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Sample records for acids biosynthesis pathways

  1. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Bromke, Mariusz A.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity. PMID:24957993

  2. Auxin Biosynthesis: Are the Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid Biosynthesis Pathways Mirror Images?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, David S.; Smith, Jason; Chourey, Prem S.; McAdam, Erin L.; Quittenden, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the main auxin in plants (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) has been elucidated recently and is thought to involve the sequential conversion of Trp to indole-3-pyruvic acid to IAA. However, the pathway leading to a less well studied auxin, phenylacetic acid (PAA), remains unclear. Here, we present evidence from metabolism experiments that PAA is synthesized from the amino acid Phe, via phenylpyruvate. In pea (Pisum sativum), the reverse reaction, phenylpyruvate to Phe, is also demonstrated. However, despite similarities between the pathways leading to IAA and PAA, evidence from mutants in pea and maize (Zea mays) indicate that IAA biosynthetic enzymes are not the main enzymes for PAA biosynthesis. Instead, we identified a putative aromatic aminotransferase (PsArAT) from pea that may function in the PAA synthesis pathway. PMID:27208245

  3. Proteolytic Pathways Induced by Herbicides That Inhibit Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zulet, Amaia; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Villamor, Joji Grace; Zabalza, Ana; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Royuela, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The herbicides glyphosate (Gly) and imazamox (Imx) inhibit the biosynthesis of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. Although these herbicides inhibit different pathways, they have been reported to show several common physiological effects in their modes of action, such as increasing free amino acid contents and decreasing soluble protein contents. To investigate proteolytic activities upon treatment with Gly and Imx, pea plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with Imx or Gly, and the proteolytic profile of the roots was evaluated through fluorogenic kinetic assays and activity-based protein profiling. Results Several common changes in proteolytic activity were detected following Gly and Imx treatment. Both herbicides induced the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system and papain-like cysteine proteases. In contrast, the activities of vacuolar processing enzymes, cysteine proteases and metacaspase 9 were reduced following treatment with both herbicides. Moreover, the activities of several putative serine protease were similarly increased or decreased following treatment with both herbicides. In contrast, an increase in YVADase activity was observed under Imx treatment versus a decrease under Gly treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that several proteolytic pathways are responsible for protein degradation upon herbicide treatment, although the specific role of each proteolytic activity remains to be determined. PMID:24040092

  4. The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Dudareva, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-tyrosine are aromatic amino acids (AAAs) that are used for the synthesis of proteins and that in plants also serve as precursors of numerous natural products, such as pigments, alkaloids, hormones, and cell wall components. All three AAAs are derived from the shikimate pathway, to which ≥30% of photosynthetically fixed carbon is directed in vascular plants. Because their biosynthetic pathways have been lost in animal lineages, the AAAs are essential components of the diets of humans, and the enzymes required for their synthesis have been targeted for the development of herbicides. This review highlights recent molecular identification of enzymes of the pathway and summarizes the pathway organization and the transcriptional/posttranscriptional regulation of the AAA biosynthetic network. It also identifies the current limited knowledge of the subcellular compartmentalization and the metabolite transport involved in the plant AAA pathways and discusses metabolic engineering efforts aimed at improving production of the AAA-derived plant natural products.

  5. Direct biosynthesis of adipic acid from a synthetic pathway in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-Le; Xia, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Qian, Zhi-Gang

    2014-12-01

    The C6 dicarboxylic acid, adipic acid, is an important platform chemical in industry. Biobased production of adipic acid is a promising alternative to the current petrochemical route. Here, we report biosynthesis of adipic acid using an artificial pathway inspired by the reversal of beta-oxidation of dicarboxylic acids. The biosynthetic pathway comprises condensation of acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA to form the C6 backbone and subsequent reduction, dehydration, hydrogenation, and release of adipic acid from its thioester. The pathway was first tested in vitro with reconstituted pathway enzymes and then functionally introduced into Escherichia coli for the biosynthesis and excretion of adipic acid into the culture medium. The production titer was increased by approximately 20-fold through the combination of recruiting enzymes that were more suitable to catalyze the synthetic reactions and increasing availability of the condensation substrates. This work demonstrates direct biosynthesis of adipic acid via non-natural synthetic pathway, which may enable its renewable production.

  6. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    PubMed Central

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E.; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.

    2017-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph. PMID:28119683

  7. 2-Keto acids based biosynthesis pathways for renewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yohei; Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-03-01

    Global energy and environmental concerns have driven the development of biological chemical production from renewable sources. Biological processes using microorganisms are efficient and have been traditionally utilized to convert biomass (i.e., glucose) to useful chemicals such as amino acids. To produce desired fuels and chemicals with high yield and rate, metabolic pathways have been enhanced and expanded with metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches. 2-Keto acids, which are key intermediates in amino acid biosynthesis, can be converted to a wide range of chemicals. 2-Keto acid pathways were engineered in previous research efforts and these studies demonstrated that 2-keto acid pathways have high potential for novel metabolic routes with high productivity. In this review, we discuss recently developed 2-keto acid-based pathways.

  8. Fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    DOE PAGES

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco; ...

    2017-01-10

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fattymore » acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of FA transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for FA-biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the FA profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. As a result, the gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.« less

  9. Foreign gene recruitment to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Baglivi, Francesca L; Jenkins, Christina E; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2013-09-01

    Diatoms are highly successful marine and freshwater algae that contribute up to 20% of global carbon fixation. These species are leading candidates for biofuel production owing to ease of culturing and high fatty acid content. To assist in strain improvement and downstream applications for potential use as a biofuel, it is important to understand the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms. The evolutionary history of diatoms is however complicated by likely multiple endosymbioses involving the capture of foreign cells and horizontal gene transfer into the host genome. Using a phylogenomic approach, we assessed the evolutionary history of 12 diatom genes putatively encoding functions related to lipid biosynthesis. We found evidence of gene transfer likely from a green algal source for seven of these genes, with the remaining showing either vertical inheritance or evolutionary histories too complicated to interpret given current genome data. The functions of horizontally transferred genes encompass all aspects of lipid biosynthesis (initiation, biosynthesis, and desaturation of fatty acids) as well as fatty acid elongation, and are not restricted to plastid-targeted proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the transfer, duplication, and subfunctionalization of genes were key steps in the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms and other photosynthetic eukaryotes. This target pathway for biofuel research is highly chimeric and surprisingly, our results suggest that research done on related genes in green algae may have application to diatom models.

  10. Hormonal Regulation and Expression Profiles of Wheat Genes Involved during Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sipla; Shukla, Vishnu; Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sharma, Shivani; Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) biosynthesis pathway genes were reported from multiple crop species. PA accumulation was enhanced during grain filling and at that time, hormones like Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) interplay to control the process of seed development. Regulation of wheat PA pathway genes has not yet been reported in seeds. In an attempt to find the clues for the regulation by hormones, the promoter region of wheat PA pathway genes was analyzed for the presence of cis-elements. Multiple cis-elements of those known to be involved for ABA, GA3, salicylic acid (SA), and cAMP sensing were identified in the promoters of PA pathway genes. Eight genes (TaIMP, TaITPK1-4, TaPLC1, TaIPK2 and TaIPK1) involved in the wheat PA biosynthesis pathway were selected for the expression studies. The temporal expression response was studied in seeds treated with ABA and GA3 using quantitative real time PCR. Our results suggested that exogenous application of ABA induces few PA pathway genes in wheat grains. Comparison of expression profiles for PA pathway for GA3 and ABA suggested the antagonistic regulation of certain genes. Additionally, to reveal stress responses of wheat PA pathway genes, expression was also studied in the presence of SA and cAMP. Results suggested SA specific differential expression of few genes, whereas, overall repression of genes was observed in cAMP treated samples. This study is an effort to understand the regulation of PA biosynthesis genes in wheat. PMID:27135330

  11. Hormonal Regulation and Expression Profiles of Wheat Genes Involved during Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sipla; Shukla, Vishnu; Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sharma, Shivani; Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2015-06-11

    Phytic acid (PA) biosynthesis pathway genes were reported from multiple crop species. PA accumulation was enhanced during grain filling and at that time, hormones like Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA₃) interplay to control the process of seed development. Regulation of wheat PA pathway genes has not yet been reported in seeds. In an attempt to find the clues for the regulation by hormones, the promoter region of wheat PA pathway genes was analyzed for the presence of cis-elements. Multiple cis-elements of those known to be involved for ABA, GA₃, salicylic acid (SA), and cAMP sensing were identified in the promoters of PA pathway genes. Eight genes (TaIMP, TaITPK1-4, TaPLC1, TaIPK2 and TaIPK1) involved in the wheat PA biosynthesis pathway were selected for the expression studies. The temporal expression response was studied in seeds treated with ABA and GA₃ using quantitative real time PCR. Our results suggested that exogenous application of ABA induces few PA pathway genes in wheat grains. Comparison of expression profiles for PA pathway for GA₃ and ABA suggested the antagonistic regulation of certain genes. Additionally, to reveal stress responses of wheat PA pathway genes, expression was also studied in the presence of SA and cAMP. Results suggested SA specific differential expression of few genes, whereas, overall repression of genes was observed in cAMP treated samples. This study is an effort to understand the regulation of PA biosynthesis genes in wheat.

  12. Analysis of putative nonulosonic acid biosynthesis pathways in Archaea reveals a complex evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Kandiba, Lina; Eichler, Jerry

    2013-08-01

    Sialic acids and the other nonulosonic acid sugars, legionaminic acid and pseudaminic acid, are nine carbon-containing sugars that can be detected as components of the glycans decorating proteins and other molecules in Eukarya and Bacteria. Yet, despite the prevalence of N-glycosylation in Archaea and the variety of sugars recruited for the archaeal version of this post-translational modification, only a single report of a nonulosonic acid sugar in an archaeal N-linked glycan has appeared. Hence, to obtain a clearer picture of nonulosonic acid sugar biosynthesis capability in Archaea, 122 sequenced genomes were scanned for the presence of genes involved in the biogenesis of these sugars. The results reveal that while Archaea and Bacteria share a common route of sialic acid biosynthesis, numerous archaeal nonulosonic acid sugar biosynthesis pathway components were acquired from elsewhere via various routes. Still, the limited number of Archaea encoding components involved in the synthesis of nonulosonic acid sugars implies that such saccharides are not major components of glycans in this domain.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bitter acids (e.g. humulone) are prenylated polyketides synthesized in lupulin glands of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus) which are important contributors to the bitter flavour and stability of beer. Bitter acids are formed from acyl-CoA precursors derived from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation and C5 prenyl diphosphates from the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain the transcriptomes of isolated lupulin glands, cones with glands removed and leaves from high α-acid hop cultivars, and analyzed these datasets for genes involved in bitter acid biosynthesis including the supply of major precursors. We also measured the levels of BCAAs, acyl-CoA intermediates, and bitter acids in glands, cones and leaves. Results Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic) and reverse (catabolic) reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial) and catabolic (mitochondrial

  14. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Long; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Rui-Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthesis in "green" seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related genes in such developing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyll content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Overexpression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes.

  15. Optimization of the heme biosynthesis pathway for the production of 5-aminolevulinic acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junli; Kang, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Du, Guocheng

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the committed intermediate of the heme biosynthesis pathway, shows significant promise for cancer treatment. Here, we identified that in addition to hemA and hemL, hemB, hemD, hemF, hemG and hemH are also the major regulatory targets of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, up-regulation of hemD and hemF benefited ALA accumulation whereas overexpression of hemB, hemG and hemH diminished ALA accumulation. Accordingly, by combinatorial overexpression of the hemA, hemL, hemD and hemF with different copy-number plasmids, the titer of ALA was improved to 3.25 g l−1. Furthermore, in combination with transcriptional and enzymatic analysis, we demonstrated that ALA dehydratase (HemB) encoded by hemB is feedback inhibited by the downstream intermediate protoporphyrinogen IX. This work has great potential to be scaled-up for microbial production of ALA and provides new important insights into the regulatory mechanism of the heme biosynthesis pathway. PMID:25716896

  16. Tetrahydrobiopterin Biosynthesis as a Potential Target of the Kynurenine Pathway Metabolite Xanthurenic Acid.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Hirohito; Hovius, Ruud; Pedersen, Miriam Grønlund; Johnsson, Kai

    2016-01-08

    Tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway are up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines or glucocorticoids, and are linked to anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. In addition, they are up-regulated in pathologies such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. The molecular mechanisms of how kynurenine pathway metabolites cause these effects are incompletely understood. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines also up-regulate the amounts of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzyme cofactor essential for the synthesis of several neurotransmitter and nitric oxide species. Here we show that xanthurenic acid is a potent inhibitor of sepiapterin reductase (SPR), the final enzyme in de novo BH4 synthesis. The crystal structure of xanthurenic acid bound to the active site of SPR reveals why among all kynurenine pathway metabolites xanthurenic acid is the most potent SPR inhibitor. Our findings suggest that increased xanthurenic acid levels resulting from up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway could attenuate BH4 biosynthesis and BH4-dependent enzymatic reactions, linking two major metabolic pathways known to be highly up-regulated in inflammation.

  17. Characterization of a Pipecolic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway Required for Systemic Acquired Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pingtao; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ding, Yuli; Feussner, Kirstin; Busta, Lucas; Haroth, Sven; Xu, Shaohua; Li, Xin; Jetter, Reinhard; Feussner, Ivo; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-10-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an immune response induced in the distal parts of plants following defense activation in local tissue. Pipecolic acid (Pip) accumulation orchestrates SAR and local resistance responses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of SAR-DEFICIENT4 (SARD4), which encodes a critical enzyme for Pip biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Loss of function of SARD4 leads to reduced Pip levels and accumulation of a Pip precursor, Δ(1)-piperideine-2-carboxylic acid (P2C). In Escherichia coli, expression of the aminotransferase ALD1 leads to production of P2C and addition of SARD4 results in Pip production, suggesting that a Pip biosynthesis pathway can be reconstituted in bacteria by coexpression of ALD1 and SARD4. In vitro experiments showed that ALD1 can use l-lysine as a substrate to produce P2C and P2C is converted to Pip by SARD4. Analysis of sard4 mutant plants showed that SARD4 is required for SAR as well as enhanced pathogen resistance conditioned by overexpression of the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1. Compared with the wild type, pathogen-induced Pip accumulation is only modestly reduced in the local tissue of sard4 mutant plants, but it is below detection in distal leaves, suggesting that Pip is synthesized in systemic tissue by SARD4-mediated reduction of P2C and biosynthesis of Pip in systemic tissue contributes to SAR establishment.

  18. Completion of the core β-oxidative pathway of benzoic acid biosynthesis in plants

    PubMed Central

    Qualley, Anthony V.; Widhalm, Joshua R.; Adebesin, Funmilayo; Kish, Christine M.; Dudareva, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of benzoic acid (BA) as a precursor for a wide array of primary and secondary metabolites, its biosynthesis in plants has not been fully elucidated. BA formation from phenylalanine requires shortening of the C3 side chain by two carbon units, which can occur by a non–β-oxidative route and/or a β-oxidative pathway analogous to the catabolism of fatty acids. Enzymes responsible for the first and last reactions of the core BA β-oxidative pathway (cinnamic acid → cinnamoyl-CoA → 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA → 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA → BA-CoA) have previously been characterized in petunia, a plant with flowers rich in phenylpropanoid/benzenoid volatile compounds. Using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a petunia gene encoding cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-dehydrogenase (PhCHD), a bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme responsible for two consecutively occurring unexplored intermediate steps in the core BA β-oxidative pathway. PhCHD spatially, developmentally, and temporally coexpresses with known genes in the BA β-oxidative pathway, and correlates with emission of benzenoid volatiles. Kinetic analysis of recombinant PhCHD revealed it most efficiently converts cinnamoyl-CoA to 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA, thus forming the substrate for the final step in the pathway. Down-regulation of PhCHD expression in petunia flowers resulted in reduced CHD enzyme activity, as well as decreased formation of BA-CoA, BA and their derived volatiles. Moreover, transgenic lines accumulated the PhCHD substrate cinnamoyl-CoA and the upstream pathway intermediate cinnamic acid. Discovery of PhCHD completes the elucidation of the core BA β-oxidative route in plants, and together with the previously characterized CoA-ligase and thiolase enzymes, provides evidence that the whole pathway occurs in peroxisomes. PMID:22988098

  19. Effect of nitrogen deficiency on ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Yu, Hong Jun; Zhang, Xiao Meng; Yang, Xue Yong; Zhao, Wen Chao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-11-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AsA, ascorbate) is one of the most abundant natural antioxidants, and it is an important factor in the nutritional quality of cucumber. In this work, key enzymes involved in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings under nitrogen deficiency were investigated at the levels of transcription and enzyme activity. The activities of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) and transcript levels of MIOXs increased dramatically, while the activities of ascorbate oxidase (AO) and glutathione reductase (GR) and transcript levels of AOs and GR2 decreased significantly in N-limited leaves, as did the ascorbate concentration, in nitrogen-deficient cucumber seedlings. The activities of other enzymes and transcript levels of other genes involved in the ascorbate recycling pathway and ascorbate synthesis pathways decreased or remained unchanged under nitrogen deficiency. These results indicate that nitrogen deficiency induced genes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling and myo-inositol pathway in cucumber leaves. Thus, the AO, GR and MIOX involved in the pathways might play roles in AsA accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction of a Chimeric Biosynthetic Pathway for the de novo Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Sarah E.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid esters (HCEs) are widely-distributed phenylpropanoid-derived plant natural products. Rosmarinic acid (RA 7), the most well-known HCE, shows promise as a treatment for cancer and neurological disorders. In contrast to extraction from plant material or plant cell culture, a microbial production platform for HCEs could provide a sustainable, controlled means of production. Through the overexpression of a six-enzyme chimeric bacterial and plant pathway, we show the de novo biosynthesis of RA 7 and the related HCE isorinic acid (IA 8) in E. coli. Probing the pathway through precursor supplementation showed several potential pathway bottlenecks. We show HCE biosynthesis using three plant RAS orthologs exhibiting different levels of HCE biosynthesis, but the same ratio of IA 8 to RA 7 produced. This work serves as a proof of concept for a microbial production platform for HCEs using a modular biosynthetic approach to access diverse natural and non-natural HCEs. PMID:25205019

  1. Metabolic Engineering of a Novel Muconic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway via 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sudeshna; Goonewardena, Lakshani; Juturu, Veeresh

    2015-01-01

    cis,cis-Muconic acid (MA) is a commercially important raw material used in pharmaceuticals, functional resins, and agrochemicals. MA is also a potential platform chemical for the production of adipic acid (AA), terephthalic acid, caprolactam, and 1,6-hexanediol. A strain of Escherichia coli K-12, BW25113, was genetically modified, and a novel nonnative metabolic pathway was introduced for the synthesis of MA from glucose. The proposed pathway converted chorismate from the aromatic amino acid pathway to MA via 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB). Three nonnative genes, pobA, aroY, and catA, coding for 4-hydroxybenzoate hydrolyase, protocatechuate decarboxylase, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively, were functionally expressed in E. coli to establish the MA biosynthetic pathway. E. coli native genes ubiC, aroFFBR, aroE, and aroL were overexpressed and the genes ptsH, ptsI, crr, and pykF were deleted from the E. coli genome in order to increase the precursors of the proposed MA pathway. The final engineered E. coli strain produced nearly 170 mg/liter of MA from simple carbon sources in shake flask experiments. The proposed pathway was proved to be functionally active, and the strategy can be used for future metabolic engineering efforts for production of MA from renewable sugars. PMID:26362984

  2. Harnessing Yeast Peroxisomes for Biosynthesis of Fatty-Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals with Relieved Side-Pathway Competition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Gómez, Diego Orol; Boonsombuti, Akarin; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-11-30

    Establishing efficient synthetic pathways for microbial production of biochemicals is often hampered by competing pathways and/or insufficient precursor supply. Compartmentalization in cellular organelles can isolate synthetic pathways from competing pathways, and provide a compact and suitable environment for biosynthesis. Peroxisomes are cellular organelles where fatty acids are degraded, a process that is inhibited under typical fermentation conditions making them an interesting workhouse for production of fatty-acid-derived molecules. Here, we show that targeting synthetic pathways to peroxisomes can increase the production of fatty-acid-derived fatty alcohols, alkanes and olefins up to 700%. In addition, we demonstrate that biosynthesis of these chemicals in the peroxisomes results in significantly decreased accumulation of byproducts formed by competing enzymes. We further demonstrate that production can be enhanced up to 3-fold by increasing the peroxisome population. The strategies described here could be used for production of other chemicals, especially acyl-CoA-derived molecules.

  3. Coordinated Regulation of Species-Specific Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation and Siderophore Biosynthesis Pathways in Agrobacterium fabrum

    PubMed Central

    Baude, Jessica; Vial, Ludovic; Villard, Camille; Campillo, Tony; Lavire, Céline; Nesme, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rhizosphere-inhabiting species Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to degrade hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), especially ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, via the novel A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway. Gene expression profiles of A. fabrum strain C58 were investigated in the presence of HCAs, using a C58 whole-genome oligoarray. Both ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid caused variations in the expression of more than 10% of the C58 genes. Genes of the A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway, together with the genes involved in iron acquisition, were among the most highly induced in the presence of HCAs. Two operons coding for the biosynthesis of a particular siderophore, as well as genes of the A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway, have been described as being specific to the species. We demonstrate here their coordinated expression, emphasizing the interdependence between the iron concentration in the growth medium and the rate at which ferulic acid is degraded by cells. The coordinated expression of these functions may be advantageous in HCA-rich but iron-starved environments in which microorganisms have to compete for both iron and carbon sources, such as in plant roots. The present results confirm that there is cooperation between the A. fabrum-specific genes, defining a particular ecological niche. IMPORTANCE We previously identified seven genomic regions in Agrobacterium fabrum that were specifically present in all of the members of this species only. Here we demonstrated that two of these regions, encoding the hydroxycinnamic acid degradation pathway and the iron acquisition pathway, were regulated in a coordinated manner. The coexpression of these functions may be advantageous in hydroxycinnamic acid-rich but iron-starved environments in which microorganisms have to compete for both iron and carbon sources, such as in plant roots. These data support the view that bacterial genomic species

  4. Mutations in the Prokaryotic Pathway Rescue the fatty acid biosynthesis1 Mutant in the Cold.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinpeng; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-09-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid biosynthesis1 (fab1) mutant has increased levels of the saturated fatty acid 16:0 due to decreased activity of 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase II. In fab1 leaves, phosphatidylglycerol, the major chloroplast phospholipid, contains up to 45% high-melting-point molecular species (molecules that contain only 16:0, 16:1-trans, and 18:0), a trait associated with chilling-sensitive plants, compared with less than 10% in wild-type Arabidopsis. Although they do not exhibit typical chilling sensitivity, when exposed to low temperatures (2°C-6°C) for long periods, fab1 plants do suffer collapse of photosynthesis, degradation of chloroplasts, and eventually death. A screen for suppressors of this low-temperature phenotype has identified 11 lines, some of which contain additional alterations in leaf-lipid composition relative to fab1. Here, we report the identification of two suppressor mutations, one in act1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and one in lpat1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. These enzymes catalyze the first two steps of the prokaryotic pathway for glycerolipid synthesis, so we investigated whether other mutations in this pathway would rescue the fab1 phenotype. Both the gly1 mutation, which reduces glycerol-3-phosphate supply to the prokaryotic pathway, and fad6, which is deficient in the chloroplast 16:1/18:1 fatty acyl desaturase, were discovered to be suppressors. Analyses of leaf-lipid compositions revealed that mutations at all four of the suppressor loci result in reductions in the proportion of high-melting-point molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol relative to fab1. We conclude that these reductions are likely the basis for the suppressor phenotypes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Conservation of the 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) biosynthesis pathway between plants and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Kevin M; Marchant, Alan

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is driving efforts in the development of new antibacterial agents. This includes a resurgence of interest in the Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis enzymes as drug targets. The six carbon acidic sugar 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) is a component of the lipid A moiety of the LPS in Gram-negative bacteria. In most cases the lipid A substituted by Kdo is the minimum requirement for cell growth, thus presenting the possibility of targeting either the synthesis or incorporation of Kdo for the development of antibacterial agents. Indeed, potent in vitro inhibitors of Kdo biosynthesis enzymes have been reported but have so far failed to show sufficient in vivo action against Gram-negative bacteria. As part of an effort to design more potent antibacterial agents targeting Kdo biosynthesis, the crystal structures of the key Kdo biosynthesis enzymes from Escherichia coli have been solved and their structure based mechanisms characterized. In eukaryotes, Kdo is found as a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in the plant primary cell wall. Interestingly, despite incorporating Kdo into very different macromolecules the Kdo biosynthesis and activation pathway is almost completely conserved between plants and bacteria. This raises the possibility for plant research to exploit the increasingly detailed knowledge and resources being generated by the microbiology community. Likewise, insights into Kdo biosynthesis in plants will be potentially useful in efforts to produce new antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol biosynthesis through the inverted aerobic fatty acid β-oxidation pathway.

    PubMed

    Gulevich, Andrey Yu; Skorokhodova, Alexandra Yu; Sukhozhenko, Alexey V; Shakulov, Rustem S; Debabov, Vladimir G

    2012-03-01

    The basic reactions of the clostridial 1-butanol biosynthesis pathway can be regarded to be the inverted reactions of the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. A pathway for the biosynthesis of fuels and chemicals was recently engineered by combining enzymes from both aerobic and anaerobic fatty acid β-oxidation as well as enzymes from other metabolic pathways. In the current study, we demonstrate the inversion of the entire aerobic fatty acid β-oxidation cycle for 1-butanol biosynthesis. The constructed markerless and plasmidless Escherichia coli strain BOX-3 (MG1655 lacI(Q) attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-adhE(Glu568Lys) attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-atoB attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-fadB attB-P(trc-ideal-4)-SD(φ10)-fadE) synthesises 0.3-1 mg 1-butanol/l in the presence of the specific inducer. No 1-butanol production was detected in the absence of the inducer.

  7. Retroconversion of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6): an alternative pathway for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3% of all FA). As expected, the highest proportion of 20:4n-6 (~6.3%) was detected in Daphnia that received liposomes supplemented with this FA. Higher availability of 18:2n-6 in the diet increased the proportion of 18:2n-6 in Daphnia, but the proportion of 20:4n-6 was not affected. Daphnia supplemented with 22:5n-6 contained ~3.5% 20:4n-6 in the lipids and FA specific stable isotope analyses validated that the increase in the proportion of 20:4n-6 was due to retroconversion of unlabeled 22:5n-6. These results suggest that chain shortening of 22:5n-6 is a more efficient pathway to synthesize 20:4n-6 in D. magna than elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6. These results may at least partially explain the discrepancies noticed between phytoplankton FA composition and the expected FA composition in freshwater cladocerans. Finally, retroconversion of dietary 22:5n-6 to 20:4n-6 indicates Daphnia efficiently retain long chain n-6 FA in lake food webs, which might be important for the nutritional ecology of fish.

  8. 5-Aminolevulinic acid production in engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum via C5 biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramzi, Ahmad Bazli; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-12-01

    ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) is an important intermediate in the synthesis of tetrapyrroles and the use of ALA has been gradually increasing in many fields, including medicine and agriculture. In this study, improved biological production of ALA in Corynebacterium glutamicum was achieved by overexpressing glutamate-initiated C5 pathway. For this purpose, copies of the glutamyl t-RNA reductase HemA from several bacteria were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis of which a HemA version from Salmonella typhimurium exhibited the highest ALA production. Cultivation of the HemA-expressing strain produced approximately 204 mg/L of ALA, while co-expression with HemL (glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase) increased ALA concentration to 457 mg/L, representing 11.6- and 25.9-fold increases over the control strain (17 mg/L of ALA). Further effects of metabolic perturbation were investigated, leading to penicillin addition that further improves ALA production to 584 mg/L. In an optimized flask fermentation, engineered C. glutamicum strains expressing the HemA and hemAL operon produced up to 1.1 and 2.2g/L ALA, respectively, under glutamate-producing conditions. The final yields represent 10.7- and 22.0-fold increases over the control strain (0.1g/L of ALA). From these findings, ALA biosynthesis from glucose was successfully demonstrated and this study is the first to report ALA overproduction in C. glutamicum via metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    PubMed

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pathway of salicylic acid biosynthesis in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M.A.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied Sa biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of Sa accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. [sup 14]C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock- or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [[sup 14]C] benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogenesis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid but no in 0-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a model system for the regulation of a eukaryotic biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Braus, G H

    1991-01-01

    This review focuses on the gene-enzyme relationships and the regulation of different levels of the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway in a simple eukaryotic system, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most reactions of this branched pathway are common to all organisms which are able to synthesize tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. The current knowledge about the two main control mechanisms of the yeast aromatic amino acid biosynthesis is reviewed. (i) At the transcriptional level, most structural genes are regulated by the transcriptional activator GCN4, the regulator of the general amino acid control network, which couples transcriptional derepression to amino acid starvation of numerous structural genes in multiple amino acid biosynthetic pathways. (ii) At the enzyme level, the carbon flow is controlled mainly by modulating the enzyme activities at the first step of the pathway and at the branch points by feedback action of the three aromatic amino acid end products. Implications of these findings for the relationship of S. cerevisiae to prokaryotic as well as to higher eukaryotic organisms and for general regulatory mechanisms occurring in a living cell such as initiation of transcription, enzyme regulation, and the regulation of a metabolic branch point are discussed. PMID:1943992

  12. A Type II Pathway for Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Presents Drug Targets in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Ross F.; Ralph, Stuart A.; Reed, Michael B.; Su, Vanessa; Douglas, James D.; Minnikin, David E.; Cowman, Alan F.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2003-01-01

    It has long been held that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium sp., is incapable of de novo fatty acid synthesis. This view has recently been overturned with the emergence of data for the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the relict plastid of P. falciparum (known as the apicoplast). This pathway represents the type II pathway common to plant chloroplasts and bacteria but distinct from the type I pathway of animals including humans. Specific inhibitors of the type II pathway, thiolactomycin and triclosan, have been reported to target this Plasmodium pathway. Here we report further inhibitors of the plastid-based pathway that inhibit Plasmodium parasites. These include several analogues of thiolactomycin, two with sixfold-greater efficacy than thiolactomycin. We also report that parasites respond very rapidly to such inhibitors and that the greatest sensitivity is seen in ring-stage parasites. This study substantiates the importance of fatty acid synthesis for blood-stage parasite survival and shows that this pathway provides scope for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. PMID:12499205

  13. Activation of glycerol metabolic pathway by evolutionary engineering of Rhizopus oryzae to strengthen the fumaric acid biosynthesis from crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Wang, Ru; Du, Wenjie; Wang, Guanyi; Xia, Menglei

    2015-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is strictly inhibited by biodiesel-based by-product crude glycerol, which results in low fumaric acid production. In this study, evolutionary engineering was employed to activate the glycerol utilization pathway for fumaric acid production. An evolved strain G80 was selected, which could tolerate and utilize high concentrations of crude glycerol to produce 14.9g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.248g/g glycerol. Key enzymes activity analysis revealed that the evolved strain displayed a significant upregulation in glycerol dissimilation, pyruvate consumption and reductive tricarboxylic acid pathways, compared with the parent strain. Subsequently, intracellular metabolic profiling analysis showed that amino acid biosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and stress response metabolites accounted for metabolic difference between two strains. Moreover, a glycerol fed-batch strategy was optimized to obtain the highest fumaric acid production of 25.5g/L, significantly increased by 20.9-fold than that of the parent strain of 1.2g/L.

  14. Amino acids biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation pathways: a great genomic deletion during eukaryotes evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Besides being building blocks for proteins, amino acids are also key metabolic intermediates in living cells. Surprisingly a variety of organisms are incapable of synthesizing some of them, thus named Essential Amino Acids (EAAs). How certain ancestral organisms successfully competed for survival after losing key genes involved in amino acids anabolism remains an open question. Comparative genomics searches on current protein databases including sequences from both complete and incomplete genomes among diverse taxonomic groups help us to understand amino acids auxotrophy distribution. Results Here, we applied a methodology based on clustering of homologous genes to seed sequences from autotrophic organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Arabidopsis thaliana (plant). Thus we depict evidences of presence/absence of EAA biosynthetic and nitrogen assimilation enzymes at phyla level. Results show broad loss of the phenotype of EAAs biosynthesis in several groups of eukaryotes, followed by multiple secondary gene losses. A subsequent inability for nitrogen assimilation is observed in derived metazoans. Conclusions A Great Deletion model is proposed here as a broad phenomenon generating the phenotype of amino acids essentiality followed, in metazoans, by organic nitrogen dependency. This phenomenon is probably associated to a relaxed selective pressure conferred by heterotrophy and, taking advantage of available homologous clustering tools, a complete and updated picture of it is provided. PMID:22369087

  15. RNA-seq based transcriptomic analysis uncovers α-linolenic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways respond to cold acclimation in Camellia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyuan; Lei, Sheng; Du, Kebing; Li, Lizhi; Pang, Xufeng; Wang, Zhanchang; Wei, Ming; Fu, Shao; Hu, Limin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Camellia is a well-known ornamental flower native to Southeast of Asia, including regions such as Japan, Korea and South China. However, most species in the genus Camellia are cold sensitive. To elucidate the cold stress responses in camellia plants, we carried out deep transcriptome sequencing of ‘Jiangxue’, a cold-tolerant cultivar of Camellia japonica, and approximately 1,006 million clean reads were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. The assembly of the clean reads produced 367,620 transcripts, including 207,592 unigenes. Overall, 28,038 differentially expressed genes were identified during cold acclimation. Detailed elucidation of responses of transcription factors, protein kinases and plant hormone signalling-related genes described the interplay of signal that allowed the plant to fine-tune cold stress responses. On the basis of global gene regulation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis- and jasmonic acid biosynthesis-related genes, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways were deduced to be involved in the low temperature responses in C. japonica. These results were supported by the determination of the fatty acid composition and jasmonic acid content. Our results provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses to cold acclimation in camellia plants. PMID:27819341

  16. RNA-seq based transcriptomic analysis uncovers α-linolenic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways respond to cold acclimation in Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyuan; Lei, Sheng; Du, Kebing; Li, Lizhi; Pang, Xufeng; Wang, Zhanchang; Wei, Ming; Fu, Shao; Hu, Limin; Xu, Lin

    2016-11-07

    Camellia is a well-known ornamental flower native to Southeast of Asia, including regions such as Japan, Korea and South China. However, most species in the genus Camellia are cold sensitive. To elucidate the cold stress responses in camellia plants, we carried out deep transcriptome sequencing of 'Jiangxue', a cold-tolerant cultivar of Camellia japonica, and approximately 1,006 million clean reads were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. The assembly of the clean reads produced 367,620 transcripts, including 207,592 unigenes. Overall, 28,038 differentially expressed genes were identified during cold acclimation. Detailed elucidation of responses of transcription factors, protein kinases and plant hormone signalling-related genes described the interplay of signal that allowed the plant to fine-tune cold stress responses. On the basis of global gene regulation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis- and jasmonic acid biosynthesis-related genes, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways were deduced to be involved in the low temperature responses in C. japonica. These results were supported by the determination of the fatty acid composition and jasmonic acid content. Our results provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses to cold acclimation in camellia plants.

  17. New Approaches to Target the Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway for the Development of Tuberculosis Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    North, E. Jeffrey; Jackson, Mary; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Mycolic acids are the major lipid component of the unique mycobacterial cell wall responsible for the protection of the tuberculosis bacilli from many outside threats. Mycolic acids are synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the outer membrane as trehalose-containing glycolipids before being esterified to the arabinogalactan portion of the cell wall and outer membrane glycolipids. The large size of these unique fatty acids is a result of a huge metabolic investment that has been evolutionarily conserved, indicating the importance of these lipids to the mycobacterial cellular survival. There are many key enzymes involved in the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway, including fatty acid synthesis (KasA, KasB, MabA, InhA, HadABC), mycolic acid modifying enzymes (SAM-dependent methyltransferases, aNAT), fatty acid activating and condensing enzymes (FadD32, Acc, Pks13), transporters (MmpL3) and tranferases (Antigen 85A-C) all of which are excellent potential drug targets. Not surprisingly, in recent years many new compounds have been reported to inhibit specific portions of this pathway, discovered through both phenotypic screening and target enzyme screening. In this review, we analyze the new and emerging inhibitors of this pathway discovered in the post-genomic era of tuberculosis drug discovery, several of which show great promise as selective tuberculosis therapeutics. PMID:24245756

  18. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  19. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs. target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalogue of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes. PMID:17707686

  20. Antibacterial targets in fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, H Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2007-10-01

    The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for the development of new antibacterial agents. The extended use of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for antibacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multienzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host versus target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalog of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes.

  1. Biosynthesis of gallic acid in Rhus typhina: discrimination between alternative pathways from natural oxygen isotope abundance.

    PubMed

    Werner, Roland A; Rossmann, Andreas; Schwarz, Christine; Bacher, Adelbert; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of gallic acid in leaves of Rhus typhina is studied by oxygen isotope ratio mass spectrometry at natural oxygen isotope abundance. The observed delta18O-values of gallic acid indicate an 18O-enrichment of the phenolic oxygen atoms of more than 30 per thousand above that of the leaf water. This enrichment implies biogenetical equivalence with oxygen atoms of carbohydrates but not with oxygen atoms introduced by monooxygenase activation of molecular oxygen. It can be concluded that all phenolic oxygen atoms of gallic acid are retained from the carbohydrate-derived precursor 5-dehydroshikimate. This supports that gallic acid is synthesized entirely or predominantly by dehydrogenation of 5-dehydroshikimate.

  2. Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis and the Expression of Key Genes in the Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway in the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Wu, Chen-Gao; Dang, Zhi-Hao; Shi, Liang; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229.03 μg/100 mg, which was improved 66.38% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA, the transcription levels of key genes in the GA biosynthesis pathway-squalene (SQ) synthase (sqs), lanosterol (Lano; osc), and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (hmgr)-were improved 119.6-, 3.2-, and 4.2-fold, respectively. In addition, following treatment with 100 μmol/L SA, the levels of Lano and SQ, which are intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, were increased 2.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively. These results indicate that SA can regulate the expression of genes related to GA biosynthesis and increases the metabolic levels of Lano and SQ, thereby resulting in the accumulation of GA.

  3. The pathway of biosynthesis of abscisic acid in vascular plants: a review of the present state of knowledge of ABA biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Milborrow, B V

    2001-06-01

    The pathway of biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) can be considered to comprise three stages: (i) early reactions in which small phosphorylated intermediates are assembled as precursors of (ii) intermediate reactions which begin with the formation of the uncyclized C40 carotenoid phytoene and end with the cleavage of 9'-cis-neoxanthin (iii) to form xanthoxal, the C15 skeleton of ABA. The final phase comprising C15 intermediates is not yet completely defined, but the evidence suggests that xanthoxal is first oxidized to xanthoxic acid by a molybdenum-containing aldehyde oxidase and this is defective in the aba3 mutant of Arabidopsis and present in a 1-fold acetone precipitate of bean leaf proteins. This oxidation precludes the involvement of AB-aldehyde as an intermediate. The oxidation of the 4'-hydroxyl group to the ketone and the isomerization of the 1',2'-epoxy group to the 1'-hydroxy-2'-ene may be brought about by one enzyme which is defective in the aba2 mutant and is present in the 3-fold acetone fraction of bean leaves. Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) is now known to be derived by the pyruvate-triose (Methyl Erythritol Phosphate, MEP) pathway in chloroplasts. (14C)IPP is incorporated into ABA by washed, intact chloroplasts of spinach leaves, but (14C)mevalonate is not, consequently, all three phases of biosynthesis of ABA occur within chloroplasts. The incorporation of labelled mevalonate into ABA by avocado fruit and orange peel is interpreted as uptake of IPP made in the cytoplasm, where it is the normal precursor of sterols, and incorporated into carotenoids after uptake by a carrier in the chloroplast envelope. An alternative bypass pathway becomes more important in aldehyde oxidase mutants, which may explain why so many wilty mutants have been found with this defect. The C-1 alcohol group is oxidized, possibly by a mono-oxygenase, to give the C-1 carboxyl of ABA. The 2-cis double bond of ABA is essential for its biological activity but it is not known

  4. Characterization of three novel desaturases involved in the delta-6 desaturation pathways for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis from Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quanxi; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Qin; Qing, Xiaohe; Dobson, Gary; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2013-09-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the causative agent of potato blight that resulted in the great famine in Ireland in the nineteenth century. This microbe can release large amounts of the C20 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4Δ(5, 8, 11, 14)) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5Δ(5, 8, 11, 14, 17)) upon invasion that is known to elicit a hypersensitive response to their host plant. In order to identify enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these fatty acids, we blasted the recently fully sequenced P. infestans genome and identified three novel putatively encoding desaturase sequences. These were subsequently functionally characterized by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and confirmed that they encode desaturases with Δ12, Δ6 and Δ5 activity, designated here as PinDes12, PinDes6 and PinDes5, respectively. This, together with the combined fatty acid profiles and a previously identified Δ6 elongase activity, implies that the ARA and EPA are biosynthesized predominantly via the Δ6 desaturation pathways in P. infestans. Elucidation of ARA and EPA biosynthetic mechanism may provide new routes to combating this potato blight microbe directly or by means of conferring resistance to important crops.

  5. The sequence diversity and expression among genes of the folic acid biosynthesis pathway in industrial Saccharomyces strains.

    PubMed

    Goncerzewicz, Anna; Misiewicz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Folic acid is an important vitamin in human nutrition and its deficiency in pregnant women's diets results in neural tube defects and other neurological damage to the fetus. Additionally, DNA synthesis, cell division and intestinal absorption are inhibited in case of adults. Since this discovery, governments and health organizations worldwide have made recommendations concerning folic acid supplementation of food for women planning to become pregnant. In many countries this has led to the introduction of fortifications, where synthetic folic acid is added to flour. It is known that Saccharomyces strains (brewing and bakers' yeast) are one of the main producers of folic acid and they can be used as a natural source of this vitamin. Proper selection of the most efficient strains may enhance the folate content in bread, fermented vegetables, dairy products and beer by 100% and may be used in the food industry. The objective of this study was to select the optimal producing yeast strain by determining the differences in nucleotide sequences in the FOL2, FOL3 and DFR1 genes of folic acid biosynthesis pathway. The Multitemperature Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (MSSCP) method and further nucleotide sequencing for selected strains were applied to indicate SNPs in selected gene fragments. The RT qPCR technique was also applied to examine relative expression of the FOL3 gene. Furthermore, this is the first time ever that industrial yeast strains were analysed regarding genes of the folic acid biosynthesis pathway. It was observed that a correlation exists between the folic acid amount produced by industrial yeast strains and changes in the nucleotide sequence of adequate genes. The most significant changes occur in the DFR1 gene, mostly in the first part, which causes major protein structure modifications in KKP 232, KKP 222 and KKP 277 strains. Our study shows that the large amount of SNP contributes to impairment of the selected enzymes and S. cerevisiae and S

  6. LST8 negatively regulates amino acid biosynthesis as a component of the TOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Esther J.; Kaiser, Chris A.

    2003-01-01

    LST8, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a 34-kD WD-repeat protein, was identified by mutations that caused defects in sorting Gap1p to the plasma membrane. Here, we report that the Gap1p sorting defect in the lst8-1 mutant results from derepression of Rtg1/3p activity and the subsequent accumulation of high levels of intracellular amino acids, which signal Gap1p sorting to the vacuole. To identify the essential function of Lst8p, we isolated lst8 mutants that are temperature-sensitive for growth. These mutants show hypersensitivity to rapamycin and derepressed Gln3p activity like cells with compromised TOR pathway activity. Like tor2 mutants, lst8 mutants also have cell wall integrity defects. Confirming a role for Lst8p in the TOR pathway, we find that Lst8p associates with both Tor1p and Tor2p and is a peripheral membrane protein that localizes to endosomal or Golgi membranes and cofractionates with Tor1p. Further, we show that a sublethal concentration of rapamycin mimics the Gap1p sorting defect of an lst8 mutant. Finally, the different effects of lst8 alleles on the activation of either the Rtg1/3p or Gln3p transcription factors reveal that these two pathways constitute distinct, genetically separable outputs of the Tor–Lst8 regulatory complex. PMID:12719473

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  8. Mutations in the Prokaryotic Pathway Rescue the fatty acid biosynthesis1 Mutant in the Cold1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinpeng; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid biosynthesis1 (fab1) mutant has increased levels of the saturated fatty acid 16:0 due to decreased activity of 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase II. In fab1 leaves, phosphatidylglycerol, the major chloroplast phospholipid, contains up to 45% high-melting-point molecular species (molecules that contain only 16:0, 16:1-trans, and 18:0), a trait associated with chilling-sensitive plants, compared with less than 10% in wild-type Arabidopsis. Although they do not exhibit typical chilling sensitivity, when exposed to low temperatures (2°C–6°C) for long periods, fab1 plants do suffer collapse of photosynthesis, degradation of chloroplasts, and eventually death. A screen for suppressors of this low-temperature phenotype has identified 11 lines, some of which contain additional alterations in leaf-lipid composition relative to fab1. Here, we report the identification of two suppressor mutations, one in act1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and one in lpat1, which encodes the chloroplast acyl-ACP:lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. These enzymes catalyze the first two steps of the prokaryotic pathway for glycerolipid synthesis, so we investigated whether other mutations in this pathway would rescue the fab1 phenotype. Both the gly1 mutation, which reduces glycerol-3-phosphate supply to the prokaryotic pathway, and fad6, which is deficient in the chloroplast 16:1/18:1 fatty acyl desaturase, were discovered to be suppressors. Analyses of leaf-lipid compositions revealed that mutations at all four of the suppressor loci result in reductions in the proportion of high-melting-point molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol relative to fab1. We conclude that these reductions are likely the basis for the suppressor phenotypes. PMID:26224803

  9. Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Strijbis, Karin; Vaz, Frédéric M; Distel, Ben

    2010-05-01

    The water-soluble zwitterion carnitine is an essential metabolite in eukaryotes required for fatty acid oxidation as it functions as a carrier during transfer of activated acyl and acetyl groups across intracellular membranes. Most eukaryotes are able to synthesize carnitine endogenously, besides their capacity to take up carnitine from the diet or extracellular medium through plasma membrane transporters. This review discusses the current knowledge on carnitine homeostasis with special emphasis on the enzymology of the four steps of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

  10. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  12. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  13. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid mycotoxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus. Characterization of the CPA biosynthesis gene cluster confirmed that formation of CPA is via a three-enzyme pathway. This review examines the structure and organization of the CPA genes, elu...

  14. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya K; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  15. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya K.; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K.; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid. PMID:27733857

  16. Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Nambara, Eiji; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles.

  17. Evidence for a universal pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis in higher plants from sup 18 O incorporation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Heath, T.G.; Gage, D.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Previous labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) with {sup 18}O{sub 2} have been mainly conducted with water-stressed leaves. In this study, {sup 18}O incorporation into ABA of stressed leaves of various species was compared with {sup 18}O labeling of ABA of turgid leaves and of fruit tissue in different stages of ripening. In stressed leaves of all six species investigated, avocado (Persea americana), barley (Hordeum vulgare), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), {sup 18}O was most abundant in the carboxyl group, whereas incorporation of a second and third {sup 18}O in the oxygen atoms on the ring of ABA was much less prominent after 24 h in {sup 18}O{sub 2}. ABA from turgid bean leaves showed significant {sup 18}O incorporation, again with highest {sup 18}O enrichment in the carboxyl group. On the basis of {sup 18}O-labeling patterns observed in ABA from different tissues it is concluded that, despite variations in precusor pool sizes and intermediate turnover rates, there is a universal pathway of ABA biosynthesis in higher plants which involves cleavage of a larger precursor molecule, presumably an oxygenated carotenoid.

  18. Abscisic Alcohol Is an Intermediate in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in a Shunt Pathway from Abscisic Aldehyde 1

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Christopher D.; Heath, Timothy G.; Gage, Douglas A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are impaired in ABA-aldehyde oxidation and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol as a result of the biosynthetic block (IB Taylor, RST Linforth, RJ Al-Naieb, WR Bowman, BA Marples [1988] Plant Cell Environ 11: 739-745). Here we report that the flacca and sitiens mutants accumulate trans-ABA and trans-ABA glucose ester and that this accumulation is due to trans-ABA biosynthesis. 18O labeling of water-stressed wild-type and mutant tomato leaves and analysis of [18O]ABA by tandem mass spectrometry show that the tomato mutants synthesize a significant percentage of their ABA and trans-ABA as [18O]ABA with two 18O atoms in the carboxyl group. We further show, by feeding experiments with [2H6]ABA-alcohol and 18O2, that this doubly-carboxyl-labeled ABA is synthesized from [18O]ABA-alcohol with incorporation of molecular oxygen. In vivo inhibition of [2H6]ABA-alcohol oxidation by carbon monoxide establishes the involvement of a P-450 monooxygenase. Likewise, carbon monoxide inhibits the synthesis of doubly-carboxyl-labeled ABA in 18O-labeling experiments. This minor shunt pathway from ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol to ABA operates in all plants examined. For the ABA-deficient mutants impaired in ABA-aldehyde oxidation, this shunt pathway is an important source of ABA and is physiologically significant. PMID:16668451

  19. Transcription factors FabR and FadR regulate both aerobic and anaerobic pathways for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qixia; Shi, Miaomiao; Ren, Yedan; Gao, Haichun

    2014-01-01

    As genes for type II fatty acid synthesis are essential to the growth of Escherichia coli, its sole (anaerobic) pathway has significant potential as a target for novel antibacterial drug, and has been extensively studied. Despite this, we still know surprisingly little about fatty acid synthesis in bacteria because this anaerobic pathway in fact is not widely distributed. In this study, we show a novel model of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthesis in Shewanella, emerging human pathogens in addition to well-known metal reducers. We identify both anaerobic and aerobic UFA biosynthesis pathways in the representative species, S. oneidensis. Uniquely, the bacterium also contains two regulators FabR and FadR, whose counterparts in other bacteria control the anaerobic pathway. However, we show that in S. oneidensis these two regulators are involved in regulation of both pathways, in either direct or indirect manner. Overall, our results indicate that the UFA biosynthesis and its regulation are far more complex than previously expected, and S. oneidensis serves as a good research model for further work.

