

  20. Polarity Alteration of a Calcium Site Induces a Hydrophobic Interaction Network and Enhances Cel9A Endoglucanase Thermostability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiu-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Pei; Ma, Tien-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Structural calcium sites control protein thermostability and activity by stabilizing native folds and changing local conformations. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius survives in thermal-acidic conditions and produces an endoglucanase Cel9A (AaCel9A) which contains a calcium-binding site (Ser465 to Val470) near the catalytic cleft. By superimposing the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bounded conformations of the calcium site, we found that Ca2+ induces hydrophobic interactions between the calcium site and its nearby region by driving a conformational change. The hydrophobic interactions at the high-B-factor region could be enhanced further by replacing the surrounding polar residues with hydrophobic residues to affect enzyme thermostability and activity. Therefore, the calcium-binding residue Asp468 (whose side chain directly ligates Ca2+), Asp469, and Asp471 of AaCel9A were separately replaced by alanine and valine. Mutants D468A and D468V showed increased activity compared with those of the wild type with 0 mM or 10 mM Ca2+ added, whereas the Asp469 or Asp471 substitution resulted in decreased activity. The D468A crystal structure revealed that mutation D468A triggered a conformational change similar to that induced by Ca2+ in the wild type and developed a hydrophobic interaction network between the calcium site and the neighboring hydrophobic region (Ala113 to Ala117). Mutations D468V and D468A increased 4.5°C and 5.9°C, respectively, in melting temperature, and enzyme half-life at 75°C increased approximately 13 times. Structural comparisons between AaCel9A and other endoglucanases of the GH9 family suggested that the stability of the regions corresponding to the AaCel9A calcium site plays an important role in GH9 endoglucanase catalysis at high temperature. PMID:26729722

  1. Thermodynamics and kinetic properties of halostable endoglucanase from Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9.

    PubMed

    Das, Arpan; Jana, Arijit; Paul, Tanmay; Halder, Suman Kumar; Ghosh, Kuntal; Maity, Chiranjit; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2014-07-01

    An endoglucanase from Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9 was purified from the culture extract of solid-state fermentation and its some characteristics were evaluated. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme (56.3 kDa) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, zymogram analysis and confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The enzyme was active optimally at 50 °C, pH 5.0 and stable over a broad range of pH (4.0-7.0) and NaCl concentration of 0-3.0 M. The pKa1 and pKa2 of the ionizable groups of the active sites were 2.94 and 6.53, respectively. The apparent Km , Vmax , and Kcat values for carboxymethyl cellulose were 6.7 mg ml(-1), 775.4 µmol min(-1) , and 42.84 × 10(4)  s(-1), respectively. Thermostability of the enzyme was evidenced by the high activation energy (91.45 kJ mol(-1)), large enthalpy for activation of denaturation (88.77 kJ mol(-1)), longer half-life (T1/2) (433 min at 50 °C), higher melting temperature (Tm ) (73.5 °C), and Q10 (1.3) values. All the characteristics favors its suitability as halotolerant and thermostable enzyme during bioprocessing of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:23832828

  2. CelG from Clostridium cellulolyticum: a multidomain endoglucanase acting efficiently on crystalline cellulose.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, L; Gaudin, C; Belaich, A; Pages, S; Tardif, C; Belaich, J P

    1997-01-01

    The gene coding for CelG, a family 9 cellulase from Clostridium cellulolyticum, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Four different forms of the protein were genetically engineered, purified, and studied: CelGL (the entire form of CelG), CelGcat1 (the catalytic domain of CelG alone), CelGcat2 (CelGcat1 plus 91 amino acids at the beginning of the cellulose binding domain [CBD]), and GST-CBD(CelG) (the CBD of CelG fused to glutathione S-transferase). The biochemical properties of CelG were compared with those of CelA, an endoglucanase from C. cellulolyticum which was previously studied. CelG, like CelA, was found to have an endo cutting mode of activity on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) but exhibited greater activity on crystalline substrates (bacterial microcrystalline cellulose and Avicel) than CelA. As observed with CelA, the presence of the nonhydrolytic miniscaffolding protein (miniCipC1) enhanced the activity of CelG on phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC), but to a lesser extent. The absence of the CBD led to the complete inactivation of the enzyme. The abilities of CelG and GST-CBD(CelG) to bind various substrates were also studied. Although the entire enzyme is able to bind to crystalline cellulose at a limited number of sites, the chimeric protein GST-CBD(CelG) does not bind to either of the tested substrates (Avicel and PASC). The lack of independence between the two domains and the weak binding to cellulose suggest that this CBD-like domain may play a special role and be either directly or indirectly involved in the catalytic reaction. PMID:9352905

  3. Cloning and optimized expression of a neutral endoglucanase gene (ncel5A) from Volvariella volvacea WX32 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfang; Tang, Cunduo; Shi, Hongling; Wu, Minchen

    2011-05-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding a mature neutral endoglucanase with 366 amino acids was cloned from Volvariella volvacea WX32. Online analysis of amino acid sequence homology showed that the endoglucanase, designated as NCel5A, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 5. The recombinant plasmid, pPIC9K-ncel5A, was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Screening of multiple copies of the gene ncel5A in transformants was performed on YPD plates containing geneticin G418. One transformant expressing the highest recombinant NCel5A (rNCel5A) activity, numbered as GSNCel4-3, was chosen for optimizing expression conditions. In optimized conditions, the expressed rNCel5A activity was up to 4612 U/ml. SDS-PAGE and enzyme activity assays demonstrated that the rNCel5A, a glycosylated protein with an M.W. of about 42 kDa, was extracellularly expressed in P. pastoris. The rNCel5A showed the highest activity at pH 7.5 and 55°C and was stable at a broad pH range of 6.0-9.0 and at a temperature of 55°C or below. PMID:21367655

  4. Production of Endoglucanase, Beta-glucosidase and Xylanase by Bacillus licheniformis Grown on Minimal Nutrient Medium Containing Agriculture Residues

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J.; Park, T. S.; Kim, J. N.; Ha, Jong K.; Seo, S.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis was grown in minimal nutrient medium containing 1% (w/v) of distillers dried grain with soluble (DDGS), palm kernel meal (PKM), wheat bran (WB) or copra meal (CM), and the enzyme activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and reducing sugars was measured to investigate a possibility of using cost-effective agricultural residues in producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The CM gave the highest endoglucanase activity of 0.68 units/mL among added substrates at 48 h. CM yielded the highest titres of 0.58 units/ml of β-glucosidase, compared to 0.33, 0.23, and 0.16 units/mL by PKM, WB, and DDGS, respectively, at 72 h. Xylanase production was the highest (0.34 units/mL) when CM was added. The supernatant from fermentation of CM had the highest reducing sugars than other additional substrates at all intervals (0.10, 0.12, 0.10, and 0.11 mg/mL respectively). It is concluded that Bacillus licheniformis is capable of producing multiple cellulo- and hemicellololytic enzymes for bioethanol production using cost-effective agricultural residues, especially CM, as a sole nutrient source. PMID:25050035

  5. Functional and structural analysis of Pichia pastoris-expressed Aspergillus niger 1,4-β-endoglucanase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junjie; Liu, Weidong; Li, Yujie; Lai, Hui-Lin; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Jian-Wen; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Yun; Jin, Jian; Li, Huazhong; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-06-17

    Eukaryotic 1,4-β-endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4) have shown great potentials in many commercial applications because they effectively catalyze hydrolysis of cellulose, the main component of the plant cell wall. Here we expressed a glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 5 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger (AnCel5A) in Pichia pastoris, which exhibits outstanding pH and heat stability. In order to further investigate the molecular mechanism of AnCel5A, apo-form and cellotetraose (CTT) complex enzyme crystal structures were solved to high resolution. AnCel5A folds into a typical (β/α)8-TIM barrel architecture, resembling other GH5 members. In the substrate binding cavity, CTT is found to bind to -4 - -1 subsites, and several polyethylene glycol molecules are found in positive subsites. In addition, several unique N-glycosylation motifs that may contribute to protein higher stability were observed from crystal structures. These results are of great importance for understanding the molecular mechanism of AnCel5A, and also provide guidance for further applications of the enzyme. PMID:27154222

  6. Double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of endoglucanase I of Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, R

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive and specific enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay for endoglucanase I (EG-I) has been developed. The monoclonal antibody a-EG-I 2, directed against an epitope on the core part of the enzyme, was used to capture the antigen in microtiter plate wells. A second, polyclonal antibody against the enzyme was then used to detect and quantitate the bound antigen. The test was specific for EG-I; neither endoglucanase II nor cellobiohydrolase I or II interfered. As little as 20 pg of EG-I protein could be detected. The coefficients of variation were 3.8% within plates and 6% between plates for a diluted Trichoderma reesei culture supernatant that contained 31 ng of EG-I per ml. Binding of the antigen to the monoclonal antibody was pH dependent and restricted to values between pH 6.5 and 10.5 with a maximum around pH 9. Standard solutions of EG-I were very stable at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml when prepared in buffer that contained 1% bovine serum albumin and that was stored at -20 degrees C. After 37 weeks the antigenicity was still 97%. With this test it was possible to monitor the production of EG-I in a cellulase-producing strain of T. reesei and to demonstrate the apparent absence of the enzyme in a strain with the eglI gene deleted. PMID:1781689

  7. Enhanced cellulose degradation by nano-complexed enzymes: Synergism between a scaffold-linked exoglucanase and a free endoglucanase.

    PubMed

    Moraïs, Sarah; Heyman, Arnon; Barak, Yoav; Caspi, Jonathan; Wilson, David B; Lamed, Raphael; Shoseyov, Oded; Bayer, Edward A

    2010-06-01

    Protein molecular scaffolds are attracting interest as natural candidates for the presentation of enzymes and acceleration of catalytic reactions. We have previously reported evidence that the stable protein 1 (SP1) from Populustremula can be employed as a molecular scaffold for the presentation of either catalytic or structural binding (cellulosomal cohesin) modules. In the present work, we have displayed a potent exoglucanase (Cel6B) from the aerobic cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, on a cohesin-bearing SP1 scaffold. For this purpose, a chimaeric form of the enzyme, fused to a cellulosomal dockerin module, was prepared. Full incorporation of 12 dockerin-bearing exoglucanase molecules onto the cohesin-bearing scaffold was achieved. Cellulase activity was tested on two cellulosic substrates with different levels of crystallinity, and the activity of the scaffold-linked exoglucanase was significantly reduced, compared to the free dockerin-containing enzyme. However, addition of relatively low concentrations of a free wild-type endoglucanase (T. fusca Cel5A) that bears a cellulose-binding module, in combination with the complexed exoglucanase resulted in a marked rise in activity on both cellulosic substrates. The endoglucanase cleaves internal sites of the cellulose chains, and the new chain ends of the substrate were now readily accessible to the scaffold-borne exoglucanase, thereby resulting in highly effective, synergistic degradation of cellulosic substrates. PMID:20438772

  8. Three Native Cellulose-Depolymerizing Endoglucanases from Solid-Substrate Cultures of the Brown Rot Fungus Meruliporia (Serpula) incrassata

    PubMed Central

    Kleman-Leyer, Karen M.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1994-01-01

    Three extracellular cellulose-depolymerizing enzymes from cotton undergoing decay by the brown rot fungus Meruliporia (Serpula) incrassata were isolated by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Depolymerization was detected by analyzing the changes in the molecular size distribution of cotton cellulose by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. The average degree of polymerization (DP; number of glucosyl residues per cellulose chain) was calculated from the size-exclusion chromatography data. The very acidic purified endoglucanases, Cel 25, Cel 49, and Cel 57, were glycosylated and had molecular weights of 25,200, 48,500, and 57,100, respectively. Two, Cel 25 and Cel 49, depolymerized cotton cellulose and were also very active on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Cel 57, by contrast, significantly depolymerized cotton cellulose but did not release reducing sugars from CMC and only very slightly reduced the viscosity of CMC solutions. Molecular size distributions of cotton cellulose attacked by the three endoglucanases revealed single major peaks that shifted to lower DP positions. A second smaller peak (DP, 10 to 20) was also observed in the size-exclusion chromatograms of cotton attacked by Cel 49 and Cel 57. Under the reaction conditions used, Cel 25, the most active of the cellulases, reduced the weight average DP from 3,438 to 315, solubilizing approximately 20% of the cellulose. The weight average DP values of cotton attacked under the same conditions by Cel 49 and Cel 57 were 814 and 534; weight losses were 9 and 11% respectively. Images PMID:16349351

  9. Evaluation of β-1,4-endoglucanases produced by bacilli isolated from paper and pulp mill effluents irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sangeeta; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Surender; Nain, Lata; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2014-08-01

    A total of 10 cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from soil samples irrigated with paper and pulp mill effluents. The sequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that all isolates belonged to different species of genus Bacillus. Among the different isolates, B. subtilis IARI-SP-1 exhibited a high degree of β-1,4-endoglucanase (2.5 IU/ml), β-1,4-exoglucanase (0.8 IU/ml), and β-glucosidase (0.084 IU/ml) activity, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens IARI-SP-2. CMC was found to be the best carbon source for production of endo/exoglucanase and β-glucosidase. The β-1,4-endoglucanase gene was amplified from all isolates and their deduced amino acid sequences belonged to glycosyl hydrolase family 5. Among the domains of different isolates, the catalytic domains exhibited the highest homology of 93.7%, whereas the regions of signal, leader, linker, and carbohydrate-binding domain indicated low homology (73-74%). These variations in sequence homology are significant and could contribute to the structure and function of the enzyme. PMID:24743572

  10. Characterization of an Endoglucanase from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa Produced in Escherichia coli and Regulation of the Expression of Its Cloned Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lejeune, André; Courtois, Stéphane; Colson, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Several enzymatic properties of an endoglucanase produced in Escherichia coli by a gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa were investigated. Gel filtration revealed a single peak of Mr 36,000 with endoglucanase activity. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 7.0. Carboxymethyl cellulose and barley β-glucan (mixed β-1,3 and 1,4 linkages) were good substrates, but not laminarin (β-1,3 linkages), amylose, filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), or cellotriose. The mode of action was typical of an “endo”-acting enzyme. Taken together, these properties do not correspond to those of any of the endoglucanases described in P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa. Consequently, the gene was designated egIX. The enzyme was sensitive to end-product inhibition by cellobiose but was only moderately inhibited by glucose. The enzyme was formed constitutively in E. coli throughout the growth phase. Urea had no effect on endoglucanase synthesis, but glucose acted as a catabolite repressor. The formation of the enzyme in E. coli was partially dependent on cyclic AMP. PMID:16347543

  11. Purification, Molecular Cloning, and Enzymatic Properties of a Family 12 Endoglucanase (EG-II) from Fomitopsis palustris: Role of EG-II in Larch Holocellulose Hydrolysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hajime; Nojiri, Masanobu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ishihara, Mitsuro

    2008-01-01

    A family 12 endoglucanase with a molecular mass of 23,926 Da (EG-II) from the brown-rot basidiomycete Fomitopsis palustris was purified and characterized. One of the roles of EG-II in wood degradation is thought to be to loosen the polysaccharide network in cell walls by disentangling hemicelluloses that are associated with cellulose. PMID:18658283

  12. Cloning and expression of β-1, 4-endoglucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis isolated from soil long term irrigated with effluents of paper and pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sangeeta; Kushwah, Jyoti; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Kumar, Ram; Somvanshi, Vishal Singh; Nain, Lata; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A strain of Bacillus subtilis IARI-SP-1 isolated from soil long term irrigated with effluents of paper and pulp mill showed high β-1, 4-endoglucanase (2.5 IU/ml) but low activity of β-1, 4-exoglucanase (0.8 IU/ml) and β-glucosidase (0.084 IU/ml). The β-1, 4-endoglucanase gene of IARI-SP-1 was amplified using degenerate primers designed based on sequences already available in NCBI GenBank. A full length gene of β-1, 4-endonuclease consisting of 1499 nucleotides was identified through sequence analysis of the amplified product. The ORF encoded for a protein of 500 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 55 kDa. The gene was cloned in pET-28a and over expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). In comparison to wild strain (B. subtilis), the transformed E. coli exhibited four times increase in cellulase production. Higher enzyme activity was observed in supernatant (8.2 IU/ml) than cell pellet (2.8 IU/ml) suggesting more extracellular production of β-1, 4-endoglucanase. SDS-PAGE and CMC plate assay also confirmed the overproduction by the transformed E. coli. The pH and temperature optima of expressed β-1, 4-endoglucanase enzyme was identical to that of wild strain and was 8 and 50-60 °C, respectively. PMID:24636744

  13. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Annual report, March 11, 1997--March 14, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Danna, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu) is to be determined. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulose expression in plants, enzymes with high temperature optima were chosen; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source. During the past year (year 2 of the grant), efforts have been focused on testing expression of endoglucanase E{sub 1}, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, in the apoplast of both tobacco suspension cells and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using the plasmids constructed during the first year, transgenic cells and plants that contain the gene for the E{sub 1} catalytic domain fused to a signal peptide sequence were obtained. This gene was constructed so that the fusion protein will be secreted into the apoplast. The enzyme is made in large quantities and is secreted into the apoplast. More importantly, it is enzymatically active when placed under optimal reaction conditions (high temperature). Moreover, the plant cells and intact plants exhibit no obvious problems with growth and development under laboratory conditions. Work has also continued to improve binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to determine activity of E{sub 1} at various temperatures, and to investigate the activity of the 35S Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter in E. coli. 9 figs.

  14. [High-level production of neutral endoglucanase 1 in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shao-Jun; Song, Mei-Jing; Yang, Hong-Jun; Xing, Zeng-Tao; Zhou, Rui; Cao, Jie

    2006-01-01

    The gene (eg1) encoding for novel endoglucanase 1 was cloned previously from Chinese straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea. EG1 has high thermal stability and optimal pH at neutral and shows great potential in textile and paper industry applications. To improve the expression level of EG1 in Pichia pastoris, the increasing copy number of clone, and its high cell density fermentation in 3.2L fermenter for its high-level expression were investigated in this work. By electro-transformation of pPICZalphaB-egl into GS115EG11 integrated with single copy of eg1 gene, A resistant transformant with 3.8 times higher level expression than GS115EG11 was screened from YPDSZ plate containing 2000 microg/mL of Zeocin. The effect of initial cell density, pH and methanol on its expression and biomass accumulation was evaluated in shaking culture. Optimal EG1 production was observed when initial cell density OD600 was 5.0. EG1 production and biomass accumulation did not seem to vary when cells were induced at different pH values. Both of EG1 and cell density were found to increase with higher methanol concentrations, reaching 62.48 IU/mL and 31.7 (OD600) respectively after 120 h induction with 2.0% (V/V) methanol compared to 30.24 IU/mL and 17.79 (OD60) with 0.25% methanol induction. EG1 expression was further increased by 6.4 times higher than shaking culture after 95.5 hours induction with methanol in fed-batch fermentation, so totally 34 times higher than that for GS115EG11 was achieved by screening of high Zeocin resistant clone and high cell density fermentation. The production of EG1 with 543.36IU/mL CMC activity and 8.80mg/mL protein expression was obtained in Pichia pastoris. PMID:16572843

  15. Endoglucanase I from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Purification, characterization, cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Ding, S J; Ge, W; Buswell, J A

    2001-11-01

    We isolated an endoglucanase, EG1, from culture fluid of Volvariella volvacea grown on crystalline cellulose by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, and preparative PAGE. EG1 has a molecular mass of 42 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE and an isoelectric point of 7.7. Enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CM-cellulose) is maximal at pH 7.5 and 55 degrees C. EG1 also hydrolysed phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose and filter paper (at rates of 29% and 6%, respectively, compared with CM-cellulose), but did not hydrolyse crystalline cellulose, cotton, oat spelt xylan, and birchwood xylan. Degenerate primers based on the N-terminal sequences of purified EGI and a protease-generated fragment were used to generate cDNA fragments encoding a portion of the EG1 gene (eg1), and RACE was used to obtain full-length cDNA clones. The cDNA of eg1 contained an ORF of 1167 bp encoding 389 amino acids. The amino-acid sequence from Ala24 to Thr40 corresponded to the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. The first 23 amino acids are presumed to be a signal peptide. V. volvacea EG1 has been assigned to glycoside hydrolase family 5 according to the classification of glycohydrolases based on amino-acid sequence similarities. Transcripts of eg1 were detected in total RNA from mycelium grown on cellulose but not from mycelium grown on glucose. Cellobiose also induced eg1 expression in 1- to 4-day-old cultures but the signal intensity was lower than that obtained with cellulose. Catabolite repression was observed 24 h after addition of 1% (w/v) glucose, alpha-lactose, beta-lactose, xylose, mannose, sorbose or fructose to medium containing 1% (w/v) crystalline cellulose. Eg1 was expressed at a high level in the yeast, Pichia pastoris, and the catalytic activity of the recombinant EG1 was confirmed. PMID:11722552

  16. A Revised Architecture of Primary Cell Walls Based on Biomechanical Changes Induced by Substrate-Specific Endoglucanases1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Xyloglucan is widely believed to function as a tether between cellulose microfibrils in the primary cell wall, limiting cell enlargement by restricting the ability of microfibrils to separate laterally. To test the biomechanical predictions of this “tethered network” model, we assessed the ability of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyl walls to undergo creep (long-term, irreversible extension) in response to three family-12 endo-β-1,4-glucanases that can specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, cellulose, or both. Xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase (XEG from Aspergillus aculeatus) failed to induce cell wall creep, whereas an endoglucanase that hydrolyzes both xyloglucan and cellulose (Cel12A from Hypocrea jecorina) induced a high creep rate. A cellulose-specific endoglucanase (CEG from Aspergillus niger) did not cause cell wall creep, either by itself or in combination with XEG. Tests with additional enzymes, including a family-5 endoglucanase, confirmed the conclusion that to cause creep, endoglucanases must cut both xyloglucan and cellulose. Similar results were obtained with measurements of elastic and plastic compliance. Both XEG and Cel12A hydrolyzed xyloglucan in intact walls, but Cel12A could hydrolyze a minor xyloglucan compartment recalcitrant to XEG digestion. Xyloglucan involvement in these enzyme responses was confirmed by experiments with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls, where Cel12A induced creep in wild-type but not in xyloglucan-deficient (xxt1/xxt2) walls. Our results are incompatible with the common depiction of xyloglucan as a load-bearing tether spanning the 20- to 40-nm spacing between cellulose microfibrils, but they do implicate a minor xyloglucan component in wall mechanics. The structurally important xyloglucan may be located in limited regions of tight contact between microfibrils. PMID:22362871

  17. Nectarin IV, a Potent Endoglucanase Inhibitor Secreted into the Nectar of Ornamental Tobacco Plants. Isolation, Cloning, and Characterization12

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, S.M. Saqlan; Harper, April; Carter, Clay; Ren, Gang; Guirgis, Adel; York, William S.; Thornburg, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized the Nectarin IV (NEC4) protein that accumulates in the nectar of ornamental tobacco plants (Nicotiana langsdorffii × Nicotiana sanderae var LxS8). This 60-kD protein has a blocked N terminus. Three tryptic peptides of the protein were isolated and sequenced using tandem mass spectroscopy. These unique peptides were found to be similar to the xyloglucan-specific fungal endoglucanase inhibitor protein (XEGIP) precursor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and its homolog in potato (Solanum tuberosum). A pair of oligonucleotide primers was designed based on the potato and tomato sequences that were used to clone a 1,018-bp internal piece of nec4 cDNA from a stage 6 nectary cDNA library. The remaining portions of the cDNA were subsequently captured by 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Complete sequencing of the nec4 cDNA demonstrated that it belonged to a large family of homologous proteins from a wide variety of angiosperms. Related proteins include foliage proteins and seed storage proteins. Based upon conserved identity with the wheat (Triticum aestivum) xylanase inhibitor TAXI-1, we were able to develop a protein model that showed that NEC4 contains additional amino acid loops that are not found in TAXI-1 and that glycosylation sites are surface exposed. Both these loops and sites of glycosylation are on the opposite face of the NEC4 molecule from the site that interacts with fungal hemicellulases, as indicated by homology to TAXI-I. NEC4 also contains a region homologous to the TAXI-1 knottin domain; however, a deletion in this domain restructures the disulfide bridges of this domain, resulting in a pseudoknottin domain. Inhibition assays were performed to determine whether purified NEC4 was able to inhibit fungal endoglucanases and xylanases. These studies showed that NEC4 was a very effective inhibitor of a family GH12 xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase with a Ki of 0.35 nm. However, no inhibitory activity was

  18. Enhancement of Expression and Apparent Secretion of Erwinia chrysanthemi Endoglucanase (Encoded by celZ) in Escherichia coli B†

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengde; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Saleh, Alif Z.; Davis, Francis C.; Aldrich, Henry C.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli B has been engineered as a biocatalyst for the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Previous research has demonstrated that derivatives of E. coli B can produce high levels of Erwinia chrysanthemi endoglucanase (encoded by celZ) as a periplasmic product and that this enzyme can function with commercial fungal cellulase to increase ethanol production. In this study, we have demonstrated two methods that improve celZ expression in E. coli B. Initially, with a low-copy-number vector, two E. coli glycolytic gene promoters (gap and eno) were tested and found to be less effective than the original celZ promoter. By screening 18,000 random fragments of Zymomonas mobilis DNA, a surrogate promoter was identified which increased celZ expression up to sixfold. With this promoter, large polar inclusion bodies were clearly evident in the periplasmic space. Sequencing revealed that the most active surrogate promoter is derived from five Sau3A1 fragments, one of which was previously sequenced in Z. mobilis. Visual inspection indicated that this DNA fragment contains at least five putative promoter regions, two of which were confirmed by primer extension analysis. Addition of the out genes from E. chrysanthemi EC16 caused a further increase in the production of active enzyme and facilitated secretion or release of over half of the activity into the extracellular environment. With the most active construct, of a total of 13,000 IU of active enzyme per liter of culture, 7,800 IU was in the supernatant. The total active endoglucanase was estimated to represent 4 to 6% of cellular protein. PMID:10347024

  19. Construction of individual, fused, and co-expressed proteins of endoglucanase and β-glucosidase for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kurniasih, Sari Dewi; Alfi, Almasul; Natalia, Dessy; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; Nurachman, Zeily

    2014-01-01

    At least a combination of endoglucanase (EglII) and β-glucosidase (BglZ) is required for hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. To understand the catalytic efficiency of combination enzymes for converting biomass to sugars, EglII and BglZ were constructed in the form of individual, fused as well as co-expression proteins, and their activities for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. The genes, eglII isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PSM3.1 earlier and bglZ from B. amyloliquefaciens ABBD, were expressed extracellularly in Bacillus megaterium MS941. EglII exhibited both exoglucanase and endoglucanase activities, and BglZ belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 1 family (GH 1) showed β-glucosidase activity. A combination of EglII and BglZ showed activity on substrates Avicel, CMC and sugarcane bagasse. Specifically for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse, fused protein (fus-EglII+BglZ), co-expression protein (coex-BglZ+EglII), and mixed-individual protein (mix-EglII+BglZ) produced cellobiose as the main product, along with a small amount of glucose. The amount of reducing sugars released from the hydrolyzing bleached sugarcane bagasse (BSB) using fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ was 2.7- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than steamed sugarcane bagasse (SSB), indicating the synergetic enzymes worked better on treated sugarcane bagasse. Compared with fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ, coex-BglZ+EglII released more mol reducing sugars from SSB, indicating the enzymes were potential for biomass conversion. Additionally, coex-BglZ+EglII acted on BSB 2.5-fold faster than fus-EglII+BglZ. Thus, coex-bglZ+eglII expression system was the best choice to produce enzymes for hydrolyzing sugarcane baggase. PMID:24598011

  20. Nucleotide sequence of the celG gene of Clostridium thermocellum and characterization of its product, endoglucanase CelG.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, M; Béguin, P

    1993-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the celG gene of Clostridium thermocellum, encoding endoglucanase CelG, was determined. The open reading frame extended over 1,698 bp and encoded a 566-amino-acid polypeptide (molecular weight of 63,128) similar to the C. thermocellum endoglucanase CelB (51.5% identical residues). The N terminus displayed a typical signal peptide, followed by a catalytic domain. The C terminus, which was separated from the catalytic domain by a 25-amino-acid segment rich in Pro, Thr, and Ser, contained two conserved stretches of 22 amino acids closely similar to those previously described in other cellulases from the same organism. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli was increased by fusing the fragment coding for the catalytic domain in frame with the start of the lacZ' gene present in the vector. A low- and a high-M(r) form of the protein were purified. The two forms displayed identical enzymatic properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that both forms consist of a major polypeptide of M(r) 50,000 and two minor polypeptides of M(r)s 49,000 and 48,000, resulting from heterogeneous proteolytic cleavage at the C terminus. An antiserum raised against the forms purified from E. coli reacted with an immunoreactive polypeptide of M(r) 66,000, which was associated with the extracellular cellulolytic complex of C. thermocellum known as the cellulosome. Images PMID:8501039

  1. Reassembly and co-crystallization of a family 9 processive endoglucanase from its component parts: structural and functional significance of the intermodular linker

    PubMed Central

    Petkun, Svetlana; Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Lamed, Raphael; Jindou, Sadanari; Burstein, Tal; Yaniv, Oren; Shoham, Yuval; Shimon, Linda J.W.; Frolow, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Non-cellulosomal processive endoglucanase 9I (Cel9I) from Clostridium thermocellum is a modular protein, consisting of a family-9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9) catalytic module and two family-3 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM3c and CBM3b), separated by linker regions. GH9 does not show cellulase activity when expressed without CBM3c and CBM3b and the presence of the CBM3c was previously shown to be essential for endoglucanase activity. Physical reassociation of independently expressed GH9 and CBM3c modules (containing linker sequences) restored 60–70% of the intact Cel9I endocellulase activity. However, the mechanism responsible for recovery of activity remained unclear. In this work we independently expressed recombinant GH9 and CBM3c with and without their interconnecting linker in Escherichia coli. We crystallized and determined the molecular structure of the GH9/linker-CBM3c heterodimer at a resolution of 1.68 Å to understand the functional and structural importance of the mutual spatial orientation of the modules and the role of the interconnecting linker during their re-association. Enzyme activity assays and isothermal titration calorimetry were performed to study and compare the effect of the linker on the re-association. The results indicated that reassembly of the modules could also occur without the linker, albeit with only very low recovery of endoglucanase activity. We propose that the linker regions in the GH9/CBM3c endoglucanases are important for spatial organization and fixation of the modules into functional enzymes. PMID:26401442

  2. Purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through saccharification of delignified coir pith to glucose.

    PubMed

    Asha, P; Divya, Jose; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    The study describes purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through bioconversion of delignified coir pith to fermentable glucose. The purified processive endoglucanase (AS-HT-Celuz A) and β-glucosidase (AS-HT-Celuz B) were found to have molecular mass of ≈78-kDa and 43-kDa respectively with optimum endoglucanase (35.63U/ml), total cellulase (28.15FPU/ml) and β-glucosidase (15.19U/ml) activities at 40°C/pH 6. The unique feature of AS-HT-Celuz A is the multiple substrate specificity and processivity towards both amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Zymogram indicated both endo and exoglucanase activities residing in different binding sites of a single protein exhibiting sequential synergy with its own β-glucosidase. Accordingly, the identified enzymes could be implemented as synergistic cellulases for complete cellulose saccharification which still considered an unresolved issue in bio-refineries. PMID:26976061

  3. Putative endoglucanase PcGH5 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a β-xylosidase that cleaves xylans in synergistic action with endo-xylanase.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Duc; Nguyen, Cu Le; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Park, Seung-Moon

    2015-04-01

    A predicted endoglucanase gene (PcGH5) was cloned from Phanerochaete chysosporium, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Although PcGH5 showed similarity with the conserved domains of a cellulase superfamily GH5, a β-glucosidase/6-phospho-β-glucosidase/β-galactosidase superfamily, and an endoglucanase, recombinant PcGH5 exhibited a β-xylosidase activity, rather than endoglucanase activity. Therefore, the predicted gene was named as PcXyl5. Further characterization of recombinant PcXyl5 showed not only catalysis of the hydrolysis of xylo-oligomers to xylose, but also displayed transglycosylation activity using alcohol as a receptor. Optimum pH of rPcXyl5 was found to be 5.5, whereas optimum temperature was 50°C. rPcXyl5 increased reducing sugar release of birchwood xylan, beechwood xylan, and arabinoxylan by 6.4%, 13%, 15.8%, respectively, in synergistic action with endo-xylanase. Interestingly, the late addition of rPcXyl5 into reaction with endo-xylanase resulted in a larger increase of reducing sugar release from pretreated barley straw that addition at the start or by treatment with endo-xylanases alone. The increases observed were 6.3% and 13.8%, respectively, showing a great potential application for hemicellulose saccharification. PMID:25300189

  4. Endoglucanase Peripheral Loops Facilitate Complexation of Glucan Chains on Cellulose via Adaptive Coupling to the Emergent Substrate Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuchun; Beckham, Gregg T.; Himmel, Michael E.; Crowley, Michael F.; Chu, Jhih-wei

    2013-09-19

    We examine how the catalytic domain of a glycoside hydrolase family 7 endoglucanase catalytic domain (Cel7B CD) facilitates complexation of cellulose chains from a crystal surface. With direct relevance to the science of biofuel production, this problem also represents a model system of biopolymer processing by proteins in Nature. Interactions of Cel7B CD with a cellulose microfibril along different paths of complexation are characterized by mapping the atomistic fluctuations recorded in free-energy simulations onto the parameters of a coarse-grain model. The resulting patterns of protein-biopolymer couplings also uncover the sequence signatures of the enzyme in peeling off glucan chains from the microfibril substrate. We show that the semiopen active site of Cel7B CD exhibits similar barriers and free energies of complexation over two distinct routes; namely, scooping of a chain into the active-site cleft and threading from the chain end into the channel. On the other hand, the complexation energetics strongly depends on the surface packing of the targeted chain and the resulting interaction sites with the enzyme. A revealed principle is that Cel7B CD facilitates cellulose deconstruction via adaptive coupling to the emergent substrate. The flexible, peripheral segments of the protein outside of the active-site cleft are able to accommodate the varying features of cellulose along the simulated paths of complexation. The general strategy of linking physics-based molecular interactions to protein sequence could also be helpful in elucidating how other protein machines process biopolymers.

  5. The slowdown of the endoglucanase Trichoderma reesei Cel5A-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis is related to its initial activity.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhiyu; Wang, Yefei; An, Liaoyuan; Yao, Lishan

    2014-12-01

    One important feature of hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is that the reaction slows down quickly after it starts. In this work, we investigate the slowdown mechanism at the early stage of the reaction using endoglucanase Tr. Cel5A-catalyzed phosphate acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) hydrolysis as a model system. Specifically, we focus on the effect of enzyme adsorption on the reaction slowdown. Nineteen single mutations are introduced (with the assistance of molecular dynamics simulations) to perturb the enzyme PASC interaction, yielding the adsorption partitioning coefficient Kr that ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 L/g, compared to that of the wild type (0.26 L/g). Several residues, including T18, K26, Y26, H229, and T300, are demonstrated to be important for adsorption of the enzyme to PASC. The kinetic measurements show that the slowdown of the hydrolysis is not correlated with the adsorption quantified by the partitioning coefficient Kr but is anticorrelated with the initial activity. This result suggests that the mutants with higher activity are more prone to being trapped or deplete the most reactive substrate faster and the adsorption plays no apparent role in the reaction slowdown. The initial activity of Cel5A against PASC is correlated with the enzyme specific activity against a soluble substrate p-nitrophenyl cellobioside. PMID:25423499

  6. Interaction between the endoglucanase CelA and the scaffolding protein CipC of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosome.

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, S; Belaich, A; Tardif, C; Reverbel-Leroy, C; Gaudin, C; Belaich, J P

    1996-01-01

    The 5' end of the cipC gene, coding for the N-terminal part of CipC, the scaffolding protein of Clostridium cellulolyticum ATCC 35319, was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a 586-amino-acid peptide, including several domains: a cellulose-binding domain, a hydrophilic domain, and two hydrophobic domains (cohesin domains). Sequence alignments showed that the N terminus of CipC and CbpA of C. cellulovorans ATCC 35296 have the same organization. The mini-CipC polypeptide, containing a cellulose-binding domain, hydrophilic domain 1, and cohesin domain 1, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The interaction between endoglucanase CelA, with (CelA2) and without (CelA3) the characteristic clostridial C-terminal domain called the duplicated-segment or dockerin domain, and the mini-CipC polypeptide was monitored by two different methods: the interaction Western blotting (immunoblotting) method and binding assays with biotin-labeled protein. Among the various forms of CelA (CelA2, CelA3, and an intermediary form containing only part of the duplicated segment), only CelA2 was found to interact with cohesin domain 1 of CipC. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of the CelA2-mini-CipC complex was 7 x 10(-9)M, which indicates that there exists a high affinity between these two proteins. PMID:8636029

  7. Purification, characterization, cDNA cloning, and expression of a xyloglucan endoglucanase from Geotrichum sp. M128.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2004-02-27

    A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (XEG), xyloglucanase, with a molecular mass of 80 kDa and a pI of 4.8, was isolated from the fungus Geotrichum sp. M128. It was found to be an endoglucanase active toward xyloglucan and not active toward carboxymethylcellulose, Avicel, or barley 1,3-1,4-beta-glucan. Analysis of the precise substrate specificity using various xyloglucan oligosaccharide structures revealed that XEG has at least four subsites (-2 to +2) and specifically recognizes xylose branching at the +1 and +2 sites. The full-length cDNA encoding XEG was cloned and sequenced. It consists of a 2436-bp open reading frame encoding a 776-amino acid protein. From its deduced amino acid sequence, XEG can be classified as a family 74 glycosyl hydrolase. The cDNA encoding XEG was then expressed in Escherichia coli, and enzymatically active recombinant XEG was obtained. PMID:14987996

  8. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Vanessa de Cássia; de Souza Coto, Amanda Lais; de Carvalho Souza, Rafael; Bertoldi Sanchez Neves, Marcello; Gomes, Eleni; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2016-01-01

    This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC) and submerged (SmC) cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases. PMID:27242927

  9. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira da Silva, Vanessa de Cássia; de Souza Coto, Amanda Lais; de Carvalho Souza, Rafael; Bertoldi Sanchez Neves, Marcello; Gomes, Eleni; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2016-01-01

    This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC) and submerged (SmC) cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases. PMID:27242927

  10. Characteristics of a β-1,4-D endoglucanase from Trichoderma virens wholly applied in a palm-fruit husk-based diet for poultry layers

    PubMed Central

    Odeniyi, Olubusola A.; Onilude, Anthony A.; Ayodele, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of an endoglucanase produced by a Trichoderma virens strain T9 newly isolated from a palm-fruit husk dump site, its physiological characteristics and enzyme production were studied. Whole cells of the depolymerizing-enzyme producing T. virens were applied to palm-fruit husk and bird performance characteristics when employed as poultry diet additive were considered. Endoglucanase activity in submerged fermentation was 1.6 nkat. Optimum activity was recorded at pH 6.0 and 55°C. The enzyme retained 50% residual glucanase activity at 70°C for 10 minutes. 1.0% Tween-80 and SDS yielded endoglucanase activity 2.15 times higher than the control. Activity was boosted by 20mM Ca2+ (115.0%); 10mM K+ (106.5%); and was totally inhibited by 1mM Hg2+. The addition of T. virens-fermented palm-fruit husk with other layer feed components on the bird characteristics showed that change in bird weight between the control and test birds were not significantly different (p>0.05) but differed in terms of daily feed ingested (p<0.05). The feed to weight-gain ratio was best with the unmodified palm-fruit husk based diet (8.59). There was no significant difference in the egg weights from modified palm-fruit husk based diet and control (p>0.05). The shell thickness (0.64mm) and yolk content (23.61%) were highest in the microbially-modified husk diet. The alternative to maize based diets proffered by the application of T. virens-modified palm-fruit husk in poultry nutrition in terms of bird weight and feed to weight-gain ratio affords the poultry farmer an economic advantage and allows for a greater utilization of the maize in human diets. PMID:24031978

  11. Production and distribution of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and beta-glucosidase components of the cellulolytic system of Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y J; Chapman, S J; Buswell, J A; Chang, S T

    1999-02-01

    The edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, produces a multicomponent enzyme system consisting of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and beta-glucosidase for the conversion of cellulose to glucose. The highest levels of endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase were recorded in cultures containing microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) or filter paper, while lower but detectable levels of activity were also produced on carboxymethyl cellulose, cotton wool, xylitol, or salicin. Biochemical analyses of different culture fractions in cultures exhibiting peak enzyme production revealed that most of the endoglucase was present either in the culture filtrate (45.8% of the total) or associated with the insoluble pellet fraction remaining after centrifugation of homogenized mycelia (32.6%). Cellobiohydrolase exhibited a similar distribution pattern, with 58.9% of the total enzyme present in culture filtrates and 31.0% associated with the pellet fraction. Conversely, most beta-glucosidase activity (63.9% of the total) was present in extracts of fungal mycelia whereas only 9.4% was detected in culture filtrates. The endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase distribution patterns were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with immunolabelling. Endoglucanase was shown to be largely cell wall associated or located extracellularly, with the highest concentrations being present in a region 1 to 2 microm wide immediately adjacent to the outer surface of (and possibly including) the hyphal wall and extending 60 to 70 microm from the hyphal tip. Immunofluorescence patterns indicated little if any intracellular endoglucanase. Most beta-glucosidase was located intracellularly in the apical area extending 60 to 70 microm below the hyphal tip, although enzyme was also evident in the extracellular region extending approximately 15 microm all around the hyphal tip and trailing back along the length of the hypha. The regions of the hypha located some distance from the

  12. Recombinant Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase I (Cel7B) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Serpa, Viviane Isabel; Godoy, Andre S; Camilo, Cesar M; Bernardes, Amanda; Rezende, Camila A; Junior, Nei Pereira; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Squina, Fabio M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. Previous studies demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. However, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from T. harzianum are scarce. This work reports biochemical characterization of the recombinant endoglucanase I from T. harzianum, ThCel7B, and its catalytic core domain. The constructs display optimum activity at 55 °C and a surprisingly acidic pH optimum of 3.0. The full-length enzyme is able to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, with high specific activity: 75 U/mg for β-glucan, 46 U/mg toward xyloglucan, 39 U/mg for lichenan, 26 U/mg for carboxymethyl cellulose, 18 U/mg for 4-nitrophenyl β-D-cellobioside, 16 U/mg for rye arabinoxylan, and 12 U/mg toward xylan. The enzyme also hydrolyzed filter paper, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Sigmacell 20, Avicel PH-101, and cellulose, albeit with lower efficiency. The ThCel7B catalytic domain displays similar substrate diversity. Fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that thermal stability is highest at pH 5.0. We determined kinetic parameters and analyzed a pattern of oligosaccharide substrates hydrolysis, revealing cellobiose as a final product of C6 degradation. Finally, we visualized effects of ThCel7B on oat spelt using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrating the morphological changes of the substrate during the hydrolysis. The acidic behavior of ThCel7B and its considerable thermostability hold a promise of its industrial applications and other biotechnological uses under extremely acidic conditions. PMID:26156238

