Sample records for acids including lysine

  1. Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyungjin; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Matsuura, Atsushi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2018-04-30

    L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD + , (ii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida . In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that NAD + is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into NAD + at a late stage of the reaction.

  2. A Candida guilliermondii lysine hyperproducer capable of elevated citric acid production.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2016-05-01

    A mutant of the yeast Candida guilliermondii ATCC 9058 exhibiting elevated citric acid production was isolated based upon its ability to overproduce lysine. This method involved the use of a solid medium containing a combination of lysine analogues to identify a mutant that produced a several-fold higher lysine level compared to its parent strain using glucose or glycerol as a carbon source. The mutant strain was also capable of producing more than a fivefold higher citric acid level on glycerol as a carbon source compared to its parent strain. It was concluded that the screening of yeast lysine hyperproducer strains could provide a rapid approach to isolate yeast citric acid hyperproducer strains.

  3. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition.

  5. Expanding lysine industry: industrial biomanufacturing of lysine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Chen, Peng; Song, Andong; Wang, Dan; Wang, Qinhong

    2018-04-13

    L-Lysine is widely used as a nutrition supplement in feed, food, and beverage industries as well as a chemical intermediate. At present, great efforts are made to further decrease the cost of lysine to make it more competitive in the markets. Furthermore, lysine also shows potential as a feedstock to produce other high-value chemicals for active pharmaceutical ingredients, drugs, or materials. In this review, the current biomanufacturing of lysine is first presented. Second, the production of novel derivatives from lysine is discussed. Some chemicals like L-pipecolic acid, cadaverine, and 5-aminovalerate already have been obtained at a lab scale. Others like 6-aminocaproic acid, valerolactam, and caprolactam could be produced through a biological and chemical coupling pathway or be synthesized by a hypothetical pathway. This review demonstrates an active and expansive lysine industry, and these green biomanufacturing strategies could also be applied to enhance the competitiveness of other amino acid industry.

  6. Selective control of toxic Microcystis water blooms using lysine and malonic acid: an enclosure experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Kunimitsu; Liu, Yong-Ding; Shen, Yin-Wu; Xiao, Bang-Ding; Sano, Tomoharu

    2005-04-01

    Three enclosures (10 x 10 x 1.5-1.3 m in depth) were set beside Dianch Lake, Kunming, People's Republic of China, for the period from July 28 to August 26, 2002. The enclosures were filled with cyanobacterial (Microcystis aeruginosa) water bloom-containing lake water. Lake sediment that contained macrophytes and water chestnut seeds was spread over the entire bottom of each enclosure. Initially, 10 g/m(2) of lysine was sprayed in Enclosure B, and 10 g/m(2) each of lysine and malonic acid were sprayed together in Enclosure C. Enclosure A remained untreated and was used as a control. The concentrations of lysine, malonic acid, chlorophyll a, and microcystin as well as the cell numbers of phytoplankton such as cyanobacteria, diatom, and euglena were monitored. On day 1 of the treatment, formation of cyanobacterial blooms almost ceased in Enclosures B and C, although Microcystis cells in the control still formed blooms. On day 7 Microcystis cells in Enclosure B that had been treated with lysine started growing again, whereas growth was not observed in Microcystis cells in Enclosure C, which had been treated with lysine and malonic acid. On day 28 the surface of Enclosure B was covered with water chestnut (Trapa spp.) and the Microcystis blooms again increased. In contrast, growth of macrophytes (Myriophllum spicatum and Potamogeton crispus) was observed in Enclosure C; however, no cyanobacterial blooms were observed. Lysine and malonic acid had completely decomposed. The microcystin concentration on day 28 decreased to 25% of the initial value, and the pH shifted from the initial value of 9.2 to 7.8. We concluded that combined treatment with lysine and malonic acid selectively controlled toxic Microcystis water blooms and induced the growth of macrophytes.

  7. Insight into the collagen assembly in the presence of lysine and glutamic acid: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhua; Dan, Nianhua; Dan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of two different charged amino acids in collagen chains, lysine and glutamic acid, on the fibrillogenesis process of collagen molecules. The turbidity, zeta potential, and fiber diameter analysis suggest that introducing the positively charged lysine into collagen might improve the sizes or amounts of the self-assembled collagen fibrils significantly. Conversely, the negatively charged glutamic acid might restrict the self-assembly of collagen building blocks into a higher order structure. Meanwhile, the optimal fibrillogenesis condition is achieved when the concentration of lysine reaches to 1mM. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis indicates that compared to pure collagen fibrils, the reconstructed collagen-lysine co-fibrils exhibit a higher degree of inter-fiber entanglements with more straight and longer fibrils. Noted that the specific D-period patterns of the reconstructed collagen fibrils could be clearly discernible and the width of D-banding increases steadily after introducing lysine. Besides, the kinetic and thermodynamic collagen self-assembly analysis confirms that the rate constants of both the first and second assembly phase decrease after introducing lysine, and lysine could promote the process of collagen fibrillogenesis obeying the laws of thermodynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  9. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of DL-alanine and L-lysine amino-acid polymer nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Matos Gomes, Etelvina; Viseu, Teresa; Belsley, Michael; Almeida, Bernardo; Costa, Maria Margarida R.; Rodrigues, Vitor H.; Isakov, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    The piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of electrospun polyethylene oxide nanofibres embedded with polar amino acids DL-alanine and L-lysine hemihydrate are reported. A high pyroelectric coefficient of 150 μC m‑2 K‑1 was measured for L-lysine hemihydrate and piezoelectric current densities up to 7 μA m‑2 were obtained for the nanofibres. The study reveals a potential for polymer amino-acid nanofibres to be used as biocompatible energy harvesters for autonomous circuit applications like in implantable electronics.

  10. Lysine and Glutamic Acids as the End Products of Multi-response of Optimized Fermented Medium by Mucor mucedo KP736529.

    PubMed

    El-Hersh, Mohammed S; Saber, WesamEldin I A; El-Fadaly, Husain A; Mahmoud, Mohammed K

    Amino acids are important for living organisms, they acting as crucial for metabolic activities and energy generation, wherein the deficiency in these amino acids cause various physiological defects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of some nutritional factors on the amino acids production by Mucor mucedo KP736529 during fermentation intervals. Mucor mucedo KP736529 was selected according to proteolytic activity. Corn steep liquor and olive cake were used in the fermented medium during Placket-Burman and central composite design to maximize the production of lysine and glutamic acids. During the screening by Plackett-Burman design, olive cake and Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) had potential importance for the higher production of amino acids. The individual fractionation of total amino acids showed both lysine and glutamic as the major amino acids associated with the fermentation process. Moreover, the Central Composite Design (CCD) has been adopted to explain the interaction between olive cake and CSL on the production of lysine and glutamic acids. The model recorded significant F-value, with high values of R 2, adjusted R 2 and predicted R 2 for both lysine and glutamic, indicating the validity of the data. Solving equation for maximum production of lysine recorded theoretical levels of olive cake and CSL, being 2.58 and 1.83 g L -1, respectively, with predicting value of lysine at 1.470 μg mL -1, whereas the predicting value of glutamic acid reached 0.805 mg mL -1 at levels of 2.49 and 1.93 g L -1 from olive cake and CSL, respectively. The desirability function (D) showed the actual responses being 1.473±0.009 and 0.801±0.004 μg mL -1 for lysine and glutamic acids, respectively. The model showed adequate validity to be applied in a large-scale production of both lysine and glutamic acids.

  11. Molecular control mechanisms of lysine and threonine biosynthesis in amino acid-producing corynebacteria: redirecting carbon flow.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, M; Martín, J F

    1996-10-01

    Threonine and lysine are two of the economically most important essential amino acids. They are produced industrially by species of the genera Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium. The branched biosynthetic pathway of these amino acids in corynebacteria is unusual in gene organization and in the control of key enzymatic steps with respect to other microorganisms. This article reviews the molecular control mechanisms of the biosynthetic pathways leading to threonine and lysine in corynebacteria, and their implications in the production of these amino acids. Carbon flux can be redirected at branch points by gene disruption of the competing pathways for lysine or threonine. Removal of bottlenecks has been achieved by amplification of genes which encode feedback resistant aspartokinase and homoserine dehydrogenase (obtained by in vitro directed mutagenesis).

  12. Transcriptomic and biochemical evidence for the role of lysine biosynthesis against linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, P J; Lyons, V; Tun, N M; Rogers, P J; Bailey, T D; Wu, M J

    2014-12-01

    Amino acid biosynthesis forms part of an integrated stress response against oxidants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. Here we show an essential protective role of the l-lysine biosynthesis pathway in response to the oxidative stress condition induced by the lipid oxidant-linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LoaOOH), by means of transcriptomic profiling and phenotypic analysis, and using the deletion mutant dal80∆ and lysine auxotroph lys1∆. A comprehensive up-regulation of lysine biosynthetic genes (LYS1, LYS2, LYS4, LYS9, LYS12, LYS20 and LYS21) was revealed in dal80Δ following the oxidant challenge. The lysine auxotroph (lys1∆) exhibited a significant decrease in growth compared with that of BY4743 upon exposure to LoaOOH, albeit with the sufficient provision of lysine in the medium. Furthermore, the growth of wild type BY4743 exposed to LoaOOH was also greatly reduced in lysine-deficient conditions, despite a full complement of lysine biosynthetic genes. Amino acid analysis of LoaOOH-treated yeast showed that the level of cellular lysine remained unchanged throughout oxidant challenge, suggesting that the induced lysine biosynthesis leads to a steady-state metabolism as compared to the untreated yeast cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that lysine availability and its biosynthesis pathway play an important role in protecting the cell from lipid peroxide-induced oxidative stress, which is directly related to understanding environmental stress and industrial yeast management in brewing, wine making and baking.

  13. Biofortification of rice with the essential amino acid lysine: molecular characterization, nutritional evaluation, and field performance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-qing; Zhang, Chang-quan; Chan, Man-ling; Zhao, Dong-sheng; Chen, Jin-zhu; Wang, Qing; Li, Qian-feng; Yu, Heng-xiu; Gu, Ming-hong; Sun, Samuel Sai-ming; Liu, Qiao-quan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major staple crop worldwide, has limited levels of the essential amino acid lysine. We previously produced engineered rice with increased lysine content by expressing bacterial aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase and inhibiting rice lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase activity. However, the grain quality, field performance, and integration patterns of the transgenes in these lysine-enriched lines remain unclear. In the present study, we selected several elite transgenic lines with endosperm-specific or constitutive regulation of the above key enzymes but lacking the selectable marker gene. All target transgenes were integrated into the intragenic region in the rice genome. Two pyramid transgenic lines (High Free Lysine; HFL1 and HFL2) with free lysine levels in seeds up to 25-fold that of wild type were obtained via a combination of the above two transgenic events. We observed a dramatic increase in total free amino acids and a slight increase in total protein content in both pyramid lines. Moreover, the general physicochemical properties were improved in pyramid transgenic rice, but the starch composition was not affected. Field trials indicated that the growth of HFL transgenic rice was normal, except for a slight difference in plant height and grain colour. Taken together, these findings will be useful for the potential commercialization of high-lysine transgenic rice. PMID:27252467

  14. Acetylome Profiling Reveals Extensive Lysine Acetylation of the Fatty Acid Metabolism Pathway in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Luo, Ling; Chen, Runfa; Hu, Hanhua; Pan, Yufang; Jiang, Haibo; Wan, Xia; Jin, Hu; Gong, Yangmin

    2018-03-01

    N ε -lysine acetylation represents a highly dynamic and reversibly regulated post-translational modification widespread in almost all organisms, and plays important roles for regulation of protein function in diverse metabolic pathways. However, little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in photosynthetic eukaryotic microalgae. We integrated proteomic approaches to comprehensively characterize the lysine acetylome in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum In total, 2324 acetylation sites from 1220 acetylated proteins were identified, representing the largest data set of the lysine acetylome in plants to date. Almost all enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis were found to be lysine acetylated. Six putative lysine acetylation sites were identified in a plastid-localized long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. Site-directed mutagenesis and site-specific incorporation of N-acetyllysine in acyl-CoA synthetase show that acetylation at K407 and K425 increases its enzyme activity. Moreover, the nonenzymatically catalyzed overall hyperacetylation of acyl-CoA synthetase by acetyl-phosphate can be effectively deacetylated and reversed by a sirtuin-type NAD + -dependent deacetylase with subcellular localization of both the plastid and nucleus in Phaeodactylum This work indicates the regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase activity by site-specific lysine acetylation and highlights the potential regulation of fatty acid metabolism by lysine actetylation in the plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum . © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Lysine Fermentation: History and Genome Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato

    Lysine fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum was developed in 1958 by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. (current Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd.) and is the second oldest amino acid fermentation process after glutamate fermentation. The fundamental mechanism of lysine production, discovered in the early stages of the process's history, gave birth to the concept known as "metabolic regulatory fermentation," which is now widely applied to metabolite production. After the development of rational metabolic engineering, research on lysine production first highlighted the need for engineering of the central metabolism from the viewpoints of precursor supply and NADPH regeneration. Furthermore, the existence of active export systems for amino acids was first demonstrated for lysine in C. glutamicum, and this discovery has resulted in the current recognition of such exporters as an important consideration in metabolite production. Lysine fermentation is also notable as the first process to which genomics was successfully applied to improve amino acid production. The first global "genome breeding" strategy was developed using a lysine producer as a model; this has since led to new lysine producers that are more efficient than classical industrial producers. These advances in strain development technology, combined with recent systems-level approaches, have almost achieved the optimization of entire cellular systems as cell factories for lysine production. In parallel, the continuous improvement of the process has resulted not only in fermentation processes with reduced load on downstream processing but also in commercialization of various product forms according to their intended uses. Nowadays lysine fermentation underpins a giant lysine demand of more than 2 million metric tons per year.

  16. Protein recycling in growing rabbits: contribution of microbial lysine to amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, Alvaro; Balcells, Joaquim; Guada, Jose A; Decoux, Marc; Milne, Eric

    2005-11-01

    To study the absorption of microbial lysine in growing rabbits, a labelled diet (supplemented with (15)NH4Cl) was administered to six animals (group ISOT); a control group (CTRL, four rabbits) received a similar, but unlabelled, diet. Diets were administered for 30 d. An additional group of six animals were fed the unlabelled diet for 20 d and then the labelled diet for 10 d while wearing a neck collar to avoid caecotrophy (group COLL), in order to discriminate it from direct intestinal absorption. At day 30 animals were slaughtered and caecal bacteria and liver samples taken. The (15)N enrichment in amino acids of caecal bacteria and liver were determined by GC-combustion/isotope ratio MS. Lysine showed a higher enrichment in caecal microflora (0.925 atom% excess, APE) than liver (0.215 APE) in group ISOT animals, confirming the double origin of body lysine: microbial and dietary. The COLL group showed a much lower enrichment in tissue lysine (0.007 (se 0.0029) APE for liver). Any enrichment in the latter animals was due to direct absorption of microbial lysine along the digestive tract, since recycling of microbial protein (caecotrophy) was avoided. In such conditions liver enrichment was low, indicating a small direct intestinal absorption. From the ratio of [(15)N]lysine enrichment between liver and bacteria the contribution of microbes to body lysine was estimated at 23 %, with 97 % of this arising through caecotrophy. Absorption of microbial lysine through caecotrophy was 119 (se 4.0) mg/d, compared with 406 (se 1.8) mg/d available from the diet. This study confirms the importance of caecotrophy in rabbit nutrition (15 % of total protein intake).

  17. Synthesis and characterization of arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides conjugated poly(lactic acid-co-L-lysine) diblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan; Qi, Xueliang; Liu, Peifeng; Shen, Xinyuan; Duan, Yourong

    2008-03-01

    A biodegradable Copolymer of poly(lactic acid-co-lysine)(PLA-PLL) was synthesized by a modified method and novel Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic (RGD) peptides were chemical conjugated to the primary epsilon-amine groups of lysine components in four steps: I to prepare the monomer of 3-(Nepsilon-benzoxycarbonyl-L-lysine)-6-L-methyl-2,5-morpholinedione; II to prepare diblock copolymer poly(lactic acid-co-(Z)-L-lysine) (PLA-PLL(Z)) by ring-opening polymerization of monomer and L,L-lactide with stannous octoate as initiator; III to prepare diblock copolymer PLA-PLL by deprotected the copolymer PLA-PLL(Z) in HBr/HoAc solution; IV the reaction between RGD and the primary epsilon-amine groups of the PLA-PLL. The structure of PLA-PLL-RGD and its precursors were conformed by FTIR-Raman and 1H NMR. Low weight average molecular weight (9,200 g/mol) of the PLA-PLL was obtained and its PDI is 1.33 determined by GPC. The PLA-PLL contained 2.1 mol% lysine groups as determined by 1H NMR using the lysine protecting group's phenyl protons. Therefore, the novel RGD-grafted diblock copolymer is expected to find application in drug carriers for tumor therapy or non-viral DNA carriers for gene therapy.

  18. Study on mutual interactions and electronic structures of hyaluronan with Lysine, 6-Aminocaproic acid and Arginine.

    PubMed

    Chytil, Martin; Trojan, Martin; Kovalenko, Alexander

    2016-05-20

    Interactions between polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants have been in a great interest for several decades, yet the conventional surfactants may cause a problem in medical applications. Interactivity between polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) and amino acids Lysine, 6-Aminocaproic acid (6-AcA), and Arginine as an alternative system is reported. The interactions were investigated by means of rheology and electric conductance and the electronic structures were explored by the density functional theory (DFT). Lysine exhibits the strongest interaction of all, which was manifested, e.g. by nearly 6-time drop of the initial viscosity comparing with only 1.3-time lower value in the case of 6-AcA. Arginine interaction with HA was surprisingly weaker in terms of viscosity than that of Lysine due to a lower and delocalized charge density on its guanidine group. According to the DFT calculations, the binding of Lysine to HA was found to be more flexible, while Arginine creates more rigid structure with HA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Availability of the Limiting Amino Acids Lysine and Tryptophan in Cooked White African Cornmeal Assessed in Healthy Young Men Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2018-06-01

    Maize is a staple food in many regions of the world, particularly in Africa and Latin America. However, maize protein is limiting in the indispensable amino acids lysine and tryptophan, making its protein of poor quality. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein quality of white African cornmeal by determining the metabolic availability (MA) of lysine and tryptophan. To determine the MA of lysine, 4 amounts of l-lysine (10, 13, 16, and 18 mg · kg-1 · d-1 totaling 28.6%, 37.1%, 45.7%, and 51.4% of the mean lysine requirement of 35 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively) were studied in 6 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. To determine the MA of tryptophan, 4 amounts of l-tryptophan (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg · kg-1 · d-1 totaling 12.5%, 25.0%, 37.5%, and 50.0% of the mean tryptophan requirement of 4 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively) were studied in 7 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. The MAs of lysine and tryptophan were estimated by comparing the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) response with varying intakes of lysine and tryptophan in cooked white cornmeal compared with the IAAO response to l-lysine and l-tryptophan intakes in the reference protein (crystalline amino acid mixture patterned after egg protein) with the use of the slope ratio method. The MAs of lysine and tryptophan from African cooked white cornmeal were 71% and 80%, respectively. Our study provides a robust estimate of the availability of lysine and tryptophan in African white maize to healthy young men. This estimate provides a basis for postproduction fortification or supplementation of maize-based diets. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402179.

  20. Effect of l-lysine-assisted surface grafting for nano-hydroxyapatite on mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Liuyun, Jiang; Lixin, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lijuan, Xu; Ye, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is promising and challenging to study surface modification for nano-hydroxyapatite to improve the dispersion and enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). In this paper, we designed an effective new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite, and the nano-hydroxyapatite surface grafted with the assist of l-lysine (g-nano-hydroxyapatite) was incorporated into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) to develop a series of g-nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nano-composites. The surface modification reaction for nano-hydroxyapatite, the mechanical properties, and in vitro human osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) response were characterized and investigated by Fourier transformation infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, dispersion test, electromechanical universal tester, differential scanning calorimeter measurements, and in vitro cells culture experiment. The results showed that the grafting amount on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite was enhanced with the increase of l-lysine, and the dispersion of nano-hydroxyapatite was improved more, so that it brought about better promotion crystallization and more excellent mechanical enhancement effect for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), comparing with the unmodified nano-hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the cells' attachment and proliferation results confirmed that the incorporation of the g-nano-hydroxyapatite into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) exhibited better biocompatibility than poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). The above results indicated that the new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite was an ideal novel surface modification method, which brought about better mechanical enhancement effect and in vitro bioactivity for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) with adding higher g-nano-hydroxyapatite content, suggesting it had a great potential to be used as bone fracture internal fixation materials

  1. Effects of single oral doses of lysine clonixinate and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet functions in man.

    PubMed

    Pallapies, D; Muhs, A; Bertram, L; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1996-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate is an analgesic drug with a so far unknown mechanism of action. We have determined its effect on platelet cyclooxygenase in man. Biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)B2 and prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha in clotting whole blood ex vivo as well as collagen-induced platelet aggregation measured before and at various time points after oral administration of 125 mg lysine clonixinate were compared to results obtained with 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). While biosynthesis of both TXB2 and PGF2 alpha measured radioimmunologically was inhibited significantly 2.5 h, but not 6 h, after administration of lysine clonixinate, inhibition by ASA was much greater and still highly significant after 48 h. Similarly, collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma was inhibited for a longer period and to a greater extent after administration of ASA than after lysine clonixinate. Our results indicate that lysine clonixinate is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor of moderate potency. It remains to be investigated whether mechanisms other than inhibition of cyclooxygenase contribute to the analgesic activity of lysine clonixinate.

  2. The structure, vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical properties of the L-lysine × tartaric acid complex—Theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, M.; Marchewka, M. K.

    2006-05-01

    The room temperature X-ray studies of L-lysine × tartaric acid complex are not unambiguous. The disorder of three atoms of carbon in L-lysine molecule is observed. These X-ray studies are ambiguous. The theoretical geometry study performed by DFT methods explain the most doubts which are connected with crystallographic measurements. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and potential energy distribution (PED) of L-lysine × tartaric acid were calculated by B3LYP method. The calculated frequencies were compared with experimental measured IR spectra. The complete assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The restricted Hartee-Fock (RHF) methods were used for calculation of the hyperpolarizability for investigated compound. The theoretical results are compared with experimental value of β.

  3. Short peptides containing L-lysine and epsilon-aminocaproic acid as potential plasmin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Purwin, M; Bruzgo, I; Markowska, A; Midura-Nowaczek, K

    2009-11-01

    Eight short peptides containing L-lysine and epsilon-aminocaproic acid were obtained and their effect on the amidolytic activities of plasmin, thrombin and trypsin was examined. Tripeptide amide Boc-EACA-L-Lys-EACA-NH2 was the most effective and specific plasmin inhibitor.

  4. The effect of amino acid lysine and methionine addition on feed toward the growth and retention on mud crab (Scylla serrata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alissianto, Y. R.; Sandriani, Z. A.; Rahardja, B. S.; Agustono; Rozi

    2018-04-01

    High market demand of mud crab (Scylla serrata) encourages farmers to increase the production of mud crab. However, mud crab can not synthesize essential amino acids, so it is necessary to supply essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine in the diet. This study aims to determine the effect of lysine and methionine on feeds to increase growth and retention of mud crabs (Scylla serrata). In this study the amount of lysine amino acid and methionine added to the trash fish diet were: P0 (0: 0%); P1 (0.75: 0.75%); P2 (1: 1%); P3 (1.25: 1.25%); P4 (1.5: 1.5%) with the ratio of lysine and methionine 1: 1. The parameters observed in this study were Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Efficiency Feed (EF), protein retention and energy retention. The results of the 35-day maintenance study showed significant differences (P <0.05) against Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Efficiency Feed (EF), protein retention and no significant effect (P> 0.05) on energy retention and Survival Rate (SR) on mud crab. The best results in this study were found in P4 treatment with addition of lysine amino acids and methionine (1.5: 1.5%).

  5. An economically and environmentally acceptable synthesis of chiral drug intermediate L-pipecolic acid from biomass-derived lysine via artificially engineered microbes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Huang, Yuding; Mi, Le; Chen, Wujiu; Wang, Dan; Wang, Qinhong

    2018-05-10

    Deficiency in petroleum resources and increasing environmental concerns have pushed a bio-based economy to be built, employing a highly reproducible, metal contaminant free, sustainable and green biomanufacturing method. Here, a chiral drug intermediate L-pipecolic acid has been synthesized from biomass-derived lysine. This artificial bioconversion system involves the coexpression of four functional genes, which encode L-lysine α-oxidase from Scomber japonicus, glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis, Δ 1 -piperideine-2-carboxylase reductase from Pseudomonas putida, and lysine permease from Escherichia coli. Besides, a lysine degradation enzyme has been knocked out to strengthen the process in this microbe. The overexpression of LysP improved the L-pipecolic acid titer about 1.6-folds compared to the control. This engineered microbial factory showed the highest L-pipecolic acid production of 46.7 g/L reported to date and a higher productivity of 2.41 g/L h and a yield of 0.89 g/g. This biotechnological L-pipecolic acid production is a simple, economic, and green technology to replace the presently used chemical synthesis.

  6. Novel α-Oxoamide Advanced-Glycation Endproducts within the N6-Carboxymethyl Lysine and N6-Carboxyethyl Lysine Reaction Cascades.

    PubMed

    Baldensperger, Tim; Jost, Tobias; Zipprich, Alexander; Glomb, Marcus A

    2018-02-28

    The highly reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal are major precursors of posttranslational protein modifications in vivo. Model incubations of N 2 -t-Boc-lysine and either glyoxal or methylglyoxal were used to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the N 6 -carboxymethyl lysine and N 6 -carboxyethyl lysine reaction cascades. After independent synthesis of the authentic reference standards, we were able to detect N 6 -glyoxylyl lysine and N 6 -pyruvoyl lysine for the first time by HPLC-MS 2 analyses. These two novel amide advanced-glycation endproducts were exclusively formed under aerated conditions, suggesting that they were potent markers for oxidative stress. Analogous to the well-known Strecker degradation pathway, leading from amino acids to Strecker acids, the oxidation of an enaminol intermediate is suggested to be the key mechanistic step. A highly sensitive workup for the determination of AGEs in tissues was developed. In support of our hypothesis, the levels of N 6 -glyoxylyl lysine and N 6 -pyruvoyl lysine in rat livers indeed correlated with liver cirrhosis and aging.

  7. Boosting Anaplerotic Reactions by Pyruvate Kinase Gene Deletion and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Desensitization for Glutamic Acid and Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Atsushi; Sawada, Kazunori; Wada, Masaru

    In the 1980s, Shiio and coworkers demonstrated using random mutagenesis that the following three phenotypes were effective for boosting lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: (1) low-activity-level citrate synthase (CS L ), (2) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) resistant to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid (PEPC R ), and (3) pyruvate kinase (PYK) deficiency. Here, we reevaluated these phenotypes and their interrelationship in lysine production using recombinant DNA techniques.The pyk deletion and PEPC R (D299N in ppc) independently showed marginal effects on lysine production, but both phenotypes synergistically increased lysine yield, demonstrating the importance of PEPC as an anaplerotic enzyme in lysine production. Similar effects were also found for glutamic acid production. CS L (S252C in gltA) further increased lysine yield. Thus, using molecular techniques, the combination of these three phenotypes was reconfirmed to be effective for lysine production. However, a simple CS L mutant showed instabilities in growth and lysine yield.Surprisingly, the pyk deletion was found to increase biomass production in wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032 under biotin-sufficient conditions. The mutant showed a 37% increase in growth (based on OD 660 ) compared with the ATCC13032 strain in a complex medium containing 100 g/L glucose. Metabolome analysis revealed the intracellular accumulation of excess precursor metabolites. Thus, their conversion into biomass was considered to relieve the metabolic distortion in the pyk-deleted mutant. Detailed physiological studies of various pyk-deleted mutants also suggested that malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO) is important to control both the intracellular oxaloacetic acid (OAA) level and respiration rate. These findings may facilitate the rational use of C. glutamicum in fermentation industries.

  8. Topological dispositions of lysine. alpha. 380 and lysine. gamma. 486 in the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1991-04-23

    The locations have been determined, with respect to the plasma membrane, of lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 in the {alpha} subunit and the {gamma} subunit, respectively, of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. Immunoadsorbents were constructed that recognize the carboxy terminus of the peptide GVKYIAE released by proteolytic digestion from positions 378-384 in the amino acid sequence of the {alpha} subunit of the acetylcholine receptor and the carboxy terminus of the peptide KYVP released by proteolytic digestion from positions 486-489 in the amino acid sequence of the {gamma} subunit. They were used to isolate these peptides from proteolytic digestsmore » of polypeptides from the acetylcholine receptor. Sealed vesicles containing the native acetylcholine receptor were labeled with pyridoxal phosphate and sodium ({sup 3}H)-borohydride. The effect of saponin on the incorporation of pyridoxamine phosphate into lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 from the acetylcholine receptor in these vesicles was assessed with the immunoadsorbents. The conclusions that follow from these results are that lysine {alpha}380 is on the inside surface of a vesicle and lysine {gamma}486 is on the outside surface. Because a majority (85%) of the total binding sites for {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind the toxin in the absence of saponin, the majority of the vesicles are right side out with the inside of the vesicle corresponding to the cytoplasmic surface and the outside of the vesicle corresponding to the extracytoplasmic, synaptic surface. Because lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 lie on opposite sides of the membrane, a membrane-spanning segment must be located between the two positions occupied by these two amino acids in the common sequence of a polypeptide of the acetylcholine receptor.« less

  9. X-ray studies on crystalline complexes involving amino acids and peptides. XXXII. Effect of chirality on ionisation state, stoichiometry and aggregation in the complexes of oxalic acid with DL- and L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, J; Prabu, M M; Vijayan, M

    1997-08-01

    Crystals of the oxalic acid complex of DL-lysine (triclinic P1; a = 5.540(1), b = 10.764(2), c = 12.056(2) A, alpha = 77.8(1), beta = 80.6(1), gamma = 75.6(1).; R = 4.7% for 2023 observed reflections) contain lysine and semioxalate ions in the 1:1 ratio, whereas the ratio of lysine and semioxalate/oxalate ions is 2:3 in the crystals of the L-lysine complex (monoclinic P2(1); alpha = 4.906(1), b = 20.145(4), c = 12.455(1) A, beta = 92.5(1).; R = 4.4% for 1494 observed reflections). The amino acid molecule in the L-lysine complex has an unusual ionisation state with positively charged alpha- and side-chain amino groups and a neutral carboxyl group. The unlike molecules aggregate into separate alternating layers in the DL-lysine complex in a manner similar to that observed in several of the amino acid complexes. The L-lysine complex exhibits a new aggregation pattern which cannot be easily explained in terms of planar features, thus emphasizing the fundamental dependence of aggregation on molecular characteristics. Despite the differences in stoichiometry, ionisation state and long-range aggregation patterns, the basic element of aggregation in the two complexes exhibits considerable similarity.

  10. The effect of antioxidants on quantitative changes of lysine and methionine in linoleic acid emulsions at different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Plants are an important source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of green tea, thyme and rosemary extracts that contain these compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in emulsions and inhibit the interaction of lipid oxidation products with amino acids. Therefore, the influence of green tea, thyme and rosemary extracts and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) on quantitative changes in lysine and methionine in linoleic acid emulsions at a pH of isoelectric point and a pH lower than the isoelectric point of amino acids was investigated. Total phenolic contents in plant extracts were determined spectrophotometrically by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, and individual phenols by using HPLC. The level of oxidation of emulsion was determined using the measurement of peroxides and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances). Methionine and lysine in the system were reacted with sodium nitroprusside and trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid respectively, and the absorbance of the complexes was measured. Extract of green tea had the highest total polyphenol content. The system containing antioxidants and amino acid protected linoleic acid more efficiently than by the addition of antioxidants only. Lysine and methionine losses in samples without the addition of antioxidants were lower in their isoelectric points than below these points. Antioxidants decrease the loss of amino acids. The protective properties of antioxidants towards methionine were higher in a pH of isoelectric point whereas towards lysine in pH below this point. Green tea, thyme and rosemary extracts exhibit antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsions. Moreover, they can be utilized to inhibit quantitative changes in amino acids in lipid emulsions. However, the antioxidant efficiency of these extracts seems to depend on pH conditions. Further investigations should be carried out to clarify this issue.

  11. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  12. Arginine and Lysine Transporters Are Essential for Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Christoph; Macêdo, Juan P; Hürlimann, Daniel; Wirdnam, Corina; Haindrich, Alexander C; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; González-Salgado, Amaia; Schmidt, Remo S; Inbar, Ehud; Mäser, Pascal; Bütikofer, Peter; Zilberstein, Dan; Rentsch, Doris

    2017-01-01

    For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly. TbAAT16-1 is a high affinity (Km 4.3 ± 0.5 μM) and highly selective L-lysine transporter and of the compounds tested, only L-lysine and thialysine were competing for L-lysine uptake. TbAAT5-3 and TbAAT16-1 are expressed in both procyclic and bloodstream form T. brucei and cMyc-tagged proteins indicate localization at the plasma membrane. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TbAAT5 and TbAAT16 in bloodstream form trypanosomes resulted in growth arrest, demonstrating that TbAAT5-mediated arginine and TbAAT16-mediated lysine transport are essential for T. brucei. Growth of induced RNAi lines could partially be rescued by supplementing a surplus of arginine or lysine, respectively, while addition of both amino acids was less efficient. Single and double RNAi lines indicate that additional low affinity uptake systems for arginine and lysine are present in T. brucei.

  13. Arginine and Lysine Transporters Are Essential for Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Daniel; Wirdnam, Corina; Haindrich, Alexander C.; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; González-Salgado, Amaia; Schmidt, Remo S.; Inbar, Ehud; Mäser, Pascal; Bütikofer, Peter; Zilberstein, Dan; Rentsch, Doris

    2017-01-01

    For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly. TbAAT16-1 is a high affinity (Km 4.3 ± 0.5 μM) and highly selective L-lysine transporter and of the compounds tested, only L-lysine and thialysine were competing for L-lysine uptake. TbAAT5-3 and TbAAT16-1 are expressed in both procyclic and bloodstream form T. brucei and cMyc-tagged proteins indicate localization at the plasma membrane. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TbAAT5 and TbAAT16 in bloodstream form trypanosomes resulted in growth arrest, demonstrating that TbAAT5-mediated arginine and TbAAT16-mediated lysine transport are essential for T. brucei. Growth of induced RNAi lines could partially be rescued by supplementing a surplus of arginine or lysine, respectively, while addition of both amino acids was less efficient. Single and double RNAi lines indicate that additional low affinity uptake systems for arginine and lysine are present in T. brucei. PMID:28045943

  14. Global profiling of lysine reactivity and ligandability in the human proteome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Stephan M.; Backus, Keriann M.; Lazear, Michael R.; Forli, Stefano; Correia, Bruno E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2017-12-01

    Nucleophilic amino acids make important contributions to protein function, including performing key roles in catalysis and serving as sites for post-translational modification. Electrophilic groups that target amino-acid nucleophiles have been used to create covalent ligands and drugs, but have, so far, been mainly limited to cysteine and serine. Here, we report a chemical proteomic platform for the global and quantitative analysis of lysine residues in native biological systems. We have quantified, in total, more than 9,000 lysines in human cell proteomes and have identified several hundred residues with heightened reactivity that are enriched at protein functional sites and can frequently be targeted by electrophilic small molecules. We have also discovered lysine-reactive fragment electrophiles that inhibit enzymes by active site and allosteric mechanisms, as well as disrupt protein-protein interactions in transcriptional regulatory complexes, emphasizing the broad potential and diverse functional consequences of liganding lysine residues throughout the human proteome.

  15. Global profiling of lysine reactivity and ligandability in the human proteome.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Backus, Keriann M; Lazear, Michael R; Forli, Stefano; Correia, Bruno E; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2017-12-01

    Nucleophilic amino acids make important contributions to protein function, including performing key roles in catalysis and serving as sites for post-translational modification. Electrophilic groups that target amino-acid nucleophiles have been used to create covalent ligands and drugs, but have, so far, been mainly limited to cysteine and serine. Here, we report a chemical proteomic platform for the global and quantitative analysis of lysine residues in native biological systems. We have quantified, in total, more than 9,000 lysines in human cell proteomes and have identified several hundred residues with heightened reactivity that are enriched at protein functional sites and can frequently be targeted by electrophilic small molecules. We have also discovered lysine-reactive fragment electrophiles that inhibit enzymes by active site and allosteric mechanisms, as well as disrupt protein-protein interactions in transcriptional regulatory complexes, emphasizing the broad potential and diverse functional consequences of liganding lysine residues throughout the human proteome.

  16. Effects of dietary valine:lysine ratio on the performance, amino acid composition of tissues and mRNA expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism of weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye Tong; Ma, Xiao Kang; Wang, Chun Lin; Yuan, Ming Feng; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) weaned at 28±4 days of age (8.79±0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine:lysine ratios of 50%, 60%, 70%, or 80%. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 6 pigs per pen (3 gilts and 3 barrows) for 28 days. Results Average daily gain increased quadratically (p<0.05), the villous height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum increased linearly (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. The concentrations of plasma α-keto isovaleric and valine increased linearly (p<0.05), plasma aspartate, asparagine and cysteine decreased (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. An increase in SID lysine:valine levels increased mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in the longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Conclusion Using a quadratic model, a SID valine:lysine ratio of 68% was shown to maximize the growth of weaned pigs which is slightly higher than the level recommended by the National Research Council [6]. PMID:28728397

  17. Role of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase in catabolism of lysine as a nitrogen source for Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed Central

    Kinzel, J J; Winston, M K; Bhattacharjee, J K

    1983-01-01

    Wild-type and saccharopine dehydrogenaseless mutant strains of Rhodotorula glutinis grew in minimal medium containing lysine as the sole nitrogen source and simultaneously accumulated, in the culture supernatant, large amounts of a product identified as alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde. The saccharopine dehydrogenase and pipecolic acid oxidase levels remained unchanged in wild-type cells grown in the presence of ammonium or lysine as the nitrogen source. Lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity was demonstrated in ammonium-grown cells. This activity was depressed in cells grown in the presence of lysine as the sole source of nitrogen. PMID:6408065

  18. The Crucial Role of Early Mitochondrial Injury in L-Lysine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Biczó, György; Hegyi, Péter; Dósa, Sándor; Shalbuyeva, Natalia; Berczi, Sándor; Sinervirta, Riitta; Hracskó, Zsuzsanna; Siska, Andrea; Kukor, Zoltán; Jármay, Katalin; Venglovecz, Viktória; Varga, Ilona S.; Iványi, Béla; Alhonen, Leena; Wittmann, Tibor; Gukovskaya, Anna; Takács, Tamás

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims Large doses of intraperitoneally injected basic amino acids, L-arginine, or L-ornithine, induce acute pancreatitis in rodents, although the mechanisms mediating pancreatic toxicity remain unknown. Another basic amino acid, L-lysine, was also shown to cause pancreatic acinar cell injury. The aim of the study was to get insight into the mechanisms through which L-lysine damages the rat exocrine pancreas, in particular to characterize the kinetics of L-lysine-induced mitochondrial injury, as well as the pathologic responses (including alteration of antioxidant systems) characteristic of acute pancreatitis. Results We showed that intraperitoneal administration of 2 g/kg L-lysine induced severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. L-lysine administration caused early pancreatic mitochondrial damage that preceded the activation of trypsinogen and the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are commonly thought to play an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis. Our data demonstrate that L-lysine impairs adenosine triphosphate synthase activity of isolated pancreatic, but not liver, mitochondria. Innovation and Conclusion Taken together, early mitochondrial injury caused by large doses of L-lysine may lead to the development of acute pancreatitis independently of pancreatic trypsinogen and NF-κB activation. PMID:21644850

  19. Synthesis of pro-prodrugs L-lysine based for 5-aminosalicylic acid and 6-mercaptopurine colon specific release.

    PubMed

    Trombino, Sonia; Cassano, Roberta; Cilea, Alessia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Muzzalupo, Rita; Picci, Nevio

    2011-11-28

    The aim of this work is to design, prepare and characterize L-lysine based prodrugs capable of targeting 6-mercaptopurine to the colon, an anti-tumor and immunosuppressant drug, and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), drug of choice for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More specifically, Nɛ-feruloyl-S-(6-purinyl)-L-lysine and Nɛ-acryloyl-S-(6-purinyl)-L-lysine were synthesized and then characterized by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and GC/MS spectroscopies. The ability of feruloyl derivative in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes, induced in vitro by tert-butyl hydroperoxide as source of free radicals, was evaluated. Moreover, Nɛ-acryloyl-S-(6-purinyl)-L-lysine, polymerizable prodrug, was used to microspheres realization for 5-ASA release. These lasts, obtained by emulsion inverse technique, were characterized by light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The microspheres equilibrium swelling degree was evaluated and showed good swelling behaviour in simulating colonic fluids. Results confirm the possibility that the application range of L-lysine prodrug can be extended to the treatment of intestinal diseases whose conventional therapy envisages medications with serious side effects that, thanks to this new strategy, can be minimized in an optimal way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of peptides from amino acids and ATP with lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the synthesis of peptides from aminoacids and ATP with a lysine-rich protenoid. The latter in aqueous solution catalyzes the formation of peptides from free amino acids and ATP; this catalytic activity is not found in acidic protenoids, even though the latter contain a basic aminoacid. The pH optimum for the synthesis is about 11, but it is appreciable below 8 and above 13. Temperature data indicate an optimum at 20 C or above, with little increase in rate up to 60 C. Pyrophosphate can be used instead of ATP, but the yields are lower. The ATP-aided syntheses of peptides in aqueous solution occur with several types of proteinous aminoacids.

  1. Free amino acids hydroxyproline, lysine, and glycine promote differentiation of retinal pericytes to adipocytes: A protective role against proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Vidhya, S; Ramya, R; Coral, K; Sulochana, K N; Bharathidevi, S R

    2018-05-10

    This study was conducted to estimate the aminoacid levels in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and to correlate it with the adiponectin levels. Secondly to test if these amino acids can alter or induce adiponectin levels and its related factors in retinal cells like pericyte as an in vitro model. All human studies were done as per declaration of Helsinki with institutional approval and after obtaining consent from participating individuals. The vitreous amino acids were estimated in PDR (Proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and MH (Macular Hole) as disease control using HPLC. Bovine retinal pericytes (BRP) were cultured in DMEM/F12 medium and treated with 0.5 mM of any one of the individual amino acids (proline, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, alanine, serine, glycine, lysine, isoleucine or valine) along with 100 nM insulin for 14 days in high glucose (25 mM) condition. The mRNA expression profile of adipogenic markers (such as Pref1, APN, ZAG and PPARγ), angiogenic markers (VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9, TGF-β) and antioxidant markers (Nrf2 and UCP-2) were evaluated by qPCR. Adipogenesis was further confirmed by adipogenesis assay, secretion of adiponectin in medium and triglyceride accumulation by Oil red O staining in Bovine retinal pericytes. Amino acids valine (p < 0.004), isoleucine (p < 0.0007), leucine (p < 0.022), serine (p < 0.0007), glycine (p < 0.001), alanine (p < 0.017), phenylalanine (p < 0.013), and lysine (p < 0.001) were significantly elevated in the vitreous of PDR group (n = 30) when compared to macular hole (n = 20). There was a significant positive correlation between serine (p < 0.021), alanine (p < 0.00016), phenylalanine (p < 0.04), isoleucine (p < 0.023), leucine (p < 0.043), and lysine (p < 0.026) with adiponectin level in the vitreous. The amino acids hydroxyproline, proline, lysine, glycine and alanine induced the triglyceride accumulation and

  2. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  3. l-lysine production by Bacillus methanolicus: Genome-based mutational analysis and l-lysine secretion engineering.