  20. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis: A Colorful Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sola, M. Águila; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are a family of pigments that participate in light harvesting and are essential for photoprotection against excess light. Furthermore, they act as precursors for the production of apocarotenoid hormones such as abscisic acid and strigolactones. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the genes and enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway (which is now almost completely elucidated) and on the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also discuss the relevance of Arabidopsis as a model system for the study of carotenogenesis and how metabolic engineering approaches in this plant have taught important lessons for carotenoid biotechnology. PMID:22582030

  1. BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

  2. BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

  3. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  4. De novo assembly and functional annotation of Myrciaria dubia fruit transcriptome reveals multiple metabolic pathways for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Juan C; Maddox, J Dylan; Cobos, Marianela; Requena, David; Zimic, Mirko; Bombarely, Aureliano; Imán, Sixto A; Cerdeira, Luis A; Medina, Andersson E

    2015-11-24

    Myrciaria dubia is an Amazonian fruit shrub that produces numerous bioactive phytochemicals, but is best known by its high L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content in fruits. Pronounced variation in AsA content has been observed both within and among individuals, but the genetic factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown. The goals of this research, therefore, were to assemble, characterize, and annotate the fruit transcriptome of M. dubia in order to reconstruct metabolic pathways and determine if multiple pathways contribute to AsA biosynthesis. In total 24,551,882 high-quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 70,048 unigenes (mean length = 1150 bp, N50 = 1775 bp). Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases such as TAIR, GR-protein, FB, MGI, RGD, ZFIN, SGN, WB, TIGR_CMR, and JCVI-CMR with 75.2 % of unigenes having annotations. Of the three core GO annotation categories, biological processes comprised 53.6 % of the total assigned annotations, whereas cellular components and molecular functions comprised 23.3 and 23.1 %, respectively. Based on the KEGG pathway assignment of the functionally annotated transcripts, five metabolic pathways for AsA biosynthesis were identified: animal-like pathway, myo-inositol pathway, L-gulose pathway, D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, and uronic acid pathway. All transcripts coding enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also identified. Finally, we used the assembly to identified 6314 genic microsatellites and 23,481 high quality SNPs. This study describes the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome annotation of a non-model Amazonian plant that is relevant for AsA production and other bioactive phytochemicals. Genes encoding key enzymes were successfully identified and metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis of AsA, anthocyanins, and other metabolic pathways have been reconstructed. The identification of these genes and pathways is in agreement with

  5. De Novo Biosynthesis of Glutarate via α-Keto Acid Carbon Chain Extension and Decarboxylation Pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Yifei; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2017-06-23

    Microbial based bioplastics are promising alternatives to petroleum based synthetic plastics due to their renewability and economic feasibility. Glutarate is one of the most potential building blocks for bioplastics. The recent biosynthetic routes for glutarate were mostly based on the l-lysine degradation pathway from Pseudomonas putida that required lysine either by feeding or lysine overproduction via genetic manipulations. Herein, we established a novel glutarate biosynthetic pathway by incorporation of a "+1" carbon chain extension pathway from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in combination with α-keto acid decarboxylation pathway in Escherichia coli. Introduction of homocitrate synthase (HCS), homoaconitase (HA) and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae into E. coli enabled "+1" carbon extension from α-KG to α-ketoadipate (α-KA), which was subsequently converted into glutarate by a promiscuous α-keto acid decarboxylase (KivD) and a succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD). The recombinant E. coli coexpressing all five genes produced 0.3 g/L glutarate from glucose. To further improve the titers, α-KG was rechanneled into carbon chain extension pathway via the clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeats system mediated interference (CRISPRi) of essential genes sucA and sucB in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The final strain could produce 0.42 g/L glutarate, which was increased by 40% compared with the parental strain.

  6. Regulation of general amino acid permeases Gap1p, GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p on 2-phenylethanol biosynthesis via Ehrlich pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianrui; Wang, Zhaoyue; Guo, Xuena; Liu, Sha; He, Xiuping

    2017-01-20

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) is used as the sole nitrogen source, 2-phenylethanol (PE) is mainly synthesized via the Ehrlich pathway. General amino acid permease Gap1p is response of aromatic amino acids transportation, and GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p regulate the transcription of permease gene and catabolic enzyme genes for nitrogen sources and aromatic amino acids utilization. In this study, it was demonstrated that over-expressing GLN3 gene from industrial yeast strain MT2 or S. cerevisiae haploid strain YS58, 2-PE synthesis levels of recombinant strains increased 54% or 40% than that of the control strain, which suggested that higher Gln3p activity in yeast has positive regulation effect on 2-PE biosynthesis via Ehrlich pathway. The recombinant strains with over-expression of GAT1 gene from MT2 or YS58 also up-regulated Ehrlich pathway for 2-PE biosynthesis and increased 2-PE production. Similarly, when GAP1 gene respectively from MT2 or YS58 was over-expressed, 2-PE yield was improved obviously, suggesting that GAP1 over-expressing in yeast also promoted Ehrlich pathway to produce 2-PE. The synergistic regulation of GLN3/GAT1 or GLN3/GAP1 over-expression was similar to that of single factor over-expression. Among these regulatory factors, Gln3p of industrial yeast strain MT2 caused stronger regulation on target genes than that of haploid strain YS58, which might be due to the differences in translational efficiency or nuclear localization of each Gln3p, or due to their different spatial structures and binding domains. Further results showed that efficient Gln3p expression in MT2 brought about higher 2-PE, 3.59gL(-1), which was of potential significant for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Abscisic acid: biosynthesis, inactivation, homoeostasis and signalling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Park, Youngmin; Hwang, Inhwan

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes during plant growth and abiotic stress responses. The endogenous ABA level is controlled by complex regulatory mechanisms involving biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and signal transduction pathways. This complex regulatory network may target multiple levels, including transcription, translation and post-translational regulation of genes involved in ABA responses. Most of the genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, catabolism and transport have been characterized. The local ABA concentration is critical for initiating ABA-mediated signalling during plant development and in response to environmental changes. In this chapter we discuss the mechanisms that regulate ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and homoeostasis. We also present the findings of recent research on ABA perception by cellular receptors, and ABA signalling in response to cellular and environmental conditions. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Regulatory Cross-Talks and Cascades in Rice Hormone Biosynthesis Pathways Contribute to Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Arindam; Grewal, Rumdeep K.; Kundu, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus, independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each others production directly. Thus, multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones. PMID:27617021

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of GlHMGS, a gene encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase from Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-zhi) in ganoderic acid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Ouyang, Xiang; Shi, Liang; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Mu, Da-Shuai; Li, Meng-Jiao; Han, Qin; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2013-03-01

    A hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase gene, designated as GlHMGS (GenBank accession No. JN391469) involved in ganoderic acid (GA) biosynthesis pathway was cloned from Ganoderma lucidum. The full-length cDNA of GlHMGS (GenBank accession No. JN391468) was found to contain an open reading frame of 1,413 bp encoding a polypeptide of 471 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of GlHMGS shared high homology with other known hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) enzymes. In addition, functional complementation of GlHMGS in a mutant yeast strain YSC1021 lacking HMGS activity demonstrated that the cloned cDNA encodes a functional HMGS. A 1,561 bp promoter sequence was isolated and its putative regulatory elements and potential specific transcription factor binding sites were analyzed. GlHMGS expression profile analysis revealed that salicylic acid, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate up-regulated GlHMGS transcript levels over the control. Further expression analysis revealed that the developmental stage and carbon source had significant effects on GlHMGS transcript levels. GlHMGS expression peaked on day 16 before decreasing with prolonged culture time. The highest mRNA level was observed when the carbon source was maltose. Overexpression of GlHMGS enhanced GA content in G. lucidum. This study provides useful information for further studying this gene and on its function in the ganoderic acid biosynthetic pathway in G. lucidum.

  10. Teichoic acid biosynthesis as an antibiotic target.

    PubMed

    Pasquina, Lincoln W; Santa Maria, John P; Walker, Suzanne

    2013-10-01

    The relentless spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens makes it imperative to develop new chemotherapeutic strategies to overcome infection. The bacterial cell wall has served as a rich source for both validated and unexploited pathways that are essential for virulence and survival. Lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) and wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are cell wall polymers that play fundamental roles in Gram-positive bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, and both have been proposed as novel antibacterial targets. Here we describe recent progress toward the discovery of teichoic acid biosynthesis inhibitors and their potential as antibiotics to combat Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  11. Detection of phytohormones in temperate forest fungi predicts consistent abscisic acid production and a common pathway for cytokinin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Erin N; Knowles, Sarah; Hayward, Allison; Thorn, R Greg; Saville, Barry J; Emery, R J N

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormones, abscisic acid and cytokinin, once were thought to be present uniquely in plants, but increasing evidence suggests that these hormones are present in a wide variety of organisms. Few studies have examined fungi for the presence of these "plant" hormones or addressed whether their levels differ based on the nutrition mode of the fungus. This study examined 20 temperate forest fungi of differing nutritional modes (ectomycorrhizal, wood-rotting, saprotrophic). Abscisic acid and cytokinin were present in all fungi sampled; this indicated that the sampled fungi have the capacity to synthesize these two classes of phytohormones. Of the 27 cytokinins analyzed by HPLC-ESI MS/MS, seven were present in all fungi sampled. This suggested the existence of a common cytokinin metabolic pathway in fungi that does not vary among different nutritional modes. Predictions regarding the source of isopentenyl, cis-zeatin and methylthiol CK production stemming from the tRNA degradation pathway among fungi are discussed.

  12. Nicotiana attenuata SIPK, WIPK, NPR1, and Fatty Acid-Amino Acid Conjugates Participate in the Induction of Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis by Affecting Early Enzymatic Steps in the Pathway1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kallenbach, Mario; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldwin, Ian Thomas; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Wounding and herbivore attack elicit the rapid (within minutes) accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) that results from the activation of previously synthesized biosynthetic enzymes. Recently, several regulatory factors that affect JA production have been identified; however, how these regulators affect JA biosynthesis remains at present unknown. Here we demonstrate that Nicotiana attenuata salicylate-induced protein kinase (SIPK), wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), nonexpressor of PR-1 (NPR1), and the insect elicitor N-linolenoyl-glucose (18:3-Glu) participate in mechanisms affecting early enzymatic steps of the JA biosynthesis pathway. Plants silenced in the expression of SIPK and NPR1 were affected in the initial accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-linolenic acid (13-OOH-18:3) after wounding and 18:3-Glu elicitation by mechanisms independent of changes in 13-lipoxygenase activity. Moreover, 18:3-Glu elicited an enhanced and rapid accumulation of 13-OOH-18:3 that depended partially on SIPK and NPR1 but was independent of increased 13-lipoxygenase activity. Together, the results suggested that substrate supply for JA production was altered by 18:3-Glu elicitation and SIPK- and NPR1-mediated mechanisms. Consistent with a regulation at the level of substrate supply, we demonstrated by virus-induced gene silencing that a wound-repressed plastidial glycerolipase (NaGLA1) plays an essential role in the induction of de novo JA biosynthesis. In contrast to SIPK and NPR1, mechanisms mediated by WIPK did not affect the production of 13-OOH-18:3 but were critical to control the conversion of this precursor into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. These differences could be partially accounted for by reduced allene oxide synthase activity in WIPK-silenced plants. PMID:19897603

  13. Bacterial exopolysaccharides: biosynthesis pathways and engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker; Rehm, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce a wide range of exopolysaccharides which are synthesized via different biosynthesis pathways. The genes responsible for synthesis are often clustered within the genome of the respective production organism. A better understanding of the fundamental processes involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the regulation of these processes is critical toward genetic, metabolic and protein-engineering approaches to produce tailor-made polymers. These designer polymers will exhibit superior material properties targeting medical and industrial applications. Exploiting the natural design space for production of a variety of biopolymer will open up a range of new applications. Here, we summarize the key aspects of microbial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and highlight the latest engineering approaches toward the production of tailor-made variants with the potential to be used as valuable renewable and high-performance products for medical and industrial applications. PMID:26074894

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly and characterization of nine tissues of Lonicera japonica to identify potential candidate genes involved in chlorogenic acid, luteolosides, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Kamochi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Michimi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hatada, Tomoki; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica is one of the most important medicinal plants with applications in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for thousands of years. Extensive studies on the constituents of L. japonica extracts have revealed an accumulation of pharmaceutically active metabolite classes, such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin and other flavonoids, and secoiridoids, which impart characteristic medicinal properties. Despite being a rich source of pharmaceutically active metabolites, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes involved, and their expression profile across different tissues of L. japonica. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for L. japonica, representing transcripts from nine different tissues. A total of 22 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads from nine tissues of L. japonica were used, resulting in 243,185 unigenes, with 99,938 unigenes annotated based on a homology search using blastx against the NCBI-nr protein database. Unsupervised principal component analysis and correlation studies using transcript expression data from all nine tissues of L. japonica showed relationships between tissues, explaining their association at different developmental stages. Homologs for all genes associated with chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways were identified in the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Expression of unigenes associated with chlorogenic acid was enriched in stems and leaf-2, unigenes from luteolin were enriched in stems and flowers, while unigenes from secoiridoid metabolic pathways were enriched in leaf-1 and shoot apex. Our results showed that different tissues of L. japonica are enriched with sets of unigenes associated with specific pharmaceutically important metabolic pathways and, therefore, possess unique medicinal properties. The present study will serve as a resource for future attempts for functional characterization of enzyme coding genes within key metabolic processes.

  15. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-enabled determination of amino acid biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and identification of biosynthetic pathways for alanine, glycine, and isoleucine by 13C-isotopologue profiling.

    PubMed

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Rückert, Christian; Becker, Anke; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2011-10-01

    To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways for all proteinogenic amino acids in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, this study combines results obtained by in silico genome analysis and by (13)C-NMR-based isotopologue profiling to provide a panoramic view on a substantial section of bacterial metabolism. Initially, biosynthesis pathways were reconstructed from an improved annotation of the complete genome of X. campestris pv. campestris B100. This metabolic reconstruction resulted in the unequivocal identification of biosynthesis routes for 17 amino acids in total: arginine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. Ambiguous pathways were reconstructed from the genome data for alanine, glycine, and isoleucine biosynthesis. (13)C-NMR analyses supported the identification of the metabolically active pathways. The biosynthetic routes for these amino acids were derived from the precursor molecules pyruvate, serine, and pyruvate, respectively. By combining genome analysis and isotopologue profiling, a comprehensive set of biosynthetic pathways covering all proteinogenic amino acids was unraveled for this plant pathogenic bacterium, which plays an important role in biotechnology as a producer of the exopolysaccharide xanthan. The data obtained lay ground for subsequent functional analyses in post-genomics and biotechnology, while the innovative combination of in silico and wet lab technology described here is promising as a general approach to elucidate metabolic pathways.

  17. De novo genome assembly and annotation of rice sheath rot fungus Sarocladium oryzae reveals genes involved in Helvolic acid and Cerulenin biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Hittalmani, Shailaja; Mahesh, H B; Mahadevaiah, Channappa; Prasannakumar, Mothukapalli Krishnareddy

    2016-03-31

    Sheath rot disease caused by Sarocladium oryzae is an emerging threat for rice cultivation at global level. However, limited information with respect to genomic resources and pathogenesis is a major setback to develop disease management strategies. Considering this fact, we sequenced the whole genome of highly virulent Sarocladium oryzae field isolate, Saro-13 with 82x sequence depth. The genome size of S. oryzae was 32.78 Mb with contig N50 18.07 Kb and 10526 protein coding genes. The functional annotation of protein coding genes revealed that S. oryzae genome has evolved with many expanded gene families of major super family, proteinases, zinc finger proteins, sugar transporters, dehydrogenases/reductases, cytochrome P450, WD domain G-beta repeat and FAD-binding proteins. Gene orthology analysis showed that around 79.80 % of S. oryzae genes were orthologous to other Ascomycetes fungi. The polyketide synthase dehydratase, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, amine oxidases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase family proteins were duplicated in larger proportion specifying the adaptive gene duplications to varying environmental conditions. Thirty-nine secondary metabolite gene clusters encoded for polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthase, and terpene cyclases. Protein homology based analysis indicated that nine putative candidate genes were found to be involved in helvolic acid biosynthesis pathway. The genes were arranged in cluster and structural organization of gene cluster was similar to helvolic acid biosynthesis cluster in Metarhizium anisophilae. Around 9.37 % of S. oryzae genes were identified as pathogenicity genes, which are experimentally proven in other phytopathogenic fungi and enlisted in pathogen-host interaction database. In addition, we also report 13212 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) which can be deployed in pathogen identification and population dynamic studies in near future. Large set of pathogenicity determinants and putative genes

  18. Inhibition of Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Cercospora rosicola by Inhibitors of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Plant Growth Retardants

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Shirley M.; Poling, Stephen M.; Maier, Vincent P.; Orme, Edward D.

    1983-01-01

    The fungus Cercospora rosicola produces abscisic acid (ABA) as a secondary metabolite. We developed a convenient system using this fungus to determine the effects of compounds on the biosynthesis of ABA. Inasmuch as ABA and the gibberellins (GAs) both arise via the isoprenoid pathway, it was of interest to determine if inhibitors of GA biosynthesis affect ABA biosynthesis. All five putative inhibitors of GA biosynthesis tested inhibited ABA biosynthesis. Several plant growth retardants with poorly understood actions in plants were also tested; of these, six inhibited ABA biosynthesis to varying degrees and two had no effect. Effects of plant growth retardants on various branches of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway may help to explain some of the diverse and unexpected results reported for these compounds. Knowledge that certain inhibitors of GA biosynthesis also have the ability to inhibit ABA biosynthesis in C. rosicola indicates the need for further studies in plants on the mode of action of these compounds. PMID:16662775

  19. Pathways for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Schobert, Max; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2003-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes with important structural and signalling functions. Although many prokaryotes lack PC, it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria. Two pathways for PC biosynthesis are known in bacteria, the methylation pathway and the phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway. In the methylation pathway, phosphatidylethanolamine is methylated three times to yield PC, in reactions catalysed by one or several phospholipid N-methyltransferases (PMTs). In the PCS pathway, choline is condensed directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in a reaction catalysed by PCS. Using cell-free extracts, it was demonstrated that Sinorhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti and Legionella pneumophila have both PMT and PCS activities. In addition, Rhodobacter sphaeroides has PMT activity and Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi have PCS activities. Genes from M. loti and L. pneumophila encoding a Pmt or a Pcs activity and the genes from P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Pcs activity have been identified. Based on these functional assignments and on genomic data, one might predict that if bacteria contain PC as a membrane lipid, they usually possess both bacterial pathways for PC biosynthesis. However, important pathogens such as Brucella melitensis, P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be exceptional as they possess only the PCS pathway for PC formation.

  20. Decreased Biosynthesis of Jasmonic Acid via Lipoxygenase Pathway Compromised Caffeine-Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Under Elevated CO2 in Tea Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Zhixin; Tang, Meijun; Yan, Peng; Han, Wenyan

    2016-11-01

    Caffeine, the major purine alkaloid in tea has long been known for its role in plant defense. However, its effect on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that causes brown blight disease in tea is largely unknown especially under elevated CO2. Here we show that elevated CO2 reduced endogenous caffeine content in tea leaves, but sharply increased susceptibility of tea to C. gloeosporioides. The expression of C. gloeosporioides actin gene was gradually increased during the postinoculation period. In contrast, foliar application of caffeine decreased the C. gloeosporioides-induced necrotic lesions and the expression of C. gloeosporioides actin. Analysis of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) content revealed that exogenous caffeine could induce JA content under both CO2 conditions in absence of fungal infection; however, in presence of fungal infection, caffeine increased JA content only under elevated CO2. Furthermore, exogenous caffeine enhanced lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and its biosynthetic gene expression under both CO2 conditions, indicating that increased JA biosynthesis via LOX pathway by caffeine might strengthen plant defense only under elevated CO2, while caffeine-induced defense under ambient CO2 might be associated with JA-independent LOX pathway in tea. These results provide novel insights into caffeine-induced plant defense mechanisms that might help to develop an eco-friendly approach for disease control.

  1. An engineered pathway for the biosynthesis of renewable propane

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Thiel, Kati; Akhtar, M. Kalim; Jones, Patrik R.

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of next-generation renewable biofuels can be enhanced by improving their compatibility with the current infrastructure for transportation, storage and utilization. Propane, the bulk component of liquid petroleum gas, is an appealing target as it already has a global market. In addition, it is a gas under standard conditions, but can easily be liquefied. This allows the fuel to immediately separate from the biocatalytic process after synthesis, yet does not preclude energy-dense storage as a liquid. Here we report, for the first time, a synthetic metabolic pathway for producing renewable propane. The pathway is based on a thioesterase specific for butyryl-acyl carrier protein (ACP), which allows native fatty acid biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli host to be redirected towards a synthetic alkane pathway. Propane biosynthesis is markedly stimulated by the introduction of an electron-donating module, optimizing the balance of O2 supply and removal of native aldehyde reductases. PMID:25181600

  2. An engineered pathway for the biosynthesis of renewable propane.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Thiel, Kati; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-09-02

    The deployment of next-generation renewable biofuels can be enhanced by improving their compatibility with the current infrastructure for transportation, storage and utilization. Propane, the bulk component of liquid petroleum gas, is an appealing target as it already has a global market. In addition, it is a gas under standard conditions, but can easily be liquefied. This allows the fuel to immediately separate from the biocatalytic process after synthesis, yet does not preclude energy-dense storage as a liquid. Here we report, for the first time, a synthetic metabolic pathway for producing renewable propane. The pathway is based on a thioesterase specific for butyryl-acyl carrier protein (ACP), which allows native fatty acid biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli host to be redirected towards a synthetic alkane pathway. Propane biosynthesis is markedly stimulated by the introduction of an electron-donating module, optimizing the balance of O2 supply and removal of native aldehyde reductases.

  3. A mitochondrial pathway for biosynthesis of lipid mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Jiang, Jianfei; Anthonymuthu, Tamil Selvan; Kapralova, Valentina I.; Vikulina, Anna S.; Jung, Mi-Yeon; Epperly, Michael W.; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Jackson, Travis C.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Vladimirov, Yury A.; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2014-06-01

    The central role of mitochondria in metabolic pathways and in cell-death mechanisms requires sophisticated signalling systems. Essential in this signalling process is an array of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the molecular machinery for the production of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids is localized in the cytosol and their biosynthesis has not been identified in mitochondria. Here we report that a range of diversified polyunsaturated molecular species derived from a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), is oxidized by the intermembrane-space haemoprotein, cytochrome c. We show that a number of oxygenated CL species undergo phospholipase A2-catalysed hydrolysis and thus generate multiple oxygenated fatty acids, including well-known lipid mediators. This represents a new biosynthetic pathway for lipid mediators. We demonstrate that this pathway, which includes the oxidation of polyunsaturated CLs and accumulation of their hydrolysis products (oxygenated linoleic, arachidonic acids and monolysocardiolipins), is activated in vivo after acute tissue injury.

  4. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-02-19

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum.

  5. Amino Acid Biosynthesis in the Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Hochuli, Michel; Patzelt, Heiko; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Wüthrich, Kurt; Szyperski, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Biosynthesis of proteinogenic amino acids in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica was explored by using biosynthetically directed fractional 13C labeling with a mixture of 90% unlabeled and 10% uniformly 13C-labeled glycerol. The resulting 13C-labeling patterns in the amino acids were analyzed by two-dimensional 13C,1H correlation spectroscopy. The experimental data provided evidence for a split pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis, with 56% of the total Ile originating from threonine and pyruvate via the threonine pathway and 44% originating from pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A via the pyruvate pathway. In addition, the diaminopimelate pathway involving diaminopimelate dehydrogenase was shown to lead to lysine biosynthesis and an analysis of the 13C-labeling pattern in tyrosine indicated novel biosynthetic pathways that have so far not been further characterized. For the 17 other proteinogenic amino acids, the data were consistent with data for commonly found biosynthetic pathways. A comparison of our data with the amino acid metabolisms of eucarya and bacteria supports the theory that pathways for synthesis of proteinogenic amino acids were established before ancient cells diverged into archaea, bacteria, and eucarya. PMID:10322026

  6. Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes.

  7. Methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lishan; Chang, Wei-chen; Xiao, Youli; Liu, Hung-wen; Liu, Pinghua

    2013-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of natural products with more than 55,000 members. All isoprenoids are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate. Two of the most important discoveries in isoprenoid biosynthetic studies in recent years are the elucidation of a second isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway [the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway] and a modified mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. In this review, we summarize mechanistic insights on the MEP pathway enzymes. Because many isoprenoids have important biological activities, the need to produce them in sufficient quantities for downstream research efforts or commercial application is apparent. Recent advances in both MVA and MEP pathway-based synthetic biology are also illustrated by reviewing the landmark work of artemisinic acid and taxadien-5α-ol production through microbial fermentations.

  8. Rational synthetic pathway refactoring of natural products biosynthesis in actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) and their derivatives are widely used as frontline treatments for many diseases. Actinobacteria spp. are used to produce most of NP antibiotics and have also been intensively investigated for NP production, derivatization, and discovery. However, due to the complicated transcriptional and metabolic regulation of NP biosynthesis in Actinobacteria, especially in the cases of genome mining and heterologous expression, it is often difficult to rationally and systematically engineer synthetic pathways to maximize biosynthetic efficiency. With the emergence of new tools and methods in metabolic engineering, the synthetic pathways of many chemicals, such as fatty acids and biofuels, in model organisms (e.g. Escherichia coli ), have been refactored to realize precise and flexible control of production. These studies also offer a promising approach for synthetic pathway refactoring in Actinobacteria. In this review, the great potential of Actinobacteria as a microbial cell factory for biosynthesis of NPs is discussed. To this end, recent progress in metabolic engineering of NP synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are summarized and strategies and perspectives to rationally and systematically refactor synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are highlighted.

  9. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Brückner, Kathleen; de Vos, Ric C H; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A; Katsarou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Pateraki, Irini; Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Dimitriadou, Eleni; Kostas, Stefanos; Manzano, David; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera.

  10. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Brückner, Kathleen; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A.; Katsarou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Pateraki, Irini; Chatzopoulou, Fani M.; Dimitriadou, Eleni; Kostas, Stefanos; Manzano, David; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain; Makris, Antonios M.; Kampranis, Sotirios C.; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera. PMID:26020634

  11. The influence of abscisic acid on the ethylene biosynthesis pathway in the functioning of the flower abscission zone in Lupinus luteus.

    PubMed

    Wilmowicz, Emilia; Frankowski, Kamil; Kućko, Agata; Świdziński, Michał; de Dios Alché, Juan; Nowakowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Flower abscission is a highly regulated developmental process activated in response to exogenous (e.g. changing environmental conditions) and endogenous stimuli (e.g. phytohormones). Ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) are very effective stimulators of flower abortion in Lupinus luteus, which is a widely cultivated species in Poland, Australia and Mediterranean countries. In this paper, we show that artificial activation of abscission by flower removal caused an accumulation of ABA in the abscission zone (AZ). Moreover, the blocking of that phytohormone's biosynthesis by NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) decreased the number of abscised flowers. However, the application of NBD - an inhibitor of ET action - reversed the stimulatory effect of ABA on flower abscission, indicating that ABA itself is not sufficient to turn on the organ separation. Our analysis revealed that exogenous ABA significantly accelerated the transcriptional activity of the ET biosynthesis genes ACC synthase (LlACS) and oxidase (LlACO), and moreover, strongly increased the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) - ET precursor, which was specifically localized within AZ cells. We cannot exclude the possibility that ABA mediates flower abscission processes by enhancing the ET biosynthesis rate. The findings of our study will contribute to the overall basic knowledge on the phytohormone-regulated generative organs abscission in L. luteus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis of resorcylic acid lactone lasiodiplodin in Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Takasumi; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2009-05-01

    The biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin (1) and its (5S)-5-hydroxylated derivative (2) were investigated by the administration of (13)C-labeled acetates to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The labeling patterns of biosynthetically (13)C-labeled 1 and 2 were determined by (13)C-NMR and INADEQUATE spectra, demonstrating the octaketide origins of 1 and 2. Taking into account the biosynthetic study of resorcylic acid lactones, the involvement of highly reduced acyl intermediates in the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodins was presumed; thus, we synthesized (2)H-labeled hypothetical acyl intermediates of 1, 9-hydroxydecanoic acid (4) and its N-acetylcysteamine thioester (SNAC, 5). When L. theobromae was incubated with 5 mM of a (2)H-labeled intermediate, the (2)H-label from the intermediate was incorporated at the expected position of 1. These incorporation studies revealed that 1 was produced via a pathway which closely resembles that of resorcylic acid lactone biosynthesis.

  13. Abscisic acid modulates salicylic acid biosynthesis for systemic acquired resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kusajima, Miyuki; Okumura, Yasuko; Fujita, Moeka; Nakashita, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Among the regulatory mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tomato, antagonistic interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways was investigated. Treatment with 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (BIT) induced SAR in tomato thorough SA biosynthesis. Pretreatment of ABA suppressed BIT-induced SAR including SA accumulation, suggesting that ABA suppressed SAR by inhibiting SA biosynthesis.

  14. Phenol biosynthesis in higher plants. Gallic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dewick, P. M.; Haslam, E.

    1969-01-01

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid in a number of higher plants was investigated by using l-[U-14C]phenylalanine, (−)-[G-14C]shikimic acid, d-[1-14C]glucose and d-[6-14C]glucose as tracers. The results are compared with those obtained similarly for caffeic acid and are interpreted in terms of the dehydrogenation of 5-dehydroshikimic acid as a normal route of metabolism for gallic acid. PMID:5807212

  15. Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lishan; Chang, Wei-chen; Xiao, Youli; Liu, Hung-wen; Liu, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of natural products with more than 50,000 members. All isoprenoids are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two of the most important discoveries in isoprenoid biosynthetic studies in recent years are the elucidation of a second isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway) and a modified mevalonate (MVA) pathway. In this review, mechanistic insights on the MEP pathway enzymes are summarized. Since many isoprenoids have important biological activities, the need to produce them in sufficient quantities for downstream research efforts or commercial application is apparent. Recent advances in both the MVA and MEP pathway-based synthetic biology efforts are also illustrated by reviewing the landmark work of artemisinic acid and taxadien-5α-ol production through microbial fermentations. PMID:23746261

  16. Structure of 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonic acid synthase, a catalyst in the archaeal pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Morar, Mariya; White, Robert H; Ealick, Steven E

    2007-09-18

    Genes responsible for the generation of 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), an early metabolite in the established shikimic pathway of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, are absent in most euryarchaeotes. Alternative gene products, Mj0400 and Mj1249, have been identified in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii as the enzymes involved in the synthesis of DHQ. 2-Amino-3,7-dideoxy-d-threo-hept-6-ulosonic acid (ADH) synthase, the product of the Mj0400 gene, catalyzes a transaldol reaction between 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate and l-aspartate semialdehyde to yield ADH. Dehydroquinate synthase II, the product of the Mj1249 gene, then catalyzes deamination and cyclization of ADH, resulting in DHQ, which is fed into the canonical pathway. Three crystal structures of ADH synthase were determined in this work: a complex with a substrate analogue, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, a complex with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), thought to be a product of fructose 1-phosphate cleavage, and a native structure containing copurified ligands, modeled as DHAP and glycerol. On the basis of the structural analysis and comparison of the enzyme with related aldolases, ADH synthase is classified as a new member of the class I aldolase superfamily. The description of the active site allows for the identification and characterization of possible catalytic residues, Lys184, which is responsible for formation of the Schiff base intermediate, and Asp33 and Tyr153, which are candidates for the general acid/base catalysis.

  17. Impact of mutations within the [Fe-S] cluster or the lipoic acid biosynthesis pathways on mitochondrial protein expression profiles in fibroblasts from patients.

    PubMed

    Lebigot, E; Gaignard, P; Dorboz, I; Slama, A; Rio, M; de Lonlay, P; Héron, B; Sabourdy, F; Boespflug-Tanguy, O; Cardoso, A; Habarou, F; Ottolenghi, C; Thérond, P; Bouton, C; Golinelli-Cohen, M P; Boutron, A

    2017-08-03

    Lipoic acid (LA) is the cofactor of the E2 subunit of mitochondrial ketoacid dehydrogenases and plays a major role in oxidative decarboxylation. De novo LA biosynthesis is dependent on LIAS activity together with LIPT1 and LIPT2. LIAS is an iron‑sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing mitochondrial protein, like mitochondrial aconitase (mt-aco) and some subunits of respiratory chain (RC) complexes I, II and III. All of them harbor at least one [Fe-S] cluster and their activity is dependent on the mitochondrial [Fe-S] cluster (ISC) assembly machinery. Disorders in the ISC machinery affect numerous Fe-S proteins and lead to a heterogeneous group of diseases with a wide variety of clinical symptoms and combined enzymatic defects. Here, we present the biochemical profiles of several key mitochondrial [Fe-S]-containing proteins in fibroblasts from 13 patients carrying mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in either the lipoic acid (LIPT1 and LIPT2) or mitochondrial ISC biogenesis (FDX1L, ISCA2, IBA57, NFU1, BOLA3) pathway. Ten of them are new patients described for the first time. We confirm that the fibroblast is a good cellular model to study these deficiencies, except for patients presenting mutations in FDX1L and a muscular clinical phenotype. We find that oxidative phosphorylation can be affected by LA defects in LIPT1 and LIPT2 patients due to excessive oxidative stress or to another mechanism connecting LA and respiratory chain activity. We confirm that NFU1, BOLA3, ISCA2 and IBA57 operate in the maturation of [4Fe-4S] clusters and not in [2Fe-2S] protein maturation. Our work suggests a functional difference between IBA57 and other proteins involved in maturation of [Fe-S] proteins. IBA57 seems to require BOLA3, NFU1 and ISCA2 for its stability and NFU1 requires BOLA3. Finally, our study establishes different biochemical profiles for patients according to their mutated protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Salidroside biosynthesis pathway: the initial reaction and glycosylation of tyrosol].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lanqing; Liu, Chunmei; Yu, Hansong; Zhang, Jixing; Gao, Dongyao; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Younian

    2012-03-01

    Salidroside, the 8-O-beta-D-glucoside of tyrosol, is a novel adaptogenic drug extracted from the medicinal plant Rhodiola sachalinensis A. Bor. Due to the scarcity of R. sachalinensis and its low yield of salidroside, there is great interest in enhancing the production of salidroside by biotechnological process. Glucosylation of tyrosol is thought to be the final step in salidroside biosynthesis. In our related works, three UGT clones were isolated from the roots and the cultured cells. Our intention was to combine the catalytic specificity of these UGTs in vitro in order to change the level of salidroside in vivo by over-expression of the above UGTs. However, as the aglycone substrate of salidroside, the biosynthetic pathway of tyrosol and its regulation are less well understood. The results of related studies revealed that there are two different possibilities for the tyrosol biosynthetic pathway. One possibility is that tyrosol is produced from a p-coumaric acid precursor, which is derived mainly from phenylalanine. The second possibility is that the precursor of tyrosol might be tyramine, which is synthesized from tyrosine. Our previous work demonstrated that over-expression of the endogenous phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (PALrs1) and accumulation of p-coumaric acid did not facilitate tyrosol biosynthesis. In contrast, the data presented in our recent work provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that the tyrosine decarboxylase (RsTyrDC) is most likely to have an important function in the initial reaction of the salidroside biosynthesis pathway in R. Sachalinensis.

  19. A mutation in the indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis pathway of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae affects growth in Phaseolus vulgaris and syringomycin production.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, M; White, F F

    1994-01-01

    Homologs of the genes for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis from Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi were retrieved from a genomic library of P. syringae pv. syringae, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Sequence relatedness between the P. syringae pv. syringae and P. syringae pv. savastanoi iaa operons is greater than 90% within the iaaM and iaaH loci but declines dramatically at a position approximately 200 bp 5' of the iaaM translation initiation codon. A third open reading frame was detected downstream of iaaH. Production of IAA was undetectable in mutant strain Y30-53.29, which was generated by transposition of Tn5 into the iaaM gene of P. syringae pv. syringae Y30. The IAA-deficient (IAA-) mutant retained the ability to colonize the bean phylloplane and induced disease symptoms on bean which were similar to those produced by the parental strain. However, the population dynamics of the IAA- strain during the parasitic phase in leaves differed from those of both the parental strain and the mutant genetically restored for IAA biosynthesis. The mutant was capable of inducing disease symptoms when established in bean tissues at a lower initial cell density than either IAA-producing strain. Syringomycin biosynthesis by the IAA- strain was diminished in comparison with the parental strain or the mutant genetically restored for IAA production. The results indicate that bacterially derived IAA, or its biosynthesis, is involved in the regulation of in planta growth and in the expression of other factors that affect the host-pathogen interaction. Images PMID:8113177

  20. Metabolic engineering of cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongping; Li, Jingwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed oil is recognized as an important oil in food industry for its unique characters: low flavor reversion and the high level of antioxidants (VitaminE) as well as unsaturated fatty acid. However, the cottonseed oil content of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is only around 20%. In this study, we modified the accumulation of oils by the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1 (GhPEPC1) via RNA interference in transgenic cotton plants. The qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay revealed that the transcription and expression of GhPEPC1 was dramatically down-regulated in transgenic lines. Consequently, the cottonseed oil content in several transgenic lines showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 16.7%) without obvious phenotypic changes under filed condition when compared to the control plants. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GhPEPC1 in the regulation of seed oil content, we quantified the expression of the carbon metabolism related genes of transgenic GhPEPC1 RNAi lines by transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed the decrease of GhPEPC1 expression led to the increase expression of triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes, which eventually contributed to the lipid biosynthesis in cotton. This result provides a valuable information for cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway and shows the potential of creating high cottonseed oil germplasm by RNAi strategy for cotton breeding. PMID:27620452

  1. Biochemical pathways supporting beta-lactam biosynthesis in the springtail Folsomia candida

    PubMed Central

    Suring, Wouter; Mariën, Janine; Broekman, Rhody; van Straalen, Nico M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, an active set of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes was reported in the genome of the arthropod springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola). Evidence was provided that these genes were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. However, successful integration of fungal- or bacterial-derived beta-lactam biosynthesis into the metabolism of an animal requires the beta-lactam precursor L-α-aminoadipic acid and a phosphopantetheinyl transferase for activation of the first enzyme of the pathway, δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS). In this study, we characterized these supporting pathways and their transcriptional regulation in F. candida. We identified one phosphopantetheinyl transferase and three pathways for L-α-aminoadipic acid production, distinct from the pathways utilized by microorganisms. We found that after heat shock, the phosphopantetheinyl transferase was co-regulated with ACVS, confirming its role in activating ACVS. Two of the three L-α-aminoadipic acid production pathways were downregulated, while PIPOX, an enzyme participating in the pipecolate pathway, was slightly co-regulated with ACVS. This indicates that L-α-aminoadipic acid may not be a limiting factor in beta-lactam biosynthesis in F. candida, in contrast to microorganisms. In conclusion, we show that all components for L-α-aminoadipic acid synthesis are present and transcriptionally active in F. candida. This demonstrates how springtails could have recruited native enzymes to integrate a beta-lactam biosynthesis pathway into their metabolism after horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27793835

  2. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock.

  3. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis.

  4. Expression of bacterial tyrosine ammonia-lyase creates a novel p-coumaric acid pathway in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasutaka; Yun, Choong-Soo; Matsuda, Fumio; Sasaki, Tadamasa; Saito, Kazuki; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2010-06-01

    Some flavonoids are considered as beneficial compounds because they exhibit anticancer or antioxidant activity. In higher plants, flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are derived from phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. A large number of phenylpropanoids are generated from p-coumaric acid, which is a derivative of the primary metabolite, phenylalanine. The first two steps in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway are catalyzed by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and the coupling of these two enzymes forms a rate-limiting step in the pathway. For the generation of p-coumaric acid, the conversion from phenylalanine to p-coumaric acid that is catalyzed by two enzymes can be theoretically performed by a single enzyme, tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) that catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to p-coumaric acid in certain bacteria. To modify the p-coumaric acid pathway in plants, we isolated a gene encoding TAL from a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and introduced the gene (RsTAL) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of metabolites revealed that the ectopic over-expression of RsTAL leads to higher accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic 5-day-old seedlings. On the other hand, 21-day-old seedlings of plants expressing RsTAL showed accumulation of higher amount of quercetin glycosides, sinapoyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives than control. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RsTAL gene in Arabidopsis enhanced the metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathway and resulted in increased accumulation of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  5. An alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Z H; Kneusel, R E; Matern, U; Varner, J E

    1994-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is implicated in disease resistant response, but whether it is involved in lignin biosynthesis is not known. We isolated a cDNA clone for CCoAOMT in differentiating tracheary elements (TEs) induced from Zinnia-isolated mesophyll cells. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the expression of the CCoAOMT gene was markedly induced during TE differentiation from the isolated mesophyll cells. Tissue print hybridization showed that the expression of the CCoAOMT gene is temporally and spatially regulated and that it is associated with lignification in xylem and in phloem fibers in Zinnia organs. Both CCoAOMT and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) activities increased when the isolated Zinnia mesophyll cells were cultured, whereas only CCoAOMT activity was markedly enhanced during lignification in the in vitro-differentiating TEs. The induction pattern of the OMT activity using 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA as substrate during lignification was the same as that using caffeoyl CoA. Taken together, the results indicate that CCoAOMT is associated with lignification during xylogenesis both in vitro and in the plant, whereas COMT is only involved in a stress response in vitro. We propose that CCoAOMT is involved in an alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis. In Zinnia in vitro-differentiating TEs, the CCoAOMT mediated methylation pathway is dominant. PMID:7994176

  6. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  7. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A chloroplast pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.; Andre, C.

    2011-06-23

    Neutral lipid metabolism has been extensively studied in yeast, plants and mammals. In contrast, little information is available regarding the biochemical pathway, enzymes and regulatory factors involved in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in microalgae. In the conventional TAG biosynthetic pathway widely accepted for yeast, plants and mammals, TAG is assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from its immediate precursor diacylglycerol (DAG) made by ER-specific acyltransferases, and is deposited exclusively in lipid droplets in the cytosol. Here, we demonstrated that the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii employs a distinct pathway that uses DAG derived almost exclusively from the chloroplast to produce TAG. This unique TAG biosynthesis pathway is largely dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis, and the TAG formed in this pathway is stored in lipid droplets in both the chloroplast and the cytosol. These findings have wide implications for understanding TAG biosynthesis and storage and other areas of lipid metabolism in microalgae and other organisms.

  9. Signal transducer and oxidative stress mediated modulation of phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in fungi elicited whole plant culture of Solenostemon scutellarioides.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Das, Urmi; Sahu, Ranabir; Samanta, Amalesh; Banerjee, Pamela

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to improve rosmarinic acid (RA) production in the whole plant culture of Solenostemon scutellarioides through elicitation with phytopathogenic fungi. Amongst selected fungi, Aternaria alternata caused significant elevation (p<0.05-0.01) in RA accumulation (∼1.3-1.6-fold) between 25 and 100 μg l(-1). However, elicitation at the dose of 50 μg l(-1) has been found to be most effective and intracellular RA content reached almost ∼1.6-fold (p<0.01) higher in day 7. Therefore, A. alternata (50 μg l(-1)) was selected for mechanism evaluation. A significant elevation of intercellular jasmonic acid was observed up to day 6 after elicitation with A. alternata (50 μg l(-1)). A significant increase in tissue H2O2 and lipid peroxidation coupled with depletion of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase indicated augmented oxidative stress associated with biotic interaction. Preceding the elicitor-induced RA accumulation, a notable alteration in the specific activities of biosynthetic enzymes namely PAL and TAT was recorded, while, no significant change in the activities of RAS was observed. HPPR activity was slightly improved in elicited plant. Therefore, it could be concluded that A. alternata elicited the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid via signal transduction through jasmonic acid coupled with elicitor induced oxidative stress and associated mechanism.

  10. Yeast extract induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis is partially dependent on the octadecanoic acid pathway in cell cultures of Argemone mexicana L., the Mexican poppy.

    PubMed

    Guízar-González, Cecilia; Monforte-González, Miriam; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    To analyze the involvement of the octadecanoic (OCDA) pathway in the accumulation of sanguinarine induced by yeast extract (YE) in cell suspension cultures of Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae). Exposure to YE promoted sanguinarine accumulation. This was not observed when they were exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJa). Use of diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), an inhibitor of the OCDA pathway, resulted in partial impairment of this response. Exogenous application of MeJa did not reverse this effect in DIECA-exposed cultures. qRT-PCR revealed that the accumulation of transcripts corresponding to the berberine bridge enzyme gene, which was induced by YE exposure, was blocked by OCDA pathway and reversed by exogenous MeJa. Interestingly, this response pattern could not be observed on dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase enzyme activity, which was promoted by YE, but unaffected by either OCDA or MeJa. Results suggest partial involvement of OCDA pathway in this response.

  11. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  12. Fatty acid biosynthesis as a drug target in apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C D; McFadden, G I

    2007-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasitic diseases impose devastating impacts on much of the world's population. The increasing prevalence of drug resistant parasites and the growing number of immuno-compromised individuals are exacerbating the problem to the point that the need for novel, inexpensive drugs is greater now than ever. Discovery of a prokaryotic, Type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway associated with the plastid-like organelle (apicoplast) of Plasmodium and Toxoplasma has provided a wealth of novel drug targets. Since this pathway is both essential and fundamentally different from the cytosolic Type I pathway of the human host, apicoplast FAS has tremendous potential for the development of parasite-specific inhibitors. Many components of this pathway are already the target for existing antibiotics and herbicides, which should significantly reduce the time and cost of drug development. Continuing interest--both in the pharmaceutical and herbicide industries--in fatty acid synthesis inhibitors proffers an ongoing stream of potential new anti-parasitic compounds. It has now emerged that not all apicomplexan parasites have retained the Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. No fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes are encoded in the genome of Theileria annulata or T. parva, suggesting that fatty acid synthesis is lacking in these parasites. The human intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium parvum appears to have lost the apicoplast entirely; instead relying on an unusual cytosolic Type I FAS. Nevertheless, newly developed anti-cancer and anti-obesity drugs targeting human Type I FAS may yet prove efficacious against Cryptosporidium and other apicomplexans that rely on this Type I FAS pathway.

  13. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT). Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzymology of retinoic acid biosynthesis and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2013-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid is a biologically active derivative of vitamin A that regulates numerous physiological processes. The concentration of retinoic acid in the cells is tightly regulated, but the exact mechanisms responsible for this regulation are not completely understood, largely because the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid have not been fully defined. Recent studies using in vitro and in vivo models suggest that several members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily of proteins are essential for retinoic acid biosynthesis and the maintenance of retinoic acid homeostasis. However, the exact roles of some of these recently identified enzymes are yet to be characterized. The properties of the known contributors to retinoid metabolism have now been better defined and allow for more detailed understanding of their interactions with retinoid-binding proteins and other retinoid enzymes. At the same time, further studies are needed to clarify the interactions between the cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins involved in the processing of hydrophobic retinoid metabolites. This review summarizes current knowledge about the roles of various biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes in the regulation of retinoic acid homeostasis and outlines the remaining questions in the field. PMID:23630397

  15. Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: insights into steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route.

  16. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  17. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

  18. Enhanced isoprene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by engineering of the native acetyl-CoA and mevalonic acid pathways with a push-pull-restrain strategy.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaomei; Xie, Wenping; Lu, Wenqiang; Guo, Fei; Gu, Jiali; Yu, Hongwei; Ye, Lidan

    2014-09-30

    To explore the capacity of isoprene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a rational push-pull-restrain strategy was proposed to engineer the mevalonic acid (MVA) and acetyl-CoA pathways. The strategy can be decomposed into the up-regulation of precursor supply in the acetyl-CoA module and the MVA pathway (push-strategy), increase of the isoprene branch flux (pull-strategy), and down-regulation of the competing pathway (restrain-strategy). Furthermore, to reduce the production cost arising from galactose addition and meanwhile maintain the high expression of Gal promoters, the galactose regulatory network was modulated by Gal80p deletion. Finally, the engineered strain YXM10-ispS-ispS could accumulate up to 37 mg/L isoprene (about 782-fold increase compared to the parental strain) under aerobic conditions with glycerol-sucrose as carbon source. In this way, a new potential platform for isoprene production was established via metabolic engineering of the yeast native pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  20. Pathways associated with lignin biosynthesis in lignomaniac jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Avrajit; Sarkar, Debabrata; Satya, Pratik; Karmakar, Pran Gobinda; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    We generated the bast transcriptomes of a deficient lignified phloem fibre mutant and its wild-type jute (Corchorus capsularis) using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 34,163 wild-type and 29,463 mutant unigenes, with average lengths of 1442 and 1136 bp, respectively, were assembled de novo, ~77-79 % of which were functionally annotated. These annotated unigenes were assigned to COG (~37-40 %) and GO (~22-28 %) classifications and mapped to 189 KEGG pathways (~19-21 %). We discovered 38 and 43 isoforms of 16 and 10 genes of the upstream shikimate-aromatic amino acid and downstream monolignol biosynthetic pathways, respectively, rendered their sequence similarities, confirmed the identities of 22 of these candidate gene families by phylogenetic analyses and reconstructed the pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis in jute fibres. We also identified major genes and bast-related transcription factors involved in secondary cell wall (SCW) formation. The quantitative RT-PCRs revealed that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (CcPAL1) was co-down-regulated with several genes of the upstream shikimate pathway in mutant bast tissues at an early growth stage, although its expression relapsed to the normal level at the later growth stage. However, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 7 (CcCAD7) was strongly down-regulated in mutant bast tissues irrespective of growth stages. CcCAD7 disruption at an early growth stage was accompanied by co-up-regulation of SCW-specific genes cellulose synthase A7 (CcCesA7) and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan 6 (CcFLA6), which was predicted to be involved in coordinating the S-layers' deposition in the xylan-type jute fibres. Our results identified CAD as a promising target for developing low-lignin jute fibres using genomics-assisted molecular approaches.

  1. Tracking the sterol biosynthesis pathway of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Michele; Matthijs, Michiel; Carbonelle, Sophie; Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Dasseville, Renaat; Baart, Gino J E; Vyverman, Wim; Goossens, Alain

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms are unicellular photosynthetic microalgae that play a major role in global primary production and aquatic biogeochemical cycling. Endosymbiotic events and recurrent gene transfers uniquely shaped the genome of diatoms, which contains features from several domains of life. The biosynthesis pathways of sterols, essential compounds in all eukaryotic cells, and many of the enzymes involved are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. Although well characterized in most eukaryotes, the pathway leading to sterol biosynthesis in diatoms has remained hitherto unidentified. Through the DiatomCyc database we reconstructed the mevalonate and sterol biosynthetic pathways of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in silico. We experimentally verified the predicted pathways using enzyme inhibitor, gene silencing and heterologous gene expression approaches. Our analysis revealed a peculiar, chimeric organization of the diatom sterol biosynthesis pathway, which possesses features of both plant and fungal pathways. Strikingly, it lacks a conventional squalene epoxidase and utilizes an extended oxidosqualene cyclase and a multifunctional isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase/squalene synthase enzyme. The reconstruction of the P. tricornutum sterol pathway underscores the metabolic plasticity of diatoms and offers important insights for the engineering of diatoms for sustainable production of biofuels and high-value chemicals.

  2. Carnosic acid biosynthesis elucidated by a synthetic biology platform

    PubMed Central

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Ioannou, Efstathia; Georgantea, Panagiota; Trikka, Fotini A.; Loupassaki, Sofia; Roussis, Vassilios; Makris, Antonios M.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology approaches achieving the reconstruction of specific plant natural product biosynthetic pathways in dedicated microbial “chassis” have provided access to important industrial compounds (e.g., artemisinin, resveratrol, vanillin). However, the potential of such production systems to facilitate elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways has been underexplored. Here we report on the application of a modular terpene production platform in the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the potent antioxidant carnosic acid and related diterpenes in Salvia pomifera and Rosmarinus officinalis. Four cytochrome P450 enzymes are identified (CYP76AH24, CYP71BE52, CYP76AK6, and CYP76AK8), the combined activities of which account for all of the oxidation events leading to the biosynthesis of the major diterpenes produced in these plants. This approach develops yeast as an efficient tool to harness the biotechnological potential of the numerous sequencing datasets that are increasingly becoming available through transcriptomic or genomic studies. PMID:26976595

  3. Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Wanderley; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl sterols, which are required for parasitic growth and viability, but are absent from mammalian host cells. Currently, there are several drugs that interfere with sterol biosynthesis (SB) that are in use to treat diseases such as high cholesterol in humans and fungal infections. In this review, we analyze the effects of drugs such as (a) statins, which act on the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, (b) bisphosphonates, which interfere with the isoprenoid pathway in the step catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (c) zaragozic acids and quinuclidines, inhibitors of squalene synthase (SQS), which catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, (d) allylamines, inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, (e) azoles, which inhibit C14α-demethylase, and (f) azasterols, which inhibit Δ24(25)-sterol methyltransferase (SMT). Inhibition of this last step appears to have high selectivity for fungi and trypanosomatids, since this enzyme is not found in mammalian cells. We review here the IC50 values of these various inhibitors, their effects on the growth of trypanosomatids (both in axenic cultures and in cell cultures), and their effects on protozoan structural organization (as evaluted by light and electron microscopy) and lipid composition. The results show that the mitochondrial membrane as well as the membrane lining the protozoan cell body and flagellum are the main targets. Probably as a consequence of these primary effects, other important changes take place in

  4. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  5. Spectral Dependence of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathways in Plant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O B; Litvin, F F

    2015-12-01

    This review covers studies on the dependence of chlorophyll photobiosynthesis reactions from protochlorophyllide on the spectral composition of actinic light. A general scheme of the reaction sequence for the photochemical stage in chlorophyll biosynthesis for etiolated plant leaves is presented. Comparative analysis of the data shows that the use of light with varied wavelengths for etiolated plant illumination reveals parallel transformation pathways of different protochlorophyllide forms into chlorophyllide, including a pathway for early photosystem II reaction center P-680 pigment formation.