  13. A salt-bridge controlled by ligand binding modulates the hydrolysis reaction in a GH5 endoglucanase.

    PubMed

    Badieyan, Somayesadat; Bevan, David R; Zhang, Chenming

    2012-05-01

    Cellulases, distributed in at least 15 families of glycoside hydrolases, will play a key role in biomass conversion and renewable energy challenges of the future. Cel5B from Clostridium thermocellum is a β-1,4-endoglucanase and a member of family 5 of glycoside hydrolases (GH5) and is characterized by an (α/β)(8) barrel structure. In contrast to other retaining enzymes, in which the catalytic carboxylate groups (glutamate or aspartate) are positioned ≈ 5.5 Å apart to facilitate nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon of the sugar substrate, these two residues in Cel5B are positioned ≈ 10 Å from each other in the unliganded wild-type structure. The structure of the enzyme solved in complex with a cleavage product (cellobiose) revealed ligand-induced conformational changes in the loop carrying Glu140 (proton donor). The reorientation of Glu140 in the complex reduces the separation of the catalytic glutamate residues to 4.3 Å. In this study, we took advantage of conventional and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations along with in silico and in vitro mutagenesis to investigate the ligand-induced changes of the enzyme and interactions involved in preservation of Cel5B conformations in the presence and absence of substrate. We determined that the variation in separation of catalytic glutamates in the absence and presence of substrate is due to the different protonation states of the proton donor glutamate that is largely governed by conformational changes in the β3α3 loop. In the absence of substrate, the conformation of Cel5B is preserved by an electrostatic interaction between deprotonated Glu140 and protonated His91. The ion pair is interrupted upon the binding of substrate, and the positional displacement of the β3α3 loop allows Glu140 to become oriented within the active site in a less hydrophilic microenvironment that assists in Glu140 protonation. PMID:22419828

  14. An acidothermophilic functionally active novel GH12 family endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger HO: purification, characterization and molecular interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Rekha; Kumar, Sunil; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Kumar, Dinesh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endoglucanase (EG) from Aspergillus niger HO was sequentially purified through ultrafiltration, ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography to homogeneity, with an overall recovery of 18 %. The purified EG was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of about 55 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 3.5 and 70 °C with a half life (t1/2) of 3 h and Km value of 2.5 mg/ml. Metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Co(2+) helped in enzyme induction, while Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. Peptide mass fingerprinting results revealed that the purified EG is a novel enzyme that belongs to family 12 of glycoside hydrolase (GH12). Molecular docking studies indicated the presence of Glu116 and Glu204 as important determinant residues for the functional interaction with carboxymethylcellulose and showed hydrogen bonding with Asp99, Glu116, Glu204 and hydrophobic interactions with Trp22, Val58, Tyr61, Phe101, Met118, Trp120, Pro129, Ile130, Thr160 and Phe206. Hydrolysis of 2 % CMC with purified acidothermophilic EG at its optimum temperature and pH resulted in complete hydrolysis within 2 h yielding 18 % cellotriose, 72 % cellobiose and 10 % glucose as evident from HPLC analysis. In comparison to most of the EGs reported in literature, EG from A. niger HO exhibited higher thermostability. The acidothermophilic nature of this enzyme makes it potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:25331339

  15. Cellulose-binding polypeptides from Cellulomonas fimi: endoglucanase D (CenD), a family A beta-1,4-glucanase.

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, A; Gilkes, N R; Kilburn, D G; Miller, R C; Warren, R A

    1993-01-01

    Five cellulose-binding polypeptides were detected in Cellulomonas fimi culture supernatants. Two of them are CenA and CenB, endo-beta-1,4-glucanases which have been characterized previously; the other three were previously uncharacterized polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 120, 95, and 75 kDa. The 75-kDa cellulose-binding protein was designated endoglucanase D (CenD). The cenD gene was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 747 amino acids. Mature CenD is 708 amino acids long and has a predicted molecular mass of 74,982 Da. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of CenD shows that the enzyme comprises four domains which are separated by short linker polypeptides: an N-terminal catalytic domain of 405 amino acids, two repeated sequences of 95 amino acids each, and a C-terminal domain of 105 amino acids which is > 50% identical to the sequences of cellulose-binding domains in Cex, CenA, and CenB from C. fimi. Amino acid sequence comparison placed the catalytic domain of CenD in family A, subtype 1, of beta-1,4-glycanases. The repeated sequences are more than 40% identical to the sequences of three repeats in CenB and are related to the repeats of fibronectin type III. CenD hydrolyzed the beta-1,4-glucosidic bond with retention of anomeric configuration. The activities of CenD towards various cellulosic substrates were quite different from those of CenA and CenB. Images PMID:8458833

  16. Characterization of a novel thermostable β-glucosidase from a metagenomic library of termite gut.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianfu; Qian, Changli; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Liu, Ning; Liu, Nin; Yan, Xing; Zhou, Zhihua

    2012-12-10

    A novel β-glucosidase-encoding gene, bgl-gs1, which was identified from a positive fosmid clone in a metagenomic library of the gut of Globitermes brachycerastes, [corrected] encodes a 455 amino acid polypeptide that contains a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1). It was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the expression product showed a molecular mass of ∼51.7 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The optimal temperature and pH for the activity of the purified recombinant enzyme Bgl-gs1 with p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucoside (pNPG) were 90°C and 6.0, respectively. The specific activities of Bgl-gs1 on pNPG and salicin were 110 and 14U/mg of protein, respectively, and its K(m) values were 0.18 and 2.59 mM, respectively. The residual activity of Bgl-gs1 was maintained above 70% after the recombinant enzyme was incubated at 75°C and pH 6.0 for 2h, and its half-life at 90°C was approximately 1h in the presence of 4mM pNPG. Bgl-gs1 showed synergistic effect with either a crude enzyme mixture of the fungal strain Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 or a fusion protein (TcE1) created from the cellobiohydrolase cbh1 gene of T. reesei and endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus; 87 and 137% increases in hydrolytic efficiency were noted on microcrystalline cellulose, respectively. These results suggest that the thermostable β-glucosidase Bgl-gs1 is a likely candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23040386

  17. Purification and characterization of endoglucanase C of Cellulomonas fimi, cloning of the gene, and analysis of in vivo transcripts of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, B; Gilkes, N R; Kilburn, D G; Warren, R A; Miller, R C

    1989-01-01

    Two nonglycosylated endoglucanases which bind to Sephadex were purified from culture supernatants of Cellulomonas fimi grown on microcrystalline cellulose. Their Mrs were 120,000 and 130,000. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the enzymes were identical, suggesting that the enzymes were related. A DNA fragment encoding this N-terminal sequence was cloned in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence was preceded by a sequence encoding a typical leader peptide. Transcripts hybridizing to the cloned fragment were detected in total RNA isolated from C. fimi cells grown on carboxymethyl cellulose but not from cells grown on glycerol or glucose. Transcription started at a cluster of sites 53 to 59 nucleotides upstream of a GUG translation initiation codon and terminated at either of two closely spaced C residues immediately downstream of a region of potential secondary structure. The size of the transcript was approximately 3.5 kilobases, sufficient to encode a polypeptide of 130 kilodaltons. The 130-kilodalton polypeptide is designated endoglucanase C (CenC), and the gene encoding it is designated cenC. Images PMID:2604391

  18. Effect of multiple short highly energetic X-ray pulses on the synthesis of endoglucanase by a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei-M7

    PubMed Central

    Gemishev, Orlin; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander; Markova, Maya; Savov, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose-containing substrate to glucose represents an important area of modern biotechnology. Enzymes for the degradation of the polysaccharide part of biomass have been produced, mostly by fungi belonging to genus Trichoderma. Studies were carried out with the mutant strain Trichoderma reesei-M7, a cellulase producer. Spores of the enzyme producer were irradiated with different doses of characteristic X-ray radiation from metallic tungsten (mainly the W Kα1 and Kα2 lines) with a high dose rate. The latter is a specific property of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device, which has pulsed operation and thus gives short and highly energetic pulses of multiple types of rays and particles. In this case, we focused our study on the influence of hard X-rays. The doses of X-rays absorbed by the spores varied in the range of approximately 5–11,000 mSv measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The influence of the applied doses in combination with exceptionally high dose rates (in the order of tens of millisieverts per microsecond) on the activity of the produced endoglucanase, amount of biomass and extra-cellular protein, was studied in batch cultivation conditions. In the dose range of 200–1200 mSv, some enhancement of endoglucanase activity was obtained: around 18%–32%, despite the drop of the biomass amount, compared with the untreated material. PMID:26019569

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an endogenous endoglucanase belonging to GHF45 from the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Arnubio; Alves, Analiza P; Siegfried, Blair D

    2013-01-25

    A novel insect β-1,4-endoglucanase (DvvENGaseI) gene belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 45 was identified from the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. The cDNA of the DvvENGaseI consisted of a 720 bp open reading frame encoding a 239 amino-acid protein. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that DvvENGaseI exhibits 60% protein sequence identity when compared with an endoglucanase belonging to GHF45 from another beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Western blot analyses using a polyclonal antiserum developed from a partial peptide sequence revealed that DvvENGaseI expression coincided with body regions corresponding to the fore-, mid- and hindgut, although regions corresponding to the midgut and hindgut were the primary sites for DvvENGaseI expression. Functional analysis of the DvvENGaseI by RNA interference (RNAi) indicated that nearly complete knock-down of gene expression could be obtained by injection of dsRNA based on qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. However, suppression only resulted in slight developmental delays suggesting that this gene may be part of a larger system of cellulose degrading enzymes. PMID:23137634

  20. CenC, a multidomain thermostable GH9 processive endoglucanase from Clostridium thermocellum: cloning, characterization and saccharification studies.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ikram ul; Akram, Fatima; Khan, Mahmood Ali; Hussain, Zahid; Nawaz, Ali; Iqbal, Kaleem; Shah, Ali Javed

    2015-11-01

    The growing demands of bioenergy has led to the emphasis on novel cellulases to improve efficiency of biodegradation process of plant biomass. Therefore, a thermostable cellulolytic gene (CenC) with 3675 bp was cloned from Clostridium thermocellum and over-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 CodonPlus. It was attested that CenC belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) with four binding domains, a processive endoglucanase. CenC was purified to homogeneity, producing a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to 137.11 kDa, by purification steps of heat treatment combined with ion-exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 70 °C. CenC had a half-life of 24 min at 74 °C, was stable up to 2 h at 60 °C and over a pH range of 5.5-7.5. Enzyme showed high affinity towards various substrates and processively released cellobiose from cellulosic substrates. It efficiently hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose (30 U/mg), β-Glucan Barley (94 U/mg); also showed activity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (18 U/mg), birchwood xylan (19 U/mg), beechwood xylan (17.5 U/mg), avicel (9 U/mg), whatman filter paper (11 U/mg) and laminarin (3.3 U/mg). CenC exhibited Km, Vmax, Kcat, Vmax Km(-1) and Kcat Km(-1) of 7.14 mM, 52.4 µmol mg(-1) min(-1), 632.85 s(-1), 7.34 min(-1) and 88.63, respectively used CMC as substrate. Recombinant CenC saccharified pretreated wheat straw and bagasse to 5.12 and 7.31%, respectively at pH 7.0 and 45 °C after 2 h incubation. Its thermostability, high catalytic efficiency and independence of inhibitors make CenC enzyme an appropriate candidate for industrial applications and cost-effective saccharification process. PMID:26250549

  1. Expression, purification and characterization of an endoglucanase from Serratia proteamaculans CDBB-1961, isolated from the gut of Dendroctonus adjunctus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Rivera-Orduña, Flor Nohemí; García-Huante, Yolanda; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia

    2016-12-01

    Serratia proteamaculans CDBB-1961, a gut symbiont from the roundheaded pine beetle Dendroctonus adjunctus, displayed strong cellulolytic activity on agar-plates with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as carbon source. Automatic genome annotation of S. proteamaculans made possible the identification of a single endoglucanase encoding gene, designated spr cel8A. The predicted protein, named Spr Cel8A shows high similarity (59-94 %) to endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.4) from the glycoside hydrolase family 8 (GH8). The gene spr cel8A has an ORF of 1113 bp, encoding a 371 amino acid residue protein (41.2 kDa) with a signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues. Expression of the gene spr cel8A in Escherichia coli yields a mature recombinant endoglucanase 39 kDa. Cel8A displayed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 40 °C, with a specific activity of 0.85 U/mg. The enzyme was stable at pH from 4 to 8.5, retaining nearly 40-80 % of its original activity, and exhibited a half-life of 8 days at 40 °C. The K m and V max values for Spr Cel8A were 6.87 mg/ml and 3.5 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively, using CMC as substrate. The final principle products of Spr Cel8A-mediated hydrolysis of CMC were cellobiose, cello oligosaccharides and a small amount of glucose, suggesting that Spr Cel8A is an endo-β-1,4-glucanase manifesting exo-activity. This is the first report regarding the functional biochemical and molecular characterization of an endoglucanase from S. proteamaculans, found in the gut-associated bacteria community of Dendroctonus bark beetles. These results contribute to improved understanding of the functional role played by this bacterium as a symbiont of bark beetles. PMID:27576896

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, and properties of an endoglucanase gene (glycosyl hydrolase family 12) from Aspergillus niger VTCC-F021 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Hoa; Quyen, Dinh Thi; Nghiem, Ngoc Minh; Vu, Thu Doan

    2011-10-01

    A gene coding for an endoglucanase (EglA), of the glycosyl hydrolase family 12 and derived from Aspergillus niger VTCC-F021, was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA sequence, 717 bp, and its putative endoglucanase, a 238 aa protein with a predicted molecular mass of 26 kDa and a pI of 4.35, exhibited 98.3-98.7% and 98.3-98.6% identities, respectively, with cDNA sequences and their corresponding endoglucanases from Aspergillus niger strains from the GenBank. The cDNA was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 under the control of an AOX1 promoter with a level of 1.59 U/ml culture supernatant, after 72 h of growth in a YP medium induced with 1% (v/v) of methanol. The molecular mass of the purified EglA, determined by SDS-PAGE, was 33 kDa, with a specific activity of 100.16 and 19.91 U/mg toward 1% (w/v) of beta-glucan and CMC, respectively. Optimal enzymatic activity was noted at a temperature of 55°C and a pH of 5. The recombinant EglA (rEglA) was stable over a temperature range of 30- 37°C and at pH range of 3.5-4.5. Metal ions, detergents, and solvents tested indicated a slightly inhibitory effect on rEglA activity. Kinetic constants (K(m), V(max), k(cat), and k(cat)/ K(m)) determined for rEglA with beta-glucan as a substrate were 4.04 mg/ml, 102.04 U/mg, 2,040.82 min-1, and 505.05, whereas they were 10.17 mg/ml, 28.99 U/mg, 571.71 min-1, and 57.01 with CMC as a substrate, respectively. The results thus indicate that the rEglA obtained in this study is highly specific toward beta-glucan. The biochemical properties of rEglA make it highly valuable for downstream biotechnological applications, including potential use as a feed enzyme. PMID:22031024

  3. Cloning of the Thermomonospora fusca Endoglucanase E2 gene in Streptomyces lividans: Affinity purification and functional domains of the cloned gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Ghangas, G.S.; Wilson, D.B. )

    1988-10-01

    Thermomonospora fusca YX grown in the presence of cellulose produces a number of {beta}-1-4-endoglucanases, some of which bind to microcrystalline cellulose. By using a multicopy plasmid, pIJ702, a gene coding for one of these enzymes (E2) was cloned into Streptomyces lividans and then mobilized into both Escherichia coli and Streptomyces albus. The gene was localized to a 1.6-kilobase PvuII-ClaI segment of the originally cloned 3.0-kilobase SstI fragment of Thermomonospora DNA. The culture supernatants of Streptomyces transformants contain a major endoglucanase that cross-reacts with antibody against Thermomonospora cellulase E2 and has the same molecular weight (43,000) as T. fusca E2. This protein binds quickly and tightly to Avicel. It also binds to filter paper but at a slower rate than to Avicel. Several large proteolytic degradation products of this enzyme generated in vivo lose the ability to bind to Avicel and have higher activity on carboxymethyl cellulose than the native enzyme. Other smaller products bind to Avicel but lack activity. A weak cellobiose-binding site not observed in the native enzyme was present in one of the degradation products. In E. coli, the cloned gene produced a cellulase that also binds tightly to Avicel but appeared to be slightly larger than T. fusca E2. The activity of intact E2 from all organisms can be inactivated by Hg{sup 2+} ions. Dithiothreitol protected against Hg{sup 2+} inactivation and reactivated both unbound and Avicel-bound Hg{sub 2+}-inhibited E2, but at different rates.

  4. Cloning, Overexpression, and Characterization of Halostable, Solvent-Tolerant Novel β-Endoglucanase from a Marine Bacterium Photobacterium panuliri LBS5(T) (DSM 27646(T)).

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K

    2016-02-01

    A 1329 nucleotide long endoglucanase gene was amplified from marine bacterium Photobacterium panuliri strain LBS5(T).The enzyme sequence was novel as protein-based similarity search revealed that it shared maximum similarity of 99% with hypothetical protein of P. aquae and 40% with endoglucanase of P. marinum AK15. The gene was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and purified up to homogeneity using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme, designated as Cel8, was monomeric and has a molecular mass of 53 kDa. The enzyme was halostable and exhibited optimal carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity and stability at 2 M NaCl. Optimal activity was obtained at 40 °C and at pH 4. The enzyme exhibited remarkable stability in different organic solvents (50%, v/v), and activity increased nearly 1.5-fold in presence of butanol, isopropanol, petroleum ether, benzene, acetone, and n-hexane. It was active in Ca(2+), Ba(2+), and Ni(2+) and inhibited by Co(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Hg(2+). Under normal physiological conditions, the enzyme has 25% helix, 30% sheets, and 56% irregularities, whereas salt leads to helix to sheet transition in enzyme. Three-dimensional reconstruction analysis revealed that the enzyme has (α/β)8 structure and a TIM barrel fold-like structure at the central groove of enzyme. This is the first evidenced report on halostable, organic solvent tolerant cellulase in the marine bacterial genus Photobacterium. PMID:26494136

  5. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Moumita; Ray, Rina Rani

    2011-01-01

    The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source. PMID:21687577

  6. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the β-1,4-endoglucanase gene Mj-eng-3 in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Cui, Ruqiang; Sun, Longhua; Lin, Borong; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the molecular and biochemical characterization of the β-1,4-endoglucanase gene (Mj-eng-3) from the root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. A 2156-bp genomic DNA sequence of Mj-eng-3 containing six introns was obtained. Mj-eng-3 was localized in the subventral esophageal glands of M. javanica juveniles by in situ hybridization. Real-time RT-PCR assay showed that the highest transcriptional level of Mj-eng-3 occurred in pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles, and this high expression persisted in parasitic second-stage juveniles. Recombinant MJ-ENG-3 degraded carboxymethylcellulose and optimum enzyme activity at 40°C and pH 8.0. EDTA, Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+) did not affect the activity of MJ-ENG-3; however, Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) inhibited MJ-ENG-3 enzyme activity. In planta Mj-eng-3 RNAi assay displayed a reduction in the number of nematodes and galls in transgenic tobacco roots. These results suggested that MJ-ENG-3 could be secreted by M. javanica to degrade the cellulose of plant cell walls to facilitate its entry and migration during the early stages of parasitism. PMID:23747693

  7. Evidence that the xylanase activity from Sulfolobus solfataricus Oalpha is encoded by the endoglucanase precursor gene (sso1354) and characterization of the associated cellulase activity.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, Luisa; Giovane, Alfonso; Esposito, Alessandra; Moracci, Marco; Fiume, Immacolata; Rossi, Mosè; Morana, Alessandra

    2008-09-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus strain Oalpha was previously isolated for its ability to grow on minimal medium supplemented with xylan as a carbon source. The strain exhibited thermostable xylanase activity but several attempts to identify the gene encoding for the activity failed. Further studies showed that the xylanase displayed activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the new activity was characterized. It exhibited an optimal temperature and pH of 95 degrees C and 3.5, respectively, and a half-life of 53 min at 95 degrees C. The enzyme, which was demonstrated to be glycosylated, hydrolyzed CMC in an endo-manner releasing cellobiose and other cello-oligomers. Analysis of the tryptic fragments by tandem mass spectrometry led to identification of the endoglucanase precursor, encoded by the sso1354 gene, as the protein possessing dual activity. The efficiency of the SSO1354 protein in degrading cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions contained in agronomic residues was tested at low pH and high temperature. Cellulose and xylan were degraded to glucose and xylose at 90 degrees C, pH 4 by an enzyme mix consisting of SSO1354 and additional glycosyl hydrolases from S. solfataricus Oalpha. Given its role in saccharification processes requiring high temperatures and acidic environments, SSO1354 represents an interesting candidate for the utilization of agro-industrial waste for fuel production. PMID:18568289

  8. Two genes encoding an endoglucanase and a cellulose-binding protein are clustered and co-regulated by a TTA codon in Streptomyces halstedii JM8.

    PubMed Central

    Garda, A L; Fernández-Abalos, J M; Sánchez, P; Ruiz-Arribas, A; Santamaría, R I

    1997-01-01

    Streptomyces halstedii JM8 Cel2 is an endoglucanase of 28 kDa that is first produced as a protein of 42 kDa (p42) and is later processed at its C-terminus. Cel2 displays optimal activity towards CM-cellulose at pH6 and 50 degrees C and shows no activity against crystalline cellulose or xylan. The N-terminus of p42 shares similarity with cellulases included in family 12 of the beta-glycanases and the C-terminus shares similarity with bacterial cellulose-binding domains included in family II. This latter domain enables the precursor to bind so tightly to Avicel that it can only be eluted by boiling in 10% (w/v) SDS. Another open reading frame (ORF) situated 216 bp downstream from the p42 ORF encodes a protein of 40 kDa (p40) that does not have any clear hydrolytic activity against cellulosic or xylanosic compounds, but shows high affinity for Avicel (crystalline cellulose). The p40 protein is processed in old cultures to give a protein of 35 kDa that does not bind to Avicel. Translation of both ORFs is impaired in Streptomyces coelicolor bldA mutants, suggesting that a TTA codon situated at the fourth position of the first ORF is responsible for this regulation. S1 nuclease protection experiments demonstrate that both ORFs are co-transcribed. PMID:9182697

  9. NaCl-, protease-tolerant and cold-active endoglucanase from Paenibacillus sp. YD236 isolated from the feces of Bos frontalis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mingjie; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Shen, Jidong; Xu, Bo; Li, Junjun; Wu, Qian; Zhou, Junpei; Ding, Junmei; Han, Nanyu; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-01-01

    Bos frontalis, which consumes bamboo and weeds, may have evolved unique gastrointestinal microorganisms that digest cellulase. A Paenibacillus sp. YD236 strain was isolated from B. frontalis feces, from which a GH8 endoglucanase gene, pglue8 (1107 bp, 54.5 % GC content), encoding a 368-residue polypeptide (PgluE8, 40.4 kDa) was cloned. PgluE8 efficiently hydrolyzed barley-β-d-glucan followed by CMC-Na, soluble starch, laminarin, and glucan from black yeast optimally at pH 5.5 and 50 °C, and retained 78.6, 41.6, and 34.5 % maximum activity when assayed at 20, 10, and 0 °C, respectively. Enzyme activity remained above 176.6 % after treatment with 10.0 mM β-mercaptoethanol, and was 83.0, 78, and 56 % after pre-incubation in 30 % (w/v) NaCl, 16.67 mg/mL trypsin, and 160.0 mg/mL protease K, respectively. Cys23 and Cys364 residues were critical for PgluE8 activity. pglue8, identified from B. frontalis feces for the first time in this study, is a potential alternative for applications including food processing, washing, and animal feed preparation. PMID:27376014

  10. Functional Characterization and Low-Resolution Structure of an Endoglucanase Cel45A from the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa OR74A: Thermostable Enzyme with High Activity Toward Lichenan and β-Glucan.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Marco Antonio Seiki; Camilo, Cesar Moises; Muniz, Amanda Bernardes; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Biomass is the most abundant and short-term renewable natural resource on Earth whose recalcitrance toward enzymatic degradation represents significant challenge for a number of biotechnological applications. The not so abundant but critically necessary class of GH45 endoglucanases constitutes an essential component of tailored industrial enzyme cocktails because they randomly and internally cleave cellulose molecules. Moreover, GH45 glucanases are core constituents of major-brand detergent formulations as well as enzymatic aid components in the cotton processing industry, clipping unwanted cellulosic fibers from cotton (cellulosic)-based tissues. Here we report on a recombinant high-yield Neurospora crassa OR74A NcCel45A production system, a single-band GH45 endoglucanase purification, and a complete enzyme functional characterization. NcCel45A is a bimodular endoglucanase showing maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 60 °C, while most active against lichenan and β-glucans and lesser active toward filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. Gluco-oligosaccharide degradation fingerprinting experiments suggest cellopentaose as the minimal length substrate and ThermalFluor studies indicate that NcCel45A displays excellent stability at elevated temperatures up to 70 °C and pHs ranging from 5 to 9. Remarkably, we show that NcCel45A is uniquely resistant to a wide-range of organic solvents and small-angle X-ray scattering show a monkey-wrench molecular shape structure in solution, which indicates, unlike to other known cellulases, a non-fully extended conformation, thus conferring solvent protection. These NcCel45A unique enzymatic properties maybe key for specific industrial applications such as cotton fiber processing and detergent formulations. PMID:25711741

  11. The jiaoyao1 Mutant Is an Allele of korrigan1 That Abolishes Endoglucanase Activity and Affects the Organization of Both Cellulose Microfibrils and Microtubules in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Tian; Strasser, Richard; Lee, Christopher M.; Gonneau, Martine; Mach, Lukas; Vernhettes, Samantha; Kim, Seong H.; J. Cosgrove, Daniel; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane–localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Arabidopsis thaliana GH9A1/KORRIGAN1 is a membrane-bound, family 9 glycosyl hydrolase that is important for cellulose synthesis in both primary and secondary cell walls. Most previously identified korrigan1 mutants show severe phenotypes such as embryo lethality; therefore, the role of GH9A1 in cellulose synthesis remains unclear. Here, we report a novel A577V missense mutation, designated jiaoyao1 (jia1), in the second of the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 active site signature motifs in GH9A1. jia1 is defective in cell expansion in dark-grown hypocotyls, roots, and adult plants. Consistent with its defect in cell expansion, this mutation in GH9A1 resulted in reduced cellulose content and reduced CSC velocity at the plasma membrane. Green fluorescent protein–GH9A1 is associated with CSCs at multiple locations, including the plasma membrane, Golgi, trans-Golgi network, and small CESA-containing compartments or microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartments, indicating a tight association between GH9A1 and CSCs. GH9A1A577V abolishes the endoglucanase activity of GH9A1 in vitro but does not affect its interaction with CESAs in vitro, suggesting that endoglucanase activity is important for cellulose synthesis. Interestingly, jia1 results in both cellulose microfibril and microtubule disorganization. Our study establishes the important role of endoglucanase in cellulose synthesis and cellulose microfibril organization in plants. PMID:24963054

  12. Comparison of endoglucanase-1 (EG1) induction in the edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea by lactose and/or cellobiose with or without added sorbose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Pei, Yun; Xing, Zengtao; Ding, Shaojun; Buswell, John A

    2011-03-01

    We have compared the induction of an endoglucanase (EG1) by α-lactose and/or cellobiose, with or without added L-sorbose, in submerged cultures of Volvariella volvacea, to better understand the mechanism whereby cellulase formation is triggered by these soluble disaccharides. EG1 levels induced by α-lactose and cellobiose were 28.6% and 6.7%, respectively of the highest levels recorded with crystalline cellulose. Sorbose did not induce EG1 and strongly repressed enzyme levels when added to α-lactose but not cellobiose-containing cultures. EG1 levels in cultures containing all three saccharides were similar to those recorded with sorbose and cellobiose although enzyme induction was delayed by 12 h. When V. volvacea was pre-grown for 24 h in medium containing sorbose as the sole carbon source, followed by addition of α-lactose or cellobiose or a mixture of the two, EG1 levels recorded in the α-lactose-supplemented cultures were again markedly lower compared with cultures containing only α-lactose. Maximal enzyme levels in cultures with added cellobiose or cellobiose and α-lactose were not affected although appearance of EG1 in culture supernatants was again delayed by 12 h. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that higher, more prolonged, levels of eg1 transcription occurred in V. volvacea cultures induced with α-lactose compared with cellobiose- or α-lactose + cellobiose-induced cultures. However, eg1 transcription levels in cultures induced with cellobiose or with cellobiose + lactose, and the corresponding cultures with added sorbose, were not markedly different. PMID:21076917

  13. Construction of a novel selection system for endoglucanases exhibiting carbohydrate-binding modules optimized for biomass using yeast cell-surface engineering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To permit direct cellulose degradation and ethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (Δsed1) codisplaying 3 cellulases (Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II [EG], T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II [CBH], and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I [BG]) was constructed by yeast cell-surface engineering. The EG used in this study consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. A comparison with family 1 CBMs revealed conserved amino acid residues and flexible amino acid residues. The flexible amino acid residues were at positions 18, 23, 26, and 27, through which the degrading activity for various cellulose structures in each biomass may have been optimized. To select the optimal combination of CBMs of EGs, a yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM was constructed. The mixture consisted of yeasts codisplaying EG with mutated CBMs, in which 4 flexible residues were comprehensively mutated, CBH, and BG. The yeast mixture was inoculated in selection medium with newspaper as the sole carbon source. The surviving yeast consisted of RTSH yeast (the mutant sequence of CBM: N18R, S23T, S26S, and T27H) and wild-type yeast (CBM was the original) in a ratio of 1:46. The mixture (1 RTSH yeast and 46 wild-type yeasts) had a fermentation activity that was 1.5-fold higher than that of wild-type yeast alone in the early phase of saccharification and fermentation, which indicates that the yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM could be used to select the optimal combination of CBMs suitable for the cellulose of each biomass. PMID:23092441

  14. Synergistic Hydrolysis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Acid-Swollen Cellulose by Two Endoglucanases (CelZ and CelY) from Erwinia chrysanthemi†

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2000-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi produces a battery of hydrolases and lyases which are very effective in the maceration of plant cell walls. Although two endoglucanases (CelZ and CelY; formerly EGZ and EGY) are produced, CelZ represents approximately 95% of the total carboxymethyl cellulase activity. In this study, we have examined the effectiveness of CelY and CelZ alone and of combinations of both enzymes using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and amorphous cellulose (acid-swollen cellulose) as substrates. Synergy was observed with both substrates. Maximal synergy (1.8-fold) was observed for combinations containing primarily CelZ; the ratio of enzyme activities produced was similar to those produced by cultures of E. chrysanthemi. CelY and CelZ were quite different in substrate preference. CelY was unable to hydrolyze soluble cellooligosaccharides (cellotetraose and cellopentaose) but hydrolyzed CMC to fragments averaging 10.7 glucosyl units. In contrast, CelZ readily hydrolyzed cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and amorphous cellulose to produce cellobiose and cellotriose as dominant products. CelZ hydrolyzed CMC to fragments averaging 3.6 glucosyl units. In combination, CelZ and CelY hydrolyzed CMC to products averaging 2.3 glucosyl units. Synergy did not require the simultaneous presence of both enzymes. Enzymatic modification of the substrate by CelY increased the rate and extent of hydrolysis by CelZ. Full synergy was retained by the sequential hydrolysis of CMC, provided CelY was used as the first enzyme. A general mechanism is proposed to explain the synergy between these two enzymes based primarily on differences in substrate preference. PMID:11004164

  15. Gene Integration and Expression and Extracellular Secretion of Erwinia chrysanthemi Endoglucanase CelY (celY) and CelZ (celZ) in Ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca P2†

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengde; Davis, F. C.; Ingram, L. O.

    2001-01-01

    The development of methods to reduce costs associated with the solubilization of cellulose is essential for the utilization of lignocellulose as a renewable feedstock for fuels and chemicals. One promising approach is the genetic engineering of ethanol-producing microorganisms that also produce cellulase enzymes during fermentation. By starting with an ethanologenic derivative (strain P2) of Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 with the native ability to metabolize cellobiose, the need for supplemental β-glucosidase was previously eliminated. In the current study, this approach has been extended by adding genes encoding endoglucanase activities. Genes celY and celZ from Erwinia chrysanthemi have been functionally integrated into the chromosome of P2 using surrogate promoters from Zymomonas mobilis for expression. Both were secreted into the extracellular milieu, producing more than 20,000 endoglucanase units (carboxymethyl cellulase activity) per liter of fermentation broth. During the fermentation of crystalline cellulose with low levels of commercial cellulases of fungal origin, these new strains produced up to 22% more ethanol than unmodified P2. Most of the beneficial contribution was attributed to CelY rather than to CelZ. These results suggest that fungal enzymes with substrate profiles resembling CelY (preference for long-chain polymers and lack of activity on soluble cello-oligosaccharides of two to five glucosyl residues) may be limiting in commercial cellulase preparations. PMID:11133422

  16. Extra carbohydrate binding module contributes to the processivity and catalytic activity of a non-modular hydrolase family 5 endoglucanase from Fomitiporia mediterranea MF3/22.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ronghua; Hu, Yimei; Long, Liangkun; Wang, Jing; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    FmEG from Fomitiporia mediterranea is a non-modular endoglucanase composed of a 24-amino acids extension and 13-amino acids linker-like peptide at the N-terminus and a 312-amino acids GH5 catalytic domain (CD) at the C-terminus. In this study, six FmEG derivatives with deletion of N-terminal fragments or fusion with an extra family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1) was constructed in order to evaluate the contribution of CBM1 to FmEG processivity and catalytic activity. FmEG showed a weak processivity and released cellobiose (G2) and cellotriose (G3) as main end products, and cellotriose (G4) as minor end product from filter paper (FP), but more amount of G4 was released from regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC). All derivatives had similar activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with the same optimal pH (7.0) and temperature (50°C). However, fusing an extra CBM1 to FmEG△24 or FmEG△37 with flexible peptide significantly improved its processivity and catalytic activity to FP and RAC. Overall, 1.79- and 1.84-fold increases in the soluble/insoluble product ratio on FP, and 1.38- and 1.39-fold increases on RAC, compared to FmEG△24, were recorded for CBM1-FmEG△24 and CBM1-linker-FmEG△24, respectively. Meanwhile, they displayed 2.64- and 2.67-fold more activity on RAC, and 1.68- and 1.77-fold on FP, respectively. Similar improvement was also obtained for CBM1-linker-FmEG△37 as compared with FmEG△37. Interestingly, fusion of an extra CBM1 with FmEG also caused an alteration of cleavage pattern on insoluble celluloses. Our results suggest that such improvements in processivity and catalytic activity may arise from CBM1 binding affinity. The N-terminal 24- or 37-amino acids may serve as linker for sufficient spatial separation of the two domains required for processivity and catalytic activity. In addition, deletion of the N-terminal 24- or 37-amino acids led to significant reduction in thermostability but not the enzymatic activity. PMID:27444328

  17. A computer program for fast and easy typing of a partial endoglucanase gene sequence into genospecies and sequevars 1&2 of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB sequevars 1 and 2 that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. Recently, the R. solanacearum species complex strains have been reclassified into three genospecies: R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven to be a non-race 3 biovar 2 (non-phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2). Currently, sequevars of R. solanacearum species complex strains can only be determined by phylogenetic analysis of a partial endoglucanase (egl) sequence of approximately 700-bp in length. Such analysis, however, requires expert knowledge to properly trim the sequence, to include the correct reference strains, and to interpret the results. By comparing GenBank egl sequences of representative R. solanacearum species-complex strains, we identified genospecies- and sequevar 1 and 2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also designed primers to amplify a shorter, 526-bp, egl fragment from R. solanacearum species complex strains for easy sequencing of the amplicon, and to facilitate direct and specific amplification of egl from R. solanacearum-infected plant samples without the need of bacterial isolation. We wrote a computer program (Ralstonia solanacearum typing program) that analyzes a minimum 400-bp user-input egl sequence from a R. solanacearum strain for egl homology and SNP content to determine 1) whether it belongs to the R. solanacearum species complex, 2) if so, to which genospecies, and 3) whether it is of the sequevar type (sequevars 1 and 2) associated with the select agent/quarantined R. solanacearum strain. The program correctly typed all 371 tested egl sequences with known sequevars, obtained either from GenBank or through personal communication. Additionally, the program successfully typed 25 R. solanacearum strains in our

  18. Construction of a cellulase hyper-expression system in Trichoderma reesei by promoter and enzyme engineering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichoderma reesei is the preferred organism for producing industrial cellulases. However, a more efficient heterologous expression system for enzymes from different organism is needed to further improve its cellulase mixture. The strong cbh1 promoter of T. reesei is frequently used in heterologous expression, however, the carbon catabolite repressor CREI may reduce its strength by binding to the cbh1 promoter at several binding sites. Another crucial point to enhance the production of heterologous enzymes is the stability of recombinant mRNA and the prevention of protein degradation within the endoplasmic reticulum, especially for the bacteria originated enzymes. In this study, the CREI binding sites within the cbh1 promoter were replaced with the binding sites of transcription activator ACEII and the HAP2/3/5 complex to improve the promoter efficiency. To further improve heterologous expression efficiency of bacterial genes within T. reesei, a flexible polyglycine linker and a rigid α-helix linker were tested in the construction of fusion genes between cbh1 from T. reesei and e1, encoding an endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Results The modified promoter resulted in an increased expression level of the green fluorescent protein reporter by 5.5-fold in inducing culture medium and 7.4-fold in repressing culture medium. The fusion genes of cbh1 and e1 were successfully expressed in T. reesei under the control of promoter pcbh1m2. The higher enzyme activities and thermostability of the fusion protein with rigid linker indicated that the rigid linker might be more suitable for the heterologous expression system in T. reesei. Compared to the parent strain RC30-8, the FPase and CMCase activities of the secreted enzyme mixture from the corresponding transformant R1 with the rigid linker increased by 39% and 30% at 60°C, respectively, and the reduced sugar concentration in the hydrolysate of pretreated corn stover (PCS) was dramatically

  19. Synergistic activity of Paenibacillus sp. BP-23 cellobiohydrolase Cel48C in association with the contiguous endoglucanase Cel9B and with endo- or exo-acting glucanases from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta M; Irwin, Diana C; Pastor, F I Javier; Wilson, David B; Diaz, Pilar

    2004-07-20

    Cellobiohydrolase Cel48C from Paenibacillus sp. BP-23, an enzyme displaying limited activity on most cellulosic substrates, was assayed for activity in the presence of other bacterial endo- or exocellulases. Significant enhanced activity was observed when Cel48C was incubated in the presence of Paenibacillus sp. BP-23 endoglucanase Cel9B or Thermobifida fusca cellulases Cel6A and Cel6B, indicating that Cel48C acts synergistically with them. Maximum synergism rates on bacterial microcrystalline cellulose or filter paper were obtained with a mixture of Paenibacillus cellulases Cel9B and Cel48C, accompanied by T. fusca exocellulase Cel6B. Synergism was also observed in cell extracts from recombinant clone E. coli pUCel9-Cel48 expressing the two contiguous Paenibacillus cellulases Cel9B and Cel48C. The enhanced cellulolytic activity displayed by the cellulase mixtures assayed could be used as an efficient tool for biotechnological applications like pulp and paper manufacturing. PMID:15236244

  20. Comparative characterization of a recombinant Volvariella volvacea endoglucanase I (EG1) with its truncated catalytic core (EG1-CM), and their impact on the bio-treatment of cellulose-based fabrics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shufang; Ding, Shaojun; Zhou, Rui; Li, Zhongzheng

    2007-07-15

    Recombinant Volvariella volvacea endoglucanase 1 (EG1) and its catalytic module (EG1-CM) were obtained by expression in Pichia pastoris, purified by two-step chromatography, and the catalytic activities and binding capacities were compared. EG1 and EG1-CM exhibited very similar specific activities towards the soluble substrates carboxymethyl cellulose, lichenan and mannan, and insoluble H(3)PO(4) acid-swollen cellulose, whereas the specific activities of EG1-CM towards the insoluble substrates alpha-cellulose, Avicel and filter paper were approximately 58, 43 and 38%, respectively compared to EG1. No increase in reducing sugar release was detected in the reaction mixture supernatants after 50h exposure of filter paper, Avicel or alpha-cellulose to EG1-CM, whereas increases in the total reducing sugar equivalents (i.e. reducing sugar released into solution together with new reducing ends generated in the cellulosic substrates) in reaction mixtures were observed after 1h. In reaction mixtures containing EG1, soluble reducing sugar equivalents were detected in supernatants after 3h incubation with the insoluble cellulosic substrates. EG1-CM did not adsorb to Avicel, and the binding capacities of EG1-CM towards filter paper and H(3)PO(4) acid-swollen cellulose were 27.9-33.3% and 29.6-60.6%, respectively of values obtained with EG1 within the range of total added protein. In enzymatic deinking experiments, the ink removal rate in EG1-CM-treated samples was only slightly higher (approximately 8%), than that of untreated controls, whereas that of the EG1-treated samples was 100% higher. Bio-stoning of denim with EG1-CM resulted in increases of 48% and 40% in weight loss and indigo dye removal, respectively compared with untreated controls. These increases were considerably lower than the corresponding values of 219% and 133% obtained when samples were treated with EG1. PMID:17610980

  1. Ethanol production from acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob by endoglucanase and β-glucosidase co-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to the expression of heterologous genes and nutrition added.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunying; Zou, Shaolan; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Huajun; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Hong, Jiefang; Zhang, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of cellulose are the key to widespread utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose requires the synergism of various cellulases, and the ratios of each cellulase are required to be regulated to achieve the maximum hydrolysis. On the other hand, engineering of cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is a promising strategy for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The expression of cellulase-encoding genes in yeast would affect the synergism of cellulases and thus the fermentation ability of strains with exogenous enzyme addition. However, such researches are rarely reported. In this study, ten endoglucanase and β-glucosidase co-expressing S. cerevisiae strains were constructed and evaluated by enzyme assay and fermentation performance measurement. The results showed that: (1) maximum ethanol titers of recombinant strains exhibited high variability in YPSC medium (20 g/l peptone, 10 g/l yeast extract, 100 g/l acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob) within 10 days. However, they had relatively little difference in USC medium (100 g/l acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob, 0.33 g/l urea, pH 5.0). (2) Strains 17# and 19#, with ratio (CMCase to β-glucosidase) of 7.04 ± 0.61 and 7.40 ± 0.71 respectively, had the highest fermentation performance in YPSC. However, strains 11# and 3# with the highest titers in USC medium had a higher ratio of CMCase to β-glucosidase, and CMCase activities. These results indicated that nutrition, enzyme activities and the ratio of heterologous enzymes had notable influence on the fermentation ability of cellulase-expressing yeast. PMID:27038956

  2. Thermal stabilization of an endoglucanase by cyclization.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Johan F T; Pérez Gutiérrez, Odette N; Vroom, Wietse; Planas, Antoni; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John; Koutsopoulos, Sotirios

    2012-08-01

    An intein-driven protein splicing approach allowed for the covalent linkage between the N- and C-termini of a polypeptide chain to create circular variants of the endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, LicA, from Bacillus licheniformis. Two circular variants, LicA-C1 and LicA-C2, which have connecting loops of 20 and 14 amino acids, respectively, showed catalytic activities that are approximately two and three times higher, respectively, compared to that of the linear LicA (LicA-L1). The thermal stability of the circular variants was significantly increased compared to the linear form. Whereas the linear glucanase lost half of its activity after 3 min at 65 °C, the two circular variants have 6-fold (LicA-C1) and 16-fold (LicA-C2) increased half-life time of inactivation. In agreement with this, fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that circular enzymes undergo structural changes at higher temperatures compared to that of the linear form. The effect of calcium on the conformational stability and function of the circular LicAs was also investigated, and we observed that the presence of calcium ions results in increased thermal stability. The impact of the length of the designed loops on thermal stability of the circular proteins is discussed, and it is suggested that cyclization may be an efficient strategy for the increased stability of proteins. PMID:22653681

  3. Kinetic comparison of {beta}-D-glucosidases of industrial importance

    SciTech Connect

    Adney, W.S.; Baker, J.O.; Vinzant, T.B.