    PubMed

    Nærdal, Ingemar; Netzer, Roman; Irla, Marta; Krog, Anne; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve

    2017-02-20

    Bacillus methanolicus is a methylotrophic bacterium with an increasing interest in academic research and for biotechnological applications. This bacterium was previously applied for methanol-based production of l-glutamate, l-lysine and the five-carbon diamine cadaverine by wild type, classical mutant and recombinant strains. The genomes of two different l-lysine secreting B. methanolicus classical mutant strains, NOA2#13A52-8A66 and M168-20, were sequenced. We focused on mutational mapping in genes present in l-lysine and other relevant amino acid biosynthetic pathways, as well as in the primary cell metabolism important for precursor supply. In addition to mutations in the aspartate pathway genes dapG, lysA and hom-1, new mutational target genes like alr, proA, proB1, leuC, odhA and pdhD were identified. Surprisingly, no mutations were found in the putative l-lysine transporter gene lysE MGA3 . Inspection of the wild type B. methanolicus strain PB1 genome sequence identified two homologous putative l-lysine transporter genes, lysE PB1 and lysE2 PB1 . The biological role of these putative l-lysine transporter genes, together with the heterologous l-lysine exporter gene lysE Cg from Corynebacterium glutamicum, were therefore investigated. Our results demonstrated that the titer of secreted l-lysine in B. methanolicus was significantly increased by overexpression of lysE Cg while overexpression of lysE MGA3 , lysE PB1 and lysE2 PB1 had no measurable effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Complementary dietary treatment using lysine-free, arginine-fortified amino acid supplements in glutaric aciduria type I - A decade of experience.

    PubMed

    Kölker, Stefan; Boy, S P Nikolas; Heringer, Jana; Müller, Edith; Maier, Esther M; Ensenauer, Regina; Mühlhausen, Chris; Schlune, Andrea; Greenberg, Cheryl R; Koeller, David M; Hoffmann, Georg F; Haege, Gisela; Burgard, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The cerebral formation and entrapment of neurotoxic dicarboxylic metabolites (glutaryl-CoA, glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid) are considered to be important pathomechanisms of striatal injury in glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I). The quantitatively most important precursor of these metabolites is lysine. Recommended therapeutic interventions aim to reduce lysine oxidation (low lysine diet, emergency treatment to minimize catabolism) and to enhance physiologic detoxification of glutaryl-CoA via formation of glutarylcarnitine (carnitine supplementation). It has been recently shown in Gcdh(-/-) mice that cerebral lysine influx and oxidation can be modulated by arginine which competes with lysine for transport at the blood-brain barrier and the inner mitochondrial membrane [Sauer et al., Brain 134 (2011) 157-170]. Furthermore, short-term outcome of 12 children receiving arginine-fortified diet showed very promising results [Strauss et al., Mol. Genet. Metab. 104 (2011) 93-106]. Since lysine-free, arginine-fortified amino acid supplements (AAS) are commercially available and used in Germany for more than a decade, we evaluated the effect of arginine supplementation in a cohort of 34 neonatally diagnosed GA-I patients (median age, 7.43 years; cumulative follow-up period, 221.6 patient years) who received metabolic treatment according to a published guideline [Kölker et al., J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30 (2007) 5-22]. Patients used one of two AAS product lines during the first year of life, resulting in differences in arginine consumption [group 1 (Milupa Metabolics): mean=111 mg arginine/kg; group 2 (Nutricia): mean=145 mg arginine/kg; p<0.001]. However, in both groups the daily arginine intake was increased (mean, 137 mg/kg body weight) and the dietary lysine-to-arginine ratio was decreased (mean, 0.7) compared to infants receiving human milk and other natural foods only. All other dietary parameters were in the same range. Despite significantly different arginine intake

  5. Pharmacokinetic investigations in adult humans after parenteral administration of the lysine salt of acetyl-salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    von Voss, H; Göbel, U; Petrich, C; Pütter, J

    1978-11-15

    The lysine salt of acetylsalicylic acid was administered intravenously to four volunteers and intramuscularly to three of them. The drug was tolerated without any observed side effects. Immediately after intravenous application most of the plasma salicylate was acetylsalicylic acid. The highest concentration of acetylsalicylic acid was found after 2 minutes, highest levels of salicylic acid after 60 minutes. Elimination of acetylsalicylic acid was relatively quick within the first period after intravenous administration according to a half-life of 8 minutes. Half-life of salicylic acid was determined to be 3 hours. Intramuscular application results in a constant blood level for a longer period. Bioavailability of acetylsalicylic acid was slightly lower after intramuscular application than after intravenous administration.

  6. Investigation of Lysine-Functionalized Dendrimers as Dichlorvos Detoxification Agents.

    PubMed

    Durán-Lara, Esteban F; Marple, Jennifer L; Giesen, Joseph A; Fang, Yunlan; Jordan, Jacobs H; Godbey, W Terrence; Marican, Adolfo; Santos, Leonardo S; Grayson, Scott M

    2015-11-09

    Lysine-containing polymers have seen broad application due to their amines' inherent ability to bind to a range of biologically relevant molecules. The synthesis of multiple generations of polyester dendrimers bearing lysine groups on their periphery is described in this report. Their hydrolytic stabilities with respect to pH and time, their toxicity to a range of cell lines, and their possible application as nano-detoxification agents of organophosphate compounds are all investigated. These zeroth-, first-, and second-generation water-soluble dendrimers have been designed to bear exactly 4, 8, and 16 lysine groups, respectively, on their dendritic periphery. Such monodisperse bioactive polymers show potential for a range of applications including drug delivery, gene delivery, heavy metal binding, and the sequestration of organic toxins. These monodisperse bioactive dendrimers were synthesized using an aliphatic ester dendritic core (prepared from pentaerythritol) and protected amino acid moieties. This library of lysine-conjugated dendrimers showed the ability to efficiently capture the pesticide dichlorvos, confirming the potential of dendrimer-based antidotes to maintain acetylcholinesterase activity in response to poisoning events.

  7. Global Profiling of Protein Lysine Malonylation in Escherichia coli Reveals Its Role in Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Nie, Litong; Chen, Ming; Liu, Ping; Zhu, Jun; Zhai, Linhui; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhao, Yingming; Tan, Minjia

    2016-06-03

    Protein lysine malonylation is a recently identified post-translational modification (PTM), which is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals. Although analysis of lysine malonylome in mammalians suggested that this modification was related to energy metabolism, the substrates and biological roles of malonylation in prokaryotes are still poorly understood. In this study, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses to globally identify lysine malonylation substrates in Escherichia coli. We identified 1745 malonylation sites in 594 proteins in E. coli, representing the first and largest malonylome data set in prokaryotes up to date. Bioinformatic analyses showed that lysine malonylation was significantly enriched in protein translation, energy metabolism pathways and fatty acid biosynthesis, implying the potential roles of protein malonylation in bacterial physiology. Quantitative proteomics by fatty acid synthase inhibition in both auxotrophic and prototrophic E. coli strains revealed that lysine malonylation is closely associated with E. coli fatty acid metabolism. Protein structural analysis and mutagenesis experiment suggested malonylation could impact enzymatic activity of citrate synthase, a key enzyme in citric acid (TCA) cycle. Further comparative analysis among lysine malonylome, succinylome and acetylome data showed that these three modifications could participate in some similar enriched metabolism pathways, but they could also possibly play distinct roles such as in fatty acid synthesis. These data expanded our knowledge of lysine malonylation in prokaryotes, providing a resource for functional study of lysine malonylation in bacteria.

  8. Dietary L-lysine prevents arterial calcification in adenine-induced uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Akihiro; Matsui, Isao; Hamano, Takayuki; Ishimoto, Takuya; Katou, Yumiko; Takehana, Kenji; Inoue, Kazunori; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Mori, Daisuke; Nakano, Chikako; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Fujii, Naohiko; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Nakano, Takayoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2014-09-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a life-threatening complication of CKD. Severe protein restriction causes a shortage of essential amino acids, and exacerbates VC in rats. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dietary l-lysine, the first-limiting amino acid of cereal grains, on VC. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 13 weeks were divided randomly into four groups: low-protein (LP) diet (group LP), LP diet+adenine (group Ade), LP diet+adenine+glycine (group Gly) as a control amino acid group, and LP diet+adenine+l-lysine·HCl (group Lys). At age 18 weeks, group LP had no VC, whereas groups Ade and Gly had comparable levels of severe VC. l-Lysine supplementation almost completely ameliorated VC. Physical parameters and serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and phosphate did not differ among groups Ade, Gly, and Lys. Notably, serum calcium in group Lys was slightly but significantly higher than in groups Ade and Gly. Dietary l-lysine strongly suppressed plasma intact parathyroid hormone in adenine rats and supported a proper bone-vascular axis. The conserved orientation of the femoral apatite in group Lys also evidenced the bone-protective effects of l-lysine. Dietary l-lysine elevated plasma alanine, proline, arginine, and homoarginine but not lysine. Analyses in vitro demonstrated that alanine and proline inhibit apoptosis of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, and that arginine and homoarginine attenuate mineral precipitations in a supersaturated calcium/phosphate solution. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of l-lysine ameliorated VC by modifying key pathways that exacerbate VC. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Dietary l-Lysine Prevents Arterial Calcification in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Akihiro; Matsui, Isao; Hamano, Takayuki; Ishimoto, Takuya; Katou, Yumiko; Takehana, Kenji; Inoue, Kazunori; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Mori, Daisuke; Nakano, Chikako; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Fujii, Naohiko; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Nakano, Takayoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a life-threatening complication of CKD. Severe protein restriction causes a shortage of essential amino acids, and exacerbates VC in rats. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dietary l-lysine, the first-limiting amino acid of cereal grains, on VC. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 13 weeks were divided randomly into four groups: low-protein (LP) diet (group LP), LP diet+adenine (group Ade), LP diet+adenine+glycine (group Gly) as a control amino acid group, and LP diet+adenine+l-lysine·HCl (group Lys). At age 18 weeks, group LP had no VC, whereas groups Ade and Gly had comparable levels of severe VC. l-Lysine supplementation almost completely ameliorated VC. Physical parameters and serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and phosphate did not differ among groups Ade, Gly, and Lys. Notably, serum calcium in group Lys was slightly but significantly higher than in groups Ade and Gly. Dietary l-lysine strongly suppressed plasma intact parathyroid hormone in adenine rats and supported a proper bone-vascular axis. The conserved orientation of the femoral apatite in group Lys also evidenced the bone-protective effects of l-lysine. Dietary l-lysine elevated plasma alanine, proline, arginine, and homoarginine but not lysine. Analyses in vitro demonstrated that alanine and proline inhibit apoptosis of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, and that arginine and homoarginine attenuate mineral precipitations in a supersaturated calcium/phosphate solution. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of l-lysine ameliorated VC by modifying key pathways that exacerbate VC. PMID:24652795

  10. Lysine-Grafted MCM-41 Silica as an Antibacterial Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Villegas, María F; Garcia-Uriostegui, Lorena; Rodríguez, Ofelia; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Salinas, Antonio J; Toriz, Guillermo; Vallet-Regí, María; Delgado, Ezequiel

    2017-09-26

    This paper proposes a facile strategy for the zwitterionization of bioceramics that is based on the direct incorporation of l-lysine amino acid via the ε-amino group onto mesoporous MCM-41 materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies of lysine-grafted MCM-41 (MCM-LYS) simultaneously showed bands at 3080 and 1540 cm -1 and bands at 1625 and 1415 cm -1 corresponding to -NH 3+ /COO - pairs, which demonstrate the incorporation of the amino acid on the material surface keeping its zwitterionic character. Both elemental and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of grafted lysine was 8 wt. % based on the bioceramic total weight. Moreover, MCM-LYS exhibited a reduction of adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in 33% and 50%, respectively at physiological pH, as compared with pristine MCM-41. Biofilm studies onto surfaces showed that lysine functionalization elicited a reduction of the area covered by S. aureus biofilm from 42% to only 5% (88%). This research shows a simple and effective approach to chemically modify bioceramics using single amino acids that provides zwitterionic functionality, which is useful to develop new biomaterials that are able to resist bacterial adhesion.

  11. Lysine-Grafted MCM-41 Silica as an Antibacterial Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, María F.; Garcia-Uriostegui, Lorena; Rodríguez, Ofelia; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Salinas, Antonio J.; Toriz, Guillermo; Vallet-Regí, María; Delgado, Ezequiel

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a facile strategy for the zwitterionization of bioceramics that is based on the direct incorporation of l-lysine amino acid via the ε-amino group onto mesoporous MCM-41 materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies of lysine-grafted MCM-41 (MCM-LYS) simultaneously showed bands at 3080 and 1540 cm−1 and bands at 1625 and 1415 cm−1 corresponding to -NH3+/COO− pairs, which demonstrate the incorporation of the amino acid on the material surface keeping its zwitterionic character. Both elemental and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of grafted lysine was 8 wt. % based on the bioceramic total weight. Moreover, MCM-LYS exhibited a reduction of adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in 33% and 50%, respectively at physiological pH, as compared with pristine MCM-41. Biofilm studies onto surfaces showed that lysine functionalization elicited a reduction of the area covered by S. aureus biofilm from 42% to only 5% (88%). This research shows a simple and effective approach to chemically modify bioceramics using single amino acids that provides zwitterionic functionality, which is useful to develop new biomaterials that are able to resist bacterial adhesion. PMID:28952559

  12. Application of PCDA/SPH/CHO/Lysine vesicles to detect pathogenic bacteria in chicken.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Taíla V; Soares, Nilda de F F; de Andrade, Nélio J; Silva, Deusanilde J; Medeiros, Eber Antônio A; Badaró, Amanda T

    2015-04-01

    During the course of infection, Salmonella must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments, as lysine decarboxylation to cadaverine. The idea of Salmonella defenses responses could be employed in systems as polydiacetylene (PDA) to detect this pathogen so important to public health system. Beside that PDA is an important substance because of the unique optical property; that undergoes a colorimetric transitions by various external stimuli. Therefore 10,12-pentacosadyinoic acid (PCDA)/Sphingomyelin(SPH)/Cholesterol(CHO)/Lysine system was tested to determine the colorimetric response induced by Salmonella choleraesuis. PCDA/SPH/CHO/Lysine vesicles showed a colour change even in low S. choleraesuis concentration present in laboratory conditions and in chicken meat. Thus, this work showed a PCDA/SPH/CHO/Lysine vesicle application to simplify routine analyses in food industry, as chicken meat industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of stereoarray isotope labeled (SAIL) lysine via the "head-to-tail" conversion of SAIL glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kamikawai, Tomoe; Vinogradov, Maxim G; Starodubtseva, Eugenia V; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2011-01-07

    A stereoarray isotope labeled (SAIL) lysine, (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-[3,4,5,6-(2)H(4);1,2,3,4,5,6-(13)C(6);2,6-(15)N(2)]lysine, was synthesized by the "head-to-tail" conversion of SAIL-Glu, (2S,3S,4R)-[3,4-(2)H(2);1,2,3,4,5-(13)C(5);2-(15)N]glutamic acid, with high stereospecificities for all five chiral centers. With the SAIL-Lys in hand, the unambiguous simultaneous stereospecific assignments were able to be established for each of the prochiral protons within the four methylene groups of the Lys side chains in proteins.

  14. Coacervate-like microspheres from lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlfing, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Microspheres form isothermally from lysine-rich proteinoid when the ionic strength of the solution is increased with NaCl or other salts. Studies with different monovalent anions and with polymers of different amino acid composition indicate that charge neutralization and hydrophobic bonding contribute to microsphere formation. The particles also form in sea water, especially if heated or made slightly alkaline. The microspheres differ from those made from acidic proteinoid but resemble coacervate droplets in some ways (isothermal formation, limited stability, stabilization by quinone, uptake of dyes). Because the constituent lysine-rich proteinoid is of simulated prebiotic origin, the study is interpreted to add emphasis to and suggest an evolutionary continuity for coacervation phenomena.

  15. Quantitative detection of crystalline lysine supplementation in poultry feeds using a rapid bacterial bioluminescence assay.

    PubMed

    Zabala Díaz, I B; Ricke, S C

    2003-08-01

    Lysine is an essential amino acid for both humans and animals; and it is usually the first or second limiting amino acid in most formulated diets. In order to estimate the lysine content in feeds and feed sources, rapid amino acid bioassays have been developed. The objective of this work is to assess a rapid assay for lysine supplementation in chicken feeds, using a luminescent Escherichia coli lysine-auxotrophic strain, to avoid prior thermal sterilization. An E. coli lysine auxotroph carrying a plasmid with lux genes was used as the test organism. The lysine assay was conducted using depleted auxotrophic cells in lysine samples. Luminescence was measured with a Dynex MLX luminometer after addition of the aldehyde substrate. Growth response (monitored as optical density at 600 nm) and light emission response of the assay E. coli strain were monitored to generate standard curves. Bioluminescent analysis of feed samples indicated that the method works well in the presence of a complex feed matrix. Comparison of both optical density and luminescent-based methods indicated that, when the assay takes place under optimal conditions, both methodologies correlated well ( r(2)=0.99). Except for the 0.64% lysine-supplemented feed, estimates for lysine based on the bacterial assay were over 80% (82-97%) of the theoretical values. Animal data showed that the bacterial bioluminescent method correlated well with the chick bioassay when diets with different levels of lysine supplementation were assayed for lysine bioavailability ( r(2)=0.97). Luminescent methodology coupled with a bacterial growth assay is a promising technique to assess lysine availability in supplemented animal feeds.

  16. Structural Insight into Amino Group-carrier Protein-mediated Lysine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayako; Tomita, Takeo; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the biosynthesis of lysine by Thermus thermophilus, the metabolite α-ketoglutarate is converted to the intermediate α-aminoadipate (AAA), which is protected by the 54-amino acid acidic protein LysW. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of LysZ from T. thermophilus (TtLysZ), an amino acid kinase that catalyzes the second step in the AAA to lysine conversion, which was in a complex with LysW at a resolution of 1.85 Å. A crystal analysis coupled with isothermal titration calorimetry of the TtLysZ mutants for TtLysW revealed tight interactions between LysZ and the globular and C-terminal extension domains of the LysW protein, which were mainly attributed to electrostatic forces. These results provided structural evidence for LysW acting as a protecting molecule for the α-amino group of AAA and also as a carrier protein to guarantee better recognition by biosynthetic enzymes for the efficient biosynthesis of lysine. PMID:25392000

  17. Adsorption of Lysine on Na-Montmorillonite and Competition with Ca(2+): A Combined XRD and ATR-FTIR Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Wang, Shengrui; Liu, Jingyang; Xu, Yisheng; Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2016-05-17

    Lysine adsorption at clay/aqueous interfaces plays an important role in the mobility, bioavailability, and degradation of amino acids in the environment. Knowledge of these interfacial interactions facilitates our full understanding of the fate and transport of amino acids. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements were used to explore the dynamic process of lysine adsorption on montmorillonite and the competition with Ca(2+) at the molecular level. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to determine the peak assignments of dissolved lysine in the solution phase. Three surface complexes, including dicationic, cationic, and zwitterionic structures, were observed to attach to the clay edge sites and penetrate the interlayer space. The increased surface coverage and Ca(2+) competition did not affect the interfacial lysine structures at a certain pH, whereas an elevated lysine concentration contributed to zwitterionic-type coordination at pH 10. Moreover, clay dissolution at pH 4 could be inhibited at a higher surface coverage with 5 and 10 mM lysine, whereas the inhibition effect was inconspicuous or undetected at pH 7 and 10. The presence of Ca(2+) not only could remove a part of the adsorbed lysine but also could facilitate the readsorption of dissolved Si(4+) and Al(3+) and surface protonation. Our results provide new insights into the process of lysine adsorption and its effects on montmorillonite surface sites.

  18. Poly (ethylenimine)-grafted-poly [(aspartic acid)-co-lysine], a potential non-viral vector for DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gu Ping; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Jun

    2006-01-01

    A potential non-viral gene-transfer vector, poly(ethylenimine)-grafted-poly[(aspartic acid)-co-lysine] (PSL), has been developed by thermal polycondensation of aspartic acid and lysine under reduced pressure. Low-molecular-mass branch poly(ethylenimine) (PEI600) was conjugated to the backbone. The chemical structure of the resulting co-polymer was identified by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, TGA and X-ray diffraction. The results of the MTT assay showed that at concentration up to 4000 nmol/l of the vector cell viability was over 80% and showed low toxicity. Electrophoretic retardation and ethidum bromide assay showed that at N/P ratios 12-15 (w/w) the DNA could be condensed and neutralized. Using the zeta potential assay we discovered that it had a high positive charge on its surface of the particle (over 30 mV). The particle sizes of the co-polymer/DNA complexes were 150-170 nm, as measured by DLS and AFM. Compared with PEI600, co-polymer/DNA complexes showed a significant enhancement of transfection activity in the absence and presence of serum in NT2 and COS7 cell lines. This means that the PEI600-PSL co-polymer is a promising candidate for gene delivery.

  19. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds: synthesis, physiochemical characterization, and nucleic acid binding studies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Randeep; Chitanda, Jackson M; Michel, Deborah; Maley, Jason; Borondics, Ferenc; Yang, Peng; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that, because of their size (4–5 nm), stable inert core, alterable surface chemistry, fluorescence, and biocompatibility, are emerging as bioimaging agents and promising tools for the delivery of biochemical molecules into cellular systems. However, diamond particles possess a strong propensity to aggregate in liquid formulation media, restricting their applicability in biomedical sciences. Here, the authors describe the covalent functionalization of NDs with lysine in an attempt to develop nanoparticles able to act as suitable nonviral vectors for transferring genetic materials across cellular membranes. Methods: NDs were oxidized and functionalized by binding lysine moieties attached to a three-carbon-length linker (1,3-diaminopropane) to their surfaces through amide bonds. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopic imaging, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the lysine-functionalized NDs. Finally, the ability of the functionalized diamonds to bind plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA was investigated by gel electrophoresis assay and through size and zeta potential measurements. Results: NDs were successfully functionalized with the lysine linker, producing surface loading of 1.7 mmol g−1 of ND. These modified NDs formed highly stable aqueous dispersions with a zeta potential of 49 mV and particle size of approximately 20 nm. The functionalized NDs were found to be able to bind plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA by forming nanosized “diamoplexes”. Conclusion: The lysine-substituted ND particles generated in this study exhibit stable aqueous formulations and show potential for use as carriers for genetic materials. PMID:22904623

  20. Determination of D- and L-pipecolic acid in food samples including processed foods.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toru; Fujita, Manabu; Kodama, Taku; Hada, Toshikazu; Higashino, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    Pipecolic acid, a metabolite of lysine, is found in human physiological fluids and is thought to play an important role in the central inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid system. However, it is unclear whether plasma D- and L-pipecolic acid originate from oral food intake or intestinal bacterial metabolites. We analyzed the contents of D- and L-pipecolic acid in several processed foods including dairy products (cow's milk, cheese and yogurt), fermented beverages (beer and wine) and heated samples (beef, bovine liver, bread and tofu) to clarify the relationship between plasma D- and L-pipecolic acid and dietary foods. Our study revealed that some of the samples contained high concentrations of total pipecolic acid, and a higher proportion of L- than D-isomers. The other samples also showed high proportions of L-pipecolic acid. It was also shown that there is no significant change in the ratio of the D-isomer before and after heat treatment. The heat treatments could not cause the racemization of pipecolic acid in this study. These findings suggest that plasma pipecolic acid, particularly the D-isomer, does not originate from direct food intake and that D- and L-pipecolic acid can possibly be derived from intestinal bacterial metabolites. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Elevated glutaric acid levels in Dhtkd1-/Gcdh- double knockout mice challenge our current understanding of lysine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Biagosch, Caroline; Ediga, Raga Deepthi; Hensler, Svenja-Viola; Faerberboeck, Michael; Kuehn, Ralf; Wurst, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Kölker, Stefan; Sauer, Sven; Prokisch, Holger

    2017-09-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is a rare organic aciduria caused by the autosomal recessive inherited deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). GCDH deficiency leads to disruption of l-lysine degradation with characteristic accumulation of glutarylcarnitine and neurotoxic glutaric acid (GA), glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA). DHTKD1 acts upstream of GCDH, and its deficiency leads to none or often mild clinical phenotype in humans, 2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria. We hypothesized that inhibition of DHTKD1 may prevent the accumulation of neurotoxic dicarboxylic metabolites suggesting DHTKD1 inhibition as a possible treatment strategy for GA-I. In order to validate this hypothesis we took advantage of an existing GA-I (Gcdh -/- ) mouse model and established a Dhtkd1 deficient mouse model. Both models reproduced the biochemical and clinical phenotype observed in patients. Under challenging conditions of a high lysine diet, only Gcdh -/- mice but not Dhtkd1 -/- mice developed clinical symptoms such as lethargic behaviour and weight loss. However, the genetic Dhtkd1 inhibition in Dhtkd1 -/- /Gcdh -/- mice could not rescue the GA-I phenotype. Biochemical results confirm this finding with double knockout mice showing similar metabolite accumulations as Gcdh -/- mice with high GA in brain and liver. This suggests that DHTKD1 inhibition alone is not sufficient to treat GA-I, but instead a more complex strategy is needed. Our data highlights the many unresolved questions within the l-lysine degradation pathway and provides evidence for a so far unknown mechanism leading to glutaryl-CoA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible Evidence of Amide Bond Formation Between Sinapinic Acid and Lysine-Containing Bacterial Proteins by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Sultan, Omar; Carter, Michelle Q.

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, Hde, and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and post-source decay (PSD). We also reported the absence of adduct formation when using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix. Further mass spectrometric analysis of disulfide-intact and disulfide-reduced over-expressed HdeA and HdeB proteins from lysates of gene-inserted E. coli plasmids suggests covalent attachment of SA occurs not at cysteine residues but at lysine residues. In this revised hypothesis, the attachment of SA is preceded by formation of a solid phase ammonium carboxylate salt between SA and accessible lysine residues of the protein during sample preparation under acidic conditions. Laser irradiation at 355 nm of the dried sample spot results in equilibrium retrogradation followed by nucleophilic attack by the amine group of lysine at the carbonyl group of SA and subsequent amide bond formation and loss of water. The absence of CHCA adducts suggests that the electron-withdrawing effect of the α-cyano group of this matrix may inhibit salt formation and/or amide bond formation. This revised hypothesis is supported by dissociative loss of SA (-224 Da) and the amide-bound SA (-206 Da) from SA-adducted HdeA and HdeB ions by MS/MS (PSD). It is proposed that cleavage of the amide-bound SA from the lysine side-chain occurs via rearrangement involving a pentacyclic transition state followed by hydrogen abstraction/migration and loss of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-ynal (-206 Da).

  3. Tug of war: adding and removing histone lysine methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Lee, Un-Sa; Wagner, Doris

    2016-12-01

    Histone lysine methylation plays a fundamental role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes, including plants. It shapes plant developmental and growth programs as well as responses to the environment. The methylation status of certain amino-acids, in particular of the histone 3 (H3) lysine tails, is dynamically controlled by opposite acting histone methyltransferase 'writers' and histone demethylase 'erasers'. The methylation status is interpreted by a third set of proteins, the histone modification 'readers', which specifically bind to a methylated amino-acid on the H3 tail. Histone methylation writers, readers, and erasers themselves are regulated by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli; this forms a feedback loop that contributes to development and environmental adaptation in Arabidopsis and other plants. Recent studies have expanded our knowledge regarding the biological roles and dynamic regulation of histone methylation. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in understanding the regulation and roles of histone methylation in plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ancient Regulatory Role of Lysine Acetylation in Central Metabolism

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Burnet, Meagan C.; Walukiewicz, Hanna E.

    ABSTRACT Lysine acetylation is a common protein post-translational modification in bacteria and eukaryotes. Unlike phosphorylation, whose functional role in signaling has been established, it is unclear what regulatory mechanism acetylation plays and whether it is conserved across evolution. By performing a proteomic analysis of 48 phylogenetically distant bacteria, we discovered conserved acetylation sites on catalytically essential lysine residues that are invariant throughout evolution. Lysine acetylation removes the residue’s charge and changes the shape of the pocket required for substrate or cofactor binding. Two-thirds of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes are acetylated at these critical sites. Our data suggestmore » that acetylation may play a direct role in metabolic regulation by switching off enzyme activity. We propose that protein acetylation is an ancient and widespread mechanism of protein activity regulation. IMPORTANCEPost-translational modifications can regulate the activity and localization of proteins inside the cell. Similar to phosphorylation, lysine acetylation is present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and modifies hundreds to thousands of proteins in cells. However, how lysine acetylation regulates protein function and whether such a mechanism is evolutionarily conserved is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated evolutionary and functional aspects of lysine acetylation by searching for acetylated lysines in a comprehensive proteomic data set from 48 phylogenetically distant bacteria. We found that lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved lysine residues in catalytic sites of enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism. Moreover, this modification inhibits enzymatic activity. Our observations suggest that lysine acetylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of controlling central metabolic activity by directly blocking enzyme active sites.« less

  5. Ancient Regulatory Role of Lysine Acetylation in Central Metabolism

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Burnet, Meagan C.; Walukiewicz, Hanna E.

    ABSTRACT Lysine acetylation is a common protein post-translational modification in bacteria and eukaryotes. Unlike phosphorylation, whose functional role in signaling has been established, it is unclear what regulatory mechanism acetylation plays and whether it is conserved across evolution. By performing a proteomic analysis of 48 phylogenetically distant bacteria, we discovered conserved acetylation sites on catalytically essential lysine residues that are invariant throughout evolution. Lysine acetylation removes the residue’s charge and changes the shape of the pocket required for substrate or cofactor binding. Two-thirds of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes are acetylated at these critical sites. Our data suggestmore » that acetylation may play a direct role in metabolic regulation by switching off enzyme activity. We propose that protein acetylation is an ancient and widespread mechanism of protein activity regulation. IMPORTANCE Post-translational modifications can regulate the activity and localization of proteins inside the cell. Similar to phosphorylation, lysine acetylation is present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and modifies hundreds to thousands of proteins in cells. However, how lysine acetylation regulates protein function and whether such a mechanism is evolutionarily conserved is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated evolutionary and functional aspects of lysine acetylation by searching for acetylated lysines in a comprehensive proteomic data set from 48 phylogenetically distant bacteria. We found that lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved lysine residues in catalytic sites of enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism. Moreover, this modification inhibits enzymatic activity. Our observations suggest that lysine acetylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of controlling central metabolic activity by directly blocking enzyme active sites.« less

  6. Ancient Regulatory Role of Lysine Acetylation in Central Metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Burnet, Meagan C.; Walukiewicz, Hanna E.; ...

    2017-11-28

    ABSTRACT Lysine acetylation is a common protein post-translational modification in bacteria and eukaryotes. Unlike phosphorylation, whose functional role in signaling has been established, it is unclear what regulatory mechanism acetylation plays and whether it is conserved across evolution. By performing a proteomic analysis of 48 phylogenetically distant bacteria, we discovered conserved acetylation sites on catalytically essential lysine residues that are invariant throughout evolution. Lysine acetylation removes the residue’s charge and changes the shape of the pocket required for substrate or cofactor binding. Two-thirds of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes are acetylated at these critical sites. Our data suggestmore » that acetylation may play a direct role in metabolic regulation by switching off enzyme activity. We propose that protein acetylation is an ancient and widespread mechanism of protein activity regulation. IMPORTANCE Post-translational modifications can regulate the activity and localization of proteins inside the cell. Similar to phosphorylation, lysine acetylation is present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and modifies hundreds to thousands of proteins in cells. However, how lysine acetylation regulates protein function and whether such a mechanism is evolutionarily conserved is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated evolutionary and functional aspects of lysine acetylation by searching for acetylated lysines in a comprehensive proteomic data set from 48 phylogenetically distant bacteria. We found that lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved lysine residues in catalytic sites of enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism. Moreover, this modification inhibits enzymatic activity. Our observations suggest that lysine acetylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of controlling central metabolic activity by directly blocking enzyme active sites.« less

  7. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eli K.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Villanueva, Laura; Wienk, Hans; Schoutsen, Frans; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their environmental niche. The membrane lipids of these species were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/IT/MS) and high resolution accurate mass/mass spectrometry (HRAM/MS). Abundant unknown intact polar lipids (IPLs) from P. saltans were isolated and further characterized using amino acid analysis and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Ornithine IPLs (OLs) with variable (hydroxy) fatty acid composition were observed in both bacterial species. Lysine-containing IPLs (LLs) were also detected in both species and were characterized here for the first time using HPLC-MS. Novel LLs containing hydroxy fatty acids and novel hydroxylysine lipids with variable (hydroxy) fatty acid composition were identified in P. saltans. The confirmation of OL and LL formation in F. johnsoniae and P. saltans and the presence of OlsF putative homologs in P. saltans suggest the OlsF gene coding protein is possibly involved in OL and LL biosynthesis in both species, however, potential pathways of OL and LL hydroxylation in P. saltans are still undetermined. Triplicate cultures of P. saltans were grown at three temperature/pH combinations: 30°C/pH 7, 15°C/pH 7, and 15°C/pH 9. The fractional abundance of total amino acid containing IPLs containing hydroxylated fatty acids was significantly higher at higher temperature, and the fractional abundance of lysine-containing IPLs was significantly higher at lower temperature and higher pH. These results suggest that these amino acid-containing IPLs, including the novel hydroxylysine lipids, could be involved in temperature and pH stress

  8. Therapeutic modulation of cerebral L-lysine metabolism in a mouse model for glutaric aciduria type I.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Sven W; Opp, Silvana; Hoffmann, Georg F; Koeller, David M; Okun, Jürgen G; Kölker, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I, an inherited deficiency of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase localized in the final common catabolic pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine and L-tryptophan, leads to accumulation of neurotoxic glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, as well as non-toxic glutarylcarnitine. Most untreated patients develop irreversible brain damage during infancy that can be prevented in the majority of cases if metabolic treatment with a low L-lysine diet and L-carnitine supplementation is started in the newborn period. The biochemical effect of this treatment remains uncertain, since cerebral concentrations of neurotoxic metabolites can only be determined by invasive techniques. Therefore, we studied the biochemical effect and mechanism of metabolic treatment in glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase-deficient mice, an animal model with complete loss of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity, focusing on the tissue-specific changes of neurotoxic metabolites and key enzymes of L-lysine metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that low L-lysine diet, but not L-carnitine supplementation, lowered the concentration of glutaric acid in brain, liver, kidney and serum. L-carnitine supplementation restored the free L-carnitine pool and enhanced the formation of glutarylcarnitine. The effect of low L-lysine diet was amplified by add-on therapy with L-arginine, which we propose to result from competition with L-lysine at system y(+) of the blood-brain barrier and the mitochondrial L-ornithine carriers. L-lysine can be catabolized in the mitochondrial saccharopine or the peroxisomal pipecolate pathway. We detected high activity of mitochondrial 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the saccharopine pathway, in the liver, whereas it was absent in the brain. Since we found activity of the subsequent enzymes of L-lysine oxidation, 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-aminoadipate aminotransferase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex as well as

  9. A Proteomic Approach to Analyze the Aspirin-mediated Lysine Acetylome*

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Michael H.; Cole, Christian; Scullion, Paul; Wilkie, Ross; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Stark, Lesley A.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid is widely used to control pain, inflammation and fever. Important to this function is its ability to irreversibly acetylate cyclooxygenases at active site serines. Aspirin has the potential to acetylate other amino acid side-chains, leading to the possibility that aspirin-mediated lysine acetylation could explain some of its as-yet unexplained drug actions or side-effects. Using isotopically labeled aspirin-d3, in combination with acetylated lysine purification and LC-MS/MS, we identified over 12000 sites of lysine acetylation from cultured human cells. Although aspirin amplifies endogenous acetylation signals at the majority of detectable endogenous sites, cells tolerate aspirin mediated acetylation very well unless cellular deacetylases are inhibited. Although most endogenous acetylations are amplified by orders of magnitude, lysine acetylation site occupancies remain very low even after high doses of aspirin. This work shows that while aspirin has enormous potential to alter protein function, in the majority of cases aspirin-mediated acetylations do not accumulate to levels likely to elicit biological effects. These findings are consistent with an emerging model for cellular acetylation whereby stoichiometry correlates with biological relevance, and deacetylases act to minimize the biological consequences of nonspecific chemical acetylations. PMID:27913581

  10. Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Lysine Malonylation Suggest Its Malonic Aciduria-associated Regulatory Role in Mitochondrial Function and Fatty Acid Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Gozde; Pougovkina, Olga; Dai, Lunzhi; Tan, Minjia; te Brinke, Heleen; Huang, He; Cheng, Zhongyi; Park, Jeongsoon; Wan, Xuelian; Liu, Xiaojing; Yue, Wyatt W.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Locasale, Jason W.; Lombard, David B.; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Zhao, Yingming

    2015-01-01

    The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts. Increased malonyl-CoA levels in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD)-deficient cells induces Kmal levels in substrate proteins. We identified 461 Kmal sites showing more than a 2-fold increase in response to MCD deficiency as well as 1452 Kmal sites detected only in MCD−/− fibroblast but not MCD+/+ cells, suggesting a pathogenic role of Kmal in MCD deficiency. Cells with increased lysine malonylation displayed impaired mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that lysine malonylation plays a role in pathophysiology of malonic aciduria. Our study establishes an association between Kmal and a genetic disease and offers a rich resource for elucidating the contribution of the Kmal pathway and malonyl-CoA to cellular physiology and human diseases. PMID:26320211

  11. Global Analysis of Protein Lysine Succinylation Profiles and Their Overlap with Lysine Acetylation in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianyi; Chen, Ran; Li, Chuchu; Li, Weiyan; Ye, Zhicang

    2015-10-02

    Protein lysine acylation, including acetylation and succinylation, has been found to be a major post-translational modification (PTM) and is associated with the regulation of cellular processes that are widespread in bacteria. Vibrio parahemolyticus is a model marine bacterium that causes seafood-borne illness in humans worldwide. The lysine acetylation of V. parahemolyticus has been extensively characterized in our previous work, and here, we report the first global analysis of lysine succinylation and the overlap between the two types of acylation in this bacterium. Using high-accuracy nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with affinity purification, we identified 1931 lysine succinylated peptides matched on 642 proteins, with the quantity of the succinyl-proteins accounting for 13.3% of the total proteins in cells. Bioinformatics analysis results showed that these succinylated proteins are involved in almost every cellular process, particularly in protein biosynthesis and metabolism, and are distributed in diverse subcellular compartments. Moreover, several sequence motifs were identified, including succinyl-lysine flanked by a lysine or arginine residue at the -8, -7, or +7 position and without these residues at the -1 or +2 position, and these motifs differ from those found in other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, a total of 517 succinyl-lysine sites (26.7%) on 288 proteins (44.9%) were also found to be acetylated, suggesting extensive overlap between succinylation and acetylation in this bacterium. This systematic analysis provides a promising starting point for further investigations of the physiologic and pathogenic roles of lysine succinylation and acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.

  12. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L.; Huber, Steven C.; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence. PMID:23234799

  13. The Preventive Effect of L-Lysine on Lysozyme Glycation in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Bathaie, S Zahra; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Ebadi, Maryam; Gerayesh-Nejad, Siavash; Zangooei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Lysozyme is a bactericidal enzyme whose structure and functions change in diabetes. Chemical chaperones are small molecules including polyamines (e.g. spermine), amino acids (e.g. L-lysine) and polyols (e.g. glycerol). They can improve protein conformation in several stressful conditions such as glycation. In this study, the authors aimed to observe the effect of L-lysine as a chemical chaperone on structure and function of glycated lysozyme. In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of L-lysine on lysozyme glycation were investigated. Lysozyme was incubated with glucose and/or L-lysine, followed by an investigation of its structure by electrophoresis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy and also assessment of its bactericidal activity against M. lysodeikticus. In the clinical trial, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were randomly divided into two groups of 25 (test and control). All patients received metformin and glibenclamide for a three months period. The test group was supplemented with 3 g/day of L-lysine. The quantity and activity of lysozyme and other parameters were then measured. Among the test group, L-lysine was found to reduce the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the sera of patients with T2DM and in vitro condition. This chemical chaperone reversed the alteration in lysozyme structure and function due to glycation and resulted in increased lysozyme activity. Structure and function of glycated lysozyme are significantly improved by l-lysine; therefore it can be considered an effective therapeutic supplementation in T2DM, decreasing the risk of infection in these patients.

  14. N6-Trimethyl-lysine metabolism. 3-Hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine and carnitine biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppel, C L; Cox, R A; Novak, R F

    1980-01-01

    Rats injected with N6-[Me-3H]trimethyl-lysine excrete in the urine five radioactively labelled metabolites. Two of these identified metabolites are carnitine and 4-trimethylammoniobutyrate. A third metabolite, identified as 5-trimethylammoniopentanoate, is not an intermediate in the biosynthesis of carnitine; the fourth and major metabolite, N2-acetyl-N6-trimethyl-lysine, is not a precursor of carnitine. The remaining metabolite (3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine) is converted into trimethylammoniobutyrate and carnitine by rat liver slices and into trimethylammoniobutyrate by rat kidney slices. In rat liver and kidney-slice experiments, radioactivity from DL-N6-trimethyl-[1-14C]lysine and DL-N6-trimethyl-[2-14C]lysine was incorporated into N2-acetyl-N6-trimethyl-lysine and 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine, but not into trimethylammoniobutyrate or carnitine. A procedure was devised to purify milligram quantities of 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine from the urine of rats injected chronically with N6-trimethyl-lysine (100 mg/kg body wt. per day). The structure of 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine was confirmed chemically and by nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectrometry [Novak, Swift & Hoppel (1980) Biochem. J. 188, 521--527]. The sequence for carnitine biosynthesis in liver is: N6-trimethyl-lysine leads to 3-hydryxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine leads to leads to 4-trimethylammoniobutyrate leads to carnitine. PMID:6772168

  15. Studies of lysine cyclodeaminase from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis: Insights into the complex transition NAD+ state.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hanxiao; Wang, Jing; Shi, Ting; Zhao, Yilei; Wang, Xin; Ouyang, Pingkai; Chen, Kequan

    2018-01-01

    Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes the piperidine ring formation in macrolide-pipecolate natural products metabolic pathways from a lysine substrate through a combination of cyclization and deamination. This enzyme belongs to a unique enzyme class, which uses NAD + as the catalytic prosthetic group instead of as the co-substrate. To understand the molecular details of NAD + functions in lysine cyclodeaminase, we have determined four ternary crystal structure complexes of LCD-NAD + with pipecolic acid (LCD-PA), lysine (LCD-LYS), and an intermediate (LCD-INT) as ligands at 2.26-, 2.00-, 2.17- and 1.80 Å resolutions, respectively. By combining computational studies, a NAD + -mediated "gate keeper" function involving NAD + /NADH and Arg49 that control the binding and entry of the ligand lysine was revealed, confirming the critical roles of NAD + in the substrate access process. Further, in the gate opening form, a substrate delivery tunnel between ε-carboxyl moiety of Glu264 and the α-carboxyl moiety of Asp236 was observed through a comparison of four structure complexes. The LCD structure details including NAD + -mediated "gate keeper" and substrate tunnel may assist in the exploration the NAD + function in this unique enzyme class, and in regulation of macrolide-pipecolate natural product synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterologous Production of Cyanobacterial Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Mycosporine-Ornithine and Mycosporine-Lysine in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Katoch, Meenu; Mazmouz, Rabia; Chau, Rocky; Pearson, Leanne A.; Pickford, Russell

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are an important class of secondary metabolites known for their protection against UV radiation and other stress factors. Cyanobacteria produce a variety of MAAs, including shinorine, the active ingredient in many sunscreen creams. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of the soil-dwelling cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum stagnale PCC 7417 revealed a new gene cluster with homology to MAA synthase from Nostoc punctiforme. This newly identified gene cluster is unusual because it has five biosynthesis genes (mylA to mylE), compared to the four found in other MAA gene clusters. Heterologous expression of mylA to mylE in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of mycosporine-lysine and the novel compound mycosporine-ornithine. To our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds have been heterologously produced in E. coli and structurally characterized via direct spectral guidance. This study offers insight into the diversity, biosynthesis, and structure of cyanobacterial MAAs and highlights their amenability to heterologous production methods. IMPORTANCE Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are significant from an environmental microbiological perspective as they offer microbes protection against a variety of stress factors, including UV radiation. The heterologous expression of MAAs in E. coli is also significant from a biotechnological perspective as MAAs are the active ingredient in next-generation sunscreens. PMID:27520810

  17. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants.