  6. Evolution of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-06-01

    The origin of the biosynthetic pathways for the branched-chain amino acids cannot be understood in terms of the backwards development of the present acetolactate pathway because it contains unstable intermediates. We propose that the first biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids was by the reductive carboxylation of short branched chain fatty acids giving keto acids which were then transaminated. Similar reaction sequences mediated by nonspecific enzymes would produce serine and threonine from the abundant prebiotic compounds glycolic and lactic acids. The aromatic amino acids may also have first been synthesized in this way, e.g. tryptophan from indole acetic acid. The next step would have been the biosynthesis of leucine from α-ketoisovaleric acid. The acetolactate pathway developed subsequently. The first version of the Krebs cycle, which was used for amino acid biosynthesis, would have been assembled by making use of the reductive carboxylation and leucine biosynthesis enzymes, and completed with the development of a single new enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. This evolutionary scheme suggests that there may be limitations to inferring the origins of metabolism by a simple back extrapolation of current pathways.

  7. Evolution of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    The origins of the biosynthetic pathways for the branched-chain amino acids cannot be understood in terms of the backwards development of the present acetolactate pathway because it contains unstable intermediates. We propose that the first biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids was by the reductive carboxylation of short branched chain fatty acids giving keto acids which were then transaminated. Similar reaction sequences mediated by nonspecific enzymes would produce serine and threomine from the abundant prebiotic compounds glycolic and lactic acids. The aromatic amino acids may also have first been synthesized in this way, e.g. tryptophan from indole acetic acid. The next step would have been the biosynthesis of leucine from alpha-ketoisovalerc acid. The acetolactate pathway developed subsequently. The first version of the Krebs cycle, which was used for amino acid biosynthesis, would have been assembled by making use fo the reductive carboxylation and leucine biosynthesis enzymes, and completed with the development of a single new enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. This evolutionary scheme suggests that there may be limitations to inferring the origins of metabolism by a simple back extrapolation of current pathways.

  8. Evolution of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    The origins of the biosynthetic pathways for the branched-chain amino acids cannot be understood in terms of the backwards development of the present acetolactate pathway because it contains unstable intermediates. We propose that the first biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids was by the reductive carboxylation of short branched chain fatty acids giving keto acids which were then transaminated. Similar reaction sequences mediated by nonspecific enzymes would produce serine and threomine from the abundant prebiotic compounds glycolic and lactic acids. The aromatic amino acids may also have first been synthesized in this way, e.g. tryptophan from indole acetic acid. The next step would have been the biosynthesis of leucine from alpha-ketoisovalerc acid. The acetolactate pathway developed subsequently. The first version of the Krebs cycle, which was used for amino acid biosynthesis, would have been assembled by making use fo the reductive carboxylation and leucine biosynthesis enzymes, and completed with the development of a single new enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. This evolutionary scheme suggests that there may be limitations to inferring the origins of metabolism by a simple back extrapolation of current pathways.

  9. Engineering a metabolic pathway for isobutanol biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoqiang; Li, Shanshan; Xie, Sha; Wen, Jianping

    2012-09-01

    Isobutanol can be biosynthesized via α-ketoisovalerate catalyzed by heterologous keto acid decarboxylase (KDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In this work, isobutanol biosynthesis pathway was designed in Bacillus subtilis, a notable solvent-tolerant host. In order to do that, a plasmid pPKA expressing KDC and ADH under the control of a B. subtilis strong promoter P(43) was constructed. Isobutanol was detected in the products of the recombinant B. subtilis harboring pPKA plasmid, whereas none was detected by the wild-type strain. Effects of the medium ingredients such as glucose concentration and valine addition, and operating parameters such as initial pH, inoculation volume, and medium work volume on isobutanol production were also investigated. Isobutanol production reached to the maximum of 0.607 g/L after 35-h cultivation under the conditions: glucose concentration of 3%, valine addition of 2%, initial pH of 7.0, inoculum of 1%, and work volume of 50 mL/250 mL. Though the isobutanol production by the recombinant was low, it was the first successful attempt to produce isobutanol in engineered B. subtilis, and the results showed its great potential as an isobutanol-producing cell factory.

  10. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  11. Discovery of parallel pathways of kanamycin biosynthesis allows antibiotic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Park, Sung Ryeol; Nepal, Keshav Kumar; Han, Ah Reum; Ban, Yeon Hee; Yoo, Young Ji; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Eui Min; Kim, Dooil; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-10-09

    Kanamycin is one of the most widely used antibiotics, yet its biosynthetic pathway remains unclear. Current proposals suggest that the kanamycin biosynthetic products are linearly related via single enzymatic transformations. To explore this system, we have reconstructed the entire biosynthetic pathway through the heterologous expression of combinations of putative biosynthetic genes from Streptomyces kanamyceticus in the non-aminoglycoside-producing Streptomyces venezuelae. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the biosynthetic pathway contains an early branch point, governed by the substrate promiscuity of a glycosyltransferase, that leads to the formation of two parallel pathways in which early intermediates are further modified. Glycosyltransferase exchange can alter flux through these two parallel pathways, and the addition of other biosynthetic enzymes can be used to synthesize known and new highly active antibiotics. These results complete our understanding of kanamycin biosynthesis and demonstrate the potential of pathway engineering for direct in vivo production of clinically useful antibiotics and more robust aminoglycosides.

  12. Molecular basis for mycophenolic acid biosynthesis in Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Regueira, Torsten Bak; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mortensen, Uffe H; Hertweck, Christian; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active ingredient in the increasingly important immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals CellCept (Roche) and Myfortic (Novartis). Despite the long history of MPA, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis has remained enigmatic. Here we report the discovery of a polyketide synthase (PKS), MpaC, which we successfully characterized and identified as responsible for MPA production in Penicillium brevicompactum. mpaC resides in what most likely is a 25-kb gene cluster in the genome of Penicillium brevicompactum. The gene cluster was successfully localized by targeting putative resistance genes, in this case an additional copy of the gene encoding IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We report the cloning, sequencing, and the functional characterization of the MPA biosynthesis gene cluster by deletion of the polyketide synthase gene mpaC of P. brevicompactum and bioinformatic analyses. As expected, the gene deletion completely abolished MPA production as well as production of several other metabolites derived from the MPA biosynthesis pathway of P. brevicompactum. Our work sets the stage for engineering the production of MPA and analogues through metabolic engineering.

  13. Quantitation of NAD+ biosynthesis from the salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Sporty, J; Lin, S; Kato, M; Ognibene, T; Stewart, B; Turteltaub, K; Bench, G

    2009-02-18

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) is synthesized via two major pathways in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems: the de novo biosynthesis pathway from tryptophan precursors, or by the salvage biosynthesis pathway from either extracellular nicotinic acid or various intracellular NAD{sup +} decomposition products. NAD{sup +} biosynthesis via the salvage pathway has been linked to an increase in yeast replicative lifespan under calorie restriction (CR). However, the relative contribution of each pathway to NAD{sup +} biosynthesis under both normal and CR conditions is not known. Here, we have performed lifespan, NAD{sup +} and NADH (the reduced form of NAD{sup +}) analyses on BY4742 wild type, NAD+ salvage pathway knockout (npt1{Delta}), and NAD+ de novo pathway knockout (qpt1{Delta}) yeast strains cultured in media containing either 2% glucose (normal growth) or 0.5% glucose (CR). We have utilized {sup 14}C labeled nicotinic acid in the culture media combined with HPLC speciation and both UV and {sup 14}C detection to quantitate the total amounts of NAD{sup +} and NADH and the amounts derived from the salvage pathway. We observe that wild type and qpt1{Delta} yeast exclusively utilize extracellular nicotinic acid for NAD{sup +} and NADH biosynthesis under both the 2% and 0.5% glucose growth conditions suggesting that the de novo pathway plays little role if a functional salvage pathway is present. We also observe that NAD{sup +} concentrations decrease in all three strains under CR. However, unlike the wild type strain, NADH concentrations do not decrease and NAD{sup +}:NADH ratios do not increase under CR for either knockout strain. Lifespan analyses reveal that CR results in a lifespan increase of approximately 25% for the wild type and qpt1{Delta} strains, while no increase in lifespan is observed for the npt1{Delta} strain. In combination these data suggest that having a functional salvage pathway is more important than the absolute levels of NAD

  14. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis gene cluster gene cpaM is required for speradine A biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Tomoki; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Koyama, Akifumi; Iio, Shin-Ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Koyama, Yasuji; Totsuka, Akira; Shindo, Hitoshi; Sato, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Speradine A is a derivative of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) found in culture of an Aspergillus tamarii isolate. Heterologous expression of a predicted methyltransferase gene, cpaM, in the cpa biosynthesis gene cluster of A. tamarii resulted in the speradine A production in a 2-oxoCPA producing A. oryzae strain, indicating cpaM is involved in the speradine A biosynthesis.

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Lysine Biosynthesis Pathway Network during Maize Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuwei; Xie, Shaojun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Lysine is one of the most limiting essential amino acids for humans and livestock. The nutritional value of maize (Zea mays L.) is reduced by its poor lysine content. To better understand the lysine biosynthesis pathway in maize seed, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the genes involved in lysine biosynthesis. We identified lysine biosynthesis pathway genes (LBPGs) and investigated whether a diaminopimelate pathway variant exists in maize. We analyzed two genes encoding the key enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase, and determined that they contribute differently to lysine synthesis during maize seed development. A coexpression network of LBPGs was constructed using RNA-sequencing data from 21 developmental stages of B73 maize seed. We found a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, elongation factors and zein proteins that were coexpressed with LBPGs. The coexpressed genes were enriched in cellular metabolism terms and protein related terms. A phylogenetic analysis of the LBPGs from different plant species revealed different relationships. Additionally, six transcription factor (TF) families containing 13 TFs were identified as the Hub TFs of the LBPGs modules. Several expression quantitative trait loci of LBPGs were also identified. Our results should help to elucidate the lysine biosynthesis pathway network in maize seed. PMID:26829553

  16. Microbial biosynthesis and secretion of l-malic acid and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhe; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Guang-Yuan; Khan, Ibrar; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    l-Malic acid has many uses in food, beverage, pharmaceutical, chemical and medical industries. It can be produced by one-step fermentation, enzymatic transformation of fumaric acid to l-malate and acid hydrolysis of polymalic acid. However, the process for one-step fermentation is preferred as it has many advantages over any other process. The pathways of l-malic acid biosynthesis in microorganisms are partially clear and three metabolic pathways including non-oxidative pathway, oxidative pathway and glyoxylate cycle for the production of l-malic acid from glucose have been identified. Usually, high levels of l-malate are produced under the nitrogen starvation conditions, l-malate, as a calcium salt, is secreted from microbial cells and CaCO3 can play an important role in calcium malate biosynthesis and regulation. However, it is still unclear how it is secreted into the medium. To enhance l-malate biosynthesis and secretion by microbial cells, it is very important to study the mechanisms of l-malic acid biosynthesis and secretion at enzymatic and molecular levels.

  17. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (/sup 14/C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (/sup 14/C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with (/sup 14/C)acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition.

  18. Retinoic acid: its biosynthesis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Napoli, J L

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates the functions of retinoid-binding proteins with retinoid metabolism. One of these proteins, the widely expressed (throughout retinoid target tissues and in all vertebrates) and highly conserved cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), sequesters retinol in an internal binding pocket that segregates it from the intracellular milieu. The CRBP-retinol complex appears to be the quantitatively major form of retinol in vivo, and may protect the promiscuous substrate from nonenzymatic degradation and/or non-specific enzymes. For example, at least seven types of dehydrogenases catalyze retinal synthesis from unbound retinol in vitro (NAD+ vs. NADP+ dependent, cytosolic vs. microsomal, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases vs. medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases). But only a fraction of these (some of the short-chain de-hydrogenases/reductases) have the fascinating additional ability of catalyzing retinal synthesis from CRBP-bound retinol as well. Similarly, CRBP and/or other retinoid-binding proteins function in the synthesis of retinal esters, the reduction of retinal generated from intestinal beta-carotene metabolism, and retinoic acid metabolism. The discussion details the evidence supporting an integrated model of retinoid-binding protein/metabolism. Also addressed are retinoid-androgen interactions and evidence incompatible with ethanol causing fetal alcohol syndrome by competing directly with retinol dehydrogenation to impair retinoic acid biosynthesis.

  19. Complete genome sequencing and antibiotics biosynthesis pathways analysis of Streptomyces lydicus 103

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Luo, Hao; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids. S. lydicus 103 encodes acyl-CoA thioesterase II that takes part in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and harbors the complete biosynthesis pathways of lysine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and isoleucine. Furthermore, a total of 27 putative gene clusters have been predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism, including biosynthesis of streptolydigin, erythromycin, mannopeptimycin, ectoine and desferrioxamine B. Comparative genome analysis of S. lydicus 103 will help us deeply understand its metabolic pathways, which is essential for enhancing the antibiotic production through metabolic engineering. PMID:28317865

  20. Complete genome sequencing and antibiotics biosynthesis pathways analysis of Streptomyces lydicus 103.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Luo, Hao; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-03-20

    More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids. S. lydicus 103 encodes acyl-CoA thioesterase II that takes part in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and harbors the complete biosynthesis pathways of lysine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and isoleucine. Furthermore, a total of 27 putative gene clusters have been predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism, including biosynthesis of streptolydigin, erythromycin, mannopeptimycin, ectoine and desferrioxamine B. Comparative genome analysis of S. lydicus 103 will help us deeply understand its metabolic pathways, which is essential for enhancing the antibiotic production through metabolic engineering.

  1. Novel pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria associated with eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    López-Lara, I M; Geiger, O

    2001-10-04

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesised by either of two pathways, the CDP-choline pathway or the methylation pathway. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of distantly related bacteria such as Rhizobacteria and Spirochetes. Enzymatic methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via the methylation pathway was thought to be the only biosynthetic pathway to yield PC in bacteria. However, a novel choline-dependent pathway for PC biosynthesis has been discovered in Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this pathway, a novel enzymatic activity, PC synthase, condenses choline directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in one step. Surprisingly, genomes of some pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi and Legionella pneumophila) contain genes similar to the sinorhizobial gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase. We, therefore, suggest that the new PC synthase pathway is present in a number of bacteria displaying symbiotic or pathogenic associations with eukaryotes and that the eukaryotic host functions as the provider of choline for this pathway.

  2. Serine biosynthesis by photorespiratory and non-photorespiratory pathways: an interesting interplay with unknown regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Ros, R; Cascales-Miñana, B; Segura, J; Anoman, A D; Toujani, W; Flores-Tornero, M; Rosa-Tellez, S; Muñoz-Bertomeu, J

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration is a primary metabolic pathway, which, given its energy costs, has often been viewed as a wasteful process. Despite having reached the consensus that one important function of photorespiration is the removal of toxic metabolite intermediates, other possible functions have emerged, and others could well emerge in the future. As a primary metabolic pathway, photorespiration interacts with other routes; however the nature of these interactions is not well known. One of these interacting pathways could be the biosynthesis of serine, since this amino acid is synthesised through photorespiratory and non-photorespiratory routes. At present, the exact contribution of each route to serine supply in different tissues and organs, their biological significance and how pathways are integrated and/or regulated remain unknown. Here, we review the non-photorespiratory serine biosynthetic pathways, their interactions with the photorespiratory pathway, their putative role in plants and their biotechnological interest.

  3. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathway and Engineered Biosynthesis of Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Shinji; Sato, Michio; Tsunematsu, Yuta; Watanabe, Kenji

    2016-08-18

    Varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. However, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. In this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products and elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthetic processes. The alkaloids discussed in this review are ditryptophenaline (dimeric diketopiperazine alkaloid), saframycin (tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid), strictosidine (monoterpene indole alkaloid), ergotamine (ergot alkaloid) and opiates (benzylisoquinoline and morphinan alkaloid). This review also discusses the engineered biosynthesis of these compounds, primarily through heterologous reconstitution of target biosynthetic pathways in suitable hosts, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Those heterologous biosynthetic systems can be used to confirm the functions of the isolated genes, economically scale up the production of the alkaloids for commercial distributions and engineer the biosynthetic pathways to produce valuable analogs of the alkaloids. In particular, extensive involvement of oxidation reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases, such as cytochrome P450s, during the secondary metabolite biosynthesis is discussed in details.

  4. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  5. Whitefly genome expression reveals host-symbiont interaction in amino acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2015-01-01

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) complex is a serious insect pest of several crop plants worldwide. It comprises several morphologically indistinguishable species, however very little is known about their genetic divergence and biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex and analyzed the interaction of host-symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. We obtained about 83 million reads using Illumina sequencing that assembled into 72716 unitigs. A total of 21129 unitigs were annotated at stringent parameters. Annotated unitigs were mapped to 52847 gene ontology (GO) terms and 131 Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Expression analysis of the genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis pathways revealed the complementation between whitefly and its symbiont partner Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum. Most of the non-essential amino acids and intermediates of essential amino acid pathways were supplied by the host insect to its symbiont. The symbiont expressed the pathways for the essential amino acids arginine, threonine and tryptophan and the immediate precursors of valine, leucine, isoleucine and phenyl-alanine. High level expression of the amino acid transporters in the whitefly suggested the molecular mechanisms for the exchange of amino acids between the host and the symbiont. Our study provides a comprehensive transcriptome data for Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex that focusses light on integration of host and symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthesis pathways.

  6. Fungal Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis: Genetic and Biochemical Investigation of Tryptoquialanine Pathway in Penicillium aethiopicum

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Ames, Brian D.; Wang, Peng; Walsh, Christopher T.; Tang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Tremorgenic mycotoxins are a group of indole alkaloids which include the quinazoline-containing tryptoquivaline 2 that are capable of eliciting intermittent or sustained tremors in vertebrate animals. The biosynthesis of this group of bioactive compounds, which are characterized by an acetylated quinazoline ring connected to a 6-5-5 imidazoindolone ring system via a 5-membered spirolactone, has remained uncharacterized. Here, we report the identification of a gene cluster (tqa) from P. aethiopicum that is involved in the biosynthesis of tryptoquialanine 1, which is structurally similar to 2. The pathway has been confirmed to go through an intermediate common to the fumiquinazoline pathway, fumiquinazoline F, which originates from a fungal trimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). By systematically inactivating every biosynthetic gene in the cluster, followed by isolation and characterization of the intermediates, we were able to establish the biosynthetic sequence of the pathway. An unusual oxidative opening of the pyrazinone ring by an FAD-dependent berberine bridge enzyme-like oxidoreductase has been proposed based on genetic knockout studies. Notably, a 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB)-utilizing NRPS module has been identified and reconstituted in vitro, along with two putative enzymes of unknown functions that are involved in the synthesis of the unnatural amino acid by genetic analysis. This work provides new genetic and biochemical insights into the biosynthesis of this group of fungal alkaloids, including the tremorgens related to 2. PMID:21299212

  7. Fungal indole alkaloid biosynthesis: genetic and biochemical investigation of the tryptoquialanine pathway in Penicillium aethiopicum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Ames, Brian D; Wang, Peng; Walsh, Christopher T; Tang, Yi

    2011-03-02

    Tremorgenic mycotoxins are a group of indole alkaloids which include the quinazoline-containing tryptoquivaline (2) that are capable of eliciting intermittent or sustained tremors in vertebrate animals. The biosynthesis of this group of bioactive compounds, which are characterized by an acetylated quinazoline ring connected to a 6-5-5 imidazoindolone ring system via a 5-membered spirolactone, has remained uncharacterized. Here, we report the identification of a gene cluster (tqa) from P. aethiopicum that is involved in the biosynthesis of tryptoquialanine (1), which is structurally similar to 2. The pathway has been confirmed to go through an intermediate common to the fumiquinazoline pathway, fumiquinazoline F, which originates from a fungal trimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). By systematically inactivating every biosynthetic gene in the cluster, followed by isolation and characterization of the intermediates, we were able to establish the biosynthetic sequence of the pathway. An unusual oxidative opening of the pyrazinone ring by an FAD-dependent berberine bridge enzyme-like oxidoreductase has been proposed based on genetic knockout studies. Notably, a 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB)-utilizing NRPS module has been identified and reconstituted in vitro, along with two putative enzymes of unknown functions that are involved in the synthesis of the unnatural amino acid by genetic analysis. This work provides new genetic and biochemical insights into the biosynthesis of this group of fungal alkaloids, including the tremorgens related to 2.

  8. De novo purine biosynthesis by two pathways in Burkitt lymphoma cells and in human spleen.

    PubMed

    Reem, G H

    1972-05-01

    This study was designed to answer the question whether human lymphocytes and spleen cells were capable of de novo purine biosynthesis. Experiments were carried out in cell-free extracts prepared from human spleen, and from a cell line established from Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma cells and human spleen cells could synthesize the first and second intermediates of the purine biosynthetic pathway. Cell-free extracts of all cell lines studied contained the enzyme systems which catalyze the synthesis of phosphoribosyl-1-amine, the first intermediate unique to the purine biosynthetic pathway and of phosphoribosyl glycinamide, the second intermediate of this pathway. Phosphoribosyl-1-amine could be synthesized in cell-free extracts from alpha-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and glutamine, from PRPP and ammonia, and by an alternative pathway, directly from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia. These findings suggest that extrahepatic tissues may be an important source for the de novo synthesis of purine ribonucleotide in man. They also indicate that ammonia may play an important role in purine biosynthesis. The alternative pathway for the synthesis of phosphoribosyl-1-amine from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia was found to be subject to inhibition by the end products of the purine synthetic pathway, particularly by adenylic acid and to a lesser degree by guanylic acid. The alternative pathway for phosphoribosyl-1-amine synthesis from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia may contribute significantly towards the regulation of the rate of de novo purine biosynthesis in the normal state, in metabolic disorders in which purines are excessively produced and in myeloproliferative diseases.

  9. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Terreic Acid Pathway in Aspergillus terreus

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; ...

    2014-09-29

    Terreic acid is a natural product derived from 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA). A compact gene cluster for its biosynthesis was characterized. Isolation of the intermediates and shunt products from the mutant strains, in combined with bioinformatic analyses, allowed us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for terreic acid. Lastly, defining the pathway and the genes involved will facilitate the engineering of this molecule with interesting antimicrobial and antitumor bioactivities.

  10. Biosynthesis and role of 3-methylbutanal in cheese by lactic acid bacteria: Major metabolic pathways, enzymes involved, and strategies for control.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Inam; Ariceaga, Citlalli Celeste González; Boulahya, Kenza-Amel; Jacquot, Muriel; Delaunay, Stéphane; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine

    2017-01-22

    Branched chain aldehyde, 3-methylbutanal is associated as a key flavor compound with many hard and semi-hard cheese varieties. The presence and impact of this flavor compound in bread, meat, and certain beverages has been recently documented, however its presence and consequences regarding cheese flavor were not clearly reported. This paper gives an overview of the role of 3-methylbutanal in cheese, along with the major metabolic pathways and key enzymes leading to its formation. Moreover, different strategies are highlighted for the control of this particular flavor compound in specific cheese types.

  11. Targeted modulation of sinapine biosynthesis pathway for seed quality improvement in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Bhinu, V-S; Schäfer, Ulrike A; Li, Rong; Huang, Jun; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2009-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana and other members of the Brassicaceae accumulate the hydroxycinnamic acid esters sinapoylmalate in leaves and sinapoylcholine in seeds. Our recent understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway although complex has enabled us to perturb the sinapine biosynthesis pathway in plants. Sinapine (sinapoylcholine) is the most abundant antinutritional phenolic compound in seeds of cruciferous species and therefore is a target for elimination in canola (Brassica napus) meal. We analysed A. thaliana mutants with specific blocks in the phenylpropanoid pathway and identified mutant lines with significantly altered sinapine content. Knowledge gained from A. thaliana was extended to B. napus and the corresponding phenylpropanoid pathway genes were manipulated to disrupt sinapine biosynthesis in B. napus. Based on our understanding of the A. thaliana genetics, we have successfully developed transgenic B. napus lines with ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase (FAH) and sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT)-antisense. These lines with concomitant downregulation of FAH and SCT showed up to 90% reduction in sinapine. In addition to reduced sinapine content, we detected higher levels of free choline accumulation in the seeds. These results indicate that it is possible to develop plants with low sinapine and higher choline by manipulating specific steps in the biosynthetic pathway. These improvements are important to add value to canola meal for livestock feed.

  12. Effects of nitrogen availability on polymalic acid biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongkang; Song, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Bochu; Zou, Xiang

    2016-08-22

    Polymalic acid (PMA) is a novel polyester polymer that has been broadly used in the medical and food industries. Its monomer, L-malic acid, is also a potential C4 platform chemical. However, little is known about the mechanism of PMA biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. In this study, the effects of different nitrogen concentration on cell growth and PMA biosynthesis were investigated via comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analyses, and a related signaling pathway was also evaluated. A high final PMA titer of 44.00 ± 3.65 g/L (49.9 ± 4.14 g/L of malic acid after hydrolysis) was achieved in a 5-L fermentor under low nitrogen concentration (2 g/L of NH4NO3), which was 18.3 % higher yield than that obtained under high nitrogen concentration (10 g/L of NH4NO3). Comparative transcriptomics profiling revealed that a set of genes, related to the ribosome, ribosome biogenesis, proteasome, and nitrogen metabolism, were significantly up- or down-regulated under nitrogen sufficient conditions, which could be regulated by the TOR signaling pathway. Fourteen protein spots were identified via proteomics analysis, and were found to be associated with cell division and growth, energy metabolism, and the glycolytic pathway. qRT-PCR further confirmed that the expression levels of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthetic pathway (GLK, CS, FUM, DAT, and MCL) and the TOR signaling pathway (GS, TOR1, Tap42, and Gat1) were upregulated due to nitrogen limitation. Under rapamycin stress, PMA biosynthesis was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the transcription levels of TOR1, MCL, and DAT were also downregulated. The level of nitrogen could regulate cell growth and PMA biosynthesis. Low concentration of nitrogen was beneficial for PMA biosynthesis, which could upregulate the expression of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthesis pathway. Cell growth and PMA biosynthesis might be mediated by the TOR signaling pathway in

  13. Innovations in host and microbial sialic acid biosynthesis revealed by phylogenomic prediction of nonulosonic acid structure

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda L.; Desa, Nolan; Hansen, Elizabeth E.; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Gagneux, Pascal; Nizet, Victor; Varki, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Sialic acids (Sias) are nonulosonic acid (NulO) sugars prominently displayed on vertebrate cells and occasionally mimicked by bacterial pathogens using homologous biosynthetic pathways. It has been suggested that Sias were an animal innovation and later emerged in pathogens by convergent evolution or horizontal gene transfer. To better illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying the phenomenon of Sia molecular mimicry, we performed phylogenomic analyses of biosynthetic pathways for Sias and related higher sugars derived from 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxynon-2-ulosonic acids. Examination of ≈1,000 sequenced microbial genomes indicated that such biosynthetic pathways are far more widely distributed than previously realized. Phylogenetic analysis, validated by targeted biochemistry, was used to predict NulO types (i.e., neuraminic, legionaminic, or pseudaminic acids) expressed by various organisms. This approach uncovered previously unreported occurrences of Sia pathways in pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria and identified at least one instance in which a human archaeal symbiont tentatively reported to express Sias in fact expressed the related pseudaminic acid structure. Evaluation of targeted phylogenies and protein domain organization revealed that the “unique” Sia biosynthetic pathway of animals was instead a much more ancient innovation. Pathway phylogenies suggest that bacterial pathogens may have acquired Sia expression via adaptation of pathways for legionaminic acid biosynthesis, one of at least 3 evolutionary paths for de novo Sia synthesis. Together, these data indicate that some of the long-standing paradigms in Sia biology should be reconsidered in a wider evolutionary context of the extended family of NulO sugars. PMID:19666579

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic modeling of Rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Deepak K

    2010-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyllacticacid. It is commonly found in Coleus blumei, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis. The biosynthesis of RA starts with precursor molecules L‐phenylalanine and L‐tyrosine. Simulation of RA biosynthetic pathway was done using Gepasi Software, includes the reaction kinetics of each step of the pathway and different integration methods such as Euler's method. Optimization of the significant parameters responsible for RA biosynthesis was carried out. As the goal of the work was to increase the productivity of i.e. to maximize the concentration of the RA, the final concentration of RA ([RA]t) was selected as an objective function and selected initial concentration of the Caffeoyl‐3’‐4’hydroxyphenyllactic acid (3’C4HPLA) as parameter constraint and varied its initial concentration as: 0≤ [3’C4HPLA]i ≤ 0.025. Several optimization methods such as Simulated annealing, Evolutionary algorithms and Genetic algorithms were used to optimize the objective function. After optimization the final concentration of RA was slightly higher (4.566132e‐002 mM) than before optimization (4.047119e‐ 002 mM). On the basis of results obtained, it is clear that 4‐hydroxyphenyllactic acid and 3’C4HPLA play major role in the high productivity of the RA. PMID:21364781

  16. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-07-08

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, with little evolution of other /sup 14/C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR.

  18. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  19. Biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) from renewable carbon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. During recent years, biotechnological routes to 2-HIBA acid have been proposed and significant progress in elucidating the underlying biochemistry has been made. Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. The latter reaction has recently been discovered in the course of elucidating the degradation pathway of the groundwater pollutant methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the new bacterial species Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. This discovery opens the ground for developing a completely biotechnological process for producing 2-HIBA. The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). This connection to the PHB metabolism is a great advantage as its underlying biochemistry and physiology is well understood and can easily be adopted towards producing 2-HIBA. This review highlights the potential of these discoveries for a large-scale 2-HIBA biosynthesis from renewable carbon, replacing conventional chemistry as synthesis route and petrochemicals as carbon source. PMID:20184738

  20. Low levels of gibberellic acid control the biosynthesis of ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Amini, Aniça; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Andreu, Françoise; Rideau, Marc; Crèche, Joël

    2009-02-01

    In periwinkle cell suspensions, amounts of gibberellic acid ranging from 10 ( - 10) M to 10 ( - 7) M significantly antagonized, in a dose-dependant manner, the stimulation of ajmalicine biosynthesis by cytokinins (CKs). This inhibitory effect was strictly correlated with the abolition of the expression of two genes encoding enzymes of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthetic pathway and was normally upregulated after CK treatments. Moreover, low concentrations of the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol could reverse the inhibitory effects of low auxin levels on ajmalicine accumulation in the cells. On the other hand, gibberellic acid could not affect the expression of two type-A response regulators considered to be CK primary response genes in periwinkle cells. The antagonistic effects of gibberellins and cytokinins on MIA biosynthesis and their possible impact on elements of the signal transduction are discussed.

  1. Abbreviated Pathway for Biosynthesis of 2-Thiouridine in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Black, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 2-thiouridine (s2U) modification of the wobble position in glutamate, glutamine, and lysine tRNA molecules serves to stabilize the anticodon structure, improving ribosomal binding and overall efficiency of the translational process. Biosynthesis of s2U in Escherichia coli requires a cysteine desulfurase (IscS), a thiouridylase (MnmA), and five intermediate sulfur-relay enzymes (TusABCDE). The E. coli MnmA adenylates and subsequently thiolates tRNA to form the s2U modification. Bacillus subtilis lacks IscS and the intermediate sulfur relay proteins, yet its genome contains a cysteine desulfurase gene, yrvO, directly adjacent to mnmA. The genomic synteny of yrvO and mnmA combined with the absence of the Tus proteins indicated a potential functionality of these proteins in s2U formation. Here, we provide evidence that the B. subtilis YrvO and MnmA are sufficient for s2U biosynthesis. A conditional B. subtilis knockout strain showed that s2U abundance correlates with MnmA expression, and in vivo complementation studies in E. coli IscS- or MnmA-deficient strains revealed the competency of these proteins in s2U biosynthesis. In vitro experiments demonstrated s2U formation by YrvO and MnmA, and kinetic analysis established a partnership between the B. subtilis proteins that is contingent upon the presence of ATP. Furthermore, we observed that the slow-growth phenotype of E. coli ΔiscS and ΔmnmA strains associated with s2U depletion is recovered by B. subtilis yrvO and mnmA. These results support the proposal that the involvement of a devoted cysteine desulfurase, YrvO, in s2U synthesis bypasses the need for a complex biosynthetic pathway by direct sulfur transfer to MnmA. IMPORTANCE The 2-thiouridine (s2U) modification of the wobble position in glutamate, glutamine, and lysine tRNA is conserved in all three domains of life and stabilizes the anticodon structure, thus guaranteeing fidelity in translation. The biosynthesis of s2U in Escherichia coli requires

  2. Genetic Dissection of Tropodithietic Acid Biosynthesis by Marine Roseobacters▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Haifeng; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Gram, Lone; Belas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The symbiotic association between the roseobacter Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040 and the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida involves bacterial chemotaxis to dinoflagellate-produced dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), DMSP demethylation, and ultimately a biofilm on the surface of the host. Biofilm formation is coincident with the production of an antibiotic and a yellow-brown pigment. In this report, we demonstrate that the antibiotic is a sulfur-containing compound, tropodithietic acid (TDA). Using random transposon insertion mutagenesis, 12 genes were identified as critical for TDA biosynthesis by the bacteria, and mutation in any one of these results in a loss of antibiotic activity (Tda−) and pigment production. Unexpectedly, six of the genes, referred to as tdaA-F, could not be found on the annotated TM1040 genome and were instead located on a previously unidentified plasmid (ca. 130 kb; pSTM3) that exhibited a low frequency of spontaneous loss. Homologs of tdaA and tdaB from Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040 were identified by mutagenesis in another TDA-producing roseobacter, Phaeobacter sp. strain 27-4, which also possesses two large plasmids (ca. 60 and ca. 70 kb, respectively), and tda genes were found by DNA-DNA hybridization in 88% of a diverse collection of nine roseobacters with known antibiotic activity. These data suggest that roseobacters may use a common pathway for TDA biosynthesis that involves plasmid-encoded proteins. Using metagenomic library databases and a bioinformatics approach, differences in the biogeographical distribution between the critical TDA synthesis genes were observed. The implications of these results to roseobacter survival and the interaction between TM1040 and its dinoflagellate host are discussed. PMID:18192410

  3. Transsulfuration is an active pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in Trypanosoma rangeli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions such as protein biosynthesis, methylation, and polyamine and glutathione syntheses. In trypanosomatids, glutathione is conjugated with spermidine to form the specific antioxidant thiol trypanothione (T[SH]2) that plays a central role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis and providing defence against oxidative stress. Methods We cloned and characterised genes coding for a cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) and cysteine synthase (CS), key enzymes of the transsulfuration and assimilatory pathways, respectively, from the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma rangeli. Results Our results show that T. rangeli CβS (TrCβS), similar to its homologs in T. cruzi, contains the catalytic domain essential for enzymatic activity. Unlike the enzymes in bacteria, plants, and other parasites, T. rangeli CS lacks two of the four lysine residues (Lys26 and Lys184) required for activity. Enzymatic studies using T. rangeli extracts confirmed the absence of CS activity but confirmed the expression of an active CβS. Moreover, CβS biochemical assays revealed that the T. rangeli CβS enzyme also has serine sulfhydrylase activity. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the RTS pathway is active in T. rangeli, suggesting that this may be the only pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in this parasite. In this sense, the RTS pathway appears to have an important functional role during the insect stage of the life cycle of this protozoan parasite. PMID:24761813

  4. Transsulfuration is an active pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ibeth; Téllez, Jair; Yamanaka, Lais Eiko; Steindel, Mario; Romanha, Alvaro José; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos

    2014-04-24

    Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions such as protein biosynthesis, methylation, and polyamine and glutathione syntheses. In trypanosomatids, glutathione is conjugated with spermidine to form the specific antioxidant thiol trypanothione (T[SH]2) that plays a central role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis and providing defence against oxidative stress. We cloned and characterised genes coding for a cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) and cysteine synthase (CS), key enzymes of the transsulfuration and assimilatory pathways, respectively, from the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma rangeli. Our results show that T. rangeli CβS (TrCβS), similar to its homologs in T. cruzi, contains the catalytic domain essential for enzymatic activity. Unlike the enzymes in bacteria, plants, and other parasites, T. rangeli CS lacks two of the four lysine residues (Lys26 and Lys184) required for activity. Enzymatic studies using T. rangeli extracts confirmed the absence of CS activity but confirmed the expression of an active CβS. Moreover, CβS biochemical assays revealed that the T. rangeli CβS enzyme also has serine sulfhydrylase activity. These findings demonstrate that the RTS pathway is active in T. rangeli, suggesting that this may be the only pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in this parasite. In this sense, the RTS pathway appears to have an important functional role during the insect stage of the life cycle of this protozoan parasite.

  5. Mosaic origin of the heme biosynthesis pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Oborník, Miroslav; Green, Beverley R

    2005-12-01

    Heme biosynthesis represents one of the most essential metabolic pathways in living organisms, providing the precursors for cytochrome prosthetic groups, photosynthetic pigments, and vitamin B(12). Using genomic data, we have compared the heme pathway in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae to those of green algae and higher plants, as well as to those of heterotrophic eukaryotes (fungi, apicomplexans, and animals). Phylogenetic analyses showed the mosaic character of this pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Although most of the algal and plant enzymes showed the expected plastid (cyanobacterial) origin, at least one of them (porphobilinogen deaminase) appears to have a mitochondrial (alpha-proteobacterial) origin. Another enzyme, glutamyl-tRNA synthase, obviously originated in the eukaryotic nucleus. Because all the plastid-targeted sequences consistently form a well-supported cluster, this suggests that genes were either transferred from the primary endosymbiont (cyanobacteria) to the primary host nucleus shortly after the primary endosymbiotic event or replaced with genes from other sources at an equally early time, i.e., before the formation of three primary plastid lineages. The one striking exception to this pattern is ferrochelatase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step to heme and bilin pigments. In this case, two red algal sequences do not cluster either with the other plastid sequences or with cyanobacterial sequences and appear to have a proteobacterial origin like that of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Although the heterokonts also acquired their plastid via secondary endosymbiosis from a red alga, the diatom has a typical plastid-cyanobacterial ferrochelatase. We have not found any remnants of the plastidlike heme pathway in the nonphotosynthetic heterokonts Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae.

  6. Biosynthesis and pathway engineering of antifungal polyene macrolides in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dekun; Lee, Mi-Jin; Lin, Shuangjun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2013-06-01

    Polyene macrolides are a large family of natural products typically produced by soil actinomycetes. Polyene macrolides are usually biosynthesized by modular and large type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), followed by several steps of sequential post-PKS modifications such as region-specific oxidations and glycosylations. Although known as powerful antibiotics containing potent antifungal activities (along with additional activities against parasites, enveloped viruses and prion diseases), their high toxicity toward mammalian cells and poor distribution in tissues have led to the continuous identification and structural modification of polyene macrolides to expand their general uses. Advances in in-depth investigations of the biosynthetic mechanism of polyene macrolides and the genetic manipulations of the polyene biosynthetic pathways provide great opportunities to generate new analogues. Recently, a novel class of polyene antibiotics was discovered (a disaccharide-containing NPP) that displays better pharmacological properties such as improved water-solubility and reduced hemolysis. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the biosynthesis, pathway engineering, and regulation of polyene antibiotics in actinomycetes.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of the coordination between astaxanthin and fatty acid biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanqun; Wang, Baobei; Han, Danxiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Lu, Yinghua; Chen, Feng; Hu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a red ketocarotenoid with strong antioxidant activity and high commercial value, possesses important physiological functions in astaxanthin-producing microalgae. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates up to 4% fatty acid-esterified astaxanthin (by dry weight), and is used as a model species for exploring astaxanthin biosynthesis in unicellular photosynthetic organisms. Although coordination of astaxanthin and fatty acid biosynthesis in a stoichiometric fashion was observed in H. pluvialis, the interaction mechanism is unclear. Here we dissected the molecular mechanism underlying coordination between the two pathways in H. pluvialis. Our results eliminated possible coordination of this inter-dependence at the transcriptional level, and showed that this interaction was feedback-coordinated at the metabolite level. In vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that astaxanthin esterification drove the formation and accumulation of astaxanthin. We further showed that both free astaxanthin biosynthesis and esterification occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum, and that certain diacylglycerol acyltransferases may be the candidate enzymes catalyzing astaxanthin esterification. A model of astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis was subsequently proposed. These findings provide further insights into astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  8. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA.

  9. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  10. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine invertebrates: recent advances in molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Navarro, Juan C

    2013-10-21

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs.

  11. Drought Stress Causes a Reduction in the Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Soybean Plants

    PubMed Central

    Seminario, Amaia; Song, Li; Zulet, Amaia; Nguyen, Henry T.; González, Esther M.; Larrainzar, Estíbaliz

    2017-01-01

    Drought provokes a number of physiological changes in plants including oxidative damage. Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is one of the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant compound present in plant tissues. However, little is known on the regulation of AsA biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. In the current work we analyze the effects of water deficit on the biosynthesis of AsA by measuring its content, in vivo biosynthesis and the expression level of genes in the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway in one of the major legume crop, soybean (Glycine max L. Merr). Since the pathway has not been described in legumes, we first searched for the putative orthologous genes in the soybean genome. We observed a significant genetic redundancy, with multiple genes encoding each step in the pathway. Based on RNA-seq analysis, expression of the complete pathway was detected not only in leaves but also in root tissue. Putative paralogous genes presented differential expression patterns in response to drought, suggesting the existence of functional specialization mechanisms. We found a correlation between the levels of AsA and GalLDH biosynthetic rates in leaves of drought-stressed soybean plants. However, the levels of GalLDH transcripts did not show significant differences under water deficit conditions. Among the other known regulators of the pathway, only the expression of VTC1 genes correlated with the observed decline in AsA in leaves. PMID:28663755

  12. A transacylation reaction initiates PAF biosynthesis in the remodeling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Y.; Lee, T.C.; Snyder, F. )

    1991-03-11

    The remodeling pathway for the biosynthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF) consists of the following reaction sequence: alkylacyl-glycerophosphocholine (GPC) {endash}> lyso-PAF{endash}> PAF. In this investigation, the authors describe a novel transacylase activity that generates the lyso-PAF intermediate which can then be acetylated to form PAF. Alkyllysoglycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE), acyllyso-GPE, alk-1-enyllyso-GPE, unlabeled lyso-PAF, acyllyso-GPC and alk-1-enyllyso-GPC are all able to stimulate the formation of ({sup 3}H)lyso-PAF from a ({sup 3}H)alkylacyl-GPC precursor pool associated with HL-60 cell (granulocytic) membranes. Other glycerolipids with free hydroxyl groups, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine had no stimulatory effect on the release of ({sup 3}H)lyso-PAF from the prelabeled membranes under identical conditions. The transacylase responsible for the release of lyso-PAF from the membrane-associated alkylacyl-GPC is not affected by Ca{sup 2+}, EGTA, or a known phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitor, p-bromophenacyl bromide. The observed transacylase reaction is directly coupled to PAF production since the addition of alk-1-enyllyso-GPE to HL-60 membranes in the presence of ({sup 14}C)acetyl-CoA stimulates PAF formation.

  13. Combinatorial biosynthesis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics: a model for synthetic biology to accelerate the evolution of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Richard H

    2014-10-17

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are giant multi-enzymes that carry out sequencial assembly line couplings of amino acids to generate linear or cyclic peptides. NRPSs are composed of repeating enzyme domains with modular organization to activate and couple specific amino acids in a particular order. From a synthetic biology perspective, they can be considered as peptide assembly machines composed of devices to couple fatty acids to l-amino acids, l-amino acids to l-amino acids, and d-amino acids to l-amino acids. The coupling devices are composed of specific parts that contain two or more enzyme domains that can be exchanged combinatorially to generate novel peptide assembly machines to produce novel peptides. The potent lipopeptide antibiotics daptomycin and A54145E have identical cyclic depsipeptide ring structures and stereochemistry but have divergent amino acid sequences. As their biosynthetic gene clusters are derived from an ancient ancestral lipopetide pathway, these lipopeptides provided an attractive model to develop combinatorial biosynthesis to generate antibiotics superior to daptomycin. These studies on combinatorial biosynthesis have helped generate guidelines for the successful assembly of NRPS parts and devices that can be used to generate novel lipopeptide structures and have established a basis for future synthetic biology studies to further develop combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust approach to natural product drug discovery.

  14. Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1993-05-19

    The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis by ascorbic acid: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pinnell, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor for lysyl hydroxylase and prolyl hydroxylase, enzymes essential for collagen biosynthesis. In addition, L-ascorbic acid preferentially stimulates collagen synthesis in a manner which appears unrelated to the effect of L-ascorbic acid on hydroxylation reactions. This reaction is stereospecific and unrelated to intracellular degradation of collagen. The effect apparently occurs at a transcriptional or translational level, since L-ascorbic acid preferentially stimulates collagen-specific mRNA. In addition, it stimulates lysyl hydroxylase activity but inhibits prolyl hydroxylase activity in human skin fibroblasts in culture. PMID:3008449

  16. Ferulic acid, an efficient inhibitor of type B trichothecene biosynthesis and Tri gene expression in Fusarium liquid cultures.

    PubMed

    Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Barreau, Christian; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Verdal-Bonnin, Marie-Noëlle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid in wheat bran, was studied in vitro on type B trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium. It was demonstrated that ferulic acid is an efficient inhibitor of mycotoxin production by all strains of Fusarium tested, including different chemotypes and species. To analyse the mechanism of toxin biosynthesis inhibition by ferulic acid, expression of representative Tri genes, involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway, was monitored by real-time RT-PCR. A decrease in the level of Tri gene expression was measured, suggesting that inhibition of toxin synthesis by ferulic acid could be regulated at the transcriptional level. Moreover, toxin production was shown to be reduced proportionally to the initial amount of ferulic acid added in the culture medium. Addition of ferulic acid either at the spore germination step or to a mycelial culture resulted in the same final inhibitory effect on mycotoxin accumulation. A cumulative inhibitory effect on trichothecene biosynthesis was even observed with successive supplementation of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid, which content varies among wheat varieties, could then play an important role in modulating trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium in some wheat varieties.

  17. Oligomeric structure of proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase: evolution of a hydrolytic enzyme in clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Jonathan M; Clifton, Ian J; Hernández, Helena; Doan, Linh X; Robinson, Carol V; Schofield, Christopher J; Hewitson, Kirsty S

    2002-01-01

    During biosynthesis of the clinically used beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, one of the three steps catalysed by clavaminic acid synthase is separated from the other two by a step catalysed by proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase (PAH), in which the guanidino group of an intermediate is hydrolysed to give proclavaminic acid and urea. PAH shows considerable sequence homology with the primary metabolic arginases, which hydrolyse arginine to ornithine and urea, but does not accept arginine as a substrate. Like other members of the bacterial sub-family of arginases, PAH is hexameric in solution and requires Mn2+ ions for activity. Other metal ions, including Co2+, can substitute for Mn2+. Two new substrates for PAH were identified, N-acetyl-(L)-arginine and (3R)-hydroxy-N-acetyl-(L)-arginine. Crystal structures of PAH from Streptomyces clavuligerus (at 1.75 A and 2.45 A resolution, where 1 A=0.1 nm) imply how it binds beta-lactams rather than the amino acid substrate of the arginases from which it evolved. The structures also suggest how PAH selects for a particular alcohol intermediate in the clavam biosynthesis pathway. As observed for the arginases, each PAH monomer consists of a core of beta-strands surrounded by alpha-helices, and its active site contains a di-Mn2+ centre with a bridging water molecule responsible for hydrolytic attack on to the guanidino group of the substrate. Comparison of structures obtained under different conditions reveals different conformations of a flexible loop, which must move to allow substrate binding. PMID:12020346

  18. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  19. Evidence from Solanum tuberosum in support of the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.F.; Doong, R.L.; Jensen, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Key branchpoint enzymes of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DS) and chorismate mutase (CM), have previously been shown to exist as separate compartmentalized isozymes in the chloroplasts and cytosol of tobacco, sorghum and spinach. Although additional examples of plants containing these isozyme pairs are accumulating, some studies in the literature report the presence of only the single plastidic DS or CM enzyme. Such apparent exceptions contradict the universality of pathway organization existing in higher plants that is implied by the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis. Since potato (Solanum tuberosum) exemplifies a case where only a single species of both DS and CM have been reported, we selected this system for further analysis. The DS-Mn and DS-Co isozyme pair, exhibiting all of the differential properties described in Nicotiana silvestris, have now been identified in S. tuberosum. Likwise, partial purification via DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two isozymes of CM in disks excised from tubers of S. tuberosum. The differential regulatory properties of these isozymes were comparable to the CM-1 and CM-2 isozymes of N. silvestris.

  20. Novel tryptophan metabolic pathways in auxin biosynthesis in silkworm.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Chiaki; Takei, Mami; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Nagata, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2017-08-01

    In the course of our study of the biosynthetic pathway of auxin, a class of phytohormones, in insects, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway tryptophan (Trp)→indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)→indole-3-acetadehyde (IAAld)→indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we identified two branches in the metabolic pathways in the silkworm, possibly affecting the efficiency of IAA production: Trp→indole-3-pyruvic acid→indole-3-lactic acid and IAAld→indole-3-ethanol. We also determined the apparent conversion activities (2.05×10(-7)UmL(-1) for Trp→IAA, 1.30×10(-5)UmL(-1) for IAOx→IAA, and 3.91×10(-1)UmL(-1) for IAAld→IAA), which explain why IAOx and IAAld are barely detectable as either endogenous compounds or metabolites of their precursors. The failure to detect IAAld, even in the presence of an inhibitor of the conversion IAAld→IAA, is explained by a switch in the conversion from IAAld→IAA to IAAld→IEtOH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of lauroyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase in brassica napus seeds induces pathways for both fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis and implies a set point for triacylglycerol accumulation

    PubMed

    Eccleston; Ohlrogge

    1998-04-01

    Expression of a California bay lauroyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (MCTE) in developing seeds of transgenic oilseed rape alters the fatty acid composition of the mature seed, resulting in up to 60 mol% of laurate in triacylglycerols. In this study, we examined the metabolism of lauric acid and 14C-acetate in developing seeds of oilseed rape that express high levels of MCTE. Lauroyl-CoA oxidase activity but not palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity was increased several-fold in developing seeds expressing MCTE. In addition, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities were six- and 30-fold higher, respectively, in high-laurate developing seeds. Control seeds incorporated 14C-acetate almost entirely into fatty acids, whereas in seeds expressing MCTE, only 50% of the label was recovered in lipids and the remainder was in a range of water-soluble components, including sucrose and malate. Together, these results indicate that the pathways for beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle have been induced in seeds expressing high levels of MCTE. Although a substantial portion of the fatty acid produced in these seeds is recycled to acetyl-CoA and sucrose through the beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle pathways, total seed oil is not reduced. How is oil content maintained if lauric acid is inefficiently converted to triacylglycerol? The levels of acyl carrier protein and several enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased two- to threefold at midstage development in high-laurate seeds. These results indicate that a coordinate induction of the fatty acid synthesis pathway occurs, presumably to compensate for the lauric acid lost through beta-oxidation or for a shortage of long-chain fatty acids.