    1995-12-01

    Most cellulases are strongly inhibited by cellobiose, the end product from their action on crystalline cellulose. {beta}-D-glucosidases are expected to influence the cost-effective use of cellulases in the biomass conversion industry because they hydrolyze cellobiose to glucose, a (usually) less inhibitory sugar. Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants and physical chemical characteristics have been determined for {beta}-D-glucosidases and cellobiases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Aspergillus niger, Thermotoga neapolitana, Caldocellum saccharolyticus, and Microbispora bispora. Enzymes used in this study were isolated by column chromatography and purity was verified by gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. Recommendations for use of these enzymes in industrial processes will be made based on their kinetic performance.

  4. Does the Cellulose-Binding Module Move on the Cellulose Surface?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zeng, Y.; Luo, Y.; Xu, Q.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S. J.; Ding, S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Exoglucanases are key enzymes required for the efficient hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. It has been proposed that exoglucanases hydrolyze cellulose chains in a processive manner to produce primarily cellobiose. Usually, two functional modules are involved in the processive mechanism: a catalytic module and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). In this report, single molecule tracking techniques were used to analyze the molecular motion of CBMs labeled with quantum dots (QDs) and bound to cellulose crystals. By tracking the single QD, we observed that the family 2 CBM from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (AcCBM2) exhibited linear motion along the long axis of the cellulose fiber. This apparent movement was observed consistently when different concentrations (25 {micro}M to 25 nM) of AcCBM2 were used. Although the mechanism of AcCBM2 motion remains unknown, single-molecule spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a promising tool for acquiring new fundamental understanding of cellulase action.

  5. Dynamics of endoglucanase catalytic domains: implications towards thermostability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The function of proteins is controlled by their dynamics inherently determined by their structure. Exploring the protein structure-dynamics relationship is important to develop an understanding of protein function that allows tapping the potential of economically important proteins, such as endogluc...

  6. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2012-10-09

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A)) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  7. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2008-11-11

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  8. Analysis of transgenic glycoside hydrolases expressed in plants: T. reesei CBH I and A. cellulolyticus EI.

    PubMed

    Brunecky, Roman; Baker, John O; Wei, Hui; Taylor, Larry E; Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of three basic structural biomolecules: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with cellulose being the most abundant biopolymer on earth. Cellulose is composed of cellodextrins, which are linear polymers of glucose, and considered to be microcrystalline in structure. The conversion of cellulose to free glucose is one of the primary steps in the fermentative conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. However, the crystalline nature of this complex, noncovalent structure is highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, the substantial cost currently associated with biomass saccharification primarily represents the cost of biomass degrading enzymes. Despite the fact that the microbial cellulose hydrolytic "machinery" for the recycling of carbon from plant biomass already exists in nature, the natural enzymatic degradation of plant material is typically a slow and complex process. Thus, if commercial biofuels production is to become a reality, it must be more cost-effective. One method proposed for achieving this objective is to express all or some of the requisite cellulolytic enzymes in planta, thus reducing both enzyme and thermochemical pretreatment costs. PMID:22843401

  9. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  10. Morphological, physiological, and molecular characterization of actinomycetes isolated from dry soil, rocks, and monument surfaces.

    PubMed

    Eppard, M; Krumbein, W E; Koch, C; Rhiel, E; Staley, J T; Stackebrandt, E

    1996-07-01

    In an extended study on the biodiversity of rock-dwelling bacteria, the colony and cell morphology, physiology, protein patterns, and 16S rDNA sequences of 17 bacterial strains isolated from different surfaces of rocks, stones, and monuments and from various geographical locations were characterized. All except one strain, which was found to be a Bacillus, were members of the order Actinomycetales. The majority of the strains either were closely related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, which was also analyzed in this study, or formed a closely related sister taxon. All of these strains were isolated from the surface of marble in Namibia and Greece and from limestone from the Negev desert, Israel. One strain, G10, of Namibia origin was equidistantly related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, Frankia alni, Sporichthya polymorpha, and Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Three strains from rock varnish in the Mojave desert, California, were found to be highly related to Arthrobacter (formerly Micrococcus) agilis. All clusters could be confirmed from results of studies on morphological and physiological properties and from banding patterns of whole cell proteins. Based on the results of tests, four additional strains were assigned to the lineage defined by strain G10. PMID:8661940

  11. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  12. Purification and characterization of a GH43 β-xylosidase from Enterobacter sp. identified and cloned from forest soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Campos, Eleonora; Negro Alvarez, María José; Sabarís di Lorenzo, Gonzalo; Gonzalez, Sergio; Rorig, Marcela; Talia, Paola; Grasso, Daniel H; Sáez, Felicia; Manzanares Secades, Paloma; Ballesteros Perdices, Mercedes; Cataldi, Angel A

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass for second generation biofuels requires optimization of enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from a native and two cultivated forest soil samples. Amplification of glycosyl hydrolases was attempted by using a low stringency-degenerate primer PCR strategy, using total soil DNA and bulk DNA pooled from positive colonies as template. A set of primers was designed based on Acidothermus cellulolyticus genome, by search of conserved domains of glycosyl hydrolases (GH) families of interest. Using this approach, a fragment containing an open reading frame (ORF) with 98% identity to a putative GH43 beta-xylosidase coding gene from Enterobacter cloacae was amplified and cloned. The full protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminal or C-terminal His-tagged fusions and purified under native conditions. Only N-terminal fusion protein, His-Xyl43, presented beta-xylosidase activity. On pNPX, optimal activity was achieved at pH 6 and 40 °C and Km and Kcat values were 2.92 mM and 1.32 seg(-1), respectively. Activity was also demonstrated on xylobiose (X2), with Km 17.8 mM and Kcat 380 s(-1). These results demonstrated that Xyl43 is a functional beta-xylosidase and it is the first evidence of this activity for Enterobacter sp. PMID:23838121

  13. Aspects of nitrogen-fixing Actinobacteria, in particular free-living and symbiotic Frankia.

    PubMed

    Sellstedt, Anita; Richau, Kerstin H

    2013-05-01

    Studies of nitrogen-fixing properties among the Gram-positive Actinobacteria revealed that some species of Arthrobacter, Agromyces, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Micromonospora, Propionibacteria and Streptomyces have nitrogen-fixing capacity. This is also valid for Frankia that fix nitrogen both in free-living and in symbiotic conditions. Frankia symbiosis results from interaction between the Frankia bacteria and dicotyledonous plants, that is, actinorhiza. These plants, which are important in forestry and agroforestry, form, together with the legumes (Fabales), a single nitrogen-fixing clade. It has been shown that a receptor-like kinase gene, SymRK, is necessary for nodulation in actinorhizal plants as well as in legumes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Recently, the involvement of isoflavonoids as signal molecules during nodulation of an actinorhizal plant was shown. The genome sizes of three Frankia species, Frankia EANpec, ACN14a and CcI3, are different, revealing a relationship between genome size and geographical distribution. Recent genomic sequencing data of Frankia represent genomes from cluster I to IV, indicating that the genome of DgI is one of the smallest genomes in Frankia. In addition, nonsymbiotic Frankiales such as Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Blastococcus saxoobsidens, Geodermatophilus obscurus and Modestobacter marinus have a variety of genome sizes ranging from 2.4 to 5.57 Mb. PMID:23461635

  14. New mini- zincin structures provide a minimal scaffold for members of this metallopeptidase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Acel_2062 protein from Acidothermus cellulolyticus is a protein of unknown function. Initial sequence analysis predicted that it was a metallopeptidase from the presence of a motif conserved amongst the Asp-zincins, which are peptidases that contain a single, catalytic zinc ion ligated by the histidines and aspartic acid within the motif (HEXXHXXGXXD). The Acel_2062 protein was chosen by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics for crystal structure determination to explore novel protein sequence space and structure-based function annotation. Results The crystal structure confirmed that the Acel_2062 protein consisted of a single, zincin-like metallopeptidase-like domain. The Met-turn, a structural feature thought to be important for a Met-zincin because it stabilizes the active site, is absent, and its stabilizing role may have been conferred to the C-terminal Tyr113. In our crystallographic model there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit and from size-exclusion chromatography, the protein dimerizes in solution. A water molecule is present in the putative zinc-binding site in one monomer, which is replaced by one of two observed conformations of His95 in the other. Conclusions The Acel_2062 protein is structurally related to the zincins. It contains the minimum structural features of a member of this protein superfamily, and can be described as a “mini- zincin”. There is a striking parallel with the structure of a mini-Glu-zincin, which represents the minimum structure of a Glu-zincin (a metallopeptidase in which the third zinc ligand is a glutamic acid). Rather than being an ancestral state, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the mini-zincins are derived from larger proteins. PMID:24383880

  15. Deamination of 6-Aminodeoxyfutalosine in Menaquinone Biosynthesis by Distantly Related Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Goble, Alissa M.; Toro, Rafael; Li, Xu; Ornelas, Argentina; Fan, Hao; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Patskovsky, Yury; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ron; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Almo, Steven C.; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Tanner, Martin E.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of unknown function belonging to cog1816 and cog0402 were characterized. Sav2595 from Steptomyces avermitilis MA-4680, Acel0264 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, Nis0429 from Nitratiruptor sp. SB155-2 and Dr0824 from Deinococcus radiodurans R1 were cloned, purified, and their substrate profiles determined. These enzymes were previously incorrectly annotated as adenosine deaminases or chlorohydrolases. It was shown here that these enzymes actually deaminate 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine. The deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine is part of an alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway that involves the formation of futalosine. 6-Aminodeoxyfutalosine is deaminated by these enzymes with catalytic efficiencies greater than 105 M−1 s−1, Km values of 0.9 to 6.0 μM and kcat values of 1.2 to 8.6 s−1. Adenosine, 2′-deoxyadenosine, thiomethyladenosine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine are deaminated at least an order of magnitude slower than 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine. The crystal structure of Nis0429 was determined and the substrate, 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine, was positioned in the active site, based on the presence of adventitiously bound benzoic acid. In this model Ser-145 interacts with the carboxylate moiety of the substrate. The structure of Dr0824 was also determined, but a collapsed active site pocket prevented docking of substrates. A computational model of Sav2595 was built based on the crystal structure of adenosine deaminase and substrates were docked. The model predicted a conserved arginine after β-strand 1 to be partially responsible for the substrate specificity of Sav2595. PMID:23972005

  16. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org), including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org. PMID:22452820

  17. Screening Currency Notes for Microbial Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Using a Shotgun Metagenomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Saakshi; Kohli, Samantha; Latka, Chitra; Bhatia, Sugandha; Vellarikal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Fomites are a well-known source of microbial infections and previous studies have provided insights into the sojourning microbiome of fomites from various sources. Paper currency notes are one of the most commonly exchanged objects and its potential to transmit pathogenic organisms has been well recognized. Approaches to identify the microbiome associated with paper currency notes have been largely limited to culture dependent approaches. Subsequent studies portrayed the use of 16S ribosomal RNA based approaches which provided insights into the taxonomical distribution of the microbiome. However, recent techniques including shotgun sequencing provides resolution at gene level and enable estimation of their copy numbers in the metagenome. We investigated the microbiome of Indian paper currency notes using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Metagenomic DNA isolated from samples of frequently circulated denominations of Indian currency notes were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencer. Analysis of the data revealed presence of species belonging to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genera. The taxonomic distribution at kingdom level revealed contigs mapping to eukaryota (70%), bacteria (9%), viruses and archae (~1%). We identified 78 pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Enterococcus faecalis, and 75 cellulose degrading organisms including Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Cellulomonas flavigena and Ruminococcus albus. Additionally, 78 antibiotic resistance genes were identified and 18 of these were found in all the samples. Furthermore, six out of 78 pathogens harbored at least one of the 18 common antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of shotgun metagenome sequence dataset of paper currency notes, which can be useful for future applications including as bio-surveillance of exchangeable fomites for infectious agents. PMID:26035208

  18. Alternate Intron Processing of Family 5 Endoglucanase Transcripts from Genus Phytophthora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, twenty-one paralogs of family 5 endo-(1-4)-'-glucanase genes (EGs) were identified and characterized in the oomycete plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes are in a unique group, with closest similarity being ba...

  19. Evaluating endoglucanase Cel7B-lignin interaction mechanisms and kinetics using quartz crystal microgravimetry.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Katherine A; Sorek, Hagit; Roche, Christine M; Strobel, Kathryn L; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2015-11-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of protein interactions with solid surfaces are important to fields as diverse as industrial biocatalysis, biomedical engineering, food science, and cell biology. The nonproductive adsorption of cellulase enzymes to lignin, a plant cell wall polymer, reduces their effectiveness in saccharifying biomass. Cellulase has been shown to interact with lignin, but the heterogeneity of lignin surfaces, challenges in measuring irreversible components of these interactions, and fast adsorption rates make quantifying the reaction kinetics difficult. This work employs quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for real-time measurement of adsorbed mass on a flat lignin surface. We have developed a method for casting homogeneous lignin films that are chemically similar to lignin found in pretreated biomass, and used QCM-D to compare three models of reversible-irreversible binding behavior: a single-site transition model, a transition model with changing adsorbate footprint, and a two-site transition model. Of the three models tested, the two-site transition model provides the only kinetic mechanism able to describe the behavior of Cel7B binding to lignin. While the direct implications of lignin-cellulase interactions may be limited to biomass deconstruction for renewable energy and green chemistry, the analytical and experimental methods demonstrated in this work are relevant to any system in which the kinetics and reaction mechanism of reversible and irreversible protein adsorption at a solid-liquid interface are important. PMID:25994114

  20. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the current production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Cost-effectiveness of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to increase by the combination of cellulose degradation (sacch...

  1. Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Chan; Kang, Seung Ha; Choi, Eun Young; Hong, Yeon Hee; Bok, Jin Duck; Kim, Jae Yeong; Lee, Sang Suk; Choi, Yun Jaie; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2016-01-01

    A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli DH5α harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine–Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was 55°C, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (40°C to 60°C). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively. PMID:26732336

  2. Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Chan; Kang, Seung Ha; Choi, Eun Young; Hong, Yeon Hee; Bok, Jin Duck; Kim, Jae Yeong; Lee, Sang Suk; Choi, Yun Jaie; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2016-01-01

    A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli DH5α harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine-Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was 55°C, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (40°C to 60°C). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively. PMID:26732336

  3. A rigid network of long-range contacts increases thermostability in a mutant endoglucanase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermodynamic stability of a protein, at elevated temperatures, is a key factor for thermophilic enzymes to catalyze their specific reactions. Our understanding of biological determinants of thermophilicity, however, is far from complete. Different groups suggested different atomistic factors that c...

  4. [Cloning and expression of endoglucanase of marine cold-adapted bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1].

    PubMed

    You, Yin-wei; Wang, Tian-hong

    2005-02-01

    The cold-adapted gram-negative rod bacterium MB-1 which could secret cellulase was screened from mud of the bottom of the Huanghai. According to the sequence of 16S rDNA, this bacterium screened was identified as one species of Pseudoalteromonas and was named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. The gene celA encoding cold-adapted endogluanase was cloned and then jointed to pGEX-4T-1 to construct expression plasmid pGEX-celA which was expressed in E. coli BL21. Analysis to the supernatant of E. coli sonicate revealed that the concentration of GST-CelA was about 78.5 mg/L. Properties of the fusion enzyme of GST-CelA including the optimum temperature at 35 degrees C and the optimum pH about 7.2, showed that this fusion enzyme still belonged to cold-adapted enzyme and neutral enzyme. The result lays solid base for the fundamental theory and application research on cold-adapted cellulase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. PMID:15847183

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of specific endoglucanase gene sequence for detection of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Lenarčič, Rok; Morisset, Dany; Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

  6. Subcellular fractionation of a hypercellulolytic mutant, Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30: localization of endoglucanase in microsomal fraction.

    PubMed

    Glenn, M; Ghosh, A; Ghosh, B K

    1985-11-01

    The growing mycelia of Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 are richly endowed with endoplasmic reticula and a variety of pleomorphic subcellular bodies. Mycelia of the culture growing in presence of avicel pH101 was fractionated in sucrose density gradients, and several morphologically and biochemically distinct fractions were isolated. Mycelia were homogenized in a Bead Beater, and the homogenate was freed of nucleus and wall fragments by low-speed centrifugation before fractionation. Organelle-free cytosol, which did not penetrate the gradient, contained (of the total) 72% of the vanadate-sensitive ATPase, 26% of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), 2% of cytochrome c reductase, and 13% of the protein. Significant fractions separated on a gradient were light vesicles containing heavily stained material inside and ribosomes attached to the outside surface, intact vesicles resembling condensing vacuoles, large vesicles derived from the plasma membrane, and heavy vesicles containing crystalline material. The light-vesicle fraction contained a large portion of the cell-bound CMCase activity. The particle-bound ATPase and cytochrome c reductase activities were concentrated in heavy fractions. The fractionation in the presence of MgCl2 improved the preservation of subcellular bodies derived from the endoplasmic reticula. Although the CMCase activity of the light-vesicle fraction was 4 times higher than the activity in the heavy-vesicle fraction, the CMCase antibody-binding capacities of both fractions were about the same. This discrepancy between the catalytic activity and the antibody-binding capacity suggests that the heavy vesicles might have contained considerable amount of inactive CMCase compared with that present in the light vesicles. PMID:4091550

  7. Molecular cloning of an endoglucanase gene from an alkalophilic bacillus sp. and its expression in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M.; Kong, I.S.; Yu, J.H.

    1987-11-01

    One of the cellulase genes from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain N-4 was cloned in pBR322. A recombinant plasmid, pYBC107, expressing carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) was isolated, and the size of the cloned HindIII fragment was found to be 5.5 kilobases. The restriction map of pYBC107 showed a different pattern from those of pNKI and pNKII. When the HindIII fragment from pYBC107 was subcloned into pYEJ001, there was a 3.8-fold increase in CMCase activity over that observed with pYBC107. Plasmid pYBC108 constructed by treatment of pYBC107 with HindIII and ECORI expressed the CMCase activity, although to a limited extend. To verify the originality of cloned pYBC107 from Bacillus sp;, the authors analyzed the restriction digest by Southern blotting.

  8. The characterization of the endoglucanase Cel12A from Gloeophyllum trabeum reveals an enzyme highly active on β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Lis Schwartz; de Rezende, Camila Alves; Bernardes, Amanda; Serpa, Viviane Isabel; Tsang, Adrian; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum causes a typical brown rot and is known to use reactive oxygen species in the degradation of cellulose. The extracellular Cel12A is one of the few endo-1,4-β-glucanase produced by G. trabeum. Here we cloned cel12A and heterologously expressed it in Aspergillus niger. The identity of the resulting recombinant protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry. We used the purified GtCel12A to determine its substrate specificity and basic biochemical properties. The G. trabeum Cel12A showed highest activity on β-glucan, followed by lichenan, carboxymethylcellulose, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, and filter paper. The optimal pH and temperature for enzymatic activity were, respectively, 4.5 and 50 °C on β-glucan. Under these conditions specific activity was 239.2 ± 9.1 U mg(-1) and the half-life of the enzyme was 84.6 ± 3.5 hours. Thermofluor studies revealed that the enzyme was most thermal stable at pH 3. Using β-glucan as a substrate, the Km was 3.2 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) and the Vmax was 0.41 ± 0.02 µmol min(-1). Analysis of the effects of GtCel12A on oat spelt and filter paper by scanning electron microscopy revealed the morphological changes taking place during the process. PMID:25251390

  9. A comparative study of the unfolding of the endoglucanase Cel45 from Humicola insolens in denaturant and surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Otzen, D. E.; Christiansen, L.; Schülein, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cellulases are increasingly being used for industrial purposes, particularly in washing powders, yet little is known of the factors governing the stability of proteins in detergent solutions. We present a comparative analysis of the behavior of the cellulase Cel45 from Humicola insolens in the presence of the denaturant guanidinium chloride and the anionic detergent C12-LAS. Although Cel45 unfolds in GdmCl according to a simple two-state model under equilibrium conditions, it accumulates a transient intermediate during refolding. The four disulfide bonds do not contribute detectably to the stability of the native state. Cel45 is unfolded by very low concentrations of C12-LAS (1-4 mM). An analysis of 16 mutants of Cel45 shows a very weak correlation between unfolding rates in denaturant and detergent; mutants that have the same unfolding rate in GdmCl (within a factor of 1.5) vary 1,000-fold in their unfolding rates in C12-LAS. The data support a simple model for unfolding by detergent, in which the introduction of positive charges or removal of negative charges greatly increases detergent sensitivity, while interactions with the hydrophobic detergent tail contribute to a smaller extent. This implies that different detergent-mediated unfolding pathways exist, whose accessibilities depend on individual residues. Double-mutant cycles reveal that mutations in two proximal residues lead to repulsion and a destabilization greater than the sum of the individual mutations as measured by GdmCl denaturation, but they also reduce the affinity for LAS and therefore actually stabilize the protein relative to wild-type. Ligands that interact strongly with the denatured state may therefore alter the unfolding process. PMID:10493589

  10. Isolation and characterization of a GHF5 b-1,4-endoglucanase from the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a semi-endoparasitic root pathogen of >300 plant species, including cotton, soybean, and pineapple. Plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) penetration of the root epidermis is facilitated by a collection of cell wall degrading enzymes that are secreted fr...

  11. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Hyperthermophilic Endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima Based on Rational Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Shi, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiangqian

    2015-01-01

    To meet the demand for the application of high activity and thermostable cellulases in the production of new-generation bioethanol from nongrain-cellulose sources, a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima was selected for further modification by gene site-directed mutagenesis method in the present study, based on homology modeling and rational design. As a result, two recombinant enzymes showed significant improvement in enzyme activity by 77% and 87%, respectively, higher than the parental enzyme TmCel12B. Furthermore, the two mutants could retain 80% and 90.5% of their initial activity after incubation at 80°C for 8 h, while only 45% for 5 h to TmCel12B. The Km and Vmax of the two recombinant enzymes were 1.97±0.05 mM, 4.23±0.15 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G-D37V, and 2.97±0.12 mM, 3.15±0.21 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G, respectively, when using CMC-Na as the substrate. The roles of the mutation sites were also analyzed and evaluated in terms of electron density, hydrophobicity of the modeled protein structures. The recombinant enzymes may be used in the hydrolysis of cellulose at higher temperature in the future. It was concluded that the gene mutagenesis approach of a certain active residues may effectively improve the performance of cellulases for the industrial applications and contribute to the study the thermostable mechanism of thermophilic enzymes. PMID:26218520

  12. The putative endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a metal-dependent oxidative enzyme that cleaves cellulose.

    PubMed

    Westereng, Bjørge; Ishida, Takuya; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Wu, Miao; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Horn, Svein J; Sandgren, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61), some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33), this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency. PMID:22132148

  13. Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 5 B-1,4-endoglucanase (Rr-eng-1) from the Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) ß-1,4-endoglucanses, a.k.a. cellulases, are important parasitism genes that facilitate root penetration and migration by plant-parasitic nematodes. The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a sedentary semi-endoparasite of >300 plant species for which li...

  14. The Putative Endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium Is a Metal-Dependent Oxidative Enzyme that Cleaves Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Westereng, Bjørge; Ishida, Takuya; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Wu, Miao; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Horn, Svein J.; Sandgren, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61), some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33), this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency. PMID:22132148

  15. A computer program for fast and easy typing of partial endoglucanase gene sequence into phylotypes and sequevars 1&2 (select agents) of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains a subset of strains that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven otherwise, which can be done by phylogenetic analysis of a partia...

  16. Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:23762366

  17. Inactivating effects of lignin-derived compounds released during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment on the endo-glucanase catalyzed hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose: A study in continuous stirred ultrafiltration-membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Maria; Mucciante, Claudia; Cantarella, Laura

    2014-03-01

    This study focusses on the reversible/irreversible damage that selected phenolic compounds, released during steam-explosion pretreatment, mandatory for cellulose accessibility, causes on both stability and activity of a commercial cellulase (half-life=173h) during carboxymethyl-cellulose hydrolysis. Long-term experiments performed in continuous stirred UF-membrane bioreactors, operating at steady-state regime, in controlled operational conditions, allowed evaluating the inactivation-constant in the phenol presence (kd1) and after its removal (kd2) from the reactor feed. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (1 and 2g L(-1)) are the extreme limits in the inactivating effect with enzyme half-lives 99.02 and 14.15h, respectively. The inactivation reversibility was assessed for vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, being kd1>kd2. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and protocatechuic acid irreversibly affected cellulase stability increasing its inactivation with kd2>kd1. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, 1g L(-1), syringaldehyde, and vanillin, at 2gL(-1), had similar kd1÷kd2. PMID:24486937

  18. Cell culture compositions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

    2014-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  19. NIR FT-Raman study of biomass ( Triticum aestivum) treated with cellulase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Lu, Yonglai; Huang, Yong

    2004-05-01

    Multicomponent cellulase and purified endoglucanase were assayed and used to treat biomass ( Triticum aestivum). In this work we present FT-Raman spectra of enzymatic treated samples of biomass. Changes in structure and properties of the biomass caused by enzymatic treatment depend on the composition and the type of enzyme, as well as the treatment conditions. The lignin content of the biomass was most reduced in enzymatic treatment. Due to endoglucanase containing less xylanase activity than multicomponent cellulase, the samples modified with endoglucanase have a higher content of hemicellulose and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose in the biomass increases during enzymatic treatment, as determined by FT-Raman analysis.

  20. Novozymes, Inc.

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2015-11-04

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Polypeptides having endoglucanse activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2014-07-08

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities for hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities are identified for hydrolysis of ionic liquid (IL) pretreated poplar and switchgrass; hemicellulase rich substrates with amorphous cellulose. Enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans were expressed and purified: an endoglucanase (EG) a cellobiohydrolase (CBH)...

  3. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of ß-endoglucanase with specif...

  4. Treatment of recycled kraft pulps with Trichoderma reesei hemicellulases and cellulases.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, T; Pere, J; Paavilainen, L; Buchert, J; Viikari, L

    2000-02-28

    Effects of recycling ECF-bleached softwood kraft pulp on pulp properties were evaluated in the laboratory. The tensile strength, fiber flexibility and WRV lost during drying of the pulp were recovered by refining between the cycles which, however, resulted in deteriorated drainage properties. The recycled pulps were treated with purified Trichoderma reesei cellulases and hemicellulases and the changes in fiber properties due to enzymatic treatments were characterized. The endoglucanases (EG I and EG II) significantly improved pulp drainage already at low dosage levels, and EG II was found to be more effective at a given level of carbohydrate solubilization. Combining hemicellulases with the endoglucanase treatments increased the positive effects of the endoglucanases on pulp drainage. However, as a result of the endoglucanase treatments a slight loss in strength was observed. Combining mannanase with endoglucanase treatments appeared to increase this negative effect, whereas the impact of xylanase was not significant. Although the drainage properties of the pulps could be improved by selected enzymes, the water retention capacity of the dried hornified fibers could not be recovered by any of the enzymes tested. PMID:10702909

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.

    PubMed

    Segato, Fernando; Berto, Gabriela L; Ares de Araújo, Evandro; Muniz, João Renato; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12). The A. terreus GH12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in A. nidulans, purified and crystallized. A single crystal was obtained from a solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 5%(v/v) 2-propanol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.85 Å using synchrotron radiation and a preliminary molecular-replacement solution was obtained in the trigonal space group P3(2)21. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 103.24, c = 48.96 Å. PMID:24637772

  6. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  7. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  8. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  9. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12

    PubMed Central

    Segato, Fernando; Berto, Gabriela L.; Ares de Araújo, Evandro; Muniz, João Renato; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12). The A. terreus GH12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in A. nidulans, purified and crystallized. A single crystal was obtained from a solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 5%(v/v) 2-propanol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.85 Å using synchrotron radiation and a preliminary molecular-replacement solution was obtained in the trigonal space group P3221. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 103.24, c = 48.96 Å. PMID:24637772

  11. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  12. Cellulases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David; Gemsch Cuenca, Joslin; Dycaico, Mark

    2013-04-23

    This invention relates to molecular and cellular biology and biochemistry. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts.

  13. Cellulosomics of the cellulolytic thermophile Clostridium clariflavum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium clariflavum is an anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive bacterium, capable of growth on crystalline cellulose as a single carbon source. The genome of C. clariflavum has been sequenced to completion, and numerous cellulosomal genes were identified, including putative scaffoldin and enzyme subunits. Results Bioinformatic analysis of the C. clariflavum genome revealed 49 cohesin modules distributed on 13 different scaffoldins and 79 dockerin-containing proteins, suggesting an abundance of putative cellulosome assemblies. The 13-scaffoldin system of C. clariflavum is highly reminiscent of the proposed cellulosome system of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. Analysis of the C. clariflavum type I dockerin sequences indicated a very high level of conservation, wherein the putative recognition residues are remarkably similar to those of A. cellulolyticus. The numerous interactions among the cellulosomal components were elucidated using a standardized affinity ELISA-based fusion-protein system. The results revealed a rather simplistic recognition pattern of cohesin-dockerin interaction, whereby the type I and type II cohesins generally recognized the dockerins of the same type. The anticipated exception to this rule was the type I dockerin of the ScaB adaptor scaffoldin which bound selectively to the type I cohesins of ScaC and ScaJ. Conclusions The findings reveal an intricate picture of predicted cellulosome assemblies in C. clariflavum. The network of cohesin-dockerin pairs provides a thermophilic alternative to those of C. thermocellum and a basis for subsequent utilization of the C. clariflavum cellulosomal system for biotechnological application. PMID:26413154

  14. Methods and compositions for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Zhou, Shengde

    2006-04-11

    The invention provides compositions and methods for the synergistic degradation of oligosaccharides by endoglucanases. The invention further provides recombinant host cells containing one or more genes encoding endoglucanses which are capable of the synergistic degradation of oligosaccharides. Preferred host cells of the invention are ethanologenic and capable of carrying out simultaneous saccharification and fermentation resulting in the production of ethanol from complex cellulose substrates.

  15. Activity and ecological implications of maize-expressed transgenic endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Adam J; Wolt, Jeffrey D

    2014-09-01

    Plant expression of thermostable endoglucanase (E1) has been proposed for improved conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol for fuel production. Residues of E1-expressing maize may affect ecological services (e.g., C mineralization and biogeochemical cycling) on soils where they occur. Therefore, the activity of residual E1 was investigated using soils amended with bacterial and plant-solubilized E1 compared with soil endogenous activity and residual activity from a mesostable cellulase (Aspergillus and Trichoderma spp.). An optimized analytical method involving a carboxymethyl cellulose substrate and dinitrosalicylic acid detection effectively assayed endoglucanase activity in amended and unamended soils and was used for determining E1 activity in 3 representative soils. The effect of E1 on soil carbon mineralization was determined by comparing CO(2) evolution from soils amended with transgenic E1-expressing and wild-type maize tissue. Extraction and recovery of the mesostable comparator, bacterial E1, and plant-soluble E1 showed nearly complete loss of exogenous endoglucanase activity within a 24-h period. Carbon mineralization indicated no significant difference between soils amended with either the transgenic E1 or wild-type maize tissue. These results indicate that maize residues expressing up to 30 µg E1/g tissue negligibly affect soil endoglucanase activity and CO(2) respiration for representative soils where transgenic E1 maize may be grown. PMID:24863456

  16. Multiple copies of genes encoding XEGIPs and EDGPs are harbored in an 85kB region of potato genome(Solanum tuberosum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The XEGIPs (xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor protein) and their closest homologues, the EDGPs (extracellular dermal glycoproteins) have been reported in a limited number of plants, principally Solanaceous ones. One function of XEGIP is limiting pathogen attack by interfering with family 1...

  17. Constituitive expression of XEGIP in potato results in phenotypic changes suggesting endogenous inhibition of cell wall growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogens encode a large number of glycosyl hydrolases, representing many different families. Dicots are known to produce inhibitor proteins that are specific to family 12 glycosyl hydrolase members with xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase activity. The inhibitor protein, known as XEGIP, has b...

  18. Cellulolytic Activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song F.; Forsberg, Cecil W.; Gibbins, L. N.

    1985-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B527 and ATCC 824 exhibited extracellular and cell-bound endoglucanase and cellobiase activities during growth in a chemically defined medium with cellobiose as the sole source of carbohydrate. For both strains, the endoglucanase was found to be mainly extracellular (70 to 90%) during growth in continuous or batch cultures with the pH maintained at 5.2, whereas the cellobiase was mainly cell associated (60 to 90%). During continuous cultivation of strain B527 with cellobiose as the limiting nutrient, maximum production of the endoglucanase and cellobiase occurred at pH values of 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. In the carbon-limited continuous cultures, strain 824 produced similar levels of endoglucanase, cellobiosidase, and cellobiase activities regardless of the carbon source used. However, in ammonium- or phosphate-limited cultures, with an excess of glucose, only 1/10 of the endoglucanase was produced, and neither cellobiosidase nor cellobiase activities were detectable. A crude extracellular enzyme preparation from strain B527 hydrolyzed carboxymethylcellulose and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose readily and microcrystalline cellulose (A vicel) to a lesser extent. Glucose accounted for more than 90% of the reducing sugar produced by the hydrolysis of acid-swollen cellulose and Avicel. Strain B527 did not grow in medium with acid-swollen cellulose as the sole source of carbohydrate, although it grew readily on the products obtained by hydrolyzing the cellulose in vitro with a preparation of extracellular cellulase derived from the same organism. PMID:16346847

  19. Biodiversity characterization of cellulolytic bacteria present on native Chaco soil by comparison of ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Talia, Paola; Sede, Silvana M; Campos, Eleonora; Rorig, Marcela; Principi, Dario; Tosto, Daniela; Hopp, H Esteban; Grasso, Daniel; Cataldi, Angel

    2012-04-01

    Sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was used to study bacterial diversity of a pristine forest soil and of two cultures of the same soil enriched with cellulolytic bacteria. Our analysis revealed high bacterial diversity in the native soil sample, evidencing at least 10 phyla, in which Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria accounted for more than 76% of all sequences. In both enriched samples, members of Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented. The majority of bacterial genera in both enriched samples were identified as Brevundimonas and Caulobacter, but members of Devosia, Sphingomonas, Variovorax, Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Delftia were also found. In addition, it was possible to identify cellulolytic taxa such as Acidothermus, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, which indicates that this ecosystem could be an attractive source for study of novel enzymes for cellulose degradation. PMID:22202170

  20. Crystal structure of an acetyl esterase complexed with acetate ion provides insights into the catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Keiko; Kamachi, Saori; Akita, Hironaga; Mine, Shouhei; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-08-26

    We previously reported the crystal structure of an acetyl esterase (TcAE206) belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 3 from Talaromyces cellulolyticus. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of an S10A mutant of TcAE206 complexed with an acetate ion. The acetate ion was stabilized by three hydrogen bonds in the oxyanion hole instead of a water molecule as in the structure of wild-type TcAE206. Furthermore, the catalytic triad residue His182 moved 0.8 Å toward the acetate ion upon substrate entering the active site, suggesting that this movement is necessary for completion of the catalytic reaction. PMID:27329813

  1. Use of Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry to Deduce Selectivity of Reaction in Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases, and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements. PMID:26579511

  2. Use of Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry to Deduce Selectivity of Reaction in Glycoside Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Bergeman, Lai F; Adams, Paul D; Northen, Trent R; Fox, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases, and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements. PMID:26579511

  3. Production of Trichoderma reesei cellulases on glucose-containing media.

    PubMed Central

    Nakari-Setälä, T; Penttilä, M

    1995-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei was shown to secrete active cellobiohydrolase I and the endoglucanase I catalytic core domain into the culture medium when the fungus was grown on glucose-containing medium. The expression of the proteins was driven by the promoters of the elongation factor 1 alpha, tef1, and the unidentified gene for cDNA1. The cDNA1 promoter gave the best yields. The highest amounts of cellobiohydrolase I and the endoglucanase I core, being 50 to 100 mg/liter, accounted for more than half of the total protein secreted by the fungus. The levels obtained with the tef1 promoter were 20 to 50 times lower. PMID:7487002

  4. A structural study of Hypocrea jecorina Cel5A

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Toni M; Farrow, Mary F; Arnold, Frances H; Mayo, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Interest in generating lignocellulosic biofuels through enzymatic hydrolysis continues to rise as nonrenewable fossil fuels are depleted. The high cost of producing cellulases, hydrolytic enzymes that cleave cellulose into fermentable sugars, currently hinders economically viable biofuel production. Here, we report the crystal structure of a prevalent endoglucanase in the biofuels industry, Cel5A from the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina. The structure reveals a general fold resembling that of the closest homolog with a high-resolution structure, Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus. Consistent with previously described endoglucanase structures, the H. jecorina Cel5A active site contains a primarily hydrophobic substrate binding groove and a series of hydrogen bond networks surrounding two catalytic glutamates. The reported structure, however, demonstrates stark differences between side-chain identity, loop regions, and the number of disulfides. Such structural information may aid efforts to improve the stability of this protein for industrial use while maintaining enzymatic activity through revealing nonessential and immutable regions. PMID:21898652

  5. A structural study of Hypocrea jecorina Cel5A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Toni M; Farrow, Mary F; Arnold, Frances H; Mayo, Stephen L

    2011-11-01

    Interest in generating lignocellulosic biofuels through enzymatic hydrolysis continues to rise as nonrenewable fossil fuels are depleted. The high cost of producing cellulases, hydrolytic enzymes that cleave cellulose into fermentable sugars, currently hinders economically viable biofuel production. Here, we report the crystal structure of a prevalent endoglucanase in the biofuels industry, Cel5A from the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina. The structure reveals a general fold resembling that of the closest homolog with a high-resolution structure, Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus. Consistent with previously described endoglucanase structures, the H. jecorina Cel5A active site contains a primarily hydrophobic substrate binding groove and a series of hydrogen bond networks surrounding two catalytic glutamates. The reported structure, however, demonstrates stark differences between side-chain identity, loop regions, and the number of disulfides. Such structural information may aid efforts to improve the stability of this protein for industrial use while maintaining enzymatic activity through revealing nonessential and immutable regions. PMID:21898652

  6. Production of Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Enzymes From Aureobasidium pulluans on Solid State Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; Bocchini, Daniela Alonso; da Silva Martins, Eduardo; Silva, Dênis; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    This article investigates a strain of the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans for cellulase and hemicellulase production in solid state fermentation. Among the substrates analyzed, the wheat bran culture presented the highest enzymatic production (1.05 U/mL endoglucanase, 1.3 U/mL β-glucosidase, and 5.0 U/mL xylanase). Avicelase activity was not detected. The optimum pH and temperature for xylanase, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase were 5.0 and 50, 4.5 and 60, 4.0 and 75°C, respectively. These enzymes remained stable between a wide range of pH. The β-glucosidase was the most thermostable enzyme remaining 100% active when incubated at 75°C for 1 h.

  7. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Benjamin S.; Larenas, Edmund A.; Mitchinson, Colin

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  8. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to enhance in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Schulze, H

    2007-03-01

    Two in vitro experiments were performed to identify promising exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) and optimum dose rates (DR) for improving the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The relationship between enzymatic activity and fermentation responses was examined to identify optimum formulations. In experiment 1, 5 EFE containing mainly endoglucanase and xylanase activities, with different ratios between the 2 activities, were assessed at a DR of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 mg/g of DM forage. Milled alfalfa hay or corn silage was incubated in an in vitro batch culture with buffer, ruminal fluid, and EFE. Gas production (GP) was measured during 24 h of incubation, and degradabilities of DM and fiber were measured after terminating the incubation at 24 h. Two (E1 and E3) EFE substantially improved GP and degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage fiber. The optimum DR of these EFE was 1.4 mg/g of DM for both forages with improvements in NDF degradability up to 20.6% for alfalfa hay and up to 60.3% for corn silage. Whereas added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in NDF degradability for alfalfa hay and corn silage, there was no relationship between added xylanase activity and NDF degradability. The 2 most promising EFE from experiment 1 were reevaluated in experiment 2, alone and in combination with a high xylanase EFE, to determine whether their effectiveness could be enhanced by decreasing the endoglucanase to xylanase ratio. The 2 EFE improved GP and fiber degradation in a manner similar to that observed in experiment 1, but the combination treatments resulted in no further beneficial effects. Exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products can greatly improve forage utilization, but DR and the activities supplied are critical for achieving this response. Products used with alfalfa hay and corn silage should contain high endoglucanase activity, with an ideal ratio of endoglucanse to xylanase. PMID:17297117

  9. celB, a gene coding for a bifunctional cellulase from the extreme thermophile "Caldocellum saccharolyticum".