  18. Chemical rescue of the post-translationally carboxylated lysine mutant of allantoinase and dihydroorotase by metal ions and short-chain carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ya-Yeh; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial allantoinase (ALLase) and dihydroorotase (DHOase) are members of the cyclic amidohydrolase family. ALLase and DHOase possess similar binuclear metal centers in the active site in which two metals are bridged by a post-translationally carboxylated lysine. In this study, we determined the effects of carboxylated lysine and metal binding on the activities of ALLase and DHOase. Although DHOase is a metalloenzyme, purified DHOase showed high activity without additional metal supplementation in a reaction mixture or bacterial culture. However, unlike DHOase, ALLase had no activity unless some specific metal ions were added to the reaction mixture or culture. Substituting the metal binding sites H59, H61, K146, H186, H242, or D315 with alanine completely abolished the activity of ALLase. However, the K146C, K146D and K146E mutants of ALLase were still active with about 1-6% activity of the wild-type enzyme. These ALLase K146 mutants were found to have 1.4-1.7 mol metal per mole enzyme subunit, which may indicate that they still contained the binuclear metal center in the active site. The activity of the K146A mutant of the ALLase and the K103A mutant of DHOase can be chemically rescued by short-chain carboxylic acids, such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, but not by ethanol, propan-1-ol, and imidazole, in the presence of Co2+ or Mn2+ ions. However, the activity was still ~10-fold less than that of wild-type ALLase. Overall, these results indicated that the 20 natural basic amino acid residues were not sufficiently able to play the role of lysine. Accordingly, we proposed that during evolution, the post-translational modification of carboxylated lysine in the cyclic amidohydrolase family was selected for promoting binuclear metal center self-assembly and increasing the nucleophilicity of the hydroxide at the active site for enzyme catalysis. This kind of chemical rescue combined with site-directed mutagenesis may also be used to identify a binuclear metal

  19. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L; Huber, Steven C; Zhao, Youfu

    2013-02-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Agronomy, Grain Physicochemical Quality, and Nutritional Property of High-Lysine 35R Transgenic Rice with Simultaneous Modification of Lysine Biosynthesis and Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingqing; Wu, Hongyu; Li, Qianfeng; Duan, Ruxu; Zhang, Changquan; Sun, Samuel Saiming; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2017-05-31

    Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice. We previously constructed a series of transgenic rice lines to enhance lysine biosynthesis (35S), down-regulate its catabolism (Ri), or simultaneously achieve both metabolic effects (35R). In this study, nine transgenic lines, three from each group, were selected for both field and animal feeding trials. The results showed that the transgene(s) caused no obvious effects on field performance and main agronomic traits. Mature seeds of transgenic line 35R-17 contained 48-60-fold more free lysine than in wild type and had slightly lower apparent amylose content and softer gel consistency. Moreover, a 35-day feeding experiment showed that the body weight gain, food efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio of rats fed the 35R-17 transgenic rice diet were improved when compared with those fed wild-type rice diet. These data will be useful for further evaluation and potential commercialization of 35R high-lysine transgenic rice.

  1. Contribution of the net charge to the regulatory effects of amino acids and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules.

    PubMed

    Ito, Azusa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The effects of lysine (Lys), monosodium glutamate (GluNa), glycine, alanine and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) (PL) with different degrees of polymerization on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules were investigated by DSC, viscosity and swelling measurements, microscopic observation, and measurement of the retained amino acid amount to clarify the contribution of the net charge to their regulatory effects on the gelatinization behavior. The amino acids and PL each contributed to an increase in the gelatinization temperature, and a decrease in the peak viscosity and swelling. These effects strongly depended on the absolute value of their net charge. The disappearance of a negative or positive net charge by adjusting the pH value weakened the contribution. The swelling index and size of the potato starch granules changed according to replacement of the swelling medium. The amino acids and PL were easily retained by the swollen potato starch granules according to replacement of the outer solution of the starch granules.

  2. Quantification of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts to lysine residues in native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Requena, J R; Fu, M X; Ahmed, M U; Jenkins, A J; Lyons, T J; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R

    1997-01-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are major end-products of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and are frequently measured as indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. MDA forms Schiff-base adducts with lysine residues and cross-links proteins in vitro; HNE also reacts with lysines, primarily via a Michael addition reaction. We have developed methods using NaBH4 reduction to stabilize these adducts to conditions used for acid hydrolysis of protein, and have prepared reduced forms of lysine-MDA [3-(N epsilon-lysino)propan-1-ol (LM)], the lysine-MDA-lysine iminopropene cross-link [1,3-di(N epsilon-lysino)propane (LML)] and lysine-HNE [3-(N epsilon-lysino)-4-hydroxynonan-l-ol (LHNE)]. Gas chromatography/MS assays have been developed for quantification of the reduced compounds in protein. RNase incubated with MDA or HNE was used as a model for quantification of the adducts by gas chromatography/MS. There was excellent agreement between measurement of MDA bound to RNase as LM and LML, and as thiobarbituric acid-MDA adducts measured by HPLC; these adducts accounted for 70-80% of total lysine loss during the reaction with MDA. LM and LML (0.002-0.12 mmol/ mol of lysine) were also found in freshly isolated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from healthy subjects. LHNE was measured in RNase treated with HNE, but was not detectable in native LDL. LM, LML and LHNE increased in concert with the formation of conjugated dienes during the copper-catalysed oxidation of LDL, but accounted for modification of < 1% of lysine residues in oxidized LDL. These results are the first report of direct chemical measurement of MDA and HNE adducts to lysine residues in LDL. LM, LML and LHNE should be useful as biomarkers of lipid peroxidative modification of protein and of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:9078279

  3. Development of high-lysine rice via endosperm-specific expression of a foreign LYSINE RICH PROTEIN gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Cuicui; Wang, Xiurong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Yuan, Dingyang; Pan, Gang; Sun, Samuel S M; Tu, Jumin

    2016-06-29

    Lysine (Lys) is considered to be the first limiting essential amino acid in rice. Although there have been extensive efforts to improve the Lys content of rice through traditional breeding and genetic engineering, no satisfactory products have been achieved to date. We expressed a LYSINE-RICH PROTEIN gene (LRP) from Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC using an endosperm-specific GLUTELIN1 promoter (GT1) in Peiai64S (PA64S), an elite photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTSMS) line. The expression of the foreign LRP protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The Lys level in the transgenic rice seeds increased more than 30 %, the total amount of other amino acids also increased compared to wild-type. Persistent investigation of amino acids in 3 generations showed that the Lys content was significantly increased in seeds of transgenic rice. Furthermore, Lys content in the hybrid of the transgenic plants also had an approximate 20 % increase compared to hybrid control. At the grain-filling stage, we monitored the transcript abundance of many genes encoding key enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, and the results suggested that reduced amino acid catabolism led to the accumulation of amino acids in the transgenic plants. The genetically engineered rice showed unfavorable grain phenotypes compared to wild-type, however, its hybrid displayed little negative effects on grain. Endosperm-specific expression of foreign LRP significantly increased the Lys content in the seeds of transgenic plant, and the the Lys increase was stably heritable with 3 generation investigation. The hybrid of the transgenic plants also showed significant increases of Lys content in the seeds. These results indicated that expression of LRP in rice seeds may have promising applications in improving Lys levels in rice.

  4. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  5. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  6. Influence of aspartic acid and lysine on the uptake of gold nanoparticles in rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinxin; Li, Hongying; Wang, Qingyun; Chai, Rushan; Ma, Chao; Gao, Hongjian; Mao, Jingdong

    2018-02-01

    The interactions between plants and nanomaterials (NMs) can shed light on the environmental consequences of nanotechnology. We used the major crop plant rice (Oryza sativa L.) to investigate the uptake of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with either negatively or positively charged ligands, over a 5-day period, in the absence or presence of one of two amino acids, aspartic acid (Asp) or lysine (Lys), acting as components of rice root exudates. The presence of Asp or Lys influenced the uptake and distribution of GNPs in rice, which depended on the electrical interaction between the coated GNPs and each amino acid. When the electrical charge of the amino acid was the same as that of the surface ligand coated onto the GNPs, the GNPs could disperse well in nutrient solution, resulting in increased uptake of GNPs into rice tissue. The opposite was true where the charge on the surface ligand was different from that on the amino acid, resulting in agglomeration and reduced Au uptake into rice tissue. The behavior of GNPs in the hydroponic nutrient solution was monitored in terms of agglomeration, particle size distribution, and surface charge in the presence and absence of Asp or Lys, which depended strongly on the electrostatic interaction. Results from this study indicated that the species of root exudates must be taken into account in assessing the bioavailability of nanomaterials to plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of nitrogen in the liquid fraction and in vitro assessment of lysine bioavailability in the solid fraction of soybean meal hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Luján-Rhenals, D; Morawicki, R; Shi, Z; Ricke, S C

    2018-01-02

    Soybean meal (SBM) is a product generated from the manufacture of soybean oil and has the potential for use as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production or as a protein source for animal feeds. Knowing the levels of nitrogen available from ammonium is a necessary element of the ethanolic fermentation process while identifying the levels of essential amino acids such as lysine is important in determining usage as a feed source. As such the purpose of this study was to quantify total nitrogen and ammonium in the liquid fraction of hydrolyzed SBM and to evaluate total and bioavailable lysine in the solid fraction of the hydrolyzed SBM. The effects of acid concentration, cellulase and β-glucosidase on total and ammonium nitrogen were studied with analysis indicating that higher acid concentrations increased nitrogen compounds with ammonium concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 1.24 g L -1 while enzymatic treatments did not significantly increase nitrogen levels. Total and bioavailable lysine was quantified by use of an auxotrophic gfpmut3 E.coli whole-cell bioassay organism incapable of lysine biosynthesis. Acid and enzymatic treatments were applied with lysine bioavailability increasing from a base of 82% for untreated SBM to up to 97%. Our results demonstrated that SBM has the potential to serve in ethanolic fermentation and as an optimal source essential amino acid lysine.

  8. Fatty Acid Comprising Lysine Conjugates: Anti-MRSA Agents That Display In Vivo Efficacy by Disrupting Biofilms with No Resistance Development.

    PubMed

    Konai, Mohini M; Haldar, Jayanta

    2017-04-19

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has developed resistance to antibiotics of last resort such as vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin. Additionally, their biofilm forming capability has set an alarming situation in the treatment of bacterial infections. Herein we report the potency of fatty acid comprising lysine conjugates as novel anti-MRSA agents, which were not only capable of killing growing planktonic MRSA at low concentration (MIC = 3.1-6.3 μg/mL), but also displayed potent activity against nondividing stationary phase cells. Furthermore, the conjugates eradicated established biofilms of MRSA. The bactericidal activity of d-lysine conjugated tetradecanoyl analogue (D-LANA-14) is attributed to its membrane disruption against these metabolically distinct cells. In a mouse model of superficial skin infection, D-LANA-14 displayed potent in vivo anti-MRSA activity (2.7 and 3.9 Log reduction at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, respectively) without showing any skin toxicity even at 200 mg/kg of the compound exposure. Additionally, MRSA could not develop resistance against D-LANA-14 even after 18 subsequent passages, whereas the topical anti-MRSA antibiotic fusidic acid succumbed to rapid resistance development. Collectively, the results suggested that this new class of membrane targeting conjugates bear immense potential to treat MRSA infections over conventional antibiotic therapy.

  9. Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2015-11-16

    Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of

  10. Lysine acetylation sites prediction using an ensemble of support vector machine classifiers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Ding, Jun; Wu, Ling-Yun; Deng, Nai-Yang

    2010-05-07

    Lysine acetylation is an essentially reversible and high regulated post-translational modification which regulates diverse protein properties. Experimental identification of acetylation sites is laborious and expensive. Hence, there is significant interest in the development of computational methods for reliable prediction of acetylation sites from amino acid sequences. In this paper we use an ensemble of support vector machine classifiers to perform this work. The experimentally determined acetylation lysine sites are extracted from Swiss-Prot database and scientific literatures. Experiment results show that an ensemble of support vector machine classifiers outperforms single support vector machine classifier and other computational methods such as PAIL and LysAcet on the problem of predicting acetylation lysine sites. The resulting method has been implemented in EnsemblePail, a web server for lysine acetylation sites prediction available at http://www.aporc.org/EnsemblePail/. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid Using a Poly(l-lysine)/Graphene Oxide Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehua; Lei, Wu; Xu, Yujuan; Xia, Xifeng; Hao, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A novel, simple and selective electrochemical method was investigated for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) on a poly(l-lysine)/graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon electrode (PLL/GO/GCE) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemically prepared PLL/GO sensory platform toward the oxidation of UA and DA exhibited several advantages, including high effective surface area, more active sites and enhanced electrochemical activity. Compared to the PLL-modified GCE (PLL/GCE), GO-modified GCE and bare GCE, the PLL/GO/GCE exhibited an increase in the anodic potential difference and a remarkable enhancement in the current responses for both UA and DA. For the simultaneous detection of DA and UA, the detection limits of 0.021 and 0.074 μM were obtained, while 0.031 and 0.018 μM were obtained as the detection limits for the selective detection of UA and DA, using DPV in the linear concentration ranges of 0.5 to 20.0 and 0.5 to 35 μM, respectively. In addition, the PLL/GO/GCE demonstrated good reproducibility, long-term stability, excellent selectivity and negligible interference of ascorbic acid (AA). The proposed modified electrode was successfully implemented in the simultaneous detection of DA and UA in human blood serum, urine and dopamine hydrochloride injection with satisfactory results. PMID:28335305

  12. Multifactorial modulation of susceptibility to l-lysine in an animal model of glutaric aciduria type I.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Sven W; Opp, Silvana; Komatsuzaki, Shoko; Blank, Anna-Eva; Mittelbronn, Michel; Burgard, Peter; Koeller, D M; Okun, Jürgen G; Kölker, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I is an inherited defect in L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine and L-tryptophan degradation caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). The majority of untreated patients presents with accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites - glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA) - and striatal injury. Gcdh(-/-) mice display elevated levels of GA and 3-OH-GA but do not spontaneously develop striatal lesions. L-lysine-enriched diets (appr. 235 mg/d) were suggested to induce a neurological phenotype similar to affected patients. In our hands 93% of mice stressed according to the published protocol remained asymptomatic. To understand the underlying mechanism, we modified their genetic background (F1 C57BL6/Jx129/SvCrl) and increased the daily oral L-lysine supply (235-433 mg). We identified three modulating factors, (1) gender, (2) genetic background, and (3) amount of L-lysine. Male mice displayed higher vulnerability and inbreeding for more than two generations as well as elevating L-lysine supply increased the diet-induced mortality rate (up to 89%). Onset of first symptoms leads to strongly reduced intake of food and, thus, L-lysine suggesting a threshold for toxic metabolite production to induce neurological disease. GA and 3-OH-GA tissue concentrations did not correlate with dietary L-lysine supply but differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic mice. Cerebral activities of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and aconitase were decreased. Symptomatic mice did not develop striatal lesions or intracerebral hemorrhages. We found severe spongiosis in the hippocampus of Gcdh(-/-) mice which was independent of dietary L-lysine supply. In conclusion, the L-lysine-induced pathology in Gcdh(-/-) mice depends on genetic and dietary parameters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterization and crystal structure of lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase (cDHDPS) protein

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rice, E.A.; Bannon, G.A.; Glenn, K.C.

    2008-11-21

    The lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase enzyme (cDHDPS) was recently successfully introduced into maize plants to enhance the level of lysine in the grain. To better understand lysine insensitivity of the cDHDPS, we expressed, purified, kinetically characterized the protein, and solved its X-ray crystal structure. The cDHDPS enzyme has a fold and overall structure that is highly similar to other DHDPS proteins. A noteworthy feature of the active site is the evidence that the catalytic lysine residue forms a Schiff base adduct with pyruvate. Analyses of the cDHDPS structure in the vicinity of the putative binding site for S-lysinemore » revealed that the allosteric binding site in the Escherichia coli DHDPS protein does not exist in cDHDPS due to three non-conservative amino acids substitutions, and this is likely why cDHDPS is not feedback inhibited by lysine.« less

  14. Quantification of Nε-(2-Furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML), Nε-(Carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL) and total lysine through stable isotope dilution assay and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Fiore, Alberto; Wiltafsky, Markus; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2015-12-01

    The control of Maillard reaction (MR) is a key point to ensure processed foods quality. Due to the presence of a primary amino group on its side chain, lysine is particularly prone to chemical modifications with the formation of Amadori products (AP), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML), Nε-(Carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL). A new analytical strategy was proposed which allowed to simultaneously quantify lysine, CML, CEL and the Nε-(2-Furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine), the indirect marker of AP. The procedure is based on stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It showed high sensitivity and good reproducibility and repeatability in different foods. The limit of detection and the RSD% were lower than 5 ppb and below 8%, respectively. Results obtained with the new procedure not only improved the knowledge about the reliability of thermal treatment markers, but also defined new insights in the relationship between Maillard reaction products and their precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distance restraints from crosslinking mass spectrometry: mining a molecular dynamics simulation database to evaluate lysine-lysine distances.

    PubMed

    Merkley, Eric D; Rysavy, Steven; Kahraman, Abdullah; Hafen, Ryan P; Daggett, Valerie; Adkins, Joshua N

    2014-06-01

    Integrative structural biology attempts to model the structures of protein complexes that are challenging or intractable by classical structural methods (due to size, dynamics, or heterogeneity) by combining computational structural modeling with data from experimental methods. One such experimental method is chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry (XL-MS), in which protein complexes are crosslinked and characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to pinpoint specific amino acid residues in close structural proximity. The commonly used lysine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents disuccinimidylsuberate (DSS) and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS(3) ) have a linker arm that is 11.4 Å long when fully extended, allowing Cα (alpha carbon of protein backbone) atoms of crosslinked lysine residues to be up to ∼24 Å apart. However, XL-MS studies on proteins of known structure frequently report crosslinks that exceed this distance. Typically, a tolerance of ∼3 Å is added to the theoretical maximum to account for this observation, with limited justification for the chosen value. We used the Dynameomics database, a repository of high-quality molecular dynamics simulations of 807 proteins representative of diverse protein folds, to investigate the relationship between lysine-lysine distances in experimental starting structures and in simulation ensembles. We conclude that for DSS/BS(3), a distance constraint of 26-30 Å between Cα atoms is appropriate. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for the widespread practice of adding a tolerance to the crosslinker length when comparing XL-MS results to structures or in modeling. We also discuss the comparison of XL-MS results to MD simulations and known structures as a means to test and validate experimental XL-MS methods. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  16. Lysine Methylation of Nuclear Co-repressor Receptor Interacting Protein 140

    PubMed Central

    Huq, MD Mostaqul; Ha, Sung Gil; Barcelona, Helene; Wei, Li-Na

    2009-01-01

    Receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140) undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, arginine methylation, and pyridoxylation. PTMs affect its sub-cellular distribution, protein-protein interaction, and biological activity in adipocyte differentiation. Arginine methylation on Arg240, Arg650, and Arg948 suppresses the repressive activity of RIP140. Here we find that endogenous RIP140 in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells is also modified by lysine methylation. Three lysine residues, Lys591, Lys653, and Lys757 are mapped as potential methylation sites by mass spectrometry. Site-directed mutagenesis study shows that lysine methylation enhances its gene repressive activity. Mutation of lysine methylation sites enhances arginine methylation, while mutation on arginine methylation sites has little effect on its lysine methylation, suggesting a relationship between lysine methylation and arginine methylation. Kinetic analysis of PTMs of endogenous RIP140 in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells demonstrates sequential modifications on RIP140, initiated from constitutive lysine methylation, followed by increased arginine methylation later in differentiation. This study reveals a potential hierarchy of modifications, at least for lysine and arginine methylation, which bi-directionally regulate the functionality of a non-histone protein. PMID:19216533

  17. Lysine Succinylation Contributes to Aflatoxin Production and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus flavus*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Silin; Yang, Mingkun; Yue, Yuewei; Ge, Feng; Li, Yu; Guo, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Feng; Nie, Xinyi; Wang, Shihua

    2018-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) is a ubiquitous saprophytic and pathogenic fungus that produces the aflatoxin carcinogen, and A. flavus can have tremendous economic and health impacts worldwide. Increasing evidence demonstrates that lysine succinylation plays an important regulatory role in metabolic processes in both bacterial and human cells. However, little is known about the extent and function of lysine succinylation in A. flavus. Here, we performed a global succinylome analysis of A. flavus using high accuracy nano-LC-MS/MS in combination with the enrichment of succinylated peptides from digested cell lysates and subsequent peptide identification. In total, 985 succinylation sites on 349 succinylated proteins were identified in this pathogen. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the succinylated proteins were involved in various biological processes and were particularly enriched in the aflatoxin biosynthesis process. Site-specific mutagenesis and biochemical studies showed that lysine succinylation on the norsolorinic acid reductase NorA (AflE), a key enzyme in aflatoxins biosynthesis, can affect the production of sclerotia and aflatoxins biosynthesis in A. flavus. Together, our findings reveal widespread roles for lysine succinylation in regulating metabolism and aflatoxins biosynthesis in A. flavus. Our data provide a rich resource for functional analyses of lysine succinylation and facilitate the dissection of metabolic networks in this pathogen. PMID:29298838

  18. Preparation and characterization of lysine-immobilized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticle-coated capillary for the separation of amino acids by open tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Cui, Pengfei; Wang, Dongmei; Tang, Cheng; Dong, Linyi; Zhang, Can; Duan, Hongquan; Yang, Victor C

    2014-01-03

    In this study, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and chemically immobilized for the first time onto a capillary inner wall for open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OTCEC). The immobilization of PGMA NPs onto the capillary was attained by a ring-opening reaction between the NPs and an amino-silylated fused capillary inner surface. Scanning electron micrographs clearly demonstrated that the NPs were bound to the capillary inner surface in a dense monolayer. The PGMA NP-coated column was then functionalized by lysine (Lys). After fuctionalization, the capillary can afford strong anodic electroosmotic flow, especially in acidic running buffers. Separations of three amino acids (including tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine) were performed in NP-modified, monolayer Lys-functionalized and bare uncoated capillaries. Results indicated that the NP-coated column can provide more retention and higher resolution for analytes due to the hydrophobic interaction between analytes and the NP-coating. Run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibilities in the separation of the amino acids using the NP-modified column were also demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A chemical proteomics approach for global analysis of lysine monomethylome profiling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhixiang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Sun, Mingwei; Wan, Xuelian; Liu, Ping; He, Tieming; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming

    2015-02-01

    Methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is known to play an important role in chromatin structure and function. However, non-histone protein substrates of this modification remain largely unknown. An effective approach for system-wide analysis of protein lysine methylation, particularly lysine monomethylation, is lacking. Here we describe a chemical proteomics approach for global screening for monomethyllysine substrates, involving chemical propionylation of monomethylated lysine, affinity enrichment of the modified monomethylated peptides, and HPLC/MS/MS analysis. Using this approach, we identified with high confidence 446 lysine monomethylation sites in 398 proteins, including three previously unknown histone monomethylation marks, representing the largest data set of protein lysine monomethylation described to date. Our data not only confirms previously discovered lysine methylation substrates in the nucleus and spliceosome, but also reveals new substrates associated with diverse biological processes. This method hence offers a powerful approach for dynamic study of protein lysine monomethylation under diverse cellular conditions and in human diseases. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Ex-vivo absorption study of lysine R-lipoate salt, a new pharmaceutical form of R-ALA.

    PubMed

    Amenta, Francesco; Buccioni, Michela; Ben, Diego Dal; Lambertucci, Catia; Navia, Aleix Martí; Ngouadjeu Ngnintedem, Michael A; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Spinaci, Andrea; Volpini, Rosaria; Marucci, Gabriella

    2018-06-15

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) oral supplements were used in many pathologies associated with increased oxidative stress. Although only R-ALA is considered the biologically active form, R,S-ALA is used in therapeutic applications even showing poor water solubility. The aim of this work was to study the absorption and transport mechanism across the intestinal barrier of new R-ALA stable and water soluble form, consisting in the lysine R-ALA salt, in presence and absence of specific inhibitors of Na + /multivitamin (SMVT) and monocarboxylic acids (MCT). The absorption of a new ALA form was investigated at rat everted sacs in comparison with R-ALA, S-ALA, and R,S-ALA. Results showed that duodenum is the best portion of intestine for ALA forms absorption. The absorption percentage of R-ALA, S-ALA, R,S-ALA, and lysine R-ALA salt was 66%, 43%, 55%, and 70%, respectively. The modest effect of the SMVT inhibitor biotin demonstrated that this transporter system is not principally involved in the absorption of lysine R-lipoate salt across the rat intestinal barrier. On the contrary, the MCT inhibitor octanoic acid significantly reduced the transport of this salt, whit an absorption decrease of R-ALA and lysine R-lipoate salt of 28% and 24%, respectively. Since the highest concentration of these inhibitors did not completely inhibit the absorption of lysine R-lipoate salt, other transport mechanisms probably operate for its intracellular delivery. The new form of ALA, lysine R-lipoate salt, was the most absorbed respect to the other ALA forms demonstrating that this compound is more suitable for oral administration. This new salt could represent a promising candidate for ALA oral supplementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polydiacetylenyl β-cyclodextrin based smart vesicles for colorimetric assay of arginine and lysine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eunae; Kim, Hwanhee; Choi, Youngjin; Paik, Seung R.; Jung, Seunho

    2016-08-01

    Selective visualization of arginine and lysine has been explored among 20 amino acids using the hybrid conjugate of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and polydiacetylene (PDA). The mono pentacosa-10,12-diynyl aminomethyl group was successfully coupled to either the primary or the secondary face of β-CD, where mono-6-amino-6-deoxy-β-CD or mono-3-amino-3-deoxy-β-CD reacted with the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid. In this combinatorial system, the cylindrical β-cyclodextrin functions as a channel for the introduction of the cationic amino acids to the artificial membrane. The membrane perturbation and aggregation by the target amino acids could be exclusively visualized as a blue to red color change based on the responsive polydiacetylene domain. These interesting findings demonstrated that the developed β-CD conjugated PDA system may offer a new method of cell-penetrating mechanism, a promising vector system, as well as impact the production industry of arginine or lysine.

  2. Jugular-infused methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids does not improve milk production in Holstein cows experiencing heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kassube, K R; Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; McFadden, J W; Ríus, A G

    2017-12-01

    Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14. The basal diet was composed of ryegrass silage and hay, and a concentrate mix. This diet supplied 44 g of methionine, 125 g of lysine, 167 g of leucine, 98 g of isoleucine and 109 g of valine per day to the small intestine of THN cows. Temperature-humidity index was maintained below 66 for the THN environment, whereas the index was maintained above 68, peaking at 76, for 14 continuous h/day for the HS environment. Heat stress conditioning increased the udder temperature from 37.0°C to 39.6°C. Cows that received the ML+BCAA treatment had greater p.m. rectal and vaginal temperatures (0.50°C and 0.40°C, respectively), and respiration rate (8 breaths/min) compared with those on the NC treatment and exposed to a HS environment. However, neither NC nor ML+BCAA affected rectal or vaginal temperatures and respiration rates in the THN environment. Compared with THN, the HS environment reduced dry matter intake (1.48 kg/day), milk yield (2.82 kg/day) and milk protein yield (0.11 kg/day). However, compared with NC, the ML+BCAA treatment increased milk protein percent by 0.07 points. For the THN environment, the ML+BCAA treatment increased concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. For the HS environment, the ML

  3. Specificity determinants for lysine incorporation in Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan as revealed by the structure of a MurE enzyme ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Karen M; Lloyd, Adrian J; Fülöp, Vilmos; Dowson, Christopher G; Barreteau, Hélène; Boniface, Audrey; Dementin, Sébastien; Blanot, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Gobec, Stanislav; Dessen, Andréa; Roper, David I

    2013-11-15

    Formation of the peptidoglycan stem pentapeptide requires the insertion of both L and D amino acids by the ATP-dependent ligase enzymes MurC, -D, -E, and -F. The stereochemical control of the third position amino acid in the pentapeptide is crucial to maintain the fidelity of later biosynthetic steps contributing to cell morphology, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. Here we determined the x-ray crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus MurE UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate:meso-2,6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE) (E.C. 6.3.2.7) at 1.8 Å resolution in the presence of ADP and the reaction product, UDP-MurNAc-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys. This structure provides for the first time a molecular understanding of how this Gram-positive enzyme discriminates between L-lysine and D,L-diaminopimelic acid, the predominant amino acid that replaces L-lysine in Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Despite the presence of a consensus sequence previously implicated in the selection of the third position residue in the stem pentapeptide in S. aureus MurE, the structure shows that only part of this sequence is involved in the selection of L-lysine. Instead, other parts of the protein contribute substrate-selecting residues, resulting in a lysine-binding pocket based on charge characteristics. Despite the absolute specificity for L-lysine, S. aureus MurE binds this substrate relatively poorly. In vivo analysis and metabolomic data reveal that this is compensated for by high cytoplasmic L-lysine concentrations. Therefore, both metabolic and structural constraints maintain the structural integrity of the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. This study provides a novel focus for S. aureus-directed antimicrobials based on dual targeting of essential amino acid biogenesis and its linkage to cell wall assembly.

  4. Specificity Determinants for Lysine Incorporation in Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan as Revealed by the Structure of a MurE Enzyme Ternary Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Karen M.; Lloyd, Adrian J.; Fülöp, Vilmos; Dowson, Christopher G.; Barreteau, Hélène; Boniface, Audrey; Dementin, Sébastien; Blanot, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Gobec, Stanislav; Dessen, Andréa; Roper, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the peptidoglycan stem pentapeptide requires the insertion of both l and d amino acids by the ATP-dependent ligase enzymes MurC, -D, -E, and -F. The stereochemical control of the third position amino acid in the pentapeptide is crucial to maintain the fidelity of later biosynthetic steps contributing to cell morphology, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. Here we determined the x-ray crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus MurE UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanyl-d-glutamate:meso-2,6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE) (E.C. 6.3.2.7) at 1.8 Å resolution in the presence of ADP and the reaction product, UDP-MurNAc-l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-l-Lys. This structure provides for the first time a molecular understanding of how this Gram-positive enzyme discriminates between l-lysine and d,l-diaminopimelic acid, the predominant amino acid that replaces l-lysine in Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Despite the presence of a consensus sequence previously implicated in the selection of the third position residue in the stem pentapeptide in S. aureus MurE, the structure shows that only part of this sequence is involved in the selection of l-lysine. Instead, other parts of the protein contribute substrate-selecting residues, resulting in a lysine-binding pocket based on charge characteristics. Despite the absolute specificity for l-lysine, S. aureus MurE binds this substrate relatively poorly. In vivo analysis and metabolomic data reveal that this is compensated for by high cytoplasmic l-lysine concentrations. Therefore, both metabolic and structural constraints maintain the structural integrity of the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. This study provides a novel focus for S. aureus-directed antimicrobials based on dual targeting of essential amino acid biogenesis and its linkage to cell wall assembly. PMID:24064214

  5. A supramolecular nanoparticle system based on β-cyclodextrin-conjugated poly-l-lysine and hyaluronic acid for co-delivery of gene and chemotherapy agent targeting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qingqing; Cui, Mangmang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Di; Song, Tianqiang

    2017-07-01

    A novel supramolecular nanoparticle system with core-shell structure was designed based on β-cyclodextrin-conjugated poly-l-lysine (PLCD) and hyaluronic acid for co-delivery of gene and chemotherapy agent targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PLCD was synthesized by the conjugation of monoaldehyde activated β-cyclodextrin with poly-l-lysine via Shiff's base reaction. Doxorubicin, as a model therapeutic drug, was included into the hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrin in PLCD through host-guest interaction. OligoRNA, as a model gene, was further condensed into the inclusion complexes by electrostatic interaction to form oligoRNA and doxorubicin co-loaded supramolecular nanoparticle system. Hyaluronic acid, which is often over-expressed by HCC cells, was coated on the surface of the above nanoparticles to construct HCC-targeted nanoparticle system. These nanoparticles had regular spherical shape with classic "core-shell" structure, and their size and zeta potential were 195.8nm and -22.7mV, respectively. The nanoparticles could effectively deliver doxorubicin and oligoRNA into HCC cells via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and significantly inhibit the cell proliferation. In the nude mice bearing MHCC-97H tumor, the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in the tumor, suggesting their strong hepatoma-targeting capability. These findings demonstrated that this novel supramolecular nanoparticle system had a promising potential for combining gene therapy and chemotherapy to treat HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Lysine Analogues on t-PA Induced Whole Blood Clot Lysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aminocaproic acid (EACA) and trans-4-amino- methyl cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA) are used to prevent excessive bleeding in patients with... aminocaproic acid (EACA) and the others have lower affinity binding sites (K&=5 mM) (5). The lysine analogues EACA and trans-4-aniinomethyl...JL, Wissler FC. Quantitative determination of the binding of epsilon- aminocaproic acid to native plasminogen. J Biol Chem 253, 727-732, 1978. 6

  7. Low lysine diet in glutaric aciduria type I--effect on anthropometric and biochemical follow-up parameters.

    PubMed

    Boy, Nikolas; Haege, Gisela; Heringer, Jana; Assmann, Birgit; Mühlhausen, Chris; Ensenauer, Regina; Maier, Esther M; Lücke, Thomas; Hoffmann, Georg F; Müller, Edith; Burgard, Peter; Kölker, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Metabolic treatment in glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) including a low lysine diet with lysine-free, tryptophan-reduced amino acid supplements (AAS), carnitine supplementation and early start of emergency treatment during putatively threatening episodes of intermittent febrile illness dramatically improves the outcome and thus has been recommended by an international guideline group (Kölker et al, J Inherit Metab Dis 30:5-22, 2007). However, possible affection of linear growth, weight gain and biochemical follow-up monitoring has not been studied systematically. Thirty-three patients (n = 29 asymptomatic, n = 4 dystonic) with GA-I who have been identified by newborn screening in Germany from 1999 to 2009 were followed prospectively during the first six years of life. Dietary treatment protocols, anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were longitudinally evaluated. Mean daily intake as percentage of guideline recommendations was excellent for lysine (asymptomatic patients: 101 %; dystonic patients: 103 %), lysine-free, tryptophan-reduced AAS (108 %; 104 %), energy (106 %; 110 %), and carnitine (92 %; 102 %). Low lysine diet did not affect weight gain (mean SDS 0.05) but mildly impaired linear growth in asymptomatic patients (mean SDS -0.38), while dystonic patients showed significantly reduced weight gain (mean SDS -1.32) and a tendency towards linear growth retardation (mean SDS -1.03). Patients treated in accordance with recent recommendations did not show relevant abnormalities of routine biochemical follow-up parameters. Low lysine diet promotes sufficient intake of essential nutrients and anthropometric development in asymptomatic children up to age 6 year, whereas individualized nutritional concepts are required for dystonic patients. Revised recommendations for biochemical monitoring might be required for asymptomatic patients.

  8. Beyond histones - the expanding roles of protein lysine methylation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhouran; Connolly, Justin; Biggar, Kyle K

    2017-09-01

    A robust signaling network is essential for cell survival. At the molecular level, this is often mediated by as many as 200 different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) that are made to proteins. These include well-documented examples such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Of these modifications, non-histone protein lysine methylation has only recently emerged as a prevalent modification occurring on numerous proteins, thus extending its role well beyond the histone code. To date, this modification has been found to regulate protein activity, protein-protein interactions and interplay with other PTMs. As a result, lysine methylation is now known to be a coordinator of protein function and is a key driver in several cellular signaling events. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have also allowed the characterization of a growing number of lysine methylation events on an increasing number of proteins. As a result, we are now beginning to recognize lysine methylation as a dynamic event that is involved in a number of biological processes, including DNA damage repair, cell growth, metabolism and signal transduction among others. In light of current research advances, the stage is now set to study the extent of lysine methylation that exists within the entire proteome, its dynamics, and its association with physiological and pathological processes. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Effect of lysine clonixinate on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon.

    PubMed

    Russmann, S; Dilger, K; Trenk, D; Nagyivanyi, P; Jähnchen, E

    2001-11-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug lysine clonixinate ([2-(3-chloro-o-toluidino)nicotinic acid]-L-lysinate, CAS 55837-30-4) on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon (4-hydroxy-3-(1-phenylpropyl)-coumarin, CAS 435-97-2) was investigated in an open, randomised, two-fold, cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers. These subjects received a single dose of 18 mg phenprocoumon without or with concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate (125 mg five times a day for 3 days before and 13 days after ingestion of a single dose of phenprocoumon). Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenprocoumon following oral administration were: CL/f: 0.779 +/- 0.157 ml/min, half-life of elimination: 147.2 +/- 19.9 h; free fraction in serum: 0.51 +/- 0.20%. These parameters were not significantly altered by concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate. Prothrombin time increased from 13.3 +/- 1.3 s (at time 0) to 17.7 +/- 2.7 s following phenprocoumon and from 13.3 +/- 1.2 s to 18.0 +/- 2.2 s following combined administration. Prothrombin time returned to the pretreatment values 240 h after administration of phenprocoumon. The integrated effect (AUEC0-288 h) was identical following both treatments (4.303 +/- 461 and 4.303 +/- 312 s x h for phenprocoumon alone and phenprocoumon with lysine clonixinate, respectively). Thus, lysine clonixinate administered in therapeutic doses does not affect the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenproxoumon.

  10. The use of feed-grade amino acids in lactating sow diets.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Laura; Srichana, Pairat; Usry, James L; Neill, Casey; Allee, Gary L; Connor, Joseph; Touchette, Kevin J; Knight, Christopher D

    2018-01-01

    The use of feed grade amino acids can reduce the cost of lactation feed. With changing genetics, increasing feed costs, and higher number of pigs weaned with heavier wean weights further evaluation of higher inclusion levels of feed-grade amino acid in lactation diets than previously published is warranted. Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the optimal inclusion level of L -lysine HCl to be included in swine lactation diets while digestible lysine levels remain constant across dietary treatments and allowing feed grade amino acids to be added to the diet to maintain dietary ratios relative to lysine to maximize litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance. Furthermore, the studies were to evaluate minimal amino acid ratios relative to lysine that allows for optimal litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance. Exp. 1: Increasing L -lysine HCl resulted in similar gilt feed intake, litter, and reproductive performance. Average litter gain from birth to weaning was 2.51, 2.49, 2.59, 2.43, and 2.65 kg/d when gilts were fed 0.00, 0.075, 0.150, 0.225, and 0.30% L -lysine HCl, respectively. Exp. 2: The average litter gain from birth to weaning was 2.68, 2.73, 2.67, 2.70, and 2.64 kg/d ( P  < 0.70) when sows were fed 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.4% L -lysine HCl plus valine, respectively. No other differences among dietary treatments were observed. Collectively, these studies demonstrate corn-soybean meal based lactation diets formulated with a constant SID lysine content for all parities containing up to 0.40% L -lysine HCl with only supplemental feed grade threonine and a methionine source have no detrimental effect on litter growth rate and subsequent total born.