  2. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation.

  3. Gene-Enzyme Relationships of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-12

    Inhibition studies of amino acids in Nicotiana silvestris suspension cells gave clues to the difficulties for obtaining mutants deficient in post prephenate pathway proteins of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydratase). Such mutants, if successfully obtained, would allow gene-enzyme relationships of aromatic amino acid proteins to be studied. We found that amino acids were inhibitory toward plant cell growth, and thus were unable to rescue analog resistant mutants. Toxicity of all amino acids toward exponentially dividing Nicotiana silvestris suspension cultured cells was monitored by following growth rates. Except for L-glutamine, all 19 protein amino acids inhibited cell growth. Inhibition of growth progressed to cell deterioration. Electron microscopy showed that amino acids triggered a state of cell shrinkage that eventually degenerated to total cellular disorganization. L-glutamine was not only an effective agent for prevention of amino acid toxicity, but enhanced the final growth yield. L-glutamine also was able to completely reverse inhibition effects in cells that had been in the slowed exponential phase. Two types of inhibition occurred and we have proposed that any amino acid inhibition that can be completely antagonized by L-glutamine be called ''general amino acid inhibition''. ''Specific amino acid inhibition'' resulting from particular pathway imbalances caused by certain exogenous amino acids, can be recognized and studied in the presence of L-glutamine which can abolishes the complication effects of general amino acid inhibition.

  4. Starch biosynthesis in cassava: a genome-based pathway reconstruction and its exploitation in data integration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cassava is a well-known starchy root crop utilized for food, feed and biofuel production. However, the comprehension underlying the process of starch production in cassava is not yet available. Results In this work, we exploited the recently released genome information and utilized the post-genomic approaches to reconstruct the metabolic pathway of starch biosynthesis in cassava using multiple plant templates. The quality of pathway reconstruction was assured by the employed parsimonious reconstruction framework and the collective validation steps. Our reconstructed pathway is presented in the form of an informative map, which describes all important information of the pathway, and an interactive map, which facilitates the integration of omics data into the metabolic pathway. Additionally, to demonstrate the advantage of the reconstructed pathways beyond just the schematic presentation, the pathway could be used for incorporating the gene expression data obtained from various developmental stages of cassava roots. Our results exhibited the distinct activities of the starch biosynthesis pathway in different stages of root development at the transcriptional level whereby the activity of the pathway is higher toward the development of mature storage roots. Conclusions To expand its applications, the interactive map of the reconstructed starch biosynthesis pathway is available for download at the SBI group’s website (http://sbi.pdti.kmutt.ac.th/?page_id=33). This work is considered a big step in the quantitative modeling pipeline aiming to investigate the dynamic regulation of starch biosynthesis in cassava roots. PMID:23938102

  5. The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.

    2013-02-28

    The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate {beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes.

  6. Branched chain amino acid metabolism in the biosynthesis of Lycopersicon pennellii glucose esters

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, D.S.; Steffens, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy) an insect-resistant, wild tomato possesses high densities of glandular trichomes which exude a mixture of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylated glucose esters that function as a physical impediment and feeding deterrent to small arthropod pests. The acyl moieties are branched C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} acids, and branched and straight chain C{sub 10}, C{sub 11}, and C{sub 12} acids. The structure of the branched acyl constituents suggests that the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway participates in their biosynthesis. ({sup 14}C)Valine and deuterated branched chain amino acids (and their oxo-acid derivatives) were incorporated into branched C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} acid groups of glucose esters by a process of transamination, oxidative decarboxylation and subsequent acylation. C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} branched acids were elongated by two carbon units to produce the branched C{sub 10}-C{sub 12} groups. Norvaline, norleucine, allylglycine, and methionine also were processed into acyl moieties and secreted from the trichomes as glucose esters. Changes in the acyl composition of the glucose esters following sulfonylurea herbicide administration support the participation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and the other enzymes of branched amino acid biosynthesis in the production of glucose esters.

  7. Fluoride-induced changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, neurological variables and tissue histopathology of rats.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Swapnila; Lomash, Vinay; Flora, S J S

    2010-01-01

    This study intended to determine the effects of various concentrations of fluoride (1, 10, 50 and 100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks on changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, oxidative stress and neurological variables supported by histopathological observations and fluoride in rats. The data indicates significant alterations in the parameters related to haeme synthesis pathway like inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase, oxidative stress like depletion of glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. These changes were accompanied by depletion in GSH:GSSG ratio, whole brain biogenic amine levels and a dose-dependent increase in fluoride concentration. Interestingly and most significantly, these changes were more pronounced at lower concentrations of fluoride compared with higher fluoride dose. Biochemical changes were supported by the histological observations, which also revealed that at high concentrations of fluoride, toxic effects and damages to organs were more pronounced. These changes support our earlier findings regarding the role of decreased ionic mobility of fluoride ion at higher concentrations, leading to less pronounced toxicity.

  8. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ABSCISIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    MCCARTY D R

    2012-01-10

    The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) catalyze synthesis of a variety of apo-carotenoid secondary metabolites in plants, animals and bacteria. In plants, the reaction catalyzed by the 11, 12, 9-cis-epoxy carotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the first committed and key regulated step in synthesis of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA). ABA is a key regulator of plant stress responses and has critical functions in normal root and seed development. The molecular mechanisms responsible for developmental control of ABA synthesis in plant tissues are poorly understood. Five of the nine CCD genes present in the Arabidopsis genome encode NCED's involved in control of ABA synthesis in the plant. This project is focused on functional analysis of these five AtNCED genes as a key to understanding developmental regulation of ABA synthesis and dissecting the role of ABA in plant development. For this purpose, the project developed a comprehensive set of gene knockouts in the AtNCED genes that facilitate genetic dissection of ABA synthesis. These mutants were used in combination with key molecular tools to address the following specific objectives: (1) the role of ABA synthesis in root development; (2) developmental control of ABA synthesis in seeds; (3) analysis of ATNCED over-expressers; (4) preliminary crystallography of the maize VP14 protein.

  9. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Muto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom. PMID:24335525

  10. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: a novel pathway for the early steps leading to isopentenyl diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Rohmer, M; Knani, M; Simonin, P; Sutter, B; Sahm, H

    1993-10-15

    Incorporation of 13C-labelled glucose, acetate, pyruvate or erythrose allowed the determination of the origin of the carbon atoms of triterpenoids of the hopane series and/or of the ubiquinones from several bacteria (Zymomonas mobilis, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) confirmed our earlier results obtained by incorporation of 13C-labelled acetate into the hopanoids of other bacteria and led to the identification of a novel biosynthetic route for the early steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis. The C5 framework of isoprenic units results most probably (i) from the condensation of a C2 unit derived from pyruvate decarboxylation (e.g. thiamine-activated acetaldehyde) on the C-2 carbonyl group of a triose phosphate derivative issued probably from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and not from pyruvate and (ii) from a transposition step. Although this hypothetical biosynthetic pathway resembles that of L-valine biosynthesis, this amino acid or its C5 precursors could be excluded as intermediates in the formation of isoprenic units.

  11. Biosynthesis of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate, an Unexpected Intermediate Common to Multiple Phosphonate Biosynthetic Pathways*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zengyi; Blodgett, Joshua A. V.; Circello, Benjamin T.; Eliot, Andrew C.; Woodyer, Ryan; Li, Gongyong; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Metcalf, William W.; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-01-01

    Phosphonic acids encompass a common yet chemically diverse class of natural products that often possess potent biological activities. Here we report that, despite the significant structural differences among many of these compounds, their biosynthetic routes contain an unexpected common intermediate, 2-hydroxyethyl-phosphonate, which is synthesized from phosphonoacetaldehyde by a distinct family of metal-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Although the sequence identity of the ADH family members is relatively low (34–37%), in vitro biochemical characterization of the homologs involved in biosynthesis of the antibiotics fosfomycin, phosphinothricin tripeptide, and dehydrophos (formerly A53868) unequivocally confirms their enzymatic activities. These unique ADHs have exquisite substrate specificity, unusual metal requirements, and an unprecedented monomeric quaternary structure. Further, sequence analysis shows that these ADHs form a monophyletic group along with additional family members encoded by putative phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters. Thus, the reduction of phosphonoacetaldehyde to hydroxyethyl-phosphonate may represent a common step in the biosynthesis of many phosphonate natural products, a finding that lends insight into the evolution of phosphonate biosynthetic pathways and the chemical structures of new C–P containing secondary metabolites. PMID:18544530

  12. Biosynthesis of salvinorin A proceeds via the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Kutrzeba, Lukasz; Dayan, Franck E; Howell, J'Lynn; Feng, Ju; Giner, José-Luis; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2007-07-01

    Salvinorin A, a neoclerodane diterpenoid, isolated from the Mexican hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum, is a potent kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Its biosynthetic route was studied by NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis of the products of the incorporation of [1-(13)C]-glucose, [Me-(13)C]-methionine, and [1-(13)C;3,4-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose into its structure. While the use of cuttings and direct-stem injection were unsuccessful, incorporation of (13)C into salvinorin A was achieved using in vitro sterile culture of microshoots. NMR spectroscopic analysis of salvinorin A (2.7 mg) isolated from 200 microshoots grown in the presence of [1-(13)C]-glucose established that this pharmacologically important diterpene is biosynthesized via the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway, instead of the classic mevalonic acid pathway. This was confirmed further in plants grown in the presence of [1-(13)C;3,4-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose. In addition, analysis of salvinorin A produced by plants grown in the presence of [Me-(13)C]-methionine indicates that methylation of the C-4 carboxyl group is catalyzed by a type III S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase.

  13. Biosynthesis of salvinorin A proceeds via the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kutrzeba, Lukasz; Dayan, Franck E.; Howell, J’Lynn; Feng, Ju; Giner, José-Luis; Zjawiony, Jordan K.

    2007-01-01

    Salvinorin A, a neoclerodane diterpenoid, isolated from the Mexican hallucinogenic plant, Salvia divinorum is a potent kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Its biosynthetic route was studied by NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis of the products of the incorporation of [1-13C]-glucose, [Me-13C]-methionine, and [1-13C; 3,4-2H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose into its structure. The use of cuttings and direct stem injection were unsuccessful, however, incorporation of 13C into salvinorin A was achieved using in vitro sterile culture of microshoots. NMR analysis of salvinorin A (2.7 mg) isolated from 200 microshoots grown in the presence of [1-13C]-glucose established that this pharmacologically important diterpene is biosynthesized via the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway, instead of the classic mevalonic acid pathway. This was confirmed in plants grown in the presence of [1-13C; 3,4-2H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose. In addition, analysis of salvinorin A produced by plants grown in the presence of [Me-13C]-methionine indicates that the methylation of the C-4 carboxyl group is catalyzed by a type III S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase. PMID:17574635

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Jeong, Pan-Young; Jin, You-Xun; Lee, Jeong-Eui; Kim, Heekyeong; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Chitwood, David J; Paik, Young-Ki

    2009-07-29

    Caenorhabditis elegans excretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, the perception of which enables worms to enter the dauer state for long-term survival in an adverse environment. During the course of elucidation of the daumone biosynthetic pathway in which DHS-28 and DAF-22 are involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFAs (very long-chain fatty acids), we sought to investigate the physiological consequences of a deficiency in daumone biosynthesis in C. elegans. Our results revealed that two mutants, dhs-28(tm2581) and daf-22(ok693), lacked daumones and thus were dauer defective; this coincided with massive accumulation of fatty acyl-CoAs (up to 100-fold) inside worm bodies compared with levels in wild-type N2 worms. Furthermore, the deficiency in daumone biosynthesis and the massive accumulation of fatty acids and their acyl-CoAs caused severe developmental defects with reduced life spans (up to 30%), suggesting that daumone biosynthesis is be an essential part of C. elegans homoeostasis, affecting survival and maintenance of optimal physiological conditions by metabolizing some of the toxic non-permissible peroxisomal VLCFAs from the worm body in the form of readily excretable daumones.

  15. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  16. Histidine Regulates Seed Oil Deposition through Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and β-Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huimin; Wang, Shui

    2016-10-01

    The storage compounds are deposited into plant seeds during maturation. As the model oilseed species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has long been studied for seed oil deposition. However, the regulation of this process remains unclear. Through genetic screen with a seed oil body-specific reporter, we isolated low oil1 (loo1) mutant. LOO1 was mapped to HISTIDINE BIOSYNTHESIS NUMBER 1A (HISN1A). HISN1A catalyzes the first step of His biosynthesis. Oil significantly decreased, and conversely proteins markedly increased in hisn1a mutants, indicating that HISN1A regulates both oil accumulation and the oil-protein balance. HISN1A was predominantly expressed in embryos and root tips. Accordingly, the hisn1a mutants exhibited developmental phenotype especially of seeds and roots. Transcriptional profiling displayed that β-oxidation was the major metabolic pathway downstream of HISN1A β-Oxidation was induced in hisn1a mutants, whereas it was reduced in 35S:HISN1A-transgenic plants. In plants, seed storage oil is broken-down by β-oxidation, which is controlled by abscisic acid (ABA). We found that His activated genes of ABA biosynthesis and correspondingly advanced ABA accumulation. Exogenous ABA rescued the defects of hisn1a mutants, whereas mutation of ABA DEFICIENT2, a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, blocked the effect of His on β-oxidation, indicating that ABA mediates His regulation in β-oxidation. Intriguingly, structural analysis showed that a potential His-binding domain was present in the general amino acid sensors GENERAL CONTROL NON-DEREPRESSIBLE2 and PII, suggesting that His may serve as a signal molecule. Taken together, our study reveals that His promotes plant seed oil deposition through ABA biosynthesis and β-oxidation.

  17. Lipid biosynthesis pathways as chemotherapeutic targets in kinetoplastid parasites.

    PubMed

    Urbina, J A

    1997-01-01

    Inhibitors of sterol and phospholipid biosynthesis in kinetoplastid parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, and different species of Leishmania have potent and selective activity as chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Recent work with the sterol C14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor D0870, a bis triazole derivative, showed that this compound is capable of inducing radical parasitological cure in murine models of both acute and chronic Chagas' disease. Other inhibitors of this type, such as SCH 56592, have also shown curative, rather than suppressive, activity against T. cruzi in these models. Leishmania species have different susceptibilities to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, both in vitro and in vivo. Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, naturally resistant to C14 alpha-demethylase inhibitors such as ketoconazole and D0870, were susceptible to these drugs when used in combination with the squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine. Inhibitors of delta 24(25) sterol methyl transferase have been shown to act as potent antiproliferative agents against Trypanosoma cruzi, both in vitro and in vivo. New inhibitors of this type which show enhanced activity and novel mechanisms of action have been synthesized. Recent work has also demonstrated that this type of enzyme inhibitors can block sterol biosynthesis and cell proliferation in Pneumocystis carinii, a fungal pathogen which had previously been found resistant to other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Ajoene, an antiplatelet compound derived from garlic, was shown to have potent antiproliferative activity against epimastigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro; this activity was associated with a significant alteration of the phospholipid composition of the cells with no significant effects on the sterol content. In addition, alkyllsophospholipids such as ilmofosine, miltefosine and edelfosine have been shown to block the proliferation of T. cruzi and Leishmania and

  18. Lipoteichoic acid biosynthesis: two steps forwards, one step sideways?

    PubMed

    Rahman, Obaidur; Dover, Lynn G; Sutcliffe, Iain C

    2009-06-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) are membrane-anchored molecules in the cell envelopes of Gram-positive bacteria. Until recently, they were considered to be restricted to the Firmicutes, which include important pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Polyanionic LTAs have fundamentally important roles in divalent cation retention within the Gram-positive cell envelope and thereby influence bacterial cell division. Thus, LTA biosynthesis provides an attractive target for the development of novel antimicrobial interventions. Recent studies, notably two investigations of S. aureus and another of Bacillus subtilis, have greatly improved our understanding of the genetic basis of LTA biosynthesis. In addition, reports have revealed that at least some members of the Actinobacteria (another phylum of Gram-positive bacteria) produce LTAs, rather than the lipoglycans previously assumed to be typical of this taxon. The availability of whole bacterial genome sequences has enabled us to perform comparative analyses to shed light on the distribution of putative LTA biosynthetic genes among bacteria. Here, we discuss the results of these genomic analyses, together with the current literature, and propose that LTA biosynthesis in Actinobacteria might be fundamentally different to that in most Firmicutes.

  19. myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase Inhibition and Control of Uridine Diphosphate-d-glucuronic Acid Biosynthesis in Plants 12

    PubMed Central

    Loewus, Mary W.; Loewus, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Of the eight intermediates associated with the two pathways of UDP-d-glucuronic acid biosynthesis found in plants, only d-glucuronic acid inhibited myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4), formerly referred to as d-glucose 6-phosphate cycloaldolase. Inhibition was competitive. An attempt to demonstrate over-all reversibility of the synthase indicated that it was less than 5% reversible, if at all. PMID:16658890

  20. The Arabidopsis Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 Is Required for Osmotic Stress-Induced Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Gehring, Chris; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Feng-Min; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through a pathway that is rate limited by the carotenoid cleavage enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the signal transduction mechanism underlying the activation of ABA biosynthesis, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate mutants defective in osmotic stress regulation of the NCED3 gene. Here, we identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 (VSR1) as a unique regulator of ABA biosynthesis. The vsr1 mutant not only shows increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, but also is defective in the feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis by ABA. Further analysis revealed that vacuolar trafficking mediated by VSR1 is required for osmotic stress-responsive ABA biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance. Moreover, under osmotic stress conditions, the membrane potential, calcium flux, and vacuolar pH changes in the vsr1 mutant differ from those in the wild type. Given that manipulation of the intracellular pH is sufficient to modulate the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes, including NCED3, and ABA accumulation, we propose that intracellular pH changes caused by osmotic stress may play a signaling role in regulating ABA biosynthesis and that this regulation is dependent on functional VSR1. PMID:25416474

  1. Withanolide biosynthesis recruits both mevalonate and DOXP pathways of isoprenogenesis in Ashwagandha Withania somnifera L. (Dunal).

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Narayan D; Sangwan, Neelam S; Sabir, Farzana; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2012-10-01

    Withanolides are pharmaceutically important C(28)-phytochemicals produced in most prodigal amounts and diversified forms by Withania somnifera. Metabolic origin of withanolides from triterpenoid pathway intermediates implies that isoprenogenesis could significantly govern withanolide production. In plants, isoprenogenesis occurs via two routes: mevalonate (MVA) pathway in cytosol and non-mevalonate or DOXP/MEP pathway in plastids. We have investigated relative carbon contribution of MVA and DOXP pathways to withanolide biosynthesis in W. somnifera. The quantitative NMR-based biosynthetic study involved tracing of (13)C label from (13)C(1)-D-glucose to withaferin A in withanolide producing in vitro microshoot cultures of the plant. Enrichment of (13)C abundance at each carbon of withaferin A from (13)C(1)-glucose-fed cultures was monitored by normalization and integration of NMR signal intensities. The pattern of carbon position-specific (13)C enrichment of withaferin A was analyzed by a retro-biosynthetic approach using a squalene-intermediated metabolic model of withanolide (withaferin A) biosynthesis. The pattern suggested that both DOXP and MVA pathways of isoprenogenesis were significantly involved in withanolide biosynthesis with their relative contribution on the ratio of 25:75, respectively. The results have been discussed in a new conceptual line of biosynthetic load-driven model of relative recruitment of DOXP and MVA pathways for biosynthesis of isoprenoids. Key message The study elucidates significant contribution of DOXP pathway to withanolide biosynthesis. A new connotation of biosynthetic load-based role of DOXP/MVA recruitment in isoprenoid biosynthesis has been proposed.

  2. Apicoplast and Endoplasmic Reticulum Cooperate in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Docampo, Melissa D.; MacRae, James I.; Pujol, François M.; Brooks, Carrie F.; van Dooren, Giel G.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Striepen, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for high impact human diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens are dependent on both de novo lipid biosynthesis as well as the uptake of host lipids for biogenesis of parasite membranes. Genome annotations and biochemical studies indicate that apicomplexan parasites can synthesize fatty acids via a number of different biosynthetic pathways that are differentially compartmentalized. However, the relative contribution of each of these biosynthetic pathways to total fatty acid composition of intracellular parasite stages remains poorly defined. Here, we use a combination of genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic approaches to delineate the contribution of fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in Toxoplasma gondii. Metabolic labeling studies with [13C]glucose showed that intracellular tachyzoites synthesized a range of long and very long chain fatty acids (C14:0–26:1). Genetic disruption of the apicoplast-localized type II fatty-acid synthase resulted in greatly reduced synthesis of saturated fatty acids up to 18 carbons long. Ablation of type II fatty-acid synthase activity resulted in reduced intracellular growth that was partially restored by addition of long chain fatty acids. In contrast, synthesis of very long chain fatty acids was primarily dependent on a fatty acid elongation system comprising three elongases, two reductases, and a dehydratase that were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of these enzymes was confirmed by heterologous expression in yeast. This elongase pathway appears to have a unique role in generating very long unsaturated fatty acids (C26:1) that cannot be salvaged from the host. PMID:22179608

  3. Deregulation of purine pathway in Bacillus subtilis and its use in riboflavin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Purine nucleotides are essential metabolites for living organisms because they are involved in many important processes, such as nucleic acid synthesis, energy supply, and biosynthesis of several amino acids and riboflavin. Owing to the pivotal roles of purines in cell physiology, the pool of intracellular purine nucleotides must be maintained under strict control, and hence the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway is tightly regulated by transcription repression and inhibition mechanism. Deregulation of purine pathway is essential for this pathway engineering in Bacillus subtilis. Results Deregulation of purine pathway was attempted to improve purine nucleotides supply, based on a riboflavin producer B. subtilis strain with modification of its rib operon. To eliminate transcription repression, the pur operon repressor PurR and the 5’-UTR of pur operon containing a guanine-sensing riboswitch were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the relative transcription levels of purine genes were up-regulated about 380 times. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis was successfully introduced into PRPP amidotransferase (encoded by purF) to remove feedback inhibition by homologous alignment and analysis. Overexpression of the novel mutant PurF (D293V, K316Q and S400W) significantly increased PRPP amidotransferase activity and triggered a strong refractory effect on purine nucleotides mediated inhibition. Intracellular metabolite target analysis indicated that the purine nucleotides supply in engineered strains was facilitated by a stepwise gene-targeted deregulation. With these genetic manipulations, we managed to enhance the metabolic flow through purine pathway and consequently increased riboflavin production 3-fold (826.52 mg/L) in the purF-VQW mutant strain. Conclusions A sequential optimization strategy was applied to deregulate the rib operon and purine pathway of B. subtilis to create genetic diversities and to improve riboflavin production

  4. A novel bile acid biosynthesis defect due to a deficiency of peroxisomal ABCD3.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Koster, Janet; Denis, Simone; Van Roermund, Carlo W; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Moser, Ann B; Visser, Wouter F; Gulluoglu, Mine; Durmaz, Ozlem; Demirkol, Mubeccel; Waterham, Hans R; Gökcay, Gülden; Wanders, Ronald J A; Valle, David

    2015-01-15

    ABCD3 is one of three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters present in the peroxisomal membrane catalyzing ATP-dependent transport of substrates for metabolic pathways localized in peroxisomes. So far, the precise function of ABCD3 is not known. Here, we report the identification of the first patient with a defect of ABCD3. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly and severe liver disease and showed a striking accumulation of peroxisomal C27-bile acid intermediates in plasma. Investigation of peroxisomal parameters in skin fibroblasts revealed a reduced number of enlarged import-competent peroxisomes. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation of C26:0 was normal, but beta-oxidation of pristanic acid was reduced. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion at the DNA level of 1758bp, predicted to result in a truncated ABCD3 protein lacking the C-terminal 24 amino acids (p.Y635NfsX1). Liver disease progressed and the patient required liver transplantation at 4 years of age but expired shortly after transplantation. To corroborate our findings in the patient, we studied a previously generated Abcd3 knockout mouse model. Abcd3-/- mice accumulated the branched chain fatty acid phytanic acid after phytol loading. In addition, analysis of bile acids revealed a reduction of C24 bile acids, whereas C27-bile acid intermediates were significantly increased in liver, bile and intestine of Abcd3-/- mice. Thus, both in the patient and in Abcd3-/- mice, there was evidence of a bile acid biosynthesis defect. In conclusion, our studies show that ABCD3 is involved in transport of branched-chain fatty acids and C27 bile acids into the peroxisome and that this is a crucial step in bile acid biosynthesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Isoprenoid biosynthesis as a target for antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs: phosphonohydroxamic acids as inhibitors of deoxyxylulose phosphate reducto-isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway is a target against pathogenic bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 4-(Hydroxyamino)-4-oxobutylphosphonic acid and 4-[hydroxy(methyl)amino]-4-oxobutyl phosphonic acid, two novel inhibitors of DXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reducto-isomerase), the second enzyme of the pathway, have been synthesized and compared with fosmidomycin, the best known inhibitor of this enzyme. The latter phosphonohydroxamic acid showed a high inhibitory activity towards DXR, much like fosmidomycin, as well as significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in tests on Petri dishes. PMID:15473867

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A N; Echarte, María M

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ') while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way.

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A. N.; Echarte, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ′) while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way. PMID:27242809

  8. Auxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunde

    2014-01-01

    lndole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most important natural auxin in plants, is mainly synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan (Trp). Recent genetic and biochemical studies in Arabidopsis have unambiguously established the first complete Trp-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway. The first chemical step of auxin biosynthesis is the removal of the amino group from Trp by the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of transaminases to generate indole-3-pyruvate (IPA). IPA then undergoes oxidative decarboxylation catalyzed by the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases to produce IAA. This two-step auxin biosynthesis pathway is highly conserved throughout the plant kingdom and is essential for almost all of the major developmental processes. The successful elucidation of a complete auxin biosynthesis pathway provides the necessary tools for effectively modulating auxin concentrations in plants with temporal and spatial precision. The progress in auxin biosynthesis also lays a foundation for understanding polar auxin transport and for dissecting auxin signaling mechanisms during plant development. PMID:24955076

  9. Characterization and modification of enzymes in the 2-ketoisovalerate biosynthesis pathway of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Plassmeier, JK; Sinskey, AJ

    2014-08-01

    2-Ketoisovalerate is an important cellular intermediate for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids as well as other important molecules, such as pantothenate, coenzyme A, and glucosinolate. This ketoacid can also serve as a precursor molecule for the production of biofuels, pharmaceutical agents, and flavor agents in engineered organisms, such as the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The biosynthesis of 2-ketoisovalerate from pyruvate is carried out by three enzymes: acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, encoded by ilvBH), acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR, encoded by ilvC), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD, encoded by ilvD). In this study, enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters were determined for each of the three R. eutropha enzymes as heterologously purified proteins. AHAS, which serves as a gatekeeper for the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, demonstrated the tightest regulation through feedback inhibition by l-valine (IC50 = 1.2 mM), l-isoleucine (IC50 = 2.3 mM), and l-leucine (IC50 = 5.4 mM). Intermediates in the valine biosynthesis pathway also exhibit feedback inhibitory control of the AHAS enzyme. In addition, AHAS has a very weak affinity for pyruvate (K-M = 10.5 mu M) and is highly selective towards 2-ketobutyrate (R = 140) as a second substrate. AHAIR and DHAD are also inhibited by the branched-chain amino acids, although to a lesser extent when compared to AHAS. Experimental evolution and rational site-directed mutagenesis revealed mutants of the regulatory subunit of AHAS (IlvH) (N11S, T34I, A36V, T104S, N11F, G14E, and N29H), which, when reconstituted with wild-type IlvB, lead to AHAS having reduced valine, leucine, and isoleucine sensitivity. The study of the kinetics and inhibition mechanisms of R. eutropha AHAS, AHAIR, and DHAD has shed light on interactions between these enzymes and the products they produce; it, therefore, can be used to engineer R. eutropha strains with optimal production of 2

  10. Mutant characterization and in vivo conditional repression identify aromatic amino acid biosynthesis to be essential for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sasse, Anna; Hamer, Stefanie N; Amich, Jorge; Binder, Jasmin; Krappmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the saprobe Aspergillus fumigatus strictly depends on nutrient acquisition during infection, as fungal growth determines colonisation and invasion of a susceptible host. Primary metabolism has to be considered as a valid target for antimycotic therapy, based on the fact that several fungal anabolic pathways are not conserved in higher eukaryotes. To test whether fungal proliferation during invasive aspergillosis relies on endogenous biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, defined auxotrophic mutants of A. fumigatus were generated and assessed for their infectious capacities in neutropenic mice and found to be strongly attenuated in virulence. Moreover, essentiality of the complete biosynthetic pathway could be demonstrated, corroborated by conditional gene expression in infected animals and inhibitor studies. This brief report not only validates the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway of A. fumigatus to be a promising antifungal target but furthermore demonstrates feasibility of conditional gene expression in a murine infection model of aspergillosis. PMID:26605426

  11. Aerobic biosynthesis of hydrocinnamic acids in Escherichia coli with a strictly oxygen-sensitive enoate reductase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Lin, Yuheng; Shen, Xiaolin; Jain, Rachit; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    3-Phenylpropionic acid (3PPA) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (HPPA) are important commodity aromatic acids widely used in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Currently, 3PPA and HPPA are mainly manufactured through chemical synthesis, which contains multiple steps involving toxic solvents and catalysts harmful to environment. Therefore, replacement of such existing petroleum-derived approaches with simple and environmentally friendly biological processes is highly desirable for manufacture of these chemicals. Here, for the first time we demonstrated the de novo biosynthesis of 3PPA and HPPA using simple carbon sources in E. coli by extending the cinnamic acids biosynthesis pathways through biological hydrogenation. We first screened 11 2-enoate reductases (ER) from nine microorganisms, leading to efficient conversion of cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to 3PPA and HPPA, respectively. Surprisingly, we found a strictly oxygen-sensitive Clostridia ER capable of functioning efficiently in E. coli even under aerobic conditions. On this basis, reconstitution of the full pathways led to the de novo production of 3PPA and HPPA and the accumulation of the intermediates (cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid) with cell toxicity. To address this problem, different expression strategies were attempted to optimize individual enzyme׳s expression level and minimize intermediates accumulation. Finally, the titers of 3PPA and HPPA reached 366.77mg/L and 225.10mg/L in shake flasks, respectively. This study not only demonstrated the potential of microbial approach as an alternative to chemical process, but also proved the possibility of using oxygen-sensitive enzymes under aerobic conditions.

  12. Exploring cyanobacterial genomes for natural product biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Melinda L; D'Agostino, Paul M; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

    2015-06-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a vast array of natural products, some of which are toxic to human health, while others possess potential pharmaceutical activities. Genome mining enables the identification and characterisation of natural product gene clusters; however, the current number of cyanobacterial genomes remains low compared to other phyla. There has been a recent effort to rectify this issue by increasing the number of sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. This has enabled the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters for structurally diverse metabolites, including non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, ribosomal peptides, UV-absorbing compounds, alkaloids, terpenes and fatty acids. While some of the identified biosynthetic gene clusters correlate with known metabolites, genome mining also highlights the number and diversity of clusters for which the product is unknown (referred to as orphan gene clusters). A number of bioinformatic tools have recently been developed in order to predict the products of orphan gene clusters; however, in some cases the complexity of the cyanobacterial pathways makes the prediction problematic. This can be overcome by the use of mass spectrometry-guided natural product genome mining, or heterologous expression. Application of these techniques to cyanobacterial natural product gene clusters will be explored.

  13. Hyaluronic acid abrogates ethanol-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Donejko, Magdalena; Przylipiak, Andrzej; Rysiak, Edyta; Miltyk, Wojciech; Galicka, Elżbieta; Przylipiak, Jerzy; Zaręba, Ilona; Surazynski, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts, and the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) in this process. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts we investigated: expression of β1 integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor, cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis, metalloproteinase activity, as well as the influence of HA on these processes. Materials and methods Collagen biosynthesis, activity of prolidase, DNA biosynthesis, and cytotoxicity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that have been treated with 25, 50, and 100 mM ethanol and with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Western blot analysis and zymography were performed to evaluate expression of collagen type I, β1 integrin receptor, IGF-IR, NF-κB protein, phospho-Akt protein, kinase MAPK, caspase 9 activity, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2). Results Ethanol in a dose-dependent manner lead to the impairment of collagen biosynthesis in fibroblast cultures through decreasing prolidase activity and expression of β1 integrin and IGF-IR. This was accompanied by an increased cytotoxicity, apoptosis and lowered expression of the signaling pathway proteins induced by β1 integrin and IGF-IR, that is, MAPK (ERK1/2) kinases. The lowered amount of synthesized collagen and prolidase activity disturbance may also be due to the activation of NF-κB transcription factor, which inhibits collagen gene expression. It suggests that the decrease in fibroblast collagen production may be caused by the disturbance in its biosynthesis but not degradation. The application of HA has a protective effect on disturbances caused by the examined substances. It seems that regulatory mechanism of ethanol-induced collagen aberration take

  14. Methanococci use the diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway for lysine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchen; White, Robert H; Whitman, William B

    2010-07-01

    The pathway of lysine biosynthesis in the methanococci has not been identified previously. A variant of the diaminopimelic acid (DAP) pathway uses diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) to catalyze the direct conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA) to ll-DAP. Recently, the enzyme DapL (MTH52) was identified in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and shown to belong to the DapL1 group. Although the Methanococcus maripaludis genome lacks a gene that can be unambiguously assigned a DapL function based on sequence similarity, the open reading frame MMP1527 product shares 30% amino acid sequence identity with MTH52. A Deltammp1527 deletion mutant was constructed and found to be a lysine auxotroph, suggesting that this DapL homolog in methanococci is required for lysine biosynthesis. In cell extracts of the M. maripaludis wild-type strain, the specific activity of DapL using ll-DAP and alpha-ketoglutarate as substrates was 24.3 + or - 2.0 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1). The gene encoding the DapL homolog in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MJ1391) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein was purified. The maximum activity of MJ1391 was observed at 70 degrees C and pH 8.0 to 9.0. The apparent K(m)s of MJ1391 for ll-DAP and alpha-ketoglutarate were 82.8 + or - 10 microM and 0.42 + or - 0.02 mM, respectively. MJ1391 was not able to use succinyl-DAP or acetyl-DAP as a substrate. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that two lateral gene transfers occurred in the DapL genes, one from the archaea to the bacteria in the DapL2 group and one from the bacteria to the archaea in the DapL1 group. These results demonstrated that the DapL pathway is present in marine methanogens belonging to the Methanococcales.

  15. Methanococci Use the Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase (DapL) Pathway for Lysine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuchen; White, Robert H.; Whitman, William B.

    2010-01-01

    The pathway of lysine biosynthesis in the methanococci has not been identified previously. A variant of the diaminopimelic acid (DAP) pathway uses diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) to catalyze the direct conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA) to ll-DAP. Recently, the enzyme DapL (MTH52) was identified in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and shown to belong to the DapL1 group. Although the Methanococcus maripaludis genome lacks a gene that can be unambiguously assigned a DapL function based on sequence similarity, the open reading frame MMP1527 product shares 30% amino acid sequence identity with MTH52. A Δmmp1527 deletion mutant was constructed and found to be a lysine auxotroph, suggesting that this DapL homolog in methanococci is required for lysine biosynthesis. In cell extracts of the M. maripaludis wild-type strain, the specific activity of DapL using ll-DAP and α-ketoglutarate as substrates was 24.3 ± 2.0 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1. The gene encoding the DapL homolog in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MJ1391) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein was purified. The maximum activity of MJ1391 was observed at 70°C and pH 8.0 to 9.0. The apparent Kms of MJ1391 for ll-DAP and α-ketoglutarate were 82.8 ± 10 μM and 0.42 ± 0.02 mM, respectively. MJ1391 was not able to use succinyl-DAP or acetyl-DAP as a substrate. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that two lateral gene transfers occurred in the DapL genes, one from the archaea to the bacteria in the DapL2 group and one from the bacteria to the archaea in the DapL1 group. These results demonstrated that the DapL pathway is present in marine methanogens belonging to the Methanococcales. PMID:20418392

  16. The Role of Amino Acid Permeases and Tryptophan Biosynthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, João Daniel Santos; Martho, Kevin; Tofik, Veridiana; Vallim, Marcelo A.; Pascon, Renata C.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic diversity is an important factor during microbial adaptation to different environments. Among metabolic processes, amino acid biosynthesis has been demonstrated to be relevant for survival for many microbial pathogens, whereas the association between pathogenesis and amino acid uptake and recycling are less well-established. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with many habitats. As a result, it faces frequent metabolic shifts and challenges during its life cycle. Here we studied the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and found that the pathway is essential. RNAi indicated that interruptions in the biosynthetic pathway render strains inviable. However, auxotroph complementation can be partially achieved by tryptophan uptake when a non preferred nitrogen source and lower growth temperature are applied, suggesting that amino acid permeases may be the target of nitrogen catabolism repression (NCR). We used bioinformatics to search for amino acid permeases in the C. neoformans and found eight potential global permeases (AAP1 to AAP8). The transcriptional profile of them revealed that they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms which are known to respond to nutritional status in other fungi, such as (i) quality of nitrogen (Nitrogen Catabolism Repression, NCR) and carbon sources (Carbon Catabolism Repression, CCR), (ii) amino acid availability in the extracellular environment (SPS-sensing) and (iii) nutritional deprivation (Global Amino Acid Control, GAAC). This study shows that C. neoformans has fewer amino acid permeases than other model yeasts, and that these proteins may be subjected to complex regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest that the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway is an excellent pharmacological target. Furthermore, inhibitors of this pathway cause Cryptococcus growth arrest in vitro. PMID:26162077

  17. The Role of Amino Acid Permeases and Tryptophan Biosynthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João Daniel Santos; Martho, Kevin; Tofik, Veridiana; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic diversity is an important factor during microbial adaptation to different environments. Among metabolic processes, amino acid biosynthesis has been demonstrated to be relevant for survival for many microbial pathogens, whereas the association between pathogenesis and amino acid uptake and recycling are less well-established. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with many habitats. As a result, it faces frequent metabolic shifts and challenges during its life cycle. Here we studied the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and found that the pathway is essential. RNAi indicated that interruptions in the biosynthetic pathway render strains inviable. However, auxotroph complementation can be partially achieved by tryptophan uptake when a non preferred nitrogen source and lower growth temperature are applied, suggesting that amino acid permeases may be the target of nitrogen catabolism repression (NCR). We used bioinformatics to search for amino acid permeases in the C. neoformans and found eight potential global permeases (AAP1 to AAP8). The transcriptional profile of them revealed that they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms which are known to respond to nutritional status in other fungi, such as (i) quality of nitrogen (Nitrogen Catabolism Repression, NCR) and carbon sources (Carbon Catabolism Repression, CCR), (ii) amino acid availability in the extracellular environment (SPS-sensing) and (iii) nutritional deprivation (Global Amino Acid Control, GAAC). This study shows that C. neoformans has fewer amino acid permeases than other model yeasts, and that these proteins may be subjected to complex regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest that the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway is an excellent pharmacological target. Furthermore, inhibitors of this pathway cause Cryptococcus growth arrest in vitro.

  18. Chemogenomics profiling of drug targets of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway in Leptospira interrogans by virtual screening approaches.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Biplab; Simon, Rose Mary; Gangadharaiah, Chaithra; Karunakar, Prashantha

    2013-06-28

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis of global concern caused by Leptospira interrogans. The availability of ligand libraries has facilitated the search for novel drug targets using chemogenomics approaches, compared with the traditional method of drug discovery, which is time consuming and yields few leads with little intracellular information for guiding target selection. Recent subtractive genomics studies have revealed the putative drug targets in peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathways in Leptospira interrogans. Aligand library for the murD ligase enzyme in the peptidoglycan pathway has also been identified. Our approach in this research involves screening of the pre-existing ligand library of murD with related protein family members in the putative drug target assembly in the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. A chemogenomics approach has been implemented here, which involves screening of known ligands of a protein family having analogous domain architecture for identification of leads for existing druggable protein family members. By means of this approach, one murC and one murF inhibitor were identified, providing a platform for developing an antileptospirosis drug targeting the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. Given that the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway is exclusive to bacteria, the in silico identified mur ligase inhibitors are expected to be broad-spectrum Gram-negative inhibitors if synthesized and tested in in vitro and in vivo assays.

  19. PGC-1alpha activates CYP7A1 and bile acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Ju; Campos, Jose A; Gil, Gregorio; Osborne, Timothy F

    2003-12-12

    Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the key enzyme that commits cholesterol to the neutral bile acid biosynthesis pathway and is highly regulated. In the current studies, we have uncovered a role for the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1alpha in CYP7A1 gene transcription. PGC-1alpha plays a vital role in adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and stimulates genes important to mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. It is also involved in the activation of hepatic gluconeogenesic gene expression during fasting. Because the mRNA for CYP7A1 was also induced in mouse liver by fasting, we reasoned that PGC-1alpha might be an important co-activator for CYP7A1. Here we show that PGC-1alpha and CYP7A1 are also co-induced in livers of mice in response to streptozotocin induced diabetes. Additionally, infection of cultured HepG2 cells with a recombinant adenovirus expressing PGC-1alpha directly activates CYP7A1 gene expression and increases bile acid biosynthesis as well. Furthermore, we show that PGC-1alpha activates the CYP7A1 promoter directly in transient transfection assays in cultured cells. Thus, PGC-1alpha is a key activator of CYP7A1 and bile acid biosynthesis and is likely responsible for the fasting and diabetes dependent induction of CYP7A1. PGC-1alpha has already been shown to be a critical activator of several other oxidative processes including adaptive thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. Our studies provide further evidence of the fundamental role played by PGC-1alpha in oxidative metabolism and define PGC-1alpha as a link between diabetes and bile acid metabolism.

  20. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change.

  1. Prokaryotic Heme Biosynthesis: Multiple Pathways to a Common Essential Product.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Harry A; Dailey, Tamara A; Gerdes, Svetlana; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina; O'Brian, Mark R; Warren, Martin J

    2017-03-01

    The advent of heme during evolution allowed organisms possessing this compound to safely and efficiently carry out a variety of chemical reactions that otherwise were difficult or impossible. While it was long assumed that a single heme biosynthetic pathway existed in nature, over the past decade, it has become clear that there are three distinct pathways among prokaryotes, although all three pathways utilize a common initial core of three enzymes to produce the intermediate uroporphyrinogen III. The most ancient pathway and the only one found in the Archaea converts siroheme to protoheme via an oxygen-independent four-enzyme-step process. Bacteria utilize the initial core pathway but then add one additional common step to produce coproporphyrinogen III. Following this step, Gram-positive organisms oxidize coproporphyrinogen III to coproporphyrin III, insert iron to make coproheme, and finally decarboxylate coproheme to protoheme, whereas Gram-negative bacteria first decarboxylate coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX and then oxidize this to protoporphyrin IX prior to metal insertion to make protoheme. In order to adapt to oxygen-deficient conditions, two steps in the bacterial pathways have multiple forms to accommodate oxidative reactions in an anaerobic environment. The regulation of these pathways reflects the diversity of bacterial metabolism. This diversity, along with the late recognition that three pathways exist, has significantly slowed advances in this field such that no single organism's heme synthesis pathway regulation is currently completely characterized.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of 8-hydroxy-3Z,5Z-tetradecadienoic acid, a putative intermediate in Pichia guilliermondii gamma-decalactone biosynthesis from ricinoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Iacazio, G; Martini, D; Faure, B; N'Guyen, M H

    2002-03-19

    During a screening procedure for the discovery of a strong gamma-decalactone producer from ricinoleic acid, we observed that the yeast Pichia guilliermondii accumulated transiently 8-hydroxy-3Z,5Z-tetradecadienoic acid 1 during gamma-decalactone biosynthesis in the stationary phase of growth. The structural elucidation of 1 was based on nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments. The occurrence of 1 is discussed in relation with previously proposed gamma-decalactone biosynthetic pathways.

  3. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  4. Pyrimidine biosynthesis links mitochondrial respiration to the p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Khutornenko, Anastasia A.; Roudko, Vladimir V.; Chernyak, Boris V.; Vartapetian, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Peter M.; Evstafieva, Alexandra G.

    2010-01-01

    While many functions of the p53 tumor suppressor affect mitochondrial processes, the role of altered mitochondrial physiology in a modulation of p53 response remains unclear. As mitochondrial respiration is affected in many pathologic conditions such as hypoxia and intoxications, the impaired electron transport chain could emit additional p53-inducing signals and thereby contribute to tissue damage. Here we show that a shutdown of mitochondrial respiration per se does not trigger p53 response, because inhibitors acting in the proximal and distal segments of the respiratory chain do not activate p53. However, strong p53 response is induced specifically after an inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 (the electron transport chain complex III). The p53 response is triggered by the deficiency in pyrimidines that is developed due to a suppression of the functionally coupled mitochondrial pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). In epithelial carcinoma cells the activation of p53 in response to mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III inhibitors does not require phosphorylation of p53 at Serine 15 or up-regulation of p14ARF. Instead, our data suggest a contribution of NQO1 and NQO2 in stabilization of p53 in the nuclei. The results establish the deficiency in pyrimidine biosynthesis as the cause of p53 response in the cells with impaired mitochondrial respiration. PMID:20566882

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Actinobacillus succinogenes Provides Insights into Succinic Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael T; Chou, Yat-Chen; Salvachúa, Davinia; Mohagheghi, Ali; St John, Peter C; Peterson, Darren J; Bomble, Yannick J; Beckham, Gregg T

    2017-09-01

    Actinobacillus succinogenes, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, exhibits the native capacity to convert pentose and hexose sugars to succinic acid (SA) with high yield as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. In this work, we report the development of facile metabolic engineering capabilities in A. succinogenes, enabling examination of SA flux determinants via knockout of the primary competing pathways-namely, acetate and formate production-and overexpression of the key enzymes in the reductive branch of the TCA cycle leading to SA. Batch fermentation experiments with the wild-type and engineered strains using pentose-rich sugar streams demonstrate that the overexpression of the SA biosynthetic machinery (in particular, the enzyme malate dehydrogenase) enhances flux to SA. Additionally, removal of competitive carbon pathways leads to higher-purity SA but also triggers the generation of by-products not previously described from this organism (e.g., lactic acid). The resultant engineered strains also lend insight into energetic and redox balance and elucidate mechanisms governing organic acid biosynthesis in this important natural SA-producing microbe.IMPORTANCE Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic residues is a potential route for enhancing the economic feasibility of modern biorefineries. Here, we employ facile genetic tools to systematically manipulate competing acid production pathways and overexpress the succinic acid-producing machinery in Actinobacillus succinogenes Furthermore, the resulting strains are evaluated via fermentation on relevant pentose-rich sugar streams representative of those from corn stover. Overall, this work demonstrates genetic modifications that can lead to succinic acid production

  6. Biosynthesis of the 1,3,4,6-hexanetetracarboxylic acid subunit of methanofuran

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.H.

    1987-06-02

    /sup 2/H- and /sup 13/C-labeled precursors were used to establish the pathway for the biosynthesis of the 1,3,4,6-hexanetetracarboxylic acid (TCA) component of methanofuran, which is found in some methanogenic bacteria. The extent and position of incorporation of label into TCA were measured from the mass spectrum of the tetramethyl ester of TCA that was prepared from methanofuran present in cells grown in the presence of labeled acetate. (2,2,2-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)Acetate was found to incorporate deuterium into two separate sites of the TCA molecule, with one on each side of the symmetrical molecule. One site was found to be labeled 37% with deuterium, the same as for the glutamic acid present in the cells; the other site was labeled 77% with deuterium, the same as for the malonate-derived compounds in the cells. An analog of TCA, 1-hydroxy-1,3,4,6-hexanetetracarboxylic acid, found in methanofuran isolated from Methanobrevibacter smithii, was found to incorporate /sup 13/C/sub 2/ units from (1,2-/sup 13/C/sub 2/)acetate into three positions of the molecule. One of the acetate /sup 13/C/sub 2/ units was incorporated into the non-hydroxyl-containing side of the molecule (carbons 4, 5, and 6 and the C-6 carboxylic acid group), and two acetate units were incorporated into the hydroxyl-containing side of the molecule (carbons 1, 2, and 3 and the C-1 carboxylic acid group). On the basis of this and additional information, it is concluded that TCA is biosynthesized by the condensation of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutaric acid with malonic acid to form 1,1,2,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid, which is further condensed with a second molecule of malonate, in a series of reactions analogous to those observed during fatty acid biosynthesis, to form TCA.

  7. Vitamin and co-factor biosynthesis pathways in Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sylke; Kappes, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Vitamins are essential components of the human diet. By contrast, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan parasites synthesise certain vitamins, de novo, either completely or in parts. The occurrence of the various biosynthesis pathways is specific to different apicomplexan parasites, emphasising their distinct requirements for nutrients and growth factors. The absence of vitamin biosynthesis from the human host implies that inhibition of the parasite pathways may be a way to interfere specifically with parasite development. However, the precise role of biosynthesis and potential uptake of vitamins for the overall regulation of vitamin homeostasis in the parasites needs to be established first. In this review Sylke Müller and Barbara Kappes focus mainly on the procurement of vitamin B1, B5 and B6 by Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites. PMID:17276140

  8. Vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis pathways in Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sylke; Kappes, Barbara

    2007-03-01

    Vitamins are essential components of the human diet. By contrast, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan parasites synthesize certain vitamins de novo, either completely or in parts. The various biosynthesis pathways are specific to different apicomplexan parasites and emphasize the distinct requirements of these parasites for nutrients and growth factors. The absence of vitamin biosynthesis in humans implies that inhibition of the parasite pathways might be a way to interfere specifically with parasite development. However, the roles of biosynthesis and uptake of vitamins in the regulation of vitamin homeostasis in parasites needs to be established first. In this article, the procurement of vitamins B(1), B(5) and B(6) by Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites is discussed.

  9. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  10. 7-deoxyloganetic acid synthase catalyzes a key 3 step oxidation to form 7-deoxyloganetic acid in Catharanthus roseus iridoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Salim, Vonny; Wiens, Brent; Masada-Atsumi, Sayaka; Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Iridoids are key intermediates required for the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), as well as quinoline alkaloids. Although most iridoid biosynthetic genes have been identified, one remaining three step oxidation required to form the carboxyl group of 7-deoxyloganetic acid has yet to be characterized. Here, it is reported that virus-induced gene silencing of 7-deoxyloganetic acid synthase (7DLS, CYP76A26) in Catharanthus roseus greatly decreased levels of secologanin and the major MIAs, catharanthine and vindoline in silenced leaves. Functional expression of this gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed its function as an authentic 7DLS that catalyzes the 3 step oxidation of iridodial-nepetalactol to form 7-deoxyloganetic acid. The identification of CYP76A26 removes a key bottleneck for expression of iridoid and related MIA pathways in various biological backgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis in varroa mites: identification of halloween genes from the biosynthetic pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biosynthesis of ecdysteroids involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by microsomal enzymes and mitochondrial cytochrome P450’s. Enzymes of the pathway are collectively known as Halloween genes. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), w...

  12. New prospects for deducing the evolutionary history of metabolic pathways in prokaryotes: Aromatic biosynthesis as a case-in-point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Jensen, Roy A.