    PubMed Central

    Saul, D J; Williams, L C; Grayling, R A; Chamley, L W; Love, D R; Bergquist, P L

    1990-01-01

    "Caldocellum saccharolyticum" is an obligatory anaerobic thermophilic bacterium. A gene from this organism, designated celB, has been cloned in Escherichia coli as part of a bacteriophage lambda gene library. This gene produces a thermostable cellulase that shows both endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities on test substrates and is able to degrade crystalline cellulose to glucose. The sequence of celB has homology with both exo- and endoglucanases described by others. It appears to have a central domain without enzymatic activity which is joined to the enzymatic domains by runs of amino acids rich in proline and threonine (PT boxes). Deletion analysis shows that the exoglucanase activity is located in the amino-terminal domain of the enzyme and that endoglucanase activity is located in the carboxy-terminal domain. There are internal transcriptional and translational start sites within the gene. The intact gene has been cloned into a temperature-inducible expression vector, pJLA602, and overexpressed in E. coli. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that celB produced a protein with a molecular weight of 118,000 to 120,000. A number of smaller proteins with activity against carboxymethyl cellulose and 4-methyl umbelliferyl-beta-D-cellobioside were also produced. These are believed to be the result of alternative translational start sites and/or proteolytic degradation products of the translated gene product. Images PMID:2126700

  10. Complex Expression of the Cellulolytic Transcriptome of Saccharophagus degradans † ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haitao; Hutcheson, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Saccharophagus degradans is an aerobic marine bacterium that can degrade cellulose by the induced expression of an unusual cellulolytic system composed of multiple endoglucanases and glucosidases. To understand the regulation of the cellulolytic system, transcript levels for the genes predicted to contribute to the cellulolytic system were monitored by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) during the transition to growth on cellulose. Four glucanases of the cellulolytic system exhibited basal expression during growth on glucose. All but one of the predicted cellulolytic system genes were induced strongly during growth on Avicel, with three patterns of expression observed. One group showed increased expression (up to 6-fold) within 4 h of the nutritional shift, with the relative expression remaining constant over the next 22 h. A second group of genes was strongly induced between 4 and 10 h after nutritional transfer, with relative expression declining thereafter. The third group of genes was slowly induced and was expressed maximally after 24 h. Cellodextrins and cellobiose, products of the predicted basally expressed endoglucanases, stimulated expression of representative cellulase genes. A model is proposed by which the activity of basally expressed endoglucanases releases cellodextrins from Avicel that are then perceived and transduced to initiate transcription of each of the regulated cellulolytic system genes forming an expression pattern. PMID:21705539

  11. Fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by acids and enzymes. Final report, June 1, 1978-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.S.; Chang, M.

    1981-02-01

    There are three basic enzymes (e.g., endoglucanase (C/sub x/), exoglucanase (C/sub 1/) and cellobiase) comprising the majority of extracellular cellulase enzymes produced by the cellulolytic mycelial fungi, Trichoderma reesei, and other cellulolytic microorganisms. The enzymes exhibited different mode of actions in respect to the hydrolysis of cellulose and cellulose derived oligosaccharides. In combination, these enzymes complimented each other to hydrolyze cellulose to its basic constituent, glucose. The kinetics of cellobiase were developed on the basis of applying the pseudo-steady state assumption to hydrolyze cellobiose to glucose. The results indicated that cellobiase was subjected to end-product inhibition by glucose. The kinetic modeling of exoglucanase (C/sub 1/) with respect to cellodextrins was studied. Both glucose and cellobiose were found to be inhibitors of this enzyme with cellobiose being a stronger inhibitor than glucose. Similarly, endoglucanase (C/sub x/) is subject to end-product inhibition by glucose. Crystallinity of the cellulose affects the rate of hydrolysis by cellulases. Hence, the changes in crystallinity of cellulose in relation to chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis was compared. The study of cellulase biosynthesis resulted in the conclusion that exo- and endo-glucanases are co-induced while cellobiase is synthesized independent of the other two enzymes. The multiplicity of cellulase enzymes are the end results of post-translational modification during and/or after the secretion of enzymes into growth environment.

  12. Cellulosic ethanol production by combination of cellulase-displaying yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Kyusung; Lee, Jung-Kul; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2012-12-10

    As an effort to find suitable endoglucanases to generate cellulolytic yeast strains, two fungal endoglucanases, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGI and Trichoderma reesei EGII, and two bacterial endoglucanases, Clostridium thermocellum CelA and CelD, were expressed on the yeast surface, and their surface expression levels, pH- and temperature-dependent enzyme activities, and substrate specificities were analyzed. T. aurantiacus EGI showed similar patterns of pH- and temperature-dependent activities to those of T. reesei EGII which has been widely used due to its high enzyme activity. Although EGII showed higher carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation activity than EGI, EGI showed better activity toward phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC). For ethanol production from PASC, we combined three types of yeast cells, each displaying T. aurantiacus EGI, T. reesei CBHII (exoglucanase) and Aspergillus aculeatus BGLI (β-glucosidase), instead of co-expressing these enzymes in a single cell. In this system, ethanol production can be easily optimized by adjusting the combination ratio of each cell type. A mixture of cells with the optimized EGI:CBHII:BGLI ratio of 6:2:1 produced 1.3 fold more ethanol (2.1g/l) than cells composed of an equal amount of each cell type, suggesting the usefulness of this system for cellulosic ethanol production. PMID:23040393

  13. The characterisation of xyloglucanase inhibitors from Humulus lupulus.

    PubMed

    Habrylo, Olivier; Forster, Anne; Jeltsch, Jean-Marc; Phalip, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi secrete a powerful arsenal of enzymes that are potentially active against each polysaccharide component of the plant cell wall. To defend themselves, plants synthetise a variety of molecules that inhibit the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. Xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor proteins (XEGIPs) act specifically against the members of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12 in the CAZy database). In the present study, we describe the identification of three XEGIP homologues from hop (Humulus lupulus L.). When incubating each of the recombinant inhibitors with an enzymatic cocktail from Aspergillus aculeatus (Viscozyme®), the xyloglucan-degrading endoglucanase activity decreased to 15% and 5% for HlXEGIP1 and HlXEGIP2, respectively, whereas no inhibition of the Viscozyme® enzymes was observed for the third (also called HlXEGIP homologue 3, or HlXEGIPh3). Fungal enzymatic cocktails from 20 different species also showed xyloglucan-degrading endoglucanase activities, and most of them were inhibited by HlXEGIP1 and -2. Furthermore, a real time RT-PCR analysis revealed variations in the spatial distribution of the genes encoding the three inhibitors and differential expression during development and (a) biotic stress. The role of XEGIPs in the plant-fungus interaction is discussed, and a model suggesting a distinct role of these XEGIP homologues is proposed: HlXEGIP1 may act in cases of abiotic stress, while HlXEGIP2 reacts to biotic stress, and physiological development may be influenced by HlXEGIPh3. PMID:23561301

  14. Expression analysis of the impact of culture filtrates from the biocontrol agent, Phlebiopsis gigantea on the conifer pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum s.s. Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Mgbeahuruike, Anthony C; Kohler, Annegret; Asiegbu, Frederick O

    2013-10-01

    Phlebiopsis gigantea has been routinely used as the biological control agent for the conifer pathogen Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato, but the actual mechanism for the biocontrol process is not known. To investigate the effect of secreted molecules from culture filtrate produced by P. gigantea on the gene expression profile of H. annosum s.s., microarray analysis was used. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes led to the identification of genes with diverse functions. A major proportion of the up- and downregulated genes were either uncharacterized or genes whose functions were not known. A number of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism, transport, and signal transduction were differentially downregulated; comparatively lower number of such genes were upregulated. Some genes involved in transport (polyamine transporters, 2573-fold, P = 0.002) and metabolism (endoglucanase, 622.5-fold, P = 0.002, cytochrome P450, 133.2-fold, P = 0.05) showed high transcript fold changes and were statistically significantly upregulated. Genes encoding defense-related proteins such as hydrophobins were either downregulated or expressed at relatively low levels. Further analysis of the effect of the culture filtrate on glucose metabolism showed downregulation of some key enzymes at the early stage of the glycolytic pathway while some genes were upregulated at the later stage of the pathway. A subset of the genes were selected and used to validate the micro-array result by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. Generally, the high transcript levels of genes encoding several biochemically important genes (protein kinases, major facilitator superfamily polyamine transporters, endoglucanase, cytochrome P450, endoglucanase) suggests their potential functional relevance in signal perception, stress tolerance, cell defenses, and detoxification of toxic molecules during competitive interaction. These results have provided further

  15. Isolation and characterization of a cellulose-growth-specific gene from Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Raguz, S; Yagüe, E; Wood, D A; Thurston, C F

    1992-10-01

    The edible basidiomycete, Agaricus bisporus, produces extracellular endoglucanase. Endoglucanase production is induced by cellulose and repressed by fructose in A. bisporus grown on minimal medium, and is regulated in activity during fruiting body development. An anti-endoglucanase antibody was used to isolate cellulase-related genes. Three main polypeptides of 38, 58, and 60 kDa were immunoprecipitated by the antibody from products of in vitro cell-free translation of mRNAs isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium. No cross-reaction was detected with the translated products from fructose-grown mycelium. This antibody was used to immunoscreen a lambda ZAPII-cDNA expression library made from mRNA isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium. Two cDNA cross-reacting clones, pSRc110 and pSRc200, were isolated. Clones pSRc110 and pSRc200 cross-hybridized and had the same restriction map. Clone pSRc200 hybrid selected an mRNA that on cell-free translation produced a 38-kDa polypeptide. The cDNA fragment from pSRc200 hybridized to a 1.3-kb mRNA from cellulose-grown mycelium. No hybridization was observed when using fructose-grown mycelium mRNA. Thus, the gene (cel1) expressing the 1.3-kb mRNA, is differentially regulated by the carbon source of the culture medium. The cell gene was isolated in a 8.9-kb EcoRI genomic fragment after hybridization to pSRc200. Sequences similar to those in the egl1 and cbh2 genes from Trichoderma reesi were found upstream from the ATG start codon in cel1. Nine short intervening sequences disrupt the cel1 coding sequence, and a strong bias against codons ending with G and A was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1398098

  16. Chloroplast-derived enzyme cocktails hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass and release fermentable sugars

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dheeraj; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Jin, Shuangxia; Singh, Nameirakpam D.; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E; Daniell, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Summary It is widely recognized that biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials is limited by inadequate technology to efficiently and economically release fermentable sugars from the complex multi-polymeric raw materials. Therefore, endoglucanases, exoglucanase, pectate lyases, cutinase, swollenin, xylanase, acetyl xylan esterase, beta glucosidase and lipase genes from bacteria or fungi were expressed in E. coli or tobacco chloroplasts. A PCR based method was used to clone genes without introns from Trichoderma reesei genomic DNA. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines showed normal phenotype and were fertile. Based on observed expression levels, up to 49, 64 and 10,751 million units of pectate lyases or endoglucanase can be produced annually, per acre of tobacco. Plant production cost of endoglucanase is 3,100-fold and pectate lyase is 1,057 or 1,480 fold lower than the same recombinant enzymes sold commercially, produced via fermentation. Chloroplast-derived enzymes had higher temperature stability and wider pH optima than enzymes expressed in E. coli. Plant crude-extracts showed higher enzyme activity than E. coli with increasing protein concentration, demonstrating their direct utility without purification. Addition of E. coli extracts to the chloroplast-derived enzymes significantly decreased their activity. Chloroplast-derived crude-extract enzyme cocktails yielded more (up to 3,625%) glucose from filter paper, pine wood or citrus peel than commercial cocktails. Furthermore, pectate lyase transplastomic plants showed enhanced resistance to Erwina soft rot. This is the first report of using plant-derived enzyme cocktails for production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Limitations of higher cost and lower production capacity of fermentation systems are addressed by chloroplast-derived enzyme cocktails. PMID:20070870

  17. Enhancing in vitro degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage using feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    A series of in vitro fermentation experiments was performed to assess the effects of 4 feed enzyme products (FE) that varied in enzymatic activities on the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The FE contained a range of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase, and protease activities, and a range of dose rates (DR) was used. The objective of the study was to identify effective formulations and optimum DR, and to establish if combining FE would further improve fiber degradation. For alfalfa hay, quadratic increases in gas production and degradation of dry matter (DM) and fiber were observed for all FE, with maximum responses at low to medium DR. For corn silage, none of the FE increased gas production or DM degradation, but all FE increased NDF degradation, with optimum DR in the low to medium range. The proteolytic enzyme papain improved fiber degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage in a manner similar to that observed for polysaccharidase FE. Among the polysaccharidase FE, added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability of corn silage, whereas only added endoglucanase activity tended to be correlated with improvement in NDF degradability of alfalfa hay. Combining effective polysaccharidase FE further improved fiber degradation of both forages, with greater improvements for corn silage. Combining polysaccharidase and proteolytic FE further improved NDF degradation of corn silage, but not alfalfa hay. Combination treatments generally resulted in additive effects with increases in fiber degradation equal to the sum of the improvements for the individual enzyme components. Improved fiber degradation of corn silage was associated with decreased acetate to propionate ratios. Enzyme products that improve in vitro degradation of forages may have the potential to improve lactational performance of dairy cows. PMID:17517724

  18. Understanding the function of conserved variations in the catalytic loops of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 12.

    PubMed

    Damásio, André R L; Rubio, Marcelo V; Oliveira, Leandro C; Segato, Fernando; Dias, Bruno A; Citadini, Ana P; Paixão, Douglas A; Squina, Fabio M

    2014-08-01

    Enzymes that cleave the xyloglucan backbone at unbranched glucose residues have been identified in GH families 5, 7, 12, 16, 44, and 74. Fungi produce enzymes that populate 20 of 22 families that are considered critical for plant biomass deconstruction. We searched for GH12-encoding genes in 27 Eurotiomycetes genomes. After analyzing 50 GH12-related sequences, the conserved variations of the amino acid sequences were examined. Compared to the endoglucanases, the endo-xyloglucanase-associated YSG deletion at the negative subsites of the catalytic cleft with a SST insertion at the reducing end of the substrate-binding crevice is highly conserved. In addition, a highly conserved alanine residue was identified in all xyloglucan-specific enzymes, and this residue is substituted by arginine in more promiscuous glucanases. To understand the basis for the xyloglucan specificity displayed by certain GH12 enzymes, two fungal GH12 endoglucanases were chosen for mutagenesis and functional studies: an endo-xyloglucanase from Aspergillus clavatus (AclaXegA) and an endoglucanase from A. terreus (AtEglD). Comprehensive molecular docking studies and biochemical analyses were performed, revealing that mutations at the entrance of the catalytic cleft in AtEglD result in a wider binding cleft and the alteration of the substrate-cleavage pattern, implying that a trio of residues coordinates the interactions and binding to linear glycans. The loop insertion at the crevice-reducing end of AclaXegA is critical for catalytic efficiency to hydrolyze xyloglucan. The understanding of the structural elements governing endo-xyloglucanase activity on linear and branched glucans will facilitate future enzyme modifications with potential applications in industrial biotechnology. PMID:24578305

  19. Statistical optimization of cellulases production by Penicillium chrysogenum QML-2 under solid-state fermentation and primary application to chitosan hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Sang, Qing

    2012-03-01

    Solid-state fermentation conditions for cellulases production by a newly isolated Penicillium chrysogenum QML-2 were investigated using statistical methods. At first, significant variables for cellulases production including (NH(4))(2)SO(4), initial pH and inoculum size were screened by using Plackett-Burman Design. Then the optimal regions of the significant variables were investigated by using the method of steepest ascent. Finally, central composite design and response surface analysis were adopted to determine the optimal values of the significant variables and investigate the combined effects of each variable's pair on cellulases production. The results showed that the optimal ranges of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentration, initial pH and inoculum size for three types of cellulases activities were 1.97-2.15 g, pH 4.32-4.41 and 13.3-13.7% (v/w), respectively. Using the mixture of corn stover powder and wheat bran (CSP/WB, 1/1) as carbon source, the optimization resulted in 370.15, 101.76 and 321.56 U/g for maximal endoglucanase activity, filter paper activity and β-glucosidase activity, respectively. Compared with maximum values of cellulases activities (endoglucanase activity 85.21 U/g, filter paper activity 16.62 U/g and β-glucosidase activity 67.68 U/g) obtained under unoptimized conditions, the optimization resulted in 3.34, 5.12 and 3.75 folds improvement for endoglucanase activity, filter paper activity and β-glucosidase activity, respectively. For chitosan hydrolysis, the crude cellulases had the optimal temperature of 55°C, pH of 4.4 and exhibited Michaelis constant (K (m)) value of 8.34 mg/ml and maximum velocity (V (max)) of 2.21 μmol glucosamine/min by 1 ml of the crude cellulases. PMID:22805837

  20. Genomic, Proteomic, and Biochemical Analyses of Oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: Evaluating Its Capability in Utilizing Cellulolytic Substrates for Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, John M.; Baker, John O.; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Chen, Xiaowen; Taylor, Larry E.; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory), 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory) and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH) proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH) that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI) into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation. PMID:24023719

  1. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Kevin A; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H

    2015-11-04

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  2. Molecular Cloning of Endo-β-d-1,4-Glucanase Genes, rce1, rce2, and rce3, from Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Tatsuki; Murashima, Koichiro; Nakane, Akitaka; Yanai, Koji; Sumida, Naomi; Koga, Jinichiro; Murakami, Takeshi; Kono, Toshiaki

    2003-01-01

    Three endoglucanase genes, designated the rce1, rce2, and rce3 genes, were isolated from Rhizopus oryzae as the first cellulase genes from the subdivision Zygomycota. All the amino acid sequences deduced from the rce1, rce2, and rce3 genes consisted of three distinct domains: cellulose binding domains, linker domains, and catalytic domains belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 45. The rce3 gene had two tandem repeated sequences of cellulose binding domains, while rce1 and rce2 had only one. rce1, rce2, and rce3 had various lengths of linker sequences. PMID:12591897

  3. Microplate-based active/inactive 1° screen for biomass degrading enzyme library purification and gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Wagschal, Kurt; Lee, Charles C

    2012-04-01

    We present here a whole-cell and permeabilized E. coli cell 1° active/inactive microplate screen for β-d-xylosidase, xylanase, endoglucanase, and ferulic acid esterase enzyme activities, which are critical for the enzymatic deconstruction of biomass for fuels and chemicals. Transformants from genomic or mutagenesis-derived libraries are screened using fluorophore-tagged substrate/enzyme activity pairs that are assayed directly in the protein expression host growth media using a minimum of specialized equipment and supplies. PMID:22285853

  4. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and pectin methylesterases, and offer a critical assessment of their wall-loosening activity PMID:26918182

  5. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) faeces.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surender; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose degrading bacteria from koala faeces were isolated using caboxymethylcellulose-Congo red agar, screened in vitro for different hydrolytic enzyme activities and phylogenetically characterized using molecular tools. Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the most prominent bacteria from koala faeces. The isolates demonstrated good xylanase, amylase, lipase, protease, tannase and lignin peroxidase activities apart from endoglucanase activity. Furthermore many isolates grew in the presence of phenanthrene, indicating their probable application for bioremediation. Potential isolates can be exploited further for industrial enzyme production or in bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:26290743

  6. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Progress report, June 15, 1996--March 10, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Danna, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, we want to determine the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu). The apoplast not only contains cellulose, the substrate for the enzymes, but also can tolerate large amounts of foreign protein. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulase expression in plants, we have chosen enzymes with high temperature optima; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source.

  7. C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Din, N; Damude, H G; Gilkes, N R; Miller, R C; Warren, R A; Kilburn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:7972069

  8. New genes and new biological roles for expansins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Expansins are extracellular proteins that loosen plant cell walls in novel ways. They are thought to function in cell enlargement, pollen tube invasion of the stigma (in grasses), wall disassembly during fruit ripening, abscission and other cell separation events. Expansins are encoded by two multigene families and each gene is often expressed in highly specific locations and cell types. Structural analysis indicates that one expansin region resembles the catalytic domain of family-45 endoglucanases but glucanase activity has not been detected. The genome projects have revealed numerous expansin-related sequences but their putative wall-loosening functions remain to be assessed.

  9. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Frankia and related genera and emendation of the family Frankiaceae.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Orso, S; Cournoyer, B; Jeannin, P; Chapelon, C; Dawson, J; Evtushenko, L; Misra, A K

    1996-01-01

    The members of the actinomycete genus Frankia are nitrogen-fixing symbionts of may species of woody dicotyledonous plants belonging to eight families. Several strains isolated from diverse actinorhizal plants growing in different geographical areas were used in this study. The phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and uncharacterized microsymbionts that are recalcitrant to isolation in pure culture were determined by comparing complete 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. The resulting phylogenetic tree revealed that there was greater diversity among the Alnus-infective strains than among the strains that infect other host plants. The four main subdivisions of the genus Frankia revealed by this phylogenetic analysis are (i) a very large group comprising Frankia alni and related organisms (including Alnus rugosa Sp+ microsymbionts that are seldom isolated in pure culture), to which Casuarina-infective strains, a Myrica nagi microsymbiont, and other effective Alnus-infective strains are related; (ii) unisolated microsymbionts of Dryas, Coriaria, and Datisca species; (iii) Elaeagnus-infective strains; and (iv) "atypical" strains (a group which includes an Alnus-infective, non-nitrogen-fixing strain). Taxa that are related to this well-defined, coherent Frankia cluster are the genera Geodermatophilus, "Blastococcus," Sporichthya, Acidothermus, and Actinoplanes. However, the two genera whose members have multilocular sporangia (the genera Frankia and Geodermatophilus) did not form a coherent group. For this reason, we propose that the family Frankiaceae should be emended so that the genera Geodermatophilus and "Blastococcus" are excluded and only the genus Frankia is retained. PMID:8573482

  11. A Scaffoldin of the Bacteroides cellulosolvens Cellulosome That Contains 11 Type II Cohesins

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shi-You; Bayer, Edward A.; Steiner, David; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael

    2000-01-01

    A cellulosomal scaffoldin gene, termed cipBc, was identified and sequenced from the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The gene encodes a 2,292-residue polypeptide (excluding the signal sequence) with a calculated molecular weight of 242,437. CipBc contains an N-terminal signal peptide, 11 type II cohesin domains, an internal family III cellulose-binding domain (CBD), and a C-terminal dockerin domain. Its CBD belongs to family IIIb, like that of CipV from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus but unlike the family IIIa CBDs of other clostridial scaffoldins. In contrast to all other scaffoldins thus far described, CipBc lacks a hydrophilic domain or domain X of unknown function. The singularity of CipBc, however, lies in its numerous type II cohesin domains, all of which are very similar in sequence. One of the latter cohesin domains was expressed, and the expressed protein interacted selectively with cellulosomal enzymes, one of which was identified as a family 48 glycosyl hydrolase on the basis of partial sequence alignment. By definition, the dockerins, carried by the cellulosomal enzymes of this species, would be considered to be type II. This is the first example of authentic type II cohesins that are confirmed components of a cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit rather than a cell surface anchoring component. The results attest to the emerging diversity of cellulosomes and their component sequences in nature. PMID:10940036

  12. Construction of chromosomally located T7 expression system for production of heterologous secreted proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Chao, Yun-Peng; David Ho, Tuan-Hua; Yu, Su-May

    2010-05-12

    Bacillus subtilis is most commonly employed for secretion of recombinant proteins. To circumvent the problems caused by using plasmids, the T7 expression system known for its high efficiency was rebuilt in B. subtilis. Accordingly, a markerless and replicon-free method was developed for genomic insertion of DNAs. By the act of homologous recombination via the guide DNA, a suicidal vector carrying the gene of interest was integrated into genomic loci of bacteria. Removal of the inserted selection marker and replicon flanked by FRT sites was mediated by the FLP recombinase. By using the mentioned system, B. subtilis strain PT5 was constructed to harbor a genomic copy of the spac promoter-regulated T7 gene 1 located at wprA (encoding the cell wall-associated protease). Similarly, the T7 promoter-driven nattokinase or endoglucanase E1 of Thermomonospora fusca genes were also integrated into mpr (encoding an extracellular protease) of strain PT5. Consequently, the integrant PT5/Mmp-T7N or PT5/MT1-E1 resulted in a "clean" producer strain deprived of six proteases. After 24 h, the strain receiving induction was able to secret nattokinase and endoglucanase E1 with the volumetric activity reaching 10860 CU/mL and 8.4 U/mL, respectively. This result clearly indicates the great promise of the proposed approach for high secretion of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis. PMID:20377228

  13. Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger▿

    PubMed Central

    Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    2009-01-01

    A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water. PMID:19251882

  14. Crystal structure and genetic modifications of FI-CMCase from Aspergillus aculeatus F-50.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Liu, Weidong; Lai, Hui-Lin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Zheng, Yingying; Li, Qian; Sun, Hong; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Guo, Rey-Ting; Chen, Chun-Chi

    2016-09-16

    Cellulose is the major component of the plant cell wall and the most abundant renewable biomass on earth, and its decomposition has proven to be very useful in many commercial applications. Endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4; endoglucanase), which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-β-glycosidic bonds of the cellulose main chain to cleave cellulose into smaller fragments, is the key cellulolytic enzyme. An endoglucanase isolated from Aspergillus aculeatus F-50 (FI-CMCase), which is classified into the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 12, was demonstrated to be effectively expressed in the industrial strain Pichia pastoris. Here, the crystal structure and complex structures of P. pastoris-expressed FI-CMCase were solved to high resolution. The overall structure is analyzed and compared to other GH12 members. In addition, the substrate-surrounding residues were engineered to search for variants with improved enzymatic activity. Among 14 mutants constructed, one with two-fold increase in protein expression was identified, which possesses a potential to be further developed as a commercial enzyme product. PMID:27470581

  15. Degradation of cellulose by basidiomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Baldrian, Petr; Valásková, Vendula

    2008-05-01

    Cellulose is the main polymeric component of the plant cell wall, the most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and an important renewable resource. Basidiomycetous fungi belong to its most potent degraders because many species grow on dead wood or litter, in environment rich in cellulose. Fungal cellulolytic systems differ from the complex cellulolytic systems of bacteria. For the degradation of cellulose, basidiomycetes utilize a set of hydrolytic enzymes typically composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and beta-glucosidase. In some species, the absence of cellobiohydrolase is substituted by the production of processive endoglucanases combining the properties of both of these enzymes. In addition, systems producing hydroxyl radicals based on cellobiose dehydrogenase, quinone redox cycling or glycopeptide-based Fenton reaction are involved in the degradation of several plant cell wall components, including cellulose. The complete cellulolytic complex used by a single fungal species is typically composed of more than one of the above mechanisms that contribute to the utilization of cellulose as a source of carbon or energy or degrade it to ensure fast substrate colonization. The efficiency and regulation of cellulose degradation differs among wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, mycorrhizal or plant pathogenic fungi and yeasts due to the different roles of cellulose degradation in the physiology and ecology of the individual groups. PMID:18371173

  16. Fungal cellulase is an elicitor but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanan; Han, Chao; Chen, Jinyin; Li, Haiyun; He, Kun; Liu, Aixin; Li, Duochuan

    2015-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic fungi produce cellulases. However, little information is available on cellulase as an elicitor in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, an endocellulase (EG1) was isolated from Rhizoctonia solani. It contains a putative protein of 227 amino acids with a signal peptide and a family-45 glycosyl hydrolase domain. Its aspartic acid (Asp) residue at position 32 was changed to alanine (Ala), resulting in full loss of its catalytic activity. Wild-type and mutated forms of the endoglucanase were expressed in yeast and purified to homogeneity. The purified wild-type and mutant forms induced cell death in maize, tobacco and Arabidopsis leaves, and the transcription of three defence marker genes in maize and tobacco and 10 genes related to defence responses in maize. Moreover, they also induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), medium alkalinization, Ca(2+) accumulation and ethylene biosynthesis of suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Similarly, production of the EG1 wild-type and mutated forms in tobacco induced cell death using the Potato virus X (PVX) expression system. In vivo, expression of EG1 was also related to cell death during infection of maize by R. solani. These results provide direct evidence that the endoglucanase is an elicitor, but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity. PMID:24844544

  17. Optimisation of Cellulase Production by Penicillium funiculosum in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor Using Multivariate Response Surface Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque de Carvalho, Marcelle Lins; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; de Barros Gomes, Edelvio; Nobuyuki Maeda, Roberto; Melo Santa Anna, Lidia Maria; de Castro, Aline Machado; Pereira, Nei

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in the production of second-generation ethanol necessitates the low-cost production of enzymes from the cellulolytic complex (endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases), which act synergistically in cellulose breakdown. The present work aimed to optimise a bioprocess to produce these biocatalysts from the fungus Penicillium funiculosum ATCC11797. A statistical full factorial design (FFD) was employed to determine the optimal conditions for cellulase production. The optimal composition of culture media using Avicel (10 g·L(-1)) as carbon source was determined to include urea (1.2 g·L(-1)), yeast extract (1.0 g·L(-1)), KH2PO4 (6.0 g·L(-1)), and MgSO4 ·7H2O (1.2 g·L(-1)). The growth process was performed in batches in a bioreactor. Using a different FFD strategy, the optimised bioreactor operational conditions of an agitation speed of 220 rpm and aeration rate of 0.6 vvm allowed the obtainment of an enzyme pool with activities of 508 U·L(-1) for FPase, 9,204 U·L(-1) for endoglucanase, and 2,395 U·L(-1) for β-glucosidase. The sequential optimisation strategy was effective and afforded increased cellulase production in the order from 3.6 to 9.5 times higher than production using nonoptimised conditions. PMID:25057412

  18. Optimisation of Cellulase Production by Penicillium funiculosum in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor Using Multivariate Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque de Carvalho, Marcelle Lins; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; de Barros Gomes, Edelvio; Nobuyuki Maeda, Roberto; Melo Santa Anna, Lidia Maria; de Castro, Aline Machado; Pereira, Nei

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in the production of second-generation ethanol necessitates the low-cost production of enzymes from the cellulolytic complex (endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases), which act synergistically in cellulose breakdown. The present work aimed to optimise a bioprocess to produce these biocatalysts from the fungus Penicillium funiculosum ATCC11797. A statistical full factorial design (FFD) was employed to determine the optimal conditions for cellulase production. The optimal composition of culture media using Avicel (10 g·L−1) as carbon source was determined to include urea (1.2 g·L−1), yeast extract (1.0 g·L−1), KH2PO4 (6.0 g·L−1), and MgSO4·7H2O (1.2 g·L−1). The growth process was performed in batches in a bioreactor. Using a different FFD strategy, the optimised bioreactor operational conditions of an agitation speed of 220 rpm and aeration rate of 0.6 vvm allowed the obtainment of an enzyme pool with activities of 508 U·L−1 for FPase, 9,204 U·L−1 for endoglucanase, and 2,395 U·L−1 for β-glucosidase. The sequential optimisation strategy was effective and afforded increased cellulase production in the order from 3.6 to 9.5 times higher than production using nonoptimised conditions. PMID:25057412

  19. Endogenous cellulase enzymes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) gut.

    PubMed

    Shelomi, Matan; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Arakawa, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    High cellulase (endo-beta-1,4-glucanase) activity was detected in the anterior midgut of the walking stick (Phasmatodea) Eurycantha calcarata. The enzyme was isolated and analyzed via mass spectrometry. RT-PCR revealed two endoglucanase genes, EcEG1 and EcEG2. Mascot analysis of the purified enzyme confirms it to be the product of gene EcEG1. Homologous cDNAs were also isolated from a distantly related species, Entoria okinawaensis, suggesting a general distribution of cellulase genes in phasmids. Phasmid cellulases showed high homology to endogenously-produced glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) endoglucanases from insects, especially to those of termites, cockroaches, and crickets. The purified E. calcarata enzyme showed clear antigency against an anti-serum for termite GH9 cellulase, which, together with the sequence homology, further suggests an endogenous origin of the enzyme. This discovery suggests a possible nutritive value for cellulose in the leaf-feeding phasmids, unlike in herbivorous Lepidoptera. PMID:24216471

  20. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25110630

  1. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  2. Isolation of Cellulose-Degrading Bacteria and Determination of Their Cellulolytic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratima; Samant, Kalpana; Sahu, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    Eight isolates of cellulose-degrading bacteria (CDB) were isolated from four different invertebrates (termite, snail, caterpillar, and bookworm) by enriching the basal culture medium with filter paper as substrate for cellulose degradation. To indicate the cellulase activity of the organisms, diameter of clear zone around the colony and hydrolytic value on cellulose Congo Red agar media were measured. CDB 8 and CDB 10 exhibited the maximum zone of clearance around the colony with diameter of 45 and 50 mm and with the hydrolytic value of 9 and 9.8, respectively. The enzyme assays for two enzymes, filter paper cellulase (FPC), and cellulase (endoglucanase), were examined by methods recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The extracellular cellulase activities ranged from 0.012 to 0.196 IU/mL for FPC and 0.162 to 0.400 IU/mL for endoglucanase assay. All the cultures were also further tested for their capacity to degrade filter paper by gravimetric method. The maximum filter paper degradation percentage was estimated to be 65.7 for CDB 8. Selected bacterial isolates CDB 2, 7, 8, and 10 were co-cultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Ethanol production was positively tested after five days of incubation with acidified potassium dichromate. PMID:22315612

  3. QM/MM Analysis of Cellulase Active Sites and Actions of the Enzymes on Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Saharay, Moumita; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C; Guo, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of cellulosic biomass requires the actions of three types of secreted enzymes; endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolase or exoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.91), and -glucosidase (EC 4.2.1.21). These enzymes act synergistically to hydrolyse the -1,4 bonds of cellulose and converts it into simple sugar. Hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond can occur either by net retention or by inversion of anomeric configuration at the anomeric center. QM/MM simulations are useful tools to study the energetics of the reactions and analyze the active-site structures at different states of the catalysis, including the formation of unstable transition states. Here, a brief description of previous work on glycoside hydrolases is first given. The results of the QM/MM potential energy and free energy simulations corresponding to glycosylation and deglycosylation processes are then provided for two retaining endoglucanases, Cel12A and Cel5A. The active-site structural features are analyzed based on the QM/MM results. The role of different residues and hydrogen bonding interactions during the catalysis and the importance of the sugar ring distortion are discussed for these two enzymes.

  4. Biochemical characterization, molecular cloning, and structural modeling of an interesting β-1,4-glucanase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Haifa; Ezzine, Aymen; Mlouka, Amine Ben; Hardouin, Julie; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Najib

    2014-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces a complete set of cellulolytic enzymes needed for efficient solubilization of native cellulose, the major component of plants. In this work, we reported the molecular characterization of an important glycosyl-hydrolase enzyme classified as endo-β-1,4-glucanase. The importance of this enzyme was revealed with the in-gel activity staining, showing a high degradation capacity of cellulose. When purified from native gel and ran in denaturing polyacrylamide gel, the polypeptide has an apparent molecular mass of about 34 kDa called Endo2. For further characterization of this protein, a mass spectrometry approach was carried out. The LC-MS/MS analysis revealed two peptides belonging to this enzyme. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were resolved by PCR amplification and sequencing, revealing a gene with two intron sequences. The open reading frame of 987 bp encoded a putative polypeptide of 328 amino acids having a calculated molecular mass of 33,297 Da. Yet, the molecular modeling and comparative investigation of different 3D cellulase structures showed that this endoglucanase isoform has probably two domains. A core domain having a high similarity with endoglucanases family 5 and a cellulose-binding domain having similarities with those of exo-type cellulases of family 1, linked together by a serine-threonine-rich region. These results are with great interests and show new characteristics of S. sclerotiorum glucanase. PMID:24146430

  5. Down-regulation of the cotton endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene KOR1 disrupts endosperm cellularization, delays embryo development, and reduces early seedling vigour

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiaoguang; Chai, Qichao; Zhang, Qinghu; Jiang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Towards the aim of examining the potential function of KORRIGAN (KOR), a highly conserved membrane-bound endoglucanase, in reproductive development, here transgenic evidence is provided that a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) endoglucanase, GhKOR1, plays significant roles in endosperm and embryo development. RNA interference (RNAi)- and co-suppression-mediated down-regulation of GhKOR1 resulted in smaller filial tissue and reduced seed weight, which were characterized by disrupted endosperm cellularization and delayed embryo development, leading to a delayed germination and a weak growth of seedlings early in development. The transgenic seeds exhibited fewer and smaller endosperm cells with irregular and brittle cell walls, and their embryos developed only to the globular stage at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) when the wild-type endosperm has become highly cellularized and the embryo has progressed to the heart stage. The transgenic seed also displayed a significant reduction of callose in the seed coat transfer cells and reduced cellulose content both in the seed coat and in mature fibres. These findings demonstrate that GhKOR1 is required for the developmental of both seed filial and maternal tissues and the establishment of seedling vigour. PMID:25805716

  6. Effect of pretreatment methods on the synergism of cellulase and xylanase during the hydrolysis of bagasse.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lili; Gonçalves, Geisa A L; Takasugi, Yusaku; Mori, Yutaro; Noda, Shuhei; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Noriho

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pretreatment with peracetic acid (PAA) or an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [Emim][OAc]) on the synergism between endoglucanase and endoxylanase in the hydrolysis of bagasse was investigated. An endoglucanase, Cel6A, with a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and two endoxylanases, XynZ-C without a CBM and Xyn11A with an intrinsic xylan/cellulose binding module (XBM), were selected. The hemicellulose content, especially arabinan, and the cellulose crystallinity of bagasse were found to affect the cellulase-xylanase synergism. More specifically, higher synergism (above 3.4) was observed for glucan conversion, at low levels of arabinan (0.9%), during the hydrolysis of PAA pretreated bagasse. In contrast, [Emim][OAc] pretreated bagasse, showed lower cellulose crystallinity and achieved higher synergism (over 1.9) for xylan conversion. Ultimately, the combination of Cel6A and Xyn11A resulted in higher synergism for glucan conversion than the combination of Cel6A with XynZ-C, indicating the importance of the molecular architecture of enzymes for metabolic synergism. PMID:25768418

  7. Digestive enzymes from workers and soldiers of termite Nasutitermes corniger.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. PMID:25026598

  8. Influence of Linker Length Variations on the Biomass-Degrading Performance of Heat-Active Enzyme Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mazen; Antranikian, Garabed; Elleuche, Skander

    2016-04-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of complex polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose, the synergistic action of several cellulases is required. Some anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria form multienzyme complexes, namely cellulosomes, while other microorganisms produce a portfolio of diverse enzymes that work in synergistic fashion. Molecular biological methods can mimic such effects through the generation of artificial bi- or multifunctional fusion enzymes. Endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Fervidobacterium gondwanense and Fervidobacterium islandicum, respectively, were fused end-to-end in an approach to optimize polysaccharide degradation. Both enzymes are optimally active at 90 °C and pH 6.0-7.0 representing excellent candidates for fusion experiments. The direct linkage of both enzymes led to an increased activity toward the substrate specific for β-glucosidase, but to a decreased activity of endoglucanase. However, these enzyme chimeras were superior over 1:1 mixtures of individual enzymes, because combined activities resulted in a higher final product yield. Therefore, such fusion enzymes exhibit promising features for application in industrial bioethanol production processes. PMID:26921187

  9. Ethanol inducible expression of a mesophilic cellulase avoids adverse effects on plant development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant-produced biomass-degrading enzymes are promising tools for the processing of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. A major limitation of in planta production is that high-level expression of such enzymes could potentially affect the structure and integrity of the plant cell wall and negatively influence plant growth and development. Results Here, we evaluate the impact on tobacco plant development of constitutive versus alcohol-inducible expression of the endoglucanase TrCel5A from the mesophilic fungus Trichoderma reesei. Using this system, we are able to demonstrate that constitutive expression of the enzyme, controlled by the doubled Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter, leads to lower cellulose content of the plant combined with severe effects on plant growth. However, using an alcohol-inducible expression of the endoglucanase in the plant leaves, we achieved similar enzymatic expression levels with no changes in the crystalline cellulose content. Conclusion We were able to produce significant amounts of cellulase in the plant leaves without detrimental effects to plant development. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of an inducible expression system for producing biomass degrading enzymes in plants. PMID:23587418

  10. A Metagenomic Advance for the Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase from Red Rice Crop Residues.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carlos; Silva, Bruna; Medeiros, Betsy; Serrato, Rodrigo; Johnston-Monje, David

    2016-01-01

    Many naturally-occurring cellulolytic microorganisms are not readily cultivable, demanding a culture-independent approach in order to study their cellulolytic genes. Metagenomics involves the isolation of DNA from environmental sources and can be used to identify enzymes with biotechnological potential from uncultured microbes. In this study, a gene encoding an endoglucanase was cloned from red rice crop residues using a metagenomic strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 70%. The endoglucanase was named EglaRR01 and was biochemically characterized. This recombinant protein showed activity on carboxymethylcellulose, indicating that EglaRR01 is an endoactive lytic enzyme. The enzymatic activity was optimal at a pH of 6.8 and at a temperature of 30 °C. Ethanol production from this recombinant enzyme was also analyzed on EglaRR01 crop residues, and resulted in conversion of cellulose from red rice into simple sugars which were further fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol after seven days. Ethanol yield in this study was approximately 8 g/L. The gene found herein shows strong potential for use in ethanol production from cellulosic biomass (second generation ethanol). PMID:27347917

  11. Influence of phosphorus and pH on the fungicidal potential of Anabaena strains.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Vidhi; Prasanna, Radha; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The genus Anabaena is known to be a rich source of bioactive metabolites, but the biocontrol potential of this genus, mediated through hydrolytic enzymes is less investigated. In our investigation, five Anabaena strains - A. laxa RPAN8, A. iyengarii RPAN9, A. variabilis RPAN59 and A. oscillarioides RPAN69 (with A. variabilis RPAN16 serving as negative control) were evaluated in time course studies involving incubation under three levels of phosphorus and pH conditions. Total chlorophyll, proteins, chitosanase, endoglucanase and CMCase activity were measured and inhibition assayed against phytopathogenic fungi. The four weeks old RPAN69 culture showed significantly higher chlorophyll which was 41% higher than control. This was also linked with an enhancement of 18.26% and 9.18% in chitosanase and CMCase activity respectively over control in the treatment involving half dose of phosphorus. Chlorophyll and CMCase activity showed a high degree of correlation with highest values at pH 9.5. A pH of 5.5 was the most suitable condition for the maximum activity of chitosanase for all the strains except RPAN16. The strains RPAN8 and RPAN9 showed the highest activity of endoglucanase at pH 5.5 while the other strains exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.5. This study provides insight into the role of P and pH in modulating fungicidal activity in different Anabaena strains, which can be valuable for enhancing their efficiency as a biocontrol agent. PMID:22733581

  12. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  13. Engineered thermostable fungal cellulases exhibit efficient synergistic cellulose hydrolysis at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Devin L; Lee, Toni M; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-12-01

    A major obstacle to using widely available and low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce renewable fuels and chemicals is the high cost and low efficiency of the enzyme mixtures used to hydrolyze cellulose to fermentable sugars. One possible solution entails engineering current cellulases to function efficiently at elevated temperatures in order to boost reaction rates and exploit several other advantages of a higher temperature process. Here, we describe the creation of the most stable reported fungal endoglucanase, a derivative of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) Cel5A, by combining stabilizing mutations identified using consensus design, chimera studies, and structure-based computational methods. The engineered endoglucanase has an optimal temperature that is 17°C higher than wild type H. jecorina Cel5A, and hydrolyzes 1.5 times as much cellulose over 60 h at its optimum temperature compared to the wild type enzyme at its optimal temperature. This enzyme complements previously engineered highly active, thermostable variants of the fungal cellobiohydrolases Cel6A and Cel7A in a thermostable cellulase mixture that hydrolyzes cellulose synergistically at an optimum temperature of 70°C over 60 h.The thermostable mixture produces three times as much total sugar as the best mixture of the wild type enzymes operating at its optimum temperature of 60°C, clearly demonstrating the advantage of higher temperature cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:24916885