  11. Tracking the behavior of Maillard browning in lysine/arginine-sugar model systems under high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Jin-Yan; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Chen, Hong-Bing

    2017-12-01

    High-pressure processing is gaining popularity in the food industry. However, its effect on the Maillard reaction during high-pressure-assisted pasteurization and sterilization is not well documented. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the Maillard reaction during these processes using amino acid (lysine or arginine)-sugar (glucose or fructose) solution models. High pressure retarded the intermediate and final stages of the Maillard reaction in the lysine-sugar model. For the lysine-glucose model, the degradation rate of Amadori compounds was decelerated, while acceleration was observed in the arginine-sugar model. Increased temperature not only accelerated the Maillard reaction over time but also formed fluorescent compounds with different emission wavelengths. Lysine reacted with the sugars more readily than arginine under the same conditions. In addition, it was easier for lysine to react with glucose, whereas arginine reacted more readily with fructose under high pressure. High pressure exerts different effects on lysine-sugar and arginine-sugar models. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Lysine Requirements of Healthy Pregnant Women are Higher During Late Stages of Gestation Compared to Early Gestation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Magdalene; Stephens, Trina; Lim, Kenneth; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2018-01-01

    Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in cereal proteins and is found mainly in animal-derived products. Current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations extrapolate lysine requirements during pregnancy from nonpregnant adult data, and may underestimate true requirements. Our objective is to define a quantitative lysine requirement in healthy pregnant women and to determine whether requirements vary between 2 phases of gestation. Fourteen pregnant women in early (12-19 wk) and 19 women in late (33-39 wk) gestation were studied using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Individual lysine intakes (6-84 mg · kg-1 · d-1, deficient to excess) were tested on each study day as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein composition. Isonitrogenous diets maintained protein intake at 1.5 g · kg-1 · d-1 and calorie intake at 1.7 times resting energy expenditure during each study day. Phenylalanine and tyrosine intakes were held constant across all lysine intakes. Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and isotopic steady state. Lysine requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine to 13CO2 (F13CO2). Biphase linear regression crossover analysis was used to determine a breakpoint (which represents the estimated average requirement, EAR) in F13CO2. The EAR for lysine during early gestation was determined to be 36.6 mg · kg-1 · d-1 (R2 = 0.484, upper 95% CI = 46.2 mg · kg-1 · d-1), similar to an earlier adult requirement of 36 mg · kg-1 · d-1. The EAR for lysine during late gestation was determined to be 50.3 mg · kg-1 · d-1 (R2 = 0.664, upper 95% CI = 60.4 mg · kg-1 · d-1), 23% higher than the current pregnancy DRI EAR recommendation of 41 mg · kg-1 · d-1. Our results suggest that lysine requirements are higher during late gestation compared to early gestation, and that current dietary lysine recommendations during late

  13. Global Proteomics Analysis of Protein Lysine Methylation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xing-Jun; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2016-11-01

    Lysine methylation is a common protein post-translational modification dynamically mediated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein lysine demethylases (PKDMs). Beyond histone proteins, lysine methylation on non-histone proteins plays a substantial role in a variety of functions in cells and is closely associated with diseases such as cancer. A large body of evidence indicates that the dysregulation of some PKMTs leads to tumorigenesis via their non-histone substrates. However, most studies on other PKMTs have made slow progress owing to the lack of approaches for extensive screening of lysine methylation sites. However, recently, there has been a series of publications to perform large-scale analysis of protein lysine methylation. In this unit, we introduce a protocol for the global analysis of protein lysine methylation in cells by means of immunoaffinity enrichment and mass spectrometry. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Lysine Malonylation Is Elevated in Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Models and Enriched in Metabolic Associated Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yipeng; Cai, Tanxi; Li, Tingting; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Bo; He, Xiaolong; Wei, Peng; Liu, Pingsheng; Yang, Fuquan; Wei, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine malonylation, a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM), has been proved to be evolutionarily conserved and is present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its potential roles associated with human diseases remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed an elevated lysine malonylation in a screening of seven lysine acylations in liver tissues of db/db mice, which is a typical model of type 2 diabetes. We also detected an elevated lysine malonylation in ob/ob mice, which is another model of type 2 diabetes. We then performed affinity enrichment coupled with proteomic analysis on liver tissues of both wild-type (wt) and db/db mice and identified a total of 573 malonylated lysine sites from 268 proteins. There were more malonylated lysine sites and proteins in db/db than in wt mice. Five proteins with elevated malonylation were verified by immunoprecipitation coupled with Western blot analysis. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic results revealed the enrichment of malonylated proteins in metabolic pathways, especially those involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, the biological role of lysine malonylation was validated in an enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Together, our findings support a potential role of protein lysine malonylation in type 2 diabetes with possible implications for its therapy in the future. PMID:25418362

  15. Design and Application of Synthetic Receptors for Recognition of Methylated Lysine and Supramolecular Affinity Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gober, Isaiah Nathaniel

    possible ways for detecting PTMs and may find use in the development of new assays for enzymes that lack robust methods for measuring their activity. The third section explores the development of new small molecule receptors capable of selectively binding hydrophilic guests in water, such as the lower methylation states of lysine. We identified a receptor, A2I, that has improved binding affinity and selectivity for dimethyllysine (Kme2). The receptor was discovered and synthesized by using dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) to redesign a small molecule receptor (A2B ) that preferentially binds trimethyllysine (Kme3). Incorporating a biphenyl monomer with ortho-di-substituted carboxylates into the receptor lead to the formation of a salt bridge interaction with Kme2. These favorable electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions produced a receptor with 32-fold tighter binding to Kme2, which is the highest affinity synthetic receptor for Kme2 in the context of a peptide that has been reported. This work provides insight into effective strategies for binding hydrophilic, cationic guests in water and is an encouraging result toward a synthetic receptor that selectively binds Kme2 over other methylation states of lysine. In the final section, a small molecule receptor for Kme3 (A 2B) was redesigned using DCC to incorporate either aromatic or acidic amino acids into the receptor. We proposed that the incorporation of amino acids could introduce additional non-covalent interactions (such as cation-pi, electrostatic, and hydrogen bonding) with a guest bound inside the pocket of the receptor. However, selective non-covalent interactions between the amino acid side chain on the modified receptor and the bound methylated lysine guest could not be achieved. This is most likely due to the conformational flexibility of the amino acid-functionalized receptors. Furthermore, attaching amino acids to the receptor seemed to increase non-specific electrostatic interactions, resulting in

  16. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Addison

    2004-03-01

    Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of ( S )-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids, ( S )-glutamic acid being used as a flavor-enhancing additive (MSG) for the human diet, and ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine as supplements for the feeding of domestic animals. Examples include chemical, enzymatic, and fermentation synthesis, and two clever continuous processes for the resolution of enantiomers. See Featured Molecules .

  17. Computational Prediction of Protein Epsilon Lysine Acetylation Sites Based on a Feature Selection Method.

    PubMed

    Gao, JianZhao; Tao, Xue-Wen; Zhao, Jia; Feng, Yuan-Ming; Cai, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Lysine acetylation, as one type of post-translational modifications (PTM), plays key roles in cellular regulations and can be involved in a variety of human diseases. However, it is often high-cost and time-consuming to use traditional experimental approaches to identify the lysine acetylation sites. Therefore, effective computational methods should be developed to predict the acetylation sites. In this study, we developed a position-specific method for epsilon lysine acetylation site prediction. Sequences of acetylated proteins were retrieved from the UniProt database. Various kinds of features such as position specific scoring matrix (PSSM), amino acid factors (AAF), and disorders were incorporated. A feature selection method based on mRMR (Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy) and IFS (Incremental Feature Selection) was employed. Finally, 319 optimal features were selected from total 541 features. Using the 319 optimal features to encode peptides, a predictor was constructed based on dagging. As a result, an accuracy of 69.56% with MCC of 0.2792 was achieved. We analyzed the optimal features, which suggested some important factors determining the lysine acetylation sites. We developed a position-specific method for epsilon lysine acetylation site prediction. A set of optimal features was selected. Analysis of the optimal features provided insights into the mechanism of lysine acetylation sites, providing guidance of experimental validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Structural, kinetic and computational investigation of Vitis vinifera DHDPS reveals new insight into the mechanism of lysine-mediated allosteric inhibition.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sarah C; Dogovski, Con; Downton, Matthew T; Czabotar, Peter E; Dobson, Renwick C J; Gerrard, Juliet A; Wagner, John; Perugini, Matthew A

    2013-03-01

    Lysine is one of the most limiting amino acids in plants and its biosynthesis is carefully regulated through inhibition of the first committed step in the pathway catalyzed by dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS). This is mediated via a feedback mechanism involving the binding of lysine to the allosteric cleft of DHDPS. However, the precise allosteric mechanism is yet to be defined. We present a thorough enzyme kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of lysine inhibition of DHDPS from the common grapevine, Vitis vinifera (Vv). Our studies demonstrate that lysine binding is both tight (relative to bacterial DHDPS orthologs) and cooperative. The crystal structure of the enzyme bound to lysine (2.4 Å) identifies the allosteric binding site and clearly shows a conformational change of several residues within the allosteric and active sites. Molecular dynamics simulations comparing the lysine-bound (PDB ID 4HNN) and lysine free (PDB ID 3TUU) structures show that Tyr132, a key catalytic site residue, undergoes significant rotational motion upon lysine binding. This suggests proton relay through the catalytic triad is attenuated in the presence of lysine. Our study reveals for the first time the structural mechanism for allosteric inhibition of DHDPS from the common grapevine.

  19. HDAC inhibitors induce global changes in histone lysine and arginine methylation and alter expression of lysine demethylases.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Ryan; Sobral, Marina Gomez; Stesco, Nicholas; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-02-05

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells. All HDAC inhibitors decreased histone methylarginines in HEK 293 cells but entinostat produced dose dependent reductions in asymmetric dimethylarginine, not observed in K562 cells. Vorinostat produced increases in histone lysine methylation and decreased expression of some lysine demethylases (KDM), measured by quantitative PCR. Entinostat had variable effects on lysine methylation and decreased expression of some KDM while increasing expression of others. Mocetinostat produced dose dependent increases in histone lysine methylation by LC-MS/MS. This was corroborated with a multiplex colorimetric assay showing increases in histone H3 lysine 4, 9, 27, 36 and 79 methylation. Increases in lysine methylation were correlated with dose dependent decreases in the expression of seven KDM. Mocetinostat functions as an HDAC inhibitor and a de facto KDM inhibitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of supplementation of crystalline lysine on the performance of WL layers in tropics during summer.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K Naga Raja; Reddy, V Ravinder; Preetham, V Chinni; Kumar, D Srinivas; Sen, Arup Ratan; Rao, S Venkata Rama

    2016-04-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of lysine concentration in the diet of WL layers with constant ratio of other essential amino acids to lysine. Pullets (528) aged 25 to 36 weeks were fed with test diet containing two protein levels (13.36 and 15.78%) each with 5% concentration of lysine (0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, and 0.70) and a control with 17% CP and 0.70%, lysine. Each test diet was fed ad libitum to six replicates of eight birds for a period of 12 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed efficiency (g/g) (FE), body weight gain (BWG), Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour (YC) were measured. Increased (P ≤ 0.05) EP, EW, EM, FE and BWG were obtained with increasing lysine concentration in diets. Whereas, feed intake/h/day, feed intake/egg, egg shell defects (ESD), mortality and shell thickness were not affected (P ≥ 0.05) by the concentration of lysine in diet. However, higher (P ≤ 0.05) HU score and YC were noticed at low lysine (0.50 %) concentrations. Based on this, it was concluded that WL layers (25-36 weeks) reared in open-sided houses in the tropics require approximately 0.70 % lysine (597.90 vs. 584.39 mg/h/day) in low (13.36% CP) and high (15.78% CP) protein groups in diets containing approximately 2700 kcal of ME/kg in summer.

  1. Druggability of methyl-lysine binding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, C.; Nguyen, K.; Schapira, M.

    2011-12-01

    Structural modules that specifically recognize—or read—methylated or acetylated lysine residues on histone peptides are important components of chromatin-mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms is associated with disease conditions, and antagonists of acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains are efficacious in animal models of cancer and inflammation, but little is known regarding the druggability of methyl-lysine binding modules. We conducted a systematic structural analysis of readers of methyl marks and derived a predictive druggability landscape of methyl-lysine binding modules. We show that these target classes are generally less druggable than bromodomains, but that some proteins stand as notable exceptions.

  2. Overexpression of Wild-Type Aspartokinase Increases l-Lysine Production in the Thermotolerant Methylotrophic Bacterium Bacillus methanolicus▿

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Øyvind M.; Brautaset, Trygve; Degnes, Kristin F.; Heggeset, Tonje M. B.; Balzer, Simone; Flickinger, Michael C.; Valla, Svein; Ellingsen, Trond E.

    2009-01-01

    Aspartokinase (AK) controls the carbon flow into the aspartate pathway for the biosynthesis of the amino acids l-methionine, l-threonine, l-isoleucine, and l-lysine. We report here the cloning of four genes (asd, encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; dapA, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase; dapG, encoding AKI; and yclM, encoding AKIII) of the aspartate pathway in Bacillus methanolicus MGA3. Together with the known AKII gene lysC, dapG and yclM form a set of three AK genes in this organism. Overexpression of dapG, lysC, and yclM increased l-lysine production in wild-type B. methanolicus strain MGA3 2-, 10-, and 60-fold (corresponding to 11 g/liter), respectively, without negatively affecting the specific growth rate. The production levels of l-methionine (less than 0.5 g/liter) and l-threonine (less than 0.1 g/liter) were low in all recombinant strains. The AK proteins were purified, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that they have similar Vmax values (between 47 and 58 μmol/min/mg protein) and Km values for l-aspartate (between 1.9 and 5.0 mM). AKI and AKII were allosterically inhibited by meso-diaminopimelate (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.1 mM) and by l-lysine (IC50, 0.3 mM), respectively. AKIII was inhibited by l-threonine (IC50, 4 mM) and by l-lysine (IC50, 5 mM), and this enzyme was synergistically inhibited in the presence of both of these amino acids at low concentrations. The correlation between the impact on l-lysine production in vivo and the biochemical properties in vitro of the individual AK proteins is discussed. This is the first example of improving l-lysine production by metabolic engineering of B. methanolicus and also the first documentation of considerably increasing l-lysine production by overexpression of a wild-type AK. PMID:19060158

  3. Overexpression of wild-type aspartokinase increases L-lysine production in the thermotolerant methylotrophic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Oyvind M; Brautaset, Trygve; Degnes, Kristin F; Heggeset, Tonje M B; Balzer, Simone; Flickinger, Michael C; Valla, Svein; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2009-02-01

    Aspartokinase (AK) controls the carbon flow into the aspartate pathway for the biosynthesis of the amino acids l-methionine, l-threonine, l-isoleucine, and l-lysine. We report here the cloning of four genes (asd, encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; dapA, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase; dapG, encoding AKI; and yclM, encoding AKIII) of the aspartate pathway in Bacillus methanolicus MGA3. Together with the known AKII gene lysC, dapG and yclM form a set of three AK genes in this organism. Overexpression of dapG, lysC, and yclM increased l-lysine production in wild-type B. methanolicus strain MGA3 2-, 10-, and 60-fold (corresponding to 11 g/liter), respectively, without negatively affecting the specific growth rate. The production levels of l-methionine (less than 0.5 g/liter) and l-threonine (less than 0.1 g/liter) were low in all recombinant strains. The AK proteins were purified, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that they have similar V(max) values (between 47 and 58 micromol/min/mg protein) and K(m) values for l-aspartate (between 1.9 and 5.0 mM). AKI and AKII were allosterically inhibited by meso-diaminopimelate (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.1 mM) and by l-lysine (IC(50), 0.3 mM), respectively. AKIII was inhibited by l-threonine (IC(50), 4 mM) and by l-lysine (IC(50), 5 mM), and this enzyme was synergistically inhibited in the presence of both of these amino acids at low concentrations. The correlation between the impact on l-lysine production in vivo and the biochemical properties in vitro of the individual AK proteins is discussed. This is the first example of improving l-lysine production by metabolic engineering of B. methanolicus and also the first documentation of considerably increasing l-lysine production by overexpression of a wild-type AK.

  4. Global profiling of lysine acetylation in human histoplasmosis pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Fang, Wenjie; Deng, Wanyan; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Li, Juan; Chen, Min; Liao, Wanqing; Xie, Jianping; Pan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of human histoplasmosis, which can cause respiratory and systemic mycosis in immune-compromised individuals. Lysine acetylation, a protein posttranslational protein modification, is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Although increasing evidence suggests that lysine acetylation may play critical roles in fungus physiology, very little is known about its extent and function in H. capsulatum. To comprehensively profile protein lysine acetylation in H. capsulatum, we performed a global acetylome analysis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and LC-MS/MS analysis, identifying 775 acetylation sites on 456 acetylated proteins; and functionally analysis showing their involvement in different biological processes. We defined six types of acetylation site motifs, and the results imply that lysine residue of polypeptide with tyrosine at the -1 and +1 positions, histidine at the +1 position, and phenylalanine (F) at the +1 and +2 position is a preferred substrate of lysine acetyltransferase. Moreover, some virulence factors candidates including calmodulin and DnaK are acetylated. In conclusion, our data set may serve as an important resource for the elucidation of associations between functional protein lysine acetylation and virulence in H. capsulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing Lysine Acetylation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Sumana; Chen, Hao; Stahman, Alleigh; Hudson, Denver; McGuire, Paige; Gan, Qinglei; Fan, Chenguang

    2018-06-22

    The Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) is one of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, playing key roles in energy production and carbon flux regulation. E. coli ICDH was the first bacterial enzyme shown to be regulated by reversible phosphorylation. However, the effect of lysine acetylation on E. coli ICDH, which has no sequence similarity with its counterparts in eukaryotes, is still unclear. Based on previous studies of E. coli acetylome and ICDH crystal structures, eight lysine residues were selected for mutational and kinetic analyses. They were replaced with acetyllysine by the genetic code expansion strategy or substituted with glutamine as a classic approach. Although acetylation decreased the overall ICDH activity, its effects were different site by site. Deacetylation tests demonstrated that the CobB deacetylase could deacetylate ICDH both in vivo and in vitro, but CobB was only specific for lysine residues at the protein surface. On the other hand, ICDH could be acetylated by acetyl-phosphate chemically in vitro. And in vivo acetylation tests indicated that the acetylation level of ICDH was correlated with the amounts of intracellular acetyl-phosphate. This study nicely complements previous proteomic studies to provide direct biochemical evidence for ICDH acetylation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of collagen nanofibers with l-lysine improves the ability of carbodiimide cross-linked amniotic membranes to preserve limbal epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Wang, Pei-Ran; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Chen, Si-Tan

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks associated with limited cross-linking efficiency of carbodiimide modified amniotic membrane, this study investigated the use of l-lysine as an additional amino acid bridge to enhance the stability of a nanofibrous tissue matrix for a limbal epithelial cell culture platform. Results of ninhydrin assays and zeta potential measurements showed that the amount of positively charged amino acid residues incorporated into the tissue collagen chains is highly correlated with the l-lysine-pretreated concentration. The cross-linked structure and hydrophilicity of amniotic membrane scaffolding materials affected by the lysine molecular bridging effects were determined. With an increase in the l-lysine-pretreated concentration from 1 to 30 mM, the cross-linking density was significantly increased and water content was markedly decreased. The variations in resistance to thermal denaturation and enzymatic degradation were in accordance with the number of cross-links per unit mass of amniotic membrane, indicating l-lysine-modulated stabilization of collagen molecules. It was also noteworthy that the carbodiimide cross-linked tissue samples prepared using a relatively high l-lysine-pretreated concentration (ie, 30 mM) appeared to have decreased light transmittance and biocompatibility, probably due to the influence of a large nanofiber size and a high charge density. The rise in stemness gene and protein expression levels was dependent on improved cross-link formation, suggesting the crucial role of amino acid bridges in constructing suitable scaffolds to preserve limbal progenitor cells. It is concluded that mild to moderate pretreatment conditions (ie, 3–10 mM l-lysine) can provide a useful strategy to assist in the development of carbodiimide cross-linked amniotic membrane as a stable stem cell niche for corneal epithelial tissue engineering. PMID:25395849

  7. [Effect of the lysine guanidination on proteomic analysis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Mao, Jiawei; Pan, Yanbo; Liu, Zhongshan; Liu, Zheyi; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-04-01

    The guanidination of lysine side chain was paid great attention in recent years. It plays an important role in qualitative and quantitative proteomics. In this study, based on the results of separated peptides extracted from HeLa cells before and after the guanidination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the effect of the guanidination of three different kinds of peptides was systematically analyzed. It was found that the selectivity of the guanidination of the lysine side chain was as high as 96.8%. The ratio of identified peptides with lysine at C-term to all peptides increased from 51.7% to 57.3% and more new peptides were identified, while the ratio of peptides with lysine in the middle or without lysine changed little. Further study on the ratio of b and y ions indicated that there were more y ions of peptides with lysine at C-term after the guanidination. The results proved that the selective conversion of lysine to homoarginine by the guanidination could increase the sensitivity and selectivity of mass spectrum. The increased basicity and ability to sequester proton of lysine produced more y ions fragmentation information, which contributed to more identified peptides. It concluded that the lysine guanidination can improve the coverage of proteomic analysis.

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of chicken NK-lysin peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We have previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, which is a synthetic peptide incorporating core alpha-helic...

  9. N6-Trimethyl-lysine metabolism. Structural identification of the metabolite 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Raymond F.; Swift, Terrence J.; Hoppel, Charles L.

    1980-01-01

    1H and 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and functional-group analysis were used to determine the molecular structure of an isolated metabolite (IIb) of trimethyl-lysine as 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine, an important intermediate in the conversion of trimethyl-lysine into trimethylammoniobutyrate and carnitine [Hoppel, Cox & Novak (1980) Biochem. J. 188, 509–519]. Functional-group analysis revealed the presence of a primary amine and reaction of metabolite (IIb) with periodate yielded 4-N-trimethylammoniobutyrate as a product, showing 2,3-substitution on the molecule and suggesting that the 3-substitution on the molecule may be an alcohol ([unk]CH–OH), amine ([unk]CH[unk]–NH2) or carbonyl ([unk]C=O) functional group. 1H integration ratios, 1H and 13C chemical-shift data and 1H and 13C signal multiplicities from the sample (IIb) were used to complete the identification of metabolite (IIb) as 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine. For example, the proton multiplet at δ 4.2p.p.m. and doublet at δ 4.1p.p.m., positions representative of amine or alcohol substitution on methylene carbon atoms, integration ratios of 1:1:2:9:4 and a positive ninhydrin test suggest 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine as the molecular structure for metabolite (IIb). 13C chemical-shift data obtained from the sample (IIb) and compared with several model compounds (trimethylammoniohexanoate, trimethyl-lysine and 3-hydroxylysine) resulted in generation of the spectrum of the metabolite and allowed independent identification of metabolite (IIb) as 3-hydroxy-N6-trimethyl-lysine. The 1H spectrum of erythro- and threo-3-hydroxylysine are presented for comparison, and the 1H and 13C n.m.r. spectra of the erythro-isomer support this analysis. PMID:6772169

  10. 6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

  11. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for L-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain by laboratory evolution and demonstrated that it expressed lower levels of an oxidative-stress marker than wild type. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration of a fatty acid-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain was higher than that of a glucose-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain. The novel mutation rpsA(D210Y) identified in our fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain enabled us to promote cell growth, fatty-acid utilization, and L-lysine production from fatty acid. Introduction of this rpsA(D210Y) mutation into a wild-type strain resulted in lower H₂O₂ concentrations. The overexpression of superoxide dismutase (sodA) increased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and inhibited E. coli fatty-acid utilization, whereas overexpression of an oxidative-stress regulator (oxyS) decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and promoted E. coli fatty acid utilization and L-lysine production. Addition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger thiourea promoted L-lysine production from fatty acids and decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations. Among the ROS generated by fatty-acid β-oxidation, H₂O₂ critically affected E. coli growth and L-lysine production. This indicates that the regression of ROS stress promotes fatty acid utilization, which is beneficial for fatty acids used as raw materials in industrial production.

  12. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J.; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  13. Removing a bottleneck in the Bacillus subtilis biotin pathway: bioA utilizes lysine rather than S-adenosylmethionine as the amino donor in the KAPA-to-DAPA reaction.

    PubMed

    Van Arsdell, Scott W; Perkins, John B; Yocum, R Rogers; Luan, Linda; Howitt, C Linda; Chatterjee, Nilu Prasad; Pero, Janice G

    2005-07-05

    In biotin biosynthesis, DAPA aminotransferase encoded by the bioA gene catalyzes the formation of the intermediate 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) from 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA). DAPA aminotransferases from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus sphaericus use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the amino donor. Our observation that SAM is not an amino donor for B. subtilis DAPA aminotransferase led to a search for an alternative amino donor for this enzyme. Testing of 26 possible amino acids in a cell-free extract assay revealed that only l-lysine was able to dramatically stimulate the in vitro conversion of KAPA to DAPA by the B. subtilis DAPA aminotransferase. The K(m) for lysine and KAPA was estimated to be between 2 and 25 mM, which is significantly higher than the K(m) of purified E. coli BioA for SAM (0.15 mM). This higher requirement for lysine resulted in accumulation of KAPA during fermentation of B. subtilis biotin producing strains. However, this pathway bottleneck could be relieved by either addition of exogenous lysine to the medium or by introduction of lysine deregulated mutations into the production strains.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Peptide-Modified Lysin Against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1–8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied. PlyA showed good and broad antibacterial activities against logarithmic phase A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, but much reduced activities against the cells in stationary phase. Addition of outer membrane permeabilizers (EDTA and citric acid) could enhance the antibacterial activity of PlyA against stationary phase cells. Finally, no antibacterial activity of PlyA could be observed in some bio-matrices, such as culture media, milk, and sera. In conclusion, we reported here a novel peptide-modified lysin with significant antibacterial activity against both logarithmic (without OMPs) and stationary phase (with OMPs) A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa cells in buffer, but further optimization is needed to achieve broad activity in diverse bio-matrices. PMID:26733995

  15. γ-PGA and MTGase improve the formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links within hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) surimi protein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaqin; Shao, Ying; Wu, Chunhua; Yuan, Chunhong; Ishimura, Gakushi; Liu, Wenjuan; Chen, Shiguo

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigated the mechanism of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links within hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) surimi protein via γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) and MTGase. The results indicated that the addition of MTGase and γ-PGA markedly improved the gelation properties of hairtail surimi protein, including its maximum breaking force and deformation, water holding capacity and gel strength. The maximum improvements were achieved by adding 0.5units MTGase/g meat paste in combination with 0.06% γ-PGA. SDS-PAGE showed that the band intensity of cross-linked proteins increased, whereas that of myosin heavy chain decreased after treatments. Further scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the formation of a denser gel matrix, which was caused by much stronger and more inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking of proteins, via MTGase catalysing ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links formed between lysine residues in the gel protein and glutamic residues in the hydrolytic γ-PGA. The results provide reliable guidance for the improvement of hairtail surimi protein gelation properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding cerebral L-lysine metabolism: the role of L-pipecolate metabolism in Gcdh-deficient mice as a model for glutaric aciduria type I.

    PubMed

    Posset, Roland; Opp, Silvana; Struys, Eduard A; Völkl, Alfred; Mohr, Heribert; Hoffmann, Georg F; Kölker, Stefan; Sauer, Sven W; Okun, Jürgen G

    2015-03-01

    Inherited deficiencies of the L-lysine catabolic pathway cause glutaric aciduria type I and pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Dietary modulation of cerebral L-lysine metabolism is thought to be an important therapeutic intervention for these diseases. To better understand cerebral L-lysine degradation, we studied in mice the two known catabolic routes -- pipecolate and saccharopine pathways -- using labeled stable L-lysine and brain peroxisomes purified according to a newly established protocol. Experiments with labeled stable L-lysine show that cerebral L-pipecolate is generated along two pathways: i) a minor proportion retrograde after ε-deamination of L-lysine along the saccharopine pathway, and ii) a major proportion anterograde after α-deamination of L-lysine along the pipecolate pathway. In line with these findings, we observed only little production of saccharopine in the murine brain. L-pipecolate oxidation was only detectable in brain peroxisomes, but L-pipecolate oxidase activity was low (7 ± 2μU/mg protein). In conclusion, L-pipecolate is a major degradation product from L-lysine in murine brain generated by α-deamination of this amino acid.

  17. Acidic pH shock induced overproduction of ε-poly-L-lysine in fed-batch fermentation by Streptomyces sp. M-Z18 from agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xi-Dong; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Zeng, Xin; Wang, Liang; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-06-01

    ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is produced by Streptomyces as a secondary metabolite with wide industrial applications, but its production still needs to be further enhanced. Environmental stress is an important approach for the promotion of secondary metabolites production by Streptomyces. In this study, the effect of acidic pH shock on enhancing ε-PL production by Streptomyces sp. M-Z18 was investigated in a 5-L fermenter. Based on the evaluation of acidic pH shock on mycelia metabolic activity and shock parameters optimization, an integrated pH-shock strategy was developed as follows: pre-acid-shock adaption at pH 5.0 to alleviate the damage caused by the followed pH shock, and then acidic pH shock at 3.0 for 12 h (including pH decline from 4.0 to 3.0) to positively regulate mycelia metabolic activity, finally restoring pH to 4.0 to provide optimal condition for ε-PL production. After 192 h of fed-batch fermentation, the maximum ε-PL production and productivity reached 54.70 g/L and 6.84 g/L/day, respectively, which were 52.50 % higher than those of control without pH shock. These results demonstrated that acidic pH shock is an efficient approach for improving ε-PL production. The information obtained should be useful for ε-PL production by other Streptomyces.

  18. New insights into the interplay between the lysine transporter LysP and the pH sensor CadC in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rauschmeier, Martina; Schüppel, Valentina; Tetsch, Larissa; Jung, Kirsten

    2014-01-09

    The coordination of signal transduction and substrate transport represents a sophisticated way to integrate information on metabolite fluxes into transcriptional regulation. This widely distributed process involves protein-protein interactions between two integral membrane proteins. Here we report new insights into the molecular mechanism of the regulatory interplay between the lysine-specific permease LysP and the membrane-integrated pH sensor CadC, which together induce lysine-dependent adaptation of E. coli under acidic stress. In vivo analyses revealed that, in the absence of either stimulus, the two proteins form a stable association, which is modulated by lysine and low pH. In addition to its transmembrane helix, the periplasmic domain of CadC also participated in the interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis pinpointed Arg265 and Arg268 in CadC as well as Asp275 and Asp278 in LysP as potential periplasmic interaction sites. Moreover, a systematic analysis of 100 LysP variants with single-site replacements indicated that the lysine signal is transduced from co-sensor to sensor via lysine-dependent conformational changes (upon substrate binding and/or transport) of LysP. Our results suggest a scenario in which CadC is inhibited by LysP via intramembrane and periplasmic contacts under non-inducing conditions. Upon induction, lysine-dependent conformational changes in LysP transduce the lysine signal via a direct conformational coupling to CadC without resolving the interaction completely. Moreover, concomitant pH-dependent protonation of periplasmic amino acids in both proteins dissolves their electrostatic connections resulting in further destabilization of the CadC/LysP interaction. © 2013.

  19. Membrane-destabilizing activity of pH-responsive cationic lysine-based surfactants: role of charge position and alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Daniele Rubert; Mitjans, Montserrat; Morán, M Carmen; Pérez, Lourdes; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2012-09-01

    Many strategies for treating diseases require the delivery of drugs into the cell cytoplasm following internalization within endosomal vesicles. Thus, compounds triggered by low pH to disrupt membranes and release endosomal contents into the cytosol are of particular interest. Here, we report novel cationic lysine-based surfactants (hydrochloride salts of N(ε)- and N(α)-acyl lysine methyl ester) that differ in the position of the positive charge and the length of the alkyl chain. Amino acid-based surfactants could be promising novel biomaterials in drug delivery systems, given their biocompatible properties and low cytotoxic potential. We examined their ability to disrupt the cell membrane in a range of pH values, concentrations and incubation times, using a standard hemolysis assay as a model of endosomal membranes. Furthermore, we addressed the mechanism of surfactant-mediated membrane destabilization, including the effects of each surfactant on erythrocyte morphology as a function of pH. We found that only surfactants with the positive charge on the α-amino group of lysine showed pH-sensitive hemolytic activity and improved kinetics within the endosomal pH range, indicating that the positive charge position is critical for pH-responsive behavior. Moreover, our results showed that an increase in the alkyl chain length from 14 to 16 carbon atoms was associated with a lower ability to disrupt cell membranes. Knowledge on modulating surfactant-lipid bilayer interactions may help us to develop more efficient biocompatible amino acid-based drug delivery devices.

  20. Lysine and glutamate transport in the erythrocytes of common brushtail possum, Tammar Wallaby and eastern grey, kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, E; Kuchel, P W; Agar, N S

    1998-04-01

    It was recently coincidentally discovered, using 1H NMR spectroscopy, that the erythrocytes of two species of Australian marsupials, Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and Bettong (Bettongia penicillata), contain relatively high concentrations of the essential amino acid lysine (Agar NS, Rae CD, Chapman BE, Kuchel PW. Comp Biochem Physiol 1991;99B:575-97). Hence, in the present work the rates of transport of lysine into the erythrocytes from the Common Brushtail Possum (Dactylopsilia trivirgata) and Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) (which both have low lysine concentrations), and Tammar Wallaby were studied, to explore the mechanistic basis of this finding. The concentration-dependence of the uptake was studied with lysine alone and in the presence of arginine, which may be a competitor of the transport in some species. In relation to GSH metabolism, glutamate uptake was determined in the presence and absence of Na+. The data was analysed to yield estimates of the maximal velocity (Vmax) and the Km in each of the species. Erythrocytes from Tammar Wallaby lacked saturable lysine transport in contrast to the other two species. The glutamate uptake was normal in all three animals for adequate GSH biosynthesis.

  1. Emerging roles of lysine methylation on non-histone proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Yaling; Shi, Xiaobing

    2015-11-01

    Lysine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) of histones that is important for the epigenetic regulation of transcription and chromatin in eukaryotes. Increasing evidence demonstrates that in addition to histones, lysine methylation also occurs on various non-histone proteins, especially transcription- and chromatin-regulating proteins. In this review, we will briefly describe the histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) that have a broad spectrum of non-histone substrates. We will use p53 and nuclear receptors, especially estrogen receptor alpha, as examples to discuss the dynamic nature of non-histone protein lysine methylation, the writers, erasers, and readers of these modifications, and the crosstalk between lysine methylation and other PTMs in regulating the functions of the modified proteins. Understanding the roles of lysine methylation in normal cells and during development will shed light on the complex biology of diseases associated with the dysregulation of lysine methylation on both histones and non-histone proteins.

  2. Terrestrial evolution of polymerization of amino acids - Heat to ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sets of amino acids containing sufficient trifunctional monomer are thermally polymerized at temperatures such as 65 deg; the amino acids order themselves. Various polymers have diverse catalytic activities. The polymers aggregate, in aqueous solution, to cell-like structures having those activities plus emergent properties, e.g. proliferatability. Polyamino acids containing sufficient lysine catalyze conversion of free amino acids, by ATP, to small peptides and a high molecular weight fraction. The lysine-rich proteinoid is active in solution, within suspensions of cell-like particles, or in other particles composed of lysine-rich proteinoid and homopolyribonucleotide. Selectivities are observed. An archaic polyamino acid prelude to coded protein synthesis is indicated.

  3. Pyruvate kinase deletion as an effective phenotype to enhance lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032: Redirecting the carbon flow to a precursor metabolite.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Masaki; Aikoh, Tohru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Hagiwara, Takuya; Imai, Keita; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Various attempts have been made to enhance lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Pyruvate kinase (PYK) defect is one of the strategies used to enhance the supply of oxaloacetic acid (OAA), a precursor metabolite for lysine biosynthesis. However, inconsistent effects of this mutation have been reported: positive effects of PYK defect in mutants having phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) desensitized to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid, while negative effects in simple PYK gene (pyk) knockout mutants. To address these discrepancies, the effects of pyk deletion on lysine yield were investigated with or without the D299N mutation in ppc rendering PEPC desensitization. C. glutamicum ATCC13032 mutant strain P with a feedback inhibition-desensitized aspartokinase was used as the parent strain, producing 9.36 g/L lysine from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture. Under these conditions, while the simple mutant D2 with pyk deletion or R2 with the PEPC-desensitization mutation showed marginally increased lysine yield (∼1.1-fold, not significant), the mutant DR2 strain having both mutations showed synergistically increased lysine productivity (1.38-fold, 12.9 g/L). Therefore, the pyk deletion is effective under a PEPC-desensitized background, which ensures enhanced supply of OAA, thus clarifying the discrepancies. A citrate synthase defective mutation (S252C in gltA) further increased the lysine yield in strain DR2 (1.68-fold, 15.7 g/L). Thus, these three mutations coordinately enhanced the lysine yield. Both the malate:quinone oxidoreductase activity and respiration rate were significantly reduced in strains D2 and DR2. Overall, these results provide valuable knowledge for engineering the anaplerotic reaction to increase lysine yield in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biotinylation of lysine method identifies acetylated histone H3 lysine 79 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a substrate for Sir2.

    PubMed

    Bheda, Poonam; Swatkoski, Stephen; Fiedler, Katherine L; Boeke, Jef D; Cotter, Robert J; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2012-04-17

    Although the biological roles of many members of the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases have been well characterized, a broader understanding of their role in biology is limited by the challenges in identifying new substrates. We present here an in vitro method that combines biotinylation and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify substrates deacetylated by sirtuins. The method permits labeling of deacetylated residues with amine-reactive biotin on the ε-nitrogen of lysine. The biotin can be utilized to purify the substrate and identify the deacetylated lysine by MS. The biotinyl-lysine method was used to compare deacetylation of chemically acetylated histones by the yeast sirtuins, Sir2 and Hst2. Intriguingly, Sir2 preferentially deacetylates histone H3 lysine 79 as compared to Hst2. Although acetylation of K79 was not previously reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate that a minor population of this residue is indeed acetylated in vivo and show that Sir2, and not Hst2, regulates the acetylation state of H3 lysine 79. The in vitro biotinyl-lysine method combined with chemical acetylation made it possible to identify this previously unknown, low-abundance histone acetyl modification in vivo. This method has further potential to identify novel sirtuin deacetylation substrates in whole cell extracts, enabling large-scale screens for new deacetylase substrates.

  5. Evaluation of the number of ionogenic groups of inulinase by acid-base titration.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, T A; Holyavka, M G; Rezvan, S G; Kozhedub, S V

    2008-06-01

    Acid base titration showed that Aspergillus awamori inulinase includes 178 asparaginic and glutamic acid residues, 20 histidine, 10 serine, and 34 lysine and tyrosine residues. Denaturation temperature for this enzyme was calculated using analysis of the proportion of stabilizing and destabilizing amino acids in the molecule.

  6. Lysine Restriction and Pyridoxal Phosphate Administration in a NADK2 Patient.

    PubMed

    Tort, Frederic; Ugarteburu, Olatz; Torres, Maria Angeles; García-Villoria, Judit; Girós, Marisa; Ruiz, Angeles; Ribes, Antonia

    2016-11-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old Spanish girl with mutations in NADK2 Prenatal central nervous system abnormalities showed ventriculomegaly, colpocephaly, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. At birth, axial hypotonia, uncoordinated movements, microcephaly, and generalized cerebellar atrophy were detected. Metabolic investigations revealed high lysine, lactate, and pipecolic acid levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in fibroblasts were normal. Beginning at birth she received biotin, thiamine, and carnitine supplementation. A lysine-restricted diet was started when she was 1 month old. Because pipecolic acid was high, pyridoxine was added to treatment. At 3 years old, astatic myoclonic epilepsy appeared, with no response to levetiracetam. We switched pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate, with electroclinical improvement. Because the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes III and IV was slightly low in muscle, other cofactors such as ubidecarenone, idebenone, vitamin E, and creatine were added to the treatment. At 8 years old, plasma acylcarnitine testing was performed, and high levels of 2-trans, 4-cis-decadienoylcarnitine were found. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous splice site mutation in NADK2 (c.956+6T>C; p.Trp319Cysfs*21). This substitution generates exon skipping, leading to a truncated protein. In fact, NADK2 messenger RNA and the corresponding protein were almost absent. Now, at 10 years of age she presents with ataxia and incoordination. She has oromotor dysphasia but is able to understand fluid language and is a very friendly girl. We hypothesize that the patient's clinical improvement could be due to her lysine-restricted diet together with cofactors and pyridoxal phosphate administration. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Novel morphology of calcium carbonate controlled by poly(L-lysine).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Dong, Wenyong; Zhu, Shenmin; Yu, Xinhai; Yan, Deyue

    2009-11-17

    The novel calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) morphology, twin-sphere with an equatorial girdle, has been obtained under the control of poly(L-lysine) (PLys) through gas-diffusion method. The effect of the concentration of calcium cation and PLys, the reaction time, and the initial pH value are investigated, and various interesting morphologies, including twin-sphere, discus-like, hexagonal plate, and hallow structure are observed by using scanning electronic microscopy. Laser microscopic Raman spectroscopy studies indicated that all these CaCO(3) are vaterite. A possible mechanism is suggested to explain the formation of the twin-sphere based morphologies according to the results. It is proven that alkaline polypeptides can control the mineralization of CaCO(3) precisely as the reported acidic polypeptides and double hydrophilic block copolymers.

  8. Investigation into the Emerging Role of the Basic Amino Acid L-Lysine in Enhancing Solubility and Permeability of BCS Class II and BCS Class IV Drugs.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Fathalla, Zeinab

    2018-06-18

    The search for a simple and scalable approach that can improve the two key biopharmaceutical processes (solubility and permeability) for BCS Class II and BCS Class IV has still been unmet need. In this study, L-lysine was investigated as a potential excipient to tackle problems with solubility and permeability. Bendazac (Class II); quercetin and rutin (Class IV) were employed. Drugs-lysine complexes in 1:1 M ratios were prepared by co-precipitation and co-grinding; characterized for solubility, partition coefficient, DSC, FTIR, SEM, dissolution rate and permeability. Chemical stability of quercetin-lysine and rutin-lysine was studied by assessing antioxidant capacity using Trolox and CUPRAC assays. Drugs-lysine salt/complexes were confirmed. Solubility enhancement factors ranged from 68- to 433-fold increases and dissolution rates were also significantly enhanced by up to 6-times, compared with drugs alone. With the exception of rutin-lysine, P app for bendazac-lysine and quercetin-lysine enhanced by 2.3- to 4-fold. P app for quercetin (Class IV) benefited more than bendazac (Class II) when complexed with lysine. This study warrants the use of L-lysine as a promising excipient for enhanced solubility and permeability of Class II and Class IV, providing that the solubility of the drug is ensured at 'the door step' of absorption sites.

  9. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  10. Phospholipid bilayer-perturbing properties underlying lysis induced by pH-sensitive cationic lysine-based surfactants in biomembranes.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Daniele Rubert; Mitjans, Montserrat; Busquets, M Antonia; Pérez, Lourdes; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2012-08-14

    Amino acid-based surfactants constitute an important class of natural surface-active biomolecules with an unpredictable number of industrial applications. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of surfactant-induced membrane destabilization, we assessed the phospholipid bilayer-perturbing properties of new cationic lysine-based surfactants. We used erythrocytes as biomembrane models to study the hemolytic activity of surfactants and their effects on cells' osmotic resistance and morphology, as well as on membrane fluidity and membrane protein profile with varying pH. The antihemolytic capacity of amphiphiles correlated negatively with the length of the alkyl chain. Anisotropy measurements showed that the pH-sensitive surfactants, with the positive charge on the α-amino group of lysine, significantly increased membrane fluidity at acidic conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that surfactants induced significant degradation of membrane proteins in hypo-osmotic medium and at pH 5.4. By scanning electron microscopy examinations, we corroborated the interaction of surfactants with lipid bilayer. We found that varying the surfactant chemical structure is a way to modulate the positioning of the molecule inside bilayer and, thus, the overall effect on the membrane. Our work showed that pH-sensitive lysine-based surfactants significantly disturb the lipid bilayer of biomembranes especially at acidic conditions, which suggests that these compounds are promising as a new class of multifunctional bioactive excipients for active intracellular drug delivery.