    1988-03-01

    Metabolic pathways of prokaryotes are more biochemically diverse than is generally recognized. Distinctive biochemical features are shared by phylogenetic clusters. The hierarchical levels of characterstate clustering depends upon evolutionary events which fortuitously became fixed in the genome of a common ancestor. Prokaryotes can now be ordered on a phylogenetic tree. This allows the evolutionary steps that underlie the construction and regulation of appropriately complex biochemical pathways to be traced in an evolutionary progression of prokaryote types that house these pathways. Essentially the approach is to deduce ancestral character states at ever deeper phylogenetic levels, utilizing logical principles of maximum parsimony. The current perspective on the evolution of the biochemical pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids is developed as a case-in-point model for analyses that should be feasible with many major metabolic systems. Phenylalanine biosynthesis probably arose prior to the addition of branches leading to tyrosine and tryptophan. An evolutionary scenario is developed that begins with non-enzymatic reactions which may have operated in primitive systems, followed by the evolution of an enzymatic system that pre-dated the divergence of major lineages of modern eubacteria (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative purple bacteria, and cyanobacteria).

  13. Molecular Basis for Mycophenolic Acid Biosynthesis in Penicillium brevicompactum▿†

    PubMed Central

    Regueira, Torsten Bak; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Hertweck, Christian; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active ingredient in the increasingly important immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals CellCept (Roche) and Myfortic (Novartis). Despite the long history of MPA, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis has remained enigmatic. Here we report the discovery of a polyketide synthase (PKS), MpaC, which we successfully characterized and identified as responsible for MPA production in Penicillium brevicompactum. mpaC resides in what most likely is a 25-kb gene cluster in the genome of Penicillium brevicompactum. The gene cluster was successfully localized by targeting putative resistance genes, in this case an additional copy of the gene encoding IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We report the cloning, sequencing, and the functional characterization of the MPA biosynthesis gene cluster by deletion of the polyketide synthase gene mpaC of P. brevicompactum and bioinformatic analyses. As expected, the gene deletion completely abolished MPA production as well as production of several other metabolites derived from the MPA biosynthesis pathway of P. brevicompactum. Our work sets the stage for engineering the production of MPA and analogues through metabolic engineering. PMID:21398490

  14. Non-enzymatic conversion of chlorophyll-a into chlorophyll-d in vitro: a model oxidation pathway for chlorophyll-d biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fukusumi, Takanori; Matsuda, Kohei; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Miyatake, Tomohiro; Ito, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Oba, Toru

    2012-07-30

    Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was readily converted into Chl-d under mild conditions without any enzymes. Treatment of Chl-a dissolved in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) with thiophenol and acetic acid at room temperature successfully produced Chl-d in 31% yield. During the acidic oxidation, removal of the central magnesium, pheophytinization, was sufficiently suppressed. This mild pathway can give insights into the yet unidentified Chl-d biosynthesis.

  15. Reinvestigation of the biosynthesis of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in Tetrahymena pyriformis

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.J.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Mariano, P.S.

    1986-05-01

    The initial step in the proposed biosynthetic pathway of 2-aminoethylphosphonate involves an intramolecular rearrangement of phosphoenolpyruvate to form the C-P compound, 3-phosphonopyruvate. A radioisotopic assay with authentic phosphonopyruvate as a cold carrier results in the formation of material chromatographically identical to phosphonopyruvate. NMR and degradation studies reveal that the assayed product is not p-pyr, but rather phosphoglyceric acid. Herein they report results from a reinvestigation of the biosynthesis of AEP in T. pyriformis. Recent study indicates that AEP is formed when radiolabeled Pi or PEP are used as precursors. P-pyr formation has yet to be demonstrated. Results from studies aimed at the direct verification or exclusion of p-pyr as an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to AEP formation is presented.

  16. Engineering a Streptomyces coelicolor biosynthesis pathway into Escherichia coli for high yield triglyceride production.

    PubMed

    Comba, Santiago; Sabatini, Martín; Menendez-Bravo, Simón; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Microbial lipid production represents a potential alternative feedstock for the biofuel and oleochemical industries. Since Escherichia coli exhibits many genetic, technical, and biotechnological advantages over native oleaginous bacteria, we aimed to construct a metabolically engineered E. coli strain capable of accumulating high levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) and evaluate its neutral lipid productivity during high cell density fed-batch fermentations. The Streptomyces coelicolor TAG biosynthesis pathway, defined by the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) Sco0958 and the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) Lppβ, was successfully reconstructed in an E. coli diacylglycerol kinase (dgkA) mutant strain. TAG production in this genetic background was optimized by increasing the levels of the TAG precursors, diacylglycerol and long-chain acyl-CoAs. For this we carried out a series of stepwise optimizations of the chassis by 1) fine-tuning the expression of the heterologous SCO0958 and lppβ genes, 2) overexpression of the S. coelicolor acetyl-CoA carboxylase complex, and 3) mutation of fadE, the gene encoding for the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase that catalyzes the first step of the β-oxidation cycle in E. coli. The best producing strain, MPS13/pET28-0958-ACC/pBAD-LPPβ rendered a cellular content of 4.85% cell dry weight (CDW) TAG in batch cultivation. Process optimization of fed-batch fermentation in a 1-L stirred-tank bioreactor resulted in cultures with an OD600nm of 80 and a product titer of 722.1 mg TAG L(-1) at the end of the process. This study represents the highest reported fed-batch productivity of TAG reached by a model non-oleaginous bacterium. The organism used as a platform was an E. coli BL21 derivative strain containing a deletion in the dgkA gene and containing the TAG biosynthesis genes from S. coelicolor. The genetic studies carried out with this strain indicate that diacylglycerol (DAG) availability appears to be one of the main limiting

  17. A Novel Two-Gene Requirement for the Octanoyltransfer Reaction of Bacillus subtilis Lipoic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Natalia; Christensen, Quin H.; Mansilla, María C.; Cronan, John E.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes three apparent lipoyl ligase homologues: yhfJ, yqhM, and ywfL which we have renamed lplJ, lipM and lipL, respectively. We show that LplJ encodes the sole lipoyl ligase of this bacterium. Physiological and biochemical characterization of a ΔlipM strain showed that LipM is absolutely required for the endogenous lipoylation of all lipoate-dependent proteins, confirming its role as the B. subtilis octanoyltransferase. However, we also report that in contrast to E. coli, B. subtilis requires a third protein for lipoic acid assembly, LipL. B. subtilis ΔlipL strains are unable to synthesize lipoic acid despite the presence of LipM and the sulfur insertion enzyme, LipA, which should suffice for lipoic acid biosynthesis based on the E. coli model. LipM is only required for the endogenous lipoylation pathway, whereas LipL also plays a role in lipoic acid scavenging. Expression of E. coli lipB allows growth of B. subtilis ΔlipL or ΔlipM strains in the absence of supplements. In contrast, growth of an E. coli ΔlipB strain can be complemented with lipM, but not lipL. These data together with those of the companion paper (Christensen et al., 2011) provide evidence that LipM and LipL catalyze sequential reactions in a novel pathway for lipoic acid biosynthesis. PMID:21338420

  18. Systematic unravelling of the biosynthesis of poly (L-diaminopropionic acid) in Streptomyces albulus PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhaoxian; Sun, Zhuzhen; Li, Sha; Xu, Zheng; Cao, Changhong; Xu, Zongqi; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) is one of the four homopoly(amino acid)s that have been discovered in nature. However, the molecular mechanism of PDAP biosynthesis has yet to be described. In this work, the general layout of the PDAP biosynthetic pathway is characterised in Streptomyces albulus PD-1 by genome mining, gene disruption, heterologous expression and in vitro feeding experiments. As a result, L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAP), which is the monomer of PDAP, is shown to be jointly synthesised by two protein homologues of cysteine synthetase and ornithine cyclodeaminase. Then, L-DAP is assembled into PDAP by a novel nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) with classical adenylation and peptidyl carrier protein domains. However, instead of the traditional condensation or thioesterase domain of NRPSs, this NRPS has seven transmembrane domains surrounding three tandem soluble domains at the C-terminus. As far as we know, this novel single-module NRPS structure has only been reported in poly(ε-L-lysine) synthetase. The similar NRPS structure of PDAP synthetase and poly(ε-L-lysine) synthetase may be a common characteristic of homopoly(amino acid)s synthetases. In this case, we may discover and/or design more homopoly(amino acid)s by mining this kind of novel NRPS structure in the future. PMID:26632244

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Actinobacillus succinogenes Provides Insights into Succinic Acid Biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Chou, Yat -Chen; Salvachua, Davinia Rodriquez; ...

    2017-06-16

    Actinobacillus succinogenes, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, exhibits the native capacity to convert pentose and hexose sugars to succinic acid (SA) with high yield as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. In this work, we report the development of facile metabolic engineering capabilities in A. succinogenes, enabling examination of SA flux determinants via knockout of the primary competing pathways—namely, acetate and formate production—and overexpression of the key enzymesmore » in the reductive branch of the TCA cycle leading to SA. Batch fermentation experiments with the wild-type and engineered strains using pentose-rich sugar streams demonstrate that the overexpression of the SA biosynthetic machinery (in particular, the enzyme malate dehydrogenase) enhances flux to SA. Additionally, removal of competitive carbon pathways leads to higher-purity SA but also triggers the generation of by-products not previously described from this organism (e.g., lactic acid). The resultant engineered strains also lend insight into energetic and redox balance and elucidate mechanisms governing organic acid biosynthesis in this important natural SA-producing microbe. IMPORTANCE Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic residues is a potential route for enhancing the economic feasibility of modern biorefineries. Here, we employ facile genetic tools to systematically manipulate competing acid production pathways and overexpress the succinic acid-producing machinery in Actinobacillus succinogenes. Furthermore, the resulting strains are evaluated via fermentation on relevant pentose-rich sugar streams representative of those from corn stover. Altogether, this work demonstrates genetic modifications that can lead to succinic

  20. RNA-Seq analysis reveals that multiple phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways are reprogrammed in curled-cotyledons mutant of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guixia; Huang, Fang; Gong, Yu; Xu, Guangli; Yu, Jingjing; Hu, Zhenbin; Cai, Qingsheng; Yu, Deyue

    2014-06-21

    Soybean is one of the most economically important crops in the world. The cotyledon is the nutrient storage area in seeds, and it is critical for seed quality and yield. Cotyledon mutants are important for the genetic dissection of embryo patterning and seed development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying soybean cotyledon development are largely unexplored. In this study, we characterised a soybean curled-cotyledon (cco) mutant. Compared with wild-type (WT), anatomical analysis revealed that the cco cotyledons at the torpedo stage became more slender and grew outward. The entire embryos of cco mutant resembled the "tail of swallow". In addition, cco seeds displayed reduced germination rate and gibberellic acid (GA3) level, whereas the abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) levels were increased. RNA-seq identified 1,093 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between WT and the cco mutant. The KEGG pathway analysis showed many DEGs were mapped to the hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways. Consistent with assays of hormones in seeds, the results of RNA-seq indicated auxin and ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction in cco were more active than in WT, while an early step in GA biosynthesis was blocked, as well as conversion rate of inactive GAs to bioactive GAs in GA signaling. Furthermore, genes participated in other hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways such as cytokinin (CK), ethylene (ET), brassinosteroid (BR), and jasmonate acid (JA) were also affected in the cco mutant. Our data suggest that multiple phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways are reprogrammed in cco, and changes in these pathways may partially contribute to the cco mutant phenotype, suggesting the involvement of multiple hormones in the coordination of soybean cotyledon development.

  1. Diversity and Evolution of the Phenazine Biosynthesis Pathway ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Peever, Tobin L.; Mavrodi, Olga V.; Parejko, James A.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Lemanceau, Philippe; Mazurier, Sylvie; Heide, Lutz; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Weller, David M.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites of bacterial origin that function in biological control of plant pathogens and contribute to the ecological fitness and pathogenicity of the producing strains. In this study, we employed a collection of 94 strains having various geographic, environmental, and clinical origins to study the distribution and evolution of phenazine genes in members of the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Pectobacterium, Brevibacterium, and Streptomyces. Our results confirmed the diversity of phenazine producers and revealed that most of them appear to be soil-dwelling and/or plant-associated species. Genome analyses and comparisons of phylogenies inferred from sequences of the key phenazine biosynthesis (phzF) and housekeeping (rrs, recA, rpoB, atpD, and gyrB) genes revealed that the evolution and dispersal of phenazine genes are driven by mechanisms ranging from conservation in Pseudomonas spp. to horizontal gene transfer in Burkholderia spp. and Pectobacterium spp. DNA extracted from cereal crop rhizospheres and screened for the presence of phzF contained sequences consistent with the presence of a diverse population of phenazine producers in commercial farm fields located in central Washington state, which provided the first evidence of United States soils enriched in indigenous phenazine-producing bacteria. PMID:20008172

  2. Twinfilin 1 enhances milk bio-synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells via the mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Liu, Lijie; Qu, Bo; Li, Xueying; Gao, Xuejun; Zhang, Minghui

    2017-10-21

    Twinfilin1 (TWF1) is an actin monomer-binding protein, which biological function has not yet been fully uncovered. In our previous study, we found by mass spectrometry analysis that TWF1 might be one of the major proteins responsible for milk bio-synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). The purpose of this study was to explore the possible mechanism by which TWF1 regulates signaling pathways that enhance milk bio-synthesis and proliferation of BMECs. We first explored the effects of TWF1 on milk bio-synthesis and cell proliferation, and analyzed the role of TWF1 on the protein levels of signaling molecules (mTOR, SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1) related to milk bio-synthesis and cell proliferation. Then we determinate the impacts of amino acids (methionine and leucine) and hormones (estrogen and prolactin) on the expressions of TWF1. These results reveal that TWF1 is highly induced by the stimulation of amino acids and hormones and involved in regulation of milk bio-synthesis and cell proliferation via the mTOR pathway in BMECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for an Elongation/Reduction/C1-Elimination Pathway in the Biosynthesis of n-Heptane in Xylem of Jeffrey Pine.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, T. J.; Hristova, M. K.; Croteau, R.

    1996-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway to n-heptane was investigated by examining the effect of the [beta]-keto acyl-acyl carrier protein synthase inhibitor (2R,3S)-2,3-epoxy-4-oxo-7E,10E-dodecadienamide (cerulenin), a thiol reagent ([beta]-mercaptoethanol), and an aldehydetrapping reagent (hydroxylamine) on the biosynthesis of n-[14C]heptane and putative intermediates in xylem sections of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev.& Balf.) incubated with [14C]acetate. Cerulenin inhibited C18 fatty acid biosynthesis but had relatively little effect on radiolabel incorporation into C8 fatty acyl groups and n-heptane. [beta]-Mercaptoethanol inhibited n-heptane biosynthesis, with a corresponding accumulation of radiolabel into both octanal and 1-octanol, whereas hydroxylamine inhibited both n-heptane and 1-octanol biosynthesis, with radiolabel accumulation in octyl oximes. [14C]Octanal was converted to both n-heptane and 1-octanol when incubated with xylem sections, whereas [14C]1-octanol was converted to octanal and n-heptane in a hydroxylamine-sensitive reaction. These results suggest a pathway for the biosynthesis of n-heptane whereby acetate is polymerized via a typical fatty acid synthase reaction sequence to yield a C8 thioester, which subsequently undergoes a two-electron reduction to generate a free thiol and octanal, the latter of which alternately undergoes an additional, reversible reduction to form 1-octanol or loss of C1 to generate n-heptane. PMID:12226360

  4. Role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine in Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Kinzel, J J; Bhattacharjee, J K

    1979-05-01

    The role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine was investigated in Rhodotorula glutinis, an aerobic red yeast. Supplementation of pipecolic acid in the minimal medium supported the growth of mutants lys2, lys3, and lys5; alpha-aminoadipic acid supported the growth of lys5; but neither alpha-aminoadipic acid nor pipecolic acid supported the growth of mutants MNNG42 and MNNG37. During the growth of the appropriate mutants, pipecolic acid was removed from the growth medium and the intracellular pool. In tracer experiments, radioactivity from [(14)C]pipecolic acid was selectively incorporated into the cellular lysine of lys5 and the wild-type strain. l-Pipecolic acid-dependent enzyme activity did not require any cofactor and was inhibited by mercuric chloride and potassium cyanide. This activity was present in the wild-type strain and all of the mutants tested and was repressed in mutant lys5 when grown in the presence of higher concentration of lysine. The reaction product of pipecolic acid was converted to saccharopine by lys5 enzyme in the presence of glutamate and reduced nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Mutant MNNG37 lacked the saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, indicating that this step is involved in the conversion of alpha-aminoadipic acid and pipecolic acid to lysine. Mutants MNNG37 and MNNG42 accumulated a p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reacting product in the culture supernatant and in the intracellular pool. Chromatographic properties of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde adduct and that of the pipecolic acid-dependent reaction product were similar. The reaction product and the accumulation product were characterized on the basis of mass and absorption spectra as alpha-aminoadipic-semialdehyde, which in solution remains in equilibrium with Delta(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid. Since alpha-aminoadipic-semialdehyde is a known intermediate of the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway for the biosynthesis of lysine, it is concluded that pipecolic

  5. COX-2-dependent and -independent biosynthesis of dihydroxy-arachidonic acids in activated human leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tejera, Noemi; Boeglin, William E.; Suzuki, Takashi; Schneider, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Biosynthesis of 5,15-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5,15-diHETE) in leukocytes involves consecutive oxygenation of arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) and 15-LOX in either order. Here, we analyzed the contribution of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 to the biosynthesis of 5,15-diHETE and 5,11-diHETE in isolated human leukocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide and calcium ionophore A23187. Transformation of arachidonic acid was initiated by 5-LOX providing 5S-HETE as a substrate for COX-2 forming 5S,15S-diHETE, 5S,15R-diHETE, and 5S,11R-diHETE as shown by LC/MS and chiral phase HPLC analyses. The levels of 5,15-diHETE were 0.45 ± 0.2 ng/106 cells (mean ± SEM, n = 6), reaching about half the level of LTB4 (1.3 ± 0.5 ng/106 cells, n = 6). The COX-2 specific inhibitor NS-398 reduced the levels of 5,15-diHETE to below 0.02 ng/106 cells in four of six samples. Similar reduction was achieved by MK-886, an inhibitor of 5-LOX activating protein but the above differences were not statistically significant. Aspirin treatment of the activated cells allowed formation of 5,15-diHETE (0.1 ± 0.05 ng/106 cells, n = 6) but, as expected, abolished formation of 5,11-diHETE. The mixture of activated cells also produced 5S,12S-diHETE with the unusual 6E,8Z,10E double bond configuration, implicating biosynthesis by 5-LOX and 12-LOX activity rather than by hydrolysis of the leukotriene A4-epoxide. Exogenous octadeuterated 5S-HETE and 15S-HETE were converted to 5,15-diHETE, implicating that multiple oxygenation pathways of arachidonic acid occur in activated leukocytes. The contribution of COX-2 to the biosynthesis of dihydroxylated derivatives of arachidonic acid provides evidence for functional coupling with 5-LOX in activated human leukocytes. PMID:22068350

  6. Introduction of a novel pathway for IAA biosynthesis to rhizobia alters vetch root nodule development.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Serena; Senatore, Beatrice; Lonardo, Enza; Imperlini, Esther; Bianco, Carmen; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Campion, Bruno; Defez, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    We introduced into Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae LPR1105 a new pathway for the biosynthesis of the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), under the control of a stationary phase-activated promoter active both in free-living bacteria and bacteroids. The newly introduced genes are the iaaM gene from Pseudomonas savastanoi and the tms2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Free-living bacteria harbouring the promoter-iaaMtms2 construct release into the growth medium 14-fold more IAA than the wild-type parental strain. This IAA overproducing R. l. viciae, the RD20 strain, elicits the development of vetch root nodules containing up to 60-fold more IAA than nodules infected by the wild-type strain LPR1105. Vetch root nodules derived from RD20 are fewer in number per plant, heavier in terms of dry weight and show an enlarged and more active meristem. A significant increase in acetylene reduction activity was measured in nodules elicited in vetch by RD20.

  7. Backdoor pathway for dihydrotestosterone biosynthesis: implications for normal and abnormal human sex development.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-04-01

    We review the current knowledge about the "backdoor" pathway for the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). While DHT is produced from cholesterol through the conventional "frontdoor" pathway via testosterone, recent studies have provided compelling evidence for the presence of an alternative "backdoor" pathway to DHT without testosterone intermediacy. This backdoor pathway is known to exist in the tammar wallaby pouch young testis and the immature mouse testis, and has been suggested to be present in the human as well. Indeed, molecular analysis has identified pathologic mutations of genes involved in the backdoor pathway in genetic male patients with undermasculinized external genitalia, and urine steroid profile analysis has argued for the relevance of the activated backdoor pathway to abnormal virilization in genetic females with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and 21-hydroxylase deficiency. It is likely that the backdoor pathway is primarily operating in the fetal testis in a physiological condition to produce a sufficient amount of DHT for male sex development, and that the backdoor pathway is driven with a possible interaction between fetal and permanent adrenals in pathologic conditions with increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. These findings provide novel insights into androgen biosynthesis in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Alternative oxidase impacts ganoderic acid biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Deng-Ke; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tian-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Li; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-09-13

    The alternative oxidase (AOX), which forms a branch of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport pathway, functions to sustain electron flux and alleviate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this article, a homologous AOX gene was identified in Ganoderma lucidum. The coding sequence of the AOX gene in G. lucidum contains 1038 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 39.48 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the function of AOX in G. lucidum, and two silenced strains (AOXi6 and AOXi21) were obtained, showing significant decreases of approximately 60 and 50 %, respectively, in alternative pathway respiratory efficiency compared to WT. The content of ganoderic acid (GA) in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 showed significant increases of approximately 42 and 44 %, respectively, compared to WT. Elevated contents of intermediate metabolites in GA biosynthesis and elevated transcription levels of corresponding genes were also observed in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21. In addition, the intracellular ROS content in strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 was significantly increased, by approximately 1.75- and 1.93-fold, respectively, compared with WT. Furthermore, adding N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly depressed the intracellular ROS content and GA accumulation in AOX-silenced strains. These results indicate that AOX affects GA biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels. Our research revealed the important role of AOX in the secondary metabolism of G. lucidum.

  9. Innovative use of a bacterial enzyme involved in sialic acid degradation to initiate sialic acid biosynthesis in glycoengineered insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The baculovirus/insect cell system is widely used for recombinant protein production, but it is suboptimal for recombinant glycoprotein production because it does not provide sialylation, which is an essential feature of many glycoprotein biologics. This problem has been addressed by metabolic engineering, which has extended endogenous insect cell N-glycosylation pathways and enabled glycoprotein sialylation by baculovirus/insect cell systems. However, further improvement is needed because even the most extensively engineered baculovirus/insect cell systems require media supplementation with N-acetylmannosamine, an expensive sialic acid precursor, for efficient recombinant glycoprotein sialylation. Our solution to this problem focused on E. coli N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate 2′-epimerase (GNPE), which normally functions in bacterial sialic acid degradation. Considering that insect cells have the product, but not the substrate for this enzyme, we hypothesized that GNPE might drive the reverse reaction in these cells, thereby initiating sialic acid biosynthesis in the absence of media supplementation. We tested this hypothesis by isolating transgenic insect cells expressing E. coli GNPE together with a suite of mammalian genes needed for N-glycoprotein sialylation. Various assays showed that these cells efficiently produced sialic acid, CMP-sialic acid, and sialylated recombinant N-glycoproteins even in growth media without N-acetylmannosamine. Thus, this study demonstrated that a eukaryotic recombinant protein production platform can be glycoengineered with a bacterial gene, that a bacterial enzyme which normally functions in sialic acid degradation can be used to initiate sialic acid biosynthesis, and that insect cells expressing this enzyme can produce sialylated N-glycoproteins without N-acetylmannosamine supplementation, which will reduce production costs in glycoengineered baculovirus/insect cell systems. PMID:23022569

  10. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, R.; Armbrust, V.

    2016-02-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a major plant growth hormone and a common mediator of plant-bacterial interactions. Recently, IAA has also been found to play a role in interactions between diatoms and bacteria, with IAA production by an associated Sulfitobacter leading to increased growth rates in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. It is unclear, however, if diatoms themselves are able to synthesize IAA and whether this capability is widespread throughout Bacillariophyta. Four major tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways have been identified in plants and bacteria, each denoted by the first intermediate downstream of tryptophan: the indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA), tryptamine (TAM), indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) and indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathways. To investigate the possibility of IAA biosynthesis in diatoms, we first analyzed publicly available genomes of raphid pennates P. multiseries, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Fragilariopsis cylindrus and centric Thalassiosira pseudonana for potential homologs to plant and bacterial IAA biosynthesis genes. The P. multiseries, F. cylindrus and P. tricornutum genomes encode downstream enzymes for bacterial TAM and IAM and plant IPyA pathways. The more evolutionarily ancient T. pseudonana encodes one TAM enzyme in its genome. To investigate the potential distribution of these pathways more broadly, we surveyed the transcriptomes of 11 diatom species that include representatives from all four Bacillariophyta classes. Datasets used were sequenced as part of the Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project (MMETSP) and obtained from cultures maintained axenically. Transcripts associated with the TAM pathway were most frequently detected, with potential homologs to required enzymes identified in 10 of the 11 species examined. Transcripts homologous to rate-limiting IPyA enzymes were detected in six species. Only two centric and araphid pennate species expressed transcripts associated with enzymes in the

  11. Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Legume Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Coronado, Maria J.; Ramos, Javier; Sato, Shusei; Testillano, Pilar S.; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a major antioxidant and redox buffer, but is also involved in other critical processes of plants. Recently, the hypothesis has been proposed that legume nodules are unable to synthesize ascorbate and have to import it from the shoot or root, thus providing a means by which the plant regulates nodule senescence. The last step of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The mRNAs encoding GalLDH and three other enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis are clearly detectable in nodules. Furthermore, an active membrane-bound GalLDH enzyme is present in nodule mitochondria. Biochemical assays on dissected nodules reveal that GalLDH activity and ascorbate are correlated in nodule tissues and predominantly localized in the infected zone, with lower levels of both parameters (relative to the infected tissues) in the apex (87%) and senescent region (43%) of indeterminate nodules and in the peripheral tissues (65%) of determinate nodules. In situ RNA hybridization showed that the GalLDH mRNA is particularly abundant in the infected zone of indeterminate and determinate nodules. Thus, our results refute the hypothesis that ascorbate is not synthesized in nodules and lend support to a previous conclusion that ascorbate in the infected zone is primarily involved in the protection of host cells against peroxide damage. Likewise, the high ascorbate and GalLDH activity levels found in the apex of indeterminate nodules strongly suggest a participation of ascorbate in additional functions during symbiosis, possibly related to cell growth and division and to molecular signaling. PMID:16766673

  12. Evolution of Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis Genes and Their Regulation during Starvation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Stevie; Quentin, Yves; Coudray, Coralie; Texier, Pauline; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Fichant, Gwennaele; Cam, Kaymeuang

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is a Gram-positive bacterium with a unique cell envelope composed of an essential outer membrane. Mycolic acids, which are very-long-chain (up to C100) fatty acids, are the major components of this mycomembrane. The enzymatic pathways involved in the biosynthesis and transport of mycolates are fairly well documented and are the targets of the major antituberculous drugs. In contrast, only fragmented information is available on the expression and regulation of the biosynthesis genes. In this study, we report that the hadA, hadB, and hadC genes, which code for the mycolate biosynthesis dehydratase enzymes, are coexpressed with three genes that encode proteins of the translational apparatus. Consistent with the well-established control of the translation potential by nutrient availability, starvation leads to downregulation of the hadABC genes along with most of the genes required for the synthesis, modification, and transport of mycolates. The downregulation of a subset of the biosynthesis genes is partially dependent on RelMtb, the key enzyme of the stringent response. We also report the phylogenetic evolution scenario that has shaped the current genetic organization, characterized by the coregulation of the hadABC operon with genes of the translational apparatus and with genes required for the modification of the mycolates. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one-third of the human population worldwide, and despite the available therapeutic arsenal, it continues to kill millions of people each year. There is therefore an urgent need to identify new targets and develop a better understanding of how the bacterium is adapting itself to host defenses during infection. A prerequisite of this understanding is knowledge of how this adaptive skill has been implanted by evolution. Nutrient scarcity is an environmental condition the bacterium has to cope with during infection. In many bacteria, adaptation to

  13. Evolution of Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis Genes and Their Regulation during Starvation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamet, Stevie; Quentin, Yves; Coudray, Coralie; Texier, Pauline; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is a Gram-positive bacterium with a unique cell envelope composed of an essential outer membrane. Mycolic acids, which are very-long-chain (up to C100) fatty acids, are the major components of this mycomembrane. The enzymatic pathways involved in the biosynthesis and transport of mycolates are fairly well documented and are the targets of the major antituberculous drugs. In contrast, only fragmented information is available on the expression and regulation of the biosynthesis genes. In this study, we report that the hadA, hadB, and hadC genes, which code for the mycolate biosynthesis dehydratase enzymes, are coexpressed with three genes that encode proteins of the translational apparatus. Consistent with the well-established control of the translation potential by nutrient availability, starvation leads to downregulation of the hadABC genes along with most of the genes required for the synthesis, modification, and transport of mycolates. The downregulation of a subset of the biosynthesis genes is partially dependent on RelMtb, the key enzyme of the stringent response. We also report the phylogenetic evolution scenario that has shaped the current genetic organization, characterized by the coregulation of the hadABC operon with genes of the translational apparatus and with genes required for the modification of the mycolates. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one-third of the human population worldwide, and despite the available therapeutic arsenal, it continues to kill millions of people each year. There is therefore an urgent need to identify new targets and develop a better understanding of how the bacterium is adapting itself to host defenses during infection. A prerequisite of this understanding is knowledge of how this adaptive skill has been implanted by evolution. Nutrient scarcity is an environmental condition the bacterium has to cope with during infection. In many

  14. Antituberculosis thiophenes define a requirement for Pks13 in mycolic acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Regina; Kumar, Pradeep; Parashar, Vijay; Vilchèze, Catherine; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Freundlich, Joel S.; Barnes, S. Whitney; Walker, John R.; Szymonifka, Michael J.; Marchiano, Emily; Shenai, Shubhada; Colangeli, Roberto; Jacobs, William R.; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Kremer, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We report a new class of thiophene (TP) compounds that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by the novel mechanism of Pks13 inhibition. An F79S mutation near the catalytic Ser-55 site in Pks13 conferred TP-resistance in Mtb. Over-expression of wild-type pks13 resulted in TP-resistance and over-expression of the F79S pks13 mutant conferred high-level resistance. In vitro, TP inhibited fatty acyl-AMP loading onto Pks13. TP inhibited mycolic acid biosynthesis in wild-type Mtb, but to a much lesser extent in TP-resistant Mtb. TP treatment was bactericidal and equivalent to the first-line drug isoniazid, but it was less likely to permit emergent resistance. Combined isoniazid and TP treatment exhibited sterilizing activity. Computational-docking identified a possible TP-binding groove within the Pks13 ACP domain. This study confirms that Mtb Pks13 is required for mycolic acid biosynthesis, validates it as a druggable target and demonstrates the therapeutic potential of simultaneously inhibiting multiple targets in the same biosynthetic pathway. PMID:23770708

  15. Nitrogen treatment enhances sterols and withaferin A through transcriptional activation of jasmonate pathway, WRKY transcription factors, and biosynthesis genes in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shaifali; Yadav, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Anup Kumar; Rastogi, Shubhra; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Pal, Anirban; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The medicinal plant Withania somnifera is researched extensively to increase the quantity of withanolides and specifically withaferin A, which finds implications in many pharmacological activities. Due to insufficient knowledge on biosynthesis and unacceptability of transgenic approach, it is preferred to follow alternative physiological methods to increase the yield of withanolides. Prior use of elicitors like salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, fungal extracts, and even mechanical wounding have shown to increase the withanolide biosynthesis with limited success; however, the commercial viability and logistics of application are debatable. In this investigation, we tested the simple nitrogeneous fertilizers pertaining to the enhancement of withaferin A biosynthesis. Application of ammonium sulfate improved the sterol contents required for the withanolide biosynthesis and correlated to higher expression of pathway genes like FPPS, SMT1, SMT2, SMO1, SMO2, and ODM. Increased expression of a gene homologous to allene oxide cyclase, crucial in jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, suggested the involvement of jasmonate signaling. High levels of WRKY gene transcripts indicated transcriptional regulation of the pathway genes. Increase in transcript level could be correlated with a corresponding increase in the protein levels for WsSMT1 and WsWRKY1. The withaferin A increase was also demonstrated in the potted plants growing in the glasshouse and in the open field. These results implicated simple physiological management of nitrogen fertilizer signal to improve the yield of secondary metabolite through probable involvement of jasmonate signal and WRKY transcription factor for the first time, in W. somnifera besides improving the foliage.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Manganese-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Provides Insight on the Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, Ainsley; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Pedraza, Mary Ann; Lindquist, Erika

    2011-08-11

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll and other tetrapyrroles is a vital but poorly understood process. Recent genomic advances with the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have created opportunity to more closely examine the mechanisms of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway via transcriptome analysis. Manganese is a nutrient of interest for complex reactions because of its multiple stable oxidation states and role in molecular oxygen coordination. C. reinhardtii was cultured in Manganese-deplete Tris-acetate-phosphate (TAP) media for 24 hours and used to create cDNA libraries for sequencing using Illumina TruSeq technology. Transcriptome analysis provided intriguing insight on possible regulatory mechanisms in the pathway. Evidence supports similarities of GTR (Glutamyl-tRNA synthase) to its Chlorella vulgaris homolog in terms of Mn requirements. Data was also suggestive of Mn-related compensatory up-regulation for pathway proteins CHLH1 (Manganese Chelatase), GUN4 (Magnesium chelatase activating protein), and POR1 (Light-dependent protochlorophyllide reductase). Intriguingly, data suggests possible reciprocal expression of oxygen dependent CPX1 (coproporphyrinogen III oxidase) and oxygen independent CPX2. Further analysis using RT-PCR could provide compelling evidence for several novel regulatory mechanisms in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

  17. Biosynthesis of Unusual Moth Pheromone Components Involves Two Different Pathways in the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Cardé, Ring T.

    2010-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), consists of two different types of components, one type including (11Z,13Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal (11Z,13Z-16:Ald) with a terminal functional group containing oxygen, similar to the majority of moth pheromones reported, and another type including the unusual long-chain pentaenes, (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-23:H) and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)- 3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-25:H). After decapitation of females, the titer of 11Z,13Z-16:Ald in the pheromone gland decreased significantly, whereas the titer of the pentaenes remained unchanged. Injection of a pheromone biosynthesis activating peptide (PBAN) into the abdomens of decapitated females restored the titer of 11Z,13Z-16:Ald and even increased it above that in intact females, whereas the titer of the pentaenes in the pheromone gland was not affected by PBAN injection. In addition to common fatty acids, two likely precursors of 11Z,13Z-16:Ald, i.e., (Z)-11-hexadecenoic and (11Z,13Z)-11,13-hexadecadienoic acid, as well as traces of (Z)-6-hexadecenoic acid, were found in gland extracts. In addition, pheromone gland lipids contained (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-5,8,11,14,17-icosapentaenoic acid, which also was found in extracts of the rest of the abdomen. Deuterium-labeled fatty acids, (16,16,16-D3)-hexadecanoic acid and (Z)-[13,13,14,14,15,15,16,16,16-D9]-11-hexadecenoic acid, were incorporated into 11Z,13Z-16:Ald after topical application to the sex pheromone gland coupled with abdominal injection of PBAN. Deuterium label was incorporated into the C23 and C25 pentaenes after injection of (9Z,12Z,15Z)- [17,17,18,18,18-D5]-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid into 1–2 d old female pupae. These labeling results, in conjunction with the composition of fatty acid intermediates found in pheromone gland extracts, support different pathways leading to the two pheromone components. 11Z,13Z-16

  18. An integrated approach to demonstrating the ANR pathway of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Zhu, Yue; Liu, Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu

    2012-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomers or polymers of plant flavan-3-ols and are important to plant adaptation in extreme environmental conditions. The characterization of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) has demonstrated the different biogenesis of four stereo-configurations of flavan-3-ols. It is important to understand whether ANR and the ANR pathway widely occur in the plant kingdom. Here, we report an integrated approach to demonstrate the ANR pathway in plants. This includes different methods to extract native ANR from different tissues of eight angiosperm plants (Lotus corniculatus, Desmodium uncinatum, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Vitis vinifera, Vitis bellula, Parthenocissus heterophylla, and Cerasus serrulata) and one fern plant (Dryopteris pycnopteroides), a general enzymatic analysis approach to demonstrate the ANR activity, high-performance liquid chromatography-based fingerprinting to demonstrate (-)-epicatechin and other flavan-3-ol molecules, and phytochemical analysis of PAs. Results demonstrate that in addition to leaves of M. sativa, tissues of other eight plants contain an active ANR pathway. Particularly, the leaves, flowers and pods of D. uncinatum, which is a model plant to study LAR and the LAR pathways, are demonstrated to express an active ANR pathway. This finding suggests that the ANR pathway involves PA biosynthesis in D. uncinatum. In addition, a sequence BLAST analysis reveals that ANR homologs have been sequenced in plants from both gymnosperms and angiosperms. These data show that the ANR pathway to PA biosynthesis occurs in both seed and seedless vascular plants.

  19. Adenosine kinase-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates S-adenosylmethionine because of an enhanced methionine biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Muneyoshi; Masuda, Mitsunori; Takaoka, Yasumichi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2013-02-01

    To isolate an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-accumulating yeast strain and to develop a more efficient method of producing SAM, we screened methionine-resistant strains using the yeast deletion library of budding yeast and isolated 123 strains. The SAM content in 81 of the 123 strains was higher than that in the parental strain BY4742. We identified ADO1 encoding adenosine kinase as one of the factors participating in high SAM accumulation. The X∆ado1 strain that was constructed from the X2180-1A strain (MAT a, ATCC 26786) could accumulate approximately 30-fold (18 mg/g dry cell weight) more SAM than the X2180-1A strain in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium. Furthermore, we attempted to identify the molecular basis underlying the differences in SAM accumulation between X∆ado1 and X2180-1A strains. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the genes involved in the methionine biosynthesis pathway, phosphate metabolism, and hexose transport were mainly overexpressed in the X∆ado1 strain compared with the X2180-1A strain. We also determined the levels of various metabolites involved in the methionine biosynthesis pathway and found increased content of SAM, tetrahydrofolate (THF), inorganic phosphate, polyphosphoric acid, and S-adenosylhomocysteine in the X∆ado1 strain. In contrast, the content of 5-methyl-THF, homocysteine, glutathione, and adenosine was decreased. These results indicated that the ∆ado1 strain could accumulate SAM because of preferential activation of the methionine biosynthesis pathway.

  20. The putrescine biosynthesis pathway in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression, mediated by CcpA.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel M; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Martín, María Cruz; Fernández, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2013-07-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterium most widely used by the dairy industry as a starter for the manufacture of fermented products such as cheese and buttermilk. However, some strains produce putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The proteins involved in this pathway, including those necessary for agmatine uptake and conversion into putrescine, are encoded by the aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC genes, which together form an operon. This paper reports the mechanism of regulation of putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis. It is shown that the aguBDAC operon, which contains a cre site at the promoter of aguB (the first gene of the operon), is transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Paul A; He, Cixin

    2010-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene(s), a mutant screen was conducted using the simple oxalic acid-producing phytopathogenic bacterium, Burkholderia glumae. Four mutants that failed to produce oxalic acid were isolated from a transposon-mutagenized B. glumae library and named Burkholderia oxalate defective (Bod)1. DNA sequence analysis revealed that each mutant contained an insertion event at different sites in the same ORF, which we referred to as the oxalate biosynthetic component (obc)A locus. Complementation of the Bod1 mutant with the obcA gene, however, resulted only in a partial restoration of the oxalic acid-producing phenotype. Further complementation studies utilizing a larger DNA fragment encompassing the obcA locus coupled with deletion mutagenesis led to the identification of another ORF that we named the obcB locus, which was essential for higher levels of oxalic acid production. Transcript analysis indicated that both obcA and obcB are coexpressed and encoded on a single polycistron message.

  2. Articulation of three core metabolic processes in Arabidopsis: Fatty acid biosynthesis, leucine catabolism and starch metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mentzen, Wieslawa I; Peng, Jianling; Ransom, Nick; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2008-01-01

    Background Elucidating metabolic network structures and functions in multicellular organisms is an emerging goal of functional genomics. We describe the co-expression network of three core metabolic processes in the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: fatty acid biosynthesis, starch metabolism and amino acid (leucine) catabolism. Results These co-expression networks form modules populated by genes coding for enzymes that represent the reactions generally considered to define each pathway. However, the modules also incorporate a wider set of genes that encode transporters, cofactor biosynthetic enzymes, precursor-producing enzymes, and regulatory molecules. We tested experimentally the hypothesis that one of the genes tightly co-expressed with starch metabolism module, a putative kinase AtPERK10, will have a role in this process. Indeed, knockout lines of AtPERK10 have an altered starch accumulation. In addition, the co-expression data define a novel hierarchical transcript-level structure associated with catabolism, in which genes performing smaller, more specific tasks appear to be recruited into higher-order modules with a broader catabolic function. Conclusion Each of these core metabolic pathways is structured as a module of co-expressed transcripts that co-accumulate over a wide range of environmental and genetic perturbations and developmental stages, and represent an expanded set of macromolecules associated with the common task of supporting the functionality of each metabolic pathway. As experimentally demonstrated, co-expression analysis can provide a rich approach towards understanding gene function. PMID:18616834

  3. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:28084442

  4. Tailoring pathway modularity in the biosynthesis of erythromycin analogs heterologously engineered in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojian; Li, Yi; Fang, Lei; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2015-05-01

    Type I modular polyketide synthases are responsible for potent therapeutic compounds that include avermectin (antihelinthic), rapamycin (immunosuppressant), pikromycin (antibiotic), and erythromycin (antibiotic). However, compound access and biosynthetic manipulation are often complicated by properties of native production organisms, prompting an approach (termed heterologous biosynthesis) illustrated in this study through the reconstitution of the erythromycin pathway through Escherichia coli. Using this heterologous system, 16 tailoring pathways were introduced, systematically producing eight chiral pairs of deoxysugar substrates. Successful analog formation for each new pathway emphasizes the remarkable flexibility of downstream enzymes to accommodate molecular variation. Furthermore, analogs resulting from three of the pathways demonstrated bioactivity against an erythromycin-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain. The approach and results support a platform for continued molecular diversification of the tailoring components of this and other complex natural product pathways in a manner that mirrors the modular nature of the upstream megasynthases responsible for aglycone polyketide formation.

  5. Tailoring pathway modularity in the biosynthesis of erythromycin analogs heterologously engineered in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojian; Li, Yi; Fang, Lei; Pfeifer, Blaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Type I modular polyketide synthases are responsible for potent therapeutic compounds that include avermectin (antihelinthic), rapamycin (immunosuppressant), pikromycin (antibiotic), and erythromycin (antibiotic). However, compound access and biosynthetic manipulation are often complicated by properties of native production organisms, prompting an approach (termed heterologous biosynthesis) illustrated in this study through the reconstitution of the erythromycin pathway through Escherichia coli. Using this heterologous system, 16 tailoring pathways were introduced, systematically producing eight chiral pairs of deoxysugar substrates. Successful analog formation for each new pathway emphasizes the remarkable flexibility of downstream enzymes to accommodate molecular variation. Furthermore, analogs resulting from three of the pathways demonstrated bioactivity against an erythromycin-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain. The approach and results support a platform for continued molecular diversification of the tailoring components of this and other complex natural product pathways in a manner that mirrors the modular nature of the upstream megasynthases responsible for aglycone polyketide formation. PMID:26601183

  6. Biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins in white clover flowers: cross talk within the flavonoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Abeynayake, Shamila Weerakoon; Panter, Stephen; Chapman, Ross; Webster, Tracie; Rochfort, Simone; Mouradov, Aidyn; Spangenberg, German

    2012-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins are produced by closely related branches of the flavonoid pathway and utilize the same metabolic intermediates. Previous studies have shown a flexible mechanism of flux diversion at the branch-point between the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways, but the molecular basis for this mechanism is poorly understood. Floral tissues in white clover plants (Trifolium repens) produce both proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. This makes white clover amenable to studies of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis and possible interactions within the flavonoid pathway. Results of this study show that the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways are spatially colocalized within epidermal cells of petals and temporally overlap in partially open flowers. A correlation between spatiotemporal patterns of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis with expression profiles of putative flavonoid-related genes indicates that these pathways may recruit different isoforms of flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes. Furthermore, in transgenic white clover plants with down-regulated expression of the anthocyanidin reductase gene, levels of flavan 3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavonol glycosides and the expression levels of a range of genes encoding putative flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors were altered. This is consistent with the hypothesis that flux through the flavonoid pathway may be at least partially regulated by the availability of intermediates.

  7. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of Salvia miltiorrhiza for discovery of genes associated with the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Wu, Xiao; Zhou, Zewen; Ding, Mingquan; Shi, Min; Huang, Fenfen; Li, Shen; Wang, Yao; Kai, Guoyin

    2017-09-05

    Tanshinones and phenolic acids are crucial bioactive compounds biosynthesized in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an effective elicitor to enhance the production of phenolic acids and tanshinones simultaneously, while yeast extract (YE) is used as a biotic elicitor that only induce tanshinones accumulation. However, little was known about the different molecular mechanism. To identify the downstream and regulatory genes involved in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis, we conducted comprehensive transcriptome profiling of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with either MeJA or YE. Total 55588 unigenes were assembled from about 1.72 billion clean reads, of which 42458 unigenes (76.4%) were successfully annotated. The expression patterns of 19 selected genes in the significantly upregulated unigenes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The candidate downstream genes and other cytochrome P450s involved in the late steps of tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis pathways were screened from the RNA-seq dataset based on co-expression pattern analysis with specific biosynthetic genes. Additionally, 375 transcription factors were identified to exhibit a significant up-regulated expression pattern in response to induction. This study can provide us a valuable gene resource for elucidating the molecular mechanism of tanshinones and phenolic acids biosynthesis in hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza.

  8. trans-Cinnamic and Chlorogenic Acids Affect the Secondary Metabolic Profiles and Ergosterol Biosynthesis by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tomasz; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Bilska, Katarzyna; Buśko, Maciej; Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Anna; Załuski, Dariusz; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2017-06-22

    Plant-derived compounds limiting mycotoxin contamination are currently of major interest in food and feed production. However, their potential application requires an evaluation of their effects on fungal secondary metabolism and membrane effects. In this study, different strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids on solid YES media. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was lowered by exogenous phenolic compounds. In addition, fungi reduced exogenous phenolic acids, leading either to their conversion or degradation. trans-Cinnamic acid was converted to caffeic and ferulic acids, while chlorogenic acid was degraded to caffeic acid. The latter underwent further degradation to protocatechuic acid. Fungal-derived trans-cinnamic acid, as the first intermediate of the shikimate pathway, increased after chlorogenic acid treatment, presumably due to the further inhibition of the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid. Exogenous trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid displayed the inhibition of mycotoxin production by Fusaria, which appeared to be largely dependent on the phenolic compound and its concentration and the assayed strain. Exogenous phenolic acids showed different effects on ergosterol biosynthesis by fungi. It was found that the production of this membrane sterol was stimulated by trans-cinnamic acid, while chlorogenic acid negatively impacted ergosterol biosynthesis, suggesting that phenolic acids with stronger antifungal activities may upregulate ergosterol biosynthesis by Fusaria. This paper reports on the production of phenolic acids by Fusaria for the first time.

  9. trans-Cinnamic and Chlorogenic Acids Affect the Secondary Metabolic Profiles and Ergosterol Biosynthesis by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Tomasz; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Bilska, Katarzyna; Buśko, Maciej; Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Anna; Załuski, Dariusz; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds limiting mycotoxin contamination are currently of major interest in food and feed production. However, their potential application requires an evaluation of their effects on fungal secondary metabolism and membrane effects. In this study, different strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids on solid YES media. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was lowered by exogenous phenolic compounds. In addition, fungi reduced exogenous phenolic acids, leading either to their conversion or degradation. trans-Cinnamic acid was converted to caffeic and ferulic acids, while chlorogenic acid was degraded to caffeic acid. The latter underwent further degradation to protocatechuic acid. Fungal-derived trans-cinnamic acid, as the first intermediate of the shikimate pathway, increased after chlorogenic acid treatment, presumably due to the further inhibition of the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid. Exogenous trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid displayed the inhibition of mycotoxin production by Fusaria, which appeared to be largely dependent on the phenolic compound and its concentration and the assayed strain. Exogenous phenolic acids showed different effects on ergosterol biosynthesis by fungi. It was found that the production of this membrane sterol was stimulated by trans-cinnamic acid, while chlorogenic acid negatively impacted ergosterol biosynthesis, suggesting that phenolic acids with stronger antifungal activities may upregulate ergosterol biosynthesis by Fusaria. This paper reports on the production of phenolic acids by Fusaria for the first time. PMID:28640190

  10. Evolution of DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) biosynthesis pathway: Origin and phylogenetic distribution in polyploid Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae).

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Hélène; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Dauvergne, Xavier; Boutte, Julien; Simon, Gaëlle; Marnet, Nathalie; Bouchereau, Alain; Guiheneuf, Solène; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre; Morice, Jérôme; Ravanel, Stéphane; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Ainouche, Abdelkader; Salmon, Armel; Wendel, Jonathan F; Ainouche, Malika L

    2017-09-01

    DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) is an ecologically important sulfur metabolite commonly produced by marine algae and by some higher plant lineages, including the polyploid salt marsh genus Spartina (Poaceae). The molecular mechanisms and genes involved in the DMSP biosynthesis pathways are still unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of DMSP amounts and molecular phylogenetic analyses to decipher the origin of DMSP in Spartina that represents one of the major source of terrestrial DMSP in coastal marshes. DMSP content was explored in 14 Spartina species using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Putative genes encoding the four enzymatic steps of the DMSP biosynthesis pathway in Spartina were examined and their evolutionary dynamics were studied. We found that the hexaploid lineage containing S. alterniflora, S. foliosa and S. maritima and their derived hybrids and allopolyploids are all able to produce DMSP, in contrast to species in the tetraploid clade. Thus, examination of DMSP synthesis in a phylogenetic context implicated a single origin of this physiological innovation, which occurred in the ancestor of the hexaploid Spartina lineage, 3-6MYA. Candidate genes specific to the Spartina DMSP biosynthesis pathway were also retrieved from Spartina transcriptomes, and provide a framework for future investigations to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in this plant phenotypic novelty that has major ecological impacts in saltmarsh ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. GAME9 regulates the biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids and upstream isoprenoids in the plant mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Pablo D; Sonawane, Prashant D; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Dewangan, Veena; Weithorn, Efrat; Tal, Lior; Meir, Sagit; Rogachev, Ilana; Malitsky, Sergey; Giri, Ashok P; Goossens, Alain; Burdman, Saul; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-02-15

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived molecules produced by solanaceous species. They contribute to pathogen defence but are toxic to humans and considered as anti-nutritional compounds. Here we show that GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 9 (GAME9), an APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor, related to regulators of alkaloid production in tobacco and Catharanthus roseus, controls SGA biosynthesis. GAME9 knockdown and overexpression in tomato and potato alters expression of SGAs and upstream mevalonate pathway genes including the cholesterol biosynthesis gene STEROL SIDE CHAIN REDUCTASE 2 (SSR2). Levels of SGAs, C24-alkylsterols and the upstream mevalonate and cholesterol pathways intermediates are modified in these plants. Δ(7)-STEROL-C5(6)-DESATURASE (C5-SD) in the hitherto unresolved cholesterol pathway is a direct target of GAME9. Transactivation and promoter-binding assays show that GAME9 exerts its activity either directly or cooperatively with the SlMYC2 transcription factor as in the case of the C5-SD gene promoter. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of SGA biosynthesis and means for manipulating these metabolites in crops.