  14. Cellulosilyticum ruminicola, a Newly Described Rumen Bacterium That Possesses Redundant Fibrolytic-Protein-Encoding Genes and Degrades Lignocellulose with Multiple Carbohydrate- Borne Fibrolytic Enzymes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shichun; Li, Jiabao; Hu, Fen Ze; Zhang, Kegui; Luo, Yuanming; Janto, Benjamin; Boissy, Robert; Ehrlich, Garth; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2010-01-01

    Cellulosilyticum ruminicola H1 is a newly described bacterium isolated from yak (Bos grunniens) rumen and is characterized by its ability to grow on a variety of hemicelluloses and degrade cellulosic materials. In this study, we performed the whole-genome sequencing of C. ruminicola H1 and observed a comprehensive set of genes encoding the enzymes essential for hydrolyzing plant cell wall. The corresponding enzymatic activities were also determined in strain H1; these included endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, xylanases, mannanase, pectinases, and feruloyl esterases and acetyl esterases to break the interbridge cross-link, as well as the enzymes that degrade the glycosidic bonds. This bacterium appears to produce polymer hydrolases that act on both soluble and crystal celluloses. Approximately half of the cellulytic activities, including cellobiohydrolase (50%), feruloyl esterase (45%), and one third of xylanase (31%) and endoglucanase (36%) activities were bound to cellulosic fibers. However, only a minority of mannase (6.78%) and pectinase (1.76%) activities were fiber associated. Strain H1 seems to degrade the plant-derived polysaccharides by producing individual fibrolytic enzymes, whereas the majority of polysaccharide hydrolases contain carbohydrate-binding module. Cellulosome or cellulosomelike protein complex was never isolated from this bacterium. Thus, the fibrolytic enzyme production of strain H1 may represent a different strategy in cellulase organization used by most of other ruminal microbes, but it applies the fungal mode of cellulose production. PMID:20400560

  15. Expression and Regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana Cel1 Endo 1,4 β Glucanase Gene During Compatible Plant-Nematode Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sukno, Serenella; Shimerling, Orit; McCuiston, Jamie; Tsabary, Galit; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Davis, Eric L

    2006-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate endoparasite of plant roots and stimulates elaborate modifications of selected root vascular cells to form giant cells for feeding. An Arabidopsis thaliana endoglucanase (Atcel1) promoter is activated in giant cells that were formed in Atcel1::UidA transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Activity of the full-length Atcel1 promoter was detected in root and shoot elongation zones and in the lateral root primordia. Different 5’ and internal deletions of regions of the 1,673 bp Atcel1 promoter were each fused to the UidA reporter gene and transformed in tobacco, and roots of the transformants were inoculated with M. incognita to assay for GUS expression in giant cells and noninfected plant tissues. Comparison of the Atcel1 promoter deletion constructs showed that the region between −1,673 and −1,171 (fragment 1) was essential for Atcel1 promoter activity in giant cells and roots. Fragment 1 alone, however, was not sufficient for Atcel1 expression in giant cells or roots, suggesting that cis-acting elements in fragment 1 may function in consort with other elements within the Atcel1 promoter. Root-knot nematodes and giant cells developed normally within roots of Arabidopsis that expressed a functional antisense construct to Atcel1, suggesting that a functional redundancy in endoglucanase activity may represent another level of regulatory control of cell wall-modifying activity within nematode feeding cells. PMID:19259541

  16. Cellobiohydrolase B, a second exo-cellobiohydrolase from the cellulolytic bacterium Cellulomonas fimi.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, H; Gilkes, N R; Kilburn, D G; Miller, R C; Warren, R A

    1995-01-01

    The gene cbhB from the cellulolytic bacterium Cellulomonas fimi encodes a polypeptide of 1090 amino acids. Cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) is 1037 amino acids long, with a calculated molecular mass of 109765 Da. The enzyme comprises five domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain of 643 amino acids, three fibronectin type III repeats of 97 amino acids each, and a C-terminal cellulose-binding domain of 104 amino acids. The catalytic domain belongs to family 48 of glycosyl hydrolases. CbhB has a very low activity on CM-cellulose. Viscometric analysis of CM-cellulose hydrolysis indicates that the enzyme is an exoglucanase. Cellobiose is the major product of hydrolysis of cellulose. In common with two other exoglycanases from C. fimi, CbhB has low but detectable endoglucanase activity. CbhB is the second exo-cellobiohydrolase found in C. fimi. Therefore, the cellulase system of C. fimi resembles those of fungi in comprising multiple endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases. Images Figure 5 PMID:7575482

  17. Expression and Regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana Cel1 Endo 1,4 beta Glucanase Gene During Compatible Plant-Nematode Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sukno, Serenella; Shimerling, Orit; McCuiston, Jamie; Tsabary, Galit; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Davis, Eric L

    2006-09-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate endoparasite of plant roots and stimulates elaborate modifications of selected root vascular cells to form giant cells for feeding. An Arabidopsis thaliana endoglucanase (Atcel1) promoter is activated in giant cells that were formed in Atcel1::UidA transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Activity of the full-length Atcel1 promoter was detected in root and shoot elongation zones and in the lateral root primordia. Different 5' and internal deletions of regions of the 1,673 bp Atcel1 promoter were each fused to the UidA reporter gene and transformed in tobacco, and roots of the transformants were inoculated with M. incognita to assay for GUS expression in giant cells and noninfected plant tissues. Comparison of the Atcel1 promoter deletion constructs showed that the region between -1,673 and -1,171 (fragment 1) was essential for Atcel1 promoter activity in giant cells and roots. Fragment 1 alone, however, was not sufficient for Atcel1 expression in giant cells or roots, suggesting that cis-acting elements in fragment 1 may function in consort with other elements within the Atcel1 promoter. Root-knot nematodes and giant cells developed normally within roots of Arabidopsis that expressed a functional antisense construct to Atcel1, suggesting that a functional redundancy in endoglucanase activity may represent another level of regulatory control of cell wall-modifying activity within nematode feeding cells. PMID:19259541

  18. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L.; Fonseca, Rafael F.; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. PMID:23365723

  19. The influence of sorbitol on the production of cellulases and xylanases in an airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Carla Eliana Todero; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Camassola, Marli; da Silveira, Maurício Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-11-01

    The production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum in an airlift bioreactor was evaluated. In batch production, we tested media with isolated or associated cellulose and sorbitol. In fed-batch production, we tested cellulose addition at two different times, 30 h and 48 h. Higher liquid circulation velocities in the downcomer were observed in sorbitol 10 g L(-1) medium. In batch production, higher FPA (filter paper activity) and endoglucanase activities were obtained with cellulose (7.5 g L(-1)) and sorbitol (2.5 g L(-1)), 1.0 U mL(-1) (120 h) and 6.4 U m L(-1) (100 h), respectively. For xylanases, the best production condition was cellulose 10 g L(-1), which achieved 5.5 U mL(-1) in 64 h. The fed-batch process was favorable for obtaining xylanases, but not for FPA and endoglucanases, suggesting that in the case of cellulases, the inducer must be added early in the process. PMID:24045195

  20. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maíra Nicolau; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Falkoski, Daniel Luciano; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Gonçalves, Dayelle S P O; de Rezende, Sebastião Tavares

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L -arabinose, D -xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or corn straw as carbon source. In solid-state fermentation, it was tested as carbon source sugarcane bagasse or corn straw. The highest FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase activities were produced by Acremonium sp. EA0810 cultivated in SC containing sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The highest β-glucosidase activity was produced by Acremonium sp. EA0810 cultivated in SC using D -xylose as carbon source. A. zeae EA0802 has highest α-arabinofuranosidase and α-galactosidase activities in SC using xylan as a carbon source. FPase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase from Acremonium sp. EA0810 has optimum pH and temperatures of 6.0, 55 °C; 5.0, 70 °C; 4.5, 60 °C; and 6.5, 50 °C, respectively. α-Arabinofuranosidase and α-galactosidase from A. zeae EA0802 has optimum pH and temperatures of 5.0, 60 °C and 4.5, 45 °C, respectively. It was analyzed the application of Acremonium sp. EA0810 to hydrolyze sugarcane bagasse, and it was achieved 63% of conversion into reducing sugar and 42% of conversion into glucose. PMID:21573756

  1. Study of the cellulases produced by three mesophilic actinomycetes grown on bagasse as substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zyl, W.H.

    1985-09-01

    The cellulases that strains of Streptomyces albogrisolus, S. nitrosporeus, and Micromonospora melanosporea produce when grown on untreated ballmilled bagasse were investigated. Optimum conditions for extracellular cellulase production and activity were determined to be growth at pH 6.7-7.4 and 25-35 degrees C for 4-5 days and assay at pH 5.0-6.0 and 45-55 degrees C, respectively. The endoglucanases were thermally stable at 50 degrees C, but the Avicelases had a half-life of approximately 24 hours at this temperature. Nearly half of the endoglucanases and almost all of the Avicelases were absorbed on ballmilled bagasse after 15 minutes incubation at 50 degrees C. The ..beta..-glucosidases were found to be mainly intracellular or cell wall bound. These mesophilic actinomycetes concomitantly produced xylanases and ..beta..-xylosidases with cellulases that, apart from cellobiose and glucose, also release xylose from bagasse. This feature may be advantageous in the commercial application of the enzymes of mesophilic actinomycetes for the saccharification of natural cellulosic substrates.

  2. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  3. Significance of Relative Position of Cellulases in Designer Cellulosomes for Optimized Cellulolysis

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Johanna; Kahn, Amaranta; Vazana, Yael; Shamshoum, Melina; Moraïs, Sarah; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of cellulose is of major interest in the quest for alternative sources of renewable energy, for its positive effects on environment and ecology, and for use in advanced biotechnological applications. Due to its microcrystalline organization, celluose is extremely difficult to degrade, although numerous microbes have evolved that produce the appropriate enzymes. The most efficient known natural cellulolytic system is produced by anaerobic bacteria, such as C. thermocellum, that possess a multi-enzymatic complex termed the cellulosome. Our laboratory has devised and developed the designer cellulosome concept, which consists of chimaeric scaffoldins for controlled incorporation of recombinant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Recently, we reported the creation of a combinatorial library of four cellulosomal modules comprising a basic chimaeric scaffoldin, i.e., a CBM and 3 divergent cohesin modules. Here, we employed selected members of this library to determine whether the position of defined cellulolytic enzymes is important for optimized degradation of a microcrystalline cellulosic substrate. For this purpose, 10 chimaeric scaffoldins were used for incorporation of three recombinant Thermobifida fusca enzymes: the processive endoglucanase Cel9A, endoglucanase Cel5A and exoglucanase Cel48A. In addition, we examined whether the characteristic properties of the T. fusca enzymes as designer cellulosome components are unique to this bacterium by replacing them with parallel enzymes from Clostridium thermocellum. The results support the contention that for a given set of cellulosomal enzymes, their relative position within a scaffoldin can be critical for optimal degradation of microcrystaline cellulosic substrates. PMID:26024227

  4. Jatrophihabitans endophyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized stem of Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Hu, Chuan Jiong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Ji, Lianghui

    2013-04-01

    A short rod-shaped Gram-stain-positive actinobacterium was isolated as an endophyte from the tissues of Jatropha curcas cv. KB27 and was investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. An analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain S9-650(T) forms an individual line of descent and is related to certain members of the suborder Frankineae, order Actinomycetales (<95 % sequence similarity). Distance-matrix and neighbour-joining analyses set the branching point of the novel isolate between two clades, one being represented by members of the genera Frankia (family Frankiaceae) and Acidothermus (family Acidothermaceae) and the other by members of the genera Geodermatophilus, Blastococcus and Modestobacter (family Geodermatophilaceae). The organism had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The acyl type was found to be N-glycolylated. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and the fatty acid profile was characterized by the predominance of iso-C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C17 : 1ω8c. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, phospholipids and aminolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.2 mol%. The distinct phylogenetic position and the phenotypic markers that clearly separate the novel organism from all other members of the suborder Frankineae indicate that strain S9-650(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Jatrophihabitans endophyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is S9-650(T) ( = DSM 45627(T) = KACC 16232(T)). PMID:22798659

  5. Functional characterization of a Penicillium chrysogenum mutanase gene induced upon co-cultivation with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial gene expression is strongly influenced by environmental growth conditions. Comparison of gene expression under different conditions is frequently used for functional analysis and to unravel regulatory networks, however, gene expression responses to co-cultivation with other microorganisms, a common occurrence in nature, is rarely studied under laboratory conditions. To explore cellular responses of the antibiotic-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum to prokaryotes, the present study investigates its transcriptional responses during co-cultivation with Bacillus subtilis. Results Steady-state glucose-limited chemostats of P. chrysogenum grown under penillicin-non-producing conditions were inoculated with B. subtilis. Physiological and transcriptional responses of P. chrysogenum in the resulting mixed culture were monitored over 72 h. Under these conditions, B. subtilis outcompeted P. chrysogenum, as reflected by a three-fold increase of the B. subtilis population size and a two-fold reduction of the P. chrysogenum biomass concentration. Genes involved in the penicillin pathway and in synthesis of the penicillin precursors and side-chain were unresponsive to the presence of B. subtilis. Moreover, Penicillium polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthase genes were either not expressed or down-regulated. Among the highly responsive genes, two putative α-1,3 endoglucanase (mutanase) genes viz Pc12g07500 and Pc12g13330 were upregulated by more than 15-fold and 8-fold, respectively. Measurement of enzyme activity in the supernatant of mixed culture confirmed that the co-cultivation with B. subtilis induced mutanase production. Mutanase activity was neither observed in pure cultures of P. chrysogenum or B. subtilis, nor during exposure of P. chrysogenum to B. subtilis culture supernatants or heat-inactivated B. subtilis cells. However, mutanase production was observed in cultures of P. chrysogenum exposed to filter-sterilized supernatants

  6. Deletion of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals its crucial role in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Jenna; Chung, Daehwan; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-09

    Background: Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms described to date, and have the ability to grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. Different species vary in their abilities to degrade cellulose, and the presence of CelA, a bifunctional glycoside hydrolase that contains a Family 48 and a Family 9 catalytic domain, correlates well with cellulolytic ability in members of this genus. For example, C. hydrothermalis, which does not contain a CelA homolog, or a GH48 Family or GH9 Family glycoside hydrolase, is the least cellulolytic of the Caldicellulosiruptor species so far described. C. bescii, which contains CelA and expresses it constitutively, is among the most cellulolytic. In fact, CelA is the most abundant extracellular protein produced in C. bescii. The enzyme contains two catalytic units, a Family 9A-CBM3c processive endoglucanase and a Family 48 exoglucanase, joined by two Family 3b carbohydrate-binding domains. Although there are two non-reducing end-specific Family 9 and three reducing end-specific Family 48 glycoside hydrolases (producing primarily glucose and cellobiose; and cellobiose and cellotriose, respectively) in C. bescii, CelA is the only protein that combines both enzymatic activities. Results: A deletion of the celA gene resulted in a dramatic reduction in the microorganism’s ability to grow on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and diminished growth on lignocellulosic biomass. A comparison of the overall endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities of the mutant compared with the wild-type suggests that the loss of the endoglucanase activity provided by the GH9 family domain is perhaps compensated for by other enzymes produced by the cell. In contrast, it appears that no other enzymes in the C. bescii secretome can compensate for the loss of exoglucanase activity. The change in enzymatic activity in the celA mutant resulted in a 15-fold decrease in sugar

  7. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Results Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. Conclusion The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw. PMID:24766728

  8. Deletion of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals its crucial role in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Young, Jenna; Chung, Daehwan; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-09

    Background: Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms described to date, and have the ability to grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. Different species vary in their abilities to degrade cellulose, and the presence of CelA, a bifunctional glycoside hydrolase that contains a Family 48 and a Family 9 catalytic domain, correlates well with cellulolytic ability in members of this genus. For example, C. hydrothermalis, which does not contain a CelA homolog, or a GH48 Family or GH9 Family glycoside hydrolase, is the least cellulolytic of the Caldicellulosiruptor species so far described. C. bescii,more » which contains CelA and expresses it constitutively, is among the most cellulolytic. In fact, CelA is the most abundant extracellular protein produced in C. bescii. The enzyme contains two catalytic units, a Family 9A-CBM3c processive endoglucanase and a Family 48 exoglucanase, joined by two Family 3b carbohydrate-binding domains. Although there are two non-reducing end-specific Family 9 and three reducing end-specific Family 48 glycoside hydrolases (producing primarily glucose and cellobiose; and cellobiose and cellotriose, respectively) in C. bescii, CelA is the only protein that combines both enzymatic activities. Results: A deletion of the celA gene resulted in a dramatic reduction in the microorganism’s ability to grow on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and diminished growth on lignocellulosic biomass. A comparison of the overall endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities of the mutant compared with the wild-type suggests that the loss of the endoglucanase activity provided by the GH9 family domain is perhaps compensated for by other enzymes produced by the cell. In contrast, it appears that no other enzymes in the C. bescii secretome can compensate for the loss of exoglucanase activity. The change in enzymatic activity in the celA mutant resulted in a 15-fold decrease in

  9. Expression, immobilization and enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylase fused to a cellulose-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyemin; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Juwhan; Lee, Hyeokwon; Kim, Chunsuk; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was fused to the cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and a linker of Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase II. To prevent proteolysis of the fusion protein, the native linker was replaced with a S(3)N(10) peptide known to be completely resistant to E. coli endopeptidase. The CBD-GAD expressed in E. coli was successfully immobilized on Avicel, a crystalline cellulose, with binding capacity of 33 ± 2 nmol(CBD-GAD)/g(Avicel) and the immobilized enzymes retained 60% of their initial activities after 10 uses. The results of this report provide a feasible alternative to produce GABA using immobilized GAD through fusion to CBD. PMID:22312257

  10. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    PubMed

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. PMID:23073093

  11. Morphogenesis and Production of Enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in Response to Different Carbon Sources

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn; dos Reis, Laísa; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β-glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol. PMID:24877074

  12. Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

    2010-12-15

    This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

  13. “Newton’s cradle” proton relay with amide–imidic acid tautomerization in inverting cellulase visualized by neutron crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Ishida, Takuya; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Yamada, Taro; Fushinobu, Shinya; Tanaka, Ichiro; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ohta, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Inaka, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Niimura, Nobuo; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolysis of carbohydrates is a major bioreaction in nature, catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GHs). We used neutron diffraction and high-resolution x-ray diffraction analyses to investigate the hydrogen bond network in inverting cellulase PcCel45A, which is an endoglucanase belonging to subfamily C of GH family 45, isolated from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Examination of the enzyme and enzyme-ligand structures indicates a key role of multiple tautomerizations of asparagine residues and peptide bonds, which are finally connected to the other catalytic residue via typical side-chain hydrogen bonds, in forming the “Newton’s cradle”–like proton relay pathway of the catalytic cycle. Amide–imidic acid tautomerization of asparagine has not been taken into account in recent molecular dynamics simulations of not only cellulases but also general enzyme catalysis, and it may be necessary to reconsider our interpretation of many enzymatic reactions. PMID:26601228

  14. Limitations of the NNS assay for reducing sugars from saccharified lignocellulosics. [Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, D.B.; Gracheck, S.J.; Woodford, L.C.; Emert, G.H.

    1984-07-01

    An evaluation is presented of two DNS (2,4-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay procedures as well as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and YSI Glucose Analyzer analyses of sugars resulting from enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosics. Trichoderma reesei was used to produce the cellulase system containing endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and cellobiase. Data suggest that the DNS assay can be used as an accurate analytical method for the evaluation of reducing sugars in pure solution as well as in supernatants from enzymatic saccharification if glucose is the sole product. However, only specific assay methods such as HPLC and YSI-type glucose analyzers should be used for the analysis of saccharides produced from the hydrolysis of native or pretreated lignocellulosics since the DNS assay is susceptible to interferences and therefore results in inaccurate analyses.

  15. Orpinomyces cellulase CelE protein and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-29

    A CDNA designated celE cloned from Orpinomyces PC-2 encodes a polypeptide (CelE) of 477 amino acids. CelE is highly homologous to CelB of Orpinomyces (72.3% identity) and Neocallimastix (67.9% identity), and like them, it has a non-catalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) at the C-terminal end. The catalytic domain of CelE is homologous to glycosyl hydrolases of Family 5, found in several anaerobic bacteria. The gene of celE is devoid of introns. The recombinant proteins CelE and CelB of Orpinomyces PC-2 randomly hydrolyze carboxymethylcellulose and cello-oligosaccharides in the pattern of endoglucanases.

  16. Morphogenesis and production of enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in response to different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn; dos Reis, Laísa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β -glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol. PMID:24877074

  17. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P J; Stanley, April M

    2015-03-01

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of β-endoglucanase with specificity towards schizophyllan. Concentrated enzyme preparations from these strains showed specific activities of 1.7-4.3 U β-glucanase/mg protein. Using dilutions of these enzymes in time course digestions, schizophyllan was progressively modified to reduced molecular weight species. Glucose and oligosaccharides were found only in the more complete digestions, and thus modified schizophyllan can be produced quantitatively, without loss, to small molecules. Permethylation analysis confirmed that modified schizophyllan retains the fundamental linkage structure of native schizophyllan. Modified schizophyllan species showed progressively reduced viscosity profiles, and all exhibited pseudoplasticity in response to shear thinning. PMID:25335747

  18. Rational approach to optimize cellulase mixtures for hydrolysis of regenerated cellulose containing residual ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Engel, Philip; Krull, Susan; Seiferheld, Bianca; Spiess, Antje C

    2012-07-01

    For the efficient production of glucose for platform chemicals or biofuels, cellulosic biomass is pretreated and subsequently hydrolyzed with cellulases. Although ionic liquids (IL) are known to effectively pretreat cellulosic biomass, the hydrolysis of IL pretreated biomass has not been optimized so far. Here, we present a semi-empirical model to rationally optimize the hydrolysis of pretreated α-cellulose - regenerated from IL and containing residual IL from the pretreatment. First, the influence of the IL MMIM DMP on the individual cellulases endoglucanase I, cellobiohydrolase I and β-glucosidase was investigated. Second, an enzyme loading-dependent model was developed to describe kinetics for the individual cellulases and cellulase mixtures. Third, this model was used to optimize the cellulase mixture for the efficient hydrolysis of regenerated cellulose containing residual IL. Finally, we could significantly increase the initial hydrolysis rate in 10% (v/v) MMIM DMP by 49% and the sugar yield by 10% points. PMID:22100231

  19. Cellulases: Classification, Methods of Determination and Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amita; Tewari, Rupinder; Rana, Susheel Singh; Soni, Raman; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Microbial cellulases have been receiving worldwide attention, as they have enormous potential to process the most abundant cellulosic biomass on this planet and transform it into sustainable biofuels and other value added products. The synergistic action of endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases is required for the depolymerization of cellulose to fermentable sugars for transformation in to useful products using suitable microorganisms. The lack of a better understanding of the mechanisms of individual cellulases and their synergistic actions is the major hurdles yet to be overcome for large-scale commercial applications of cellulases. We have reviewed various microbial cellulases with a focus on their classification with mechanistic aspects of cellulase hydrolytic action, insights into novel approaches for determining cellulase activity, and potential industrial applications of cellulases. PMID:27068832

  20. Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2013-01-01

    Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose accumulation. In this review, we discuss the important role beta-glucosidases play in complex biomass hydrolysis and how they create a bottleneck in industrial use of lignocellulosic materials. An efficient beta-glucosidase facilitates hydrolysis at specified process conditions, and key points to consider in this respect are hydrolysis rate, inhibitors, and stability. Product inhibition impairing yields, thermal inactivation of enzymes, and the high cost of enzyme production are the main obstacles to commercial cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, this sets the stage in the search for better alternatives to the currently available enzyme preparations either by improving known or screening for new beta-glucosidases. PMID:24970184

  1. Enhanced production and application of acidothermophilic Streptomyces cellulase.

    PubMed

    Budihal, Saikumar R; Agsar, Dayanand; Patil, Sarvamangala R

    2016-01-01

    An efficient cellulolytic and acidothermophilic actinobacterium was isolated from soil, adhered to decomposing tree bark and was identified as Streptomyces DSK59. Screening of synthetic media and the media components identified that, a medium based on starch casein minerals containing carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and beef extract (BE) could support enhanced cellulase production by the organism. CMC, BE, NaCl, temperature and pH were accounted as significant for cellulase production and these were optimized using a response surface central composite design (CCD). Optimization of cellulase production resulted in an enhancement of endoglucanase activity to 27IUml(-1). Acidothermophillic Streptomyces cellulase was found to be efficient for hydrolysis of pretreated sorghum stover and liberated 0.413gg(-1) of total reducing sugars which was higher than previously reported sugar yields obtained using fungal enzymes. PMID:26556405

  2. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    PubMed

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. PMID:25846188

  3. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus species on lignocellulosic wastes using novel pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K; Singh, V K

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation three species of Pleurotus i.e. P. sajor—caju (P1), P. florida (P2) and P. flabellatus (P3) along with two lignocellulosic substrates namely paddy straw and wheat straw were selected for evaluation of production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes. During the cultivation of three species of Pleurotus under in vivo condition, the two lignocellulosic substrates were treated with plants extracts (aqueous extracts of ashoka leaves (A) and neem oil (B)), hot water (H) and chemicals (C).Among all treatments, neem oil treated substrates supported better enzyme production followed by aqueous extract of ashoka leaves, hot water and chemical treatment. Between the two substrates paddy straw supported better enzyme production than wheat straw. P. flabellatus showed maximum activity of exoglucanase, endoglucanase and β—glucosidase followed by P. florida and P. sajor—caju. PMID:25535714

  4. Quantitative estimate of the effect of cellulase components during degradation of cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Shan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Yang, Hong; Gao, Pei-Ji

    2004-03-15

    A comprehensive mechanistic kinetic model for enzymatic degradation of cotton fibers has been established based on a complete factorial experiment in combination with multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The analysis of the statistical parameter value in the model suggests that the enzymatic degradation of cotton fiber is a progressive and heterogeneous process that includes, at least, two courses that occur sequentially and then progress in parallel. Cellulose fibers were first depolymerized or solubilized by the synergism between cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) and endoglucanase I (EGI), and then the oligomers obtained were randomly hydrolyzed into glucose by EGI and beta-glucosidase. The proposed model can be applied to the quantitative estimation of the effects of three cellulase components, CBHI, EGI, and beta-glucosidase separately, or in combination during the entire process of cellulose degradation. The validity of the proposed model has been verified by a filter paper activity assay. Its other applicability was also discussed. PMID:14980825

  5. Recombinant cellulase accumulation in the leaves of mature, vegetatively propagated transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, R Jason; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Palupe, Anthony; Sainz, Manuel B; Dale, James L

    2014-09-01

    The cost of enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars needs to be reduced to make cellulosic ethanol a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and the successful integration of cellulase transgenes into the sugarcane production system requires that transgene expression is stable in the ratoon. Herein, we compared the accumulation of recombinant fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), fungal cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II), and bacterial endoglucanase (EG) in the leaves of mature, initial transgenic sugarcane plants and their mature ratoon. Mature ratoon events containing equivalent or elevated levels of active CBH I, CBH II, and EG in the leaves were identified. Further, we have demonstrated that recombinant fungal CBH I and CBH II can resist proteolysis during sugarcane leaf senescence, while bacterial EG cannot. These results demonstrate the stability of cellulase enzyme transgene expression in transgenic sugarcane and the utility of sugarcane as a biofactory crop for production of cellulases. PMID:24793894

  6. Cellulase: A key enzyme for fermentation stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Eveleigh, D.E.; Macmillan, J.D.

    1990-03-15

    A thermophilic actinomycete Microbispora bispora was selected from many thermophilic actinomycetes as it that gave good yields of a stable, cellulase and its {beta}-glucosidase was resistant to end- product inhibition. The cellulase is comprised of endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and cellobiases that act synergistically. These components have been characterized to differing degrees. The initial cloning of the cellobiase and cellobiohydrolase have been also accomplished. We now propose to further characterize the cellobiohydrolase and the cellobiase with the longer term objective of being able to predict optimal proportions of these components which will result in optimal cellulolysis. The original goals of characterization of the M. bispora cellulase, developing methods to gain secretion, and the application of monoclonal antibodies to screening and for affinity purification of cellobiohydrolase have been accomplished.

  7. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Sakata, M.; Harano, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of surfactants on enzymatic saccharification of cellulose have been studied. Nonionic, amphoteric, and cationic surfactants enhanced the saccharification, while anionic surfactant did not. Cationic and anionic surfactants denatured cellulase in their relatively low concentrations, namely, more than 0.008 and 0.001%, respectively. Using nonionic surfactant Tween 20, which is most effective to the enhancement (e.g., the fractional conversion attained by 72 h saccharification of 5 wt % Avicel in the presence of 0.05 wt % Tween 20 is increased by 35%), actions of surfactant have been examined. As the results, it was suggested that Tween 20 plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and that Tween 20 disturbs the adsorption of endoglucanase on cellulose, i.e., varies the adsorption balance of endo- and exoglucanase, resulting in enhancing the reaction. The influence of Tween 20 to the saccharification was found to remain in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Avicel.

  8. Construction of Thermophilic Xylanase and Its Structural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Fukada, Harumi; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanase has been utilized in a wide variety of industrial applications, from food processing to kraft pulp bleaching. Thermostability enhances the economic value of industrial enzymes by making them more robust. Recently, we determined the crystal structure of an endo-β-1,4-xylanase (GH11) from mesophilic Talaromyces cellulolyticus, named XylC. Ligand-free XylC exists to two conformations (open and closed forms). We found that the "closed" structure possessed an unstable region within the N-terminal region far from the active site. In this study, we designed the thermostable xylanase by the structure-based site-directed mutagenesis on the N-terminal region. In total, nine mutations (S35C, N44H, Y61M, T62C, N63L, D65P, N66G, T101P, and S102N) and an introduced disulfide bond of the enzyme contributed to the improvement in thermostability. By combining the mutations, we succeeded in constructing a mutant for which the melting temperature was partially additively increased by >20 °C (measured by differential scanning calorimetry) and the activity was additively enhanced at elevated temperatures, without loss of the original specific activity. The crystal structure of the most thermostable mutant was determined at 2.0 Å resolution to elucidate the structural basis of thermostability. From the crystal structure of the mutant, it was revealed that the formation of a disulfide bond induces new C-C contacts and a conformational change in the N-terminus. The resulting induced conformational change in the N-terminus is key for stabilizing this region and for constructing thermostable mutants without compromising the activity. PMID:27410423

  9. Synergism of Glycoside Hydrolase Secretomes from Two Thermophilic Bacteria Cocultivated on Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kundi; Chen, Xiaohua; Schwarz, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Two cellulolytic thermophilic bacterial strains, CS-3-2 and CS-4-4, were isolated from decayed cornstalk by the addition of growth-supporting factors to the medium. According to 16S rRNA gene-sequencing results, these strains belonged to the genus Clostridium and showed 98.87% and 98.86% identity with Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum ATCC 35414T and Clostridium cellulosi AS 1.1777T, respectively. The endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities of strain CS-4-4 were approximately 3 to 5 times those of strain CS-3-2, whereas the β-glucosidase activity of strain CS-3-2 was 18 times higher than that of strain CS-4-4. The xylanase activity of strain CS-3-2 was 9 times that of strain CS-4-4, whereas the β-xylosidase activity of strain CS-4-4 was 27 times that of strain CS-3-2. The enzyme activities in spent cultures following cocultivation of the two strains with cornstalk as the substrate were much greater than those in pure cultures or an artificial mixture of samples, indicating synergism of glycoside hydrolase secretomes between the two strains. Quantitative measurement of the two strains in the cocultivation system indicated that strain CS-3-2 grew robustly during the initial stages, whereas strain CS-4-4 dominated the system in the late-exponential phase. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of protein bands appearing in the native zymograms showed that ORF3880 and ORF3883 from strain CS-4-4 played key roles in the lignocellulose degradation process. Both these open reading frames (ORFs) exhibited endoglucanase and xylanase activities, but ORF3880 showed tighter adhesion to insoluble substrates at 4, 25, and 60°C owing to its five carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). PMID:24532065

  10. Recyclable thermoresponsive polymer-cellulase bioconjugates for biomass depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Katherine J; Francis, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which the LCST was adjusted through small-molecule quenching. This allowed materials with LCSTs ranging from 20.9 to 60.5 °C to be readily obtained after polymerization. The thermostable endoglucanase EGPh from the hypothermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii was transaminated with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate to produce a ketone-bearing protein, which was then site-selectively modified through oxime linkage with benzylalkoxyamine or 5 kDa-poly(ethylene glycol)-alkoxyamine. These modified proteins showed activity comparable to the controls when assayed on an insoluble cellulosic substrate. Two polymer bioconjugates were then constructed using transaminated EGPh and the aminooxy-bearing copolymers. After 12 h, both bioconjugates produced an equivalent amount of free reducing sugars as the unmodified control using insoluble cellulose as a substrate. The recycling ability of the NIPAm copolymer-EGPh conjugate was determined through three rounds of activity, maintaining over 60% activity after two cycles of reuse and affording significantly more soluble carbohydrates than unmodified enzyme alone. When assayed on acid-pretreated Miscanthus, this bioconjugate increased the amount of reducing sugars by 2.8-fold over three rounds of activity. The synthetic strategy of this bioconjugate allows the LCST of the material to be changed readily from a common stock of copolymer and the method of attachment is applicable to a variety of proteins, enabling the same approach to be amenable to thermophile

  11. Extracellular enzyme activities during lignocellulose degradation by Streptomyces spp. : a comparative study of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandra, M.; Crawford, D.L.; Pometto, A.L. III

    1987-12-01

    The wild-type ligninolytic actinomycete Streptomyces viridosporus T7A and two genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produce a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate, an acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), were grown on lignocellulose in solid-state fermentation cultures. Culture filtrates were periodically collected, analyzed for APPL, and assayed for extracellular lignocellulose-catabolizing enzyme activities. Two APPL-overproducing strains, UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10, had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activities than did the wild-type strain T7A. Results implicated one or more of these enzymes in lignin solubilization. Only mutant T7A-81 had higher xylanase activity than the wild type. The peroxidase was induced by both lignocellulose and APPL. This extracellular enzyme has some similarities to previously described ligninases in fungi. This is the first report of such an enzyme in Streptomyces spp. Four peroxidase isozymes were present, and all catalyzed the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, while one also catalyzed hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation of homoprotocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. Three constitutive esterase isozymes were produced which differed in substrate specificity toward ..cap alpha..-naphthyl acetate and ..cap alpha..-naphthyl butyrate. Three endoglucanase bands, which also exhibited a low level of xylanase activity, were identified on polyacrylamide gels as was one xylanase-specific band. There were no major differences in the isoenzymes produced by the different strains. The probable role of each enzyme in lignocellulose degradation is discussed.

  12. Recyclable Thermoresponsive Polymer-Cellulase Bioconjugates for Biomass Depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Katherine J.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which the LCST was adjusted through small-molecule quenching. This allowed materials with LCSTs ranging from 20.9 °C to 60.5 °C to be readily obtained after polymerization. The thermostable endoglucanase EGPh from the hypothermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii was transaminated with pyridoxal-5’-phosphate to produce a ketone-bearing protein, which was then site-selectively modified through oxime linkage with benzylalkoxyamine or 5 kDa-poly(ethylene glycol)-alkoxyamine. These modified proteins showed activity comparable to the controls when assayed on an insoluble cellulosic substrate. Two polymer bioconjugates were then constructed using transaminated EGPh and the aminooxy-bearing copolymers. After twelve hours, both bioconjugates produced an equivalent amount of free reducing sugars as the unmodified control using insoluble cellulose as a substrate. The recycling ability of the NIPAm copolymer-EGPh conjugate was determined through three rounds of activity, maintaining over 60% activity after two cycles of reuse and affording significantly more soluble carbohydrates than unmodified enzyme alone. When assayed on acid-pretreated Miscanthus, this bioconjugate increased the amount of reducing sugars by 2.8-fold over three rounds of activity. The synthetic strategy of this bioconjugate allows the LCST of the material to be changed readily from a common stock of copolymer and the method of attachment is applicable to a variety of proteins, enabling the same approach to be amenable to

  13. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Improving cell wall digestion and animal performance with fibrolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Adesogan, A T; Ma, Z X; Romero, J J; Arriola, K G

    2014-04-01

    This paper aimed to summarize published responses to treatment of cattle diets with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE), to discuss reasons for variable EFE efficacy in animal trials, to recommend strategies for improving enzyme testing and EFE efficacy in ruminant diets, and to identify proteomic differences between effective and ineffective EFE. A meta-analysis of 20 dairy cow studies with 30 experiments revealed that only a few increased lactational performance and the response was inconsistent. This variability is attributable to several enzyme, feed, animal, and management factors that were discussed in this paper. The variability reflects our limited understanding of the synergistic and sequential interactions between exogenous glycosyl hydrolases, autochthonous ruminal microbes, and endogenous fibrolytic enzymes that are necessary to optimize ruminal fiber digestion. An added complication is that many of the standard methods of assaying EFE activities may over- or underestimate their potential effects because they are based on pure substrate saccharification and do not simulate ruminal conditions. Our recent evaluation of 18 commercial EFE showed that 78 and 83% of them exhibited optimal endoglucanase and xylanase activities, respectively, at 50 °C, and 77 and 61% had optimal activities at pH 4 to 5, respectively, indicating that most would likely act suboptimally in the rumen. Of the many fibrolytic activities that act synergistically to degrade forage fiber, the few usually assayed, typically endoglucanase and xylanase, cannot hydrolyze the recalcitrant phenolic acid-lignin linkages that are the main constraints to ruminal fiber degradation. These factors highlight the futility of random addition of EFE to diets. This paper discusses reasons for the variable animal responses to dietary addition of fibrolytic enzymes, advances explanations for the inconsistency, suggests a strategy to improve enzyme efficacy in ruminant diets, and describes differences

  14. Computational evaluation of the dynamic fluctuations of peripheral loops enclosing the catalytic tunnel of a family 7 cellobiohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Granum, David M; Schutt, Timothy C; Maupin, C Mark

    2014-05-22

    The size and character of the peripheral loops enclosing the active site for cellulase enzymes is believed to play a major role in dictating many critical enzymatic properties. For many cellulases it is observed that fully enclosed active sites forming a tunnel are more conducive to cellobiohydrolase activity and the ability to processively move along the substrate. Conversely, a more open active site groove is indicative of endoglucanase activity. For both cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, the loop regions have been implicated in the ability of the enzyme to bind substrate, influence the pKa of active site residues, modulate the catalytic activity, and influence thermal stability. Reported here are constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations that investigate the role of dynamic fluctuations, substrate interactions, and residue pKa values for the peripheral loops enclosing the active site of the cellobiohydrolase Melanocarpus albomyces Cel7B. Two highly flexible loop regions in the free enzyme have been identified, which impact the overall dynamical motions of the enzyme. Charge interactions between Asp198 and Asp367, which reside on two adjacent loops, were found to influence the overall loop conformations and dynamics. In the presence of a substrate the protonation of Asp367, Asp198, and Tyr370 were found to stabilize substrate binding and control the movement of two peripheral loops onto the active site containing the substrate (i.e., clamping down). The substrate-induced response of the loop regions secures the cellulose polymer in the catalytic tunnel and creates an environment that is conducive to hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond. PMID:24669967

  15. Enzymatic process of rice bran: a stabilized functional food with nutraceuticals and nutrients.

    PubMed

    S Vallabha, Vishwanath; Indira, T N; Jyothi Lakshmi, A; Radha, C; Tiku, Purnima Kaul

    2015-12-01

    Rice bran (RB), a byproduct of rice milling industry, is a rich source of nutraceuticals and nutrients. However its utility is limited due to the presence of lipase and lipoxygenase which initiates rancidity on milling. The aim of this investigation is to prevent oxidation of free fatty acids by enzymatic approach for its effective utilization. The enzymatic treatment comprised of alcalase treatment for complete inactivation of lipase along with reduction in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and endoglucanase for improving the soluble fiber content. The enzyme treated rice bran was drum dried for further use. The nutraceutical molecules like γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and polyphenols were retained in the range of 68 to 110 % and the total antioxidant activity was improved. By the action of endoglucanase the complex carbohydrate was converted into glucose (72.28 %), cellobiose (18.36 %) and cellotriose (9.36 %). The prebiotic effect of enzyme treated rice bran was evaluated by the action of lactobacillus which was measured through the release of the short chain free fatty acids (SCFAs) analyzed by HPLC. The SCFAs; acetic acid and propionic acid increased by 1.72 folds and 2.12 folds respectively. B-complex vitamins showed maximum retention with vitamins like B1 (66.3 %), B2 (68.3 %) and B3 (55.0 %) after enzyme treatment. At different humidity levels, storage studies showed no change in LOX activity and also retained ubiquinol-10 in reduced state in enzyme treated RB for a period of 3 months. A stabilized RB has been developed enriched with short chain prebiotics and antioxidant molecules. PMID:26604401

  16. Fast and reliable production, purification and characterization of heat-stable, bifunctional enzyme chimeras.

    PubMed

    Neddersen, Mara; Elleuche, Skander

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of complex plant biomass demands a fine-regulated portfolio of glycoside hydrolases. The LE (LguI/Eco81I)-cloning approach was used to produce two enzyme chimeras CB and BC composed of an endoglucanase Cel5A (C) from the extreme thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium gondwanense and an archaeal β-glucosidase Bgl1 (B) derived from a hydrothermal spring metagenome. Recombinant chimeras and parental enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step affinity chromatography approach. Enzymatic properties revealed that both chimeras closely resemble the parental enzymes and physical mixtures, but Cel5A displayed lower temperature tolerance at 100°C when fused to Bgl1 independent of the conformational order. Moreover, the determination of enzymatic performances resulted in the detection of additive effects in case of BC fusion chimera. Kinetic measurements in combination with HPLC-mediated product analyses and site-directed mutation constructs indicated that Cel5A was strongly impaired when fused at the N-terminus, while activity was reduced to a slighter extend as C-terminal fusion partner. In contrast to these results, catalytic activity of Bgl1 at the N-terminus was improved 1.2-fold, effectively counteracting the slightly reduced activity of Cel5A by converting cellobiose into glucose. In addition, cellobiose exhibited inhibitory effects on Cel5A, resulting in a higher yield of cellobiose and glucose by application of an enzyme mixture (53.1%) compared to cellobiose produced from endoglucanase alone (10.9%). However, the overall release of cellobiose and glucose was even increased by catalytic action of BC (59.2%). These results indicate possible advantages of easily produced bifunctional fusion enzymes for the improved conversion of complex polysaccharide plant materials. PMID:26054736

  17. Cellulose hydrolysis and binding with Trichoderma reesei Cel5A and Cel7A and their core domains in ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Ronny; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Suurnäkki, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) dissolve lignocellulosic biomass and have a high potential as pretreatment prior to total enzymatic hydrolysis. ILs are, however, known to inactivate cellulases. In this article, enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and enzyme binding onto the cellulosic substrate were studied in the presence of cellulose-dissolving ILs. Two different ILs, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([DMIM]DMP) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]AcO), and two monocomponent cellulases, Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase Cel7A and endoglucanase Cel5A, were used in the study. The role and IL sensitivity of the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) were studied by performing hydrolysis and binding experiments with both the intact cellulases, and their respective core domains (CDs). Based on hydrolysis yields and substrate binding experiments for the intact enzymes and their CDs in the presence of ILs, the function of the CBM appeared to be very IL sensitive. Binding data suggested that the CBM was more important for the substrate binding of endoglucanase Cel5A than for the binding of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A. The CD of Cel7A was able to bind well to cellulose even without a CBM, whereas Cel5A CD had very low binding affinity. Hydrolysis also occurred with Cel5A CD even if this protein had very low binding affinity in all the studied matrices. Binding and hydrolysis were less affected by the studied ILs for Cel7A than for Cel5A. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of IL effects on cellulase substrate binding. PMID:24258388

  18. Synergism of glycoside hydrolase secretomes from two thermophilic bacteria cocultivated on lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kundi; Chen, Xiaohua; Schwarz, Wolfgang H; Li, Fuli

    2014-04-01

    Two cellulolytic thermophilic bacterial strains, CS-3-2 and CS-4-4, were isolated from decayed cornstalk by the addition of growth-supporting factors to the medium. According to 16S rRNA gene-sequencing results, these strains belonged to the genus Clostridium and showed 98.87% and 98.86% identity with Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum ATCC 35414(T) and Clostridium cellulosi AS 1.1777(T), respectively. The endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities of strain CS-4-4 were approximately 3 to 5 times those of strain CS-3-2, whereas the β-glucosidase activity of strain CS-3-2 was 18 times higher than that of strain CS-4-4. The xylanase activity of strain CS-3-2 was 9 times that of strain CS-4-4, whereas the β-xylosidase activity of strain CS-4-4 was 27 times that of strain CS-3-2. The enzyme activities in spent cultures following cocultivation of the two strains with cornstalk as the substrate were much greater than those in pure cultures or an artificial mixture of samples, indicating synergism of glycoside hydrolase secretomes between the two strains. Quantitative measurement of the two strains in the cocultivation system indicated that strain CS-3-2 grew robustly during the initial stages, whereas strain CS-4-4 dominated the system in the late-exponential phase. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of protein bands appearing in the native zymograms showed that ORF3880 and ORF3883 from strain CS-4-4 played key roles in the lignocellulose degradation process. Both these open reading frames (ORFs) exhibited endoglucanase and xylanase activities, but ORF3880 showed tighter adhesion to insoluble substrates at 4, 25, and 60°C owing to its five carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). PMID:24532065

  19. Cel5I, a SLH-Containing Glycoside Hydrolase: Characterization and Investigation on Its Role in Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum.