  11. Nonhistone Lysine Methylation in the Regulation of Cancer Pathways.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott M; Gozani, Or

    2016-11-01

    Proteins are regulated by an incredible array of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is a PTM with well-established roles in regulating chromatin and epigenetic processes. The recent discovery that hundreds and likely thousands of nonhistone proteins are also methylated at lysine has opened a tremendous new area of research. Major cellular pathways involved in cancer, such as growth signaling and the DNA damage response, are regulated by lysine methylation. Although the field has developed quickly in recent years many fundamental questions remain to be addressed. We review the history and molecular functions of lysine methylation. We then discuss the enzymes that catalyze methylation of lysine residues, the enzymes that remove lysine methylation, and the cancer pathways known to be regulated by lysine methylation. The rest of the article focuses on two open questions that we suggest as a roadmap for future research. First is understanding the large number of candidate methyltransferase and demethylation enzymes whose enzymatic activity is not yet defined and which are potentially associated with cancer through genetic studies. Second is investigating the biological processes and cancer mechanisms potentially regulated by the multitude of lysine methylation sites that have been recently discovered. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of the optimum digestible lysine level for Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y F; Liu, Y Q; Wei, H K; Peng, J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the digestible lysine (DLys) requirement of Cherry Valley ducks from 1 to 14 d and from 15 to 35 d of age. One-day-old male Cherry Valley ducks (n = 320) were divided randomly and evenly into five treatments with 8 replicates of 8 birds. Ducks were fed adequate levels of digestible amino acid but with graded levels of DLys: 0.80, 0.88, 0.96, 1.04, and 1.12% from 1 to 14 d; 0.60, 0.68, 0.76, 0.84, and 0.92% from 15 to 35 d. At 35 d of age, 8 ducks per treatment were slaughtered for evaluating the yields of abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, breast meat, and leg meat. Additionally, a 7-d metabolizable experiment was conducted with ducks of the same hatch beginning on d 35 (8 ducks per treatment). The results showed that the DLys level in diet had a quadratic relationship both with the average daily gain (ADG) and feed:gain ratio (F/G). According to the quadratic model, an optimum digestible lysine level was 0.948% from 0 to 14 d and 0.758% from 15 to 35 d based on ADG. The digestible lysine level for obtaining minimum F/G were 0.986% (0 ∼ 14 d) and 0.792% (15 ∼ 35 d), respectively. Breast meat yield (P = 0.110) and subcutaneous fat percentage (P = 0.021) showed a quadratic or linear response to the increasing dietary DLys level. To achieve maximum breast meat yield, the digestible lysine level of 0.961% and 0.761% were needed for the starter period (1 ∼ 14 d) and the growth period (14 ∼ 35 d), respectively. N excretion showed a quadratic response to the increasing dietary DLys level (P = 0.103). The results of the current study suggested that the optimum digestible lysine level was very different with the response criterion. The dietary digestible lysine levels were 0.948, 0.961% in the starter period (1 ∼ 14 d) and 0.758, 0.761% in the growth period (15 ∼ 35 d) for ADG, F/G, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  14. Electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide incorporating polymerization of l-lysine on electrode surface and its application in simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Lingzhi; Ma, Weina; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Yanmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel strategy for the construction of a graphene hybrid composites film, which was fabricated by electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) incorporating polymerization of l-lysine (PLL) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Here we show that graphene films can be prepared on electrodes directly from GO dispersions by one-step electrodeposition technique based on electropolymerized PLL as a positively charged polymer interface to adsorb negatively charged GO nanosheets through electrostatic attraction. The thickness of graphene film can be easily controlled by using the electrodeposition technique, a distinct advantage over previously developed methods. The electrochemically reduced process of GO and electropolymerization of l-lysine were investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a wide potential range. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The ERGO/PLL/GCE shows conducive to electron transfer kinetics for Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- redox probes, compared with bare GCE, PLL/GCE and ERGO/GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) at ERGO/PLL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the results suggest that the modified electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward these important molecules. Under physiological condition and in the co-existence system of AA, DA and UA, the ERGO/PLL/GCE showed linear voltammetric responses in the concentration of 100μM-1200μM for AA, 2.0μM-60μM for DA and 20μM-200μM for UA, and with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 2.0μM, 0.10μM and 0.15μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively. The developed method has been applied to simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA in human urine with satisfactory recoveries of 104.2%, 95.4% and 99.9%, respectively. This work demonstrates that the attractive features of ERGO/PLL provide promising applications in simultaneous determination of AA, DA

  15. Chitosan/γ-poly(glutamic acid) scaffolds with surface-modified albumin, elastin and poly-l-lysine for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Ku, Hao-Fu; Rajesh, Rajendiran

    2017-09-01

    Cartilage has limited ability to self-repair due to the absence of blood vessels and nerves. The application of biomaterial scaffolds using biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM)-related polymers has become an effective approach to production of engineered cartilage. Chitosan/γ-poly(glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) scaffolds with different mass ratios were prepared using genipin as a cross-linker and a freeze-drying method, and their surfaces were modified with elastin, human serum albumin (HSA) and poly-l-lysine (PLL). The scaffolds were formed through a complex between NH 3 + of chitosan and COO - of γ-PGA, confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and exhibited an interconnected porous morphology in field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis. The prepared chitosan/γ-PGA scaffolds, at a 3:1 ratio, obtained the required porosity (90%), pore size (≥100μm), mechanical strength (compressive strength>4MPa, Young's modulus>4MPa) and biodegradation (30-60%) for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. Surface modification of the scaffolds showed positive indications with improved activity toward cell proliferation (deoxyribonucleic acid), cell adhesion and ECM (glycoaminoglycans and type II collagen) secretion of bovine knee chondrocytes compared with unmodified scaffolds. In caspase-3 detection, elastin had a higher inhibitory effect on chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro, followed by HSA, and then PLL. We concluded that utilizing chitosan/γ-PGA scaffolds with surface active biomolecules, including elastin, HSA and PLL, can effectively promote the growth of chondrocytes, secrete ECM and improve the regenerative ability of cartilaginous tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Substitution of lysine-181 to aspartic acid in the third transmembrane region of the endothelin (ET) type B receptor selectively reduces its high-affinity binding with ET-3 peptide.

    PubMed

    Mauzy, C; Wu, L H; Egloff, A M; Mirzadegan, T; Chung, F Z

    1992-01-01

    In the G protein-coupled receptor family, a highly conserved aspartic acid located within the third transmembrane domain has been shown to be involved in ligand binding. Within the endothelin (ET) peptide receptor family, this aspartic acid has been replaced by a lysine. To assess the importance of this residue in ET binding, the lysine (position 181) of rat ET type B receptor was replaced by an aspartic acid. The effects on ligand binding and phosphoinositide turnover of both the wild-type and K181D mutant receptors were examined using transient receptor expression in COS-7 cells. Using [125I]ET-1 as the radioactive peptide ligand in displacement binding studies, the wild-type receptor displayed a typical non-isopeptide-selective binding profile with similar IC50 values (0.2-0.6 nM) for all three ET peptides (ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3). The mutant receptor showed an increase in IC50 values for ET-1 (5 nM), ET-2 (27 nM), and ET-3 (127 nM). The K181D mutant receptor still elicited full inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation responses in the presence of saturating concentrations of ETs (10 nM of ET-1, 100 nM of ET-2, or 1 microM of ET-3), indicating that the mutation did not affect G protein coupling.

  17. Vba2p, a vacuolar membrane protein involved in basic amino acid transport in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoko; Iwaki, Tomoko; Chardwiriyapreecha, Soracom; Shimazu, Masamitsu; Sekito, Takayuki; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2010-01-01

    A recent study filling the gap in the genome sequence in the left arm of chromosome 2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe revealed a homolog of budding yeast Vba2p, a vacuolar transporter of basic amino acids. GFP-tagged Vba2p in fission yeast was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Upon disruption of vba2, the uptake of several amino acids, including lysine, histidine, and arginine, was impaired. A transient increase in lysine uptake under nitrogen starvation was lowered by this mutation. These findings suggest that Vba2p is involved in basic amino acid transport in S. pombe under diverse conditions.

  18. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine in tea and the factors affecting their formation.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ye; He, Jialiang; Li, Fengli; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Shikang; Qin, Fang; Zeng, Maomao; Chen, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The levels of N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) in 99 tea samples from 14 geographic regions, including 44 green, 7 oolong, 41 black, and 7 dark teas were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CML and CEL contents varied from 11.0 to 1701μg/g tea and 4.6 to 133μg/g tea, respectively. Dark tea presented the highest levels of CML and CEL, whereas green and oolong teas presented the lowest levels. Five kinds of catechins in the tea were also analyzed, and spearman's correlation coefficients showed that all the catechins negatively correlated with CML and CEL. The results suggested that withering, fermentation and pile fermentation may facilitate the formation of CML and CEL. Catechins might inhibit the formation of CML and CEL, but their inhibitory effects may be affected by tea processing. The results of this study are useful for the production of healthier tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Interactions of low molecular weight aromatic acids and amino acids with goethite, kaolinite and bentonite with or without organic matter coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Interaction of organic matter molecules with the soil's solid phase is a key factor influencing the stabilization of carbon in soils and thus forms a crucial aspect of the global carbon cycle. While subject of much research attention so far, we still have much to learn about such interactions at the molecular level; in particular in the light of competition between different classes of organic molecules and in the presence of previously adsorbed soil organic matter. We studied the interaction of a group of low molecular weight (LMW) aromatic acids (salicylic, syringic, vanillic and ferulic acid) and amino acids (lysine, glutamic, leucine and phenylalanine) on goethite, kaolinite and bentonite with and without previously adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM). For this we used batch experiments at pH = 6.0 where some of the organic compounds were positively charged (i.e. lysine) or negatively charged (i.e. glutamic and salicylic acid) while the minerals also displayed positively (i.e. goethite) or negatively charged surfaces (i.e. bentonite). We found much higher sorption of salicylic acid and lysine than other compounds. On the bare minerals we found a great variety of sorption strength, with salicylic acid strongly adsorbed, while syringic, vanillic and ferulic acid showed little or no adsorption. For the amino acids, protonated lysine showed a stronger affinity to negatively charged kaolinite and bentonite than other amino acids. While deprotonated glutamic acid showed the strongest adsorption on goethite. Leucine and phenylalanine showed hardly any adsorption on any of the minerals. When present concurrently, amino acids decreased the sorption of salicylic acid on the three types of mineral, while the presence of LMW aromatic acids increased the sorption of lysine on kaolinite and bentonite and the sorption of glutamic acid on goethite. The presence of previously adsorbed DOM reduced the sorption of salicylic acid and lysine. The results confirm that

  20. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Register, Karen B.; Samorodnitsky, Daniel; Nicholson, Eric M.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial activity against various bacterial pathogens, including several involved in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in cattle; however, such studies are yet to be performed with one important contributor to the BRDC, Mycoplasma bovis. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on M. bovis. Thirty-mer synthetic peptides corresponding to the functional region helices 2 and 3 of bovine NK-lysins NK1, NK2A, NK2B, and NK2C were evaluated for killing activity on M. bovis isolates. Among four peptides, NK2A and NK2C showed the highest antimicrobial activity against the M. bovis isolates tested. All four NK-lysin peptides induced rapid plasma membrane depolarization in M. bovis at two concentrations tested. However, based on propidium iodide uptake, only NK2A and NK2C appeared capable of causing structural damage to M. bovis plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy further suggested NK-lysin-induced damage to the plasma membrane. Taken together, the findings in this study suggest that plasma membrane depolarization alone was insufficient to induce lethality, but disruption/permeabilization of the M. bovis plasma membrane was the cause of lethality. PMID:29771981

  1. Tuning a Protein-Labeling Reaction to Achieve Highly Site Selective Lysine Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Grace H; Ou, Weijia; Bursulaya, Badry; DiDonato, Michael; Herath, Ananda; Jin, Yunho; Hao, Xueshi; Loren, Jon; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar; Uno, Tetsuo; Geierstanger, Bernhard H; Cellitti, Susan E

    2018-04-16

    Activated esters are widely used to label proteins at lysine side chains and N termini. These reagents are useful for labeling virtually any protein, but robust reactivity toward primary amines generally precludes site-selective modification. In a unique case, fluorophenyl esters are shown to preferentially label human kappa antibodies at a single lysine (Lys188) within the light-chain constant domain. Neighboring residues His189 and Asp151 contribute to the accelerated rate of labeling at Lys188 relative to the ≈40 other lysine sites. Enriched Lys188 labeling can be enhanced from 50-70 % to >95 % by any of these approaches: lowering reaction temperature, applying flow chemistry, or mutagenesis of specific residues in the surrounding protein environment. Our results demonstrated that activated esters with fluoro-substituted aromatic leaving groups, including a fluoronaphthyl ester, can be generally useful reagents for site-selective lysine labeling of antibodies and other immunoglobulin-type proteins. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Interaction of arginine, lysine, and guanidine with surface residues of lysozyme: implication to protein stability.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhawal; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak

    2016-01-01

    Additives are widely used to suppress aggregation of therapeutic proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms of effect of additives to stabilize proteins are still unclear. To understand this, we herein perform molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in the presence of three commonly used additives: arginine, lysine, and guanidine. These additives have different effects on stability of proteins and have different structures with some similarities; arginine and lysine have aliphatic side chain, while arginine has a guanidinium group. We analyze atomic contact frequencies to study the interactions of the additives with individual residues of lysozyme. Contact coefficient, quantified from contact frequencies, is helpful in analyzing the interactions with the guanidine groups as well as aliphatic side chains of arginine and lysine. Strong preference for contacts to the additives (over water) is seen for the acidic followed by polar and the aromatic residues. Further analysis suggests that the hydration layer around the protein surface is depleted more in the presence of arginine, followed by lysine and guanidine. Molecular dynamics simulations also reveal that the internal dynamics of protein, as indicated by the lifetimes of the hydrogen bonds within the protein, changes depending on the additives. Particularly, we note that the side-chain hydrogen-bonding patterns within the protein differ with the additives, with several side-chain hydrogen bonds missing in the presence of guanidine. These results collectively indicate that the aliphatic chain of arginine and lysine plays a critical role in the stabilization of the protein.

  3. Effect of Maillard browning reaction on protein utilization and plasma amino acid response by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed

    Plakas, S M; Lee, T C; Wolke, R E; Meade, T L

    1985-12-01

    The effect of the Maillard browning reaction in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on growth and amino acid availability was investigated. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were applied for the detection of the losses of amino acids in a model protein browning system. Arginine and lysine exhibited the greatest losses in the mixture of fish protein isolate and glucose stored for 40 d at 37 degrees C. The apparent digestibility and absorption of individual amino acids, particularly lysine, was lower in trout fed browned protein than in those fed the control protein. Plasma lysine levels were significantly depressed, while the plasma levels of glucose and most other amino acids were elevated in relation to the loss in nutritive value of dietary protein after browning. The early Maillard reaction derivative of lysine, epsilon-deoxy-fructosyl-lysine, was recovered from browned protein (by using the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis procedure) and from the plasma of trout fed browned protein. Analysis of plasma free amino acids provided an indication of lysine bioavailability and identified lysine as the first-limiting amino acid in the diets containing browned protein.

  4. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bera, Asim K.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas themore » two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.« less

  5. Acetylproteomic Analysis Reveals Functional Implications of Lysine Acetylation in Human Spermatozoa (sperm)*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Heguo; Diao, Hua; Wang, Chunmei; Lin, Yan; Yu, Fudong; Lu, Hui; Xu, Wei; Li, Zheng; Shi, Huijuan; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Yuchuan; Zhang, Yonglian

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a medical condition that has been on the rise globally. Lysine acetylation of human sperm, an essential posttranslational modification involved in the etiology of sperm abnormality, is not fully understood. Therefore, we first generated a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody to characterize the global lysine acetylation of uncapacitated normal human sperm with a proteomics approach. With high enrichment ratios that were up to 31%, 973 lysine-acetylated sites that matched to 456 human sperm proteins, including 671 novel lysine acetylation sites and 205 novel lysine-acetylated proteins, were identified. These proteins exhibited conserved motifs XXXKYXXX, XXXKFXXX, and XXXKHXXX, were annotated to function in multiple metabolic processes, and were localized predominantly in the mitochondrion and cytoplasmic fractions. Between the uncapacitated and capacitated sperm, different acetylation profiles in regard to functional proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg recognition, sperm-egg plasma fusion, and fertilization were observed, indicating that acetylation of functional proteins may be required during sperm capacitation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed association of acetylated proteins with diseases and drugs. Novel acetylation of voltage-dependent anion channel proteins was also found. With clinical sperm samples, we observed differed lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases expression between normal sperm and abnormal sperm of asthenospermia or necrospermia. Furthermore, with sperm samples impaired by epigallocatechin gallate to mimic asthenospermia, we observed that inhibition of sperm motility was partly through the blockade of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 Lys-74 acetylation combined with reduced ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we obtained a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody, analyzed the acetylproteome of uncapacitated human sperm, and revealed

  6. Inhibitors of enzymes catalyzing modifications to histone lysine residues: structure, function and activity.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Ryan; Stesco, Nicholas; Khorshid Amhad, Tina; Cortes, Claudia; Namaka, Mike P; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-05-01

    Gene expression is partly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone-modifying enzymes. Some diseases are caused by changes in gene expression that can be mitigated by inhibiting histone-modifying enzymes. This review covers the enzyme inhibitors targeting histone lysine modifications. We summarize the enzymatic mechanisms of histone lysine acetylation, deacetylation, methylation and demethylation and discuss the biochemical roles of these modifications in gene expression and in disease. We discuss inhibitors of lysine acetylation, deacetylation, methylation and demethylation defining their structure-activity relationships and their potential mechanisms. We show that there are potentially indiscriminant off-target effects on gene expression even with the use of selective epigenetic enzyme inhibitors.

  7. Effect of varying dietary concentrations of lysine on growth performance of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Bhogoju, S; Nahashon, S N; Donkor, J; Kimathi, B; Johnson, D; Khwatenge, C; Bowden-Taylor, T

    2017-05-01

    Lysine is the second limiting essential amino acid in poultry nutrition after methionine. Understanding the lysine requirement of poultry is necessary in guiding formulation of least cost diets that effectively meet the nutritional needs of individual birds. The lysine requirement of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl (PGGF) is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the appropriate lysine levels required for optimal growth attributes of the PGGF. In a 12-week study, 512 one-day-old Pearl Grey guinea keets were weighed individually and randomly assigned to electrically heated battery brooders. Each battery contained 12 compartments housing 15 birds each. Eight diets fed to the experimental birds consisted of corn-soybean meal and contained 0.80 to 1.22 digestible lysine in 0.06% increments. Feed and water were provided at free choice and the diets were replicated twice. Experimental diets contained 3,100 Kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet and 23% crude protein (CP), 3,150 ME Kcal ME/kg diet and 21% CP, and 3,100 ME/kg and 17% CP, at zero to 4, 5 to 10, and 11 to 12 weeks of age (WOA), respectively. Birds were provided water ad libitum and a 23:1 and 8:16-hr (light:dark) regimen at zero to 8 and 9 to 12 WOA, respectively. Birds were weighed weekly, and body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversions were determined. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS (2002) with dietary lysine as treatment effect. Females responded better to diets containing 1.04 and 0.8% lysine from hatch to 4 and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Males responded better to diets containing 1.10 and 0.8% lysine at hatch to 4 WOA and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that PGGF females and males be fed diets containing 1.04 and 1.10%, respectively, at hatch to 4 WOA and 0.80% lysine at 5 to 12 WOA. The diets should be supplied in phases. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Bioconjugation of Oligodeoxynucleotides Carrying 1,4-Dicarbonyl Groups via Reductive Amination with Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Jinnouchi, Akiko; Usui, Kazuteru; Katayama, Tsutomu; Fujii, Masayuki; Suemune, Hiroshi; Aso, Mariko

    2015-08-19

    We evaluated the efficacy of bioconjugation of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing 1,4-dicarbonyl groups, a C4'-oxidized abasic site (OAS), and a newly designed 2'-methoxy analogue, via reductive amination with lysine residues. Dicarbonyls, aldehyde and ketone at C1- and C4-positions of deoxyribose in the ring-opened form of OAS allowed efficient reaction with amines. Kinetic studies indicated that reductive amination of OAS-containing ODNs with a proximal amine on the complementary strand proceeded 10 times faster than the corresponding reaction of an ODN containing an abasic site with C1-aldehyde. Efficient reductive amination between the DNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli DnaA protein and ODNs carrying OAS in the DnaA-binding sequence proceeded at the lysine residue in proximity to the phosphate group at the 5'-position of the OAS, in contrast to unsuccessful conjugation with abasic site ODNs, even though they have similar aldehydes. Theoretical calculation indicated that the C1-aldehyde of OAS was more accessible to the target lysine than that of the abasic site. These results demonstrate the potential utility of cross-linking strategies that use dicarbonyl-containing ODNs for the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Conjugation with a lysine-containing peptide that lacked specific affinity for ODN was also successful, further highlighting the advantages of 1,4-dicarbonyls.

  9. Lysine production from methanol at 50 degrees C using Bacillus methanolicus: Modeling volume control, lysine concentration, and productivity using a three-phase continuous simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, G H; Hur, W; Bremmon, C E; Flickinger, M C

    1996-03-20

    A simulation was developed based on experimental data obtained in a 14-L reactor to predict the growth and L-lysine accumulation kinetics, and change in volume of a large-scale (250-m(3)) Bacillus methanolicus methanol-based process. Homoserine auxotrophs of B. methanolicus MGA3 are unique methylotrophs because of the ability to secrete lysine during aerobic growth and threonine starvation at 50 degrees C. Dissolved methanol (100 mM), pH, dissolved oxygen tension (0.063 atm), and threonine levels were controlled to obtain threonine-limited conditions and high-cell density (25 g dry cell weight/L) in a 14-L reactor. As a fed-batch process, the additions of neat methanol (fed on demand), threonine, and other nutrients cause the volume of the fermentation to increase and the final lysine concentration to decrease. In addition, water produced as a result of methanol metabolism contributes to the increase in the volume of the reactor. A three-phase approach was used to predict the rate of change of culture volume based on carbon dioxide production and methanol consumption. This model was used for the evaluation of volume control strategies to optimize lysine productivity. A constant volume reactor process with variable feeding and continuous removal of broth and cells (VF(cstr)) resulted in higher lysine productivity than a fed-batch process without volume control. This model predicts the variation in productivity of lysine with changes in growth and in specific lysine productivity. Simple modifications of the model allows one to investigate other high-lysine-secreting strains with different growth and lysine productivity characteristics. Strain NOA2#13A5-2 which secretes lysine and other end-products were modeled using both growth and non-growth-associated lysine productivity. A modified version of this model was used to simulate the change in culture volume of another L-lysine producing mutant (NOA2#13A52-8A66) with reduced secretion of end-products. The modified

  10. An evolutionary analysis identifies a conserved pentapeptide stretch containing the two essential lysine residues for rice L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Papri; Maitra-Majee, Susmita; Das, Jayanta Kumar; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra; Pal Choudhury, Pabitra

    2017-01-01

    A molecular evolutionary analysis of a well conserved protein helps to determine the essential amino acids in the core catalytic region. Based on the chemical properties of amino acid residues, phylogenetic analysis of a total of 172 homologous sequences of a highly conserved enzyme, L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase or MIPS from evolutionarily diverse organisms was performed. This study revealed the presence of six phylogenetically conserved blocks, out of which four embrace the catalytic core of the functional protein. Further, specific amino acid modifications targeting the lysine residues, known to be important for MIPS catalysis, were performed at the catalytic site of a MIPS from monocotyledonous model plant, Oryza sativa (OsMIPS1). Following this study, OsMIPS mutants with deletion or replacement of lysine residues in the conserved blocks were made. Based on the enzyme kinetics performed on the deletion/replacement mutants, phylogenetic and structural comparison with the already established crystal structures from non-plant sources, an evolutionarily conserved peptide stretch was identified at the active pocket which contains the two most important lysine residues essential for catalytic activity. PMID:28950028

  11. Enhancement of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production by a novel producer Bacillus cereus using metabolic precursors and glucose feeding.

    PubMed

    Chheda, Anuj H; Vernekar, Madhavi R

    2015-10-01

    Epsilon poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a homo-biopolymer with approximately 25-30 L-lysine residues. It is a promising natural biopolymer widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The present work reports enhanced production of ε-PL with a novel producer Bacillus cereus using amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates in the fermentation medium. Among the various amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates tested 2 mM L-aspartic acid and 5 mM citric acid gave ε-PL yield of 145.5 and 230 mg/L, respectively. A combination of citric acid after 24 h and L-aspartic acid after 36 h improved ε-PL yield from 85 mg/L (control) to 335 mg/L. Glucose feeding strategy along with metabolic precursors was employed which further enhanced ε-PL yield to 565 mg/L. Thus, more than sixfold increase in ε-PL yield was achieved suggesting the potential of Bacillus cereus as a novel ε-PL producer.

  12. Effects of lysine clonixinate and ketorolac tromethamine on prostanoid release from various rat organs incubated ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Pallapies, D; Salinger, A; Meyer zum Gottesberge, A; Atkins, D J; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1995-01-01

    The release of prostanoids from rat brain, gastric mucosa, lungs and kidneys incubated ex vivo has been investigated for up to 5 h after oral administration of 10 mg/kg lysine clonixinate or 1 mg/kg ketorolac tromethamine. Additionally, 60 min after drug administration, a time point of near-maximal inhibition of prostanoid release, the effects of 2.5, 10 and 30 mg/kg lysine clonixinate and of 0.0225, 0.15 and 1 mg/kg ketorolac tromethamine were compared. In all organs investigated both drugs inhibited fatty acid cyclooxygenase (COX) in a dose-dependent manner, but ketorolac tromethamine was more potent and had a longer-lasting effect than lysine clonixinate. While the ID50 values for lysine clonixinate were in the same order of magnitude for all 4 organs investigated, ketorolac tromethamine exhibited some organ selectivity with a particularly high activity in the kidneys. This effect might be related to the renal toxicity of ketorolac tromethamine. On the other hand, the difference in potency was smallest in brain suggesting that inhibition of central prostanoid biosynthesis could contribute to the rapid and effective inhibition of pain by both drugs. IC50 values for inhibition of purified COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro were slightly lower for lysine clonixinate (2.4 and 24.6 micrograms/ml, respectively) than for ketorolac tromethamine (3.7 and 25.6 micrograms/ml, respectively).

  13. Economic process to co-produce poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) by a pH and dissolved oxygen control strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoxian; Feng, Xiaohai; Sun, Zhuzhen; Cao, Changhong; Li, Sha; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Zongqi; Bo, Fangfang; Xu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study tended to apply biorefinery of indigenous microbes to the fermentation of target-product generation through a novel control strategy. A novel strategy for co-producing two valuable homopoly(amino acid)s, poly(ε-l-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP), was developed by controlling pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations in Streptomyces albulus PD-1 fermentation. The production of ε-PL and PDAP got 29.4 and 9.6gL(-1), respectively, via fed-batch cultivation in a 5L bioreactor. What is more, the highest production yield (21.8%) of similar production systems was achieved by using this novel strategy. To consider the economic-feasibility, large-scale production in a 1t fermentor was also implemented, which would increase the gross profit of 54,243.5USD from one fed-batch bioprocess. This type of fermentation, which produces multiple commercial products from a unified process is attractive, because it will improve the utilization rate of raw materials, enhance production value and enrich product variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of aldehyde-linked nucleotides and DNA and their bioconjugations with lysine and peptides through reductive amination.

    PubMed

    Raindlová, Veronika; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2012-03-26

    5-(5-Formylthienyl)-, 5-(4-formylphenyl)- and 5-(2-fluoro-5-formylphenyl)cytosine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside mono- (dC(R)MP) and triphosphates (dC(R)TP) were prepared by aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 5-iodocytosine nucleotides with the corresponding formylarylboronic acids. The dC(R)TPs were excellent substrates for DNA polymerases and were incorporated into DNA by primer extension or PCR. Reductive aminations of the model dC(R)MPs with lysine or lysine-containing tripeptide were studied and optimized. In aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 6.7) the yields of the reductive aminations with tripeptide III were up to 25 %. Bioconjugation of an aldehyde-containing DNA with a lysine-containing tripeptide was achieved through reductive amination in yields of up to 90 % in aqueous phosphate buffer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Specific lysine labeling by 18OH- during alkaline cleavage of the alpha-1-antitrypsin-trypsin complex.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A B; Gruenke, L D; Craig, J C; Geczy, D

    1977-01-01

    alpha-1-Antitrypsin is a serum protein that inhibits many proteolytic enzymes. Recently, it was suggested that the alpha-1-antitrypsin-trypsin complex is an acyl ester analogous to the acyl intermediate that forms between trypsin and its substrates. In previous work we showed that the alpha-1-antitrypsin-trypsin complex can be split at high pH, releasing a component of alpha-1-antitrypsin. This component had a new carboxyl-terminal lysine, and it had lost a peptide of about 4000 daltons. In order to determine whether the alpha-1-antitrypsin is bound to trypsin through the new carboxy-terminal lysine, as would be expected if the above hypothesis is correct, we split the complex in the presence of 18OH-. When the new carboxy-terminal lysine was cleaved with carboxypeptidase B, singly labeled, doubly labeled, and unlabeled lysine were recovered. These data support the hypothesis that the alpha-1-antitrypsin-trypsin complex is an acyl ester or a tetrahedral precursor that is transformed into the acyl ester form at high pH. If other enzymes are bound by a similar mechanism, the methods used may be useful in determining which amino acids on alpha-1-antitrypsin bind covalently to each enzyme. PMID:303770

  16. Water reuse in the l-lysine fermentation process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsiao, T.Y.; Glatz, C.E.

    1996-02-05

    L-Lysine is produced commercially by fermentation. As is typical for fermentation processes, a large amount of liquid waste is generated. To minimize the waste, which is mostly the broth effluent from the cation exchange column used for l-lysine recovery, the authors investigated a strategy of recycling a large fraction of this broth effluent to the subsequent fermentation. This was done on a lab-scale process with Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21253 as the l-lysine-producing organisms. Broth effluent from a fermentation in a defined medium was able to replace 75% of the water for the subsequent batch; this recycle ratio was maintained formore » 3 sequential batches without affecting cell mass and l-lysine production. Broth effluent was recycled at 50% recycle ratio in a fermentation in a complex medium containing beet molasses. The first recycle batch had an 8% lower final l-lysine level, but 8% higher maximum cell mass. In addition to reducing the volume of liquid waste, this recycle strategy has the additional advantage of utilizing the ammonium desorbed from the ion-exchange column as a nitrogen source in the recycle fermentation. The major problem of recycling the effluent from the complex medium was in the cation-exchange operation, where column capacity was 17% lower for the recycle batch. The loss of column capacity probably results from the buildup of cations competing with l-lysine for binding.« less

  17. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylation suggests the widespread function is regulated by protein acetylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zuoming; Zhu, Honglin; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yue; Sheng, Qing; Lv, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wenping; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Caiying; Xie, Longfei; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yao, Juming

    2015-09-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is a dynamic and reversible PTM and plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. In this study, using lysine-acetylation (Kac) peptide enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS, we initially identified the acetylome in the silkworms. Overall, a total of 342 acetylated proteins with 667 Kac sites were identified in silkworm. Sequence motifs analysis around Kac sites revealed an enrichment of Y, F, and H in the +1 position, and F was also enriched in the +2 and -2 positions, indicating the presences of preferred amino acids around Kac sites in the silkworm. Functional analysis showed the acetylated proteins were primarily involved in some specific biological processes. Furthermore, lots of nutrient-storage proteins, such as apolipophorin, vitellogenin, storage proteins, and 30 K proteins, were highly acetylated, indicating lysine acetylation may represent a common regulatory mechanism of nutrient utilization in the silkworm. Interestingly, Ser2 proteins, the coating proteins of larval silk, were found to contain many Kac sites, suggesting lysine acetylation may be involved in the regulation of larval silk synthesis. This study is the first to identify the acetylome in a lepidoptera insect, and expands greatly the catalog of lysine acetylation substrates and sites in insects. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Lysine supplementation of commercial fishmeal-free diet in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis affects expression of growth related genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our recent results in hybrid striped bass (HSB) concluded that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting amino acids in commercial diet formulations if accurate amino acid availability data are used and that appropriate levels of supplemental lysine are needed in order to improve fish ...

  19. Determination of N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine in foods and related systems.

    PubMed

    Ames, Jennifer M

    2008-04-01

    The sensitive and specific determination of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is of considerable interest because these compounds have been associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects in vivo. AGEs form when carbonyl compounds, such as glucose and its oxidation products, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, react with the epsilon-amino group of lysine and the guanidino group of arginine to give structures including N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and hydroimidazolones. CML is frequently used as a marker for AGEs in general. It exists in both the free or peptide-bound forms. Analysis of CML involves its extraction from the food (including protein hydrolysis to release any peptide-bound adduct) and determination by immunochemical or instrumental means. Various factors must be considered at each step of the analysis. Extraction, hydrolysis, and sample clean-up are all less straight forward for food samples, compared to plasma and tissue. The immunochemical and instrumental methods all have their advantages and disadvantages, and no perfect method exists. Currently, different procedures are being used in different laboratories, and there is an urgent need to compare, improve, and validate methods.

  20. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Chingyuan; Tizioto, Polyana C; Huang, Huan; Lee, Mi O K; Payne, Harold R; Lawhon, Sara D; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Taylor, Jeremy F; Womack, James E

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease.

  1. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) Protein Regulates Long-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase by Deacetylating Conserved Lysines Near the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Uppala, Radha; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Schreiber, Emanuel; Uechi, Guy; Beck, Megan E.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Vockley, Jerry; Verdin, Eric; Gibson, Bradford W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a key mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme. We previously demonstrated increased LCAD lysine acetylation in SIRT3 knockout mice concomitant with reduced LCAD activity and reduced fatty acid oxidation. To study the effects of acetylation on LCAD and determine sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) target sites, we chemically acetylated recombinant LCAD. Acetylation impeded substrate binding and reduced catalytic efficiency. Deacetylation with recombinant SIRT3 partially restored activity. Residues Lys-318 and Lys-322 were identified as SIRT3-targeted lysines. Arginine substitutions at Lys-318 and Lys-322 prevented the acetylation-induced activity loss. Lys-318 and Lys-322 flank residues Arg-317 and Phe-320, which are conserved among all acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and coordinate the enzyme-bound FAD cofactor in the active site. We propose that acetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 causes a conformational change which reduces hydride transfer from substrate to FAD. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9, two related enzymes with lysines at positions equivalent to Lys-318/Lys-322, were also efficiently deacetylated by SIRT3 following chemical acetylation. These results suggest that acetylation/deacetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 is a mode of regulating fatty acid oxidation. The same mechanism may regulate other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. PMID:24121500

  2. Rational modification of Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate reductase to switch the nucleotide-cofactor specificity for increasing l-lysine production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Han-Kun; Liu, Li-Ming; Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-25

    l-lysine is an important amino acid in animals and humans and NADPH is a vital cofactor for maximizing the efficiency of l-lysine fermentation. Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR), an NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme, shows a variance in nucleotide-cofactor affinity in bacteria. In this study, we rationally engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum DHDPR (CgDHDPR) to switch its nucleotide-cofactor specificity resulting in an increase in final titer (from 82.6 to 117.3 g L -1 ), carbon yield (from 0.35 to 0.44 g [g glucose] -1 ) and productivity (from 2.07 to 2.93 g L -1  hr -1 ) of l-lysine in JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C in fed-batch fermentation. To do this, we comparatively analyzed the characteristics of CgDHDPR and Escherichia coli DHDPR (EcDHDPR), indicating that hetero-expression of NADH-dependent EcDHDPR increased l-lysine production. Subsequently, we rationally modified the conserved structure of cofactor-binding motif, and results indicated that introducing the mutation K11A or R13A in CgDHDPR and introducing the mutation R16A or R39A in EcDHDPR modifies the nucleotide-cofactor affinity of DHDPR. Lastly, the effects of these mutated DHDPRs on l-lysine production were investigated. The highest increase (26.2%) in l-lysine production was observed for JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C , followed by JL-6 Cg-dapB C37G,G38C (21.4%) and JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C46G,G47C (15.2%). This is the first report of a rational modification of DHDPR that enhances the l-lysine production and yield through the modulation of nucleotide-cofactor specificity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PLMD: An updated data resource of protein lysine modifications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haodong; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lin, Shaofeng; Deng, Wankun; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Yu

    2017-05-20

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring at protein lysine residues, or protein lysine modifications (PLMs), play critical roles in regulating biological processes. Due to the explosive expansion of the amount of PLM substrates and the discovery of novel PLM types, here we greatly updated our previous studies, and presented a much more integrative resource of protein lysine modification database (PLMD). In PLMD, we totally collected and integrated 284,780 modification events in 53,501 proteins across 176 eukaryotes and prokaryotes for up to 20 types of PLMs, including ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation, methylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, glycation, formylation, hydroxylation, butyrylation, propionylation, crotonylation, pupylation, neddylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, phosphoglycerylation, carboxylation, lipoylation and biotinylation. Using the data set, a motif-based analysis was performed for each PLM type, and the results demonstrated that different PLM types preferentially recognize distinct sequence motifs for the modifications. Moreover, various PLMs synergistically orchestrate specific cellular biological processes by mutual crosstalks with each other, and we totally found 65,297 PLM events involved in 90 types of PLM co-occurrences on the same lysine residues. Finally, various options were provided for accessing the data, while original references and other annotations were also present for each PLM substrate. Taken together, we anticipated the PLMD database can serve as a useful resource for further researches of PLMs. PLMD 3.0 was implemented in PHP + MySQL and freely available at http://plmd.biocuckoo.org. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new glycation product ‘norpronyl-lysine,’ and direct characterization of cross linking and other glycation adducts: NMR of model compounds and collagen

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Peter T. B.; Reid, David G.; Ying Chow, W.; Lau, Wendy P. W.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2014-01-01

    NMR is ideal for characterizing non-enzymatic protein glycation, including AGEs (advanced glycation endproducts) underlying tissue pathologies in diabetes and ageing. Ribose, R5P (ribose-5-phosphate) and ADPR (ADP-ribose), could be significant and underinvestigated biological glycating agents especially in chronic inflammation. Using [U-13C]ribose we have identified a novel glycoxidation adduct, 5-deoxy-5-desmethylpronyl-lysine, ‘norpronyl-lysine’, as well as numerous free ketones, acids and amino group reaction products. Glycation by R5P and ADPR proceeds rapidly with R5P generating a brown precipitate with PLL (poly-L-lysine) within hours. ssNMR (solid-state NMR) 13C–13C COSY identifies several crosslinking adducts such as the newly identified norpronyl-lysine, in situ, from the glycating reaction of 13C5-ribose with collagen. The same adducts are also identifiable after reaction of collagen with R5P. We also demonstrate for the first time bio-amine (spermidine, N-acetyl lysine, PLL) catalysed ribose 2-epimerization to arabinose at physiological pH. This work raises the prospect of advancing understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of glycation in actual tissues, in vitro or even ex vivo, using NMR isotope-labelled glycating agents, without analyses requiring chemical or enzymatic degradations, or prior assumptions about glycation products. PMID:27919030

  5. Small Molecule Ligands of Methyl-Lysine Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herold, J. Martin; Wigle, Tim J.; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Lam, Robert; Korboukh, Victoria K.; Gao, Cen; Ingerman, Lindsey A.; Kireev, Dmitri B.; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins which bind methylated lysines (“readers” of the histone code) are important components in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and can also modulate other proteins that contain methyl-lysine such as p53 and Rb. Recognition of methyl-lysine marks by MBT domains leads to compaction of chromatin and a repressed transcriptional state. Antagonists of MBT domains would serve as probes to interrogate the functional role of these proteins and initiate the chemical biology of methyl-lysine readers as a target class. Small molecule MBT antagonists were designed based on the structure of histone peptide-MBT complexes and their interaction with MBT domains determined using a chemiluminescent assay and ITC. The ligands discovered antagonize native histone peptide binding, exhibiting 5-fold stronger binding affinity to L3MBTL1 than its preferred histone peptide. The first co-crystal structure of a small molecule bound to L3MBTL1 was determined and provides new insights into binding requirements for further ligand design. PMID:21417280

  6. Human METTL20 Methylates Lysine Residues Adjacent to the Recognition Loop of the Electron Transfer Flavoprotein in Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. PMID:25023281

  7. Human METTL20 methylates lysine residues adjacent to the recognition loop of the electron transfer flavoprotein in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2014-08-29

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Systematic analysis of the lysine acetylome in Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianyi; Ye, Zhicang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Peng, Xiaojun; Wen, Liangyou; Zhao, Fukun

    2014-07-03

    Lysine acetylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspect of cells, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Vibrio parahemolyticus, a model marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of bacterial seafood-borne illness. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in this bacterium through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Overall, we identified 1413 lysine acetylation sites in 656 proteins, which account for 13.6% of the total proteins in the cells; this is the highest ratio of acetyl proteins that has so far been identified in bacteria. The bioinformatics analysis of the acetylome showed that the acetylated proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular functions and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. More specifically, proteins related to protein biosynthesis and carbon metabolism are the preferential targets of lysine acetylation. Moreover, two types of acetylation motifs, a lysine or arginine at the +4/+5 positions and a tyrosine, histidine, or phenylalanine at the +1/+2 positions, were revealed from the analysis of the acetylome. Additionally, protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a wide range of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. This study provides a significant beginning for the in-depth exploration of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.

  9. Relative quantification of N(epsilon)-(Carboxymethyl)lysine, imidazolone A, and the Amadori product in glycated lysozyme by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kislinger, Thomas; Humeny, Andreas; Peich, Carlo C; Zhang, Xiaohong; Niwa, Toshimitsu; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Becker, Cord-Michael

    2003-01-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins by reducing sugars, also known as the Maillard reaction, has received increasing recognition from nutritional science and medical research. In this study, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to perform relative and simultaneous quantification of the Amadori product, which is an early glycation product, and of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and imidazolone A, two important advanced glycation end products. Therefore, native lysozyme was incubated with d-glucose for increasing periods of time (1, 4, 8, and 16 weeks) in phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.8 at 50 degrees C. After enzymatic digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C, the N-terminal peptide fragment (m/z 838; amino acid sequence KVFGRCE) and the C-terminal peptide fragment (m/z 1202; amino acid sequence VQAWIRGCRL) were used for relative quantification of the three Maillard products. Amadori product, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, and imidazolone A were the main glycation products formed under these conditions. Their formation was dependent on glucose concentration and reaction time. The kinetics were similar to those obtained by competitive ELISA, an established method for quantification of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and imidazolone A. Inhibition experiments showed that coincubation with N(alpha)-acetylargine suppressed formation of imidazolone A but not of the Amadori product or N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. The presence of N(alpha)-acetyllysine resulted in the inhibition of lysine modifications but in higher concentrations of imidazolone A. o-Phenylenediamine decreased the yield of the Amadori product and completely inhibited the formation of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and imidazolone A. MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a new analytical tool for the simultaneous, relative quantification of specific products of the Maillard reaction. For the first time, kinetic data of defined products on

  10. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-02

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76).

  11. Transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) Enrichment Analysis Reveals Genes Involved in Biotin Metabolism That Affect L-Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Hyeon; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely used for amino acid production. In the present study, 543 genes showed a significant change in their mRNA expression levels in L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum ATCC21300 than that in the wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032. Among these 543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 28 genes were up- or downregulated. In addition, 454 DEGs were functionally enriched and categorized based on BLAST sequence homologies and gene ontology (GO) annotations using the Blast2GO software. Interestingly, NCgl0071 (bioB, encoding biotin synthase) was expressed at levels ~20-fold higher in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain. Five other genes involved in biotin metabolism or transport--NCgl2515 (bioA, encoding adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase), NCgl2516 (bioD, encoding dithiobiotin synthetase), NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885--were also expressed at significantly higher levels in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain, which we determined using both next-generation RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. When we disrupted the bioB gene in C. glutamicum ATCC21300, L-lysine production decreased by approximately 76%, and the three genes involved in biotin transport (NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885) were significantly downregulated. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of C. glutamicum for industrial amino acid production.

  12. Loss of ATP-dependent lysine uptake in the vacuolar membrane vesicles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypq1∆ mutant.

    PubMed

    Sekito, Takayuki; Nakamura, Kyosuke; Manabe, Kunio; Tone, Junichi; Sato, Yumika; Murao, Nami; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ypq1p is a vacuolar membrane protein of the PQ-loop protein family. We found that ATP-dependent uptake activities of amino acids by vacuolar membrane vesicles were impaired by ypq1∆ mutation. Loss of lysine uptake was most remarkable, and the uptake was recovered by overproduction of Ypq1p. Ypq1p is thus involved in transport of amino acids into vacuoles.