  12. GAME9 regulates the biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids and upstream isoprenoids in the plant mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Pablo D.; Sonawane, Prashant D.; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Dewangan, Veena; Weithorn, Efrat; Tal, Lior; Meir, Sagit; Rogachev, Ilana; Malitsky, Sergey; Giri, Ashok P.; Goossens, Alain; Burdman, Saul; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived molecules produced by solanaceous species. They contribute to pathogen defence but are toxic to humans and considered as anti-nutritional compounds. Here we show that GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 9 (GAME9), an APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor, related to regulators of alkaloid production in tobacco and Catharanthus roseus, controls SGA biosynthesis. GAME9 knockdown and overexpression in tomato and potato alters expression of SGAs and upstream mevalonate pathway genes including the cholesterol biosynthesis gene STEROL SIDE CHAIN REDUCTASE 2 (SSR2). Levels of SGAs, C24-alkylsterols and the upstream mevalonate and cholesterol pathways intermediates are modified in these plants. Δ(7)-STEROL-C5(6)-DESATURASE (C5-SD) in the hitherto unresolved cholesterol pathway is a direct target of GAME9. Transactivation and promoter-binding assays show that GAME9 exerts its activity either directly or cooperatively with the SlMYC2 transcription factor as in the case of the C5-SD gene promoter. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of SGA biosynthesis and means for manipulating these metabolites in crops. PMID:26876023

  13. Inhibition of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Pathway Suppresses Viral Growth through Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Dauzonne, Daniel; Jorda, Pierre; Cousin, Gaëlle; Lupan, Alexandru; Helynck, Olivier; Caignard, Grégory; Janvier, Geneviève; André-Leroux, Gwénaëlle; Khiar, Samira; Escriou, Nicolas; Desprès, Philippe; Jacob, Yves; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Searching for stimulators of the innate antiviral response is an appealing approach to develop novel therapeutics against viral infections. Here, we established a cell-based reporter assay to identify compounds stimulating expression of interferon-inducible antiviral genes. DD264 was selected out of 41,353 compounds for both its immuno-stimulatory and antiviral properties. While searching for its mode of action, we identified DD264 as an inhibitor of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. This metabolic pathway was recently identified as a prime target of broad-spectrum antiviral molecules, but our data unraveled a yet unsuspected link with innate immunity. Indeed, we showed that DD264 or brequinar, a well-known inhibitor of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, both enhanced the expression of antiviral genes in human cells. Furthermore, antiviral activity of DD264 or brequinar was found strictly dependent on cellular gene transcription, nuclear export machinery, and required IRF1 transcription factor. In conclusion, the antiviral property of pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors is not a direct consequence of pyrimidine deprivation on the virus machinery, but rather involves the induction of cellular immune response. PMID:24098125

  14. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Purple and Black Grains of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Hans-Peter; Kukoeva, Tatjana V.; Börner, Andreas; Khlestkina, Elena K.

    2016-01-01

    Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare ‘Bowman’ near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains. Microsatellite genotyping revealed donor segments in the purple- and black-grained lines on chromosomes 2H (in region of the Ant2 gene determining purple color of grains) and 1H (in region of the Blp gene determining black lemma and pericarp), respectively. The isolated dominant Ant2 allele of the purple-grained line has high level of sequence similarity with the recessive Bowman’s ant2 in coding region, whereas an insertion of 179 bp was detected in promoter region of ant2. This structural divergence between Ant2 and ant2 alleles may underlie their different expression in grain pericarp: Bowman’s Ant2 is not transcribed, whereas it was up-regulated in the purple-grained line with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3’h, Dfr, Ans). This led to total anthocyain content increase in purple-grained line identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collectively, these results proved the regulatory function of the Ant2 gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in barley grain pericarp. In the black-grained line, the specific transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes was not detected, suggesting that flavonoid pigments are not involved in development of black lemma and pericarp trait. PMID

  16. The P450-4 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes ent-kaurene oxidase in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Tudzynski, B; Hedden, P; Carrera, E; Gaskin, P

    2001-08-01

    At least five genes of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway are clustered on chromosome 4 of Gibberella fujikuroi; these genes encode the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase/ent-kaurene synthase, a GA-specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and three cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. We now describe a fourth cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene (P450-4). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts of mycelia and culture fluid of a P450-4 knockout mutant identified ent-kaurene as the only intermediate of the GA pathway. Incubations with radiolabeled precursors showed that the metabolism of ent-kaurene, ent-kaurenol, and ent-kaurenal was blocked in the transformants, whereas ent-kaurenoic acid was metabolized efficiently to GA(4). The GA-deficient mutant strain SG139, which lacks the 30-kb GA biosynthesis gene cluster, converted ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid after transformation with P450-4. The B1-41a mutant, described as blocked between ent-kaurenal and ent-kaurenoic acid, was fully complemented by P450-4. There is a single nucleotide difference between the sequence of the B1-41a and wild-type P450-4 alleles at the 3' consensus sequence of intron 2 in the mutant, resulting in reduced levels of active protein due to a splicing defect in the mutant. These data suggest that P450-4 encodes a multifunctional ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzing all three oxidation steps between ent-kaurene and ent-kaurenoic acid.

  17. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Brose, Stephen A.; Golovko, Svetlana A.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke. PMID:27965531

  18. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  19. Structural Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biotin Biosynthesis Enzymes 7,8-Diaminopelargonic Acid Synthase and Dethiobiotin Synthetase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanghamitra; Lane, James M.; Lee, Richard E.; Rubin, Eric J.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on biotin synthesis for survival during infection. In the absence of biotin, disruption of the biotin biosynthesis pathway results in cell death rather than growth arrest, an unusual phenotype for an Mtb auxotroph. Humans lack the enzymes for biotin production, making the proteins of this essential Mtb pathway promising drug targets. To this end, we have determined the crystal structures of the second and third enzymes of the Mtb biotin biosynthetic pathway, 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase (DAPAS) and dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS), at respective resolutions of 2.2 Å and 1.85 Å. Superimposition of the DAPAS structures bound either to the SAM analog sinefungin or to 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA) allowed us to map the putative binding site for the substrates and to propose a mechanism by which the enzyme accommodates their disparate structures. Comparison of the DTBS structures bound to the substrate 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) or to ADP and the product dethiobiotin (DTB) permitted derivation of an enzyme mechanism. There are significant differences between the Mtb enzymes and those of other organisms; the Bacillus subtilis DAPAS, presented here at a high resolution of 2.2 Å, has active site variations and the Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori DTBS have alterations in their overall folds. We have begun to exploit the unique characteristics of the Mtb structures to design specific inhibitors against the biotin biosynthesis pathway in Mtb. PMID:20565114

  20. An in vitro system from maize seedlings for tryptophan-independent indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oestin, A.; Ilic, N.; Cohen, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from indole by an in vitro preparation from maize (Zea mays L.) that does not use tryptophan (Trp) as an intermediate is described. Light-grown seedlings of normal maize and the maize mutant orange pericarp were shown to contain the necessary enzymes to convert [{sup 14}C]indole to IAA. The reaction was not inhibited by unlabeled Trp and neither [{sup 14}C]Trp nor [{sup 14}C]serine substituted for [{sup 14}C]indole in this in vitro system. The reaction had a pH optimum greater than 8.0, required a reducing environment, and had an oxidation potential near that of ascorbate. The results obtained with this in vitro enzyme preparation provide strong, additional evidence for the presence of a Trp-independent IAA biosynthesis pathway in plants.

  1. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Ulschan; Brandt, Wolfgang; Porzel, Andrea; Rothe, Kathleen; Manzano, David; Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Balcke, Gerd Ulrich; Henning, Anja; Lohse, Swanhild; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Kanellis, Angelos K.; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Rosemary extracts containing the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and its derivative carnosol are approved food additives used in an increasingly wide range of products to enhance shelf-life, thanks to their high anti-oxidant activity. We describe here the elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast cells. Cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYP76AH22-24) from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia fruticosa already characterized as ferruginol synthases are also able to produce 11-hydroxyferruginol. Modelling-based mutagenesis of three amino acids in the related ferruginol synthase (CYP76AH1) from S. miltiorrhiza is sufficient to convert it to a 11-hydroxyferruginol synthase (HFS). The three sequential C20 oxidations for the conversion of 11-hydroxyferruginol to carnosic acid are catalysed by the related CYP76AK6-8. The availability of the genes for the biosynthesis of carnosic acid opens opportunities for the metabolic engineering of phenolic diterpenes, a class of compounds with potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities.

  2. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from ({sup 14}C)asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from ({sup 14}C)asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis.

  3. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Scheler, Ulschan; Brandt, Wolfgang; Porzel, Andrea; Rothe, Kathleen; Manzano, David; Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Balcke, Gerd Ulrich; Henning, Anja; Lohse, Swanhild; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Kanellis, Angelos K.; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary extracts containing the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and its derivative carnosol are approved food additives used in an increasingly wide range of products to enhance shelf-life, thanks to their high anti-oxidant activity. We describe here the elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast cells. Cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYP76AH22-24) from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia fruticosa already characterized as ferruginol synthases are also able to produce 11-hydroxyferruginol. Modelling-based mutagenesis of three amino acids in the related ferruginol synthase (CYP76AH1) from S. miltiorrhiza is sufficient to convert it to a 11-hydroxyferruginol synthase (HFS). The three sequential C20 oxidations for the conversion of 11-hydroxyferruginol to carnosic acid are catalysed by the related CYP76AK6-8. The availability of the genes for the biosynthesis of carnosic acid opens opportunities for the metabolic engineering of phenolic diterpenes, a class of compounds with potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. PMID:27703160

  4. PhzA, the shunt switch of phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis HT66.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuqi; Wang, Yining; Dai, Bona; Wang, Wei; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Xianqing; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-09-05

    Natural phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites that are mainly produced by Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. All phenazine-type metabolites originate from two precursors: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in Pseudomonas or phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) in Streptomyces and other bacteria. Although the biosynthesis of PCA in Pseudomonas has been extensively studied, the origin of PDC still remains unclear. Comparing the phenazine biosynthesis operons of different species, we found that the phzA gene was restricted to Pseudomonas in which PCA is produced. By generating phzA-inactivated mutant, we found a new compound obviously accumulated; it was then isolated and identified as PDC. Protein sequence alignment showed that PhzA proteins from Pseudomonas form a separate group that is recognized by H73L and S77L mutations. Generating mutations of L(73) into H(73) and L(77) into S(77) resulted in a significant increase in PDC production. These findings suggest that phzA may act as a shunt switch of PDC biosynthesis in Pseudomonas and distinguish the pathway producing only PCA from the pathway forming PCA plus PDC. Using real-time PCR analysis, we suggested that the phzA, phzB, and phzG genes either directly or indirectly regulate the production of PDC, and phzA plays the most significant regulatory role. This is the first description of phzA in the biosynthesis of PDC, and the first-time substantial PDC was obtained in Pseudomonas. Therefore, this study not only provides valuable clues to better understand the biosynthesis of PCA and PDC in Pseudomonas but also introduces a method to produce PDC derivatives by genetically engineered strains.

  5. Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V.S.; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086 bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme’s mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD+ binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N1-guanyl-1.7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. PMID:24893338

  6. Biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acid in bacilli: FabD (malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase) is not essential for in vitro biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hirosuke; Futamori, Naoya; Masuda, Kenichi; Shimabukuro, Yumiko; Omine, Tomoyo; Iwasaki, Hironori

    2003-10-01

    It was found that the partially purified beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase of Bacillus insolitus did not require the addition of FabD (malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, MAT) for the activity assay. This study therefore examined the necessity of FabD protein for in vitro branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) biosynthesis by crude fatty acid synthetases (FAS) of Bacilli. To discover the involvement of FabD in the BCFA biosynthesis, the protein was removed from the crude FAS by immunoprecipitation. The His-tag fusion protein FabD of Bacillus subtilis was expressed in Escherichia coli and used for the preparation of antibody. The rabbit antibody raised against the expressed fusion protein specifically recognized the FabD in the crude FAS of B. subtilis. Evaluation of the efficacy of the immunoprecipitation showed that a trace of FabD protein was present in the antibody-treated crude FAS. However, this complete removal of FabD from the crude FAS did not abolish its BCFA biosynthesis, but only reduced the level to 50-60% of the control level for acyl-CoA primer and to 80% for alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate primer. Furthermore, the FabD concentration did not necessarily correlate with the MAT specific activity in the enzyme fractions, suggesting the presence of another enzyme source of MAT activity. This study, therefore, suggests that FabD is not the sole enzyme source of MAT for in vitro BCFA biosynthesis, and implies the existence of a functional connection between fatty acid biosynthesis and another metabolic pathway.

  7. Melatonin biosynthesis in plants: multiple pathways catalyze tryptophan to melatonin in the cytoplasm or chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Back, Kyoungwhan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-11-01

    Melatonin is an animal hormone as well as a signaling molecule in plants. It was first identified in plants in 1995, and almost all enzymes responsible for melatonin biosynthesis had already been characterized in these species. Melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan requires four-step reactions. However, six genes, that is, TDC, TPH, T5H, SNAT, ASMT, and COMT, have been implicated in the synthesis of melatonin in plants, suggesting the presence of multiple pathways. Two major pathways have been proposed based on the enzyme kinetics: One is the tryptophan/tryptamine/serotonin/N-acetylserotonin/melatonin pathway, which may occur under normal growth conditions; the other is the tryptophan/tryptamine/serotonin/5-methoxytryptamine/melatonin pathway, which may occur when plants produce large amounts of serotonin, for example, upon senescence. The melatonin biosynthetic capacity associated with conversion of tryptophan to serotonin is much higher than that associated with conversion of serotonin to melatonin, which yields a low level of melatonin synthesis in plants. Many melatonin intermediates are produced in various subcellular compartments, such as the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplasts, which either facilitates or impedes the subsequent enzymatic steps. Depending on the pathways, the final subcellular sites of melatonin synthesis vary at either the cytoplasm or chloroplasts, which may differentially affect the mode of action of melatonin in plants.

  8. The Biosynthetic Pathways for Shikimate and Aromatic Amino Acids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2010-01-01

    The aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan in plants are not only essential components of protein synthesis, but also serve as precursors for a wide range of secondary metabolites that are important for plant growth as well as for human nutrition and health. The aromatic amino acids are synthesized via the shikimate pathway followed by the branched aromatic amino acid metabolic pathway, with chorismate serving as a major branch point intermediate metabolite. Yet, the regulation of their synthesis is still far from being understood. So far, only three enzymes in this pathway, namely, chorismate mutase of phenylalanine and tyrosine synthesis, tryptophan synthase of tryptophan biosynthesis and arogenate dehydratase of phenylalanine biosynthesis, proved experimentally to be allosterically regulated. The major biosynthesis route of phenylalanine in plants occurs via arogenate. Yet, recent studies suggest that an alternative route of phynylalanine biosynthesis via phenylpyruvate may also exist in plants, similarly to many microorganisms. Several transcription factors regulating the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both the shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid metabolism have also been recently identified in Arabidopsis and other plant species. PMID:22303258

  9. Analysis of Genes Involved in Biosynthesis of Coronafacic Acid, the Polyketide Component of the Phytotoxin Coronatine

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, Vidhya; Mitchell, Robin; Ullrich, Matthias; Bender, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Coronafacic acid (CFA) is the polyketide component of coronatine (COR), a phytotoxin produced by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. The genes involved in CFA biosynthesis are encoded by a single transcript which encompasses 19 kb of the COR gene cluster. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence was determined for a 4-kb region located at the 3′ end of the CFA biosynthetic gene cluster. Three open reading frames were identified and designated cfa8, cfa9, and tnp1; the predicted translation products of these genes showed relatedness to oxidoreductases, thioesterases, and transposases, respectively. The translational products of cfa8 and cfa9 were overproduced in Escherichia coli BL21; however, tnp1 was not translated in these experiments. Mutagenesis and complementation analysis indicated that cfa8 is required for the production of CFA and COR. Analysis of a cfa9 mutant indicated that this gene is dispensable for CFA and COR production but may increase the release of enzyme-bound products from the COR pathway; tnp1, however, had no obvious function in CFA or COR biosynthesis. A genetic strategy was used to produce CFA in a P. syringae strain which lacks the COR gene cluster; this approach will be useful in future studies designed to investigate biosynthetic products of the CFA gene cluster. PMID:9642184

  10. Biosynthesis of isoprenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavonoids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Joseph A; Yan, Yajun; Koffas, Mattheos AG

    2006-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology employs the controlled use of microorganisms for the production of synthetic chemicals or simple biomass that can further be used in a diverse array of applications that span the pharmaceutical, chemical and nutraceutical industries. Recent advances in metagenomics and in the incorporation of entire biosynthetic pathways into Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly expanded both the fitness and the repertoire of biochemicals that can be synthesized from this popular microorganism. Further, the availability of the S. cerevisiae entire genome sequence allows the application of systems biology approaches for improving its enormous biosynthetic potential. In this review, we will describe some of the efforts on using S. cerevisiae as a cell factory for the biosynthesis of high-value natural products that belong to the families of isoprenoids, flavonoids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. As natural products are increasingly becoming the center of attention of the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries, the use of S. cerevisiae for their production is only expected to expand in the future, further allowing the biosynthesis of novel molecular structures with unique properties. PMID:16719921

  11. Biosynthesis of the Unique Wall Teichoic Acid of Staphylococcus aureus Lineage ST395

    PubMed Central

    Winstel, Volker; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Holst, Otto; Xia, Guoqing; Peschel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major clonal lineages of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produce cell wall-anchored anionic poly-ribitol-phosphate (RboP) wall teichoic acids (WTA) substituted with d-Alanine and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The phylogenetically isolated S. aureus ST395 lineage has recently been found to produce a unique poly-glycerol-phosphate (GroP) WTA glycosylated with N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc). ST395 clones bear putative WTA biosynthesis genes on a novel genetic element probably acquired from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). We elucidated the ST395 WTA biosynthesis pathway and identified three novel WTA biosynthetic genes, including those encoding an α-O-GalNAc transferase TagN, a nucleotide sugar epimerase TagV probably required for generation of the activated sugar donor substrate for TagN, and an unusually short GroP WTA polymerase TagF. By using a panel of mutants derived from ST395, the GalNAc residues carried by GroP WTA were found to be required for infection by the ST395-specific bacteriophage Φ187 and to play a crucial role in horizontal gene transfer of S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). Notably, ectopic expression of ST395 WTA biosynthesis genes rendered normal S. aureus susceptible to Φ187 and enabled Φ187-mediated SaPI transfer from ST395 to regular S. aureus. We provide evidence that exchange of WTA genes and their combination in variable, mosaic-like gene clusters have shaped the evolution of staphylococci and their capacities to undergo horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:24713320

  12. Functions of the Clostridium acetobutylicium FabF and FabZ proteins in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The original anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway proposed by Goldfine and Bloch was based on in vivo labeling studies in Clostridium butyricum ATCC 6015 (now C. beijerinckii) but to date no dedicated unsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme has been identified in Clostridia. C. acetobutylicium synthesizes the same species of unsaturated fatty acids as E. coli, but lacks all of the known unsaturated fatty acid synthetic genes identified in E. coli and other bacteria. A possible explanation was that two enzymes of saturated fatty acid synthesis of C. acetobutylicium, FabZ and FabF might also function in the unsaturated arm of the pathway (a FabZ homologue is known to be an unsaturated fatty acid synthetic enzyme in enterococci). Results We report that the FabF homologue located within the fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster of C. acetobutylicium functions in synthesis of both unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. Expression of this protein in E. coli functionally replaced both the FabB and FabF proteins of the host in vivo and replaced E. coli FabB in a defined in vitro fatty acid synthesis system. In contrast the single C. acetobutylicium FabZ homologue, although able to functionally replace E. coli FabZ in vivo and in vitro, was unable to replace FabA, the key dehydratase-isomerase of E. coli unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in vivo and lacked isomerase activity in vitro. Conclusion Thus, C. acetobutylicium introduces the double of unsaturated fatty acids by use of a novel and unknown enzyme. PMID:19493359

  13. Biosynthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Tryptophan-14C in Cell-free Extracts of Pea Shoot Tips 1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Thomas C.; Shaner, Coralie A.

    1967-01-01

    A 2-step, 1-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic procedure for isolating indoleacetic acid (IAA) was developed and utilized in investigations of the biosynthesis of IAA from tryptophan-14C in cell-free extracts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoot tips. Identification of a 14C-product as IAA was by (a) co-chromatography of authentic IAA and 14C-product on thin-layer chromatography, and (b) gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography of authentic and presumptive IAA methyl esters. Dialysis of enzyme extracts and addition of α-ketoglutaric acid and pyridoxal phosphate to reaction mixtures resulted in approximately 2- to 3-fold increases in net yields of IAA over yields in non-dialyzed reaction mixtures which did not contain additives essential to a transaminase reaction of tryptophan. Addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to reaction mixtures further enhanced net biosynthesis of IAA. It is concluded that the formation of indolepyruvic acid and its subsequent decarboxylation probably are sequential reactions in the major pathway of IAA biosynthesis from tryptophan in cell-free extracts of Pisum shoot tips. Comparison of maximum net IAA biosynthesis in extracts of shoot tips of etiolated and light-grown dwarf and tall pea seedlings revealed an order, on a unit protein N basis, of: light-grown tall > light-grown dwarf > etiolated tall ≅ etiolated dwarf. It is concluded that the different rates of stem elongation among etiolated and light-grown dwarf and tall pea seedlings are correlated, in general, with differences in net IAA biosynthesis and sensitivity of the tissues to IAA. PMID:16656720

  14. Alkane production by the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Liang, Yue; Arai, Daichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Honda, Toru; Muto, Masaki; Kakunaka, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The production of alkanes in a marine cyanobacterium possessing the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway was achieved by introducing an exogenous alkane biosynthesis pathway. Cyanobacterial hydrocarbons are synthesized via two separate pathways: the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase/aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (AAR/ADO) pathway for the alkane biosynthesis and the α-olefin synthase (OLS) pathway for the α-olefin biosynthesis. Coexistence of these pathways has not yet been reported. In this study, the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was shown to produce α-olefins similar to those of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 via the α-olefin biosynthesis pathway. The production of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c was achieved by expressing the AAR/ADO pathway genes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The production yields of heptadecane in Synechococcus sp. NKBG15041c varied with the expression level of the aar and ado genes. The maximal yield of heptadecane was 4.2 ± 1.2 μg/g of dried cell weight in the transformant carrying a homologous promoter. Our results also suggested that the effective activation of ADO may be more important for the enhancement of alkane production by cyanobacteria.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Multiple Intermediate Alleles of the Key Genes Regulating Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Du, Junbo; Zhao, Baolin; Sun, Xin; Sun, Mengyuan; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhang, Shasha; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Most of the early identified brassinosteroid signaling and biosynthetic mutants are null mutants, exhibiting extremely dwarfed phenotypes and male sterility. These null mutants are usually unable to be directly transformed via a routinely used Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation system and therefore are less useful for genetic characterization of the brassinosteroid (BR)-related pathways. Identification of intermediate signaling mutants such as bri1–5 and bri1–9 has contributed drastically to the elucidation of BR signaling pathway using both genetic and biochemical approaches. However, intermediate mutants of key genes regulating BR biosynthesis have seldom been reported. Here we report identification of several intermediate BR biosynthesis mutants mainly resulted from leaky transcriptions due to the insertions of T-DNAs in the introns. These mutants are semi-dwarfed and fertile and capable to be transformed. These intermediate mutants could be useful tools for future discovery and analyses of novel components regulating BR biosynthesis and catabolism via genetic modifier screen. PMID:28138331

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in the production of hepatitis B virus particles.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hitomi; Nio, Yasunori; Akahori, Yuichi; Kim, Sulyi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Hijikata, Makoto

    2016-06-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) proliferates in hepatocytes after infection, but the host factors that contribute to the HBV lifecycle are poorly understood at the molecular level. We investigated whether fatty acid biosynthesis (FABS), which was recently reported to contribute to the genomic replication of hepatitis C virus, plays a role in HBV proliferation. We examined the effects of inhibitors of the enzymes in the FABS pathway on the HBV lifecycle by using recombinant HBV-producing cultured cells and found that the extracellular HBV DNA level, reflecting HBV particle production, was decreased by treatment with inhibitors suppressed the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids with little cytotoxicity. The reduced HBV DNA level was reversed when palmitic acid, which is the product of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during FABS, was used simultaneously with the inhibitor. We also observed that the amount of intracellular HBV DNA in the cells was increased by FAS inhibitor treatment, suggesting that FABS is associated with HBV particle production but not its genome replication. This suggests that FABS might be a potent target for anti-HBV drug with a mode of action different from current HBV therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosynthesis of Legionaminic Acid and Its Incorporation Into Glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Schoenhofen, Ian C; Young, N Martin; Gilbert, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Legionaminic acids are analogs of sialic acid that occur in cell surface glycoconjugates of several bacteria. Because legionaminic acids share the same stereochemistry as sialic acid but differ at C7 and C9, they are interesting analogs to probe the impact of varying exocyclic moieties (C7-C9) on biological activities such as susceptibilities to sialidases, interactions with Siglecs and immunogenicity. There are currently no reports on the bacterial enzymes that transfer legionaminic acids to these cell surface glycoconjugates, but some mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases display donor promiscuity and can use CMP-Leg5,7Ac2 efficiently enough to transfer Leg5,7Ac2 to their natural acceptor glycans. When the natural activity with CMP-Leg5,7Ac2 is significant but relatively low, an alternate strategy has been to engineer versions with improved activity to transfer Leg5,7Ac2. Importantly, we have found that some bacterial sialyltransferases are very efficient for transferring Leg5,7Ac2 to small synthetic glycans with various aglycones. The two mammalian sialyltransferases that have been tested so far (porcine ST3Gal1 and human ST6Gal1) were found to be more efficient than the bacterial sialyltransferases for the modification of glycoproteins. We provide a review of the sialyltransferases selected to modify different types of glycoconjugates with Leg5,7Ac2, including small synthetic acceptors, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. In the first part, we also propose an optimized biosynthetic pathway for in vitro preparation of the donor CMP-Leg5,7Ac2, based on enzymes selected from two bacteria that naturally produce legionaminic acid. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in water-stressed leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi.

    1989-01-01

    Although abscisic acid (ABA) was discovered 30 years ago, very little is known about its biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. Two hypotheses have been proposed: (i) a direct pathway involving only C-15 intermediates like farnesyl pyrophosphate, (ii) an indirect pathway involving C-40 intermediates like the xanthophylls. When {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was fed into greened bean plants, the {sup 14}C specific activity of ABA was always lower than those in xanthophylls, such as violaxanthin and lutein, regardless of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} chase periods. The ABA accumulation in green leaves was not affected by fluridone when plants were stressed once, but the {sup 14}C incorporation into ABA was inhibited to the same extent as those of xanthophylls. The incorporation of {sup 18}O into the ABA ring when violaxanthin was labeled by {sup 18}O in vivo via the violaxanthin cycle indicates that at least a portion of ABA was derived from {sup 18}O-labeled violaxanthin during water stress.

  20. Yeast glucose pathways converge on the transcriptional regulation of trehalose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Eva; Sameith, Katrin; Margaritis, Thanasis; Brabers, Nathalie; van de Pasch, Loes; Bakker, Linda V; van Leenen, Dik; Holstege, Frank Cp; Kemmeren, Patrick

    2012-06-14

    Cellular glucose availability is crucial for the functioning of most biological processes. Our understanding of the glucose regulatory system has been greatly advanced by studying the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but many aspects of this system remain elusive. To understand the organisation of the glucose regulatory system, we analysed 91 deletion mutants of the different glucose signalling and metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. In general, the mutations do not induce pathway-specific transcriptional responses. Instead, one main transcriptional response is discerned, which varies in direction to mimic either a high or a low glucose response. Detailed analysis uncovers established and new relationships within and between individual pathways and their members. In contrast to signalling components, metabolic components of the glucose regulatory system are transcriptionally more frequently affected. A new network approach is applied that exposes the hierarchical organisation of the glucose regulatory system. The tight interconnection between the different pathways of the glucose regulatory system is reflected by the main transcriptional response observed. Tps2 and Tsl1, two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the storage carbohydrate trehalose, are predicted to be the most downstream transcriptional components. Epistasis analysis of tps2Δ double mutants supports this prediction. Although based on transcriptional changes only, these results suggest that all changes in perceived glucose levels ultimately lead to a shift in trehalose biosynthesis.

  1. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  2. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  3. Diarylcoumarins inhibit mycolic acid biosynthesis and kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting FadD32

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sarah A.; Kawate, Tomohiko; Iwase, Noriaki; Shimizu, Motohisa; Clatworthy, Anne E.; Kazyanskaya, Edward; Sacchettini, James C.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Siddiqi, Noman A.; Minami, Shoko; Aquadro, John A.; Schmidt Grant, Sarah; Rubin, Eric J.; Hung, Deborah T.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes an enormous burden on global public health. New antibiotics are urgently needed to combat the global tuberculosis pandemic; however, the development of new small molecules is hindered by a lack of validated drug targets. Here, we describe the identification of a 4,6-diaryl-5,7-dimethyl coumarin series that kills M. tuberculosis by inhibiting fatty acid degradation protein D32 (FadD32), an enzyme that is required for biosynthesis of cell-wall mycolic acids. These substituted coumarin inhibitors directly inhibit the acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity of FadD32. They effectively block bacterial replication both in vitro and in animal models of tuberculosis, validating FadD32 as a target for antibiotic development that works in the same pathway as the established antibiotic isoniazid. Targeting new steps in well-validated biosynthetic pathways in antitubercular therapy is a powerful strategy that removes much of the usual uncertainty surrounding new targets and in vivo clinical efficacy, while circumventing existing resistance to established targets. PMID:23798446

  4. Biosynthesis of cyclopropyl long-chain fatty acids from cyclopropanecarboxylic acid by mammalian tissues in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, W. G.; Rising, T. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Radioactivity from cyclopropane[14C]carboxylic acid is incorporated into fatty acids in vitro by rat and guinea-pig adipose tissue, by rat liver slices and by the supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenate. 2. The labelled acids are different from endogenous straight-chain fatty acids, and evidence is produced that they consist of a cyclopropyl ring in the ω-position, the remainder of the chain being built up from C2 units (not derived from cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) in the normal way via the malonate pathway. 3. It is suggested that these unnatural acids have some metabolic effect related to the hypoglycaemic action of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid. PMID:5685874

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in the production of hepatitis B virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Hitomi; Nio, Yasunori; Akahori, Yuichi; Kim, Sulyi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Hijikata, Makoto

    2016-06-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) proliferates in hepatocytes after infection, but the host factors that contribute to the HBV lifecycle are poorly understood at the molecular level. We investigated whether fatty acid biosynthesis (FABS), which was recently reported to contribute to the genomic replication of hepatitis C virus, plays a role in HBV proliferation. We examined the effects of inhibitors of the enzymes in the FABS pathway on the HBV lifecycle by using recombinant HBV-producing cultured cells and found that the extracellular HBV DNA level, reflecting HBV particle production, was decreased by treatment with inhibitors suppressed the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids with little cytotoxicity. The reduced HBV DNA level was reversed when palmitic acid, which is the product of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during FABS, was used simultaneously with the inhibitor. We also observed that the amount of intracellular HBV DNA in the cells was increased by FAS inhibitor treatment, suggesting that FABS is associated with HBV particle production but not its genome replication. This suggests that FABS might be a potent target for anti-HBV drug with a mode of action different from current HBV therapy. -- Highlights: •Inhibitors of ACC1 and FAS but not SCD1 decreased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •Products of FABS, long chain fatty acids, increased production of extracellular HBV DNA. •FAS inhibitor increased intracellular levels of HBV DNA and HBcAg. •FABS was suggested to contribute to HBV particle production without significant relation with secretory pathway of the cells.

  6. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen

    2012-04-15

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of enzymes that catalyze the long sequential pathways of lignin biosynthesis during differentiation of secondary xylem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus sieboldii x Populus grandidentata).

    PubMed

    Sato, Kanna; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Mashino, Yoko; Yoshitomi, Kaori; Zhou, Jinmei; Kajita, Shinya; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated the spatial localization of enzymes that catalyze the sequential pathways of lignin biosynthesis in developing secondary xylem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus sieboldii Miq. x Populus grandidentata Michx.) using immunohistochemical techniques. The enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase in the common phenylpropanoid pathway, cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase in the specific lignin pathway, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) in the shikimate pathway and glutamine synthetase (GS) in the nitrogen reassimilation system were abundantly localized in the 6th to 9th wood fibers away from cambium; these wood fibers are likely undergoing the most intense lignification. Only weak immunolabeling of enzymes involved in the general phenylpropanoid and specific lignin pathways was detected in the cells near the cambium; lignification of these cells has likely been initiated after primary cell wall formation. In contrast, distinct localization of DAHPS and GS was observed around the cambium, which may be involved not only in lignin biosynthesis, but also in amino acid and protein synthesis, which are essential for cell survival. Our observations suggest that co-localization of enzymes related to the sequential shikimate, general phenylpropanoid and specific lignin branch pathways and to the nitrogen recycling system is associated with cell wall lignification of wood fibers during secondary xylem development.

  8. Contents of therapeutic metabolites in Swertia chirayita correlate with the expression profiles of multiple genes in corresponding biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Padhan, Jibesh Kumar; Kumar, Varun; Sood, Hemant; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-08-01

    Swertia chirayita, an endangered medicinal herb, contains three major secondary metabolites swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin, exhibiting valuable therapeutic traits. No information exists as of today on the biosynthesis of these metabolites in S. chirayita. The current study reports the expression profiling of swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin biosynthesis pathway genes and their correlation with the respective metabolites content in different tissues of S. chirayita. Root tissues of greenhouse grown plants contained the maximum amount of secoiridoids (swertiamarin, 2.8% of fr. wt and amarogentin, 0.1% of fr. wt), whereas maximum accumulation of mangiferin (1.0% of fr. wt) was observed in floral organs. Differential gene expression analysis and their subsequent principal component analysis unveiled ten genes (encoding HMGR, PMK, MVK, ISPD, ISPE, GES, G10H, 8HGO, IS and 7DLGT) of the secoiridoids biosynthesis pathway and five genes (encoding EPSPS, PAL, ADT, CM and CS) of mangiferin biosynthesis with elevated transcript amounts in relation to corresponding metabolite contents. Three genes of the secoiridoids biosynthesis pathway (encoding PMK, ISPD and IS) showed elevated levels (∼57-104 fold increase in roots), and EPSPS of mangiferin biosynthesis showed an about 117 fold increase in transcripts in leaf tissues of the greenhouse grown plants. The study does provide leads on potential candidate genes correlating with the metabolites biosynthesis in S. chirayita as an initiative towards its genetic improvement.

  9. Molecular characterization of a mutation affecting abscisic acid biosynthesis and consequently stomatal responses to humidity in an agriculturally important species

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A. M.; Sussmilch, Frances C.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Ross, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutants deficient in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been instrumental in determining not only the biosynthetic pathway for this hormone, but also its physiological role in land plants. The wilty mutant of Pisum sativum is one of the classical, well-studied ABA-deficient mutants; however, this mutant remains uncharacterized at a molecular level. Using a candidate gene approach, we show that the wilty mutation affects the xanthoxin dehydrogenase step in ABA biosynthesis. To date, this step has only been represented by mutants in the ABA2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Functional ABA biosynthesis appears to be critical for normal stomatal responses to changes in humidity in angiosperms, with wilty mutant plants having no increase in foliar ABA levels in response to a doubling in vapour pressure deficit, and no closure of stomata. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABA2 gene family from diverse land plants indicates that an ABA-biosynthesis-specific short-chain dehydrogenase (ABA2) evolved in the earliest angiosperms. The relatively recent origin of specificity in this step has important implications for both the evolution of ABA biosynthesis and action in land plants. PMID:26216469

  10. Identification and physiological characterization of phosphatidic acid phosphatase enzymes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Comba, Santiago; Menendez-Bravo, Simón; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo

    2013-01-29

    Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, EC 3.1.3.4) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol (DAG), the lipid precursor for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Despite the importance of PAP activity in TAG producing bacteria, studies to establish its role in lipid metabolism have been so far restricted only to eukaryotes. Considering the increasing interest of bacterial TAG as a potential source of raw material for biofuel production, we have focused our studies on the identification and physiological characterization of the putative PAP present in the TAG producing bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. We have identified two S. coelicolor genes, named lppα (SCO1102) and lppβ (SCO1753), encoding for functional PAP proteins. Both enzymes mediate, at least in part, the formation of DAG for neutral lipid biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of lppα and lppβ genes in E. coli resulted in enhanced PAP activity in the membrane fractions of the recombinant strains and concomitantly in higher levels of DAG. In addition, the expression of these genes in yeast complemented the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of the PAP deficient strain GHY58 (dpp1lpp1pah1). In S. coelicolor, disruption of either lppα or lppβ had no effect on TAG accumulation; however, the simultaneous mutation of both genes provoked a drastic reduction in de novo TAG biosynthesis as well as in total TAG content. Consistently, overexpression of Lppα and Lppβ in the wild type strain of S. coelicolor led to a significant increase in TAG production. The present study describes the identification of PAP enzymes in bacteria and provides further insights on the genetic basis for prokaryotic oiliness. Furthermore, this finding completes the whole set of enzymes required for de novo TAG biosynthesis pathway in S. coelicolor. Remarkably, the overexpression of these PAPs in Streptomyces bacteria contributes to a higher productivity of this single cell oil. Altogether, these

  11. Neoproterozoic Oxygenation of Earth Surface Environments Reflected in the Late Evolution of the O2-Dependent Vitamin B12 Biosynthesis Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Anbar, A.

    2008-12-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence for a significant rise of O2 in the Earth's atmosphere ~2.4 Ga. A second oxygenation event in the Neoproterozoic is not as well constrained. These changes in environmental redox affected the abundances of bioessential elements. Trace elements such as Co, Fe, and Ni were likely favored in the early evolution of metalloenzymes, prior to the first oxidation event. Consistent with this expectation, vitamin B12 is a Co-containing biomolecule whose biosynthesis is thought to have evolved prior to the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the first rise in O2. However, biochemical characterization of the many enzymes involved in B12 biosynthesis has revealed two distinct pathways: an O2-independent pathway and an O2-dependant pathway. The major difference between these pathways involves the timing of the insertion of Co. We examined the amino acid sequences of enzymes in the B12 biosynthesis pathway from a set of 100 phylogenetically diverse microbial genomes, focusing on enzymes exclusive to each pathway as well as enzymes shared by both. Molecular clock and phylogenetic analyses were performed on alignments of the sequences obtained from these study genomes. This approach focused on functional genes rather than the phylogeny of microbes in an attempt to understand the evolution of the pathway itself, rather than its presence in individual phylogenetic groups. Clear differences in age are apparent between representatives of each pathway. The O2-independent pathway and enzymes shared in both pathways show the most ancient last common ancestors. In contrast, the enzymes associated exclusively with the O2-dependent pathway diverged from a common ancestor less than a billion years ago. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these enzymes were recruited from other biochemical pathways. From these results it seems likely that the evolution of the O2-dependent pathway occurred long after the initial evolution of the B12 biosynthesis. This

  12. A new alternative non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in eubacteria and plants.

    PubMed

    Paseshnichenko, V A

    1998-02-01

    Data concerning the discovery of an alternative non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis leading to isopentenyl diphosphate formation are reviewed. This pathway has been discovered in experiments with several eubacteria producing triterpenoids of the hopane series. 13C-labeled acetate, glucose, and triose phosphates were used as precursors. The 13C-labeling patterns in isoprenoids were studied by 13C-NMR spectrometry. In eubacteria the universal C5 precursor--isopentenyl diphosphate--did not appear to form via the classical acetate/mevalonate pathway, but via a novel glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate pathway. It is postulated that the condensation of the C2 unit formed as a result of pyruvate decarboxylation with the C3 unit (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) and the next transposition leads to the formation of the branched C5 precursor--isopentenyl diphosphate. In Scenedesmus obliquus not only all plastid isoprenoids (carotenoids and prenyl side chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone-9) were formed via this novel pathway, but also the non-plastid cytoplasmic sterols. In higher plants the plastid isoprenoids were formed via the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate pathway, while the cytoplasmic sterols were formed via the acetate/mevalonate pathway.

  13. Arabidopsis Chlorophyll Biosynthesis: An Essential Balance between the Methylerythritol Phosphate and Tetrapyrrole Pathways[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se; Schlicke, Hagen; Van Ree, Kalie; Karvonen, Kristine; Subramaniam, Anant; Richter, Andreas; Grimm, Bernhard; Braam, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis, is composed of a chlorin ring and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP)–derived isoprenoid, which are generated by the tetrapyrrole and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthesis pathways, respectively. Although a functional MEP pathway is essential for plant viability, the underlying basis of the requirement has been unclear. We hypothesized that MEP pathway inhibition is lethal because a reduction in GGPP availability results in a stoichiometric imbalance in tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll precursors, which can cause deadly photooxidative stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, lethality of MEP pathway inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana by fosmidomycin (FSM) is light dependent, and toxicity of MEP pathway inhibition is reduced by genetic and chemical impairment of the tetrapyrrole pathway. In addition, FSM treatment causes a transient accumulation of chlorophyllide and transcripts associated with singlet oxygen-induced stress. Furthermore, exogenous provision of the phytol molecule reduces FSM toxicity when the phytol can be modified for chlorophyll incorporation. These data provide an explanation for FSM toxicity and thereby provide enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of FSM resistance. This insight into MEP pathway inhibition consequences underlines the risk plants undertake to synthesize chlorophyll and suggests the existence of regulation, possibly involving chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling, that may monitor and maintain balance of chlorophyll precursor synthesis. PMID:24363312

  14. A mutation of EPT1 (SELENOI) underlies a new disorder of Kennedy pathway phospholipid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mustafa Y.; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Futaisi, Amna; Chioza, Barry A.; Pedro Fernandez-Murray, J.; Self, Jay E.; Salter, Claire G.; Harlalka, Gaurav V.; Rawlins, Lettie E.; Al-Zuhaibi, Sana; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Rashdi, Fatma; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R.; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A.; Silver, David L.; McMaster, Christopher R.; Crosby, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in genes involved in lipid metabolism have increasingly been associated with various subtypes of hereditary spastic paraplegia, a highly heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative motor neuron disorders characterized by spastic paraparesis. Here, we report an unusual autosomal recessive neurodegenerative condition, best classified as a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia, associated with mutation in the ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1 (EPT1) gene (now known as SELENOI), responsible for the final step in Kennedy pathway forming phosphatidylethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine. Phosphatidylethanolamine is a glycerophospholipid that, together with phosphatidylcholine, constitutes more than half of the total phospholipids in eukaryotic cell membranes. We determined that the mutation defined dramatically reduces the enzymatic activity of EPT1, thereby hindering the final step in phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. Additionally, due to central nervous system inaccessibility we undertook quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine levels and species in patient and control blood samples as an indication of liver phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. Although this revealed alteration to levels of specific phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl species in patients, overall phosphatidylethanolamine levels were broadly unaffected indicating that in blood EPT1 inactivity may be compensated for, in part, via alternate biochemical pathways. These studies define the first human disorder arising due to defective CDP-ethanolamine biosynthesis and provide new insight into the role of Kennedy pathway components in human neurological function. PMID:28052917

  15. A mutation of EPT1 (SELENOI) underlies a new disorder of Kennedy pathway phospholipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mustafa Y; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Futaisi, Amna; Chioza, Barry A; Pedro Fernandez-Murray, J; Self, Jay E; Salter, Claire G; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Rawlins, Lettie E; Al-Zuhaibi, Sana; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Rashdi, Fatma; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A; Silver, David L; Baple, Emma L; McMaster, Christopher R; Crosby, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in genes involved in lipid metabolism have increasingly been associated with various subtypes of hereditary spastic paraplegia, a highly heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative motor neuron disorders characterized by spastic paraparesis. Here, we report an unusual autosomal recessive neurodegenerative condition, best classified as a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia, associated with mutation in the ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1 (EPT1) gene (now known as SELENOI), responsible for the final step in Kennedy pathway forming phosphatidylethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine. Phosphatidylethanolamine is a glycerophospholipid that, together with phosphatidylcholine, constitutes more than half of the total phospholipids in eukaryotic cell membranes. We determined that the mutation defined dramatically reduces the enzymatic activity of EPT1, thereby hindering the final step in phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. Additionally, due to central nervous system inaccessibility we undertook quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine levels and species in patient and control blood samples as an indication of liver phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. Although this revealed alteration to levels of specific phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl species in patients, overall phosphatidylethanolamine levels were broadly unaffected indicating that in blood EPT1 inactivity may be compensated for, in part, via alternate biochemical pathways. These studies define the first human disorder arising due to defective CDP-ethanolamine biosynthesis and provide new insight into the role of Kennedy pathway components in human neurological function.

  16. Genome survey sequencing provides clues into glucosinolate biosynthesis and flowering pathway evolution in allotetrapolyploid Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica juncea is an economically important vegetable crop in China, oil crop in India, condiment crop in Europe and selected for canola quality recently in Canada and Australia. B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) is an allotetraploid derived from interspecific hybridization between B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16, BB), followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. Results Comparative genome analysis by genome survey sequence (GSS) of allopolyploid B. juncea with B. rapa was carried out based on high-throughput sequencing approaches. Over 28.35 Gb of GSS data were used for comparative analysis of B. juncea and B. rapa, producing 45.93% reads mapping to the B. rapa genome with a high ratio of single-end reads. Mapping data suggested more structure variation (SV) in the B. juncea genome than in B. rapa. We detected 2,921,310 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high heterozygosity and 113,368 SVs, including 1-3 bp Indels, between B. juncea and B. rapa. Non-synonymous polymorphisms in glucosinolate biosynthesis genes may account for differences in glucosinolate biosynthesis and glucosinolate components between B. juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, we identified distinctive vernalization-dependent and photoperiod-dependent flowering pathways coexisting in allopolyploid B. juncea, suggesting contribution of these pathways to adaptation for survival during polyploidization. Conclusions Taken together, we proposed that polyploidization has allowed for accelerated evolution of the glucosinolate biosynthesis and flowering pathways in B. juncea that likely permit the phenotypic variation observed in the crop. PMID:24502855

  17. Engineering rTCA pathway and C4-dicarboxylate transporter for L-malic acid production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Wang, Yuancai; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Guipeng; Liu, Liming

    2017-02-22

    L-Malic acid is an important component of a vast array of food additives, antioxidants, disincrustants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Here, we presented a pathway optimization strategy and a transporter modification approach to reconstruct the L-malic acid biosynthesis pathway and transport system, respectively. First, pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) from Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were combinatorially overexpressed to construct the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway for L-malic acid biosynthesis. Second, the L-malic acid transporter (Spmae) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was engineered by removing the ubiquitination motification to enhance the L-malic acid efflux system. Finally, the L-malic acid pathway was optimized by controlling gene expression levels, and the final L-malic acid concentration, yield, and productivity were up to 30.25 g L(-1), 0.30 g g(-1), and 0.32 g L(-1) h(-1) in the resulting strain W4209 with CaCO3 as a neutralizing agent, respectively. In addition, these corresponding parameters of pyruvic acid remained at 30.75 g L(-1), 0.31 g g(-1), and 0.32 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The metabolic engineering strategy used here will be useful for efficient production of L-malic acid and other chemicals.

  18. Ketopremithramycins and ketomithramycins, four new aureolic acid-type compounds obtained upon inactivation of two genes involved in the biosynthesis of the deoxysugar moieties of the antitumor drug mithramycin by Streptomyces argillaceus, reveal novel insights into post-PKS tailoring steps of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Remsing, Lily L; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Gonzalez, Ana; Künzel, Eva; Rix, Uwe; Braña, Alfredo F; Bearden, Daniel W; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, Jose A; Rohr, Jürgen

    2002-02-27

    Mithramycin is an aureolic acid-type antimicrobial and antitumor agent produced by Streptomyces argillaceus. Modifying post-polyketide synthase (PKS) tailoring enzymes involved in the production of mithramycin is an effective way of gaining further information regarding the late steps of its biosynthetic pathway. In addition, new "unnatural" natural products of the aureolic acid-type class are likely to be produced. The role of two such post-PKS tailoring enzymes, encoded by mtmC and mtmTIII, was investigated, and four novel aureolic acid class drugs, two premithramycin-type molecules and two mithramycin derivatives, were isolated from mutant strains constructed by insertional gene inactivation of either of these two genes. From data bank comparisons, the corresponding proteins MtmC and MtmTIII were believed to act as a C-methyltransferase involved in the production of the D-mycarose (sugar E) of mithramycin and as a ketoreductase seemingly involved in the biosynthesis of the mithramycin aglycon, respectively. However, gene inactivation and analysis of the accumulated products revealed that both genes encode enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of the D-mycarose building block. Furthermore, the inactivation of MtmC seems to affect the ketoreductase responsible for 4-ketoreduction of sugar C, a D-olivose. Instead of obtaining premithramycin and mithramycin derivatives with a modified E-sugar upon inactivation of mtmC, compounds were obtained that completely lack the E-sugar moiety and that possess an unexpected 4-ketosugar moiety instead of the D-olivose at the beginning of the lower deoxysaccharide chain. The inactivation of mtmTIII led to the accumulation of 4E-ketomithramycin, showing that this ketoreductase is responsible for the 4-ketoreduction of the D-mycarose moiety. The new compounds of the mutant strains, 4A-ketopremithramycin A2, 4A-keto-9-demethylpremithramycin A2, 4C-keto-demycarosylmithramycin, and 4E-ketomithramycin, indicate surprising substrate

  19. Ketopremithramycins and Ketomithramycins, Four New Aureolic Acid-Type Compounds Obtained upon Inactivation of Two Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Deoxysugar Moieties of the Antitumor Drug Mithramycin by Streptomyces Argillaceus, Reveal Novel Insights into Post-PKS Tailoring Steps of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Remsing, Lily L.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Gonzalez, Ana; Künzel, Eva; Rix, Uwe; Braña, Alfredo F.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, Jose A.; Rohr, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Mithramycin is an aureolic acid-type antimicrobial and antitumor agent produced by Streptomyces argillaceus. Modifying post-polyketide synthase (PKS) tailoring enzymes involved in the production of mithramycin is an effective way of gaining further information regarding the late steps of its biosynthetic pathway. In addition, new “unnatural” natural products of the aureolic acid-type class are likely to be produced. The role of two such post-PKS tailoring enzymes, encoded by mtmC and mtmTIII, was investigated, and four novel aureolic acid class drugs, two premithramycin-type molecules and two mithramycin derivatives, were isolated from mutant strains constructed by insertional gene inactivation of either of these two genes. From data bank comparisons, the corresponding proteins MtmC and MtmTIII were believed to act as a C-methyltransferase involved in the production of the D-mycarose (sugar E) of mithramycin and as a ketoreductase seemingly involved in the biosynthesis of the mithramycin aglycon, respectively. However, gene inactivation and analysis of the accumulated products revealed that both genes encode enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of the D-mycarose building block. Furthermore, the inactivation of MtmC seems to affect the ketoreductase responsible for 4-ketoreduction of sugar C, a D-olivose. Instead of obtaining premithramycin and mithramycin derivatives with a modified E-sugar upon inactivation of mtmC, compounds were obtained that completely lack the E-sugar moiety and that possess an unexpected 4-ketosugar moiety instead of the D-olivose at the beginning of the lower deoxysaccharide chain. The inactivation of mtmTIII led to the accumulation of 4E-ketomithramycin, showing that this ketoreductase is responsible for the 4-ketoreduction of the D-mycarose moiety. The new compounds of the mutant strains, 4A-ketopremithramycin A2, 4A-keto-9-demethylpremithramycin A2, 4C-keto-demycarosylmithramycin, and 4E-ketomithramycin, indicate surprising

  20. Analysis of RegA, a pathway-specific regulator of the friulimicin biosynthesis in Actinoplanes friuliensis.

    PubMed

    Nolden, Susanne; Wagner, Nina; Biener, Richard; Schwartz, Dirk

    2009-03-10

    The rare actinomycete Actinoplanes friuliensis is the producer of the lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin, which is active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Enterococcus spec. and Staphylococcus aureus (MRE, MRSA) strains. Friulimicin consists of a decapeptide core and an acyl residue linked to an exocyclic amino acid. The complete biosynthetic gene cluster consisting of 24 open reading frames was characterized by sequence analysis and the transcription units were subsequently determined by RT-PCR experiments. In addition to several genes for biosynthesis, self-resistance and transport four different regulatory genes (regA, regB, regC and regD) were identified within the cluster. To analyse the role of the pathway-specific regulatory protein RegA in the friulimicin biosynthesis, the corresponding gene was inactivated resulting in friulimicin non-producing mutants. Furthermore, several protein-binding sites within the friulimicin gene cluster were identified by gel retardation assays. By real-time RT-PCR experiments, it was shown that the majority of the friulimicin biosynthetic genes is positively regulated by RegA.