    PubMed

    Franche, Nathalie; Tardif, Chantal; Ravachol, Julie; Harchouni, Seddik; Ferdinand, Pierre-Henri; Borne, Romain; Fierobe, Henri-Pierre; Perret, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum (Clostridium cellulolyticum) is a mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium that produces a multi-enzymatic system composed of cellulosomes and non-cellulosomal enzymes to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. We characterized one of the non-cellulosomal enzymes, Cel5I, composed of a Family-5 Glycoside Hydrolase catalytic module (GH5), a tandem of Family-17 and -28 Carbohydrate Binding Modules (CBM), and three S-layer homologous (SLH) modules, where the latter are expected to anchor the protein on the cell surface. Cel5I is the only putative endoglucanase targeting the cell surface as well as the only putative protein in R. cellulolyticum containing CBM17 and/or CBM28 modules. We characterized different recombinant structural variants from Cel5I. We showed that Cel5I has an affinity for insoluble cellulosic substrates through its CBMs, that it is the most active endoglucanase on crystalline cellulose of R. cellulolyticum characterized to date and mostly localized in the cell envelope of R. cellulolyticum. Its role in vivo was analyzed using a R. cellulolyticum cel5I mutant strain. Absence of Cel5I in the cell envelope did not lead to a significant variation of the phenotype compared to the wild type strain. Neither in terms of cell binding to cellulose, nor for its growth on crystalline cellulose, thus indicating that the protein has a rather subtle role in tested conditions. Cel5I might be more important in a natural environment, at low concentration of degradable glucose polymers, where its role might be to generate higher concentration of short cellodextrins close to the cell surface, facilitating their uptake or for signalization purpose. PMID:27501457

  20. Metagenomic insights into the fibrolytic microbiome in yak rumen.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xin; Zhu, Yaxin; Luo, Yingfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Di; Liu, Li; Chen, Furong; Wang, Min; Li, Jiabao; Zeng, Xiaowei; Dong, Zhiyang; Hu, Songnian; Li, Lingyan; Xu, Jian; Huang, Li; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2012-01-01

    The rumen hosts one of the most efficient microbial systems for degrading plant cell walls, yet the predominant cellulolytic proteins and fibrolytic mechanism(s) remain elusive. Here we investigated the cellulolytic microbiome of the yak rumen by using a combination of metagenome-based and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based functional screening approaches. Totally 223 fibrolytic BAC clones were pyrosequenced and 10,070 ORFs were identified. Among them 150 were annotated as the glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes for fibrolytic proteins, and the majority (69%) of them were clustered or linked with genes encoding related functions. Among the 35 fibrolytic contigs of >10 Kb in length, 25 were derived from Bacteroidetes and four from Firmicutes. Coverage analysis indicated that the fibrolytic genes on most Bacteroidetes-contigs were abundantly represented in the metagenomic sequences, and they were frequently linked with genes encoding SusC/SusD-type outer-membrane proteins. GH5, GH9, and GH10 cellulase/hemicellulase genes were predominant, but no GH48 exocellulase gene was found. Most (85%) of the cellulase and hemicellulase proteins possessed a signal peptide; only a few carried carbohydrate-binding modules, and no cellulosomal domains were detected. These findings suggest that the SucC/SucD-involving mechanism, instead of one based on cellulosomes or the free-enzyme system, serves a major role in lignocellulose degradation in yak rumen. Genes encoding an endoglucanase of a novel GH5 subfamily occurred frequently in the metagenome, and the recombinant proteins encoded by the genes displayed moderate Avicelase in addition to endoglucanase activities, suggesting their important contribution to lignocellulose degradation in the exocellulase-scarce rumen. PMID:22808161

  1. Metagenomic Insights into the Fibrolytic Microbiome in Yak Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lei; Liu, Di; Liu, Li; Chen, Furong; Wang, Min; Li, Jiabao; Zeng, Xiaowei; Dong, Zhiyang; Hu, Songnian; Li, Lingyan; Xu, Jian; Huang, Li; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2012-01-01

    The rumen hosts one of the most efficient microbial systems for degrading plant cell walls, yet the predominant cellulolytic proteins and fibrolytic mechanism(s) remain elusive. Here we investigated the cellulolytic microbiome of the yak rumen by using a combination of metagenome-based and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based functional screening approaches. Totally 223 fibrolytic BAC clones were pyrosequenced and 10,070 ORFs were identified. Among them 150 were annotated as the glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes for fibrolytic proteins, and the majority (69%) of them were clustered or linked with genes encoding related functions. Among the 35 fibrolytic contigs of >10 Kb in length, 25 were derived from Bacteroidetes and four from Firmicutes. Coverage analysis indicated that the fibrolytic genes on most Bacteroidetes-contigs were abundantly represented in the metagenomic sequences, and they were frequently linked with genes encoding SusC/SusD-type outer-membrane proteins. GH5, GH9, and GH10 cellulase/hemicellulase genes were predominant, but no GH48 exocellulase gene was found. Most (85%) of the cellulase and hemicellulase proteins possessed a signal peptide; only a few carried carbohydrate-binding modules, and no cellulosomal domains were detected. These findings suggest that the SucC/SucD-involving mechanism, instead of one based on cellulosomes or the free-enzyme system, serves a major role in lignocellulose degradation in yak rumen. Genes encoding an endoglucanase of a novel GH5 subfamily occurred frequently in the metagenome, and the recombinant proteins encoded by the genes displayed moderate Avicelase in addition to endoglucanase activities, suggesting their important contribution to lignocellulose degradation in the exocellulase-scarce rumen. PMID:22808161

  2. Synergistic Effect of Simple Sugars and Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Production of a Cellulolytic Cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 and Enzyme Activity Characterization.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Adriana P; Pisa, José H; Valdeón, Daniel H; Perotti, Nora I; Martínez, María A

    2016-04-01

    A cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from pulp and paper feedstock, Bacillus sp. AR03, was evaluated by means of a factorial design showing that peptone and carbohydrates were the main variables affecting enzyme production. Simple sugars, individually and combined with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were further examined for their influence on cellulase production by strain AR03. Most of the mono and disaccharides assayed presented a synergistic effect with CMC. As a result, a peptone-based broth supplemented with 10 g/L sucrose and 10 g/L CMC maximized enzyme production after 96 h of cultivation. This medium was used to produce endoglucanases in a 1-L stirred tank reactor in batch mode at 30 °C, which reduced the fermentation period to 48 h and reaching 3.12 ± 0.02 IU/mL of enzyme activity. Bacillus sp. AR03 endoglucanases showed an optimum temperature of 60 °C and a pH of 6.0 with a wide range of pH stability. Furthermore, presence of 10 mM Mn(2+) and 5 mM Co(2+) produced an increase of enzyme activity (246.7 and 183.7 %, respectively), and remarkable tolerance to NaCl, Tween 80, and EDTA was also observed. According to our results, the properties of the cellulolytic cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 offer promising features in view of potential biorefinery applications. PMID:26797928

  3. Effect of nickel-cobaltite nanoparticles on production and thermostability of cellulases from newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus NS (class: Eurotiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neha; Rawat, Rekha; Sharma, Reetika; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Srivastava, Manish; Singh, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, effect of nickel-cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated on production and thermostability of the cellulase enzyme system using newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus NS belonging to the class Euratiomycetes. The NiCo2O4 NPs were synthesized via hydrothermal method assisted by post-annealing treatment and characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In the absence of NPs in the growth medium, filter paper cellulase (FP) activity of 18 IU/gds was achieved after 96 h, whereas 40 % higher FP activity in 72 h was observed with the addition of 1 mM concentration of NPs in the growth medium. Maximum production of endoglucanase (211 IU/gds), β-glucosidase (301 IU/gds), and xylanase (803 IU/gds) was achieved after 72 h without NPs (control), while in the presence of 1 mM concentration of NPs, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase activity increased by about 49, 53, and 19.8 %, respectively, after 48 h of incubation, against control, indicating a substantial increase in cellulase productivity with the addition of NiCo2O4 NPs in the growth medium. Crude enzyme was thermally stable for 7 h at 80 °C in presence of NPs, as against 4 h at the same temperature for control samples. Significant increase in the activity and improved thermal stability of cellulases in the presence of the NiCo2O4 NPs holds potential for use of NiCo2O4 NPs during enzyme production as well as hydrolysis. From the standpoint of biofuel production, these results hold enormous significance. PMID:24801407

  4. Role of scaffolding protein CipC of Clostridium cellulolyticum in cellulose degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, S; Gal, L; Bélaïch, A; Gaudin, C; Tardif, C; Bélaïch, J P

    1997-01-01

    The role of a miniscaffolding protein, miniCipC1, forming part of Clostridium cellulolyticum scaffolding protein CipC in insoluble cellulose degradation was investigated. The parameters of the binding of miniCipC1, which contains a family III cellulose-binding domain (CBD), a hydrophilic domain, and a cohesin domain, to four insoluble celluloses were determined. At saturating concentrations, about 8.2 micromol of protein was bound per g of bacterial microcrystalline cellulose, while Avicel, colloidal Avicel, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose bound 0.28, 0.38, and 0.55 micromol of miniCipC1 per g, respectively. The dissociation constants measured varied between 1.3 x 10(-7) and 1.5 x 10(-8) M. These results are discussed with regard to the properties of the various substrates. The synergistic action of miniCipC1 and two forms of endoglucanase CelA (with and without the dockerin domain [CelA2 and CelA3, respectively]) in cellulose degradation was also studied. Although only CelA2 interacted with miniCipC1 (K(d), 7 x 10(-9) M), nonhydrolytic miniCipC1 enhanced the activities of endoglucanases CelA2 and CelA3 with all of the insoluble substrates tested. This finding shows that miniCipC1 plays two roles: it increases the enzyme concentration on the cellulose surface and enhances the accessibility of the enzyme to the substrate by modifying the structure of the cellulose, leading to an increased available cellulose surface area. In addition, the data obtained with a hybrid protein, CelA3-CBD(CipC), which was more active towards all of the insoluble substrates tested confirm that the CBD of the scaffolding protein plays an essential role in cellulose degradation. PMID:9139893

  5. Molecular and Biochemical Analyses of the GH44 Module of CbMan5B/Cel44A, a Bifunctional Enzyme from the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Libin; Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George E.; Moon, Young Hwan; Zhang, Jing; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2012-01-01

    A large polypeptide encoded in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii was determined to consist of two glycoside hydrolase (GH) modules separated by two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Based on the detection of mannanase and endoglucanase activities in the N-terminal GH5 and the C-terminal GH44 module, respectively, the protein was designated CbMan5B/Cel44A. A GH5 module with >99% identity from the same organism was characterized previously (X. Su, R. I. Mackie, and I. K. Cann, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78:2230-2240, 2012); therefore, attention was focused on CbMan5A/Cel44A-TM2 (or TM2), which harbors the GH44 module and the two CBMs. On cellulosic substrates, TM2 had an optimal temperature and pH of 85°C and 5.0, respectively. Although the amino acid sequence of the GH44 module of TM2 was similar to those of other GH44 modules that hydrolyzed cello-oligosaccharides, cellulose, lichenan, and xyloglucan, it was unique that TM2 also displayed modest activity on mannose-configured substrates and xylan. The TM2 protein also degraded Avicel with higher specific activity than activities reported for its homologs. The GH44 catalytic module is composed of a TIM-like domain and a β-sandwich domain, which consists of one β-sheet at the N terminus and nine β-sheets at the C terminus. Deletion of one or more β-sheets from the β-sandwich domain resulted in insoluble proteins, suggesting that the β-sandwich domain is essential for proper folding of the polypeptide. Combining TM2 with three other endoglucanases from C. bescii led to modest synergistic activities during degradation of cellulose, and based on our results, we propose a model for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization by C. bescii. PMID:22843537

  6. EFFECTS OF FIVE DIVERSE LIGNOCELLULOSIC DIETS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE TERMITE Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Termites have recently drawn much attention as models for biomass processing, mainly due to their lignocellulose digestion capabilities and mutualisms with cellulolytic gut symbionts. This research used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes to investigate gut enzyme activity changes in response to feeding on five diverse lignocellulosic diets (cellulose filter paper [FP], pine wood [PW], beech wood xylan [X], corn stover [CS], and soybean residue [SB]). Our objectives were to compare whole-gut digestive enzyme activity and host versus symbiont contributions to enzyme activity after feeding on these diets. Our hypothesis was that enzyme activities would vary among diets as an adaptive mechanism enabling termites and symbiota to optimally utilize variable resources. Results support our "diet-adaptation" hypothesis and further indicate that, in most cases, host contributions are greater than those of symbionts with respect to the enzymes and activities studied. The results obtained thus provide indications as to which types of transcriptomic resources, termite or symbiont, are most relevant for developing recombinant enzyme cocktails tailored to specific feedstocks. With regard to the agricultural feedstocks tested (CS and SB), our results suggest endoglucanase and exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase) activities are most relevant for CS breakdown; whereas endoglucanase and xylosidase activities are relevant for SB breakdown. However, other unexplored activities than those tested may also be important for breakdown of these two feedstocks. These findings provide new protein-level insights into diet adaptation by termites, and also complement host-symbiont metatranscriptomic studies that have been completed for R. flavipes after FP, PW, CS, and SB feeding. PMID:25980379

  7. Characterization of cellulolytic activity in the gut of the terrestrial land slug Arion ater: Biochemical identification of targets for intensive study.

    PubMed

    Joynson, Ryan; Swamy, Arvind; Bou, Paz Aranega; Chapuis, Ambre; Ferry, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    The level of cellulolytic activity in different areas of the gut of the terrestrial slug Arion ater was assayed at different temperatures and pH values. To do this, crude gut proteins were isolated and assayed using modified dinitrosalicylic acid reducing sugar assay. Crude protein samples were also separated and cellulolytic activity identified using in gel CMC zymography and esculin hydrate activity gel assays. pH and temperature profiling revealed optimum cellulolytic activity between pH5.0 and 6.0 for different gut regions and retention of up to 90% of activity at temperatures up to 50°C. Zymograms and activity gels revealed multiple endoglucanase and β-glucosidase enzymes. To further investigate the source of this cellulolytic activity bacterial isolates from the gut were tested for endoglucanase and β-glucosidase activity using growth plate assays. 12 cellulolytic microbes were identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. These include members of the genera Buttiauxella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia and Klebsiella. Gut metagenomic DNA was then subjected to PCR, targeting a 400bp region of the 16SrDNA gene which was subsequently separated and individuals identified using DGGE. This identified members of the genera Citrobacter, Serratia, Pectobacterium, Acinetobacter, Mycoplasma, Pantoea and Erwinia. In summary, multiple glycoside hydrolase enzymes active over a broad range of temperature and pH values in a relatively under studied organism were detected, indicating that the gut of A. ater is a viable target for intensive study to identify novel carbohydrate active enzymes that may be used in the biofuel industry. PMID:25150536

  8. Structure-Function Analysis of a Mixed-linkage β-Glucanase/Xyloglucanase from the Key Ruminal Bacteroidetes Prevotella bryantii B(1)4.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Nicholas; Morar, Mariya; Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Stogios, Peter; Lenfant, Nicolas; Yin, Victor; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Cui, Hong; Henrissat, Bernard; Savchenko, Alexei; Brumer, Harry

    2016-01-15

    The recent classification of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) members into subfamilies enhances the prediction of substrate specificity by phylogenetic analysis. However, the small number of well characterized members is a current limitation to understanding the molecular basis of the diverse specificity observed across individual GH5 subfamilies. GH5 subfamily 4 (GH5_4) is one of the largest, with known activities comprising (carboxymethyl)cellulases, mixed-linkage endo-glucanases, and endo-xyloglucanases. Through detailed structure-function analysis, we have revisited the characterization of a classic GH5_4 carboxymethylcellulase, PbGH5A (also known as Orf4, carboxymethylcellulase, and Cel5A), from the symbiotic rumen Bacteroidetes Prevotella bryantii B14. We demonstrate that carboxymethylcellulose and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose are in fact relatively poor substrates for PbGH5A, which instead exhibits clear primary specificity for the plant storage and cell wall polysaccharide, mixed-linkage β-glucan. Significant activity toward the plant cell wall polysaccharide xyloglucan was also observed. Determination of PbGH5A crystal structures in the apo-form and in complex with (xylo)glucan oligosaccharides and an active-site affinity label, together with detailed kinetic analysis using a variety of well defined oligosaccharide substrates, revealed the structural determinants of polysaccharide substrate specificity. In particular, this analysis highlighted the PbGH5A active-site motifs that engender predominant mixed-linkage endo-glucanase activity vis à vis predominant endo-xyloglucanases in GH5_4. However the detailed phylogenetic analysis of GH5_4 members did not delineate particular clades of enzymes sharing these sequence motifs; the phylogeny was instead dominated by bacterial taxonomy. Nonetheless, our results provide key enzyme functional and structural reference data for future bioinformatics analyses of (meta)genomes to elucidate the biology of

  9. Characterisation of a Talaromyces emersonii thermostable enzyme cocktail with applications in wheat dough rheology.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Ryan, Liam A M; Murray, Patrick G; Arendt, Elke K; Tuohy, Maria G

    2011-07-10

    In this paper, we report new sequence data for secreted thermostable fungal enzymes from the un-sequenced xylanolytic filamentous fungus Talaromyces emersonii and reveal novel insights on the potential role of enzymes relevant as wheat dough improvers. The presence of known and de novo enzyme sequences were confirmed through NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and resultant peptide sequences were identified using SWISS PROT databases. The de novo protein sequences were assigned identity based on homology to known fungal proteins. Other proteins were assigned function based on the limited T. emersonii genome coverage. This approach allowed the identification of enzymes with relevance as wheat dough improvers. Rheological examination of wheat dough and wheat flour components treated with the thermostable fungal enzyme cocktail revealed structural alterations that can be extrapolated to the baking process. Thermoactive amylolytic, xylanolytic, glucanolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities were observed. Previously characterized T. emersonii enzymes present included; β-glucosidase, xylan-1,4-β-xyloxidase, acetylxylan esterase, acid trehalase, avenacinase, cellobiohydrolase and endo-glucanase. De novo sequence analysis confirmed peptides as being; α-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, endo-arabinase, endo-glucanase, exo-β-1,3-glucanase, glucanase/cellulase, endopeptidase and lipase/acylhydrolase. Rheology tests using wheat dough and fractioned wheat flour components in conjunction with T. emersonii enzymes show the role of these novel biocatalysts in altering properties of wheat substrates. Enzyme treated wheat flour fractions showed the effects of particular enzymes on appropriate substrates. This proteomic approach combined with rheological characterization is the first such report to the authors' knowledge. PMID:22112414

  10. Cel5I, a SLH-Containing Glycoside Hydrolase: Characterization and Investigation on Its Role in Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum

    PubMed Central

    Franche, Nathalie; Tardif, Chantal; Ravachol, Julie; Harchouni, Seddik; Ferdinand, Pierre-Henri; Borne, Romain; Fierobe, Henri-Pierre; Perret, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum (Clostridium cellulolyticum) is a mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium that produces a multi-enzymatic system composed of cellulosomes and non-cellulosomal enzymes to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. We characterized one of the non-cellulosomal enzymes, Cel5I, composed of a Family-5 Glycoside Hydrolase catalytic module (GH5), a tandem of Family-17 and -28 Carbohydrate Binding Modules (CBM), and three S-layer homologous (SLH) modules, where the latter are expected to anchor the protein on the cell surface. Cel5I is the only putative endoglucanase targeting the cell surface as well as the only putative protein in R. cellulolyticum containing CBM17 and/or CBM28 modules. We characterized different recombinant structural variants from Cel5I. We showed that Cel5I has an affinity for insoluble cellulosic substrates through its CBMs, that it is the most active endoglucanase on crystalline cellulose of R. cellulolyticum characterized to date and mostly localized in the cell envelope of R. cellulolyticum. Its role in vivo was analyzed using a R. cellulolyticum cel5I mutant strain. Absence of Cel5I in the cell envelope did not lead to a significant variation of the phenotype compared to the wild type strain. Neither in terms of cell binding to cellulose, nor for its growth on crystalline cellulose, thus indicating that the protein has a rather subtle role in tested conditions. Cel5I might be more important in a natural environment, at low concentration of degradable glucose polymers, where its role might be to generate higher concentration of short cellodextrins close to the cell surface, facilitating their uptake or for signalization purpose. PMID:27501457

  11. RNA-sequencing reveals the complexities of the transcriptional response to lignocellulosic biofuel substrates in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Stéphane; Ibbett, Roger; Kokolski, Matthew; Neiteler, Almar; van Munster, Jolanda M; Wilson, Raymond; Blythe, Martin J; Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Tucker, Gregory A; Archer, David B

    2015-01-01

    Background Saprobic fungi are the predominant industrial sources of Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZymes) used for the saccharification of lignocellulose during the production of second generation biofuels. The production of more effective enzyme cocktails is a key objective for efficient biofuel production. To achieve this objective, it is crucial to understand the response of fungi to lignocellulose substrates. Our previous study used RNA-seq to identify the genes induced in Aspergillus niger in response to wheat straw, a biofuel feedstock, and showed that the range of genes induced was greater than previously seen with simple inducers. Results In this work we used RNA-seq to identify the genes induced in A. niger in response to short rotation coppice willow and compared this with the response to wheat straw from our previous study, at the same time-point. The response to willow showed a large increase in expression of genes encoding CAZymes. Genes encoding the major activities required to saccharify lignocellulose were induced on willow such as endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases. The transcriptome response to willow had many similarities with the response to straw with some significant differences in the expression levels of individual genes which are discussed in relation to differences in substrate composition or other factors. Differences in transcript levels include higher levels on wheat straw from genes encoding enzymes classified as members of GH62 (an arabinofuranosidase) and CE1 (a feruloyl esterase) CAZy families whereas two genes encoding endoglucanases classified as members of the GH5 family had higher transcript levels when exposed to willow. There were changes in the cocktail of enzymes secreted by A. niger when cultured with willow or straw. Assays for particular enzymes as well as saccharification assays were used to compare the enzyme activities of the cocktails. Wheat straw induced an enzyme cocktail that saccharified wheat straw

  12. Two cellulases, CelA and CelC, from the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain PC-2 contain N-terminal docking domains for a cellulase-hemicellulase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X L; Chen, H; Ljungdahl, L G

    1997-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding two cellulases, CelA and CelC, were isolated from a cDNA library of the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 constructed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the celA cDNA (1,558 bp) and celC cDNA (1,628 bp) had open reading frames encoding polypeptides of 459 (CelA) and 449 (CelC) amino acids, respectively. The two cDNAs were 76.9 and 67.7% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that starting from the N termini, both CelA and CelC had signal peptides, which were followed by noncatalytic repeated peptide domains (NCRPD) containing two repeated sequences of 33 to 40 amino acid residues functioning as docking domains. The NCRPDs and the catalytic domains were separated by linker sequences. The NCRPDs were homologous to those found in several hydrolases of anaerobic fungi, whereas the catalytic domains were homologous to the catalytic domains of fungal cellobiohydrolases and bacterial endoglucanases. The linker sequence of CelA contained predominantly glutamine and proline residues, while that of CelC contained mainly threonine residues. CelA and CelC did not have a typical cellulose binding domain (CBD). CelA and CelC expressed in E. coli rapidly decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), indicating that there was endoglucanase activity. In addition, they produced cellobiose from CMC, acid-swollen cellulose, and cellotetraose, suggesting that they had cellobiohydrolase activity. The optimal activity conditions with CMC as the substrate were pH 4.3 to 6.8 and 50 degrees C for CelA and pH 4.6 to 7.0 and 40 degrees C for CelC. Despite the lack of a CBD, CelC displayed a high affinity for microcrystalline cellulose, whereas CelA did not. PMID:9406391

  13. Isolation and characterization of culturable seed-associated bacterial endophytes from gnotobiotically grown Marama bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chimwamurombe, Percy Maruwa; Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an indigenous non-nodulating legume to the arid agro-ecological parts of Southern Africa. It is a staple food for the Khoisan and Bantu people from these areas. It is intriguing how it is able to synthesize the high-protein content in the seeds since its natural habitat is nitrogen deficient. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of seed transmittable bacterial endophytes that may have growth promoting effects, which may be particularly important for the harsh conditions. Marama bean seeds were surface sterilized and gnotobiotically grown to 2 weeks old seedlings. From surface-sterilized shoots and roots, 123 distinct bacterial isolates were cultured using three media, and identified by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Phylogenetic analyses of 73 putative endophytes assigned them to bacterial species from 14 genera including Proteobacteria (Rhizobium, Massilia, Kosakonia, Pseudorhodoferax, Caulobacter, Pantoea, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium), Firmicutes (Bacillus), Actinobacteria (Curtobacterium, Microbacterium) and Bacteroidetes (Mucilaginibacter, Chitinophaga). Screening for plant growth-promoting activities revealed that the isolates showed production of IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophores, endoglucanase, protease, AHLs and capacities to solubilize phosphate and fix nitrogen. This is the first report that marama bean seeds may harbor endophytes that can be cultivated from seedlings; in this community of bacteria, physiological characteristics that are potentially plant growth promoting are widespread. PMID:27118727

  14. Engineered Pentafunctional Minicellulosome for Simultaneous Saccharification and Ethanol Fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Youyun; Si, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Several yeast strains have been engineered to express different cellulases to achieve simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. However, successes in these endeavors were modest, as demonstrated by the relatively low ethanol titers and the limited ability of the engineered yeast strains to grow using cellulosic materials as the sole carbon source. Recently, substantial enhancements to the breakdown of cellulosic substrates have been observed when lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) were added to traditional cellulase cocktails. LPMOs are reported to cleave cellulose oxidatively in the presence of enzymatic electron donors such as cellobiose dehydrogenases. In this study, we coexpressed LPMOs and cellobiose dehydrogenases with cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, and β-glucosidases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These enzymes were secreted and docked onto surface-displayed miniscaffoldins through cohesin-dockerin interaction to generate pentafunctional minicellulosomes. The enzymes on the miniscaffoldins acted synergistically to boost the degradation of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose and increased the ethanol titers from our previously achieved levels of 1.8 to 2.7 g/liter. In addition, the newly developed recombinant yeast strain was also able to grow using phosphoric acid swollen cellulose as the sole carbon source. The results demonstrate the promise of the pentafunctional minicellulosomes for consolidated bioprocessing by yeast. PMID:25149522

  15. A structural overview of GH61 proteins - fungal cellulose degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Lo Leggio, Leila; Welner, Ditte; De Maria, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a spurt of activities in the elucidation of the molecular function of a class of proteins with great potential in biomass degradation. GH61 proteins are of fungal origin and were originally classified in family 61 of the glycoside hydrolases. From the beginning they were strongly suspected to be involved in cellulose degradation because of their expression profiles, despite very low detectable endoglucanase activities. A major breakthrough came from structure determination of the first members, establishing the presence of a divalent metal binding site and a similarity to bacterial proteins involved in chitin degradation. A second breakthrough came from the identification of cellulase boosting activity dependent on the integrity of the metal binding site. Finally very recently GH61 proteins were demonstrated to oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose in a Cu and reductant dependant manner. This mini-review in particular focuses on the contribution that structure elucidation has made in the understanding of GH61 molecular function and reviews the currently known structures and the challenges remaining ahead for exploiting this new class of enzymes to the full. PMID:24688660

  16. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora during Growth on Aspen Wood Reveal This Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Chiaki; Gaskell, Jill; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Kersten, Phil; Mozuch, Michael; Samejima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism of selective ligninolysis. To address this issue, C. subvermispora was grown in liquid medium containing ball-milled aspen, and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and estimate extracellular protein abundance over time. Several manganese peroxidases and an aryl alcohol oxidase, both associated with lignin degradation, were identified after 3 days of incubation. A glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 arabinofuranosidase was also identified after 3 days but then successively decreased in later samples. Several enzymes related to cellulose and xylan degradation, such as GH10 endoxylanase, GH5_5 endoglucanase, and GH7 cellobiohydrolase, were detected after 5 days. Peptides corresponding to potential cellulose-degrading enzymes GH12, GH45, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase were most abundant after 7 days. This sequential production of enzymes provides a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by C. subvermispora. PMID:24441164

  17. Identification of a novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules with broad ligand specificity

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Yu-Liang; Cao, Qi-Long; Huang, Ming-Yue; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Most enzymes that act on carbohydrates include non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that recognize and target carbohydrates. CBMs bring their appended catalytic modules into close proximity with the target substrate and increase the hydrolytic rate of enzymes acting on insoluble substrates. We previously identified a novel CBM (CBMC5614-1) at the C-terminus of endoglucanase C5614-1 from an uncultured microorganism present in buffalo rumen. In the present study, that the functional region of CBMC5614-1 involved in ligand binding was localized to 134 amino acids. Two representative homologs of CBMC5614-1, sharing the same ligand binding profile, targeted a range of β-linked polysaccharides that adopt very different conformations. Targeted substrates included soluble and insoluble cellulose, β-1,3/1,4-mixed linked glucans, xylan, and mannan. Mutagenesis revealed that three conserved aromatic residues (Trp-380, Tyr-411, and Trp-423) play an important role in ligand recognition and targeting. These results suggest that CBMC5614-1 and its homologs form a novel CBM family (CBM72) with a broad ligand-binding specificity. CBM72 members can provide new insight into CBM-ligand interactions and may have potential in protein engineering and biocatalysis. PMID:26765840

  18. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems

    PubMed Central

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides. PMID:27125755

  19. Complete Genome of the Starch-Degrading Myxobacteria Sandaracinus amylolyticus DSM 53668T.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria are members of δ-proteobacteria and are typified by large genomes, well-coordinated social behavior, gliding motility, and starvation-induced fruiting body formation. Here, we report the 10.33 Mb whole genome of a starch-degrading myxobacterium Sandaracinus amylolyticus DSM 53668(T) that encodes 8,962 proteins, 56 tRNA, and two rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity reveal its divergence from other myxobacterial species and support its taxonomic characterization into a separate family Sandaracinaceae, within the suborder Sorangiineae. Sequence similarity searches using the Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZyme) database help identify the enzyme repertoire of S. amylolyticus involved in starch, agar, chitin, and cellulose degradation. We identified 16 α-amylases and two γ-amylases in the S. amylolyticus genome that likely play a role in starch degradation. While many of the amylases are seen conserved in other δ-proteobacteria, we notice several novel amylases acquired via horizontal transfer from members belonging to phylum Deinococcus-Thermus, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. No agar degrading enzyme(s) were identified in the S. amylolyticus genome. Interestingly, several putative β-glucosidases and endoglucanases proteins involved in cellulose degradation were identified. However, the absence of cellobiohydrolases/exoglucanases corroborates with the lack of cellulose degradation by this bacteria. PMID:27358428

  20. Complete Genome of the Starch-Degrading Myxobacteria Sandaracinus amylolyticus DSM 53668T

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Myxobacteria are members of δ-proteobacteria and are typified by large genomes, well-coordinated social behavior, gliding motility, and starvation-induced fruiting body formation. Here, we report the 10.33 Mb whole genome of a starch-degrading myxobacterium Sandaracinus amylolyticus DSM 53668T that encodes 8,962 proteins, 56 tRNA, and two rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity reveal its divergence from other myxobacterial species and support its taxonomic characterization into a separate family Sandaracinaceae, within the suborder Sorangiineae. Sequence similarity searches using the Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZyme) database help identify the enzyme repertoire of S. amylolyticus involved in starch, agar, chitin, and cellulose degradation. We identified 16 α-amylases and two γ-amylases in the S. amylolyticus genome that likely play a role in starch degradation. While many of the amylases are seen conserved in other δ-proteobacteria, we notice several novel amylases acquired via horizontal transfer from members belonging to phylum Deinococcus-Thermus, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. No agar degrading enzyme(s) were identified in the S. amylolyticus genome. Interestingly, several putative β-glucosidases and endoglucanases proteins involved in cellulose degradation were identified. However, the absence of cellobiohydrolases/exoglucanases corroborates with the lack of cellulose degradation by this bacteria. PMID:27358428

  1. Hydrolytic effects of scaffolding proteins CbpB and CbpC on crystalline cellulose mediated by the major cellulolytic complex from Clostridium cellulovorans.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang Duck; Kim, Su Jung; Park, Sung Hyun; Choi, Gi-Wook; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-09-01

    The role of the scaffolding proteins, cellulose binding protein B and C (CbpB and CbpC, respectively) were identified in cellulolytic complex (cellulosome) of Clostridium cellulovorans for efficient degradation of cellulose. Recombinant CbpB and CbpC directly anchored to the cell surface of C. cellulovorans. In addition, CbpB and CbpC showed increased hydrolytic activity on crystalline cellulose incubated with exoglucanase S (ExgS) and endoglucanase Z (EngZ) compared with the activity of free enzymes. Moreover, the results showed synergistic effects of crystalline cellulose hydrolytic activity (1.8- to 2.2-fold) when CbpB and CbpC complex with ExgS and EngZ are incubated with cellulolytic complex containing mini-CbpA. The results suggest C. cellulovorans critically uses CbpB and CbpC, which can directly anchor cells for the hydrolysis of cellulosic material with the major cellulosome complex. PMID:25748018

  2. Variability in intra-specific and monosporous isolates of Volvariella volvacea based on enzyme activity, ITS and RAPD.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, O P; Gupta, P; Kamal, S; Dhar, B L

    2010-06-01

    Two parents and 15 monosporous isolates were morphologically characterized and were found to vary in their growth characteristics on malt extract agar medium. The isolates also varied in enzymes activity profile with respect to exoglucanase, endoglucanase, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase. Further in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of 5.8S rDNA, an amplicon of same length (720 bp) was amplified from two parents and all the monosporous isolates, which revealed that all belong to the same species. The combined phylogenetic analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles obtained with five decamer primers (operon kit B) series primers also revealed intra-specific variation of 60% with in the two parent strains and their single spore isolates (SSIs). However, the variations between the parent strains and their SSIs were lesser and it was 50 and 32% in parent strains, OE-210 and OE-12, respectively. Based upon phylogenetic analysis, the isolates of parent strain, OE-210 formed 7 distinct phylogenetic clades, while of strain OE-12 formed 4 clades. The study elucidates that isolates showing variations in morphological growth characteristics and enzymes activity also showed variations in their RAPD profiles, revealed through phylogenetic analysis of RAPD profiles. It is also evident from the study that morphological characterization along with enzymes activity assay of strains is essential before their use in yield evaluation trials with final authentication from molecular analysis. PMID:23100827

  3. Profile of the extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes activities as a tool to select the promising strains of Volvariella volvacea (Bull. ex Fr.) sing.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, O P; Gupta, Pardeep; Dhar, B L; Sagar, T G; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Rathnam, Krishnakumar

    2008-09-01

    Out of 26 strains of Volvariella volvacea used, 18 were of 'typical' type and possessed all the characteristics of a normal V. volvacea mycelium, while the rest 4 'atypical' type strains showed completely distinct mycelial growth characteristics. The remaining 4 strains grew very slowly and exhibited growth characteristics of single spore isolates of V. volvacea. Strains varied in their extracellular lignocellulolytic activities and strains; OE-274, OE-272 and OE-210 with high ligninase enzymes (laccase and polyphenol oxidase) activities, gave highest mushroom yield on pasteurized paddy straw substrate. On the composted paddy straw substrate, additional two strains, OE-213 and OE-215 with lower activities of ligninases also gave higher mushroom yield. Mushrooms were harvested 3 to 4 d early from the composted substrate than on the pasteurized substrate. Activities of endoglucanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase were found to be more crucial for mushroom yield on pasteurized substrate, while xylanase and β-glucosidase were more important for composted substrate. Strains also varied in their fruiting bodies quality and the substrate used for mushroom cultivation also affected the fruiting body quality. The superior yielding strains varied in shape, size, weight, colour and contents of sodium and potassium in their fruiting bodies; while contents of carbon, calcium and protein did not vary much with the strains. PMID:23100738

  4. A Novel GH7 Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 with Good Thermostability, Broad Substrate Specificity and Potential Application in the Brewing Industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Dun, Baoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Xie, Xiangming; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel7A, was cloned from the thermophilic cellulase-producing fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,410-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 469 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7), a short Thr/Ser-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM 1). The purified recombinant Cel7A had pH and temperature optima of pH 5.0 and 60°C, respectively, and showed broad pH adaptability (pH 3.0-6.0) and excellent stability at pH3.0-8.0 and 60°C. Belonging to the group of nonspecific endoglucanases, Cel7A exhibited the highest activity on barley β-glucan (2020 ± 9 U mg-1), moderate on lichenan and CMC-Na, and weak on laminarin, locust bean galactomannan, Avicel, and filter paper. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Cel7A (99 μg) reduced the mash viscosity by 9.1% and filtration time by 24.6%. These favorable enzymatic properties make Cel7A as a good candidate for applications in the brewing industry. PMID:26360701

  5. Evaluation of secretome of highly efficient lignocellulolytic Penicillium sp. Dal 5 isolated from rhizosphere of conifers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rohit; Kaur, Baljit; Singh, Surender; Di Falco, Macros; Tsang, Adrian; Chadha, B S

    2016-09-01

    Penicillium sp. (Dal 5) isolated from rhizosphere of conifers from Dalhousie (Himachal Pradesh, India) was found to be an efficient cellulolytic strain. The culture under shake flask on CWR (cellulose, wheat bran and rice straw) medium produced appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase (35.69U/ml), β-glucosidase (4.20U/ml), cellobiohydrolase (2.86U/ml), FPase (1.2U/ml) and xylanase (115U/ml) compared to other Penicillium strains reported in literature. The mass spectroscopy analysis of Penicillium sp. Dal 5 secretome identified 108 proteins constituting an array of CAZymes including glycosyl hydrolases (GH) belonging to 24 different families, polysaccharide lyases (PL), carbohydrate esterases (CE), lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMO) in addition to swollenin and a variety of carbohydrate binding modules (CBM) indicating an elaborate genetic potential of this strain for hydrolysis of lignocellulosics. Further, the culture extract was evaluated for hydrolysis of alkali treated rice straw, wheat straw, bagasse and corn cob at 10% substrate loading rate. PMID:27341464

  6. Cellulose Degradation by Sulfolobus solfataricus Requires a Cell-Anchored Endo-β-1-4-Glucanase

    PubMed Central

    Girfoglio, Michele; Rossi, Mosé

    2012-01-01

    A sequence encoding a putative extracellular endoglucanase (sso1354) was identified in the complete genome sequence of Sulfolobus solfataricus. The encoded protein shares signature motifs with members of glycoside hydrolases family 12. After an unsuccessful first attempt at cloning the full-length coding sequences in Escherichia coli, an active but unstable recombinant enzyme lacking a 27-residue N-terminal sequence was generated. This 27-amino-acid sequence shows significant similarity with corresponding regions in the sugar binding proteins AraS, GlcS, and TreS of S. solfataricus that are responsible for anchoring them to the plasma membrane. A strategy based on an effective vector/host genetic system for Sulfolobus and on expression control by the promoter of the S. solfataricus gene which encodes the glucose binding protein allowed production of the enzyme in sufficient quantities for study. In fact, the enzyme expressed in S. solfataricus was stable and highly thermoresistant and showed optimal activity at low pH and high temperature. The protein was detected mainly in the plasma membrane fraction, confirming the structural similarity to the sugar binding proteins. The results of the protein expression in the two different hosts showed that the SSO1354 enzyme is endowed with an endo-β-1-4-glucanase activity and specifically hydrolyzes cellulose. Moreover, it also shows significant but distinguishable specificity toward several other sugar polymers, such as lichenan, xylan, debranched arabinan, pachyman, and curdlan. PMID:22821975

  7. Enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Bi-functional enzyme complexes expressed in Pichia pastoris improve bioethanol production from Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Dea Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant utilizable natural resource. In the process of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, an efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to release hexose and pentose is essential. We have developed a strain of Pichia pastoris that can produce ethanol via pentose and hexose using an assembly of enzyme complexes. The use of enzyme complexes is one of the strategies for effective lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Xylanase XynB from Clostridium cellulovorans and a chimeric endoglucanase cCelE from Clostridium thermocellum were selected as enzyme subunits, and were bound to a recombinant scaffolding protein mini-CbpA from C. cellulovorans to assemble the enzyme complexes. These complexes efficiently degraded xylan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), producing approximately 1.18 and 1.07 g/L ethanol from each substrate, respectively, which is 2.3-fold and 2.7-fold higher than that of the free-enzyme expressing strain. Miscanthus sinensis was investigated as the lignocellulosic biomass for producing bioethanol, and 1.08 g/L ethanol was produced using our recombinant P. pastoris strain, which is approximately 1.9-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In future research, construction of enzyme complexes containing various hydrolysis enzymes could be used to develop biocatalysts that can completely degrade lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products such as biofuels. PMID:26479167

  8. Yeast Surface Display of Trifunctional Minicellulosomes for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Cellulose to Ethanol▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fei; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    By combining cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and sugar fermentation into a single step, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) represents a promising technology for biofuel production. Here we report engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains displaying a series of uni-, bi-, and trifunctional minicellulosomes. These minicellulosomes consist of (i) a miniscaffoldin containing a cellulose-binding domain and three cohesin modules, which was tethered to the cell surface through the yeast a-agglutinin adhesion receptor, and (ii) up to three types of cellulases, an endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, and a β-glucosidase, each bearing a C-terminal dockerin. Cell surface assembly of the minicellulosomes was dependent on expression of the miniscaffoldin, indicating that formation of the complex was dictated by the high-affinity interactions between cohesins and dockerins. Compared to the unifunctional and bifunctional minicellulosomes, the quaternary trifunctional complexes showed enhanced enzyme-enzyme synergy and enzyme proximity synergy. More importantly, surface display of the trifunctional minicellulosomes gave yeast cells the ability to simultaneously break down and ferment phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose to ethanol with a titer of ∼1.8 g/liter. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant yeast strain capable of producing cell-associated trifunctional minicellulosomes. The strain reported here represents a useful engineering platform for developing CBP-enabling microorganisms and elucidating principles of cellulosome construction and mode of action. PMID:20023102

  9. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

  10. Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038: A promising strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex with significant β-glucosidase activity from sugarcane bagasse cellulignin.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-11-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an agroindustrial residue generated in large amounts in Brazil. This biomass can be used for the production of cellulases, aiming at their use in second-generation processes for bioethanol production. Therefore, this work reports the ability of a fungal strain, Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038, to produce cellulases on a novel material, xylan free and cellulose rich, generated from sugarcane bagasse, named partially delignified cellulignin. The extract produced by T. harzianum under submerged conditions reached 745, 97, and 559 U L(-1) of β-glucosidase, FPase, and endoglucanase activities, respectively. The partial characterization of this enzyme complex indicated, using a dual analysis, that the optimal pH values for the biocatalysis ranged from 4.9 to 5.2 and optimal temperatures were between 47 and 54 °C, depending on the activity studied. Thermal stability analyses revealed no significant decrease in activity at 37 °C during 23 h of incubation. When compared to model strains, Aspergillus niger ATCC-16404 and Trichoderma reesei RutC30, T. harzianum fermentation was faster and its extract showed a better balanced enzyme complex, with adequate characteristics for its application in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes. PMID:20455032

  11. Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Hannah T.; Barton, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus), which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans’ saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth. PMID:24466096

  12. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David B.