  13. A Study on the Effect of Surface Lysine to Arginine Mutagenesis on Protein Stability and Structure Using Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Two positively charged basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, are mostly exposed to protein surface, and play important roles in protein stability by forming electrostatic interactions. In particular, the guanidinium group of arginine allows interactions in three possible directions, which enables arginine to form a larger number of electrostatic interactions compared to lysine. The higher pKa of the basic residue in arginine may also generate more stable ionic interactions than lysine. This paper reports an investigation whether the advantageous properties of arginine over lysine can be utilized to enhance protein stability. A variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was created by mutating the maximum possible number of lysine residues on the surface to arginines while retaining the activity. When the stability of the variant was examined under a range of denaturing conditions, the variant was relatively more stable compared to control GFP in the presence of chemical denaturants such as urea, alkaline pH and ionic detergents, but the thermal stability of the protein was not changed. The modeled structure of the variant indicated putative new salt bridges and hydrogen bond interactions that help improve the rigidity of the protein against different chemical denaturants. Structural analyses of the electrostatic interactions also confirmed that the geometric properties of the guanidinium group in arginine had such effects. On the other hand, the altered electrostatic interactions induced by the mutagenesis of surface lysines to arginines adversely affected protein folding, which decreased the productivity of the functional form of the variant. These results suggest that the surface lysine mutagenesis to arginines can be considered one of the parameters in protein stability engineering. PMID:22792305

  14. ε-Poly-l-Lysine Peptide Chain Length Regulated by the Linkers Connecting the Transmembrane Domains of ε-Poly-l-Lysine Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Naoko; Kita, Akihiro; Imokawa, Yuuki; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Maruyama, Chitose; Katano, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ε-Poly-l-lysine (ε-PL), consisting of 25 to 35 l-lysine residues with linkages between the α-carboxyl groups and ε-amino groups, is produced by Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147. ε-PL synthetase (Pls) is a membrane protein with six transmembrane domains (TM1 to TM6) as well as both an adenylation domain and a thiolation domain, characteristic of the nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Pls directly generates ε-PL chain length diversity (25- to 35-mer), but the processes that control the chain length of ε-PL during the polymerization reaction are still not fully understood. Here, we report on the identification of Pls amino acid residues involved in the regulation of the ε-PL chain length. From approximately 12,000 variants generated by random mutagenesis, we found 8 Pls variants that produced shorter chains of ε-PL. These variants have one or more mutations in two linker regions connecting the TM1 and TM2 domains and the TM3 and TM4 domains. In the Pls catalytic mechanism, the growing chain of ε-PL is not tethered to the enzyme, implying that the enzyme must hold the growing chain until the polymerization reaction is complete. Our findings reveal that the linker regions are important contributors to grasp the growing chain of ε-PL. PMID:24907331

  15. ε-Poly-L-lysine peptide chain length regulated by the linkers connecting the transmembrane domains of ε-Poly-L-lysine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Kito, Naoko; Kita, Akihiro; Imokawa, Yuuki; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Maruyama, Chitose; Katano, Hajime

    2014-08-01

    ε-Poly-l-lysine (ε-PL), consisting of 25 to 35 l-lysine residues with linkages between the α-carboxyl groups and ε-amino groups, is produced by Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147. ε-PL synthetase (Pls) is a membrane protein with six transmembrane domains (TM1 to TM6) as well as both an adenylation domain and a thiolation domain, characteristic of the nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Pls directly generates ε-PL chain length diversity (25- to 35-mer), but the processes that control the chain length of ε-PL during the polymerization reaction are still not fully understood. Here, we report on the identification of Pls amino acid residues involved in the regulation of the ε-PL chain length. From approximately 12,000 variants generated by random mutagenesis, we found 8 Pls variants that produced shorter chains of ε-PL. These variants have one or more mutations in two linker regions connecting the TM1 and TM2 domains and the TM3 and TM4 domains. In the Pls catalytic mechanism, the growing chain of ε-PL is not tethered to the enzyme, implying that the enzyme must hold the growing chain until the polymerization reaction is complete. Our findings reveal that the linker regions are important contributors to grasp the growing chain of ε-PL. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The primary structure of aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart muscle. Digestion with a proteinase having specificity for lysine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, S; Doonan, H J; Hanford, R; Vernon, C A; Walker, J M; da Airold, L P; Bossa, F; Barra, D; Carloni, M; Fasella, P; Riva, F

    1975-01-01

    Carboxymethylated aspartate aminotransferase was digested with a proteinase claimed to be specific for lysine residues. Complete cleavage occurred at 12 of the 19 lysine residues in the protein, but at the remaining seven residues cleavage was either restricted or absent. In addition, cleavage was observed at three of the 26 arginine residues. These results are discussed with reference to the amino acid residues adjacent to points of complete or restricted cleavage. The complete primary structure of aspartate aminotransferase, based on these and other studies, is given. Evidence for the assignment of some acid and amide side chains has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50050 (11 pp.) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. The evidence for the assignment of residue 366 was less conclusive than for the other acid and amide side chains and is, therefore, given in the main paper. PMID:1239277

  17. Intracellular delivery of universal proteins using a lysine headgroup containing cationic liposomes: deciphering the uptake mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Satya Ranjan; Hokama, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-06

    An amino acid-based cationic lipid having a TFA counterion (trifluoroacetic acid counterion) in the lysine headgroup was used to deliver functional proteins into human cervical cancer cells, HeLa, in the presence of serum. Proteins used in the study were fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin, mouse anti-F actin antibody [NH3], and goat anti mouse IgG conjugated with FITC. The formation of liposome/protein complexes was confirmed using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential at different pH values and found to be responsive to changes in pH. The highest delivery efficiency of the liposome/albumin complexes was 99% at 37 °C. The liposomes effectively delivered albumin and antibodies as confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Inhibition studies showed that the cellular uptake mechanism of the complexes was via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the proteins were subsequently released from either the early endosomes or the caveosomes as suggested by CLSM. Thus, lysine-based cationic liposomes can be a useful tool for intracellular protein delivery.

  18. Comparison of magnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles and cation exchange resin for the efficient purification of lysine-tagged small ubiquitin-like modifier protease.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Fei; Yang, Yanjun

    2012-10-15

    A fusion tag that can be purified by the cheap ion-exchanger based on the ionic binding force may provide a cost-effective scheme over other affinity fusion tags. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was fused with a poly lysine tag containing 10 lysine residues at its C-terminus and then expressed in Escherichia coli. The ionic binding force provided by the ploy lysine tag allowed the selective recovery of the small ubiquitin-like modifier protease from recombinant E. coli cell extracts. A preliminary comparative study of the adsorption and elution of poly lysine tagged SUMO protease on Amberlite Cobalamion and magnetite carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles was performed. Amberlite Cobalamion and magnetite nanoparticles had the similar elution profile due to the common functional groups - carboxyl groups. The maximum dynamic adsorption capacity of Amberlite Cobalamion and magnetite nanoparticles reached 36.8 and 211.4 mg/g, respectively. The lysine-tagged protease can be simply purified by magnetite nanoparticles from cell extracts with higher purity than that by Amberlite Cobalamion. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles possess the advantages of highly specific, fast and excellent binding of a larger amount of lysine tagged SUMO modifier protease, and it is also easier to separate from the crude biological process liquors compared with the conventional separation techniques of polycationic amino acids fusion proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Peptide Repertoire of HLA-B27 may include Ligands with Lysine at P2 Anchor Position.

    PubMed

    Yair-Sabag, Shira; Tedeschi, Valentina; Vitulano, Carolina; Barnea, Eilon; Glaser, Fabian; Melamed Kadosh, Dganit; Taurog, Joel D; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Sorrentino, Rosa; Admon, Arie

    2018-05-01

    The HLA-B*27 peptidome has drawn significant attention due to the genetic association between some of the HLA-B*27 alleles and the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS), for which a comprehensive biological explanation is still lacking. This study aims to expand the known limits of the HLA-B*27 peptidome to facilitate selection and testing of new peptides, possibly involved in the disease. The HLA peptidomes of HeLa and C1R cell lines stably transfected with the AS-associated HLA-B*27:05 allele, the nonassociated HLA-B*27:09 allele, or their cysteine 67 to serine mutants (C67S), are analyzed on a very large scale. In addition, the peptidomes of HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:05-C67S are analyzed from the spleens of rats transgenic for these alleles. The results indicate that C67S mutation increases the percentage of peptides with glutamine or lysine at their P2 position (P2-Lys), in both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:09. Furthermore, a small fraction of HLA-B*27 peptides contains lysine at their second position (P2), in addition to the more commonly found peptides with arginine (P2-Arg) or the less common glutamine (P2-Gln) located at this anchor position. Overall these data indicate that peptides with P2-Lys should be considered as real ligands of HLA-B*27 molecules and taken into account while looking for putative peptides implicated in the AS. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. RNA-dependent chromatin localization of KDM4D lysine demethylase promotes H3K9me3 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Zoabi, Muhammad; Nadar-Ponniah, Prathamesh T.; Khoury-Haddad, Hanan; Usaj, Marko; Budowski-Tal, Inbal; Haran, Tali; Henn, Arnon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Ayoub, Nabieh

    2014-01-01

    The JmjC-containing lysine demethylase, KDM4D, demethylates di-and tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3). How KDM4D is recruited to chromatin and recognizes its histone substrates remains unknown. Here, we show that KDM4D binds RNA independently of its demethylase activity. We mapped two non-canonical RNA binding domains: the first is within the N-terminal spanning amino acids 115 to 236, and the second is within the C-terminal spanning amino acids 348 to 523 of KDM4D. We also demonstrate that RNA interactions with KDM4D N-terminal region are critical for its association with chromatin and subsequently for demethylating H3K9me3 in cells. This study implicates, for the first time, RNA molecules in regulating the levels of H3K9 methylation by affecting KDM4D association with chromatin. PMID:25378304

  1. CPLA 1.0: an integrated database of protein lysine acetylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zexian; Cao, Jun; Gao, Xinjiao; Zhou, Yanhong; Wen, Longping; Yang, Xiangjiao; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2011-01-01

    As a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) discovered decades ago, protein lysine acetylation was known for its regulation of transcription through the modification of histones. Recent studies discovered that lysine acetylation targets broad substrates and especially plays an essential role in cellular metabolic regulation. Although acetylation is comparable with other major PTMs such as phosphorylation, an integrated resource still remains to be developed. In this work, we presented the compendium of protein lysine acetylation (CPLA) database for lysine acetylated substrates with their sites. From the scientific literature, we manually collected 7151 experimentally identified acetylation sites in 3311 targets. We statistically studied the regulatory roles of lysine acetylation by analyzing the Gene Ontology (GO) and InterPro annotations. Combined with protein-protein interaction information, we systematically discovered a potential human lysine acetylation network (HLAN) among histone acetyltransferases (HATs), substrates and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In particular, there are 1862 triplet relationships of HAT-substrate-HDAC retrieved from the HLAN, at least 13 of which were previously experimentally verified. The online services of CPLA database was implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript, while the local packages were developed in JAVA 1.5 (J2SE 5.0). The CPLA database is freely available for all users at: http://cpla.biocuckoo.org.

  2. CPLA 1.0: an integrated database of protein lysine acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zexian; Cao, Jun; Gao, Xinjiao; Zhou, Yanhong; Wen, Longping; Yang, Xiangjiao; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2011-01-01

    As a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) discovered decades ago, protein lysine acetylation was known for its regulation of transcription through the modification of histones. Recent studies discovered that lysine acetylation targets broad substrates and especially plays an essential role in cellular metabolic regulation. Although acetylation is comparable with other major PTMs such as phosphorylation, an integrated resource still remains to be developed. In this work, we presented the compendium of protein lysine acetylation (CPLA) database for lysine acetylated substrates with their sites. From the scientific literature, we manually collected 7151 experimentally identified acetylation sites in 3311 targets. We statistically studied the regulatory roles of lysine acetylation by analyzing the Gene Ontology (GO) and InterPro annotations. Combined with protein–protein interaction information, we systematically discovered a potential human lysine acetylation network (HLAN) among histone acetyltransferases (HATs), substrates and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In particular, there are 1862 triplet relationships of HAT-substrate-HDAC retrieved from the HLAN, at least 13 of which were previously experimentally verified. The online services of CPLA database was implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript, while the local packages were developed in JAVA 1.5 (J2SE 5.0). The CPLA database is freely available for all users at: http://cpla.biocuckoo.org. PMID:21059677

  3. Heterogeneous Antibody-Based Activity Assay for Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) on a Histone Peptide Substrate.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Martin L; Ladwein, Kathrin I; Carlino, Luca; Schulz-Fincke, Johannes; Willmann, Dominica; Metzger, Eric; Schilcher, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Schüle, Roland; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone tails are very important for epigenetic gene regulation. The lysine-specific demethylase LSD1 (KDM1A/AOF2) demethylates in vitro predominantly mono- and dimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4) and is a promising target for drug discovery. We report a heterogeneous antibody-based assay, using dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) for the detection of LSD1 activity. We used a biotinylated histone 3 peptide (amino acids 1-21) with monomethylated lysine 4 (H3K4me) as the substrate for the detection of LSD1 activity with antibody-mediated quantitation of the demethylated product. We have successfully used the assay to measure the potency of reference inhibitors. The advantage of the heterogeneous format is shown with cumarin-based LSD1 inhibitor candidates that we have identified using virtual screening. They had shown good potency in an established LSD1 screening assay. The new heterogeneous assay identified them as false positives, which was verified using mass spectrometry. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Structural aspects of the solvation shell of lysine and acetylated lysine: A Car-Parrinello and classical molecular dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, V.; Raugei, S.

    2009-12-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification, which modulates the affinity of protein-protein and/or protein-DNA complexes. Its crucial role as a switch in signaling pathways highlights the relevance of charged chemical groups in determining the interactions between water and biomolecules. A great effort has been recently devoted to assess the reliability of classical molecular dynamics simulations in describing the solvation properties of charged moieties. In the spirit of these investigations, we performed classical and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations on lysine and acetylated-lysine in aqueous solution. A comparative analysis between the two computational schemes is presented with a focus on the first solvation shell of the charged groups. An accurate structural analysis unveils subtle, yet statistically significant, differences which are discussed in connection to the significant electronic density charge transfer occurring between the solute and the surrounding water molecules.

  5. TSA increases C/EBP‑α expression by increasing its lysine acetylation in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li-Li; Ding, Di; Yin, Wei-Hua; Peng, Ji-Ying; Hou, Chen-Jian; Liu, Xiu-Ping; Chen, Yao-Li

    2017-11-01

    CCAAT enhancer binding protein‑α (C/EBP‑α) is a transcription factor expressed only in certain tissues, including the liver. It has been previously demonstrated that C/EBP‑α may induce apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), raising the question of whether acetylation of C/EBP‑α is associated with HSCs, and the potential associated mechanism. A total of three histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), including trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and nicotinamide, were selected to determine whether acetylation affects C/EBP‑α expression. A Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay was used to determine the rate of proliferation inhibition following treatment with varying doses of the three HDACIs in HSC‑T6 and BRL‑3A cells. Western blot analysis was used to examine Caspase‑3, ‑8, ‑9, and ‑12 levels in HSC‑T6 cells treated with adenoviral‑C/EBP‑α and/or TSA. Following treatment with TSA, a combination of reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses was used to determine the inherent C/EBP‑α mRNA and protein levels in HSC‑T6 cells at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were extracted to examine C/EBP‑α distribution. Co‑immunoprecipitation analysis was used to examine the lysine acetylation of C/EBP‑α. It was observed that TSA inhibited the proliferation of HSC‑T6 cells to a greater extent compared with BRL‑3A cells, following treatment with the three HDACIs. TSA induced apoptosis in HSC‑T6 cells and enhanced the expression of C/EBP‑α. Following treatment of HSC‑T6 cells with TSA, inherent C/EBP‑α expression increased in a time‑dependent manner, and its lysine acetylation simultaneously increased. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that TSA may increase C/EBP‑α expression by increasing its lysine acetylation in HSCs.

  6. [Intravenous lysine clonixinate for the treatment of migraine: an open pilot study].

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, A V; Barbosa, J

    1999-09-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Despite its efficacy to treat migraine and other pain, there are a few commercial NSAIDs available for intravenous (i.v.) administration. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has been proven effective in various algic syndromes such as renal colic, nerve compression, muscular pain and odontalgias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the i.v. LC in the treatment of severe attacks of migraine. We studied prospectively 19 patients, 17 women and 2 men, ages from 18 to 57 years, with the diagnosis of migraine according to the International Headache Society criteria. The patients were oriented to proceed to the clinic once the headache has started, and were placed under an i.v. infusion of LC and saline in a superficial vein of the forearm, once the intensity reached severe. Evaluating the headache intensity after 30, 60 and 90 minutes, as well as the presence of side effects, we observed that all of the 19 patients were headache free after 90 minutes. Some patients presented mild adverse effects and the vital signs were not significantly affected. We then concluded that the i.v. infusion of the NSAID LC (2-3-chloro-o-toluidin)piridin-3-lysine carboxilate), a derived from the nicotinic acid with a chemical structure that resembles the flufenamic acid, was efficient abolishing a severe migraine attack after 90 minutes in 19 patients. Controlled studies with a double-blind and randomized design, and treating a greater number of patients and attacks are necessary to confirm these initial observations.

  7. Application of a dye-binding method for the determination of available lysine in skim milk powders.

    PubMed

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Tareke, Eden; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2016-04-01

    A dye-binding method using Acid Orange 12 was investigated regarding its suitability for the quantification of available lysine, as a means of monitoring the Maillard reaction in skim milk powders. The method was evaluated by analyzing a wide range of milk powders produced by three different drying methods and stored under various conditions. A pilot-scale freeze-dryer, spray-dryer and drum-dryer were used to produce skim milk powders and the samples were stored at two temperatures (20 °C and 30 °C) and two relative humidities (33% and 52%) under strictly controlled conditions. Moreover to validate the method, two protein isolates; bovine serum albumin and casein were investigated for their available lysine content. The results demonstrate the suitability of this method for measuring the available lysine in skim milk powders with good precision and high reproducibility. The relative standard deviations obtained from the 125 freeze-dried powders were 1.8%, and those from the 100 drum-dried samples were all 1.9%. The highest variation was found for the spray-dried powders, which showed relative standard deviations between 0.9% and 6.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lysine 206 in Arabidopsis phytochrome A is the major site for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Rattanapisit, Kaewta; Cho, Man-Ho; Bhoo, Seong Hee

    2016-02-01

    Phytochrome A (phyA) is a light labile phytochrome that mediates plant development under red/far-red light condition. Degradation of phyA is initiated by red light-induced phyA-ubiquitin conjugation through the 26S proteasome pathway. The N-terminal of phyA is known to be important in phyA degradation. To determine the specific lysine residues in the N-terminal domain of phyA involved in light-induced ubiquitination and protein degradation, we aligned the amino acid sequence of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis phyA with those of phyA from other plant species. Based on the alignment results, phytochrome over-expressing Arabidopsis plants were generated. In particular, wild-type and mutant (substitutions of conserved lysines by arginines) phytochromes fused with GFP were expressed in phyA(-)211 Arabidopsis plants. Degradation kinetics of over-expressed phyA proteins revealed that degradation of the K206R phyA mutant protein was delayed. Delayed phyA degradation of the K206R phyA mutant protein resulted in reduction of red-light-induced phyA-ubiquitin conjugation. Furthermore, seedlings expressing the K206R phyA mutant protein showed an enhanced phyA response under far-red light, resulting in inhibition of hypocotyl elongation as well as cotyledon opening. Together, these results suggest that lysine 206 is the main lysine for rapid ubiquitination and protein degradation of Arabidopsis phytochrome A. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

  10. Analysis and Manipulation of Aspartate Pathway Genes for l-Lysine Overproduction from Methanol by Bacillus methanolicus▿

    PubMed Central

    Nærdal, Ingemar; Netzer, Roman; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Brautaset, Trygve

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regulation and roles of six aspartate pathway genes in l-lysine overproduction in Bacillus methanolicus: dapG, encoding aspartokinase I (AKI); lysC, encoding AKII; yclM, encoding AKIII; asd, encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; dapA, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase; and lysA, encoding meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase. Analysis of the wild-type strain revealed that in vivo lysC transcription was repressed 5-fold by l-lysine and induced 2-fold by dl-methionine added to the growth medium. Surprisingly, yclM transcription was repressed 5-fold by dl-methionine, while the dapG, asd, dapA, and lysA genes were not significantly repressed by any of the aspartate pathway amino acids. We show that the l-lysine-overproducing classical B. methanolicus mutant NOA2#13A52-8A66 has—in addition to a hom-1 mutation—chromosomal mutations in the dapG coding region and in the lysA promoter region. No mutations were found in its dapA, lysC, asd, and yclM genes. The mutant dapG gene product had abolished feedback inhibition by meso-diaminopimelate in vitro, and the lysA mutation was accompanied by an elevated (6-fold) lysA transcription level in vivo. Moreover, yclM transcription was increased 16-fold in mutant strain NOA2#13A52-8A66 compared to the wild-type strain. Overexpression of wild-type and mutant aspartate pathway genes demonstrated that all six genes are important for l-lysine overproduction as tested in shake flasks, and the effects were dependent on the genetic background tested. Coupled overexpression of up to three genes resulted in additive (above 80-fold) increased l-lysine production levels. PMID:21724876

  11. Analysis and manipulation of aspartate pathway genes for L-lysine overproduction from methanol by Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Nærdal, Ingemar; Netzer, Roman; Ellingsen, Trond E; Brautaset, Trygve

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the regulation and roles of six aspartate pathway genes in L-lysine overproduction in Bacillus methanolicus: dapG, encoding aspartokinase I (AKI); lysC, encoding AKII; yclM, encoding AKIII; asd, encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; dapA, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase; and lysA, encoding meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase. Analysis of the wild-type strain revealed that in vivo lysC transcription was repressed 5-fold by L-lysine and induced 2-fold by dl-methionine added to the growth medium. Surprisingly, yclM transcription was repressed 5-fold by dl-methionine, while the dapG, asd, dapA, and lysA genes were not significantly repressed by any of the aspartate pathway amino acids. We show that the L-lysine-overproducing classical B. methanolicus mutant NOA2#13A52-8A66 has-in addition to a hom-1 mutation-chromosomal mutations in the dapG coding region and in the lysA promoter region. No mutations were found in its dapA, lysC, asd, and yclM genes. The mutant dapG gene product had abolished feedback inhibition by meso-diaminopimelate in vitro, and the lysA mutation was accompanied by an elevated (6-fold) lysA transcription level in vivo. Moreover, yclM transcription was increased 16-fold in mutant strain NOA2#13A52-8A66 compared to the wild-type strain. Overexpression of wild-type and mutant aspartate pathway genes demonstrated that all six genes are important for L-lysine overproduction as tested in shake flasks, and the effects were dependent on the genetic background tested. Coupled overexpression of up to three genes resulted in additive (above 80-fold) increased L-lysine production levels.

  12. Insights into the Specificity of Lysine Acetyltransferases

    DOE PAGES

    Tucker, Alex C.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Rank, Katherine C.; ...

    2014-11-07

    Reversible lysine acetylation by protein acetyltransferases is a conserved regulatory mechanism that controls diverse cellular pathways. Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs), named after their founding member, are found in all domains of life. GNATs are known for their role as histone acetyltransferases, but non-histone bacterial protein acetytransferases have been identified. Only structures of GNAT complexes with short histone peptide substrates are available in databases. Given the biological importance of this modification and the abundance of lysine in polypeptides, how specificity is attained for larger protein substrates is central to understanding acetyl-lysine-regulated networks. In this paper, we report the structure of a GNATmore » in complex with a globular protein substrate solved to 1.9 Å. GNAT binds the protein substrate with extensive surface interactions distinct from those reported for GNAT-peptide complexes. Finally, our data reveal determinants needed for the recognition of a protein substrate and provide insight into the specificity of GNATs.« less

  13. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible valine : lysine ratio on performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yetong; Zeng, Zhikai; Xu, Xiao; Tian, Qiyu; Ma, Xiaokang; Long, Shenfei; Piao, Meijing; Cheng, Zhibin; Piao, Xiangshu

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine : lysine ratio on the performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows, 32 Large White × Landrace sows (219.78 ± 7.15 kg body weight; parity 1.82 ± 0.62) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments with eight sows per treatment based on parity, back fat thickness and body weight. The sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 63, 83, 103 or 123% SID valine : lysine from day 107 of gestation until day 28 of lactation. The average daily feed intake of sows and daily weight gain of piglets increased linearly (P < 0.05) while back fat loss decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the SID valine : lysine ratio increased. All of the analyzed amino acids in sow colostrum and valine concentrations of sow and piglet plasma increased linearly (P < 0.05) with the increasing SID valine : lysine ratio. In conclusion, 88 and 113% dietary SID valine : lysine ratios were optimal to achieve minimum back fat loss and maximum piglet growth rate using a linear-break point model which exceeds the requirement of 85% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012). © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Neurohypophyseal hormones as evolutionary tracers: identification of oxytocin, lysine vasopressin, and arginine vasopressin in two South American opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Philander opossum).

    PubMed

    Chauvet, J; Hurpet, D; Colne, T; Michel, G; Chauvet, M T; Acher, R

    1985-02-01

    The neurohypophyseal hormones of two South American opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Philander opossum) were isolated by molecular sieving and preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). One oxytocin-like and two vasopressin-like peptides were found in each species. These peptides have been identified by their amino acid composition and by their retention time in HPLC. Oxytocin, lysine vasopressin, and arginine vasopressin have been characterized in both species. Lysine vasopressin is roughly as abundant as arginine vasopressin. Comparison is made with Australian marsupials Macropodidae and Phalangeridae, and possible evolutionary mechanisms are discussed.

  15. The Draft Genome and Transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: A C4 Dicot Producing High-Lysine Edible Pseudo-Cereal

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K.; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R.; Gupta, Ravi P.; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. PMID:25071079

  16. Copper nanoclusters as probes for turn-on fluorescence sensing of L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Qiao, Juan; Zhang, Shufeng; Qi, Li

    2018-05-15

    Herein, a unique protocol based on copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) probe for turn-on fluorescence sensing of L-lysine was developed. The fluorescent CuNCs with ovalbumin as the stabilizer was prepared by a simple, one-step and green method. When 370 nm was used as the excitation wavelength, the resultant CuNCs exhibited a pale blue fluorescence with the maximum emission at 440 nm. Interestingly, existence of L-lysine evoked the obvious fluorescence intensity increase of CuNCs. The detection limit of the proposed method for L-lysine was 5.5 μM, with a good linear range from 10.0 μM to 1.0 mM (r 2 = 0.999). Moreover, the possible mechanism for enhanced fluorescence intensity of CuNCs by addition of L-lysine was explored and discussed briefly. Further, the as-prepared fluorescent CuNCs was successfully applied in detection of L-lysine in urine. Our results demonstrated that L-lysine could be monitored by the probe, providing new path for construction of CuNCs as fluorescent probes and showing great potential in quantification of L-lysine in real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lysine desuccinylase SIRT5 binds to cardiolipin and regulates the electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxun; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Rardin, Matthew J; Lu, Jie; Maringer, Katherine V; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Prochownik, Edward V; Gibson, Bradford W; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-06-16

    SIRT5 is a lysine desuccinylase known to regulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and the urea cycle. Here, SIRT5 was observed to bind to cardiolipin via an amphipathic helix on its N terminus. In vitro , succinyl-CoA was used to succinylate liver mitochondrial membrane proteins. SIRT5 largely reversed the succinyl-CoA-driven lysine succinylation. Quantitative mass spectrometry of SIRT5-treated membrane proteins pointed to the electron transport chain, particularly Complex I, as being highly targeted for desuccinylation by SIRT5. Correspondingly, SIRT5 -/- HEK293 cells showed defects in both Complex I- and Complex II-driven respiration. In mouse liver, SIRT5 expression was observed to localize strictly to the periportal hepatocytes. However, homogenates prepared from whole SIRT5 -/- liver did show reduced Complex II-driven respiration. The enzymatic activities of Complex II and ATP synthase were also significantly reduced. Three-dimensional modeling of Complex II suggested that several SIRT5-targeted lysine residues lie at the protein-lipid interface of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. We postulate that succinylation at these sites may disrupt Complex II subunit-subunit interactions and electron transfer. Lastly, SIRT5 -/- mice, like humans with Complex II deficiency, were found to have mild lactic acidosis. Our findings suggest that SIRT5 is targeted to protein complexes on the inner mitochondrial membrane via affinity for cardiolipin to promote respiratory chain function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Widespread occurrence of lysine methylation in Plasmodium falciparum proteins at asexual blood stages.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Saini, Ekta; Kaushik, Abhinav; Mohmmed, Asif; Gupta, Dinesh; Malhotra, Pawan

    2016-10-20

    Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications play a major role in Plasmodium life cycle regulation. Lysine methylation of histone proteins is well documented in several organisms, however in recent years lysine methylation of proteins outside histone code is emerging out as an important post-translational modification (PTM). In the present study we have performed global analysis of lysine methylation of proteins in asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum development. We immunoprecipitated stage specific Plasmodium lysates using anti-methyl lysine specific antibodies that immunostained the asexual blood stage parasites. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 570 lysine methylated proteins at three different blood stages were identified. Analysis of the peptide sequences identified 605 methylated sites within 422 proteins. Functional classification of the methylated proteins revealed that the proteins are mainly involved in nucleotide metabolic processes, chromatin organization, transport, homeostatic processes and protein folding. The motif analysis of the methylated lysine peptides reveals novel motifs. Many of the identified lysine methylated proteins are also interacting partners/substrates of PfSET domain proteins as revealed by STRING database analysis. Our findings suggest that the protein methylation at lysine residues is widespread in Plasmodium and plays an important regulatory role in diverse set of the parasite pathways.

  19. Effect of dietary nutrients on ileal endogenous losses of threonine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, leucine and protein in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C

    2018-04-01

    An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This

  20. Coprecipitation of thermal lysine-rich proteinoids with polyribonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Yuki, A.; Fox, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine whether the precipitation of thermal proteinoids with homopolynucleotides can serve as a tool for studying the specificities between proteins and polynucleotides. Attention is given to exploring the best means of quantitation of the precipitate and the effect of varying the lysine content and the amount of Mg(2+) on the results. The formation of microparticles was monitored both by turbidity and by the mass of precipitate formed. Only under certain conditions was the turbidity a reliable indication of the amount of precipitate. Increasing concentration of Mg(2+) tended to displace proteinoid from the complex with polynucleotide. The results indicate that the interaction of thermal proteinoids with polynucleotides appears to be a suitable tool for studying specificities of interactions between proteins and nucleic acids.

  1. Changes in N-acetylglutamate are involved in regulating urea synthesis in rats given a low gluten diet supplemented with L-lysine, L-methinone and L-threonine.

    PubMed

    Tujioka, Kazuyo; Tuchiya, Tamami; Shi, Xianglan; Ohsumi, Miho; Hayase, Kazutoshi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that urinary urea excretion decreased in rats fed a low gluten diet supplemented with dietary limiting amino acids. The purpose of present study was to determine whether the addition of dietary limiting amino acids to a low gluten diet affected the synthesis and degradation of N-acetylglutamate and regulated urea synthesis. Experiments were done on two groups of rats, given diets containing 10% gluten or 10% gluten+0.5% L-lysine, 0.2% L-threonine and 0.2% L-methionine for 10 d. The urinary excretion of urea, and the liver concentration of N-acetylglutamate, and the liver activity of N-acetylglutamate synthetase decreased with the addition of dietary L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine. N-Acetylglutamate concentration in the liver was closely correlated with the N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity in the liver and excretion of urea. The greater degradation of N-acetylglutamate was observed in the group fed the 10% gluten+L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine. The hepatic concentration of glutamate and plasma concentration of arginine were not related to the N-acetylglutamate concentration in the liver. These results suggest that the addition of limiting amino acids to the low gluten diet controls the synthesis and degradation of N-acetylglutamate in the liver and lowers urea synthesis.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on Mycoplasma bovis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response in various organisms, including cattle. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Collective results...

  3. Time course and pattern of compensatory ingestive behavioral adjustments to lysine deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Markison, S; Thompson, B L; Smith, J C; Spector, A C

    2000-05-01

    We and others have demonstrated that rats deficient in an essential amino acid (EAA) will consume sufficient quantities of the lacking nutrient to produce repletion when it is made available in solution. In the current series of experiments, we made rats deficient in lysine (LYS) by limiting the level of this EAA in the diet. We then examined licking behavior during approximately 23-h two-bottle intake tests over 4 consecutive days. In three separate experiments, rats were presented with the following: 1) 0.1 mol/L LYS and water, 2) 0.2 mol/L threonine (THR) and water and 3) 0.1 mol/L LYS and 0.2 mol/L THR. Lysine-deficient (LYS-DEF) rats drink significantly more LYS than did nondepleted controls (CON) when this amino acid was available. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the enhanced intake of LYS occurred as a function of a greater number of ingestive bouts, not changes in bout size. A cumulative analysis of LYS intake between CON and LYS-DEF rats revealed that a potentiation of intake developed within 30 min of sampling the solution when LYS and water were available and within 90 min when LYS and THR were the contrasting choices. In conclusion, increased LYS intake in the deficient rats occurs relatively rapidly and appears to be at least somewhat specific. Moreover, LYS deficiency does not seem to enhance the palatability of the limiting amino acid as judged by behaviors such as lick rate and bout size. Instead, LYS-DEF rats relieve the deficiency by increasing the number of drinking episodes initiated.

  4. SIRT4 Is a Lysine Deacylase that Controls Leucine Metabolism and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin A; Huynh, Frank K; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Stuart, J Darren; Peterson, Brett S; Douros, Jonathan D; Wagner, Gregory R; Thompson, J Will; Madsen, Andreas S; Green, Michelle F; Sivley, R Michael; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Stevens, Robert D; Backos, Donald S; Capra, John A; Olsen, Christian A; Campbell, Jonathan E; Muoio, Deborah M; Grimsrud, Paul A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-04-04

    Sirtuins are NAD + -dependent protein deacylases that regulate several aspects of metabolism and aging. In contrast to the other mammalian sirtuins, the primary enzymatic activity of mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) and its overall role in metabolic control have remained enigmatic. Using a combination of phylogenetics, structural biology, and enzymology, we show that SIRT4 removes three acyl moieties from lysine residues: methylglutaryl (MG)-, hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-, and 3-methylglutaconyl (MGc)-lysine. The metabolites leading to these post-translational modifications are intermediates in leucine oxidation, and we show a primary role for SIRT4 in controlling this pathway in mice. Furthermore, we find that dysregulated leucine metabolism in SIRT4KO mice leads to elevated basal and stimulated insulin secretion, which progressively develops into glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. These findings identify a robust enzymatic activity for SIRT4, uncover a mechanism controlling branched-chain amino acid flux, and position SIRT4 as a crucial player maintaining insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of dry heating on physicochemical properties of corn starch and lysine mixture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Yu, Jicheng; Xu, Yongbin; Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-10-01

    Corn starch was modified with lysine by dry heat treatment and to investigate how they can affect the pasting and structural properties of the treated starches. Dry heating with lysine reduced the pasting temperature and resulting in viscosity increase. The particle size of heated starch-lysine mixture increased, suggesting that starch granules were cross-linked to lysine. After dry heating, the onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature of corn starch-lysine mixture were lower than those of other starches. The degree of crystallinity decreased for the starch after dry heat treatment while these heated starch samples still have the same X-ray diffraction types as the original starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of short peptides containing lysine and epsilon-aminocaproic acid on fibrinolytic activity of plasmin and topoisomerase II action on supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Midura-Nowaczek, Krystyna; Purwin, Maciej; Markowska, Agnieszka; Drozdowska, Danuta; Bruzgo, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Effects of eight short peptides containing lysine and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) on prolongation of the clot lysis time, as well as hemolytic and antibacterial activities were investigated. Interaction with plasmids pBR322 and pUC19 with the use of ethidium bromide assay and determination of influence on the activity of topoisomerase I and II were also tested. Examined compounds inhibited fibrinolytic activity of plasmin and five of them were more active than EACA. Amides of dipeptides were most active antifibrinolytics (IC50 < 0.2 mM). According to the obtained data, the significant inhibition of fibrinolytic activity of plasmin was not associated with hemolytic effects. Examined compounds did not show antibacterial activity (MIC > 512 mg/L). DNA binding effects determined with the use of ethidium bromide were weak for all peptides and similar to those observed with EACA. Six compounds inhibited topoisomerase II action on supercoiled DNA.

  7. Prediction of lysine ubiquitylation with ensemble classifier and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Xiangtao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Yin, Minghao

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitylation is an important process of post-translational modification. Correct identification of protein lysine ubiquitylation sites is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular mechanism of lysine ubiquitylation in biological systems. This paper develops a novel computational method to effectively identify the lysine ubiquitylation sites based on the ensemble approach. In the proposed method, 468 ubiquitylation sites from 323 proteins retrieved from the Swiss-Prot database were encoded into feature vectors by using four kinds of protein sequences information. An effective feature selection method was then applied to extract informative feature subsets. After different feature subsets were obtained by setting different starting points in the search procedure, they were used to train multiple random forests classifiers and then aggregated into a consensus classifier by majority voting. Evaluated by jackknife tests and independent tests respectively, the accuracy of the proposed predictor reached 76.82% for the training dataset and 79.16% for the test dataset, indicating that this predictor is a useful tool to predict lysine ubiquitylation sites. Furthermore, site-specific feature analysis was performed and it was shown that ubiquitylation is intimately correlated with the features of its surrounding sites in addition to features derived from the lysine site itself. The feature selection method is available upon request.

  8. Effects of dietary lysine levels on the concentrations of selected nutrient metabolites in blood plasma of late-stage finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Regmi, N; Wang, T; Crenshaw, M A; Rude, B J; Liao, S F

    2018-04-01

    Lysine is the first-limiting amino acid (AA) in typical swine diets and plays very important roles in promoting growth performance of pigs. This research was conducted to study the effects of dietary lysine on blood plasma concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolites of pigs. Eighteen crossbred finishing pigs (nine barrows and nine gilts; initial BW 92.3 ± 6.9 kg) were individually penned in an environment controlled barn. Pigs were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a randomized complete block design with gender as block and pig as experimental unit (6 pigs/treatment). Three corn and soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain total lysine at 0.43%, 0.71%, and 0.98% (as-fed basis) for Diets I (lysine deficient), II (lysine adequate), and III (lysine excess) respectively. After 4 weeks on trial, jugular vein blood was collected and plasma was separated. The plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen (UN), triglyceride, total cholesterol, and glucose were determined using an ACE Clinical Chemistry System (Alfa Wassermann, Inc., West Caldwell, NJ, USA). Data were analysed using the GLM Procedure with PDIFF (adjust = T) option of SAS. No differences (p > 0.10) were found between barrows and gilts for any of the metabolites measured. While there were no differences (p > 0.10) between pigs fed Diets II and III in plasma concentrations of UN, albumin, and total cholesterol, the concentration of albumin in these pigs was higher (p < .05) than that of pigs fed Diet I, and the concentrations of UN and total cholesterol in these pigs were lower (p < .05) than that of pigs fed Diet I. There were no differences (p > 0.10) among the three dietary treatments in plasma concentrations of total protein, triglycerides, and glucose. These findings indicated that the plasma metabolite profile can be affected by changing dietary lysine content only. Thorough understanding how the plasma metabolite profile is

  9. Genealogy profiling through strain improvement by using metabolic network analysis: metabolic flux genealogy of several generations of lysine-producing corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Christoph; Heinzle, Elmar

    2002-12-01

    A comprehensive approach of metabolite balancing, (13)C tracer studies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and isotopomer modeling was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of a genealogy of five successive generations of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. The five strains examined (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, 13287, 21253, 21526, and 21543) were previously obtained by random mutagenesis and selection. Throughout the genealogy, the lysine yield in batch cultures increased markedly from 1.2 to 24.9% relative to the glucose uptake flux. Strain optimization was accompanied by significant changes in intracellular flux distributions. The relative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) flux successively increased, clearly corresponding to the product yield. Moreover, the anaplerotic net flux increased almost twofold as a consequence of concerted regulation of C(3) carboxylation and C(4) decarboxylation fluxes to cover the increased demand for lysine formation; thus, the overall increase was a consequence of concerted regulation of C(3) carboxylation and C(4) decarboxylation fluxes. The relative flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase dropped from 82.7% in the wild type to 59.9% in the lysine-producing mutants. In contrast to the NADPH demand, which increased from 109 to 172% due to the increasing lysine yield, the overall NADPH supply remained constant between 185 and 196%, resulting in a decrease in the apparent NADPH excess through strain optimization. Extrapolated to industrial lysine producers, the NADPH supply might become a limiting factor. The relative contributions of PPP and the tricarboxylic acid cycle to NADPH generation changed markedly, indicating that C. glutamicum is able to maintain a constant supply of NADPH under completely different flux conditions. Statistical analysis by a Monte Carlo approach revealed high precision for the estimated fluxes, underlining the

  10. Genealogy Profiling through Strain Improvement by Using Metabolic Network Analysis: Metabolic Flux Genealogy of Several Generations of Lysine-Producing Corynebacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Christoph; Heinzle, Elmar

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive approach of metabolite balancing, 13C tracer studies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and isotopomer modeling was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of a genealogy of five successive generations of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. The five strains examined (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, 13287, 21253, 21526, and 21543) were previously obtained by random mutagenesis and selection. Throughout the genealogy, the lysine yield in batch cultures increased markedly from 1.2 to 24.9% relative to the glucose uptake flux. Strain optimization was accompanied by significant changes in intracellular flux distributions. The relative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) flux successively increased, clearly corresponding to the product yield. Moreover, the anaplerotic net flux increased almost twofold as a consequence of concerted regulation of C3 carboxylation and C4 decarboxylation fluxes to cover the increased demand for lysine formation; thus, the overall increase was a consequence of concerted regulation of C3 carboxylation and C4 decarboxylation fluxes. The relative flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase dropped from 82.7% in the wild type to 59.9% in the lysine-producing mutants. In contrast to the NADPH demand, which increased from 109 to 172% due to the increasing lysine yield, the overall NADPH supply remained constant between 185 and 196%, resulting in a decrease in the apparent NADPH excess through strain optimization. Extrapolated to industrial lysine producers, the NADPH supply might become a limiting factor. The relative contributions of PPP and the tricarboxylic acid cycle to NADPH generation changed markedly, indicating that C. glutamicum is able to maintain a constant supply of NADPH under completely different flux conditions. Statistical analysis by a Monte Carlo approach revealed high precision for the estimated fluxes, underlining the fact that

  11. Wall Teichoic Acids Are Involved in the Medium-Induced Loss of Function of the Autolysin CD11 against Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Paskaleva, Elena E.; Mehta, Krunal K.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Kane, Ravi S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial lysins are potent antibacterial enzymes with potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections. Some lysins lose activity in the growth media of target bacteria, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we use CD11, an autolysin of Clostridium difficile, as a model lysin to demonstrate that the inability of this enzyme to kill C. difficile in growth medium is not associated with inhibition of the enzyme activity by medium, or the modification of the cell wall peptidoglycan. Rather, wall teichoic acids (WTAs) appear to prevent the enzyme from binding to the cells and cleaving the cell wall peptidoglycan. By partially blocking the biosynthetic pathway of WTAs with tunicamycin, cell binding improved and the lytic efficacy of CD11 was significantly enhanced. This is the first report of the mechanism of lysin inactivation in growth medium, and provides insights into understanding the behavior of lysins in complex environments, including the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27759081

  12. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations of DL amino acids: Valine and lysine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, F. M.; Batista, J. C.; Rêgo, F. S. C.; Lima, J. A.; Freire, P. T. C.; Melo, F. E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; de Menezes, A. S.; Nogueira, C. E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of DL-valine and DL-lysine hydrochloride were grown by slow evaporation method and the crystallographic structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction experiment and Rietveld method. These two crystals have been studied by Raman spectroscopy in the 25-3600 cm-1 spectral range and by infrared spectroscopy through the interval 375-4000 cm-1 at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra were compared and a complete analysis of the modes was done in terms of the Potential Energy Distribution (PED).