  1. The De-Etiolated 1 Homolog of Arabidopsis Modulates the ABA Signaling Pathway and ABA Biosynthesis in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Guangchao; Zou, Hanyan; Zhang, Yuchan; Xiang, Zheng; Huang, Junli; Luo, Li; Wang, Chunping; Lei, Kairong; Li, Xianyong; Song, Deming; Din, Ahmad Ud; Wang, Guixue

    2016-06-01

    DEETIOLATED1 (DET1) plays a critical role in developmental and environmental responses in many plants. To date, the functions of OsDET1 in rice (Oryza sativa) have been largely unknown. OsDET1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DET1 Here, we found that OsDET1 is essential for maintaining normal rice development. The repression of OsDET1 had detrimental effects on plant development, and leaded to contradictory phenotypes related to abscisic acid (ABA) in OsDET1 interference (RNAi) plants. We found that OsDET1 is involved in modulating ABA signaling in rice. OsDET1 RNAi plants exhibited an ABA hypersensitivity phenotype. Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we determined that OsDET1 interacts physically with DAMAGED-SPECIFIC DNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsDDB1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC10 (COP10); DET1- and DDB1-ASSOCIATED1 binds to the ABA receptors OsPYL5 and OsDDB1. We found that the degradation of OsPYL5 was delayed in OsDET1 RNAi plants. These findings suggest that OsDET1 deficiency disturbs the COP10-DET1-DDB1 complex, which is responsible for ABA receptor (OsPYL) degradation, eventually leading to ABA sensitivity in rice. Additionally, OsDET1 also modulated ABA biosynthesis, as ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in OsDET1 RNAi plants and promoted in OsDET1-overexpressing transgenic plants. In conclusion, our data suggest that OsDET1 plays an important role in maintaining normal development in rice and mediates the cross talk between ABA biosynthesis and ABA signaling pathways in rice. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Proposed pathway for biosynthesis of the S-layer glycoprotein of Bacillus alvei.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E; Messner, P; Allmeier, G; König, H

    1993-01-01

    The outer surface of the murein sacculus of the eubacterium Bacillus alvei is covered by a surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein. The glycan chain of this S-layer glycoprotein consists of trisaccharide repeating units with ManNAc, Gal, and Glc as constituents. From cell extracts of B. alvei, nucleotide-activated derivatives of ManNAc, Gal, Glc, and GlcNAc were isolated. Furthermore, GDP- and dolichyl-activated oligosaccharides were obtained. On the basis of the isolated putative glycoprotein precursors, a pathway for the biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide chain is proposed. PMID:8331079

  3. Pathways of formation of pigment forms at the terminal photobiochemical stage of chlorophyll biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O B; Litvin, F F

    2009-12-01

    The pathways of transformation of the chromophore of pigment-protein complexes have been studied at the terminal light-dependent stage of chlorophyll biosynthesis in plant leaves. The overall scheme of the sequence of photochemical and dark reactions of the pigment chromophore initiated by the reaction of photochemical hydration of a molecule of the precursor (protochlorophyllide) is presented. Schemes of the transformations of the components of the photoactive protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase complex are discussed. Data are presented of features of the process at different stages of the formation of the pigment apparatus of plants.

  4. An Examination of the Carbon Isotope Effects Associated with Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, James H.; O'Brien, Diane M.; Emerson, David; Sun, Henry; McDonald, Gene D.; Salgado, Antonio; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2006-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here we demonstrated that reactions involved in amino acid biosynthesis can be used to distinguish amino acids formed by life from those formed by nonbiological processes. The unique patterns of δ13C imprinted by life on amino acids produced a biological bias. We also showed that, by applying discriminant function analysis to the δ13C value of a pool of amino acids formed by biological activity, it was possible to identify key aspects of intermediary carbon metabolism in the microbial world. In fact, microorganisms examined in this study could be placed within one of three metabolic groups: (1) heterotrophs that grow by oxidizing compounds containing three or more carbon-to-carbon bonds (fermenters and organotrophs), (2) autotrophs that grow by taking up carbon dioxide (chemolitotrophs and phototrophs), and (3) acetoclastic microbes that grow by assimilation of formaldehyde or acetate (methylotrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and acetotrophs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that cryptoendolithic communities from Antarctica grouped most closely with the autotrophs, which indicates that the dominant metabolic pathways in these communities are likely those utilized for CO2 fixation. We propose that this technique can be used to determine the dominant metabolic types in a community and reveal the overall flow of carbon in a complex ecosystem.

  5. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis.

  6. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  7. Endurance Exercise and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplementation Up-Regulate CYP17A1 and Stimulate Testosterone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting. PMID:24223995

  8. BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINOTRANSFERASE4 Is Part of the Chain Elongation Pathway in the Biosynthesis of Methionine-Derived Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Joachim; Knill, Tanja; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Binder, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    As part of our analysis of branched-chain amino acid metabolism in plants, we analyzed the function of Arabidopsis thaliana BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINOTRANSFERASE4 (BCAT4). Recombinant BCAT4 showed high efficiency with Met and its derivatives and the corresponding 2-oxo acids, suggesting its participation in the chain elongation pathway of Met-derived glucosinolate biosynthesis. This was substantiated by in vivo analysis of two BCAT4 T-DNA knockout mutants, in which Met-derived aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation is reduced by ∼50%. The increase in free Met and S-methylmethionine levels in these mutants, together with in vitro substrate specificity, strongly implicate BCAT4 in catalysis of the initial deamination of Met to 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate. BCAT4 transcription is induced by wounding and is predominantly observed in the phloem. BCAT4 transcript accumulation also follows a diurnal rhythm, and green fluorescent protein tagging experiments and subcellular protein fractions show that BCAT4 is located in the cytosol. The assignment of BCAT4 to the Met chain elongation pathway documents the close evolutionary relationship of this pathway to Leu biosynthesis. In addition to BCAT4, the enzyme methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 has been recruited for the Met chain elongation pathway from a gene family involved in Leu formation. This suggests that the two pathways have a common evolutionary origin. PMID:17056707

  9. Iron-dependent remodeling of fungal metabolic pathways associated with ferrichrome biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Alexandre; Labbé, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe excretes and accumulates the hydroxamate-type siderophore ferrichrome. The sib1(+) and sib2(+) genes encode, respectively, a siderophore synthetase and an l-ornithine N(5)-oxygenase that participate in ferrichrome biosynthesis. In the present report, we demonstrate that sib1(+) and sib2(+) are repressed by the GATA-type transcriptional repressor Fep1 in response to high levels of iron. We further found that the loss of Fep1 results in increased ferrichrome production. We showed that a sib1Delta sib2Delta mutant strain exhibits a severe growth defect on iron-poor media. We determined that two metabolic pathways are involved in biosynthesis of ornithine, an obligatory precursor of ferrichrome. Ornithine is produced by hydrolysis of arginine by the Car1 and Car3 proteins. Although car3(+) was constitutively expressed, car1(+) transcription levels were repressed upon exposure to iron, with a concomitant decrease of Car1 arginase activity. Ornithine is also generated by transformation of glutamate, which itself is produced by two separate biosynthetic pathways which are transcriptionally regulated by iron in an opposite fashion. In one pathway, the glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh1, which produces glutamate from 2-ketoglutarate, was repressed under iron-replete conditions in a Fep1-dependent manner. The other pathway involves two coupled enzymes, glutamine synthetase Gln1 and Fe-S cluster-containing glutamate synthase Glt1, which were both repressed under iron-limiting conditions but were expressed under iron-replete conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that under conditions of iron deprivation, yeast remodels metabolic pathways linked to ferrichrome synthesis in order to limit iron utilization without compromising siderophore production and its ability to sequester iron from the environment.

  10. The gene cluster for chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 includes novel shikimate pathway homologues and a monomodular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    He, J; Magarvey, N; Piraee, M; Vining, L C

    2001-10-01

    Regions of the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 chromosome flanking pabAB, an amino-deoxychorismate synthase gene needed for chloramphenicol (Cm) production, were examined for involvement in biosynthesis of the antibiotic. Three of four ORFs in the sequence downstream of pabAB resembled genes involved in the shikimate pathway. BLASTX searches of GenBank showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of ORF3 and ORF4 were similar to proteins encoded by monofunctional genes for chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase, respectively, while the sequence of the ORF5 product resembled deoxy-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase, the enzyme that initiates the shikimate pathway. A relationship to Cm biosynthesis was indicated by sequence similarities between the ORF6 product and membrane proteins associated with Cm export. BLASTX searches of GenBank for matches with the translated sequence of ORF1 in chromosomal DNA immediately upstream of pabAB did not detect products relevant to Cm biosynthesis. However, the presence of Cm biosynthesis genes in a 7.5 kb segment of the chromosome beyond ORF1 was inferred when conjugal transfer of the DNA into a blocked S. venezuelae mutant restored Cm production. Deletions in the 7.5 kb segment of the wild-type chromosome eliminated Cm production, confirming the presence of Cm biosynthesis genes in this region. Sequencing and analysis located five ORFs, one of which (ORF8) was deduced from BLAST searches of GenBank, and from characteristic motifs detected in alignments of its deduced amino acid sequence, to be a monomodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase. GenBank searches did not identify ORF7, but matched the translated sequences of ORFs 9, 10 and 11 with short-chain ketoreductases, the ATP-binding cassettes of ABC transporters, and coenzyme A ligases, respectively. As has been shown for ORF2, disrupting ORF3, ORF7, ORF8 or ORF9 blocked Cm production.

  11. Hardening with salicylic acid induces concentration-dependent changes in abscisic acid biosynthesis of tomato under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Edit; Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Ágnes; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-07-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in the control of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis is controversial although both plant growth regulators may accumulate in tissues under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Hardening of tomato plants to salinity stress with 10(-4)M SA ("high SA") resulted in an up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, zeaxanthin epoxidase (SlZEP1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SlNCED1) and aldehyde oxidases (SlAO1 and SlAO2) in the roots and led to ABA accumulation both in root and leaf tissues. In plants pre-treated with lower concentration of SA (10(-7)M, "low SA"), the up-regulation of SlNCED1 in the roots promoted ABA accumulation in the root tissues but the hormone concentration remained at control level in the leaves. Salt stress induced by 100mM NaCl reduced the transcript abundance of ABA biosynthetic genes and inhibited SlAO activity in plants hardened with "high SA", but the tissues maintained root ABA level over the untreated control. The combined effect of "high SA" and ABA under salt stress led to partially recovered photosynthetic activity, reduced ethylene production in root apices, and restored root growth, which is one of the main features of salt tolerance. Unlike "high SA", hardening with "low SA" had no influence on ethylene production, and led to reduced elongation of roots in plants exposed to 100mM NaCl. The up-regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases SlCCD1A and SlCCD1B by SA, which produce apocarotenoids, may open new pathways in SA sensing and signalling processes.

  12. Dissecting Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Involved in Cuticle Formation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fuqiang; Brosché, Mikael; Lehtonen, Mikko T; Amiryousefi, Ali; Xu, Enjun; Punkkinen, Matleena; Valkonen, Jari P T; Fujii, Hiroaki; Overmyer, Kirk

    2016-06-06

    The cuticle is the outer physical barrier of aerial plant surfaces and an important interaction point between plants and the environment. Many environmental stresses affect cuticle formation, yet the regulatory pathways involved remain undefined. We used a genetics and gene expression analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana to define an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling loop that positively regulates cuticle formation via the core ABA signaling pathway, including the PYR/PYL receptors, PP2C phosphatase, and SNF1-Related Protein Kinase (SnRK) 2.2/SnRK2.3/SnRK2.6. Downstream of the SnRK2 kinases, cuticle formation was not regulated by the ABA-responsive element-binding transcription factors but rather by DEWAX, MYB16, MYB94, and MYB96. Additionally, low air humidity increased cuticle formation independent of the core ABA pathway and cell death/reactive oxygen species signaling attenuated expression of cuticle-biosynthesis genes. In Physcomitrella patens, exogenous ABA suppressed expression of cuticle-related genes, whose Arabidopsis orthologs were ABA-induced. Hence, the mechanisms regulating cuticle formation are conserved but sophisticated in land plants. Signaling specifically related to cuticle deficiency was identified to play a major role in the adaptation of ABA signaling pathway mutants to increased humidity and in modulating their immunity to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis. These results define a cuticle-specific downstream branch in the ABA signaling pathway that regulates responses to the external environment.

  13. Pantothenic Acid Biosynthesis in the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii: a Target for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mageed, Sarmad N.; Cunningham, Fraser; Hung, Alvin Wei; Silvestre, Hernani Leonardo; Wen, Shijun; Blundell, Tom L.; Abell, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a major food pathogen and neglected parasitic infection that causes eye disease, birth defects, and fetal abortion and plays a role as an opportunistic infection in AIDS. In this study, we investigated pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) biosynthesis in T. gondii. Genes encoding the full repertoire of enzymes for pantothenate synthesis and subsequent metabolism to coenzyme A were identified and are expressed in T. gondii. A panel of inhibitors developed to target Mycobacterium tuberculosis pantothenate synthetase were tested and found to exhibit a range of values for inhibition of T. gondii growth. Two inhibitors exhibited lower effective concentrations than the currently used toxoplasmosis drug pyrimethamine. The inhibition was specific for the pantothenate pathway, as the effect of the pantothenate synthetase inhibitors was abrogated by supplementation with pantothenate. Hence, T. gondii encodes and expresses the enzymes for pantothenate synthesis, and this pathway is essential for parasite growth. These promising findings increase our understanding of growth and metabolism in this important parasite and highlight pantothenate synthetase as a new drug target. PMID:25049241

  14. Co-culture engineering for microbial biosynthesis of 3-amino-benzoic acid in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    3-amino-benzoic acid (3AB) is an important building block molecule for production of a wide range of important compounds such as natural products with various biological activities. In the present study, we established a microbial biosynthetic system for de novo 3AB production from the simple substrate glucose. First, the active 3AB biosynthetic pathway was reconstituted in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which resulted in the production of 1.5 mg/L 3AB. In an effort to improve the production, an E. coli-E. coli co-culture system was engineered to modularize the biosynthetic pathway between an upstream strain and an downstream strain. Specifically, the upstream biosynthetic module was contained in a fixed E. coli strain, whereas a series of E. coli strains were engineered to accommodate the downstream biosynthetic module and screened for optimal production performance. The best co-culture system was found to improve 3AB production by 15 fold, compared to the mono-culture approach. Further engineering of the co-culture system resulted in biosynthesis of 48 mg/L 3AB. Our results demonstrate co-culture engineering can be a powerful new approach in the broad field of metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tracing metabolic pathways of lipid biosynthesis in ectomycorrhizal fungi from position-specific 13C-labelling in glucose.

    PubMed

    Scandellari, Francesca; Hobbie, Erik A; Ouimette, Andrew P; Stucker, Valerie K

    2009-12-01

    Six position-specific (13)C-labelled isotopomers of glucose were supplied to the ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus pungens and Tricholoma flavovirens. From the resulting distribution of (13)C among fungal PLFAs, the overall order and contribution of each glucose atom to fatty acid (13)C enrichment was: C6 (approximately 31%) > C5 (approximately 25%) > C1 (approximately 18%) > C2 (approximately 18%) > C3 (approximately 8%) > C4 (approximately 1%). These data were used to parameterize a metabolic model of the relative fluxes from glucose degradation to lipid synthesis. Our data revealed that a higher amount of carbon is directed to glycolysis than to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (60% and 40% respectively) and that a significant part flows through these pathways more than once (73%) due to the reversibility of some glycolysis reactions. Surprisingly, 95% of carbon cycled through glyoxylate prior to incorporation into lipids, possibly to consume the excess of acetyl-CoA produced during fatty acid turnover. Our approach provides a rigorous framework for analysing lipid biosynthesis in fungi. In addition, this approach could ultimately improve the interpretation of isotopic patterns at natural abundance in field studies.

  16. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/. PMID:27131375

  17. Unravelling the architecture and dynamics of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis pathways using metabolite correlation networks.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Kieu-Oanh; Jamali, Arash; Lanoue, Arnaud; Gontier, Eric; Dauwe, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    The tropane alkaloid spectrum in Solanaceae is highly variable within and between species. Little is known about the topology and the coordination of the biosynthetic pathways leading to the variety of tropine and pseudotropine derived esters in the alkaloid spectrum, or about the metabolic dynamics induced by tropane alkaloid biosynthesis stimulating conditions. A good understanding of the metabolism, including all ramifications, is however necessary for the development of strategies to increase the abundance of pharmacologically interesting compounds such as hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The present study explores the tropane alkaloid metabolic pathways in an untargeted approach involving a correlation-based network analysis. Using GC-MS metabolite profiling, the variation and co-variation among tropane alkaloids and primary metabolites was monitored in 60 Datura innoxia Mill. individuals, of which half were exposed to tropane alkaloid biosynthesis stimulating conditions by co-culture with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Considerable variation was evident in the relative proportions of the tropane alkaloids. Remodeling of the tropane alkaloid spectrum under co-culture with A. rhizogenes involved a specific and strong increase of hyoscyamine production and revealed that the accumulation of hyoscyamine, 3-tigloyloxy-6,7-epoxytropane, and 3-methylbutyryloxytropane was controlled independently of the majority of tropane alkaloids. Based on correlations between metabolites, we propose a biosynthetic origin of hygrine, the order of esterification of certain di-oxygenated tropanes, and that the rate of acetoxylation contributes to control of hyoscyamine production. Overall, this study shows that the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids may be far more complex and finely controlled than previously expected.

  18. New insights into the early biochemical activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis in leaves

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-01-01

    In plants, herbivore attack elicits the rapid accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) which results from the activation of constitutively expressed biosynthetic enzymes. The molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of JA biosynthesis remain largely unknown however new research has elucidated some of the early regulatory components involved in this process. Nicotiana attenuata plants, a wild tobacco species, responds to fatty acid amino acid conjuguates (FAC) elicitors in the oral secretion of its natural herbivore, Manduca sexta, by triggering specific defense and tolerance responses against it; all of the defense responses known to date require the amplification of the wound-induced JA increase. We recently demonstrated that this FAC-elicited JA burst requires an increased flux of free linolenic acid (18:3) likely originating from the activation of a plastidial glycerolipase (GLA1) which is activated by an abundant FAC found in insect oral secretions, N-linolenoyl-glutamate (18:3-Glu). The lack of accumulation of free 18:3 after elicitation suggests a tight physical association between GLA1 and LOX3 in N. attenuata leaves. In addition, the salicylate-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and the nonexpressor of PR-1 (NPR1) participate in this activation mechanism that controls the supply of 18:3. In contrast, the wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) does not but instead regulates the conversion of 13(S)-hydroperoxy-18:3 into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). These results open new perspectives on the complex network of signals and regulatory components inducing the JA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:20037473

  19. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  20. Metabolomics Analysis and Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze Treated with Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Romij; Xu, Hui; Park, Woo Tae; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL. PMID:23724034

  1. Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Guleria, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana, a perennial herb from the Asteraceae family, is known to the scientific world for its sweetness and steviol glycosides (SGs). SGs are the secondary metabolites responsible for the sweetness of Stevia. They are synthesized by SG biosynthesis pathway operating in the leaves. Most of the genes encoding the enzymes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized from Stevia. Out of various SGs, stevioside and rebaudioside A are the major metabolites. SGs including stevioside have also been synthesized by enzymes and microbial agents. These are non-mutagenic, non-toxic, antimicrobial, and do not show any remarkable side-effects upon consumption. Stevioside has many medical applications and its role against diabetes is most important. SGs have made Stevia an important part of the medicinal world as well as the food and beverage industry. This article presents an overview on Stevia and the importance of SGs.

  2. Artemether Exhibits Amoebicidal Activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii through Inhibition of the Serine Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yihong; Ran, Wei; Man, Suqin; Li, Xueping; Gao, Hongjian; Tang, Wei; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba sp. parasites are the causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and cutaneous infections. However, there are currently no effective drugs for these organisms. Here, we evaluated the activity of the antimalarial agent artemether against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and identified potential targets of this agent through a proteomic approach. Artemether exhibited in vitro amoebicidal activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced ultrastructural modification and cell apoptosis. The iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis identified 707 proteins that were differentially expressed after artemether treatment. We focused on phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase in the serine biosynthesis pathway because of their importance to the growth and proliferation of protozoan and cancer cells. The expression of these proteins in Acanthamoeba was validated using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting after artemether treatment. The changes in the expression levels of phosphoserine aminotransferase were consistent with those of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Therefore, the downregulation of phosphoserine aminotransferase may be due to the downregulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, exogenous serine might antagonize the activity of artemether against Acanthamoeba trophozoites. These results indicate that the serine biosynthesis pathway is important to amoeba survival and that targeting these enzymes would improve the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. Artemether may be used as a phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase inhibitor to control or block Acanthamoeba infections.

  3. Artemether Exhibits Amoebicidal Activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii through Inhibition of the Serine Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yihong; Ran, Wei; Man, Suqin; Li, Xueping; Gao, Hongjian; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba sp. parasites are the causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and cutaneous infections. However, there are currently no effective drugs for these organisms. Here, we evaluated the activity of the antimalarial agent artemether against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and identified potential targets of this agent through a proteomic approach. Artemether exhibited in vitro amoebicidal activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced ultrastructural modification and cell apoptosis. The iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis identified 707 proteins that were differentially expressed after artemether treatment. We focused on phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase in the serine biosynthesis pathway because of their importance to the growth and proliferation of protozoan and cancer cells. The expression of these proteins in Acanthamoeba was validated using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting after artemether treatment. The changes in the expression levels of phosphoserine aminotransferase were consistent with those of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Therefore, the downregulation of phosphoserine aminotransferase may be due to the downregulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, exogenous serine might antagonize the activity of artemether against Acanthamoeba trophozoites. These results indicate that the serine biosynthesis pathway is important to amoeba survival and that targeting these enzymes would improve the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. Artemether may be used as a phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase inhibitor to control or block Acanthamoeba infections. PMID:26014935

  4. Pivalic acid acts as a starter unit in a fatty acid and antibiotic biosynthetic pathway in Alicyclobacillus, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Rezanka, Tomáš; Siristova, Lucie; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Michal; Masák, Jan; Melzoch, Karel; Sigler, Karel

    2011-06-01

    A biosynthetic pathway using pivalic acid as a starter unit was found in three bacterial species, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Streptomyces avermitilis. When deuterium-labelled pivalic acid was added to A. acidoterrestris and R. erythropolis nutrient media it was incorporated into fatty acids to give rise to tert-butyl fatty acids (t-FAs). In addition, in R. erythropolis, pivalic acid was transformed into two starter units, i.e. isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acid, which served as precursors of corresponding iso-even FAs and anteiso-FAs. In S. avermitilis the biosynthesis also yielded all three branched FAs; apart from this pathway, both pivalic and 2-methylbutyric acids were incorporated into the antibiotic avermectin. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, a soluble oxygenase from tobacco, catalyzes salicylic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Shulaev, V.; Yalpani, N.

    1995-10-24

    Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) catalyzes the biosynthesis of salicylic acid from benzoic acid. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized as a soluble protein of 160 kDa. High-efficiency in vivo labeling of salicyclic acid with {sup 18}O{sub 2} suggested that BA2H is an oxygenase that specifically hydroxylates the ortho position of benzoic acid. The enzyme was strongly induced by either tobacco mosaic virus inoculation of benzoic acid infiltration of tobacco leaves and it was inhibited by CO and other inhibitors of cytochrome P450 hydroxylases. The BA2H activity was immunodepleted by antibodies raised against SU2, a soluble cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseolus. The anti-SU2 antibodies immunoprecipitated a radiolabeled polypeptide of around 160 kDa from the soluble protein extracts of L-[{sup 35}S]-methionine-fed tobacco leaves. Purified BA2H showed CO-difference spectra with a maximum at 457 nm. These data suggest that BA2H belongs to a novel class of soluble, high molecular weight cytochrome P450 enzymes. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Genomic organization of the structural genes controlling the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    PubMed

    Niklitschek, Mauricio; Alcaíno, Jennifer; Barahona, Salvador; Sepúlveda, Dionisia; Lozano, Carla; Carmona, Marisela; Marcoleta, Andrés; Martínez, Claudio; Lodato, Patricia; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    The cloning and nucleotide sequence of the genes (idi, crtE, crtYB, crtl and crtS) controlling the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway of the wild-type ATCC 24230 strain of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous in their genomic and cDNA version were obtained. The idi, crtE, crtYB, crtl and crtS genes were cloned, as fragments of 10.9, 11.5, 15.8, 5.9 and 4 kb respectively. The nucleotide sequence data analysis indicates that the idi, crtE, crtYB, crtl and crtS genes have 4, 8,4, 11, and 17 introns and 5, 9, 5, 12 and 18 exons respectively. In addition, a highly efficient site-directed mutagenesis system was developed by transformation by integration, followed by mitotic recombination (the double recombinant method). Heterozygote idi (idi+/idi-::hph), crtE (crtE+/crtE-::hph), crtYB (crtYB+/crtYB-::hph), crtI (crtI+/crtI-::hph) and crtS (crtS+/crtS-::hph) and homozygote mutants crtYB (crtYB-::hph/crtYB-::hph), crtI (crtI-::hph/crtI-::hph) and crtS (crtS-::hph/crtS-::hph) were constructed. All the heterozygote mutants have a pale phenotype and produce less carotenoids than the wild-type strain. The genetic analysis of the crtYB, crtl and crtS loci in the wild-type, heterozygote, and homozygote give evidence of the diploid constitution of ATCC 24230 strains. In addition, the cloning of a truncated form of the crtYB that lacks 153 amino acids of the N-terminal region derived from alternatively spliced mRNA was obtained. Their heterologous expression in Escherichia coli carrying the carotenogenic cluster of Erwinia uredovora result in trans-complementation and give evidence of its functionality in this bacterium, maintaining its phytoene synthase activity but not the lycopene cyclase activity.

  7. Reconstruction of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway from Neurospora crassa in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Franken, Jaco; Burger, Anita; Swiegers, Jan H; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-08-01

    Industrial synthesis of L-carnitine is currently performed by whole-cell biotransformation of industrial waste products, mostly D-carnitine and cronobetaine, through specific bacterial species. No comparable system has been established using eukaryotic microorganisms, even though there is a significant and growing international demand for either the pure compound or carnitine-enriched consumables. In eukaryotes, including the fungus Neurospora crassa, L-carnitine is biosynthesized through a four-step metabolic conversion of trimethyllysine to L-carnitine. In contrast, the industrial yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks the enzymes of the eukaryotic biosynthesis pathway and is unable to synthesize carnitine. This study describes the cloning of all four of the N. crassa carnitine biosynthesis genes and the reconstruction of the entire pathway in S. cerevisiae. The engineered yeast strains were able to catalyze the synthesis of L-carnitine, which was quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MS) analyses, from trimethyllysine. Furthermore, the yeast threonine aldolase Gly1p was shown to effectively catalyze the second step of the pathway, fulfilling the role of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase. The analyses also identified yeast enzymes that interact with the introduced pathway, including Can1p, which was identified as the yeast transporter for trimethyllysine, and the two yeast serine hydroxymethyltransferases, Shm1p and Shm2p. Together, this study opens the possibility of using an engineered, carnitine-producing yeast in various industrial applications while providing insight into possible future strategies aimed at tailoring the production capacity of such strains.

  8. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components. PMID:27162196

  9. Cloning and characterization of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway genes for isoprenoid biosynthesis from Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parul; Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Akhtar, Nehal; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Singh, Surya Pratap; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) is one of the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicines. Pharmaceutical activities of this herb are associated with presence of secondary metabolites known as withanolides, a class of phytosteroids synthesized via mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathways. Though the plant has been well characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, not much is known about the genes responsible for biosynthesis of these compounds. In this study, we have characterized two genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS; EC 2.2.1.7) and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductase (DXR; EC 1.1.1.267) enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. The full-length cDNAs of W. somnifera DXS (WsDXS) and DXR (WsDXR) of 2,154 and 1,428 bps encode polypeptides of 717 and 475 amino acids residues, respectively. The expression analysis suggests that WsDXS and WsDXR are differentially expressed in different tissues (with maximal expression in flower and young leaf), chemotypes of Withania, and in response to salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, as well as in mechanical injury. Analysis of genomic organization of WsDXS shows close similarity with tomato DXS in terms of exon-intron arrangements. This is the first report on characterization of isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway genes from Withania.

  10. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, recycling, and degradation during three leaf developmental stages in celery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Li, Hui; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important nutrient in the human body and performs various healthy functions. With considerable medicinal properties, celery (Apium graveolens L.) could be a good source of AsA for human health. However, the biosynthetic, recycling, and degradation pathways of AsA in celery have yet to be characterized. To study the metabolic pathways involved in AsA, the genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, recycling, and degradation were isolated from celery, and their expression profiles and AsA levels were analyzed in the leaf blades and petioles of two celery varieties at three different growth stages. AsA levels were higher in 'Ventura' compared with 'Liuhehuangxinqin' in both tissues possibly because of different transcription levels of genes, such as L-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH), L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results revealed that the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway may be the predominant pathway in celery, and the D-galacturonic acid pathway appeared to contribute largely to AsA accumulation in petioles than in leaf blades in 'Liuhehuangxinqin.' AsA contents are regulated by complex regulatory mechanisms and vary at different growth stages, tissues, and varieties in celery. The results provide novel insights into AsA metabolic pathways in leaf during celery growth and development.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Warburgia ugandensis to Identify Genes Involved in Terpenoids and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Xianpeng; Miao, Di; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The bark of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae family) has been used as a medicinal source for a long history in many African countries. The presence of diverse terpenoids and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in this organ contributes to its broad range of pharmacological properties. Despite its medicinal and economic importance, the knowledge on the biosynthesis of terpenoid and unsaturated fatty acid in W. ugandensis bark remains largely unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a genomic and/or transcriptomic database for the functional genomics study on W. ugandensis. The chemical profiles of terpenoids and fatty acids between the bark and leaves of W. ugandensis were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Meanwhile, the transcriptome database derived from both tissues was created using Illumina sequencing technology. In total, about 17.1 G clean nucleotides were obtained, and de novo assembled into 72,591 unigenes, of which about 38.06% can be aligned to the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Many candidate genes in the biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified, including 14 unigenes for terpene synthases. Furthermore, 2,324 unigenes were discovered to be differentially expressed between both tissues; the functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were predicted by gene ontology enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. In addition, the expression of 12 DEGs with putative roles in terpenoid and unsaturated fatty acid metabolic pathways was confirmed by qRT-PCRs, which was consistent with the data of the RNA-sequencing. In conclusion, we constructed a comprehensive transcriptome dataset derived from the bark and leaf of W. ugandensis, which forms the basis for functional genomics studies on this plant species. Particularly, the comparative analysis of the transcriptome data between the bark and leaf will provide critical clues to reveal the regulatory

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Warburgia ugandensis to Identify Genes Involved in Terpenoids and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Xianpeng; Miao, Di; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The bark of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae family) has been used as a medicinal source for a long history in many African countries. The presence of diverse terpenoids and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in this organ contributes to its broad range of pharmacological properties. Despite its medicinal and economic importance, the knowledge on the biosynthesis of terpenoid and unsaturated fatty acid in W. ugandensis bark remains largely unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a genomic and/or transcriptomic database for the functional genomics study on W. ugandensis. The chemical profiles of terpenoids and fatty acids between the bark and leaves of W. ugandensis were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Meanwhile, the transcriptome database derived from both tissues was created using Illumina sequencing technology. In total, about 17.1 G clean nucleotides were obtained, and de novo assembled into 72,591 unigenes, of which about 38.06% can be aligned to the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Many candidate genes in the biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified, including 14 unigenes for terpene synthases. Furthermore, 2,324 unigenes were discovered to be differentially expressed between both tissues; the functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were predicted by gene ontology enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. In addition, the expression of 12 DEGs with putative roles in terpenoid and unsaturated fatty acid metabolic pathways was confirmed by qRT-PCRs, which was consistent with the data of the RNA-sequencing. In conclusion, we constructed a comprehensive transcriptome dataset derived from the bark and leaf of W. ugandensis, which forms the basis for functional genomics studies on this plant species. Particularly, the comparative analysis of the transcriptome data between the bark and leaf will provide critical clues to reveal the regulatory

  13. Biological Role of Aldo–Keto Reductases in Retinoic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, F. Xavier; Porté, Sergio; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    Several aldo–keto reductase (AKR) enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low Km and kcat values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3), as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in β-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance. PMID:22529810

  14. The long-overlooked enzymology of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-independent pathway for virulence-conferring siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Oves-Costales, Daniel; Kadi, Nadia; Challis, Gregory L

    2009-11-21

    Siderophores are high-affinity ferric iron chelators biosynthesised and excreted by most microorganisms that play an important role in iron acquisition. Siderophore-mediated scavenging of ferric iron from hosts contributes significantly to the virulence of pathogenic microbes. As a consequence siderophore biosynthesis is an attractive target for chemotherapeutic intervention. Two main pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist in microbes. One pathway involves nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) multienzymes while the other is NRPS-independent. The enzymology of NRPS-mediated siderophore biosynthesis has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In contrast, the enzymology of NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) biosynthesis was overlooked for almost thirty years since the first genetic characterisation of the NIS biosynthetic pathway to aerobactin. However, the past three years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the enzymology of NIS synthetases, the key enzymes in the assembly of siderophores via the NIS pathway. The biochemical characterisation of ten purified recombinant synthetases has been reported since 2007, along with the first structural characterisation of a synthetase by X-ray crystallography in 2009. In this feature article we summarise the recent progress that has been made in understanding the long-overlooked enzymology of NRPS-independent siderophore biosynthesis, highlight important remaining questions, and suggest likely directions for future research.

  15. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Tian-Hsiang; Wang, Hei-Chia; Wu, Tian-Shung; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Background Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs), and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. Results The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST). Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives. Conclusion This systems

  16. Profiling and Quantifying Differential Gene Transcription Provide Insights into Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum in Response to Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Mu, Da-Shuai; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Han, Qin; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a mushroom with traditional medicinal properties that has been widely used in China and other countries in Eastern Asia. Ganoderic acids (GA) produced by G. lucidum exhibit important pharmacological activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a potent inducer of GA biosynthesis and the expression of genes involved in the GA biosynthesis pathway in G. lucidum. To further explore the mechanism of GA biosynthesis, cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed in response to MeJA. Using 64 primer combinations, over 3910 transcriptionally derived fragments (TDFs) were obtained. Reliable sequence data were obtained for 390 of 458 selected TDFs. Ninety of these TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the GenBank database, and 12 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways by searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. Twenty-five TDFs were selected for qRT-PCR analysis to confirm the expression patterns observed with cDNA-AFLP. The qRT-PCR results were consistent with the altered patterns of gene expression revealed by the cDNA-AFLP technique. Additionally, the transcript levels of 10 genes were measured at the mycelium, primordia, and fruiting body developmental stages of G. lucidum. The greatest expression levels were reached during primordia for all of the genes except cytochrome b2 reached its highest expression level in the mycelium stage. This study not only identifies new candidate genes involved in the regulation of GA biosynthesis but also provides further insight into MeJA-induced gene expression and secondary metabolic response in G. lucidum. PMID:23762280

  17. Biosynthesis and metabolism of retinoic acid: roles of CRBP and CRABP in retinoic acid: roles of CRBP and CRABP in retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Napoli, J L

    1993-02-01

    The enzymes that constitute the pathway of retinoic acid biosynthesis and metabolism may recognize retinoid binding proteins as effectors and substrates. Apocellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) stimulates a bile-salt independent membrane-bound retinyl ester hydrolase resulting in the hydrolysis of endogenous retinyl esters and the formation of holoCRBP. HoloCRBP delivers retinol to a microsomal nicotin-amide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent dehydrogenase, protects it from artifactual oxidation and denies enzymes that cannot recognize the binding protein access to retinol. The retinal synthesized may be transferred from the microsomes to the cytosol by CRBP. A cytosolic retinal dehydrogenase has been purified that produces retinoic acid from retinal generated by microsomes in the presence of CRBP and from the complex CRBP-retinal itself. Thus, CRBP(type I) seems to channel retinoids through the reactions of retinoic acid synthesis via a series of protein-protein interactions. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (type I) facilitates retinoic acid metabolism by sequestering it and by acting as a low Km substrate, thereby also modulating the steady-state concentrations of retinoic acid.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of the Resveratrol Biosynthesis Pathway in an Endophytic Fungus (Alternaria sp. MG1) Isolated from Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Che, Jinxin; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus previously isolated from Merlot grape, produces resveratrol from glucose, showing similar metabolic flux to the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, currently found solely in plants. In order to identify the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway in this strain at the gene level, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 22,954,434 high-quality reads were assembled into contigs and 18,570 unigenes were identified. Among these unigenes, 14,153 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 5341 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. After KEGG mapping, 2701 unigenes were mapped onto 115 pathways. Eighty-four unigenes were annotated in major pathways from glucose to resveratrol, coding 20 enzymes for glycolysis, 10 for phenylalanine biosynthesis, 4 for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and 4 for stilbenoid biosynthesis. Chalcone synthase was identified for resveratrol biosynthesis in this strain, due to the absence of stilbene synthase. All the identified enzymes indicated a reasonable biosynthesis pathway from glucose to resveratrol via glycolysis, phenylalanine biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and stilbenoid pathways. These results provide essential evidence for the occurrence of resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1 at the gene level, facilitating further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in this strain's secondary metabolism.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of the Resveratrol Biosynthesis Pathway in an Endophytic Fungus (Alternaria sp. MG1) Isolated from Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Che, Jinxin; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus previously isolated from Merlot grape, produces resveratrol from glucose, showing similar metabolic flux to the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, currently found solely in plants. In order to identify the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway in this strain at the gene level, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 22,954,434 high-quality reads were assembled into contigs and 18,570 unigenes were identified. Among these unigenes, 14,153 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 5341 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. After KEGG mapping, 2701 unigenes were mapped onto 115 pathways. Eighty-four unigenes were annotated in major pathways from glucose to resveratrol, coding 20 enzymes for glycolysis, 10 for phenylalanine biosynthesis, 4 for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and 4 for stilbenoid biosynthesis. Chalcone synthase was identified for resveratrol biosynthesis in this strain, due to the absence of stilbene synthase. All the identified enzymes indicated a reasonable biosynthesis pathway from glucose to resveratrol via glycolysis, phenylalanine biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and stilbenoid pathways. These results provide essential evidence for the occurrence of resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1 at the gene level, facilitating further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in this strain's secondary metabolism. PMID:27588016

  20. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  1. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  2. Autoxidated linolenic acid inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via oxylipin species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shijuan; Liang, Yating; Zhang, Jindan; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species are among the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds in nature. Although it has been known for a long time that seeds with high oil content are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis remains controversial. Here we demonstrate in A. flavus that both the saturated stearic acid (C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (C18:3) promoted aflatoxin production, while C18:3, but not C18:0, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis after exposure to air for several hours. Further experiments showed that autoxidated C18:3 promoted mycelial growth, sporulation, and kojic acid production, but inhibited the expression of genes in the AF biosynthetic gene cluster. Mass spectrometry analyses of autoxidated C18:3 fractions that were able to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis led to the identification of multiple oxylipin species. These results may help to clarify the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and may explain why controversial results have been obtained for fatty acids in the past.

  3. Hyaluronic Acid--an "Old" Molecule with "New" Functions: Biosynthesis and Depolymerization of Hyaluronic Acid in Bacteria and Vertebrate Tissues Including during Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsepilov, R N; Beloded, A V

    2015-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid is an evolutionarily ancient molecule commonly found in vertebrate tissues and capsules of some bacteria. Here we review modern data regarding structure, properties, and biological functions of hyaluronic acid in mammals and Streptococcus spp. bacteria. Various aspects of biogenesis and degradation of hyaluronic acid are discussed, biosynthesis and degradation metabolic pathways for glycosaminoglycan together with involved enzymes are described, and vertebrate and bacterial hyaluronan synthase genes are characterized. Special attention is given to the mechanisms underlying the biological action of hyaluronic acid as well as the interaction between polysaccharide and various proteins. In addition, all known signaling pathways involving hyaluronic acid are outlined. Impaired hyaluronic acid metabolism, changes in biopolymer molecular weight, hyaluronidase activity, and enzyme isoforms often accompany carcinogenesis. The interaction between cells and hyaluronic acid from extracellular matrix that may be important during malignant change is discussed. An expected role for high molecular weight hyaluronic acid in resistance of naked mole rat to oncologic diseases and the protective role of hyaluronic acid in bacteria are discussed.

  4. The biosynthesis of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA), a putative endocannabinoid and endovanilloid, via conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Benton, Valery M.; Chen, Jay Shih-Chieh; Huang, Susan M.; Minassi, Alberto; Bisogno, Tiziana; Masuda, Kim; Tan, Bo; Roskoski, Robert; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Summary N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endogenous ligand that activates the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel. Two potential biosynthetic pathways for NADA have been proposed, though no conclusive evidence exists for either. The first is the direct conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine; the other is via metabolism of a putative N-arachidonoyl tyrosine (NA-tyrosine). In the present study we investigated these biosynthetic mechanisms and report that NADA synthesis requires TH in dopaminergic terminals, however, NA-tyrosine, which we identify here as an endogenous lipid, is not an intermediate. We show that NADA biosynthesis primarily occurs through an enzyme-mediated conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine. While this conjugation likely involves a complex of enzymes, our data suggest a direct involvement of fatty acid amide hydrolase in NADA biosynthesis as either a rate-limiting enzyme that liberates arachidonic acid from AEA, as a conjugation enzyme, or both. PMID:19570666

  5. The biosynthesis of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA), a putative endocannabinoid and endovanilloid, via conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Bradshaw, Heather B; Benton, Valery M; Chen, Jay Shih-Chieh; Huang, Susan M; Minassi, Alberto; Bisogno, Tiziana; Masuda, Kim; Tan, Bo; Roskoski, Robert; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Walker, J Michael

    2009-10-01

    N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endogenous ligand that activates the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel. Two potential biosynthetic pathways for NADA have been proposed, though no conclusive evidence exists for either. The first is the direct conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine and the other is via metabolism of a putative N-arachidonoyl tyrosine (NA-tyrosine). In the present study we investigated these biosynthetic mechanisms and report that NADA synthesis requires TH in dopaminergic terminals; however, NA-tyrosine, which we identify here as an endogenous lipid, is not an intermediate. We show that NADA biosynthesis primarily occurs through an enzyme-mediated conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine. While this conjugation likely involves a complex of enzymes, our data suggest a direct involvement of fatty acid amide hydrolase in NADA biosynthesis either as a rate-limiting enzyme that liberates arachidonic acid from AEA, or as a conjugation enzyme, or both.

  6. A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kaul, Kiran; Bajpai-Gupta, Suphla; Kaul, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-01-15

    Stevia [Stevia rebuaidana (Bertoni); family: Asteraceae] is known to yield diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs), which are about 300 times sweeter than sugar. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the SGs biosynthesis pathway in different organs of the plant in relation to the SGs content. Of the various genes of the pathway, SrDXS, SrDXR, SrCPPS, SrKS, SrKO and three glucosyltransferases namely SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 were reported from stevia. Here, we report cloning of seven additional full-length cDNA sequences namely, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI and SrGGDPS followed by expression analysis of all the fifteen genes vis-à-vis SGs content analysis. SGs content was highest in the leaf at 3rd node position (node position with reference to the apical leaf as the first leaf) as compared to the leaves at other node positions. Except for SrDXR and SrKO, gene expression was maximum in leaf at 1st node and minimum in leaf at 5th node. The expression of SrKO was highest in leaf at 3rd node while in case of SrDXR expression showed an increase up to 3rd leaf and decrease thereafter. SGs accumulated maximum in leaf tissue followed by stem and root, and similar was the pattern of expression of all the fifteen genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the terpenopids biosynthesis. Gibberellin (GA(3)) treatment up-regulated the expression of SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS and SrUGT74G1, whereas methyl jasmonate and kinetin treatment down-regulated the expression of all the fifteen genes of the pathway.

  7. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, William; Sordillo, Lorraine M.

    2013-01-01

    The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammation, however, can be resolved with ingestion of other fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFA. The influence of dietary PUFA on phospholipid composition is influenced by factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, and the impacts of carbohydrate metabolism and physiological state. The objective of this review is to explain these factors as potential obstacles to manipulating PUFA composition of tissue phospholipids by specific dietary fatty acids. A better understanding of the factors that influence how dietary fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids may lead to nutritional intervention strategies that optimize health. PMID:24152446

  8. Atmospheric oxidation pathways of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2006-04-06

    One of the most abundant carboxylic acids measured in the atmosphere is acetic acid (CH(3)C(O)OH), present in rural, urban, and remote marine environments in the low-ppb range. Acetic acid concentrations are not well reproduced in global 3-D atmospheric models because of the poor inventory of sources and sinks to model its global distribution. To understand the complete oxidation of acetic acid in the atmosphere initiated by OH radicals, ab initio calculations are performed to describe in detail the energetics of the reaction potential energy surface (PES). The proposed reaction mechanism suggests that the CH(3)C(O)OH + OH reaction takes place via three pathways: the addition of OH to the central carbon, the abstraction of a methyl hydrogen, and the abstraction of an acidic hydrogen. The PES is characterized by prereactive H-complexes, transition states, and more interestingly unique radical-mediated isomerization reactions. From the analysis of the energetics, acetic acid atmospheric oxidation will proceed mainly via the abstraction of the acidic hydrogen, consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies. The major byproducts from each pathway are identified. Glyoxylic acid is suggested to be a major byproduct of the atmospheric oxidation of acetic acid. The atmospheric fate of glyoxylic acid is discussed.

  9. A biosynthetic pathway for a prominent class of microbiota-derived bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, A. Sloan; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The gut bile acid pool is millimolar in concentration, varies widely in composition among individuals, and is linked to metabolic disease and cancer. Although these molecules derive almost exclusively from the microbiota, remarkably little is known about which bacterial species and genes are responsible for their biosynthesis. Here, we report a biosynthetic pathway for the second most abundant class in the gut, iso (3β-hydroxy) bile acids, whose levels exceed 300 µM in some humans and are absent in others. We show, for the first time, that iso bile acids are produced by Ruminococcus gnavus, a far more abundant commensal than previously known producers; and that the iso bile acid pathway detoxifies deoxycholic acid, favoring the growth of the keystone genus Bacteroides. By revealing the biosynthetic genes for an abundant class of bile acids, our work sets the stage for predicting and rationally altering the composition of the bile acid pool. PMID:26192599

  10. A biosynthetic pathway for a prominent class of microbiota-derived bile acids.

    PubMed

    Devlin, A Sloan; Fischbach, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The gut bile acid pool is millimolar in concentration, varies widely in composition among individuals and is linked to metabolic disease and cancer. Although these molecules are derived almost exclusively from the microbiota, remarkably little is known about which bacterial species and genes are responsible for their biosynthesis. Here we report a biosynthetic pathway for the second most abundant class in the gut, 3β-hydroxy(iso)-bile acids, whose levels exceed 300 μM in some humans and are absent in others. We show, for the first time, that iso-bile acids are produced by Ruminococcus gnavus, a far more abundant commensal than previously known producers, and that the iso-bile acid pathway detoxifies deoxycholic acid and thus favors the growth of the keystone genus Bacteroides. By revealing the biosynthetic genes for an abundant class of bile acids, our work sets the stage for predicting and rationally altering the composition of the bile acid pool.

  11. Arabidopsis phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase1 of the phosphoserine pathway is essential for development and required for ammonium assimilation and tryptophan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Benstein, Ruben Maximilian; Ludewig, Katja; Wulfert, Sabine; Wittek, Sebastian; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Frerigmann, Henning; Gierth, Markus; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Krueger, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    In plants, two independent serine biosynthetic pathways, the photorespiratory and glycolytic phosphoserine (PS) pathways, have been postulated. Although the photorespiratory pathway is well characterized, little information is available on the function of the PS pathway in plants. Here, we present a detailed characterization of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDHs) as components of the PS pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. All PGDHs localize to plastids and possess similar kinetic properties, but they differ with respect to their sensitivity to serine feedback inhibition. Furthermore, analysis of pgdh1 and phosphoserine phosphatase mutants revealed an embryo-lethal phenotype and PGDH1-silenced lines were inhibited in growth. Metabolic analyses of PGDH1-silenced lines grown under ambient and high CO2 conditions indicate a direct link between PS biosynthesis and ammonium assimilation. In addition, we obtained several lines of evidence for an interconnection between PS and tryptophan biosynthesis, because the expression of PGDH1 and phosphoserine aminotransferase1 is regulated by MYB51 and MYB34, two activators of tryptophan biosynthesis. Moreover, the concentration of tryptophan-derived glucosinolates and auxin were reduced in PGDH1-silenced plants. In essence, our results provide evidence for a vital function of PS biosynthesis for plant development and metabolism.

  12. Metabolic cross-talk between pathways of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Kutzner, Erika; Huber, Claudia; Segura, Juan; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Arrillaga, Isabel

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic cross-talk between the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in developing spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med) was analyzed using specific inhibitors and on the basis of (13)C-labeling experiments. The presence of mevinolin (MEV), an inhibitor of the MVA pathway, at concentrations higher than 0.5 μM significantly reduced plant development, but not the synthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids. On the other hand, fosmidomycin (FSM), an inhibitor of the MEP pathway, at concentrations higher than 20 μM blocked the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoids and essential oils, and significantly reduced stem development. Notably, 1.2 mM MVA could recover the phenotype of MEV-treated plants, including the normal growth and development of roots, and could partially restore the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and, to a lesser extent, of the essential oils in plantlets treated with FSM. Spike lavender shoot apices were also used in (13)C-labeling experiments, where the plantlets were grown in the presence of [U-(13)C6]glucose. GC-MS-analysis of 1,8-cineole and camphor indicated that the C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of both monoterpenes are predominantly biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, on the basis of the isotopologue profiles, a minor contribution of the MVA pathway was evident that was increased in transgenic spike lavender plants overexpressing the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR), the first enzyme of the MVA pathway. Together, these findings provide evidence for a transport of MVA-derived precursors from the cytosol to the plastids in leaves of spike lavender.

  13. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K. )

    1989-04-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from {sup 14}C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis.