    2008-04-02

    This grant provided the basic funding that enabled me to carry out a detailed characterization of the proteins used by the aerobic soil bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, to degrade cellulose and to study the mechanisms used by T. fusca to regulate cellulase synthesis. This work resulted in 53 publications and led to the decision by The DOE Joint Genome Institute to sequence the T. fusca genome. T. fusca is now recognized as one of the best studied cellulolytic microorganisms and our work led to the discovery of a novel class of cellulases, processive endoglucanases, which are found in many cellulolytic bacteria including both aerobes and anaerobes. In addition, we were able to determine the mechanism by which Cel9A caused processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This research also helped to explain why many cellulolytic microorganisms produce two different exocellulases, as we showed that these enzymes have different specificities, with one attacking the reducing end of a cellulose chain and the other attacking the nonreducing end. Our work also provided additional evidence for the importance of a cellulose binding domain (carbohydrate binding module) [CBM] in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  13. The influence of supramolecular structure of cellulose allomorphs on the interactions with cellulose-binding domain, CBD3b from Paenibacillus barcinonensis.

    PubMed

    Ciolacu, Diana; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Pastor, F I Javier; Kokol, Vanja

    2014-04-01

    The interaction of recombinant cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) of endoglucanase Cel9B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis with different cotton cellulose allomorphs (I, II and III) has been investigated, in order to bring new insights regarding the CBD adsorption and desorption processes. The highest CBD adsorption capacity was recorded for cellulose I, confirming the affinity of proteins to the most crystalline substrate. The weakening and splitting of the hydrogen bonds within cellulose structure after CBD adsorption, as well as a decrease of the crystallinity degree were identified by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. The CBD's adsorption kinetic was shown to be rendered by properties as, specific surface area and porosity, being confirmed by dynamic vapor sorption measurements. An important influence of temperature (25, 37 and 50°C) and/or pH medium (4, 5.5, 7 and 10) on the CBD desorption capacity was confirmed, being related to the hydrophobic interactions formed between the CBD and the cellulose allomorphs. PMID:24525243

  14. Use of cellulases and recombinant cellulose binding domains for refining TCF kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edith M; Chriac, A Iulia; Pastor, F I Javier; Diaz, Pilar; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L

    2010-01-01

    The modular endoglucanase Cel9B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a highly efficient biocatalyst, which expedites pulp refining and reduces the associated energy costs as a result. In this work, we set out to identify the specific structural domain or domains responsible for the action of this enzyme on cellulose fibre surfaces with a view to facilitating the development of new cellulases for optimum biorefining. Using the recombinant enzymes GH9-CBD3c, Fn3-CBD3b, and CBD3b, which are truncated forms of Cel9B, allowed us to assess the individual effects of the catalytic, cellulose binding, and fibronectin-like domains of the enzyme on the refining of TCF kraft pulp from Eucalyptus globulus. Based on the physico-mechanical properties obtained, the truncated form containing the catalytic domain (GH9-CBD3c) has a strong effect on fibre morphology. Comparing its effect with that of the whole cellulase (Cel9B) revealed that the truncated enzyme contributes to increasing paper strength through improved tensile strength and burst strength and also that the truncated form is more effective than the whole enzyme in improving tear resistance. Therefore, the catalytic domain of Cel9B has biorefining action on pulp. Although cellulose binding domains (CBDs) are less efficient toward pulp refining, evidence obtained in this work suggests that CBD3b alters fibre surfaces and influences paper properties as a result. PMID:20730755

  15. Structure of hyperthermophilic β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Kado, Yuji; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Three categories of cellulases, endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases, are commonly used in the process of cellulose saccharification. In particular, the activity and characteristics of hyperthermophilic β-glucosidase make it promising in industrial applications of biomass. In this paper, the crystal structure of the hyperthermophilic β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus (BGLPf) was determined at 2.35 Å resolution in a new crystal form. The structure showed that there is one tetramer in the asymmetric unit and that the dimeric molecule exhibits a structure that is stable towards sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The dimeric molecule migrated in reducing SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) buffer even after boiling at 368 K. Energy calculations demonstrated that one of the two dimer interfaces acquired the largest solvation free energy. Structural comparison and sequence alignment with mesophilic β-glucosidase A from Clostridium cellulovorans (BGLACc) revealed that the elongation at the C-terminal end forms a hydrophobic patch at the dimer interface that might contribute to hyperthermostability. PMID:22139147

  16. The irregular xylem 2 mutant is an allele of korrigan that affects the secondary cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Szyjanowicz, Pio M J; McKinnon, Iain; Taylor, Neil G; Gardiner, John; Jarvis, Mike C; Turner, Simon R

    2004-03-01

    The irregular xylem 2 (irx2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a cellulose deficiency in the secondary cell wall, which is brought about by a point mutation in the KORRIGAN (KOR) beta,1-4 endoglucanase (beta,1-4 EGase) gene. Measurement of the total crystalline cellulose in the inflorescence stem indicates that the irx2 mutant contains approximately 30% of the level present in the wild type (WT). Fourier-Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis, however, indicates that there is no decrease in cellulose in primary cell walls of the cortical and epidermal cells of the stem. KOR expression is correlated with cellulose synthesis and is highly expressed in cells synthesising a secondary cell wall. Co-precipitation experiments, using either an epitope-tagged form of KOR or IRX3 (AtCesA7), suggest that KOR is not an integral part of the cellulose synthase complex. These data are supported by immunolocalisation of KOR that suggests that KOR does not localise to sites of secondary cell wall deposition in the developing xylem. The defect in irx2 plant is consistent with a role for KOR in the later stages of secondary cell wall formation, suggesting a role in processing of the growing microfibrils or release of the cellulose synthase complex. PMID:14871312

  17. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the 'Young's modulus' of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics. PMID:26608646

  18. Characterization and Strain Improvement of a Hypercellulytic Variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by Genetic Engineering for Optimized Cellulase Production in Biomass Conversion Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yuanchao; Zhong, Lixia; Hou, Yunhua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhong, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG) activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL) activity than those of the others. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30.0% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65.0% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion. PMID:27621727

  19. The use of T-DNA insertional mutagenesis to improve cellulase production by the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinxin; Li, Jinyang; Shi, Pengjun; Ji, Wangli; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuhong; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yunliu; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Humicola insolens is an excellent producer of pH-neutral active, thermostable cellulases that find many industrial applications. In the present study, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system for H. insolens. We transformed plasmids carrying the promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of H. insolens driving the transcription of genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase, hygromycin B phosphotransferase, and enhanced green fluorescent protein. We optimized transformation efficiency to obtain over 300 transformants/106 conidia. T-DNA insertional mutagenesis was employed to generate an H. insolens mutant library, and we isolated a transformant termed T4 with enhanced cellulase and hemicellulase activities. The FPase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase activities of T4, measured at the end of fermentation, were 60%, 440%, 320%, 41%, and 81% higher than those of the wild-type strain, respectively. We isolated the sequences flanking the T-DNA insertions and thus identified new genes potentially involved in cellulase and hemicellulase production. Our results show that it is feasible to use T-DNA insertional mutagenesis to identify novel candidate genes involved in cellulase production. This will be valuable when genetic improvement programs seeking to enhance cellulase production are planned, and will also allow us to gain a better understanding of the genetics of the thermophilic fungus H. insolens. PMID:27506519

  20. Comparison of the white-nose syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Barton, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus), which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans' saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth. PMID:24466096

  1. Dominant ectosymbiotic bacteria of cellulolytic protists in the termite gut also have the potential to digest lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Shintani, Masaki; Izawa, Kazuki; Sato, Tomoyuki; Starns, David; Hongoh, Yuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    Wood-feeding lower termites harbour symbiotic gut protists that support the termite nutritionally by degrading recalcitrant lignocellulose. These protists themselves host specific endo- and ectosymbiotic bacteria, functions of which remain largely unknown. Here, we present draft genomes of a dominant, uncultured ectosymbiont belonging to the order Bacteroidales, 'Candidatus Symbiothrix dinenymphae', which colonizes the cell surface of the cellulolytic gut protists Dinenympha spp. We analysed four single-cell genomes of Ca. S. dinenymphae, the highest genome completeness was estimated to be 81.6-82.3% with a predicted genome size of 4.28-4.31 Mb. The genome retains genes encoding large parts of the amino acid, cofactor and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In addition, the genome contains genes encoding various glycoside hydrolases such as endoglucanases and hemicellulases. The genome indicates that Ca. S. dinenymphae ferments lignocellulose-derived monosaccharides to acetate, a major carbon and energy source of the host termite. We suggest that the ectosymbiont digests lignocellulose and provides nutrients to the host termites, and hypothesize that the hydrolytic activity might also function as a pretreatment for the host protist to effectively decompose the crystalline cellulose components. PMID:26079531

  2. Designing novel cellulase systems through agent-based modeling and global sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Advait A; Senger, Ryan S; Fong, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental techniques allow engineering of biological systems to modify functionality; however, there still remains a need to develop tools to prioritize targets for modification. In this study, agent-based modeling (ABM) was used to build stochastic models of complexed and non-complexed cellulose hydrolysis, including enzymatic mechanisms for endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activity. Modeling results were consistent with experimental observations of higher efficiency in complexed systems than non-complexed systems and established relationships between specific cellulolytic mechanisms and overall efficiency. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) of model results identified key parameters for improving overall cellulose hydrolysis efficiency including: (1) the cellulase half-life, (2) the exoglucanase activity, and (3) the cellulase composition. Overall, the following parameters were found to significantly influence cellulose consumption in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP): (1) the glucose uptake rate of the culture, (2) the bacterial cell concentration, and (3) the nature of the cellulase enzyme system (complexed or non-complexed). Broadly, these results demonstrate the utility of combining modeling and sensitivity analysis to identify key parameters and/or targets for experimental improvement. PMID:24830736

  3. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    PubMed Central

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U·mL−1) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

  4. Modelling of amorphous cellulose depolymerisation by cellulases, parametric studies and optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hongxing; Shah, Nilay; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of heterogeneous cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases is the basis for optimising enzymatic catalysis-based cellulosic biorefineries. A detailed mechanistic model is developed to describe the dynamic adsorption/desorption and synergistic chain-end scissions of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase) upon amorphous cellulose. The model can predict evolutions of the chain lengths of insoluble cellulose polymers and production of soluble sugars during hydrolysis. Simultaneously, a modelling framework for uncertainty analysis is built based on a quasi-Monte-Carlo method and global sensitivity analysis, which can systematically identify key parameters, help refine the model and improve its identifiability. The model, initially comprising 27 parameters, is found to be over-parameterized with structural and practical identification problems under usual operating conditions (low enzyme loadings). The parameter estimation problem is therefore mathematically ill posed. The framework allows us, on the one hand, to identify a subset of 13 crucial parameters, of which more accurate confidence intervals are estimated using a given experimental dataset, and, on the other hand, to overcome the identification problems. The model’s predictive capability is checked against an independent set of experimental data. Finally, the optimal composition of cellulases cocktail is obtained by model-based optimisation both for enzymatic hydrolysis and for the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:26865832

  5. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  6. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolase II (Cel6A) in maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Shivakumar Pattada; Requesens, Deborah Vicuna; Chang, Yeun-Kyung; Hood, Kendall R; Flory, Ashley; Howard, John A; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2013-06-01

    The technology of converting lignocellulose to biofuels has advanced swiftly over the past few years, and enzymes are a significant constituent of this technology. In this regard, cost effective production of cellulases has been the focus of research for many years. One approach to reach cost targets of these enzymes involves the use of plants as bio-factories. The application of this technology to plant biomass conversion for biofuels and biobased products has the potential for significantly lowering the cost of these products due to lower enzyme production costs. Cel6A, one of the two cellobiohydrolases (CBH II) produced by Hypocrea jecorina, is an exoglucanase that cleaves primarily cellobiose units from the non-reducing end of cellulose microfibrils. In this work we describe the expression of Cel6A in maize endosperm as part of the process to lower the cost of this dominant enzyme for the bioconversion process. The enzyme is active on microcrystalline cellulose as exponential microbial growth was observed in the mixture of cellulose, cellulases, yeast and Cel6A, Cel7A (endoglucanase), and Cel5A (cellobiohydrolase I) expressed in maize seeds. We quantify the amount accumulated and the activity of the enzyme. Cel6A expressed in maize endosperm was purified to homogeneity and verified using peptide mass finger printing. PMID:23080294

  7. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lokapirnasari, W. P.; Nazar, D. S.; Nurhajati, T.; Supranianondo, K.; Yulianto, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH) of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase. PMID:27047099

  8. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  9. Complete Cellulase System in the Marine Bacterium Saccharophagus degradans Strain 2-40T

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Larry E.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Ekborg, Nathan A.; Hutcheson, Steven W.; Weiner, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 is a representative of an emerging group of marine complex polysaccharide (CP)-degrading bacteria. It is unique in its metabolic versatility, being able to degrade at least 10 distinct CPs from diverse algal, plant and invertebrate sources. The S. degradans genome has been sequenced to completion, and more than 180 open reading frames have been identified that encode carbohydrases. Over half of these are likely to act on plant cell wall polymers. In fact, there appears to be a full array of enzymes that degrade and metabolize plant cell walls. Genomic and proteomic analyses reveal 13 cellulose depolymerases complemented by seven accessory enzymes, including two cellodextrinases, three cellobiases, a cellodextrin phosphorylase, and a cellobiose phosphorylase. Most of these enzymes exhibit modular architecture, and some contain novel combinations of catalytic and/or substrate binding modules. This is exemplified by endoglucanase Cel5A, which has three internal family 6 carbohydrate binding modules (CBM6) and two catalytic modules from family five of glycosyl hydrolases (GH5) and by Cel6A, a nonreducing-end cellobiohydrolase from family GH6 with tandem CBM2s. This is the first report of a complete and functional cellulase system in a marine bacterium with a sequenced genome. PMID:16707677

  10. Evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated Parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Chhavi; Chadha, B S; Nain, Lata; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, α-αrabinofuranosidase and β xylosidase, respectively. The saccharification of alkali and biologically treated carrot grass by culture extract of M. cinnamomea was further enhanced by supplementation of β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus sp. mutant "O". The resultant hydrolysates containing glucose/xylose were fermented efficiently to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to presence of xylose isomerase (0.8 units/gds) activity in culture extract of M. cinnamomea resulting in production of 16.5 and 15.0 g/l of ethanol from alkali treated rice straw and carrot grass, respectively. PMID:24835742

  11. Halo(natrono)archaea isolated from hypersaline lakes utilize cellulose and chitin as growth substrates

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Toshchakov, Stepan V.; Kolganova, Tatyana V.; Kublanov, Ilya V.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, extremely halophilic euryarchaeota were considered mostly as aerobic heterotrophs utilizing simple organic compounds as growth substrates. Almost nothing is known on the ability of these prokaryotes to utilize complex polysaccharides, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. Although few haloarchaeal cellulases and chitinases were recently characterized, the analysis of currently available haloarchaeal genomes deciphered numerous genes-encoding glycosidases of various families including endoglucanases and chitinases. However, all these haloarchaea were isolated and cultivated on simple substrates and their ability to grow on polysaccharides in situ or in vitro is unknown. This study examines several halo(natrono)archaeal strains from geographically distant hypersaline lakes for the ability to grow on insoluble polymers as a sole growth substrate in salt-saturated mineral media. Some of them belonged to known taxa, while other represented novel phylogenetic lineages within the class Halobacteria. All isolates produced extracellular extremely salt-tolerant cellulases or chitinases, either cell-free or cell-bound. Obtained results demonstrate a presence of diverse populations of haloarchaeal cellulo/chitinotrophs in hypersaline habitats indicating that euryarchaea participate in aerobic mineralization of recalcitrant organic polymers in salt-saturated environments. PMID:26441877

  12. Experimental Evolution of Trichoderma citrinoviride for Faster Deconstruction of Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Travisano, Michael; Kazlauskas, Romas J.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering faster cellulose deconstruction is difficult because it is a complex, cooperative, multi-enzyme process. Here we use experimental evolution to select for populations of Trichoderma citrinoviride that deconstruct up to five-fold more cellulose. Ten replicate populations of T. citrinoviride were selected for growth on filter paper by serial culture. After 125 periods of growth and transfer to fresh media, the filter paper deconstruction increased an average of 2.5 fold. Two populations were examined in more detail. The activity of the secreted cellulase mixtures increased more than two-fold relative to the ancestor and the largest increase was in the extracellular β-glucosidase activity. qPCR showed at least 16-fold more transcribed RNA for egl4 (endoglucanase IV gene), cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase I gene) and bgl1 (extracellular β-glucosidase I gene) in selected populations as compared to the ancestor, and earlier peak expressions of these genes. Deep sequencing shows that the regulatory strategies used to alter cellulase secretion differ in the two strains. The improvements in cellulose deconstruction come from earlier expression of all cellulases and increased relative amount of β-glucosidase, but with small increases in the total secreted protein and therefore little increase in metabolic cost. PMID:26820897

  13. Solid state fermentation for production of microbial cellulases: Recent advances and improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sudhanshu S; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-05-01

    Lignocellulose is the most plentiful non-food biomass and one of the most inexhaustible renewable resources on the planet, which is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second generation biofuels. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, in which the sugar polymers account for a large portion of the biomass. Cellulases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family and catalyze the hydrolysis of glyosidic linkages depolymerizing cellulose to fermentable sugars. They are multi-enzymatic complex proteins and require the synergistic action of three key enzymes: endoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.4), exoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.176) (E.C. 3.2.1.91) and β-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.21) for the depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Solid state fermentation, which holds growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free flowing water, has gained considerable attention of late due its several advantages over submerged fermentation. The review summarizes the critical analysis of recent literature covering production of cellulase in solid state fermentation using advance technologies such as consolidated bioprocessing, metabolic engineering and strain improvement, and circumscribes the strategies to improve the enzyme yield. PMID:26601764

  14. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites.

    PubMed

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:26313257

  15. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  16. Fermentation Optimization and Unstructured Kinetic Model for Cellulase Production by Rhizopus stolonifer var. reflexus TP-02 on Agriculture By-Products.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Tang, Bin; Xu, Zhongyuan; Chen, Tao; Liu, Long

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural by-products, rice straw, wheat bran juice, and soybean residue, were used as substrates for cellulase production using Rhizopus stolonifer var. reflexus TP-02. The culture medium was optimized though uniform design experimentation during shaking flask fermentation, and the ideal formulation obtained for filter paper enzyme (FPase) production was 10 % bran diffusion juice, 1 % rice straw, 0.17 % urea, 0.17 % soybean residue, 0.11 % KH2PO4, and 0.027 % Tween 80, and the maximal FPase activity in the culture supernatant was 13.16 U/mL at an incubation time of 3 days. A kinetic model for cellulase production in batch fermentation was subsequently developed. The unstructured kinetic model considered three responses, namely biomass, cellulase, and sugar. Models for the production of three types of cellulase components (i.e., endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, and β-glucosidases) were established to adequately describe the cellulase production pattern. It was found that the models fitted the experimental data well under pH 5.0 and 6.0, but only the avicelase production model predicted the experimental data under pH-uncontrolled conditions. PMID:26400494

  17. Reaction mechanism of dicofol removal by cellulase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyuan; Yang, Ting; Zhai, Zihan; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-10-01

    It remains unclear whether dicofol should be defined as a persistent organic pollutant. Its environmental persistence has gained attention. This study focused on its degradation by cellulase. Cellulase was separated using a gel chromatogram, and its degradation activity towards dicofol involved its endoglucanase activity. By analyzing the kinetic parameters of cellulase reacting with mixed substrates, it was shown that cellulase reacted on dicofol and carboxyl methyl cellulose through two different active centers. Thus, the degradation of dicofol was shown to be an oxidative process by cellulase. Next, by comparing the impacts of tert-butyl alcohol (a typical OH free-radical inhibitor) on the removal efficiencies of dicofol under both cellulase and Fenton reagent systems, it was shown that the removal of dicofol was initiated by OH free radicals produced by cellulase. Finally, 4,4'-dichloro-dibenzophenone and chloride were detected using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and ion chromatography analysis, which supported our hypothesis. The reaction mechanism was analyzed and involved an attack by OH free radicals at the orthocarbon of dicofol, resulting in the degradation product 4,4'-dichloro-dibenzophenone. PMID:26456602

  18. Differential gene retention as an evolutionary mechanism to generate biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Guillaume; Sterck, Lieven; Swennen, Dominique; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Onesime, Djamila; Levasseur, Anthony; Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Couloux, Arnaux; Labadie, Karine; Amselem, Joëlle; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Henrissat, Bernard; Van de Peer, Yves; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Gabaldón, Toni; Tinsley, Colin R.; Casaregola, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the characters underlying the adaptation of microorganisms to food and biotechnological uses is poorly understood. We undertook comparative genomics to investigate evolutionary relationships of the dairy yeast Geotrichum candidum within Saccharomycotina. Surprisingly, a remarkable proportion of genes showed discordant phylogenies, clustering with the filamentous fungus subphylum (Pezizomycotina), rather than the yeast subphylum (Saccharomycotina), of the Ascomycota. These genes appear not to be the result of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), but to have been specifically retained by G. candidum after the filamentous fungi–yeasts split concomitant with the yeasts’ genome contraction. We refer to these genes as SRAGs (Specifically Retained Ancestral Genes), having been lost by all or nearly all other yeasts, and thus contributing to the phenotypic specificity of lineages. SRAG functions include lipases consistent with a role in cheese making and novel endoglucanases associated with degradation of plant material. Similar gene retention was observed in three other distantly related yeasts representative of this ecologically diverse subphylum. The phenomenon thus appears to be widespread in the Saccharomycotina and argues that, alongside neo-functionalization following gene duplication and HGT, specific gene retention must be recognized as an important mechanism for generation of biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts. PMID:26108467

  19. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9 in wheat bran-rice straw mixed substrate and use of cocktail enzymes for deinking of waste office paper pulp.

    PubMed

    Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Halder, Suman K; Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize mixed substrate solid state fermentation for the production of cellulases and xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9. Among 11 different parameters, fermentation time (86-88 h), medium pH (6.1-6.2), substrate amount (10.0-10.5 g) and substrate ratio (wheat bran:rice straw) (1.1) had significantly influences on enzyme production. Under these conditions endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, FPase (filter paper degrading activity) and xylanase activities of 826.2, 255.16, 102.5 and 1130.4 U/g, respectively were obtained. The enzyme cocktail extracted (solid to water ratio of 1:10) from the ferments increased brightness of waste office paper pulp by 82.8% ISO, Ink(D) value by 82.1%, removed chromophores (2.53 OD; A(237)nm) and hydrophobic compounds (1.15 OD; A(465)nm) and also decreased the kappa number to 13.5 from 16.8. PMID:23196251

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corncobs with genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of their microstructure during hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui-Ting; Liu, Shi-Hui; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Yi-Min; Xiao, Wen-Jing; Xia, Wu-Cheng; Liu, Zi-Lu; Li, Rong; Ma, Xiang-Dong; Jiang, Zheng-Bing

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose is an abundant natural polysaccharide that is universally distributed. It can be extracted from corncobs, which are inexpensive, easily accessible, renewable, and environmentally friendly. A common strategy for effectively utilizing cellulose is efficient heterogeneous expression of cellulase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the improvement of cellulose utilization is a relevant issue. Based on our previous findings, we constructed an integrated secretion expression vector, pHBM368-pgk, containing a constitutive promoter sequence. Three genetically modified S. cerevisiae strains containing heterologous β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and endoglucanase genes were constructed. The results of a 1-L bioreactor fermentation process revealed that the mixed recombinant S. cerevisiae could efficiently carry out simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by using corncobs as the sole carbon source. The ethanol concentration reached 6.37 g/L after 96 hours of fermentation, which was about 3 times higher than that produced by genetically modified S. cerevisiae with the inducible promoter sequence. To investigate the microstructure characteristics of hydrolyzed corncobs during the fermentation process, corncob residues were detected by using a scanning electron microscope. This study provides a feasible method to improve the effect of SSF using corncobs as the sole carbon source. PMID:27116398

  1. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  2. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  3. Increased production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum S1M29 in batch and fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Laísa; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; da Silva Lima, Deise Juliana; Camassola, Marli; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-10-01

    The development of more productive strains of microorganisms and processes that increase enzyme levels can contribute to the economically efficient production of second generation ethanol. To this end, cellulases and xylanases were produced with the S1M29 mutant strain of Penicillium echinulatum, using different concentrations of cellulose (20, 40, and 60 g L(-1)) in batch and fed-batch processes. The highest activities of FPase (8.3 U mL(-1)), endoglucanases (37.3 U mL(-1)), and xylanases (177 U mL(-1)) were obtained in fed-batch cultivation with 40 g L(-1) of cellulose. The P. echinulatum enzymatic broth and the commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 were tested for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Maximum concentrations of glucose and xylose were achieved after 72 h of hydrolysis. Glucose yields of 28.0% and 27.0% were obtained using the P. echinulatum enzymatic extract and Cellic CTec2, respectively. PMID:23973981

  4. TLP01, an mshA mutant of Vibrio cholerae O139 as vaccine candidate against cholera.

    PubMed

    Ledón, Talena; Ferrán, Beatriz; Pérez, Celso; Suzarte, Edith; Vichi, Joivier; Marrero, Karen; Oliva, Reinaldo; Fando, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    No commercially live vaccine against cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O139 serogroup is available and it is currently needed. Virulent O139 strain CRC266 was genetically modified by firstly deleting multiple copies of the filamentous phage CTXφ, further tagging by insertion of the endoglucanase A coding gene from Clostridium thermocellum into the hemagglutinin/protease gene and finally deleting the mshA gene, just to improve the vaccine biosafety. One of the derived strains designated as TLP01 showed full attenuation and good colonizing capacity in the infant mouse cholera model, as well as highly immunogenic properties in the adult rabbit and rat models. Since TLP01 lacks MSHA fimbriae, it is refractory to infection with another filamentous phage VGJφ and therefore protected of acquiring CTXφ from a recombinant hybrid VGJφ/CTXφ. This strategy could reduce the possibilities of stable reversion to virulence out of the human gut. Furthermore, this vaccine strain was impaired to produce biofilms under certain culture conditions, which might have implications for the strain survival in natural settings contributing to vaccine biosafety as well. The above results has encouraged us to consider TLP01 as a live attenuated vaccine strain having an adequate performance in animal models, in terms of attenuation and immunogenicity, so that it fulfills the requirements to be evaluated in human volunteers. PMID:22546527

  5. Plant expansins in bacteria and fungi: evolution by horizontal gene transfer and independent domain fusion.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Doran, Nicole; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been described as a common mechanism of transferring genetic material between prokaryotes, whereas genetic transfers from eukaryotes to prokaryotes have been rarely documented. Here we report a rare case of HGT in which plant expansin genes that code for plant cell-wall loosening proteins were transferred from plants to bacteria, fungi, and amoebozoa. In several cases, the species in which the expansin gene was found is either in intimate association with plants or is a known plant pathogen. Our analyses suggest that at least two independent genetic transfers occurred from plants to bacteria and fungi. These events were followed by multiple HGT events within bacteria and fungi. We have also observed that in bacteria expansin genes have been independently fused to DNA fragments that code for an endoglucanase domain or for a carbohydrate binding module, pointing to functional convergence at the molecular level. Furthermore, the functional similarities between microbial expansins and their plant xenologs suggest that these proteins mediate microbial-plant interactions by altering the plant cell wall and therefore may provide adaptive advantages to these species. The evolution of these nonplant expansins represents a unique case in which bacteria and fungi have found innovative and adaptive ways to interact with and infect plants by acquiring genes from their host. This evolutionary paradigm suggests that despite their low frequency such HGT events may have significantly contributed to the evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species. PMID:24150040

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Orsolya Erzsebet; Csiszar, Emilia; Toth, Karolina; Szakacs, George; Koczka, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic and hydrolytic enzymes were produced with six selected fungi on flax substrate by solid state fermentation (SSF). The extracellular enzyme production of the organisms in two SSF media was evaluated by measuring the soluble protein concentration and the filter paper, endoxylanase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, 1,4-β-d-endoglucanase, polygalacturonase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase activities of the clear culture solutions produced by conventional extraction from the SSF materials. The SSF material of the best enzyme producer (Trichoderma virens TUB F-498) was further investigated to enhance the enzyme recovery by low frequency ultrasound treatment. Performance of both the original and ultrasound macerated crude enzyme mixtures was evaluated in degradation of the colored lignin-containing and waxy materials of raw linen fabric. Results proved that sonication (at 40%, 60% and 80% amplitudes, for 60min) did not result in reduction in the filter paper, lignin peroxidase and laccase activities of the crude enzyme solution, but has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of enzyme extraction from the SSF material. Depending on the parameters of sonication, the enzyme activities in the extracts obtained can be increased up to 129-413% of the original activities measured in the control extracts recovered by a common magnetic stirrer. Sonication also has an effect on both the enzymatic removal of the lignin-containing color materials and hydrophobic surface layer from the raw linen. PMID:25043555

  7. Newly Isolated Penicillium ramulosum N1 Is Excellent for Producing Protease-Resistant Acidophilic Xylanase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chaoyang; Shen, Zhicheng; Zhu, Tingheng; Qin, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium ramulosum N1 was isolated from decaying wood. This strain produces extracellular xylanases and cellulases. The highest activities of xylanases (250 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase; 6.5 U/ml) were produced when 1% barley straw was added as a carbon source. The optimum temperature and pH for xylanase activity was 55 and 3.0 °C, respectively. The xylanases exhibited strong protease resistance. CMCase revealed maximum activities at pH 3.0 and in the range of 60-70 °C. Filter paper activity was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 55 °C. The zymograms produced by the SDS-PAGE resolution of the crude enzymes indicated that there are four bands of protein with xylanase activity and three bands of proteins with endoglucanase. The results revealed that P. ramulosum N1 is a promising acidophilic and protease-resistant xylanase-producing microorganism that has great potential to be used in animal feed and food industry applications. PMID:26431535

  8. Coexpression of cellulases in Pichia pastoris as a self-processing protein fusion.

    PubMed

    de Amorim Araújo, Juliana; Ferreira, Túlio César; Rubini, Marciano Régis; Duran, Ana Gilhema Gomez; De Marco, Janice Lisboa; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    The term cellulase refers to any component of the enzymatic complex produced by some fungi, bacteria and protozoans which act serially or synergistically to catalyze the cleavage of cellulosic materials. Cellulases have been widely used in many industrial applications ranging from food industry to the production of second generation ethanol. In an effort to develop new strategies to minimize the costs of enzyme production we describe the development of a Pichia pastoris strain able to coproduce two different cellulases. For that purpose the eglII (endoglucanase II) and cbhII (cellobiohydrolase II) genes from Trichoderma reesei were fused in-frame separated by the self-processing 2A peptide sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus. The protein fusion construct was placed under the control of the strong inducible AOX1 promoter. Analysis of culture supernatants from methanol-induced yeast transformants showed that the protein fusion was effectively processed. Enzymatic assay showed that the processed enzymes were fully functional with the same catalytic properties of the individual enzymes produced separately. Furthermore, when combined both enzymes acted synergistically on filter paper to produce cellobiose as the main end-product. Based on these results we propose that P. pastoris should be considered as an alternative platform for the production of cellulases at competitive costs. PMID:26698316

  9. Influence of different chemical pretreatments of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum.) used as a substrate for cellulase and xylanase production in submerged cultivation.

    PubMed

    Menegol, Daiane; Scholl, Angélica Luisi; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Camassola, Marli

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the potential use of elephant grass biomass, a highly productive species, for cellulase and xylanase production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 in submerged cultivation, using untreated biomass, biomass pretreated with different concentrations of NaOH, H2SO4 or NH4OH, or biomass pretreated with H2O at 121 °C. For filter paper activity, all cultivation carried out with pretreated elephant grass under the evaluated conditions showed superior activity when compared with the control (untreated elephant grass). The activities of endoglucanases and β-glucosidases were higher in the cultivation prepared from pretreated samples than the control made with cellulose (Celuflok(®)). Without pretreatment, elephant grass can be used for xylanase production, enabling similar activities to those obtained in the cultivation with cellulose, reducing the enzyme production cost. These results indicate that the pretreatment of elephant grass, especially when pretreated with H2SO4, may be used as a partial or total replacement for cellulose to cellulase production, and untreated elephant grass may be used for xylanase production. PMID:27164962

  10. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  11. Expression of Recombinant Cellulase Cel5A from Trichoderma reesei in Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Megan; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes, cellulases, are targets of both research and industrial interests. The preponderance of these enzymes in difficult-to-culture organisms, such as hyphae-building fungi and anaerobic bacteria, has hastened the use of recombinant technologies in this field. Plant expression methods are a desirable system for large-scale production of enzymes and other industrially useful proteins. Herein, methods for the transient expression of a fungal endoglucanase, Trichoderma reesei Cel5A, in Nicotiana tabacum are demonstrated. Successful protein expression is shown, monitored by fluorescence using an mCherry-enzyme fusion protein. Additionally, a set of basic tests are used to examine the activity of transiently expressed T. reesei Cel5A, including SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, zymography, as well as fluorescence and dye-based substrate degradation assays. The system described here can be used to produce an active cellulase in a short time period, so as to assess the potential for further production in plants through constitutive or inducible expression systems. PMID:24962636

  12. Novel sources of β-glucanase for the enzymatic degradation of schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Nunnally, Melinda S; Peterson, Stephen W

    2013-03-01

    Schizophyllan is a homoglucan produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune, with a β-1,3-linked backbone and β-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. Schizophyllan is commercially produced for pharmaceutical and cosmetics uses. However, surprisingly little information is available on the biodegradation of schizophyllan. Enzymes that attack schizophyllan could be useful for controlled modifications of the polymer for novel applications. Enrichment cultures were used to isolate 20 novel fungal strains from soil samples, capable of growing on schizophyllan as a sole carbon source. Three additional strains were isolated as contaminants of stored schizophyllan solutions. Strains showing the highest levels of β-glucanase activity were identified as Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium crustosum, and Hypocrea nigricans. β-glucanases also showed activity against the similar β-glucans, laminarin and curdlan. By comparison, commercial β-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum and laminarinase from Trichoderma sp. showed lower specific activities toward schizophyllan than most of the novel isolates. β-glucanases from P. simplicissimum and H. nigricans exhibited temperature optima of 60°C and 50°C against schizophyllan, respectively, with broad pH optima around pH 5.0. Partial purifications of β-glucanase from P. simplicissimum and P. crustosum demonstrated the presence of multiple active endoglucanase species, including a 20-25 kD enzyme from P. simplicissimum. PMID:23410934

  13. Use of cellulolytic marine bacteria for enzymatic pretreatment in microalgal biogas production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos; Rivas, Mariella

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with "whole-cell" cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a "whole-cell" cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  14. Effects of the linker region on the structure and function of modular GH5 cellulases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Diego M; Turowski, Valeria R; Murakami, Mario T

    2016-01-01

    The association of glycosyl hydrolases with catalytically inactive modules is a successful evolutionary strategy that is commonly used by biomass-degrading microorganisms to digest plant cell walls. The presence of accessory domains in these enzymes is associated with properties such as higher catalytic efficiency, extension of the catalytic interface and targeting of the enzyme to the proper substrate. However, the importance of the linker region in the synergistic action of the catalytic and accessory domains remains poorly understood. Thus, this study examined how the inter-domain region affects the structure and function of modular GH5 endoglucanases, by using cellulase 5A from Bacillus subtilis (BsCel5A) as a model. BsCel5A variants featuring linkers with different stiffnesses or sizes were designed and extensively characterized, revealing that changes in flexibility or rigidity in this region differentially affect kinetic behavior. Regarding the linker length, we found that precise inter-domain spacing is required to enable efficient hydrolysis because excessively long or short linkers were equally detrimental to catalysis. Together, these findings identify molecular and structural features that may contribute to the rational design of chimeric and multimodular glycosyl hydrolases. PMID:27334041

  15. MULTIPASS, a rice R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, regulates adaptive growth by integrating multiple hormonal pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Growth regulation is an important aspect of plant adaptation during environmental perturbations. Here, the role of MULTIPASS (OsMPS), an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor of rice, was explored. OsMPS is induced by salt stress and expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Over-expression of OsMPS reduces growth under non-stress conditions, while knockdown plants display increased biomass. OsMPS expression is induced by abscisic acid and cytokinin, but is repressed by auxin, gibberellin and brassinolide. Growth retardation caused by OsMPS over-expression is partially restored by auxin application. Expression profiling revealed that OsMPS negatively regulates the expression of EXPANSIN (EXP) and cell-wall biosynthesis as well as phytohormone signaling genes. Furthermore, the expression of OsMPS-dependent genes is regulated by auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid. Moreover, we show that OsMPS is a direct upstream regulator of OsEXPA4, OsEXPA8, OsEXPB2, OsEXPB3, OsEXPB6 and the endoglucanase genes OsGLU5 and OsGLU14. The multiple responses of OsMPS and its target genes to various hormones suggest an integrative function of OsMPS in the cross-talk between phytohormones and the environment to regulate adaptive growth. PMID:23855375

  16. Identification and characterization of a multidomain hyperthermophilic cellulase from an archaeal enrichment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Joel E; Clark, Melinda E; Nadler, Dana C; Huffer, Sarah; Chokhawala, Harshal A; Rowland, Sara E; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Robb, Frank T

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on microbial and enzymatic lignocellulose degradation, relatively few Archaea are known to deconstruct crystalline cellulose. Here we describe a consortium of three hyperthermophilic archaea enriched from a continental geothermal source by growth at 90 °C on crystalline cellulose, representing the first instance of Archaea able to deconstruct lignocellulose optimally above 90 °C. Following metagenomic studies on the consortium, a 90 kDa, multidomain cellulase, annotated as a member of the TIM barrel glycosyl hydrolase superfamily, was characterized. The multidomain architecture of this protein is uncommon for hyperthermophilic endoglucanases, and two of the four domains of the enzyme have no characterized homologues. The recombinant enzyme has optimal activity at 109 °C, a half-life of 5 h at 100 °C, and resists denaturation in strong detergents, high-salt concentrations, and ionic liquids. Cellulases active above 100 °C may assist in biofuel production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by hydrolysing cellulose under conditions typically employed in biomass pretreatment. PMID:21730956

  17. Single-cell and metagenomic analyses indicate a fermentative and saccharolytic lifestyle for members of the OP9 lineage.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Blainey, Paul C; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Swingley, Wesley D; Ross, Christian A; Tringe, Susannah G; Chain, Patrick S G; Scholz, Matthew B; Lo, Chien-Chi; Raymond, Jason; Quake, Stephen R; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    OP9 is a yet-uncultivated bacterial lineage found in geothermal systems, petroleum reservoirs, anaerobic digesters and wastewater treatment facilities. Here we use single-cell and metagenome sequencing to obtain two distinct, nearly complete OP9 genomes, one constructed from single cells sorted from hot spring sediments and the other derived from binned metagenomic contigs from an in situ-enriched cellulolytic, thermophilic community. Phylogenomic analyses support the designation of OP9 as a candidate phylum for which we propose the name 'Atribacteria'. Although a plurality of predicted proteins is most similar to those from Firmicutes, the presence of key genes suggests a diderm cell envelope. Metabolic reconstruction from the core genome suggests an anaerobic lifestyle based on sugar fermentation by Embden-Meyerhof glycolysis with production of hydrogen, acetate and ethanol. Putative glycohydrolases and an endoglucanase may enable catabolism of (hemi)cellulose in thermal environments. This study lays a foundation for understanding the physiology and ecological role of the 'Atribacteria'. PMID:23673639