  13. Effects of dietary lysine levels and lighting conditions on intramuscular fat accumulation in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ashihara, Akane; Ishida, Aiko

    2018-04-29

    This study was conducted to test our hypothesis that intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation increases in pigs fed on a low lysine diet during the dark period than those fed on the same diet during the light period. Using barrows aged 6 weeks, we monitored whether serum glucose and insulin levels were affected by light conditions. Two diets with different levels of lysine, 0.78% (LL diet) and 1.37% (control diet) were prepared. Eight pigs were fed on the diet during the light period, while the remaining pigs were fed during the dark period. The pigs were fed either the LL diet or the control diet. Although IMF contents of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were higher in the pigs fed on a LL diet (p < .05), the light conditions had no effect. Low dietary lysine caused reduction in serum glucose levels (p < .05) and serum insulin levels (p = .0613). However, they were also unaffected by the lighting conditions. To gain further insights, we determined the messenger RNA levels of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase in LD and Rhomboideus muscles and in the liver. © 2018 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Lysine acetylome profiling uncovers novel histone deacetylase substrate proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Markus; Füßl, Magdalena; Boersema, Paul J; Jost, Jan-Oliver; Kramer, Katharina; Bakirbas, Ahmet; Sindlinger, Julia; Plöchinger, Magdalena; Leister, Dario; Uhrig, Glen; Moorhead, Greg Bg; Cox, Jürgen; Salvucci, Michael E; Schwarzer, Dirk; Mann, Matthias; Finkemeier, Iris

    2017-10-23

    Histone deacetylases have central functions in regulating stress defenses and development in plants. However, the knowledge about the deacetylase functions is largely limited to histones, although these enzymes were found in diverse subcellular compartments. In this study, we determined the proteome-wide signatures of the RPD3/HDA1 class of histone deacetylases in Arabidopsis Relative quantification of the changes in the lysine acetylation levels was determined on a proteome-wide scale after treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with deacetylase inhibitors apicidin and trichostatin A. We identified 91 new acetylated candidate proteins other than histones, which are potential substrates of the RPD3/HDA1-like histone deacetylases in Arabidopsis , of which at least 30 of these proteins function in nucleic acid binding. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that histone deacetylase 14 (HDA14) is the first organellar-localized RPD3/HDA1 class protein found to reside in the chloroplasts and that the majority of its protein targets have functions in photosynthesis. Finally, the analysis of HDA14 loss-of-function mutants revealed that the activation state of RuBisCO is controlled by lysine acetylation of RuBisCO activase under low-light conditions. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Interferon induction by and toxicity of polyriboinosinic acid [poly(rI)].polyribocytidylic acid [poly (rC)], mismatched analog poly (rI).poly[r(C12Uracil)n], and poly(rI).poly(rC) L-lysine complexed with carboxymethylcellulose.

    PubMed Central

    Stringfellow, D A; Weed, S D

    1980-01-01

    The ability of polyriboinosionic acid [poly(rI)].polyribocytidylic acid [poly(rC)], mismatched analog poly (rI).poly[r(C12Uracil)n], and poly(rI).poly(rC) complexed with poly L-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose [poly(ICLc)] to induce interferon and the comparative toxicity of each in cats were evaluated. Each induced high levels of circulating interferon, although poly(ICLC) injected intravenously at 1 to 4 mg/kg induced up to 10 times more interferon than the other compounds. Each compound was pyrogenic and caused a transient decrease in leukocyte numbers. Poly(rI).poly(rC) and the mismatched analog caused severe diarrhea and nausea at the highest drug concentrations (1 to 4 mg/kg), but poly (ICLC) did not. Each compound also caused depression and lethargy and impaired coordination. PMID:6157363

  16. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Briggs, Robert E.; Tatum, Fred M.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. Four, 30-mer peptides corresponding to the functional region of NK-lysin helices 2 and 3 were synthesized and assessed for antibacterial activity on four bovine pneumonic H. somni isolates. Although there were some differences in the efficiency of bactericidal activity among the NK-lysin peptides at lower concentrations (2–5 μM), all four peptides effectively killed most H. somni isolates at higher concentrations (10–30 μM) as determined by a bacterial killing assay. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of Live/Dead Baclight stained H. somni (which were preincubated with NK-lysin peptides) were consistent with the killing assay findings and suggest NK-lysin peptides are bactericidal for H. somni. Among the four peptides, NK2A-derived peptide consistently showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all four H. somni isolates. Electron microscopic examination of H. somni following incubation with NK-lysin revealed extensive cell membrane damage, protrusions of outer membranes, and cytoplasmic content leakage. Taken together, the findings from this study clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of all four bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides against bovine H. somni isolates. PMID:28827826

  17. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Briggs, Robert E; Tatum, Fred M; Sacco, Randy E

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. Four, 30-mer peptides corresponding to the functional region of NK-lysin helices 2 and 3 were synthesized and assessed for antibacterial activity on four bovine pneumonic H. somni isolates. Although there were some differences in the efficiency of bactericidal activity among the NK-lysin peptides at lower concentrations (2-5 μM), all four peptides effectively killed most H. somni isolates at higher concentrations (10-30 μM) as determined by a bacterial killing assay. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of Live/Dead Baclight stained H. somni (which were preincubated with NK-lysin peptides) were consistent with the killing assay findings and suggest NK-lysin peptides are bactericidal for H. somni. Among the four peptides, NK2A-derived peptide consistently showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all four H. somni isolates. Electron microscopic examination of H. somni following incubation with NK-lysin revealed extensive cell membrane damage, protrusions of outer membranes, and cytoplasmic content leakage. Taken together, the findings from this study clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of all four bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides against bovine H. somni isolates.

  18. Biotin protein ligase from Corynebacterium glutamicum: role for growth and L: -lysine production.

    PubMed

    Peters-Wendisch, P; Stansen, K C; Götker, S; Wendisch, V F

    2012-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotrophic Gram-positive bacterium that is used for large-scale production of amino acids, especially of L-glutamate and L-lysine. It is known that biotin limitation triggers L-glutamate production and that L-lysine production can be increased by enhancing the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, one of two biotin-dependent proteins of C. glutamicum. The gene cg0814 (accession number YP_225000) has been annotated to code for putative biotin protein ligase BirA, but the protein has not yet been characterized. A discontinuous enzyme assay of biotin protein ligase activity was established using a 105aa peptide corresponding to the carboxyterminus of the biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit AccBC of the acetyl CoA carboxylase from C. glutamicum as acceptor substrate. Biotinylation of this biotin acceptor peptide was revealed with crude extracts of a strain overexpressing the birA gene and was shown to be ATP dependent. Thus, birA from C. glutamicum codes for a functional biotin protein ligase (EC 6.3.4.15). The gene birA from C. glutamicum was overexpressed and the transcriptome was compared with the control strain revealing no significant gene expression changes of the bio-genes. However, biotin protein ligase overproduction increased the level of the biotin-containing protein pyruvate carboxylase and entailed a significant growth advantage in glucose minimal medium. Moreover, birA overexpression resulted in a twofold higher L-lysine yield on glucose as compared with the control strain.

  19. Bioinspired Star-Shaped Poly(l-lysine) Polypeptides: Efficient Polymeric Nanocarriers for the Delivery of DNA to Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David P; Murphy, Robert D; Panarella, Angela; Raftery, Rosanne M; Cavanagh, Brenton; Simpson, Jeremy C; O'Brien, Fergal J; Heise, Andreas; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2018-05-07

    The field of tissue engineering is increasingly recognizing that gene therapy can be employed for modulating in vivo cellular response thereby guiding tissue regeneration. However, the field lacks a versatile and biocompatible gene delivery platform capable of efficiently delivering transgenes to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a cell type often refractory to transfection. Herein, we describe the extensive and systematic exploration of three architectural variations of star-shaped poly(l-lysine) polypeptide (star-PLL) with varying number and length of poly(l-lysine) arms as potential nonviral gene delivery vectors for MSCs. We demonstrate that star-PLL vectors are capable of self-assembling with pDNA to form stable, cationic nanomedicines. Utilizing high content screening, live cell imaging, and mechanistic uptake studies we confirm the intracellular delivery of pDNA by star-PLLs to MSCs is a rapid process, which likely proceeds via a clathrin-independent mechanism. We identify a star-PLL composition with 64 poly(l-lysine) arms and five l-lysine subunits per arm as a particularly efficient vector that is capable of delivering both reporter genes and the therapeutic transgenes bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor to MSCs. This composition facilitated a 1000-fold increase in transgene expression in MSCs compared to its linear analogue, linear poly(l-lysine). Furthermore, it demonstrated comparable transgene expression to the widely used vector polyethylenimine using a lower pDNA dose with significantly less cytotoxicity. Overall, this study illustrates the ability of the star-PLL vectors to facilitate efficient, nontoxic nucleic acid delivery to MSCs thereby functioning as an innovative nanomedicine platform for tissue engineering applications.

  20. Malonylome Analysis Reveals the Involvement of Lysine Malonylation in Metabolism and Photosynthesis in Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanyan; Yang, Mingkun; Lin, Xiaohuang; Liu, Xin; Huang, Hui; Ge, Feng

    2017-05-05

    As a recently validated reversible post translational modification, lysine malonylation regulates diverse cellular processes from bacteria to mammals, but its existence and function in photosynthetic organisms remain unknown. Cyanobacteria are the most ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes and contribute about 50% of the total primary production on Earth. Previously, we reported the lysine acetylome in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis). Here we performed the first proteomic survey of lysine malonylation in Synechocystis using highly accurate tandem mass spectrometry in combination with affinity purification. We identified 598 lysine malonylation sites on 339 proteins with high confidence in total. A bioinformatic analysis suggested that these malonylated proteins may play various functions and were distributed in diverse subcellular compartments. Among them, many malonylated proteins were involved in cellular metabolism. The functional significance of lysine malonylation in the metabolic enzyme activity of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) was determined by site-specific mutagenesis and biochemical studies. Interestingly, 27 proteins involved in photosynthesis were found to be malonylated for the first time, suggesting that lysine malonylation may be involved in photosynthesis. Thus our results provide the first lysine malonylome in a photosynthetic organism and suggest a previously unexplored role of lysine malonylation in the regulation of metabolic processes and photosynthesis in Synechocystis as well as in other photosynthetic organisms.

  1. Identification of Furan Metabolites Derived from Cysteine-cis-2-Butene-1,4-Dial-Lysine Crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ding; Peterson, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Furan is a rodent hepatotoxicant and carcinogen. Since this compound is an important industrial intermediate and has been detected in heat-processed foods and smoke, humans are likely exposed to this toxic compound. Characterization of urinary metabolites of furan will lead to the development of biomarkers to assess human health risks associated with furan exposure. Previous studies indicate that furan is oxidized to a reactive α, β-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), in a reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450. Five previously characterized metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles such as glutathione and protein. They include the mono-glutathione reaction product, N-[4-carboxy-4-(3-mercapto-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-L-cysteinylglycine cyclic sulfide and its downstream metabolite, S-[1-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]methylthiol as well as R-2-acetylamino-6-(2,5-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-hexanoic acid and N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-L-cysteine and its sulfoxide. The last two compounds are downstream metabolites of a BDA-derived cysteine-lysine crosslink, S-[1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-L-cysteine. In this report, we present the characterization of seven additional urinary furan metabolites, all of which are derived from this crosslink. The cysteinyl residue is subject to several biotransformation reactions, including N-acetylation and S-oxidation. Alternatively, it can undergo β-elimination followed by S-methylation to a methylthiol intermediate that is further oxidized to a sulfoxide. The lysine portion of the crosslink is either N-acetylated or undergoes an oxidative transamination reaction to generate an α-ketoacid metabolite that undergoes oxidative decarboxylation. Some of these metabolites are among the most abundant furan metabolites present in urine as judged by LC-MS/MS analysis, indicating that the oxidation of furan to BDA and BDA

  2. Bacteriophage phi11 lysin: physicochemical characterization and comparison with phage phi80a lysin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phage lytic enzymes are promising antimicrobial agents. Lysins of phage phi11 (LysPhi11) and phi80a (LysPhi80a) can lyse (destroy) biofilms and cells of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Stability of enzymes is one of the parameters making their practical use possible. The obj...

  3. Global Proteome Analyses of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Reveal the Widespread Involvement of both Modification in Metabolism in the Embryo of Germinating Rice Seed.

    PubMed

    He, Dongli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Ming; Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Yi, Xingling; Cheng, Zhongyi; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-03-04

    Regulation of rice seed germination has been shown to mainly occur at post-transcriptional levels, of which the changes on proteome status is a major one. Lysine acetylation and succinylation are two prevalent protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in multiple biological processes, especially for metabolism regulation. To investigate the potential mechanism controlling metabolism regulation in rice seed germination, we performed the lysine acetylation and succinylation analyses simultaneously. Using high-accuracy nano-LC-MS/MS in combination with the enrichment of lysine acetylated or succinylated peptides from digested embryonic proteins of 24 h after imbibition (HAI) rice seed, a total of 699 acetylated sites from 389 proteins and 665 succinylated sites from 261 proteins were identified. Among these modified lysine sites, 133 sites on 78 proteins were commonly modified by two PTMs. The overlapped PTM sites were more likely to be in polar acidic/basic amino acid regions and exposed on the protein surface. Both of the acetylated and succinylated proteins cover nearly all aspects of cellular functions. Ribosome complex and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related proteins were significantly enriched in both acetylated and succinylated protein profiles through KEGG enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analyses. The acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA metabolism-related enzymes were found to be extensively modified by both modifications, implying the functional interaction between the two PTMs. This study provides a rich resource to examine the modulation of the two PTMs on the metabolism pathway and other biological processes in germinating rice seed.

  4. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Johannes; Zimmer, Ulrike; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2007-12-26

    The suitability of the homoarginine reaction for determining the reactive lysine in soy products and corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was tested. For this purpose, some batches were subjected to deliberate heat damage for up to 30 min in an autoclave with 135 degrees C hot steam, and the samples were analyzed for total lysine and reactive lysine. In addition, 84 samples of common soy and 80 samples of corn DDGS were tested for their content of total and reactive lysine, and the contents were compared with those of the autoclave tests. For soy products conclusive results were obtained. In the case of heat treatment, both total lysine and reactive lysine decrease, but the latter is clearly a more sensitive indicator of lysine damage. Most normal products are quite similar, with toasting-induced damage to reactive lysine of ca. 15% compared to untoasted beans. The cause of the constantly occurring residual lysine after guanidination and the poorer reaction balance in the case of damage were explained. For common DDGS samples, however, less favorable results were obtained. Reactive and total lysine decreased almost in parallel due to heat damage, showing a great gap between them. Results showed indeed that variation of total and reactive lysine in DDGS is high, proving that its production conditions are not yet optimal for a feed ingredient.

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of conformationally constrained omega-amino acid analogues from pyroglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Emilie L; Goswami, Rajesh; Moloney, Mark G; Westaway, Susan M

    2005-08-07

    Bicyclic lactams derived from pyroglutamic acid provide a useful scaffold for synthesis of conformationally restricted analogues of lysine, ornithine and glutamine, as well as an Ala-Ala dipeptide analogue. Amino alcohol and carboxylic acid derivatives are accessible from a common intermediate. In this strategy, the bicyclic lactam system not only controls, but also facilitates the determination of the stereochemistry of the synthetic intermediates.

  6. Coevolutionary analysis enabled rational deregulation of allosteric enzyme inhibition in Corynebacterium glutamicum for lysine production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Meyer, Weiqian; Rappert, Sugima; Sun, Jibin; Zeng, An-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Product feedback inhibition of allosteric enzymes is an essential issue for the development of highly efficient microbial strains for bioproduction. Here we used aspartokinase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAK), a key enzyme controlling the biosynthesis of industrially important aspartate family amino acids, as a model to demonstrate a fast and efficient approach to the deregulation of allostery. In the last 50 years many researchers and companies have made considerable efforts to deregulate this enzyme from allosteric inhibition by lysine and threonine. However, only a limited number of positive mutants have been identified so far, almost exclusively by random mutation and selection. In this study, we used statistical coupling analysis of protein sequences, a method based on coevolutionary analysis, to systematically clarify the interaction network within the regulatory domain of CgAK that is essential for allosteric inhibition. A cluster of interconnected residues linking different inhibitors' binding sites as well as other regions of the protein have been identified, including most of the previously reported positions of successful mutations. Beyond these mutation positions, we have created another 14 mutants that can partially or completely desensitize CgAK from allosteric inhibition, as shown by enzyme activity assays. The introduction of only one of the inhibition-insensitive CgAK mutations (here Q298G) into a wild-type C. glutamicum strain by homologous recombination resulted in an accumulation of 58 g/liter L-lysine within 30 h of fed-batch fermentation in a bioreactor.

  7. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  12. Identification and characterization of gamma-glutamylamine cyclotransferase, an enzyme responsible for gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine catabolism.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Aaron J; Coggan, Marjorie; Board, Philip G

    2010-03-26

    Gamma-glutamylamine cyclotransferase (GGACT) is an enzyme that converts gamma-glutamylamines to free amines and 5-oxoproline. GGACT shows high activity toward gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine, derived from the breakdown of fibrin and other proteins cross-linked by transglutaminases. The enzyme adopts the newly identified cyclotransferase fold, observed in gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT), an enzyme with activity toward gamma-glutamyl-alpha-amino acids (Oakley, A. J., Yamada, T., Liu, D., Coggan, M., Clark, A. G., and Board, P. G. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 22031-22042). Despite the absence of significant sequence identity, several residues are conserved in the active sites of GGCT and GGACT, including a putative catalytic acid/base residue (GGACT Glu(82)). The structure of GGACT in complex with the reaction product 5-oxoproline provides evidence for a common catalytic mechanism in both enzymes. The proposed mechanism, combined with the three-dimensional structures, also explains the different substrate specificities of these enzymes. Despite significant sequence divergence, there are at least three subfamilies in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that have conserved the GGCT fold and GGCT enzymatic activity.

  13. Identification and Characterization of γ-Glutamylamine Cyclotransferase, an Enzyme Responsible for γ-Glutamyl-ϵ-lysine Catabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Aaron J.; Coggan, Marjorie; Board, Philip G.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Glutamylamine cyclotransferase (GGACT) is an enzyme that converts γ-glutamylamines to free amines and 5-oxoproline. GGACT shows high activity toward γ-glutamyl-ϵ-lysine, derived from the breakdown of fibrin and other proteins cross-linked by transglutaminases. The enzyme adopts the newly identified cyclotransferase fold, observed in γ-glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT), an enzyme with activity toward γ-glutamyl-α-amino acids (Oakley, A. J., Yamada, T., Liu, D., Coggan, M., Clark, A. G., and Board, P. G. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 22031–22042). Despite the absence of significant sequence identity, several residues are conserved in the active sites of GGCT and GGACT, including a putative catalytic acid/base residue (GGACT Glu82). The structure of GGACT in complex with the reaction product 5-oxoproline provides evidence for a common catalytic mechanism in both enzymes. The proposed mechanism, combined with the three-dimensional structures, also explains the different substrate specificities of these enzymes. Despite significant sequence divergence, there are at least three subfamilies in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that have conserved the GGCT fold and GGCT enzymatic activity. PMID:20110353

  14. Detection of non-protein amino acids in the presence of protein amino acids. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapshak, P.; Okaji, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies conducted with the JEOL 5AH amino acid analyzer are described. This instrument makes possible the programming of the chromatographic process. Data are presented showing the separations of seventeen non-protein amino acids in the presence of eighteen protein amino acids. It is pointed out that distinct separations could be obtained in the case of a number of chemically similar compounds, such as ornithine and lysine, N-amidino alanine and arginine, and iminodiacetic acid and S-carboxymethyl cysteine and aspartic acid.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  16. Degradation of Amino Acids and Structure in Model Proteins and Bacteriophage MS2 by Chlorine, Bromine, and Ozone.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Richards, David H; Wilson, Corey J; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    Proteins are important targets of chemical disinfectants. To improve the understanding of disinfectant-protein reactions, this study characterized the disinfectant:protein molar ratios at which 50% degradation of oxidizable amino acids (i.e., Met, Tyr, Trp, His, Lys) and structure were observed during HOCl, HOBr, and O3 treatment of three well-characterized model proteins and bacteriophage MS2. A critical question is the extent to which the targeting of amino acids is driven by their disinfectant rate constants rather than their geometrical arrangement. Across the model proteins and bacteriophage MS2 (coat protein), differing widely in structure, methionine was preferentially targeted, forming predominantly methionine sulfoxide. This targeting concurs with its high disinfectant rate constants and supports its hypothesized role as a sacrificial antioxidant. Despite higher HOCl and HOBr rate constants with histidine and lysine than for tyrosine, tyrosine generally was degraded in preference to histidine, and to a lesser extent, lysine. These results concur with the prevalence of geometrical motifs featuring histidines or lysines near tyrosines, facilitating histidine and lysine regeneration upon Cl[+1] transfer from their chloramines to tyrosines. Lysine nitrile formation occurred at or above oxidant doses where 3,5-dihalotyrosine products began to degrade. For O3, which lacks a similar oxidant transfer pathway, histidine, tyrosine, and lysine degradation followed their relative O3 rate constants. Except for its low reactivity with lysine, the O3 doses required to degrade amino acids were as low as or lower than for HOCl or HOBr, indicating its oxidative efficiency. Loss of structure did not correlate with loss of particular amino acids, suggesting the need to characterize the oxidation of specific geometric motifs to understand structural degradation.

  17. Highly Stable l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase from the Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Japanese Hot Spring: Characterization, Gene Cloning and Sequencing, and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Mojgan; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Nunoura-Kominato, Naoki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    l-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, indicating that the enzyme is l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (LysDH) (EC 1.4.1.18). The molecular mass of the purified protein was about 260 kDa, and the molecule was determined to be a homohexamer with subunit molecular mass of about 43 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the catalytic activity of the enzyme were about 10.1 and 70°C, respectively. No activity was lost at temperatures up to 65°C in the presence of 5 mM l-lysine. The enzyme was relatively selective for l-lysine as the electron donor, and either NAD or NADP could serve as the electron acceptor (NADP exhibited about 22% of the activity of NAD). The Km values for l-lysine, NAD, and NADP at 50°C and pH 10.0 were 0.73, 0.088, and 0.48 mM, respectively. When the gene encoding this LysDH was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a crude extract of the recombinant cells had about 800-fold-higher enzyme activity than the extract of G. stearothermophilus. The nucleotide sequence of the LysDH gene encoded a peptide containing 385 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,239 Da. PMID:14766574

  18. Highly stable L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus isolated from a Japanese hot spring: characterization, gene cloning and sequencing, and expression.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mojgan; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Nunoura-Kominato, Naoki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

    2004-02-01

    L-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be Delta1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, indicating that the enzyme is L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (LysDH) (EC 1.4.1.18). The molecular mass of the purified protein was about 260 kDa, and the molecule was determined to be a homohexamer with subunit molecular mass of about 43 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the catalytic activity of the enzyme were about 10.1 and 70 degrees C, respectively. No activity was lost at temperatures up to 65 degrees C in the presence of 5 mM L-lysine. The enzyme was relatively selective for L-lysine as the electron donor, and either NAD or NADP could serve as the electron acceptor (NADP exhibited about 22% of the activity of NAD). The Km values for L-lysine, NAD, and NADP at 50 degrees C and pH 10.0 were 0.73, 0.088, and 0.48 mM, respectively. When the gene encoding this LysDH was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a crude extract of the recombinant cells had about 800-fold-higher enzyme activity than the extract of G. stearothermophilus. The nucleotide sequence of the LysDH gene encoded a peptide containing 385 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,239 Da.

  19. Plasma levels of lysine, tyrosine, and valine during pregnancy are independent risk factors of insulin resistance and gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Ju Hong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This study compared plasma concentrations of amino acids in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and identified the association between plasma amino acid levels and GDM, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Circulating amino acid levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy in 25 non-GDM and 64 GDM women after adjusting for covariates such as maternal age, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, BMI and gestational age at screening GDM, and daily caloric intake. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of developing GDM, and homeostatic model assessments for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B). Circulating levels of amino acids except threonine and tyrosine were significantly higher in GDM women than non-GDM women. Along with the intakes of energy, protein, and fat from animal sources, the intakes of each amino acid were significantly higher in the GDM group without a direct correlation to plasma amino acid levels. The variation in GDM development was explained by maternal age, diastolic blood pressure, and plasma lysine levels (R(2)=0.691). Height, BMI before pregnancy, systolic blood pressure, and plasma tyrosine and valine levels accounted for the variation in HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.589). The 53.3% variation of HOMA-B was explained by maternal age, BMI at GDM screening, plasma insulin level at 1 h during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and plasma valine level. Circulating concentrations of lysine, tyrosine, and valine were independently and positively associated with GDM through modifying insulin resistance and secretion.

  20. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  1. A pH-responsive drug nanovehicle constructed by reversible attachment of cholesterol to PEGylated poly(l-lysine) via catechol-boronic acid ester formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Lv, Yin; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Han, Yun-Tao; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hai; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2014-08-01

    The present work reports the construction of a drug delivery nanovehicle via a pH-sensitive assembly strategy for improved cellular internalization and intracellular drug liberation. Through spontaneous formation of boronate linkage in physiological conditions, phenylboronic acid-modified cholesterol was able to attach onto catechol-pending methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine). This comb-type polymer can self-organize into a micellar nanoconstruction that is able to effectively encapsulate poorly water-soluble agents. The blank micelles exhibited negligible in vitro cytotoxicity, yet doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles could effectively induce cell death at a level comparable to free DOX. Owing to the acid-labile feature of the boronate linkage, a reduction in environmental pH from pH 7.4 to 5.0 could trigger the dissociation of the nanoconstruction, which in turn could accelerate the liberation of entrapped drugs. Importantly, the blockage of endosomal acidification in HeLa cells by NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased the nuclear uptake efficiency and cell-killing effect mediated by the DOX-loaded nanoassembly, suggesting that acid-triggered destruction of the nanoconstruction is of significant importance in enhanced drug efficacy. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay revealed the effective internalization of the nanoassemblies, and their cellular uptake exhibited a cholesterol dose-dependent profile, indicating the contribution of introduced cholesterol functionality to the transmembrane process of the nanoassembly. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antifouling Properties of a Self-Assembling Glutamic Acid-Lysine Zwitterionic Polymer Surface Coating.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Christopher; Khavkin, Maria; Priftis, Dimitris; Acar, Handan; Mao, Jun; Benami, Maya; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tirrell, Matthew; Kaufman, Yair; Herzberg, Moshe

    2018-04-23

    There is a need for the development of antifouling materials to resist adsorption of biomacromolecules. Here we describe the preparation of a novel zwitterionic block copolymer with the potential to prevent or delay the formation of microbial biofilms. The block copolymer comprised a zwitterionic (hydrophilic) section of alternating glutamic acid (negatively charged) and lysine (positively charged) units and a hydrophobic polystyrene section. Cryo-TEM and dynamic-light-scattering (DLS) results showed that, on average, the block copolymer self-assembled into 7-nm-diameter micelles in aqueous solutions (0 to 100 mM NaCl, pH 6). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements demonstrated that the block copolymer self-assembled into a brush-like monolayer on polystyrene surfaces. The brush-like monolayer produced from a 100 mg/L block copolymer solution exhibited an average distance, d, of approximately 4-8 nm between each block copolymer molecule (center to center). Once the brush-like monolayer self-assembled, it reduced EPS adsorption onto the polystyrene surface by ∼70% (mass), reduced the rate of bacterial attachment by >80%, and inhibited the development of thick biofilms. QCM-D results revealed that the EPS molecules penetrate between the chains of the brush and adsorb onto the polystyrene surface. Additionally, AFM analyses showed that the brush-like monolayer prevents the adhesion of large (> d) hydrophilic colloids onto the surface via hydration repulsion; however, molecules or colloids small enough to fit between the brush polymers (< d) were able to be adsorbed onto the surface via van der Waals interactions. Overall, we found that the penetration of extracellular organelles, as well as biopolymers through the brush, is critical for the failure of the antifouling coating, and likely could be prevented through tuning of the brush density. Stability and biofilm development

  3. Comparison of deuterated leucine, valine, and lysine in the measurement of human apolipoprotein A-I and B-100 kinetics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lichtenstein, A.H.; Cohn, J.S.; Hachey, D.L.

    1990-09-01

    The production rates of apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 in very low density lipoprotein and in low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I in high density lipoprotein were determined using a primed-constant infusion of (5,5,5,-2H3)leucine, (4,4,4,-2H3)valine, and (6,6-2H2,1,2-13C2)lysine. The three stable isotope-labeled amino acids were administered simultaneously to determine whether absolute production rates calculated using a stochastic model were independent of the tracer species utilized. Three normolipidemic adult males were studied in the constantly fed state over a 15-h period. The absolute production rates of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 11.4 +/- 5.8 (leucine), 11.2 +/- 6.8 (valine), and 11.1 +/- 5.4 (lysine)more » mg per kg per day (mean +/- SDM). The absolute production rates for low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 8.0 +/- 4.7 (leucine), 7.5 +/- 3.8 (valine), and 7.5 +/- 4.2 (lysine) mg per kg per day. The absolute production rates for high density lipoprotein apoA-I were 9.7 +/- 0.2 (leucine), 9.4 +/- 1.7 (valine), and 9.1 +/- 1.3 (lysine) mg per kg per day. There were no statistically significant differences in absolute synthetic rates of the three apolipoproteins when the plateau isotopic enrichment values of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were used to define the isotopic enrichment of the intracellular precursor pool. Our data indicate that deuterated leucine, valine, or lysine provided similar results when used for the determination of apoA-I and apoB-100 absolute production rates within plasma lipoproteins as part of a primed-constant infusion protocol.« less

  4. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) in bacteria has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovo...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on Mycoplasma bovis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobia...

  6. Effect of a single polymorphism in the Japanese quail NK-lysin gene on antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ishige, Taichiro; Hara, Hiromi; Hirano, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-01-01

    NK-lysins are cationic peptides that play important roles in host protection, and are an important constituent of innate immunity. We identified nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NK-lysin open reading frame (ORF) from 32 Japanese quails in six strains: A, B, ND, K, P, and Y. The G to A substitution at nucleotide position 272 in the ORF resulted in a Gly (G) to Asp (D) amino acid substitution (Cj31G and Cj31D alleles). The Cj31D allele was detected in P (frequency 0.76) and Y (frequency 0.03) strains. We compared the antimicrobial activities of four synthetic peptides from the helix 2-loop-helix 3 region of avian NK-lysins against Escherichia coli: Cj31G and Cj31D from quail and Gg29N and Gg29D from chicken. The antimicrobial activities of the four peptides decreased in the following order: Gg29N > Cj31G > Gg29D > Cj31D (P < 0.05). Although there were no differences in the predicted secondary structure of the Cj31G and Cj31D, the net charge of the Cj31G was higher than that of Cj31D. These data indicated that the antimicrobial activity of CjNKL is influenced by net charge, similar to that which has been observed in chicken. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Selection of tRNA(Asp) amber suppressor mutants having alanine, arginine, glutamine, and lysine identity.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, F; Reinbolt, J; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    1996-01-01

    Elements that confer identity to a tRNA in the cellular environment, where all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are competing for substrates, may be delineated by in vivo experiments using suppressor tRNAs. Here we describe the selection of active Escherichia coli tRNAAsp amber mutants and analyze their identity. Starting from a library containing randomly mutated tRNA(CUA)Asp genes, we isolated four amber suppressors presenting either lysine, alanine, or glutamine activity. Two of them, presenting mainly alanine or lysine activity, were further submitted to a second round of mutagenesis selection in order to improve their efficiency of suppression. Eleven suppressors were isolated, each containing two or three mutations. Ten presented identities of the two parental mutants, whereas one had switched from lysine to arginine identity. Analysis of the different mutants revealed (or confirmed for some nucleotides) their role as positive and/or negative determinants in AlaRS, LysRS, and ArgRS recognition. More generally, it appears that tRNAAsp presents identity characteristics closely related to those of tRNALys, as well as a structural basis for acquiring alanine or arginine identity upon moderate mutational changes; these consist of addition or suppression of the corresponding positive or negative determinants, as well as tertiary interactions. Failure to isolate aspartic acid-inserting suppressors is probably due to elimination of the important G34 identity element and its replacement by an antideterminant when changing the anticodon of the tRNAAsp to the CUA triplet. PMID:8809018

  8. l-Lysine based lipidated biphenyls as agents with anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory properties that also inhibit intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandradhish; Sarkar, Paramita; Samaddar, Sandip; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Haldar, Jayanta

    2017-07-25

    l-Lysines were conjugated to lipidated biphenyls using simple synthetic chemistry to obtain selective membrane-active antibacterial agents that inhibit cell-wall biosynthesis. The most selective compound bore promising activity against biofilm-related infections and intracellular bacteria, and also suppressed the stimulation of TNF-α induced by lipoteichoic acid. Belligerent to resistance development, it was active in a murine model of MRSA infection.

  9. Reducing renal uptake of 111In-DOTATOC: a comparison among various basic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Hung, Guang-Uei; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Sun, Shung-Shung; Hsia, Chien-Chung; Chen, Shu-Ling; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported significant renal toxicity after the use of a high dose of 90Y-DOTATOC. Thus, renal protection is necessary in treatments with 90Y-DOTA Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC). The infusion of certain positively charged amino acids has been shown to effectively reduce renal uptake of DOTATOC. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of three kinds of amino acids, D-lysine (lysine), L-arginine (arginine) and histidine, on renal protection in healthy rats and tried to determine which one was the most effective. Twenty SD healthy male rats were divided into 4 groups: lysine, histidine, arginine, and control. The rats were injected with a dose of 400 mg/kg of amino acid or 2 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (as control) intraperitoneally. All rats were sacrificed at 4 hrs after the injection of 1 MBq 111In-DOTATOC. Samples of the kidney were taken and weighed carefully. The counts of radioactivity were measured by a gamma counter and renal concentrations were calculated and expressed as percent injected dose per gram (% ID/g). The renal uptake of 111In-DOTATOC was significantly lower for all three kinds of amino acids when compared to the control group. The renal uptake of 111In-DOTATOC in the lysine group was significantly lower than those in the histidine and arginine groups. The renal uptake of 111In-DOTATOC in the histidine group was lower than that in the arginine group, but no statistical difference was noted. Among these three amino acids, lysine had the best reduction rate of renal uptake of DOTATOC. Histidine was more effective than arginine but no statistical difference was noted.

  10. Development and characterization of lysine-methotrexate conjugate for enhanced brain delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Kumar; Subudhi, Bharat Bhusan

    2016-09-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), an anticancer drug of choice, has poor permeability across blood-brain barrier (BBB) making it unsuitable for brain tumor application. Its brain availability and scope of application was improved by preparation of reversible conjugate with lysine by capitalizing the endogenous transport system of lysine at BBB. To enhance its delivery to brain, MTX was reversibly conjugated with l-Lysine by an amide linkage. It was characterized by advanced spectroscopy techniques including IR, NMR and MS. Furthermore, conjugate was assessed for stability, toxicity and drug release ability. In vivo distribution studies were done by radioscintigraphy study using 99m Tc radioisotope. The structure of prodrug was confirmed by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and Mass. The m/e (mass to charge ratio) fragment was found at [M + H] 711.32 in Mass spectra. Stability and metabolic studies suggested that conjugate was stable at physiological pH (in Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 t 1/2 is 70.25 ± 2.17 h and in plasma t 1/2 is 193.57 ± 2.03 min) and circulated adequately to release MTX slowly in brain. In vivo biodistribution study showed that prodrug significantly increased the level of MTX in brain when compared with pharmacokinetic parameter of parent drug. The brain permeability of MTX was enhanced significantly by this conjugate.

  11. Lysine acetyltransferase inhibitors: structure-activity relationships and potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Francesco; Mai, Antonello; Rotili, Dante

    2018-05-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification of both histone and nonhistone proteins that is catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases and plays a key role in numerous biological contexts. The dysregulation of this enzyme activity is implicated in many human pathologies such as cancer, neurological and inflammatory disorders. Many lysine acetyltransferase inhibitors (KATi) have been developed so far, but there is still the need for new, more potent, metabolically stable and selective KATi as chemical tools for studying KAT biology and/or as potential therapeutic agents. This review will examine the features of KAT enzymes and related diseases, with particular emphasis on KATi (bisubstrate analogs, natural compounds and synthetic derivatives), analyzing their mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties and potential future applications.

  12. Understanding the relationship between DNA methylation and histone lysine methylation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nathan R.; Klose, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation acts as an epigenetic modification in vertebrate DNA. Recently it has become clear that the DNA and histone lysine methylation systems are highly interrelated and rely mechanistically on each other for normal chromatin function in vivo. Here we examine some of the functional links between these systems, with a particular focus on several recent discoveries suggesting how lysine methylation may help to target DNA methylation during development, and vice versa. In addition, the emerging role of non-methylated DNA found in CpG islands in defining histone lysine methylation profiles at gene regulatory elements will be discussed in the context of gene regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Methylation: A Multifaceted Modification — looking at transcription and beyond. PMID:24560929

  13. Enhancement of ε-poly-lysine production in ε-poly-lysine-tolerant Streptomyces sp. by genome shuffling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-Peng; Ren, Xi-Dong; Wang, Liang; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Tang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) has been widely used as food additive. However, the self-inhibition of ε-PL on cell growth limits the accumulation of ε-PL in the wild-type strain. Here, we screened ε-PL-tolerant strain of Streptomyces sp. with higher ε-PL productivity by genome shuffling and studied the mechanism for the improvement. The initial mutant library was constructed by diethyl sulfate mutagenesis. After four rounds of protoplast fusion, a shuffled strain F4-22 with 3.11 g/L ε-PL productivity in shake flask, 1.81-fold in comparison with that of parent strain, was obtained. The higher aspartokinase activity was induced in F4-22 whereas no obvious changes have been found in ε-PL synthetic and degrading enzymes which indicated that the upstream reregulation of the precursor lysine synthesis rather than lysine polymerization or ε-PL degradation in shuffled strain accounted for the higher productivity. The activities of key enzymes in the central metabolic pathway were also enhanced in F4-22 which resulted in increased vigor of the strain and in delayed strain lysis during fermentation. These improved properties of shuffled strain led to the success of combining general two-stage fermentation into one-stage one in 5-L bioreactor with 32.7 % more ε-PL production than that of parent strain. The strategy used in this study provided a novel strain breeding approach of producers which suffered from ε-PL-like self-inhibition of the metabolites.

  14. Contribution of Histidine and Lysine to the Generation of Volatile Compounds in Jinhua Ham Exposed to Ripening Conditions Via Maillard Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zhao, Jing-Li; Tian, Wei; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Miao-Yun; Zhao, Gai-Ming

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the role of Maillard reactions in the generation of flavor compounds in Jinhua ham, the reactions of glucose and ethanal with histidine and lysine, respectively, were studied by simulating the ripening conditions of Jinhua ham. The volatile products produced were analyzed using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results showed that 8 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and histidine and 10 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and lysine. Reactions of ethanal with lysine and with histidine both generated 31 volatile compounds that contributed to the flavor of Jinhua ham. This indicates that histidine and lysine related to Maillard reactions possibly play important roles in the generation of the unique flavor compounds in Jinhua ham. This research demonstrates that free amino acids participate in the generation of volatile compounds from Jinhua ham via the Maillard reaction and provides a basic mechanism to explain flavor formation in Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham is a well-known traditional Chinese dry-cured meat product. However, the formation of the compounds comprising its special flavor is not well understood. Our results indicate that Maillard reactions occur in Jinhua ham under ripening conditions. This work illustrates the contribution of Maillard reactions to the flavor of Jinhua ham. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Peripheral Effects of FAAH Deficiency on Fuel and Energy Homeostasis: Role of Dysregulated Lysine Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Yang, Li; Hartil, Kirsten; Glaser, Sherrye; Yazulla, Stephen; Bruce, James E.; Kurland, Irwin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase), primarily expressed in the liver, hydrolyzes the endocannabinoids fatty acid ethanolamides (FAA). Human FAAH gene mutations are associated with increased body weight and obesity. In our present study, using targeted metabolite and lipid profiling, and new global acetylome profiling methodologies, we examined the role of the liver on fuel and energy homeostasis in whole body FAAH−/− mice. Methodology/Principal Findings FAAH−/− mice exhibit altered energy homeostasis demonstrated by decreased oxygen consumption (Indirect calorimetry). FAAH−/− mice are hyperinsulinemic and have adipose, skeletal and hepatic insulin resistance as indicated by stable isotope phenotyping (SIPHEN). Fed state skeletal muscle and liver triglyceride levels was increased 2–3 fold, while glycogen was decreased 42% and 57% respectively. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was decreased 22% in FAAH−/− mice. Dysregulated hepatic FAAH−/− lysine acetylation was consistent with their metabolite profiling. Fasted to fed increases in hepatic FAAH−/− acetyl-CoA (85%, p<0.01) corresponded to similar increases in citrate levels (45%). Altered FAAH−/− mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) acetylation, which can affect the malate aspartate shuttle, was consistent with our observation of a 25% decrease in fed malate and aspartate levels. Decreased fasted but not fed dihydroxyacetone-P and glycerol-3-P levels in FAAH−/− mice was consistent with a compensating contribution from decreased acetylation of fed FAAH−/− aldolase B. Fed FAAH−/− alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acetylation was also decreased. Conclusions/Significance Whole body FAAH deletion contributes to a pre-diabetic phenotype by mechanisms resulting in impairment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. FAAH−/− mice had altered hepatic lysine acetylation, the pattern sharing similarities with acetylation changes reported with chronic alcohol treatment

  16. Lysine-Directed Post-translational Modifications of Tau Protein in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Kontaxi, Christiana; Piccardo, Pedro; Gill, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein responsible mainly for stabilizing the neuronal microtubule network in the brain. Under normal conditions, tau is highly soluble and adopts an “unfolded” conformation. However, it undergoes conformational changes resulting in a less soluble form with weakened microtubule stabilizing properties. Altered tau forms characteristic pathogenic inclusions in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. Although, tau hyperphosphorylation is widely considered to be the major trigger of tau malfunction, tau undergoes several post-translational modifications at lysine residues including acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, and glycation. We are only beginning to define the site-specific impact of each type of lysine modification on tau biology as well as the possible interplay between them, but, like phosphorylation, these modifications are likely to play critical roles in tau's normal and pathobiology. This review summarizes the latest findings focusing on lysine post-translational modifications that occur at both endogenous tau protein and pathological tau forms in AD and other tauopathies. In addition, it highlights the significance of a site-dependent approach of studying tau post-translational modifications under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:28848737

  17. Crystal structure of LysK, an enzyme catalyzing the last step of lysine biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus, in complex with lysine: Insight into the mechanism for recognition of the amino-group carrier protein, LysW.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Satomi; Cho, Su-Hee; Yoshida, Ayako; Hasebe, Fumihito; Tomita, Takeo; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2017-09-16

    LysK is an M20 peptidase family enzyme that hydrolyzes the isopeptide bond between the carrier protein LysW and lysine in order to release lysine, which is the last step of lysine biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of LysK in complex with lysine at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The α-amino group of the bound lysine was oriented toward the catalytic center, which was composed of the residues coordinating divalent metal ions for the hydrolysis of the isopeptide bond. An 11 Å-long path was observed from the active site binding lysine to the protein surface, which may be responsible for recognizing the C-terminal extension domain of LysW with the conserved EDWGE sequence. A positively-charged surface region was detected around the exit of the path, similar to other lysine biosynthetic enzymes using LysW as the carrier protein. Mutational studies of the surface residues provided a plausible model for the electrostatic interaction with LysW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome sequence of thermotolerant Bacillus methanolicus: features and regulation related to methylotrophy and production of L-lysine and L-glutamate from methanol.