  14. Plastidic aspartate aminotransferases and the biosynthesis of essential amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael A; Pascual, M Belén; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2014-10-01

    In the chloroplasts and in non-green plastids of plants, aspartate is the precursor for the biosynthesis of different amino acids and derived metabolites that play distinct and important roles in plant growth, reproduction, development or defence. Aspartate biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), which catalyses the reversible transamination between glutamate and oxaloacetate to generate aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate. Plastids contain two aspartate aminotransferases: a eukaryotic-type and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying aspartate and prephenate aminotransferase activities. A general overview of the biochemistry, regulation, functional significance, and phylogenetic origin of both enzymes is presented. The roles of these plastidic aminotransferases in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are discussed.

  15. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  16. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elisete P; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G; Imada, Eddie L; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Rouws, Luc F M; de Oliveira, André L M; Vidal, Márcia S; Baldani, José I

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5(T) strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5(T). In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5(T). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5(T) produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan

  17. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete P.; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G.; Imada, Eddie L.; Simões-Araújo, Jean L.; Rouws, Luc F. M.; de Oliveira, André L. M.; Vidal, Márcia S.; Baldani, José I.

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and

  18. TDP-l-Megosamine Biosynthesis Pathway Elucidation and Megalomicin A Production in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Useglio, Mariana; Peirú, Salvador; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Labadie, Guillermo R.; Carney, John R.; Gramajo, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    In vivo reconstitution of the TDP-l-megosamine pathway from the megalomicin gene cluster of Micromonospora megalomicea was accomplished by the heterologous expression of its biosynthetic genes in Escherichia coli. Mass spectrometric analysis of the TDP-sugar intermediates produced from operons containing different sets of genes showed that the production of TDP-l-megosamine from TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose requires only five biosynthetic steps, catalyzed by MegBVI, MegDII, MegDIII, MegDIV, and MegDV. Bioconversion studies demonstrated that the sugar transferase MegDI, along with the helper protein MegDVI, catalyzes the transfer of l-megosamine to either erythromycin C or erythromycin D, suggesting two possible routes for the production of megalomicin A. Analysis in vivo of the hydroxylation step by MegK indicated that erythromycin C is the intermediate of megalomicin A biosynthesis. PMID:20418422

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Regulation of Lipid Fraction Migration and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lujing; Hu, Xuechao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Shenglan; Wu, Yi; Li, Dan; Yu, Yadong; Geng, Lingjun; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2017-06-15

    Schizochytrium sp. is the main source of docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil, which is widely used in food additive and pharmaceutical industry. In this study, using RNA-seq, comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed at four stages of DHA fermentation by Schizochytrium sp to get potential genes related to cell transition from cell growth to lipid accumulation and then to lipid turnover. 1406, 385, 1384 differently expressed genes were identified by comparisons in pairs of S2 vs S1, S3 vs S2 and S4 vs S3. Functional analysis revealed that binding and single-organism process might be involve in the cell transition from cell growth to lipid accumulation while oxidation-reduction process played an important role in the transition from lipid accumulation to lipid turnover. pfaC in the PKS pathway showed higher sensitivity to the environmental change, which might be the key regulator for enhancing PUFA biosynthesis in the future. Some other genes in signal transduction and cell transport were revealed to be related to lipid turnover, which would enrich the current knowledge regarding lipid metabolism and help to enhance the DHA production and enrich different lipid fractions by Schizochytrium in the future.

  20. The fungal α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis requires two enzymes of the aconitase family for the isomerization of homocitrate to homoisocitrate

    PubMed Central

    Fazius, Felicitas; Shelest, Ekaterina; Gebhardt, Peter; Brock, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Fungi produce α-aminoadipate, a precursor for penicillin and lysine via the α-aminoadipate pathway. Despite the biotechnological importance of this pathway, the essential isomerization of homocitrate via homoaconitate to homoisocitrate has hardly been studied. Therefore, we analysed the role of homoaconitases and aconitases in this isomerization. Although we confirmed an essential contribution of homoaconitases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus fumigatus, these enzymes only catalysed the interconversion between homoaconitate and homoisocitrate. In contrast, aconitases from fungi and the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus converted homocitrate to homoaconitate. Additionally, a single aconitase appears essential for energy metabolism, glutamate and lysine biosynthesis in respirating filamentous fungi, but not in the fermenting yeast S. cerevisiae that possesses two contributing aconitases. While yeast Aco1p is essential for the citric acid cycle and, thus, for glutamate synthesis, Aco2p specifically and exclusively contributes to lysine biosynthesis. In contrast, Aco2p homologues present in filamentous fungi were transcribed, but enzymatically inactive, revealed no altered phenotype when deleted and did not complement yeast aconitase mutants. From these results we conclude that the essential requirement of filamentous fungi for respiration versus the preference of yeasts for fermentation may have directed the evolution of aconitases contributing to energy metabolism and lysine biosynthesis. PMID:23106124

  1. A plastid envelope location of Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase links the plastid and endoplasmic reticulum steps of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, C A; Sullivan, J A; Mould, R M; Gray, J C; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    2001-10-01

    We have used fusions of gibberellin biosynthesis enzymes to green fluorescent protein (GFP) to determine the subcellular localization of the early steps of the pathway. Gibberellin biosynthesis from geranylgeranyl diphosphate is catalysed by enzymes of the terpene cyclase, cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase classes. We show that the N-terminal pre-sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana terpene cyclases copalyl diphosphate synthase (AtCPS1) and ent-kaurene synthase (AtKS1) direct GFP to chloroplasts in transient assays following microprojectile bombardment of tobacco leaves. The AtKS1-GFP fusion is also imported by isolated pea chloroplasts. The N-terminal portion of the cytochrome P450 protein ent-kaurene oxidase (AtKO1) directs GFP to chloroplasts in tobacco leaf transient assays. Chloroplast import assays with 35S-labelled AtKO1 protein show that it is targeted to the outer face of the chloroplast envelope. The leader sequences of the two ent-kaurenoic acid oxidases (AtKAO1 and AtKAO2) from Arabidopsis direct GFP to the endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest that the AtKO1 protein links the plastid- and endoplasmic reticulum-located steps of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway by association with the outer envelope of the plastid.

  2. Inhibition of isoprene biosynthesis pathway enzymes by phosphonates, bisphosphonates, and diphosphates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Oldfield, Eric

    2004-10-07

    We have investigated the docking of a variety of inhibitors and substrates to the isoprene biosynthesis pathway enzymes farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IPPI) and deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) using the Lamarckian genetic alogorithm program, AutoDock. The docked ligand structures are predicted with a approximately 0.8 A rms deviation from the structures determined crystallographically. The errors found are a function of the number of atoms in the ligand (R = 0.91, p < 0.0001) and, to a lesser extent, on the resolution of the crystallographic structure (R = 0.70, p < 0.008). The structures of three isoprenoid diphosphates docked to the FPPS enzyme reveal strong electrostatic interactions with Mg(2+), lysine and arginine active site residues. Similar results are obtained with the docking of four IPPI inhibitors to the IPPI enzyme. The DXR substrate, deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, is found to dock to Mn(2+)-NADPH-DXR in an almost identical manner as does the inhibitor fosimdomycin to Mn(2+)-DXR (ligand heavy atom rms deviation = 0.90 A) and is poised to interact with NADPH. Bisphosphonate inhibitors are found to bind to the allylic binding sites in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic FPPSs, in good accord with recent crystallographic results (a 0.4 A rms deviation from the X-ray structure with the E. coli enzyme). Overall, these results show for the first time that the geometries of a broad variety of phosphorus-containing inhibitors and substrates of isoprene biosynthesis pathway enzymes can be well predicted by using computational methods, which can be expected to facilitate the design of novel inhibitors of these enzymes.

  3. Benzoxazinoid biosynthesis, a model for evolution of secondary metabolic pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Frey, Monika; Schullehner, Katrin; Dick, Regina; Fiesselmann, Andreas; Gierl, Alfons

    2009-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids are secondary metabolites that are effective in defence and allelopathy. They are synthesised in two subfamilies of the Poaceae and sporadically found in single species of the dicots. The biosynthesis is fully elucidated in maize; here the genes encoding the enzymes of the pathway are in physical proximity. This "biosynthetic cluster" might facilitate coordinated gene regulation. Data from Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Hordeum lechleri suggest that the pathway is of monophyletic origin in the Poaceae. The branchpoint from the primary metabolism (Bx1 gene) can be traced back to duplication and functionalisation of the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase (TSA). Modification of the intermediates by consecutive hydroxylation is catalysed by members of a cytochrome P450 enzyme subfamily (Bx2-Bx5). Glucosylation by an UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT, Bx8, Bx9) is essential for the reduction of autotoxicity of the benzoxazinoids. In some species 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucoside (DIBOA-glc) is further modified by the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase BX6 and the O-methyltransferase BX7. In the dicots Aphelandra squarrosa, Consolida orientalis, and Lamium galeobdolon, benzoxazinoid biosynthesis is analogously organised: The branchpoint is established by a homolog of TSA, P450 enzymes catalyse hydroxylations and at least the first hydroxylation reaction is identical in dicots and Poaceae, the toxic aglucon is glucosylated by an UGT. Functionally, TSA and BX1 are indole-glycerolphosphate lyases (IGLs). Igl genes seem to be generally duplicated in angiosperms. Modelling and biochemical characterisation of IGLs reveal that the catalytic properties of the enzyme can easily be modified by mutation. Independent evolution can be assumed for the BX1 function in dicots and Poaceae.

  4. Noncanonical coproporphyrin-dependent bacterial heme biosynthesis pathway that does not use protoporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Harry A; Gerdes, Svetlana; Dailey, Tamara A; Burch, Joseph S; Phillips, John D

    2015-02-17

    It has been generally accepted that biosynthesis of protoheme (heme) uses a common set of core metabolic intermediates that includes protoporphyrin. Herein, we show that the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (high-GC and low-GC Gram-positive bacteria) are unable to synthesize protoporphyrin. Instead, they oxidize coproporphyrinogen to coproporphyrin, insert ferrous iron to make Fe-coproporphyrin (coproheme), and then decarboxylate coproheme to generate protoheme. This pathway is specified by three genes named hemY, hemH, and hemQ. The analysis of 982 representative prokaryotic genomes is consistent with this pathway being the most ancient heme synthesis pathway in the Eubacteria. Our results identifying a previously unknown branch of tetrapyrrole synthesis support a significant shift from current models for the evolution of bacterial heme and chlorophyll synthesis. Because some organisms that possess this coproporphyrin-dependent branch are major causes of human disease, HemQ is a novel pharmacological target of significant therapeutic relevance, particularly given high rates of antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens.

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  7. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  8. Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway: structural variations around phosphonate anchor and spacer of fosmidomycin, a potent inhibitor of deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase.

    PubMed

    Zinglé, Catherine; Kuntz, Lionel; Tritsch, Denis; Grosdemange-Billiard, Catherine; Rohmer, Michel

    2010-05-21

    Fosmidomycin and its analogue FR-900098 are potent inhibitors of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reducto-isomerase (DXR), the second enzyme of the MEP pathway for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. This paper describes the synthesis of analogues of the two reverse phosphonohydroxamic acids 3 and 4, in which the length of the carbon spacer is modified, the N-methyl group of 3 is replaced by an ethyl group, and the phosphate group is replaced by potential isosteric moieties, i.e., sulfonate or carboxylate functionalities. The potential of the synthesized analogues to inhibit the E. coli DXR was evaluated.

  9. Biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid and conversion of carbons 1 and 2 of L-ascorbic acid to oxalic acid occurs within individual calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts.

    PubMed

    Kostman, T A; Tarlyn, N M; Loewus, F A; Franceschi, V R

    2001-02-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AsA) and its metabolic precursors give rise to oxalic acid (OxA) found in calcium oxalate crystals in specialized crystal idioblast cells in plants; however, it is not known if AsA and OxA are synthesized within the crystal idioblast cell or transported in from surrounding mesophyll cells. Isolated developing crystal idioblasts from Pistia stratiotes were used to study the pathway of OxA biosynthesis and to determine if idioblasts contain the entire path and are essentially independent in OxA synthesis. Idioblasts were supplied with various (14)C-labeled compounds and examined by micro-autoradiography for incorporation of (14)C into calcium oxalate crystals. [(14)C]OxA gave heavy labeling of crystals, indicating the isolated idioblasts are functional in crystal formation. Incubation with [1-(14)C]AsA also gave heavy labeling of crystals, whereas [6-(14)C]AsA gave no labeling. Labeled precursors of AsA (L-[1-(14)C]galactose; D-[1-(14)C]mannose) also resulted in crystal labeling, as did the ascorbic acid analog, D-[1-(14)C]erythorbic acid. Intensity of labeling of isolated idioblasts followed the pattern OxA > AsA (erythorbic acid) > L-galactose > D-mannose. Our results demonstrate that P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts synthesize the OxA used for crystal formation, the OxA is derived from the number 1 and 2 carbons of AsA, and the proposed pathway of ascorbic acid synthesis via D-mannose and L-galactose is operational in individual P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts. These results are discussed with respect to fine control of calcium oxalate precipitation and the concept of crystal idioblasts as independent physiological compartments.

  10. The role of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidation in bile acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.; Miwa, A. )

    1989-11-01

    The physiological role of the peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidizing system (FAOS) is not yet established. We speculated that there might be a relationship between peroxisomal degradation of long-chain fatty acids in the liver and the biosynthesis of bile acids. This was investigated using (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid and (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceric acid as substrates of FAOS in mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. The incorporation of ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid into primary bile acids was approximately four times higher than that of ({sup 14}C)butyric acid (in terms of C-2 units). The pools of these two fatty acids in the liver were exceedingly small. The incorporations of radioactivity into the primary bile acids were strongly inhibited by administration of aminotriazole, which is a specific inhibitor of peroxisomal FAOS in vivo. Aminotriazole inhibited preferentially the formation of cholate, the major primary bile acid, from both ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid and ({sup 14}C)butyric acid, rather than the formation of chenodeoxycholate. The former inhibition was about 70% and the latter was approximately 40-50%. In view of reports that cholate is biosynthesized from endogenous cholesterol, the above results indicate that peroxisomal FAOS may have an anabolic function, supplying acetyl CoA for bile acid biosynthesis.

  11. Regional biosynthesis of prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from arachidonic acid in the rat stomach tissue.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Choue, R W; Cho, Y; Ziboh, V A

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine regional differences in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in the rat stomach tissue (fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum) from radioactive arachidonic acid (AA). The radioactive metabolites were validated by RP-HPLC using non-radioactive AA as substrate. PGE(2) was the major prostanoid in the tissue(.) The relative ratio of PGE(2):PGF(2)alpha:PGD(2) in the whole stomach was 1:0.5:0.1. Regionally, the fundus biosynthesized the largest amount of all three cyclo-oxygenase products. Among the lipoxygenase metabolites, 15S-HETE was the predominant product, while 12S-HETE was found to be the lowest. The relative ratio of 15S-HETE:5S-HETE:12S-HETE in the whole stomach was 1:0.6:0.4. Interestingly, the generation of lipoxygenase products was the highest in the pyloric antrum when compared to fundus or corpus. Thus, the regional differences in the biosyntheses of gastric PGs and monohydroxy fatty acids may be relevant to our understanding of corresponding differences in mucosal resistance or susceptibility to gastric disease.

  12. Novel fatty acid elongases and their use for the reconstitution of docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Astrid; Kirsch, Helene; Domergue, Frédéric; Abbadi, Amine; Sperling, Petra; Bauer, Jörg; Cirpus, Petra; Zank, Thorsten K; Moreau, Hervé; Roscoe, Thomas J; Zähringer, Ulrich; Heinz, Ernst

    2004-10-01

    In algae, the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3; DHA) proceeds via the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3; EPA) to 22:5omega3, which is required as a substrate for the final Delta4 desaturation. To isolate the elongase specific for this step, we searched expressed sequence tag and genomic databases from the algae Ostreococcus tauri and Thalassiosira pseudonana, from the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, from the frog Xenopus laevis, and from the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis using as a query the elongase sequence PpPSE1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens. The open reading frames of the identified elongase candidates were expressed in yeast for functional characterization. By this, we identified two types of elongases from O. tauri and T. pseudonana: one specific for the elongation of (Delta6-)C18-PUFAs and one specific for (Delta5-)C20-PUFAs, showing highest activity with EPA. The clones isolated from O. mykiss, X. laevis, and C. intestinalis accepted both C18- and C20-PUFAs. By coexpression of the Delta6- and Delta5-elongases from T. pseudonana and O. tauri, respectively, with the Delta5- and Delta4-desaturases from two other algae we successfully implemented DHA synthesis in stearidonic acid-fed yeast. This may be considered an encouraging first step in future efforts to implement this biosynthetic sequence into transgenic oilseed crops.

  13. The Phosphorylated Pathway of Serine Biosynthesis Is Essential Both for Male Gametophyte and Embryo Development and for Root Growth in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Flores-Tornero, María; Anoman, Armand Djoro; Pertusa, José; Alaiz, Manuel; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the phosphorylated pathway of Ser biosynthesis (PPSB) in Arabidopsis thaliana by targeting phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP1), the last enzyme of the pathway. Lack of PSP1 activity delayed embryo development, leading to aborted embryos that could be classified as early curled cotyledons. The embryo-lethal phenotype of psp1 mutants could be complemented with PSP1 cDNA under the control of Pro35S (Pro35S:PSP1). However, this construct, which was poorly expressed in the anther tapetum, did not complement mutant fertility. Microspore development in psp1.1/psp1.1 Pro35S:PSP1 arrested at the polarized stage. The tapetum from these lines displayed delayed and irregular development. The expression of PSP1 in the tapetum at critical stages of microspore development suggests that PSP1 activity in this cell layer is essential in pollen development. In addition to embryo death and male sterility, conditional psp1 mutants displayed a short-root phenotype, which was reverted in the presence of Ser. A metabolomic study demonstrated that the PPSB plays a crucial role in plant metabolism by affecting glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the biosynthesis of amino acids. We provide evidence of the crucial role of the PPSB in embryo, pollen, and root development and suggest that this pathway is an important link connecting primary metabolism with development. PMID:23771893

  14. The phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis is essential both for male gametophyte and embryo development and for root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Flores-Tornero, María; Anoman, Armand Djoro; Pertusa, José; Alaiz, Manuel; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2013-06-01

    This study characterizes the phosphorylated pathway of Ser biosynthesis (PPSB) in Arabidopsis thaliana by targeting phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP1), the last enzyme of the pathway. Lack of PSP1 activity delayed embryo development, leading to aborted embryos that could be classified as early curled cotyledons. The embryo-lethal phenotype of psp1 mutants could be complemented with PSP1 cDNA under the control of Pro35S (Pro35S:PSP1). However, this construct, which was poorly expressed in the anther tapetum, did not complement mutant fertility. Microspore development in psp1.1/psp1.1 Pro35S:PSP1 arrested at the polarized stage. The tapetum from these lines displayed delayed and irregular development. The expression of PSP1 in the tapetum at critical stages of microspore development suggests that PSP1 activity in this cell layer is essential in pollen development. In addition to embryo death and male sterility, conditional psp1 mutants displayed a short-root phenotype, which was reverted in the presence of Ser. A metabolomic study demonstrated that the PPSB plays a crucial role in plant metabolism by affecting glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the biosynthesis of amino acids. We provide evidence of the crucial role of the PPSB in embryo, pollen, and root development and suggest that this pathway is an important link connecting primary metabolism with development.

  15. Surprising Arginine Biosynthesis: a Reappraisal of the Enzymology and Evolution of the Pathway in Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Labedan, Bernard; Glansdorff, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Major aspects of the pathway of de novo arginine biosynthesis via acetylated intermediates in microorganisms must be revised in light of recent enzymatic and genomic investigations. The enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), which used to be considered responsible for the first committed step of the pathway, is present in a limited number of bacterial phyla only and is absent from Archaea. In many Bacteria, shorter proteins related to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase family appear to acetylate l-glutamate; some are clearly similar to the C-terminal, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) binding domain of classical NAGS, while others are more distantly related. Short NAGSs can be single gene products, as in Mycobacterium spp. and Thermus spp., or fused to the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the pathway (argininosuccinase), as in members of the Alteromonas-Vibrio group. How these proteins bind glutamate remains to be determined. In some Bacteria, a bifunctional ornithine acetyltransferase (i.e., using both acetylornithine and acetyl-CoA as donors of the acetyl group) accounts for glutamate acetylation. In many Archaea, the enzyme responsible for glutamate acetylation remains elusive, but possible connections with a novel lysine biosynthetic pathway arose recently from genomic investigations. In some Proteobacteria (notably Xanthomonadaceae) and Bacteroidetes, the carbamoylation step of the pathway appears to involve N-acetylornithine or N-succinylornithine rather than ornithine. The product N-acetylcitrulline is deacetylated by an enzyme that is also involved in the provision of ornithine from acetylornithine; this is an important metabolic function, as ornithine itself can become essential as a source of other metabolites. This review insists on the biochemical and evolutionary implications of these findings. PMID:17347518

  16. Involvement of a Natural Fusion of a Cytochrome P450 and a Hydrolase in Mycophenolic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mnich, Ewelina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2012-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a fungal secondary metabolite and the active component in several immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. The gene cluster coding for the MPA biosynthetic pathway has recently been discovered in Penicillium brevicompactum, demonstrating that the first step is catalyzed by MpaC, a polyketide synthase producing 5-methylorsellinic acid (5-MOA). However, the biochemical role of the enzymes encoded by the remaining genes in the MPA gene cluster is still unknown. Based on bioinformatic analysis of the MPA gene cluster, we hypothesized that the step following 5-MOA production in the pathway is carried out by a natural fusion enzyme MpaDE, consisting of a cytochrome P450 (MpaD) in the N-terminal region and a hydrolase (MpaE) in the C-terminal region. We verified that the fusion gene is indeed expressed in P. brevicompactum by obtaining full-length sequence of the mpaDE cDNA prepared from the extracted RNA. Heterologous coexpression of mpaC and the fusion gene mpaDE in the MPA-nonproducer Aspergillus nidulans resulted in the production of 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (DHMP), the second intermediate in MPA biosynthesis. Analysis of the strain coexpressing mpaC and the mpaD part of mpaDE shows that the P450 catalyzes hydroxylation of 5-MOA to 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylbenzoic acid (DHMB). DHMB is then converted to DHMP, and our results suggest that the hydrolase domain aids this second step by acting as a lactone synthase that catalyzes the ring closure. Overall, the chimeric enzyme MpaDE provides insight into the genetic organization of the MPA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22544261

  17. Involvement of a natural fusion of a cytochrome P450 and a hydrolase in mycophenolic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mnich, Ewelina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2012-07-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a fungal secondary metabolite and the active component in several immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. The gene cluster coding for the MPA biosynthetic pathway has recently been discovered in Penicillium brevicompactum, demonstrating that the first step is catalyzed by MpaC, a polyketide synthase producing 5-methylorsellinic acid (5-MOA). However, the biochemical role of the enzymes encoded by the remaining genes in the MPA gene cluster is still unknown. Based on bioinformatic analysis of the MPA gene cluster, we hypothesized that the step following 5-MOA production in the pathway is carried out by a natural fusion enzyme MpaDE, consisting of a cytochrome P450 (MpaD) in the N-terminal region and a hydrolase (MpaE) in the C-terminal region. We verified that the fusion gene is indeed expressed in P. brevicompactum by obtaining full-length sequence of the mpaDE cDNA prepared from the extracted RNA. Heterologous coexpression of mpaC and the fusion gene mpaDE in the MPA-nonproducer Aspergillus nidulans resulted in the production of 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (DHMP), the second intermediate in MPA biosynthesis. Analysis of the strain coexpressing mpaC and the mpaD part of mpaDE shows that the P450 catalyzes hydroxylation of 5-MOA to 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylbenzoic acid (DHMB). DHMB is then converted to DHMP, and our results suggest that the hydrolase domain aids this second step by acting as a lactone synthase that catalyzes the ring closure. Overall, the chimeric enzyme MpaDE provides insight into the genetic organization of the MPA biosynthesis pathway.

  18. Substrate specificity of the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Christina L.; Goon, Scarlett; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hinderlich, Stephan; Hang, Howard C.; Chai, Diana H.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2001-07-18

    Unnatural analogs of sialic acid can be delivered to mammalian cell surfaces through the metabolic transformation of unnatural N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) derivatives. In previous studies, mannosamine analogs bearing simple N-acyl groups up to five carbon atoms in length were recognized as substrates by the biosynthetic machinery and transformed into cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates [Keppler, O. T., et al. (2001) Glycobiology 11, 11R-18R]. Such structural alterations to cell surface glycans can be used to probe carbohydrate-dependent phenomena. This report describes our investigation into the extent of tolerance of the pathway toward additional structural alterations of the N-acyl substituent of ManNAc. A panel of analogs with ketone-containing N-acyl groups that varied in the lengthor steric bulk was chemically synthesized and tested for metabolic conversion to cell-surface glycans. We found that extension of the N-acyl chain to six, seven, or eight carbon atoms dramatically reduced utilization by the biosynthetic machinery. Likewise, branching from the linear chain reduced metabolic conversion. Quantitation of metabolic intermediates suggested that cellular metabolism is limited by the phosphorylation of the N-acylmannosamines by ManNAc 6-kinase in the first step of the pathway. This was confirmed by enzymatic assay of the partially purified enzyme with unnatural substrates. Identification of ManNAc 6-kinase as a bottleneck for unnatural sialic acid biosynthesis provides a target for expanding the metabolic promiscuity of mammalian cells.

  19. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis in varroa mites: identification of halloween genes from the biosynthetic pathway and their regulation during reproduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biosynthesis of ecdysteroids involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by microsomal enzymes and mitochondrial cytochrome P450’s. Enzymes of the pathway are collectively known as Halloween genes. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), w...

  20. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    PubMed

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1n-15 ((∆5)20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1n-9 ((∆11)20:1) to (∆5,11)20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5n-3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) PUFAs.

  1. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1n-15 (∆520:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1n-9 (∆1120:1) to ∆5,1120:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5n-3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) PUFAs. PMID:28335553

  2. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  3. Minimal Streptomyces sp. strain C5 daunorubicin polyketide biosynthesis genes required for aklanonic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajgarhia, V B; Strohl, W R

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the Streptomyces sp. strain C5 daunorubicin type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene region is different from that of other known type II PKS gene clusters. Directly downstream of the genes encoding ketoacylsynthase alpha and beta (KS alpha, KS beta) are two genes (dpsC, dpsD) encoding proteins of unproven function, both absent from other type II PKS gene clusters. Also in contrast to other type II PKS clusters, the gene encoding the acyl carrier protein (ACP), dpsG, is located about 6.8 kbp upstream of the genes encoding the daunorubicin KS alpha and KS beta. In this work, we demonstrate that the minimal genes required to produce aklanonic acid in heterologous hosts are dpsG (ACP), dauI (regulatory activator), dpsA (KS alpha), dpsB (KS beta), dpsF (aromatase), dpsE (polyketide reductase), and dauG (putative deoxyaklanonic acid oxygenase). The two unusual open reading frames, dpsC (KASIII homolog lacking a known active site) and dpsD (acyltransferase homolog), are not required to synthesize aklanonic acid. Additionally, replacement of dpsD or dpsCD in Streptomyces sp. strain C5 with a neomycin resistance gene (aphI) results in mutant strains that still produced anthracyclines. PMID:9098068

  4. The evolution of cardiolipin biosynthesis and maturation pathways and its implications for the evolution of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiolipin (CL) is an important component in mitochondrial inner and bacterial membranes. Its appearance in these two biomembranes has been considered as evidence of the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria. But CL was reported to be synthesized through two distinct enzymes--CLS_cap and CLS_pld in eukaryotes and bacteria. Therefore, how the CL biosynthesis pathway evolved is an interesting question. Results Phylogenetic distribution investigation of CL synthase (CLS) showed: most bacteria have CLS_pld pathway, but in partial bacteria including proteobacteria and actinobacteria CLS_cap pathway has already appeared; in eukaryotes, Supergroup Opisthokonta and Archaeplastida, and Subgroup Stramenopiles, which all contain multicellular organisms, possess CLS_cap pathway, while Supergroup Amoebozoa and Excavata and Subgroup Alveolata, which all consist exclusively of unicellular eukaryotes, bear CLS_pld pathway; amitochondriate protists in any supergroups have neither. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the CLS_cap in eukaryotes have the closest relationship with those of alpha proteobacteria, while the CLS_pld in eukaryotes share a common ancestor but have no close correlation with those of any particular bacteria. Conclusions The first eukaryote common ancestor (FECA) inherited the CLS_pld from its bacterial ancestor (e. g. the bacterial partner according to any of the hypotheses about eukaryote evolution); later, when the FECA evolved into the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA), the endosymbiotic mitochondria (alpha proteobacteria) brought in CLS_cap, and then in some LECA individuals the CLS_cap substituted the CLS_pld, and these LECAs would evolve into the protist lineages from which multicellular eukaryotes could arise, while in the other LECAs the CLS_pld was retained and the CLS_cap was lost, and these LECAs would evolve into the protist lineages possessing CLS_pld. Besides, our work indicated CL maturation pathway arose after the emergence of

  5. The evolution of cardiolipin biosynthesis and maturation pathways and its implications for the evolution of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hai-Feng; Feng, Jin-Mei; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2012-03-13

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an important component in mitochondrial inner and bacterial membranes. Its appearance in these two biomembranes has been considered as evidence of the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria. But CL was reported to be synthesized through two distinct enzymes--CLS_cap and CLS_pld in eukaryotes and bacteria. Therefore, how the CL biosynthesis pathway evolved is an interesting question. Phylogenetic distribution investigation of CL synthase (CLS) showed: most bacteria have CLS_pld pathway, but in partial bacteria including proteobacteria and actinobacteria CLS_cap pathway has already appeared; in eukaryotes, Supergroup Opisthokonta and Archaeplastida, and Subgroup Stramenopiles, which all contain multicellular organisms, possess CLS_cap pathway, while Supergroup Amoebozoa and Excavata and Subgroup Alveolata, which all consist exclusively of unicellular eukaryotes, bear CLS_pld pathway; amitochondriate protists in any supergroups have neither. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the CLS_cap in eukaryotes have the closest relationship with those of alpha proteobacteria, while the CLS_pld in eukaryotes share a common ancestor but have no close correlation with those of any particular bacteria. The first eukaryote common ancestor (FECA) inherited the CLS_pld from its bacterial ancestor (e. g. the bacterial partner according to any of the hypotheses about eukaryote evolution); later, when the FECA evolved into the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA), the endosymbiotic mitochondria (alpha proteobacteria) brought in CLS_cap, and then in some LECA individuals the CLS_cap substituted the CLS_pld, and these LECAs would evolve into the protist lineages from which multicellular eukaryotes could arise, while in the other LECAs the CLS_pld was retained and the CLS_cap was lost, and these LECAs would evolve into the protist lineages possessing CLS_pld. Besides, our work indicated CL maturation pathway arose after the emergence of eukaryotes probably through mechanisms

  6. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  7. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. A novel pathway for the biosynthesis of heme in Archaea: genome-based bioinformatic predictions and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Sonja; Rolfes, Sarah; Raux-Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter; Layer, Gunhild

    2010-12-13

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group for many proteins involved in fundamental biological processes in all three domains of life. In Eukaryota and Bacteria heme is formed via a conserved and well-studied biosynthetic pathway. Surprisingly, in Archaea heme biosynthesis proceeds via an alternative route which is poorly understood. In order to formulate a working hypothesis for this novel pathway, we searched 59 completely sequenced archaeal genomes for the presence of gene clusters consisting of established heme biosynthetic genes and colocalized conserved candidate genes. Within the majority of archaeal genomes it was possible to identify such heme biosynthesis gene clusters. From this analysis we have been able to identify several novel heme biosynthesis genes that are restricted to archaea. Intriguingly, several of the encoded proteins display similarity to enzymes involved in heme d(1) biosynthesis. To initiate an experimental verification of our proposals two Methanosarcina barkeri proteins predicted to catalyze the initial steps of archaeal heme biosynthesis were recombinantly produced, purified, and their predicted enzymatic functions verified.

  9. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  10. Modulating carnitine levels by targeting its biosynthesis pathway – selective inhibition of γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Rydzik, Anna M.; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Kochan, Grazyna T.; Williams, Sophie T.; McDonough, Michael A.; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Carnitine is essential for fatty acid metabolism, but is associated with both health benefits and risks, especially heart diseases. We report the identification of potent, selective and cell active inhibitors of γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (BBOX), which catalyses the final step of carnitine biosynthesis in animals. A crystal structure of BBOX in complex with a lead inhibitor reveals that it binds in two modes, one of which adopts an unusual ‘U-shape’ conformation stabilised by inter- and intra-molecular π-stacking interactions. Conformational changes observed on binding of the inhibitor to BBOX likely reflect those occurring in catalysis; they also rationalise the inhibition of BBOX by high levels of its substrate γ-butyrobetaine (GBB), as observed both with isolated BBOX protein and in cellular studies. PMID:26682037

  11. Genetic Profiling of the Isoprenoid and Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway Genes of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Cosentino, Raúl O.; Agüero, Fernán

    2014-01-01

    In Trypanosoma cruzi the isoprenoid and sterol biosynthesis pathways are validated targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. In this work we present a study of the genetic diversity observed in genes from these pathways. Using a number of bioinformatic strategies, we first identified genes that were missing and/or were truncated in the T. cruzi genome. Based on this analysis we obtained the complete sequence of the ortholog of the yeast ERG26 gene and identified a non-orthologous homolog of the yeast ERG25 gene (sterol methyl oxidase, SMO), and we propose that the orthologs of ERG25 have been lost in trypanosomes (but not in Leishmanias). Next, starting from a set of 16 T. cruzi strains representative of all extant evolutionary lineages, we amplified and sequenced ∼24 Kbp from 22 genes, identifying a total of 975 SNPs or fixed differences, of which 28% represent non-synonymous changes. We observed genes with a density of substitutions ranging from those close to the average (∼2.5/100 bp) to some showing a high number of changes (11.4/100 bp, for the putative lathosterol oxidase gene). All the genes of the pathway are under apparent purifying selection, but genes coding for the sterol C14-demethylase, the HMG-CoA synthase, and the HMG-CoA reductase have the lowest density of missense SNPs in the panel. Other genes (TcPMK, TcSMO-like) have a relatively high density of non-synonymous SNPs (2.5 and 1.9 every 100 bp, respectively). However, none of the non-synonymous changes identified affect a catalytic or ligand binding site residue. A comparative analysis of the corresponding genes from African trypanosomes and Leishmania shows similar levels of apparent selection for each gene. This information will be essential for future drug development studies focused on this pathway. PMID:24828104

  12. Limited Effects of Bile Acids and Small Heterodimer Partner on Hepatitis B Virus Biosynthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Vanessa C.; Moore, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple nuclear receptors, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) plus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), RXRα plus farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα), liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1), and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), have been shown to support efficient viral biosynthesis in nonhepatoma cells in the absence of additional liver-enriched transcription factors. Although HNF4α has been shown to be critical for the developmental expression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis in the liver, the relative importance of the various nuclear receptors capable of supporting viral transcription and replication in the adult in vivo has not been clearly established. To investigate the role of the nuclear receptor FXR and the corepressor small heterodimer partner (SHP) in viral biosynthesis in vivo, SHP-expressing and SHP-null HBV transgenic mice were fed a bile acid-supplemented diet. The increased FXR activity and SHP expression levels resulting from bile acid treatment did not greatly modulate HBV RNA and DNA synthesis. Therefore, FXR and SHP appear to play a limited role in modulating HBV biosynthesis, suggesting that alternative nuclear receptors are more critical determinants of viral transcription in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic viral infection. These observations suggest that hepatic bile acid levels or therapeutic agents targeting FXR may not greatly modulate viremia during natural infection. PMID:22171277

  13. Ethylene-Inhibited Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis Promotes Mesocotyl/Coleoptile Elongation of Etiolated Rice Seedlings[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qing; Ma, Biao; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Yi-Hua; He, Si-Jie; Yang, Chao; Yin, Cui-Cui; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Li, Zhi-Kang; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Elongation of the mesocotyl and coleoptile facilitates the emergence of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings from soil and is affected by various genetic and environment factors. The regulatory mechanism underlying this process remains largely unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of mesocotyl and coleoptile growth by characterizing a gaoyao1 (gy1) mutant that exhibits a longer mesocotyl and longer coleoptile than its original variety of rice. GY1 was identified through map-based cloning and encodes a PLA1-type phospholipase that localizes in chloroplasts. GY1 functions at the initial step of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis to repress mesocotyl and coleoptile elongation in etiolated rice seedlings. Ethylene inhibits the expression of GY1 and other genes in the JA biosynthesis pathway to reduce JA levels and enhance mesocotyl and coleoptile growth by promoting cell elongation. Genetically, GY1 acts downstream of the OsEIN2-mediated ethylene signaling pathway to regulate mesocotyl/coleoptile growth. Through analysis of the resequencing data from 3000 rice accessions, we identified a single natural variation of the GY1 gene, GY1376T, which contributes to mesocotyl elongation in rice varieties. Our study reveals novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of mesocotyl/coleoptile elongation and should have practical applications in rice breeding programs. PMID:28465411

  14. Co-expression analysis identifies CRC and AP1 the regulator of Arabidopsis fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinxin; Yin, Linlin; Xue, Hongwei

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development, however, the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood. To study the relevant regulatory network, fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases, desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network. Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT) identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and function in many processes. Interestingly, 63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched. Two TF genes, CRC and AP1, both correlating with 8 FA guide genes, were further characterized. Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds. The contents of palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased, whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds, which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes. In addition, yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15, indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Type II fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite development in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    van Schaijk, Ben C L; Kumar, T R Santha; Vos, Martijn W; Richman, Adam; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Li, Tao; Eappen, Abraham G; Williamson, Kim C; Morahan, Belinda J; Fishbaugher, Matt; Kennedy, Mark; Camargo, Nelly; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Sim, Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sauerwein, Robert W; Fidock, David A; Vaughan, Ashley M

    2014-05-01

    The prodigious rate at which malaria parasites proliferate during asexual blood-stage replication, midgut sporozoite production, and intrahepatic development creates a substantial requirement for essential nutrients, including fatty acids that likely are necessary for parasite membrane formation. Plasmodium parasites obtain fatty acids either by scavenging from the vertebrate host and mosquito vector or by producing fatty acids de novo via the type two fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (FAS-II). Here, we study the FAS-II pathway in Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for the most lethal form of human malaria. Using antibodies, we find that the FAS-II enzyme FabI is expressed in mosquito midgut oocysts and sporozoites as well as liver-stage parasites but not during the blood stages. As expected, FabI colocalizes with the apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein, indicating that FabI functions in the apicoplast. We further analyze the FAS-II pathway in Plasmodium falciparum by assessing the functional consequences of deleting fabI and fabB/F. Targeted deletion or disruption of these genes in P. falciparum did not affect asexual blood-stage replication or the generation of midgut oocysts; however, subsequent sporozoite development was abolished. We conclude that the P. falciparum FAS-II pathway is essential for sporozoite development within the midgut oocyst. These findings reveal an important distinction from the rodent Plasmodium parasites P. berghei and P. yoelii, where the FAS-II pathway is known to be required for normal parasite progression through the liver stage but is not required for oocyst development in the Anopheles mosquito midgut.

  16. 6-Methyl-1,2,4-benzenetriol, a new intermediate in penicillic acid biosynthesis in Penicillium cyclopium

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, J.; Katayama, S.; Yamada, Y.

    1987-07-01

    Penicillic acid-negative mutants were obtained from a color mutant derived from Penicillium cyclopium NRRL 1888 through N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment. One mutant (SK2N6) accumulated 6-methyl-1,2,4-benzenetriol, which was not previously known to be a metabolite of P. cyclopium, in addition to orsellinic acid and orcinol. The radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)acetic acid was rapidly incorporated into 6-methyl-1,2,4-benzenetriol in a culture of P. cyclopium SK2N6. Moreover, the radioactivity of (/sup 14/C)6-methyl-1,2,4-benzenetriol was efficiently incorporated into penicillic acid in a culture of P. cyclopium NRRL 1888. These data indicate that 6-methyl-1,2,4-benzenetriol is a precursor for penicillic acid biosynthesis. The results on the addition of 1,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methylbenzene, 6-methoxy-2-methylbenzoquinone (1,4), and 1-O-methylorcinol to a culture of P. cyclopium SK2N6 indicated that only the former two compounds are converted to penicillic acid. Thus, a new portion of the penicillic acid biosynthetic pathway is proposed.

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  18. Seed development and hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in physaria lindheimeri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are valuable industrial raw materials used in many industries. Physaria lindheimeri (Pl) accumulates over 80% HFA, in the form of lesquerolic acid (20:1OH), in its seed oil. Understanding the seed development of Pl is an important step to utilizing this unique wild specie...

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes involved in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis from Prunella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Shin, YouJin; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Yunji; Park, Nam-il; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris L., commonly known as "self-heal" or "heal-all," is a perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate:coenzyme-A (CoA) ligase (4CL) are important enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway and in the accumulation of rosmarinic acid (RA), which is a major secondary metabolite in P. vulgaris. In this study, we isolated cDNAs encoding PvPAL, PvC4H, and Pv4CL from P. vulgaris using rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amino acid sequence alignments of PvPAL, PvC4H, and Pv4CL showed high sequence identity to those of other plants. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to determine the transcript levels of genes involved in RA biosynthesis in the flowers, leaves, stems, and roots of P. vulgaris. The transcript levels of PvPAL, PvC4H, and Pv4CL1 were the highest in flowers, whereas Pv4CL2 was the highest in roots. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the highest RA content in the flowers (3.71 mg/g dry weight). We suggest that the expression of the PvPAL, PvC4H, and Pv4CL1 genes is correlated with the accumulation of RA. Our results revealed that P. vulgaris flowers are appropriate for medicinal usage, and our findings provide support for increasing RA production in this plant.

  20. DNA Methylation Perturbations in Genes Involved in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Associated with Depression and Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Galfalvy, Hanga; Chen, Sean; Huang, Yung-yu; Cooper, Thomas B.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 22) and without (n = 39) history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 59). Plasma levels of selected PUFAs along the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway were determined by transesterification and gas chromatography. CpG methylation levels for the main human LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes, fatty acid desaturases 1 (Fads1) and 2 (Fads2), and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5), were assayed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations between PUFA levels and diagnosis or suicide attempt status did not survive correction for multiple testing. However, MDD diagnosis and suicide attempts were significantly associated with DNA methylation in Elovl5 gene regulatory regions. Also the relative roles of PUFA levels and DNA methylation with respect to diagnostic and suicide attempt status were determined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression analyses. We found that PUFA associations with suicide attempt status were explained by effects of Elovl5 DNA methylation within the regulatory regions. The observed link between plasma PUFA levels, DNA methylation, and suicide risk may have implications for modulation of disease-associated epigenetic marks by nutritional intervention. PMID:25972837

  1. Influence of caffeine and hyaluronic acid on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Donejko, Magdalena; Przylipiak, Andrzej; Rysiak, Edyta; Głuszuk, Katarzyna; Surażyński, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts and the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on this process. Materials and methods Collagen, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and prolidase activity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that had been treated with 1, 2, and 5 mM caffeine and with caffeine and 500 μg/mL HA. Western immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate expression of β1-integrin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor phospho-Akt protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Results Caffeine inhibited collagen biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this process was found at the level of prolidase activity. Caffeine significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. The addition of HA had no effect on collagen biosynthesis or prolidase activity in fibroblasts incubated with caffeine. Caffeine also had an inhibitory effect on DNA biosynthesis. HA, however, did not have any significant effect on this process. The inhibition of the expression of β1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor receptor in fibroblasts incubated with the caffeine indicates a possible mechanism of inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. Conclusion Caffeine reduces collagen synthesis in human cultured skin fibroblasts. HA did not have any significant protective effect on this process. This is the first study to our knowledge that reports caffeine-induced inhibition of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. PMID:25342885

  2. Biosynthesis of Chloro-β-Hydroxytyrosine, a Nonproteinogenic Amino Acid of the Peptidic Backbone of Glycopeptide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Puk, Oliver; Bischoff, Daniel; Kittel, Claudia; Pelzer, Stefan; Weist, Stefan; Stegmann, Efthimia; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Wohlleben, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The role of the putative P450 monooxygenase OxyD and the chlorination time point in the biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotic balhimycin produced by Amycolatopsis balhimycina were analyzed. The oxyD gene is located directly downstream of the bhp (perhydrolase) and bpsD (nonribosomal peptide synthetase D) genes, which are involved in the synthesis of the balhimycin building block β-hydroxytyrosine (β-HT). Reverse transcriptase experiments revealed that bhp, bpsD, and oxyD form an operon. oxyD was inactivated by an in-frame deletion, and the resulting mutant was unable to produce an active compound. Balhimycin production could be restored (i) by complementation with an oxyD gene, (ii) in cross-feeding studies using A. balhimycina JR1 (a null mutant with a block in the biosynthesis pathway of the building blocks hydroxy- and dihydroxyphenylglycine) as an excretor of the missing precursor, and (iii) by supplementation of β-HT in the growth medium. These data demonstrated an essential role of OxyD in the formation pathway of this amino acid. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis indicated the biosynthesis of completely chlorinated balhimycin by the oxyD mutant when culture filtrates were supplemented with nonchlorinated β-HT. In contrast, supplementation with 3-chloro-β-HT did not restore balhimycin production. These results indicated that the chlorination time point was later than the stage of free β-HT, most likely during heptapeptide synthesis. PMID:15342578

  3. De novo assembly of Eugenia uniflora L. transcriptome and identification of genes from the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Frank; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is of particular interest due to its medicinal properties that are attributed to specialized metabolites with known biological activities. Among these molecules, terpenoids are the most abundant in essential oils that are found in the leaves and represent compounds with potential pharmacological benefits. The terpene diversity observed in Myrtaceae is determined by the activity of different members of the terpene synthase and oxidosqualene cyclase families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transcripts from E. uniflora leaves and to annotation to identify the genes potentially involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway and terpene diversity. In total, 72,742 unigenes with a mean length of 1048bp were identified. Of these, 43,631 and 36,289 were annotated with the NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. The gene ontology categorized the sequences into 53 functional groups. A metabolic pathway analysis with KEGG revealed 8,625 unigenes assigned to 141 metabolic pathways and 40 unigenes predicted to be associated with the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Furthermore, we identified four putative full-length terpene synthase genes involved in sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes biosynthesis, and three putative full-length oxidosqualene cyclase genes involved in the triterpenes biosynthesis. The expression of these genes was validated in different E. uniflora tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic pathway reconstruction strategies for central metabolism and natural product biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kotera, Masaaki; Goto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway reconstruction presents a challenge for understanding metabolic pathways in organisms of interest. Different strategies, i.e., reference-based vs. de novo, must be used for pathway reconstruction depending on the availability of well-characterized enzymatic reactions. If at least one enzyme is already known to catalyze a reaction, its amino acid sequence can be used as a reference for identifying homologous enzymes in the genome of an organism of interest. Where there is no known enzyme able to catalyze a corresponding reaction, however, the reaction and the corresponding enzyme must be predicted de novo from chemical transformations of the putative substrate-product pair. This review summarizes studies involving reference-based and de novo metabolic pathway reconstruction and discusses the importance of the classification and structure-function relationships of enzymes. PMID:27924274

  5. Metabolic pathway reconstruction strategies for central metabolism and natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Masaaki; Goto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway reconstruction presents a challenge for understanding metabolic pathways in organisms of interest. Different strategies, i.e., reference-based vs. de novo, must be used for pathway reconstruction depending on the availability of well-characterized enzymatic reactions. If at least one enzyme is already known to catalyze a reaction, its amino acid sequence can be used as a reference for identifying homologous enzymes in the genome of an organism of interest. Where there is no known enzyme able to catalyze a corresponding reaction, however, the reaction and the corresponding enzyme must be predicted de novo from chemical transformations of the putative substrate-product pair. This review summarizes studies involving reference-based and de novo metabolic pathway reconstruction and discusses the importance of the classification and structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  6. The steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway as a target for endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Various chemicals found in the human and wildlife environments have the potential to disrupt endocrine functions in exposed organisms. Increasingly, the enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis pathway are being recognized as important targets for the actions of various endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Interferences with steroid biosynthesis may result in impaired reproduction, alterations in (sexual) differentiation, growth, and development and the development of certain cancers. Steroid hormone synthesis is controlled by the activity of several highly substrate-selective cytochrome P450 enzymes and a number of steroid dehydrogenases and reductases. Particularly aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has been the subject of studies into the mechanisms by which chemicals interfere with sex steroid hormone homeostasis and function, often related to (de)feminization and (de)masculinazation processes. Studies in vivo and in vitro have focussed on ovarian and testicular function, with less attention given to other steroidogenic organs, such as the adrenal cortex. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which chemicals interfere with the function of steroidogenic enzymes in various tissues and organisms. The endocrine toxicities and mechanisms of action related to steroidogenesis of a number of classes of drugs and environmental contaminants are discussed. In addition, several potential in vitro bioassays are reviewed for their usefulness as screening tools for the detection of chemicals that can interfere with steroidogenesis. Analysis of the currently scattered state of knowledge indicates that still relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms of interference of chemicals with steroidogenesis and their potential toxicity in steroidogenic tissues, neither in humans nor in wildlife. Considerably more detailed and systematic research in this area of

  7. Mechanism of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Interference with Rabbit Antibody Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Edward W.; Winkelhake, Jeffrey L.

    1974-01-01

    Lymphoid cells from hyperimmune rabbits producing antibodies to a hapten, incubated in the presence of d-lysergic acid diethylamide, continued to synthesize protein at a normal rate. Isoelectric focusing analysis of the low-molecular-weight protein secreted by the cells incubated with lysergic acid diethylamide indicated two components, with pI's of 4.9 and 5.2. Immune cells not exposed to lysergic acid diethylamide secreted only 7S IgG molecules with an average pI of approximately 7.0. PMID:4524614

  8. Sphingolipid biosynthesis upregulation by TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling during yeast adaptive response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Joana F; Muir, Alexander; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Thorner, Jeremy; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Acetic acid-induced inhibition of yeast growth and metabolism limits the productivity of industrial fermentation processes, especially when lignocellulosic hydrolysates are used as feedstock in industrial biotechnology. Tolerance to acetic acid of food spoilage yeasts is also a problem in the preservation of acidic foods and beverages. Thus understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation and tolerance to acetic acid stress is increasingly important in industrial biotechnology and the food industry. Prior genetic screens for Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity to acetic acid identified loss-of-function mutations in the YPK1 gene, which encodes a protein kinase activated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 2 (TORC2). We show in the present study by several independent criteria that TORC2-Ypk1 signaling is stimulated in response to acetic acid stress. Moreover, we demonstrate that TORC2-mediated Ypk1 phosphorylation and activation is necessary for acetic acid tolerance, and occurs independently of Hrk1, a protein kinase previously implicated in the cellular response to acetic acid. In addition, we show that TORC2-Ypk1-mediated activation of l-serine:palmitoyl-CoA acyltransferase, the enzyme complex that catalyzes the first committed step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, is required for acetic acid tolerance. Furthermore, analysis of the sphingolipid pathway using inhibitors and mutants indicates that it is production of certain complex sphingolipids that contributes to conferring acetic acid tolerance. Consistent with that conclusion, promoting sphingolipid synthesis by adding exogenous long-chain base precursor phytosphingosine to the growth medium enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Thus appropriate modulation of the TORC2-Ypk1-sphingolipid axis in industrial yeast strains may have utility in improving fermentations of acetic acid-containing feedstocks. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  9. Sphingolipid <