  18. Cloning of thermostable cellulase genes of Clostridium thermocellum and their secretive expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Ming; Xin, Xiu-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiu; Xu, Jian-He; Bao, Jie

    2012-02-01

    Screening for the powerful cellulase genes with improved activities remains a challenge for the biorefinery research. In this study, five cellobiohydrolase genes and one endoglucanase gene sourced from Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1237, cbhA, celK, celO, cel48Y, cel48S, and celA were cloned into a newly established tool vector pP43JM2 and expressed in two Bacillus subtilis strains, B. subtilis WB600 and B. subtilis WB800, respectively. Most of the cellulases produced in the B. subtilis recombinants were efficiently secreted into the culture medium. These secreted soluble proteins showed distinct cellulase activities using phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) as the substrate and they also demonstrated strong synergistic effects for PASC, Avicel cellulose, and the dilute acid pretreated corn stover. The current work provided a quick secretive cloning method for screening cellulase genes and may provide a host strain for constructing a consolidated bioprocessing platform with the capacity of secretive expression of multiple cellulases. PMID:22101447

  19. A cellulose-binding module of the Trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase Man5A increases the mannan-hydrolysis of complex substrates.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Per; Eriksson, Torny; Collén, Anna; Nerinckx, Wim; Claeyssens, Marc; Stålbrand, Henrik

    2003-02-27

    Endo-beta-1,4-D-mannanases (beta-mannanase; EC 3.2.1.78) are endohydrolases that participate in the degradation of hemicellulose, which is closely associated with cellulose in plant cell walls. The beta-mannanase from Trichoderma reesei (Man5A) is composed of an N-terminal catalytic module and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). In order to study the properties of the CBM, a construct encoding a mutant of Man5A lacking the part encoding the CBM (Man5ADeltaCBM), was expressed in T. reesei under the regulation of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter. The wild-type enzyme was expressed in the same way and both proteins were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. Both enzymes hydrolysed mannopentaose, soluble locust bean gum galactomannan and insoluble ivory nut mannan with similar rates. With a mannan/cellulose complex, however, the deletion mutant lacking the CBM showed a significant decrease in hydrolysis. Binding experiments using activity detection of Man5A and Man5ADeltaCBM suggests that the CBM binds to cellulose but not to mannan. Moreover, the binding of Man5A to cellulose was compared with that of an endoglucanase (Cel7B) from T. reesei. PMID:12523968

  20. Combinatorial Screening for Transgenic Yeasts with High Cellulase Activities in Combination with a Tunable Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoichiro; Yamanishi, Mamoru; Ikeuchi, Akinori; Imamura, Chie; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Combinatorial screening used together with a broad library of gene expression cassettes is expected to produce a powerful tool for the optimization of the simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes. Recently, we proposed a highly tunable protein expression system that utilized multiple genome-integrated target genes to fine-tune enzyme expression in yeast cells. This tunable system included a library of expression cassettes each composed of three gene-expression control elements that in different combinations produced a wide range of protein expression levels. In this study, four gene expression cassettes with graded protein expression levels were applied to the expression of three cellulases: cellobiohydrolase 1, cellobiohydrolase 2, and endoglucanase 2. After combinatorial screening for transgenic yeasts simultaneously secreting these three cellulases, we obtained strains with higher cellulase expressions than a strain harboring three cellulase-expression constructs within one high-performance gene expression cassette. These results show that our method will be of broad use throughout the field of metabolic engineering. PMID:26692026

  1. Subsite-specific contributions of different aromatic residues in the active site architecture of glycoside hydrolase family 12

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Xiuyun; Liu, Shijia; Li, Dandan; Xu, Hao; Gao, Peiji; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2015-01-01

    The active site architecture of glycoside hydrolase (GH) is a contiguous subregion of the enzyme constituted by residues clustered in the three-dimensional space, recognizing the monomeric unit of ligand through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Mutations of the key residues in the active site architecture of the GH12 family exerted different impacts on catalytic efficiency. Binding affinities between the aromatic amino acids and carbohydrate rings were quantitatively determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and the quantum mechanical (QM) method, showing that the binding capacity order of Tyr>Trp>His (and Phe) was determined by their side-chain properties. The results also revealed that the binding constant of a certain residue remained unchanged when altering its location, while the catalytic efficiency changed dramatically. Increased binding affinity at a relatively distant subsite, such as the mutant of W7Y at the −4 subsite, resulted in a marked increase in the intermediate product of cellotetraose and enhanced the reactivity of endoglucanase by 144%; while tighter binding near the catalytic center, i.e. W22Y at the −2 subsite, enabled the enzyme to bind and hydrolyze smaller oligosaccharides. Clarification of the specific roles of the aromatics at different subsites may pave the way for a more rational design of GHs. PMID:26670009

  2. Impact of organic rich diet on gut enzymes, microbes and biomass of earthworm, Eudrilus eugienea.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, G; Thaddeus, Arockiam

    2013-05-01

    Vermitechnology provides scope and opportunities in the field of Biotechnology. The sudden decline in earthworm biomass may mainly be due to the over use of chemicals. Steps had been taken to enhance the production of biomass of earthworms by providing organic wastes rich in major organic constituents such as cereals, pulses and skin of chick. Earthworms (Eudrilus eugienea) were fed with organic constituents individually, and in combination of organic rich diet. The biomass of the earthworm was steadily increasing in the individual treatment was found when fed with organic rich diet at 10, 20 and 30 days respectively 09.987, 13.569 and 18.212. The bacterial counts in the gut of earthworms were 543 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). The bacteria identified were Bacillus spp., Lactobacillus spp and Flavobacterium spp. Enzymes screened in the gut were amylase, endoglucanase, cellulase, sucrase and protease. From the present investigation, it was found that the organic rich diet is the ideal medium in which the biomass of earthworms are high, their enzymatic activity was also high with variety of microbes which will enhance the efficiency of the soil. PMID:24617136

  3. Quantitative proteomic approach for cellulose degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher M; Iavarone, Anthony T; Marletta, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Conversion of plant biomass to soluble sugars is the primary bottleneck associated with production of economically viable cellulosic fuels and chemicals. To better understand the biochemical route that filamentous fungi use to degrade plant biomass, we have taken a quantitative proteomics approach to characterizing the secretome of Neurospora crassa during growth on microcrystalline cellulose. Thirteen proteins were quantified in the N. crassa secretome using a combination of Absolute Quantification (AQUA) and Absolute SILAC to verify protein concentrations. Four of these enzymes including 2 cellobiohydrolases (CBH-1 and GH6-2), an endoglucanase (GH5-1), and a β-glucosidase (GH3-4) were then chosen to reconstitute a defined cellulase mixture in vitro. These enzymes were assayed alone and in mixtures and the activity of the reconstituted set was then compared to the crude mixture of N. crassa secretome proteins. Results show that while these 4 proteins represent 63-65% of the total secretome by weight, they account for just 43% of the total activity on microcrystalline cellulose after 24 h of hydrolysis. This result and quantitative proteomic data on other less abundant proteins secreted by Neurospora suggest that proteins other than canonical fungal cellulases may play an important role in cellulose degradation by fungi. PMID:21744778

  4. Molecular docking study of Beta-glucosidase with cellobiose, cellotetraose and cellotetriose.

    PubMed

    Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah Ahmad; Mazlan, Nur Shima Fadhilah

    2013-01-01

    Beta-glucosidase (3.2.1.21) plays an essential role in the removal of non-reducing terminal glucosyl residues from glycosides. Recently, beta-glucosidase has been of interest for biomass conversion that acts in synergy with two other enzymes, endoglucanase and exo-glucanase. However, there is not much information available on the catalytic interactions of beta-glucosidase with its substrates. Thus, this study reports on the binding modes between beta-glucosidase from glycoside hydrolase family 1 namely BglB with cellobiose, cellotetraose and cellotetriose via molecular docking simulation. From the results, the binding affinities of BglB-cellobiose, BglB-cellotetraose, and BglB-cellotetriose complexes were reported to be -6.2kJ/mol , -5.68 kJ/mol and -5.63 kJ/mol, respectively. The detail interactions were also been investigated that revealed the key residues involved in forming hydrogen bonds (h-bond) with the substrates. These findings may provide valuable insigths in designing beta-glucosidase with higher cellobiose-hydrolyzing efficiency. PMID:24143051

  5. Structure of the catalytic core module of the Chaetomium thermophilum family GH6 cellobiohydrolase Cel6A.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew J; Heu, Tia; Shaghasi, Tarana; Benyamino, Romil; Jones, Aubrey; Friis, Esben P; Wilson, Keith S; Davies, Gideon J

    2012-08-01

    Cellulases, including cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, are important enzymes involved in the breakdown of the polysaccharide cellulose. These catalysts have found widescale industrial applications, particularly in the paper and textile industries, and are now finding use in `second-generation' conversion of biomass to biofuels. Despite this considerable biotechnological application, and undoubted future potential, uncertainty remains as to the exact reaction mechanism of the inverting cellulases found in the GH6 family of carbohydrate-active enzymes. In order to gain additional understanding as to how these societally beneficial biocatalysts function, the crystal structure of a GH6 cellobiohydrolase from Chaetomium thermophilum, CtCel6A, has been solved. This structure reveals a distorted α/β-barrel fold comprising a buried tunnel-like active site quite typical of Cel6A enzymes. Analysis of an enzyme-product complex (cellobiose in the -3 and -2 subsites and cellotetraose in subsites +1 to +4) supports the hypothesis that this group of enzymes act via an atypical single-displacement mechanism. Of particular note in this analysis is an active-centre metal ion, Li(+), the position of which matches the position of the positively charged anomeric carbon of the oxocarbenium-ion-like transition state. PMID:22868752

  6. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  7. A structural overview of GH61 proteins – fungal cellulose degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Leila Lo; Welner, Ditte; De Maria, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a spurt of activities in the elucidation of the molecular function of a class of proteins with great potential in biomass degradation. GH61 proteins are of fungal origin and were originally classified in family 61 of the glycoside hydrolases. From the beginning they were strongly suspected to be involved in cellulose degradation because of their expression profiles, despite very low detectable endoglucanase activities. A major breakthrough came from structure determination of the first members, establishing the presence of a divalent metal binding site and a similarity to bacterial proteins involved in chitin degradation. A second breakthrough came from the identification of cellulase boosting activity dependent on the integrity of the metal binding site. Finally very recently GH61 proteins were demonstrated to oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose in a Cu and reductant dependant manner. This mini-review in particular focuses on the contribution that structure elucidation has made in the understanding of GH61 molecular function and reviews the currently known structures and the challenges remaining ahead for exploiting this new class of enzymes to the full. PMID:24688660

  8. Dissecting and Reconstructing Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Ganner, Thomas; Bubner, Patricia; Eibinger, Manuel; Mayrhofer, Claudia; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and a major reservoir of fixed carbon on earth. Comprehension of the elusive mechanism of its enzymatic degradation represents a fundamental problem at the interface of biology, biotechnology, and materials science. The interdependence of cellulose disintegration and hydrolysis and the synergistic interplay among cellulases is yet poorly understood. Here we report evidence from in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) that delineates degradation of a polymorphic cellulose substrate as a dynamic cycle of alternating exposure and removal of crystalline fibers. Direct observation shows that chain-end-cleaving cellobiohydrolases (CBH I, CBH II) and an internally chain-cleaving endoglucanase (EG), the major components of cellulase systems, take on distinct roles: EG and CBH II make the cellulose surface accessible for CBH I by removing amorphous-unordered substrate areas, thus exposing otherwise embedded crystalline-ordered nanofibrils of the cellulose. Subsequently, these fibrils are degraded efficiently by CBH I, thereby uncovering new amorphous areas. Without prior action of EG and CBH II, CBH I was poorly active on the cellulosic substrate. This leads to the conclusion that synergism among cellulases is morphology-dependent and governed by the cooperativity between enzymes degrading amorphous regions and those targeting primarily crystalline regions. The surface-disrupting activity of cellulases therefore strongly depends on mesoscopic structural features of the substrate: size and packing of crystalline fibers are key determinants of the overall efficiency of cellulose degradation. PMID:23118223

  9. Structure of hyperthermophilic β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Kado, Yuji; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Three categories of cellulases, endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases, are commonly used in the process of cellulose saccharification. In particular, the activity and characteristics of hyperthermophilic β-glucosidase make it promising in industrial applications of biomass. In this paper, the crystal structure of the hyperthermophilic β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus (BGLPf) was determined at 2.35 Å resolution in a new crystal form. The structure showed that there is one tetramer in the asymmetric unit and that the dimeric molecule exhibits a structure that is stable towards sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The dimeric molecule migrated in reducing SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) buffer even after boiling at 368 K. Energy calculations demonstrated that one of the two dimer interfaces acquired the largest solvation free energy. Structural comparison and sequence alignment with mesophilic β-glucosidase A from Clostridium cellulovorans (BGLACc) revealed that the elongation at the C-terminal end forms a hydrophobic patch at the dimer interface that might contribute to hyperthermostability. PMID:22139147

  10. Addition of a carbohydrate-binding module enhances cellulase penetration into cellulose substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cellulases are of great interest for application in biomass degradation, yet the molecular details of the mode of action of glycoside hydrolases during degradation of insoluble cellulose remain elusive. To further improve these enzymes for application at industrial conditions, it is critical to gain a better understanding of not only the details of the degradation process, but also the function of accessory modules. Method We fused a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) from family 2a to two thermophilic endoglucanases. We then applied neutron reflectometry to determine the mechanism of the resulting enhancements. Results Catalytic activity of the chimeric enzymes was enhanced up to three fold on insoluble cellulose substrates as compared to wild type. Importantly, we demonstrate that the wild type enzymes affect primarily the surface properties of an amorphous cellulose film, while the chimeras containing a CBM alter the bulk properties of the amorphous film. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the CBM improves the efficiency of these cellulases by enabling digestion within the bulk of the film. PMID:23819686

  11. Multi-functional glycoside hydrolase: Blon_0625 from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Shimada, Shota; Hata, Yuto; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    We here describe a unique β-D-glucosidase (BGL; Blon_0625) derived from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697. The Blon_0625 gene was expressed by recombinant Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant Blon_0625 retains hydrolyzing activity against both p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG; 17.3±0.24Umg(-1)) and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX; 16.7±0.32Umg(-1)) at pH 6.0, 30°C. To best of our knowledge, no previously described BGL retains the same level of both pNPGase and pNPXase activity. Furthermore, Blon_0625 also retains the activity against 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofranoside (pNPAf; 5.6±0.09Umg(-1)). In addition, the results of the degradation of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) or xylan using endoglucanase from Thermobifida fusca YX (Tfu_0901) or xylanase from Kitasatospora setae KM-6054 (KSE_59480) show that Blon_0625 acts as a BGL and as a β-D-xylosidase (XYL) for hydrolyzing oligosaccharides. These results clearly indicate that Blon_0625 is a multi-functional glycoside hydrolase which retains the activity of BGL, XYL, and also α-l-arabinofuranosidase. Therefore, the utilization of multi-functional Blon_0625 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic materials and help enhance bioconversion processes. PMID:25435500

  12. Development of three specific PCR-based tools to determine quantity, cellulolytic transcriptional activity and phylogeny of anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Callaghan, Tony Martin; Dorn-In, Samart; Bauer, Johann; Lebuhn, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) decompose plant material with their rhizoid and multiple cellulolytic enzymes. They disintegrate the complex structure of lignocellulosic substrates, making them more accessible and suitable for further microbial degradation. There is also much interest in their use as biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. Here, three novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detecting AF and their transcriptional activity in in vitro cultures and environmental samples were developed. Two real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based methods targeting AF were developed: AF-SSU, was designed to quantify the 18S rRNA genes of AF. AF-Endo, measuring transcripts of an endoglucanase gene from the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5), was developed to quantify their transcriptional cellulolytic activity. The third PCR based approach was designed for phylogenetical analysis. It targets the 28S rRNA gene (LSU) of AF revealing their phylogenetic affiliation. The in silico-designed primer/probe combinations were successfully tested for the specific amplification of AF from animal and biogas plant derived samples. In combination, these three methods represent useful tools for the analysis of AF transcriptional cellulolytic activity, their abundance and their phylogenetic placement. PMID:27220661

  13. Molecular characterization of SCO0765 as a cellotriose releasing endo-β-1,4-cellulase from Streptomyces coelicolor A(3).

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Bin; Dhakshnamoorthy, Vijayalakshmi; Lee, Chang-Ro

    2016-09-01

    The sco0765 gene was annotated as a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 endoglucanase from the genomic sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and consisted of 2,241 bp encoding a polypeptide of 747 amino acids (molecular weight of 80.5 kDa) with a 29-amino acid signal peptide for secretion. The SCO0765 recombinant protein was heterogeneously over-expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK24 under the control of a strong ermE* promoter. The purified SCO0765 protein showed the expected molecular weight of the mature form (718 aa, 77.6 kDa) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis. SCO0765 showed high activity toward β-glucan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and negligible activity to Avicel, xylan, and xyloglucan. The SCO0765 cellulase had a maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 40°C toward CMC and at pH 9.0 and 50-60°C toward β-glucan. Thin layer chromatography of the hydrolyzed products of CMC and β-glucan by SCO0765 gave cellotriose as the major product and cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and longer oligosaccharides as the minor products. These results clearly demonstrate that SCO0765 is an endo-β-1,4-cellulase, hydrolyzing the β-1,4 glycosidic bond of cellulose into cellotriose. PMID:27572512

  14. Involvement of MAK-1 and MAK-2 MAP kinases in cell wall integrity in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masakazu; Fukumori, Fumiyasu; Ichiishi, Akihiko; Fujimura, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Among three MAPK disruptants of Neurospora crassa, Δmak-1 was sensitive and Δmak-2 was hypersensitive to micafungin, a beta-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, than the wild-type or Δos-2 strains. We identified six micafungin-inducible genes that are involved in cell wall integrity (CWI) and found that MAK-1 regulated the transcription of non-anchored cell wall protein gene, ncw-1, and the beta-1,3-endoglucanase gene, bgt-2, whereas MAK-2 controlled the expression of the glycosylhydrolase-like protein gene, gh76-5, and the C4-dicarboxylate transporter gene, tdt-1. Western blotting analysis revealed that, in the wild-type strain, MAK-1 was constitutively phosphorylated from conidial germination to hyphal development. In contrast, the phosphorylation of MAK-2 was growth phase-dependent, and micafungin induced the phosphorylation of unphosphorylated MAK-2. It should be noted that the phosphorylation of MAK-1 was virtually abolished in the Δmak-2 strain, but was significantly induced by micafungin, suggesting functional cross talk between MAK-1 and MAK-2 signalling pathway in CWI. PMID:27268441

  15. Xyloglucan and its interactions with other components of the growing cell wall.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of xyloglucan and its ability to bind tightly to cellulose has dominated our thinking about primary cell wall structure and its connection to the mechanism of cell enlargement for 40 years. Gene discovery has advanced our understanding of the synthesis of xyloglucan in the past decade, and at the same time new and unexpected results indicate that xyloglucan's role in wall structure and wall extensibility is more subtle than commonly believed. Genetic deletion of xyloglucan synthesis does not greatly disable cell wall functions. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicate that pectins, rather than xyloglucans, make the majority of contacts with cellulose surfaces. Xyloglucan binding may be selective for specific (hydrophobic) surfaces on the cellulose microfibril, whose structure is more complex than is commonly portrayed in cell wall cartoons. Biomechanical assessments of endoglucanase actions challenge the concept of xyloglucan tethering. The mechanically important xyloglucan is restricted to a minor component that appears to be closely intertwined with cellulose at limited sites ('biomechanical hotspots') of direct microfibril contact; these may be the selective sites of cell wall loosening by expansins. These discoveries indicate that wall extensibility is less a matter of bulk viscoelasticity of the matrix polymers and more a matter of selective control of slippage and separation of microfibrils at specific and limited sites in the wall. PMID:25613914

  16. Lignocellulose degrading extremozymes produced by Pichia pastoris: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Burcu Gündüz; Çalık, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, extremophilic lignocellulosic enzymes with special interest on xylanases, β-mannanases, laccases and finally cellulases, namely, endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases produced by Pichia pastoris are reviewed for the first time. Recombinant lignocellulosic extremozymes are discussed from the perspectives of their potential application areas; characteristics of recombinant and native enzymes; the effects of P. pastoris expression system on recombinant extremozymes; and their expression levels and applied strategies to increase the enzyme expression yield. Further, effects of enzyme domains on activity and stability, protein engineering via molecular dynamics simulation and computational prediction, and site-directed mutagenesis and amino acid modifications done are also focused. Superior enzyme characteristics and improved stability due to the proper post-translational modifications and better protein folding performed by P. pastoris make this host favourable for extremozyme production. Especially, glycosylation contributes to the structure, function and stability of enzymes, as generally glycosylated enzymes produced by P. pastoris exhibit better thermostability than non-glycosylated enzymes. However, there has been limited study on enzyme engineering to improve catalytic efficiency and stability of lignocellulosic enzymes. Thus, in the future, studies should focus on protein engineering to improve stability and catalytic efficiency via computational modelling, mutations, domain replacements and fusion enzyme technology. Also metagenomic data need to be used more extensively to produce novel enzymes with extreme characteristics and stability. PMID:26497303

  17. Enhanced production of industrial enzymes in Mucoromycotina fungi during solid-state fermentation of agricultural wastes/by-products.

    PubMed

    Takó, Miklós; Kotogán, Alexandra; Krisch, Judit; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Mondal, Keshab C; Papp, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    Cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic enzyme production of zygomycetes Mucor corticolus, Rhizomucor miehei, Gilbertella persicaria and Rhizopus niveus were investigated using agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Solid-state cultures were carried out on untreated corn residues (stalk and leaf) as single substrate (SSF1) or corn residues and wheat bran in mixed fermentation (SSF2). Rapid production of endoglucanase (CMCase) was observed with maximal activity reaching after about 48-h fermentation, while cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase enzymes generally had their peak after 72-h incubation. Highest filter paper degrading (FPase), CMCase, CBH and β-glucosidase activities obtained were (U g⁻¹ dss) 17.3, 74.1, 12.2 and 158.3, for R. miehei, G. persicaria, M. corticolus and Rh. niveus, respectively. M. corticolus proved to be the best lipolytic enzyme producer in SSF1 presenting 447.6 U g⁻¹ dss yield, while R. miehei showed 517.7 U g⁻¹ dss activity in SSF2. Rh. niveus exhibited significantly greater protease production than the other strains. Suc-AAPF-pNA hydrolyzing activities of this strain were 1.1 and 1.96 U g⁻¹ dss in SSF1 and SSF2, respectively. We conclude that the used corn stalk and leaf residues could potentially be applicable as strong inducers for cellulase and lipase production by Mucoromycotina fungi. PMID:26344030

  18. The influence of pretreatment methods on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by an enzyme extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and commercial cocktails: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Visser, Evan Michael; Alfenas, Rafael Ferreira; Nogueira, Bráulio Ris G; de Campos, Guilherme Galvão; Milagres, Adriane Ferreira; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2015-09-01

    Biomass enzymatic hydrolysis depends on the pretreatment methods employed, the composition of initial feedstock and the enzyme cocktail used to release sugars for subsequent fermentation into ethanol. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 and 1% NaOH and the biomass saccharification was performed with 8% solids loading using 10 FPase units/g of bagasse of the enzymatic extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and three commercial cocktails for a comparative study. Overall, the best glucose and xylose release was obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The C. cubensis extract promoted higher release of glucose (5.32 g/L) and xylose (9.00 g/L) than the commercial mixtures. Moreover, the C. cubensis extract presented high specific enzyme activities when compared to commercial cocktails mainly concerning to endoglucanase (331.84 U/mg of protein), β-glucosidase (29.48 U/mg of protein), β-xylosidase (2.95 U/mg of protein), pectinase (127.46 U/mg of protein) and laccase (2.49 U/mg of protein). PMID:26094192

  19. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

    PubMed

    Pope, Phillip B; Mackenzie, Alasdair K; Gregor, Ivan; Smith, Wendy; Sundset, Monica A; McHardy, Alice C; Morrison, Mark; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1). Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs) as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5) but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation. PMID:22701672

  20. Metagenomics of the Svalbard Reindeer Rumen Microbiome Reveals Abundance of Polysaccharide Utilization Loci

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Phillip B.; Mackenzie, Alasdair K.; Gregor, Ivan; Smith, Wendy; Sundset, Monica A.; McHardy, Alice C.; Morrison, Mark; Eijsink, Vincent G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1). Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs) as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5) but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation. PMID:22701672

  1. Cloning and expression of the cold-adapted endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene from Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Masami; Miyatake, Kazutaka; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2014-01-30

    Biofuel production from plant-derived lignocellulosic material using fungal cellulases is facing cost-effective challenges related to high temperature requirements. The present study identified a cold-adapted cellulase named endo-1,4-β-glucanase (EF-EG2) from the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The gene was cloned in the cold-shock expression vector (pCold I) and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress RT (DE3). The gene consists of 1,368 bp encoding 456 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence shares sequence homology with the endo-1,4-β-glucanases of Eisenia andrei (98%), Pheretima hilgendorfi (79%), Perineresis brevicirris (63%), and Strongylocentrotus nudus (58%), which all belong to glycoside hydrolase family 9. Purified recombinant EF-EG2 hydrolyzed soluble cellulose (carboxymethyl cellulose), but not insoluble (powdered cellulose) or crystalline (Avicel) cellulose substrates. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of the reaction products from 1,4-β-linked oligosaccharides of various lengths revealed a cleavage mechanism consistent with endoglucanases (not exoglucanases). The enzyme exhibited significant activity at 10°C (38% of the activity at optimal 40°C) and was stable at pH 5.0-9.0, with an optimum pH of 5.5. This new cold-adapted cellulase could potentially improve the cost effectiveness of biofuel production. PMID:24299806

  2. Moko Disease-Causing Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum from Brazil Extend Known Diversity in Paraphyletic Phylotype II.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Greecy M R; Santos, Liliana A; Felix, Kátia C S; Rollemberg, Christtianno L; Silva, Adriano M F; Souza, Elineide B; Cellier, Gilles; Prior, Philippe; Mariano, Rosa L R

    2014-11-01

    The epidemic situation of Moko disease-causing strains in Latin America and Brazil is unclear. Thirty-seven Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Brazil that cause the Moko disease on banana and heliconia plants were sampled and phylogenetically typed using the endoglucanase (egl) and DNA repair (mutS) genes according to the phylotype and sequevar classification. All of the strains belonged to phylotype II and a portion of the strains was typed as the Moko disease-related sequevars IIA-6 and IIA-24. Nevertheless, two unsuspected sequevars also harbored the Moko disease-causing strains IIA-41 and IIB-25, and a new sequevar was described and named IIA-53. All of the strains were pathogenic to banana and some of the strains of sequevars IIA-6, IIA-24, and IIA-41 were also pathogenic to tomato. The Moko disease-causing strains from sequevar IIB-25 were pathogenic to potato but not to tomato. These results highlight the high diversity of strains of Moko in Brazil, reinforce the efficiency of the egl gene to reveal relationships among these strains, and contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of paraphyletic Moko disease-causing strains of the R. solanacearum species complex, where the following seven distinct genetic clusters have been described: IIA-6, IIA-24, IIA-41, IIA-53, IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIB-25. PMID:24848276

  3. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candidate for cellulase production when cultured on in natura sugarcane bagasse. Strain L04 revealed a well-balanced cellulolytic complex, presenting fast kinetic production of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases, achieving 4,022, U.L(-1) (72 h), 1,228 U.L(-1) (120 h) and 1,968 U.L(-1) (48 h) as the highest activities, respectively. About 60% glucose yields were obtained from sugarcane bagasse after 18 hours hydrolysis. This new strain represents a potential candidate for on-site enzyme production using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. PMID:24349958

  4. Enhancing xylanase production in the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila by homologous overexpression of Mtxyr1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wu, Yaning; Gong, Yanfen; Yu, Shaowen; Liu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    The xylanase regulator 1 protein in Myceliophthora thermophila ATCC42464 (MtXyr1) is 60 % homologous with that of Trichoderma reesei. However, MtXyr1's regulatory role on cellulolytic and xylanolytic genes in M. thermophila is unknown. Herein, MtXyr1 was overexpressed under the control of the MtPpdc (pyruvate decarboxylase) promoter. Compared with the wild type, the extracellular xylanase activities of the transformant cultured in non-inducing and inducing media for 120 h were 25.19- and 9.04-fold higher, respectively. The Mtxyr1 mRNA level was 300-fold higher than in the wild type in corncob-containing medium. However, the filter paper activity and endoglucanase activities were unchanged in corncob-containing medium and glucose-containing medium. The different zymograms between the transformant and the wild type were analyzed and identified by mass spectrometry as three xylanases of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11. Thus, overexpression of xyr1 resulted in enhanced xylanase activity in M. thermophila. Xylanase production could be improved by overexpressing Mtxyr1 in M. thermophila. PMID:26173497

  5. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments. PMID:26237450

  6. Engineering of Family-5 Glycoside Hydrolase (Cel5A) from an Uncultured Bacterium for Efficient Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Telke, Amar A.; Zhuang, Ningning; Ghatge, Sunil S.; Lee, Sook-Hee; Ali Shah, Asad; Khan, Haji; Um, Youngsoon; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chung, Young Ryun; Lee, Kon Ho; Kim, Seon-Won

    2013-01-01

    Cel5A, an endoglucanase, was derived from the metagenomic library of vermicompost. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cel5A shows high sequence homology with family-5 glycoside hydrolases, which contain a single catalytic domain but no distinct cellulose-binding domain. Random mutagenesis and cellulose-binding module (CBM) fusion approaches were successfully applied to obtain properties required for cellulose hydrolysis. After two rounds of error-prone PCR and screening of 3,000 mutants, amino acid substitutions were identified at various positions in thermotolerant mutants. The most heat-tolerant mutant, Cel5A_2R2, showed a 7-fold increase in thermostability. To enhance the affinity and hydrolytic activity of Cel5A on cellulose substrates, the family-6 CBM from Saccharophagus degradans was fused to the C-terminus of the Cel5A_2R2 mutant using overlap PCR. The Cel5A_2R2-CBM6 fusion protein showed 7-fold higher activity than the native Cel5A on Avicel and filter paper. Cellobiose was a major product obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates by the fusion enzyme, which was identified by using thin layer chromatography analysis. PMID:23785445

  7. Optimization of cellulase production by Enhydrobacter sp. ACCA2 and its application in biomass saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, Nagaiah; Gopal, Nellaiappan O.; Jose, Polpass Arul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2015-01-01

    Cellulase finds use in saccharification of lignocellulosic agroresidues to fermentable sugars which can be used for production of commercially important metabolites. This study reports endoglucanase (CMCase) production by Enhydrobacter sp. ACCA2. The CMCase activity of the strain ACCA2 was successively improved by optimization of range of physical and nutritional parameter in a set of non-statistical and statistical experiments. Initial non-statistical selection of carbon source, incubation time, temperature and pH resulted in 1.07 fold increase of CMCase activity. In a subsequent statistical method, response surface methodology, optimization of medium components such as carboxymethylcellulose, peptone, NaCl, MgSO4, K2HPO4, and (NH4)2SO4 yielded further increase up to 2.39 fold CMCase activity. The cellulolytic potential was evaluated in biomass saccharification with different plant materials and the results revealed that the enzyme produced by strain may have significant commercial values for industrial saccharification process. Moreover, this is the first report of cellulase production by an Enhydrobacter spp. PMID:26500615

  8. Improved ethanol production from biomass by a rumen metagenomic DNA fragment expressed in Escherichia coli MS04 during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Loaces, Inés; Amarelle, Vanesa; Muñoz-Gutierrez, Iván; Fabiano, Elena; Martinez, Alfredo; Noya, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    With the aim of improving current ethanologenic Escherichia coli strains, we screened a metagenomic library from bovine ruminal fluid for cellulolytic enzymes. We isolated one fosmid, termed Csd4, which was able to confer to E. coli the ability to grow on complex cellulosic material as the sole carbon source such as avicel, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, pretreated sugarcane bagasse, and xylan. Glucanolytic activity obtained from E. coli transformed with Csd4 was maximal at 24 h of incubation and was inhibited when glucose or xylose were present in the media. The 34,406-bp DNA fragment of Csd4 was completely sequenced, and a putative endoglucanase, a xylosidase/arabinosidase, and a laccase gene were identified. Comparison analysis revealed that Csd4 derived from an organism closely related to Prevotella ruminicola, but no homologies were found with any of the genomes already sequenced. Csd4 was introduced into the ethanologenic E. coli MS04 strain and ethanol production from CMC, avicel, sugarcane bagasse, or filter paper was observed. Exogenously expressed β-glucosidase had a positie effect on cell growth in agreement with the fact that no putative β-glucosidase was found in Csd4. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse was improved threefold by Csd4 after saccharification by commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulases underlining the ability of Csd4 to act as a saccharification enhancer to reduce the enzymatic load and time required for cellulose deconstruction. PMID:26175105

  9. Production, purification and characterization of novel beta glucosidase from newly isolated Penicillium simplicissimum H-11 in submerged fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hongzhi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Junde; Irfan, Muhammad; Han, Mei; Huang, Yuqian; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    β-Glucosidase is an important component of the cellulase complex. It not only hydrolyzes cellobiose and short-chain cellooligosaccharides to glucose, but also removes the inhibitory effect of cellobiose on the β-1, 4-endoglucanase and exoglucanase, thereby increasing the overall rate of cellulose biodegradation. β-glucosidasefrom culture supernatant of a fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was purified to homogeneity, by using ammonium sulfate fraction, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and its properties were studied. The molecular mass of the enzyme was about 126.0 kDa, as identified by 12% SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature were 4.4 ~ 5.2 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable in pH 5.2 ~ 6.4 and under 40 °C. Metal profile of the enzyme showed that Mn2+ enhances its activity, while Cu2+, Co2+and Fe3+ cause obvious inhibition. The Km and Vmax was 14.881 mg/ml and 0.364 mg ml/min against salicin as a Substrate. This enzyme had secondary protein structure as evidenced by FTIR spectrum. PMID:26609283

  10. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  11. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites

    PubMed Central

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T.; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A.; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:26313257

  12. Cellulose hydrolysis by the cellulases from Trichoderma reesei: a new model for synergistic interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Nidetzky, B; Steiner, W; Hayn, M; Claeyssens, M

    1994-01-01

    The hydrolysis of Whatman no. 1 filter paper by purified cellulolytic components from Trichoderma reesei and the synergistic action of binary combinations of these enzymes on the same substrate were investigated. At 20 milligrams filter paper, enzyme concentrations needed to obtain half-maximal hydrolysis rates (KE values) were in the 3-4 microM range for the cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) and 0.05-0.10 microM for the endoglucanases (EGs). Catalytic-core proteins of CBH I and EG III, lacking the cellulose-binding domain, exhibit KE values 2.3 and 5.1 times higher than those of the intact enzymes. In synergistic combinations of two cellulases, the KE value of at least one enzyme was 3-10-fold reduced. CBH I/CBH II and CBH I/EG III combinations showed the most powerful synergism, and optimal ratios were a function of the total protein concentration. Results obtained in activity and adsorption assays using filter paper pretreated with one component, followed by inactivation and subsequent hydrolysis with the same or another cellulase component, point to a sequential enzymic attack of the cellulose and seems consistent with the mathematical model presented. PMID:8141786

  13. Use of Cellulolytic Marine Bacteria for Enzymatic Pretreatment in Microalgal Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with “whole-cell” cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a “whole-cell” cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  14. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentation of cellulose. Progress report (4/30/91--4/30/92) and outline of work for the period 9/1/92--9/1/93

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors are continuing their efforts to partly dissociate the cellulolytic enzyme complex of C. thermocellum. This complex named cellulosome (also existing as polycellulosome) consists of perhaps as many as 26 different subunits. It is extremely resistant to dissociation and denaturation. Treatments with urea and SDS have little effect unless the latter treatment is at high temperature. Significantly, some of the subunits after SDS dissociation have CMCase (endoglucanase) activity but no activity toward crystalline cellulose. The only reported success of hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose by cellulosomal subunits is by Wu et al. who isolated two protein fractions labeled SL and SS which when combined exhibit a low (about 1% of the original cellulosome) activity toward crystalline cellulose. The long standing goal is still to determine the activities of the individual subunits, to characterize them, to find out how they are associated in the cellulosome, and to establish the minimum number of subunits needed for efficient hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. This report also presents the results of experiments on cellulose hydrolysis in aerobic fungi, as well as other anaerobic bacteria.

  15. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  16. Bioethanol potentials of corn cob hydrolysed using cellulases of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium decumbens

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Bolanle Kudirat; Sani, Alhassan

    2012-01-01

    Corn cob is a major component of agricultural and domestic waste in many parts of the world. It is composed mainly of cellulose which can be converted to energy in form of bioethanol as an efficient and effective means of waste management. Production of cellulolytic enzymes were induced in the fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium decumbens by growing them in mineral salt medium containing alkali pre-treated and untreated corn cobs. The cellulases were characterized and partially purified. Alkali pre-treated corn cobs were hydrolysed with the partially purified cellulases and the product of hydrolysis was fermented using the yeast saccharomyces cerevisae to ethanol. Cellulases of A. niger produced higher endoglucanase and exoglucanase activity (0.1698 IU ml-1 and 0.0461 FPU ml-1) compared to that produced by P. decumbens (0.1111 IU ml-1 and 0.153 FPU ml-1). Alkali pre-treated corn cob hydrolysed by cellulases of A. niger yielded 7.63 mg ml-1 sugar which produced 2.67 % (v/v) ethanol on fermentation. Ethanol yield of the hydrolysates of corn cob by cellulases of P. decumbens was much lower at 0.56 % (v/v). Alkali pre-treated corn cob, hydrolysed with cellulases of A. niger is established as suitable feedstock for bioethanol production.

  17. Phenols and lignin: Key players in reducing enzymatic hydrolysis yields of steam-pretreated biomass in presence of laccase.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Taravilla, Alfredo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Demuez, Marie; González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2016-01-20

    Phenols are known as inhibitors for cellulases and fermentative microorganisms in bioethanol production processes. The addition of laccases removes the phenolic compounds and subsequently reduces the lag phase of the fermentative microorganism. However, the application of laccases diminishes glucose release during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study a model cellulosic substrate (Sigmacell) together with lignin extract, whole steam-pretreated wheat straw (slurry) and its water insoluble solid fraction (WIS) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the effects of laccase treatment in presence of lignin and phenols. The presence of laccase in enzymatic hydrolysis of Sigmacell with lignin extract reduced glucose yield by 37% compared with assays without laccase. Furthermore, this reduction was even more marked in presence of phenols (55% reduction). Interestingly, when hydrolyzing WIS, the addition of phenols coupled with laccase treatment did not show a reduction when compared with only laccase addition. This fact suggests the key role of lignin in the hydrolysis inhibition since in WIS the ratio cellulase per gram of lignin was much lower than in Sigmacell experiments. Finally, the lower cellobiose and xylose recoveries point out that phenolic oligomers formed by laccase oxidation play important roles in the inhibition of endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases. To conclude, the proportion of lignin and the composition of phenols are key players in the inhibition of cellulases when the enzymatic hydrolysis is combined with laccases detoxification. PMID:26684987

  18. Transcript analysis of parasitic females of the sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Scheffler, Brian S

    2010-07-01

    Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode capable of infecting >300 plant species, including a large number of crops such as cotton, soybean, and pineapple. In contrast to other economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, molecular genetic data regarding the R. reniformis transcriptome is virtually nonexistant. Herein, we present a survey of R. reniformis ESTs that were sequenced from a sedentary parasitic female cDNA library. Cluster analysis of 2004 high quality ESTs produced 123 contigs and 508 singletons for a total of 631 R. reniformis unigenes. BLASTX analyses revealed that 39% of all unigenes showed similarity to known proteins (Eendoglucanase, fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins, and an esophageal gland cell-specific gene from Heterodera glycines. Furthermore, a putative ortholog of an enzyme involved in thiamin biosynthesis, thought to exist solely in prokaryotes, fungi, and plants, was identified. Lastly, 114 R. reniformis unigenes orthologous to RNAi-lethal Caenorhabditis elegans genes were discovered. The work described here offers a glimpse into the transcriptome of a sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode which (i) provides the transcript sequence data necessary for investigating engineered resistance against R. reniformis and (ii) hints at the existance of a thiamin biosynthesis pathway in an animal. PMID:20346373

  19. Modulation of fungicidal potential of Anabaena strains by light and temperature.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Vidhi; Prasanna, Radha; Bhatnagar, A K

    2012-05-01

    The regulation of fungicidal and hydrolytic enzyme activity was investigated in a set of cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genus Anabaena (Anabaena laxa RPAN8, Anabaena iyengarii RPAN9, Anabaena variabilis RPAN59 and Anabaena oscillarioides RPAN69), with A. variabilis RPAN16 serving as negative control. Time course studies undertaken with cultures incubated under different light and temperature conditions revealed enhancement in growth and fungicidal activity under continuous light (CL) and light dark (LD, 16:8) conditions and temperature of 30 °C and 40 °C. A significant increase of 3-18 % in chitosanase activity was recorded in all the 4-week-old cultures under CL condition and at 40 °C. Endoglucanase activity of RPAN8 and 9 was twofolds higher than the other strains under all light/dark conditions and temperature in the 4-week-old cultures, while continuous dark (CD) enhanced CMCase activity in RPAN69. This study provided useful information regarding the most suitable conditions of light and temperature for maximizing hydrolytic enzyme activity and fungicidal activity, as a prelude to their effective use as biocontrol agents. PMID:22457231

  20. Molecular cloning, expression, purification and characterization of a novel cellulase gene (Bh-EGaseI) in the beetle Batocera horsfieldi.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hui-Zhen; Xia, Ding-Guo; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Qian, Ping; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-15

    Wood-feeding insects depend heavily on the secretion of a combination of cellulases, mainly endoglucanases and other glucanases such as exoglucanases and xylanases, to achieve efficient digestion of the cellulose of cellulosic materials. In this paper, we report a novel cellulose Bh-EGaseI belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 45(gh45-1) obtained from the beetle Batocera horsfieldi. The Bh-EGaseI gene spans 714 bp and consists of three exons coding 237 amino acid residues. The cDNA encoding Bh-EGaseI was expressed as 25 KDa in baculovirus-infected Bombyx mori larvae. The expression products of Bh-EGaseI from larval hemolymph showed a specific enzymatic activity of approximately 1030.87 IU per mg. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH and temperatures; optimal activity was observed at 40 °C and pH 4.0. The effects of ions on Bh-EGaseI activity were also studied, and results indicated that activity decreased to different extents upon addition of ions. Investigations on Bh-EGaseI facilitate their potential application in the production of bioenergy and biomaterials from cellulosic biomass in the future. PMID:26410410