    PubMed

    Heggeset, Tonje M B; Krog, Anne; Balzer, Simone; Wentzel, Alexander; Ellingsen, Trond E; Brautaset, Trygve

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus methanolicus can utilize methanol as its sole carbon and energy source, and the scientific interest in this thermotolerant bacterium has focused largely on exploring its potential as a biocatalyst for the conversion of methanol into L-lysine and L-glutamate. We present here the genome sequences of the important B. methanolicus model strain MGA3 (ATCC 53907) and the alternative wild-type strain PB1 (NCIMB13113). The physiological diversity of these two strains was demonstrated by a comparative fed-batch methanol cultivation displaying highly different methanol consumption and respiration profiles, as well as major differences in their L-glutamate production levels (406 mmol liter(-1) and 11 mmol liter(-1), respectively). Both genomes are small (ca 3.4 Mbp) compared to those of other related bacilli, and MGA3 has two plasmids (pBM19 and pBM69), while PB1 has only one (pBM20). In particular, we focus here on genes representing biochemical pathways for methanol oxidation and concomitant formaldehyde assimilation and dissimilation, the important phosphoenol pyruvate/pyruvate anaplerotic node, the tricarboxylic acid cycle including the glyoxylate pathway, and the biosynthetic pathways for L-lysine and L-glutamate. Several unique findings were made, including the discovery of three different methanol dehydrogenase genes in each of the two B. methanolicus strains, and the genomic analyses were accompanied by gene expression studies. Our results provide new insight into a number of peculiar physiological and metabolic traits of B. methanolicus and open up possibilities for system-level metabolic engineering of this bacterium for the production of amino acids and other useful compounds from methanol.

  19. Genome Sequence of Thermotolerant Bacillus methanolicus: Features and Regulation Related to Methylotrophy and Production of l-Lysine and l-Glutamate from Methanol

    PubMed Central

    Heggeset, Tonje M. B.; Krog, Anne; Balzer, Simone; Wentzel, Alexander; Ellingsen, Trond E.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus methanolicus can utilize methanol as its sole carbon and energy source, and the scientific interest in this thermotolerant bacterium has focused largely on exploring its potential as a biocatalyst for the conversion of methanol into l-lysine and l-glutamate. We present here the genome sequences of the important B. methanolicus model strain MGA3 (ATCC 53907) and the alternative wild-type strain PB1 (NCIMB13113). The physiological diversity of these two strains was demonstrated by a comparative fed-batch methanol cultivation displaying highly different methanol consumption and respiration profiles, as well as major differences in their l-glutamate production levels (406 mmol liter−1 and 11 mmol liter−1, respectively). Both genomes are small (ca 3.4 Mbp) compared to those of other related bacilli, and MGA3 has two plasmids (pBM19 and pBM69), while PB1 has only one (pBM20). In particular, we focus here on genes representing biochemical pathways for methanol oxidation and concomitant formaldehyde assimilation and dissimilation, the important phosphoenol pyruvate/pyruvate anaplerotic node, the tricarboxylic acid cycle including the glyoxylate pathway, and the biosynthetic pathways for l-lysine and l-glutamate. Several unique findings were made, including the discovery of three different methanol dehydrogenase genes in each of the two B. methanolicus strains, and the genomic analyses were accompanied by gene expression studies. Our results provide new insight into a number of peculiar physiological and metabolic traits of B. methanolicus and open up possibilities for system-level metabolic engineering of this bacterium for the production of amino acids and other useful compounds from methanol. PMID:22610424

  20. Desensitization to inhaled aztreonam lysine in an allergic patient with cystic fibrosis using a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Ditouras, Joanna; Montejo, Jenny

    2012-10-01

    To report the successful desensitization of a highly allergic patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to inhaled aztreonam lysine using the novel approach of intravenous desensitization followed by full-dose inhaled therapy without any adverse reactions. A 19-year-old woman with CF had persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive cultures and a history of type I hypersensitivity reactions to multiple medications, including aztreonam and tobramycin (intravenous and inhaled). To start therapy with an inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotic on a chronic basis, she underwent rapid desensitization to intravenous aztreonam followed by initiation of inhaled aztreonam lysine. Following intravenous desensitization with aztreonam, there was no adverse reaction or decline in lung function noted with inhaled aztreonam lysine and the chronic therapy was continued at home, with a modified regimen to maintain desensitization. Aztreonam lysine has been used for treatment of patients with CF with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Previous allergic reaction to intravenous aztreonam is considered a contraindication for use of aztreonam lysine. Our patient had a history of hives and facial swelling following administration of intravenous aztreonam (type I hypersensitivity reaction) as well as hypersensitivity to tobramycin. Rapid desensitization can be done for drugs that mediate a type I hypersensitivity reaction, with mast cells and basophils being the cellular targets. There are a few case reports of desensitization to inhaled antibiotics such as tobramycin and colistin, but desensitization to aztreonam lysine has not previously been reported. Desensitization of a patient with CF who is allergic to intravenous aztreonam was successfully accomplished with the novel approach of rapid intravenous desensitization followed by inhaled therapy. As inhaled antibiotics are being increasingly used for patients with CF, this novel strategy can be used for desensitizing allergic patients with CF to

  1. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA

    PubMed Central

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W. S.; Houry, Walid A.; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  2. Hypochlorite-induced damage to proteins: formation of nitrogen-centred radicals from lysine residues and their role in protein fragmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, M J

    1998-01-01

    Stimulated monocytes and neutrophils generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl damages proteins by reaction with amino acid side-chains or backbone cleavage. Little information is available about the mechanisms and intermediates involved in these reactions. EPR spin trapping has been employed to identify radicals on proteins, peptides and amino acids after treatment with HOCl. Reaction with HOCl gives both high- and low-molecular-mass nitrogen-centred, protein-derived radicals; the yield of the latter increases with both higher HOCl:protein ratios and enzymic digestion. These radicals, which arise from lysine side-chain amino groups, react with ascorbate, glutathione and Trolox. Reaction of HOCl-treated proteins with excess methionine eliminates radical formation, which is consistent with lysine-derived chloramines (via homolysis of N-Cl bonds) being the radical source. Incubation of HOCl-treated proteins, after removal of excess oxidant, gives rise to both nitrogen-centred radicals, over a period of hours, and time-dependent fragmentation of the protein. Treatment with excess methionine or antioxidants (Trolox, ascorbate, glutathione) protects against fragmentation; urate and bilirubin do not. Chloramine formation and nitrogen-centred radicals are therefore key species in HOCl-induced protein fragmentation. PMID:9620862

  3. Coevolutionary Analysis Enabled Rational Deregulation of Allosteric Enzyme Inhibition in Corynebacterium glutamicum for Lysine Production ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Meyer, Weiqian; Rappert, Sugima; Sun, Jibin; Zeng, An-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Product feedback inhibition of allosteric enzymes is an essential issue for the development of highly efficient microbial strains for bioproduction. Here we used aspartokinase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAK), a key enzyme controlling the biosynthesis of industrially important aspartate family amino acids, as a model to demonstrate a fast and efficient approach to the deregulation of allostery. In the last 50 years many researchers and companies have made considerable efforts to deregulate this enzyme from allosteric inhibition by lysine and threonine. However, only a limited number of positive mutants have been identified so far, almost exclusively by random mutation and selection. In this study, we used statistical coupling analysis of protein sequences, a method based on coevolutionary analysis, to systematically clarify the interaction network within the regulatory domain of CgAK that is essential for allosteric inhibition. A cluster of interconnected residues linking different inhibitors' binding sites as well as other regions of the protein have been identified, including most of the previously reported positions of successful mutations. Beyond these mutation positions, we have created another 14 mutants that can partially or completely desensitize CgAK from allosteric inhibition, as shown by enzyme activity assays. The introduction of only one of the inhibition-insensitive CgAK mutations (here Q298G) into a wild-type C. glutamicum strain by homologous recombination resulted in an accumulation of 58 g/liter l-lysine within 30 h of fed-batch fermentation in a bioreactor. PMID:21531824

  4. A lysinated thiophene-based semiconductor as a multifunctional neural bioorganic interface.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Simone; Pistone, Assunta; Brucale, Marco; Karges, Saskia; Favaretto, Laura; Zambianchi, Massimo; Posati, Tamara; Sagnella, Anna; Caprini, Marco; Toffanin, Stefano; Zamboni, Roberto; Camaioni, Nadia; Muccini, Michele; Melucci, Manuela; Benfenati, Valentina

    2015-06-03

    Lysinated molecular organic semiconductors are introduced as valuable multifunctional platforms for neural cells growth and interfacing. Cast films of quaterthiophene (T4) semiconductor covalently modified with lysine-end moieties (T4Lys) are fabricated and their stability, morphology, optical/electrical, and biocompatibility properties are characterized. T4Lys films exhibit fluorescence and electronic transport as generally observed for unsubstituted oligothiophenes combined to humidity-activated ionic conduction promoted by the charged lysine-end moieties. The Lys insertion in T4 enables adhesion of primary culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which is not achievable by plating cells on T4. Notably, on T4Lys, the number on adhering neurons/area is higher and displays a twofold longer neurite length than neurons plated on glass coated with poly-l-lysine. Finally, by whole-cell patch-clamp, it is shown that the biofunctionality of neurons cultured on T4Lys is preserved. The present study introduces an innovative concept for organic material neural interface that combines optical and iono-electronic functionalities with improved biocompatibility and neuron affinity promoted by Lys linkage and the softness of organic semiconductors. Lysinated organic semiconductors could set the scene for the fabrication of simplified bioorganic devices geometry for cells bidirectional communication or optoelectronic control of neural cells biofunctionality. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stabilization of collagen with EDC/NHS in the presence of L-lysine: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Usha, R; Sreeram, K J; Rajaram, A

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effect of L-lysine on the conformational, rheological, and thermal properties of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross linked collagen and investigates the influence of l-lysine on the self assembly processes of collagen. In the absence of L-lysine, the rheological characterization of collagen cross linked with EDC/NHS showed an increase in shearing stress with shearing speed indicating that the collagen chains become rigid and the molecules are reluctant to flow. On the other hand, the increase in shearing stress with shearing speed is comparatively much less in the presence of L-lysine indicating a greater flexibility of the collagen molecules. The self assembly processes of collagen treated with EDC/NHS in the absence and presence of L-lysine were characterized using powder XRD, FT-IR, polarizing optical microscopy and kinetic studies. XRD studies show an increase in peak intensity and sharpness in the presence of L-lysine indicating the enhancement of crystallinity of collagen nano-fibrils. FT-IR results suggest that the incorporation of L-lysine in the EDC/NHS cross linking favors the molecular stability of collagen. From the present study, it is possible to conclude that the pre-treatment of collagen with L-lysine enhances EDC/NHS cross linking and can be used for biomaterial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of increasing lysine on further processed product characteristics from immunologically castrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Clark, D L; Baer, A A; Meeuwse, D M; King, V L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if increasing lysine in the diets of immunologically castrated (IC) male pigs would affect further processed product characteristics when compared with physical castrates or entire males. Raw materials for this experiment were derived from a previous experiment evaluating carcass characteristics. Physical castrates, IC males, and entire males were assigned to 1 of 4 diet programs with increasing lysine in a step-down lysine inclusion program that culminated with the following concentrations in the late finishing diet: physical castrate with low lysine (0.7%), IC with low lysine (0.7%), IC with low/medium lysine (0.8%), IC with medium/high lysine (0.9%), IC with high lysine (1.0%), and entire with high lysine (1.0%). Bellies were injected with a cure solution to a target of 110% of original green weight, and weighed again to determine brine uptake. Hams were injected with same cure solution to a target of 130% of green weight. Cure solution was formulated for a finished product inclusion of 1.5% salt, 0.34% phosphate, 0.05% sodium erythorbate, 0.11% sugar, and 0.014% sodium nitrate. Physical castrates had thicker (3.77 cm) bellies (P<0.05) than all treatment groups, except IC males fed low/medium lysine (3.73 cm). Entire males (2.85 cm) had the thinnest (P<0.05) bellies of all treatment groups. There were no differences (P>0.05) in percentage brine uptake for cured bellies among IC males regardless of dietary lysine (range 9.93 to 10.67%). Cooked yield of cured bellies was not different (P>0.05) among physical castrates or IC males regardless of lysine inclusion. Cooked yield of cured bellies from entire males (95.12%) was less (P<0.05) than cooked yield for any other treatment group. Pumped weight differences of cured hams among treatment groups were similar to green weight differences, and there were no differences (P>0.05) among any treatment groups for pump uptake percentage. There were also no differences in

  7. Lysine Deacetylases and Regulated Glycolysis in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Cheng, Catherine Youting; Das Gupta, Kaustav; Singhal, Amit; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    Regulated cellular metabolism has emerged as a fundamental process controlling macrophage functions, but there is still much to uncover about the precise signaling mechanisms involved. Lysine acetylation regulates the activity, stability, and/or localization of metabolic enzymes, as well as inflammatory responses, in macrophages. Two protein families, the classical zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the NAD-dependent HDACs (sirtuins, SIRTs), mediate lysine deacetylation. We describe here mechanisms by which classical HDACs and SIRTs directly regulate specific glycolytic enzymes, as well as evidence that links these protein deacetylases to the regulation of glycolysis-related genes. In these contexts, we discuss HDACs and SIRTs as key control points for regulating immunometabolism and inflammatory outputs from macrophages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural and transcriptional analysis of plant genes encoding the bifunctional lysine ketoglutarate reductase saccharopine dehydrogenase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Olin D; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Gu, Yong Q; Heath, Sekou

    2010-06-16

    Among the dietary essential amino acids, the most severely limiting in the cereals is lysine. Since cereals make up half of the human diet, lysine limitation has quality/nutritional consequences. The breakdown of lysine is controlled mainly by the catabolic bifunctional enzyme lysine ketoglutarate reductase - saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH). The LKR/SDH gene has been reported to produce transcripts for the bifunctional enzyme and separate monofunctional transcripts. In addition to lysine metabolism, this gene has been implicated in a number of metabolic and developmental pathways, which along with its production of multiple transcript types and complex exon/intron structure suggest an important node in plant metabolism. Understanding more about the LKR/SDH gene is thus interesting both from applied standpoint and for basic plant metabolism. The current report describes a wheat genomic fragment containing an LKR/SDH gene and adjacent genes. The wheat LKR/SDH genomic segment was found to originate from the A-genome of wheat, and EST analysis indicates all three LKR/SDH genes in hexaploid wheat are transcriptionally active. A comparison of a set of plant LKR/SDH genes suggests regions of greater sequence conservation likely related to critical enzymatic functions and metabolic controls. Although most plants contain only a single LKR/SDH gene per genome, poplar contains at least two functional bifunctional genes in addition to a monofunctional LKR gene. Analysis of ESTs finds evidence for monofunctional LKR transcripts in switchgrass, and monofunctional SDH transcripts in wheat, Brachypodium, and poplar. The analysis of a wheat LKR/SDH gene and comparative structural and functional analyses among available plant genes provides new information on this important gene. Both the structure of the LKR/SDH gene and the immediately adjacent genes show lineage-specific differences between monocots and dicots, and findings suggest variation in activity of LKR/SDH genes

  9. Histone Lysine Methylation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Jang Ho; Lee, Im-Soon; Lee, Sung Bae; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2017-06-30

    Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis. However, given the functional diversity and complexity of histone methylation within the cell, the study of the molecular basis of histone methylation-related neurodevelopmental disorders is currently still in its infancy. Here, we review the latest studies that revealed the pathological implications of alterations in histone methylation status in the context of various neurodevelopmental disorders and propose possible therapeutic application of epigenetic compounds regulating histone methylation status for the treatment of these diseases.

  10. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Naijin; Chen, Guanqun; Liu, Hui

    2017-11-27

    In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  11. SIRT2 and lysine fatty acylation regulate the transforming activity of K-Ras4a

    PubMed Central

    Wisner, Stephanie A; Chen, Xiao; Spiegelman, Nicole A; Linder, Maurine E

    2017-01-01

    Ras proteins play vital roles in numerous biological processes and Ras mutations are found in many human tumors. Understanding how Ras proteins are regulated is important for elucidating cell signaling pathways and identifying new targets for treating human diseases. Here we report that one of the K-Ras splice variants, K-Ras4a, is subject to lysine fatty acylation, a previously under-studied protein post-translational modification. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), one of the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lysine deacylases, catalyzes the removal of fatty acylation from K-Ras4a. We further demonstrate that SIRT2-mediated lysine defatty-acylation promotes endomembrane localization of K-Ras4a, enhances its interaction with A-Raf, and thus promotes cellular transformation. Our study identifies lysine fatty acylation as a previously unknown regulatory mechanism for the Ras family of GTPases that is distinct from cysteine fatty acylation. These findings highlight the biological significance of lysine fatty acylation and sirtuin-catalyzed protein lysine defatty-acylation. PMID:29239724

  12. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA damage during glycation of lysine by methylglyoxal: assessment of vitamins in preventing damage.

    PubMed

    Suji, G; Sivakami, S

    2007-11-01

    Amino acids react with methylglyoxal to form advanced glycation end products. This reaction is known to produce free radicals. In this study, cleavage to plasmid DNA was induced by the glycation of lysine with methylglyoxal in the presence of iron(III). This system was found to produce superoxide as well as hydroxyl radicals. The abilities of various vitamins to prevent damage to plasmid DNA were evaluated. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate showed maximum protection, while pyridoxamine showed no protection. The protective abilities could be directly correlated to inhibition of production of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate exhibited low radical scavenging ability as evaluated by its TEAC, but showed maximum protection probably by interfering in free radical production. Pyridoxamine did not inhibit free radical production. Thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate, both showed protective effects albeit to different extents. Tetrahydrofolic acid showed better antioxidant activity than folic acid but was found to damage DNA by itself probably by superoxide generation.

  14. Efficacy and tolerance of lysine clonixinate versus paracetamol/codeine following inguinal hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, A R; Di Girolamo, G; Martí, M L

    1998-01-01

    In this study lysine clonixinate, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent with selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase in in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic studies, was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy clinical study versus paracetamol/codeine, in 151 patients with pain following inguinal hernioplasty. Patients were treated with one 125 mg tablet of lysine clonixinate or paracetamol/codeine (500 mg + 30 mg) administered at fixed doses every 4 h during 2 days. Controls were carried out 1, 2 and 4 h after the first intake of day 1 and day 2. Each control included assessment of pain at rest, when coughing, sitting and upon moderate pressure. Both treatment groups (lysine clonixinate, 77 patients and paracetamol/codeine, 74 patients) were comparable in terms of demographic and baseline pain intensities. Spontaneous pain was reduced significantly in both treatment groups from the 1st-h control. The following values were recorded in the lysine clonixinate group during day 1: baseline: 6.86 +/- 1.24; 1st h: 4.49 +/- 1.77; 2nd h: 2.96 +/- 1.74; 4th h: 2.23 +/- 1.51. The following values for the same group during day 2 were: predose: 1.70 +/- 1.64; 1st h: 1.16 +/- 1.17; 2nd h: 0.78 +/- 1.06; 4th h: 0.63 +/- 1.05. The paracetamol/codeine group revealed the following values: day 1: baseline: 6.72 +/- 1.22; 1st h: 4.57 +/- 1.72; 2nd h: 2.97 +/- 1.68; 4th h: 2.47 +/- 1.68 and day 2: predose: 2.02 +/- 1.57; 1st h: 1.32 +/- 1.23; 2nd h: 0.82 +/- 0.99; 4th h: 0.66 +/- 0.89. Reduction of pain induced by coughing, sitting and pressure showed similar behavior patterns. No significant differences between both treatment groups were encountered in terms of analgesic efficacy. Incidence of adverse effects was significantly higher in the paracetamol/codeine group (X2: p < 0.05): 11 out of 74 patients; three patients had to discontinue treatment. In the lysine clonixinate group four out of 77 patients showed side effects but these did

  15. Effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Fumika; Toyoshi, Masanari; Irie, Masakazu

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs fed feed made from food waste, including noodles and chocolate. Four dietary treatments, 2 levels of lysine/protein ratio (0.035 and 0.046) and 2 levels of fat (3.3% and 6.0%), were adapted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each diet for the finishing pigs contained the same levels of adequate crude protein (16%) and lysine (0.58-0.75%), and similar levels of high total digestible nutrients (90.2-92.6%). In total, 32 LWD pigs with an average body weight of 57.2 kg were assigned to 4 dietary groups. The pigs were slaughtered at about 115 kg. Growth performance was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Carcass characteristics were slightly influenced by the dietary fat level. As the dietary lysine/protein ratio decreased, the marbling score of Longissimus dorsi muscle increased and the intramuscular fat (IMF) increased from 6.82% to 9.46%. Marbling score was not significantly influenced by the dietary fat level. These results indicate that IMF increased without adverse effects on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality, when pigs were fed a diet with low lysine/protein ratio. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Self-degradation of tissue adhesive based on oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Naoki; Sugai, Hajime; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2014-11-26

    We have developed a low-toxicity bioadhesive based on oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine. Here, we report that the mechanical properties and degradation of this novel hydrogel bioadhesive can be controlled by changing the extent of oxidation of the dextran and the type or concentration of the anhydride species in the acylated poly-L-lysine. The dynamic moduli of the hydrogels can be controlled from 120 Pa to 20 kPa, suggesting that they would have mechanical compatibility with various tissues, and could have applications as tissue adhesives. Development of the hydrogel color from clear to brown indicates that the reaction between the dextran aldehyde groups and the poly-L-lysine amino groups may be induced by a Maillard reaction via Schiff base formation. Degradation of the aldehyde dextran may begin by reaction of the amino groups in the poly-L-lysine. The gel degradation can be ascribed to degradation of the aldehyde dextran in the hydrogel, although the aldehyde dextran itself is relatively stable in water. The oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine, and the degraded hydrogel showed low cytotoxicities. These findings indicate that a hydrogel consisting of oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine has low toxicity and a well-controlled degradation rate, and has potential clinical applications as a bioadhesive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation and kinetic evaluation of the reactions of hydroxymethylfurfural with amino and thiol groups of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2018-02-01

    In this study, reactions of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with selected amino acids (arginine, cysteine and lysine) were investigated in HMF-amino acid (high moisture) and Coffee-amino acid (low moisture) model systems at 5, 25 and 50°C. The results revealed that HMF reacted efficiently and effectively with amino acids in both high and low moisture model systems. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analyses of the reaction mixtures confirmed the formations of Michael adduct and Schiff base of HMF with amino acids. Calculated pseudo-first order reaction rate constants were in the following order; k Cysteine >k Arginine >k Lysine for high moisture model systems. Comparing to these rate constants, the k Cysteine decreased whereas, k Arginine and k Lysine increased under the low moisture conditions of Coffee-amino acid model systems. The temperature dependence of the rate constants was found to obey the Arrhenius law in a temperature range of 5-50°C under both low and high moisture conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    PubMed

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  19. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  20. GSH- and pH-responsive drug delivery system constructed by water-soluble pillar[5]arene and lysine derivative for controllable drug release.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuan; Li, Yan; Lin, Chen; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Leyong

    2015-04-21

    Novel GSH- and pH-responsive supramolecular vesicles constructed by an amphiphilic inclusion complex formed from water-soluble pillar[5]arene and lysine derivative have been successfully developed, which can efficiently encapsulate anticancer drug MTZ and show rapid MTZ-release in a simulated acidic tumor environment with high GSH concentration, and exhibit potent antitumor activity.

  1. Immunomodulation by chicken NK-lysin-derived peptide, c-NK2 on chicken macrophages and monocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin) is a homologue of human granulysin. Human granulysin is found in the cytolytic granules located in human natural killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core a-helical region of cNK-ly...

  2. Immunomodulation by chicken NK-Lysin-derived peptide, cNK-2 on chicken macrophages and monocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin) is a homologue of human granulysin. Human granulysin is found in the cytolytic granules located in human natural killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core a-helical region of cNK-ly...

  3. Purification and properties of fructosyl lysine oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum S-1F4.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Yoshida, N; Isogai, A; Tani, Y; Kato, N

    1995-03-01

    Fructosyl lysine oxidase (FLOD) was examined for its use in the enzymatic measurement of the level of glycated albumin in blood serum. To isolate microorganisms having such an enzyme activity, we used N epsilon-fructosyl N alpha-Z-lysine (epsilon-FL) as a sole nitrogen source in the enrichment culture medium. The isolated fungus, strain S-1F4, showed a high FLOD activity in the cell-free extract and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. FLOD was purified to an apparent homogeneity on SDS-PAGE. The molecular mass of the subunit was 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE and seemed to exist in a monomeric form. The enzyme had an absorption spectrum characteristic of a flavoprotein and the flavin was found to be covalently bound to the enzyme. The enzyme acted against N epsilon-fructosyl N alpha-Z-lysine and N alpha-fructosyl N epsilon-Z-lysine and showed specificity for fructosyl lysine residues.

  4. Physicochemical compatibility between ketoprofen lysine salt injections (OKi Fiale, PG060) and pharmaceutical products frequently used for combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, G; Gentile, M M; Bartolini, S; Anacardio, R

    2004-01-01

    Ketoprofen lysine salt (Oki Fiale, PG060) is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent frequently administered by intramuscular route in association regimen with other drugs, such as steroidal anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, local anaesthetic and anti-spastic drugs or vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical compatibility between ketoprofen lysine salt (Oki Fiale, PG060) and other injectable drugs frequently used in association. Physicochemical properties of ketoprofen lysine salt mixtures with different drugs, including colour, clarity, pH and drug content were observed or measured before and after (up to 3 hours) mixing at room temperature and under light protection. Results show that the association of Oki Fiale (PG060) with different drugs does not cause, up to three hours from mixing, any significant variation in the physicochemical parameters mentioned above. In conclusion, the results obtained demonstrated the physicochemical compatibility of Ketoprofen lysine salt (Oki Fiale, PG060) with several injectable drugs, except for Spasmex fiale (chemical incompatibility) and Xylocaina Astra 2% iniettabile mixed whit a volume ratio of 2/1 (physical incompatibility).

  5. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    DOE PAGES

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; ...

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue ismore » substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.« less

  6. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  7. Protein-membrane interaction and fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein to membranes. Support for a multistep process.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Laborde, Lisandro; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith; Córsico, Betina

    2006-05-19

    Fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) to phospholipid membranes occurs during protein-membrane collisions. Electrostatic interactions involving the alpha-helical "portal" region of the protein have been shown to be of great importance. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues in the alpha-helical region of IFABP was directly examined. A series of point mutants in rat IFABP was engineered in which the lysine positive charges in this domain were eliminated or reversed. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we analyzed the rates and mechanism of fatty acid transfer from wild type and mutant proteins to acceptor membranes. Most of the alpha-helical domain mutants showed slower absolute fatty acid transfer rates to zwitterionic membranes, with substitution of one of the lysines of the alpha2 helix, Lys27, resulting in a particularly dramatic decrease in the fatty acid transfer rate. Sensitivity to negatively charged phospholipid membranes was also reduced, with charge reversal mutants in the alpha2 helix the most affected. The results support the hypothesis that the portal region undergoes a conformational change during protein-membrane interaction, which leads to release of the bound fatty acid to the membrane and that the alpha2 segment is of particular importance in the establishment of charge-charge interactions between IFABP and membranes. Cross-linking experiments with a phospholipid-photoactivable reagent underscored the importance of charge-charge interactions, showing that the physical interaction between wild-type intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and phospholipid membranes is enhanced by electrostatic interactions. Protein-membrane interactions were also found to be enhanced by the presence of ligand, suggesting different collisional complex structures for holo- and apo-IFABP.

  8. Extraction and LC determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Pineros, I; Ballesteros, P; Lastres, J L

    2002-02-01

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-buffer phosphate pH 3.3. Detection was UV absorbance at 252 nm. The precision and accurately of the method were excellent. The established linearity range was 5-60 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.999). Microemulsions samples were dispersed with chloroform and extracted lysine clonixinate salt with water. This easy method employing chloroformic extraction has been done three times. The recovery of lysine clonixinate salt from spiked placebo and microemulsion were >90% over the linear range.

  9. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  10. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  11. The quantification of free Amadori compounds and amino acids allows to model the bound Maillard reaction products formation in soybean products.

    PubMed

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wiltafsky, Markus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2018-05-01

    The quantification of protein bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) is still a challenge in food chemistry. Protein hydrolysis is the bottleneck step: it is time consuming and the protein degradation is not always complete. In this study, the quantitation of free amino acids and Amadori products (APs) was compared to the percentage of blocked lysine by using chemometric tools. Eighty thermally treated soybean samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of free amino acids, free APs and the protein-bound markers of the Maillard reaction (furosine, Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine, Nε-(carboxyethyl)-l-lysine, total lysine). Results demonstrated that Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Correlated Component Regression (CCR) correctly estimated the percent of blocked lysine in a validation and prediction set. These findings indicate that the measure of free markers reflects the extent of protein damage in soybean samples and it suggests the possibility to obtain rapid information on the quality of the industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral lysine clonixinate in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, A V; Barbosa, J S; Cheim, C; Alves, L A

    2001-03-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has proven to be effective in various pain syndromes such as renal colic and muscular pain. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral LC compared to placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Sixty four patients with the diagnosis of migraine, according to the IHS criteria, were studied prospectively. Patients received LC or placebo once the headache reached moderate or severe intensity for 6 consecutive attacks. With regard to the moderate attacks, LC was superior than placebo after 1, 2 and 4 hours. The consumption of other rescue medications after 4 hours was significantly higher in the placebo group. With regard to the severe attacks, there was no difference between the active drug group and the placebo group concerning headache intensity and consumption of other rescue medications. We conclude that the NSAID lysine clonixinate is effective in treating moderately severe migraine attacks. It is not superior than placebo in treating severe migraine attacks.

  13. The effect of amino acids on the intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins in the neonatal rat

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, D. R.; Donnelly, H.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro preparation of 10-day-old rat intestine was used to examine the absorption of a number of amino acids and immunoglobulins. Evidence was obtained for the active absorption of alanine, leucine, methionine, histidine and lysine, but not for aspartic acid. A selective absorption of the homologous molecule was found in experiments where 131I-labelled rat and bovine IgG were presented to the ileum in 10-minute incubations. The greater uptake of rat IgG was unrelated to the relative rates of catabolism of the two molecules. Although the uptake of rat IgG was unaffected by 100 mM concentrations of neutral and acidic amino acids, the basic amino acids arginine and lysine significantly stimulated uptake. PMID:4854740

  14. Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 impairs methylation of histone H3 lysine 9

    PubMed Central

    LeRoy, Gary; Bua, Dennis J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Gozani, Or; Richard, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin is broadly compartmentalized in two defined states: euchromatin and heterochromatin. Generally, euchromatin is trimethylated on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) while heterochromatin contains the H3K9me3 mark. The H3K9me3 modification is added by lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) such as SETDB1. Herein, we show that SETDB1 interacts with its substrate H3, but only in the absence of the euchromatic mark H3K4me3. In addition, we show that SETDB1 fails to methylate substrates containing the H3K4me3 mark. Likewise, the functionally related H3K9 KMTs G9A, GLP and SUV39H1 also fail to bind and to methylate H3K4me3 substrates. Accordingly, we provide in vivo evidence that H3K9me2-enriched histones are devoid of H3K4me2/3 and that histones depleted of H3K4me2/3 have elevated H3K9me2/3. The correlation between the loss of interaction of these KMTs with H3K4me3 and concomitant methylation impairment leads to the postulate that at least these four KMTs require stable interaction with their respective substrates for optimal activity. Thus, novel substrates could be discovered via the identification of KMT interacting proteins. Indeed, we find that SETDB1 binds to and methylates a novel substrate, the inhibitor of growth protein ING2, while SUV39H1 binds to and methylates the heterochromatin protein HP1α. Thus, our observations suggest a mechanism of post-translational regulation of lysine methylation and propose a potential mechanism for the segregation of the biologically opposing marks, H3K4me3 and H3K9me3. Furthermore, the correlation between H3-KMTs interaction and substrate methylation highlights that the identification of novel KMT substrates may be facilitated by the identification of interaction partners. PMID:21124070

  15. Kinetic isotope effects reveal early transition state of protein lysine methyltransferase SET8

    PubMed Central

    Linscott, Joshua A.; Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Wang, Zhen; Senevirathne, Chamara; Bothwell, Ian R.; Blum, Gil; Luo, Minkui

    2016-01-01

    Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) catalyze the methylation of protein substrates, and their dysregulation has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. Accumulated evidence suggests that the reaction path of PKMT-catalyzed methylation consists of the formation of a cofactor(cosubstrate)–PKMT–substrate complex, lysine deprotonation through dynamic water channels, and a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) transition state for transmethylation. However, the molecular characters of the proposed process remain to be elucidated experimentally. Here we developed a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) method and corresponding mathematic matrix to determine precisely the ratios of isotopically methylated peptides. This approach may be generally applicable for examining the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) of posttranslational modifying enzymes. Protein lysine methyltransferase SET8 is the sole PKMT to monomethylate histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20) and its function has been implicated in normal cell cycle progression and cancer metastasis. We therefore implemented the MS-based method to measure KIEs and binding isotope effects (BIEs) of the cofactor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) for SET8-catalyzed H4K20 monomethylation. A primary intrinsic 13C KIE of 1.04, an inverse intrinsic α-secondary CD3 KIE of 0.90, and a small but statistically significant inverse CD3 BIE of 0.96, in combination with computational modeling, revealed that SET8-catalyzed methylation proceeds through an early, asymmetrical SN2 transition state with the C-N and C-S distances of 2.35–2.40 Å and 2.00–2.05 Å, respectively. This transition state is further supported by the KIEs, BIEs, and steady-state kinetics with the SAM analog Se-adenosyl-l-selenomethionine (SeAM) as a cofactor surrogate. The distinct transition states between protein methyltransferases present the opportunity to design selective transition-state analog inhibitors. PMID

  16. Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production.

  17. Construction and enzymatic degradation of multilayered poly-l-lysine/DNA films.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kefeng; Ji, Jian; Shen, Jiacong

    2006-03-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was used to construct the enzymatic biodegradable multilayered films. The LbL build up of DNA multilayers was monitored by UV-vis spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM, UV-vis spectrometry and fluorescence spectrometry measurements indicated that 90% of DNA within the films was released almost linearly under 5 U mL(-1)alpha-chymotrypsin in PBS at 37 degrees C in 35 h. TEM and zeta potential experiments revealed that the released DNA molecules were condensed into the slight positive complexes with size from 20 to several hundred nanometers. The well-structured, easy processed enzymatic biodegradable multilayered film may have great potential for gene applications in tissue engineering, medical implants, etc.

  18. Determination of lysine content based on an in situ pretreatment and headspace gas chromatographic measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Lian; Yu, Teng; Yan, Ning; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Li, You-Ming; Chen, Guang-Xue

    2018-05-01

    This work reports on a simple method for the determination of lysine content by an in situ sample pretreatment and headspace gas chromatographic measurement (HS-GC) technique, based on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) formation from the pretreatment reaction (between lysine and ninhydrin solution) in a closed vial. It was observed that complete lysine conversion to CO 2 could be achieved within 60 min at 60 °C in a phosphate buffer medium (pH = 4.0), with a minimum molar ratio of ninhydrin/lysine of 16. The results showed that the method had a good precision (RSD < 5.23%) and accuracy (within 6.80%), compared to the results measured by a reference method (ninhydrin spectroscopic method). Due to the feature of in situ sample pretreatment and headspace measurement, the present method becomes very simple and particularly suitable to be used for batch sample analysis in lysine-related research and applications. Graphical abstract The flow path of the reaction and HS-GC measurement for the lysine analysis.

  19. Reversible Lysine Acetylation Regulates Activity of Human Glycine N-Acyltransferase-like 2 (hGLYATL2)

    PubMed Central

    Waluk, Dominik P.; Sucharski, Filip; Sipos, Laszlo; Silberring, Jerzy; Hunt, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins and regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, cell migration, aging, and inflammation. Proteomic studies have identified numerous lysine-acetylated proteins in human and mouse models (Kim, S. C., Sprung, R., Chen, Y., Xu, Y., Ball, H., Pei, J., Cheng, T., Kho, Y., Xiao, H., Xiao, L., Grishin, N. V., White, M., Yang, X. J., and Zhao, Y. (2006) Mol. Cell 23, 607–618). One family of proteins identified in this study was the murine glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT) enzymes, which are acetylated on lysine 19. Lysine 19 is a conserved residue in human glycine N-acyltransferase-like 2 (hGLYATL2) and in several other species, showing that this residue may be important for enzyme function. Mutation of lysine 19 in recombinant hGLYATL2 to glutamine (K19Q) and arginine (K19R) resulted in a 50–80% lower production of N-oleoyl glycine and N-arachidonoylglycine, indicating that lysine 19 is important for enzyme function. LC/MS/MS confirmed that Lys-19 is not acetylated in wild-type hGLYATL2, indicating that Lys-19 requires to be deacetylated for full activity. The hGLYATL2 enzyme conjugates medium- and long-chain saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoA esters to glycine, resulting in the production of N-oleoyl glycine and also N-arachidonoyl glycine. N-Oleoyl glycine and N-arachidonoyl glycine are structurally and functionally related to endocannabinoids and have been identified as signaling molecules that regulate functions like the perception of pain and body temperature and also have anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, acetylation of lysine(s) in hGLYATL2 regulates the enzyme activity, thus linking post-translational modification of proteins with the production of biological signaling molecules, the N-acyl glycines. PMID:22408254

  20. A comparison of DNA compaction by arginine and lysine peptides: A physical basis for arginine rich protamines

    PubMed Central

    DeRouchey, Jason; Hoover, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Protamines are small, highly positively charged peptides used to package DNA to very high densities in sperm nuclei. Tight DNA packing is considered essential to minimize DNA damage by mutagens and reactive oxidizing species. A striking and general feature of protamines is the almost exclusive use of arginine over lysine for the positive charge to neutralize DNA. We have investigated whether this preference for arginine might arise from a difference in DNA condensation by arginine and lysine peptides. The forces underlying DNA compaction by arginine, lysine, and ornithine peptides are measured using the osmotic stress technique coupled with x-ray scattering. The equilibrium spacings between DNA helices condensed by lysine and ornithine peptides are significantly larger than the interhelical distances with comparable arginine peptides. The DNA surface-to-surface separation, for example, is some 50% larger with poly-lysine compared to poly-arginine. DNA packing by lysine rich peptides in sperm nuclei would allow much greater accessibility to small molecules that could damage DNA. The larger spacing with lysine peptides is due to both a weaker attraction and a stronger short ranged repulsion relative to the arginine peptides. A previously proposed model for poly-arginine and protamine binding to DNA provides a convenient framework for understanding the differences between the ability of lysine and arginine peptides to assemble DNA. PMID:23540557

  1. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  2. A molecular rotor based ratiometric sensor for basic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M.; Singh, Prabhat K.

    2018-01-01

    The inevitable importance of basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, in human health and metabolism demands construction of efficient sensor systems for them. However, there are only limited reports on the 'ratiometric' detection of basic amino acids which is further restricted by the use of chemically complex sensor molecules, which impedes their prospect for practical applications. Herein, we report a ratiometric sensor system build on simple mechanism of disassociation of novel emissive Thioflavin-T H-aggregates from heparin surface, when subjected to interaction with basic amino acids. The strong and selective electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interaction of basic amino acids with heparin leads to large alteration in photophysical attributes of heparin bound Thioflavin-T, which forms a highly sensitive sensor platform for detection of basic amino acids in aqueous solution. These selective interactions between basic amino acids and heparin allow our sensor system to discriminate arginine and lysine from other amino acids. This unique mechanism of dissociation of Thioflavin-T aggregates from heparin surface provides ratiometric response on both fluorimetric and colorimetric outputs for detection of arginine and lysine, and thus it holds a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems which are restricted to single wavelength detection. Apart from the sensitivity and selectivity, our system also provides the advantage of simplicity, dual mode of sensing, and more importantly, it employs an inexpensive commercially available probe molecule, which is a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems that uses tedious synthesis protocol for the employed probe in the detection scheme, an impediment for practical applications. Additionally, our sensor system also shows response in complex biological media of serum samples.

  3. A molecular rotor based ratiometric sensor for basic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M; Singh, Prabhat K

    2018-01-05

    The inevitable importance of basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, in human health and metabolism demands construction of efficient sensor systems for them. However, there are only limited reports on the 'ratiometric' detection of basic amino acids which is further restricted by the use of chemically complex sensor molecules, which impedes their prospect for practical applications. Herein, we report a ratiometric sensor system build on simple mechanism of disassociation of novel emissive Thioflavin-T H-aggregates from heparin surface, when subjected to interaction with basic amino acids. The strong and selective electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interaction of basic amino acids with heparin leads to large alteration in photophysical attributes of heparin bound Thioflavin-T, which forms a highly sensitive sensor platform for detection of basic amino acids in aqueous solution. These selective interactions between basic amino acids and heparin allow our sensor system to discriminate arginine and lysine from other amino acids. This unique mechanism of dissociation of Thioflavin-T aggregates from heparin surface provides ratiometric response on both fluorimetric and colorimetric outputs for detection of arginine and lysine, and thus it holds a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems which are restricted to single wavelength detection. Apart from the sensitivity and selectivity, our system also provides the advantage of simplicity, dual mode of sensing, and more importantly, it employs an inexpensive commercially available probe molecule, which is a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems that uses tedious synthesis protocol for the employed probe in the detection scheme, an impediment for practical applications. Additionally, our sensor system also shows response in complex biological media of serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. LSD1 knockdown reveals novel histone lysine methylation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Huo, Bo; Fu, Xueqi; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Tian; Hu, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Histone lysine methylation, which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genome stability, chromosome conformation and cell differentiation, is a dynamic process that is collaboratively regulated by lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and lysine demethylases (KDMs). LSD1, the first identified KDMs, catalyzes the demethylation of mono- and di-methylated H3K4 and H3K9. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of LSD1 knockdown on histone methylations. Surprisingly, in addition to H3K4 and H3K9, the methylation level on other histone lysines, such as H3K27, H3K36 and H3K79, are also increased. The expression of SOX2, E-cadherin and FoxA2 are increased upon LSD1 knockdown, and the methylation level of H3K4, H3K27 and H3K36 in the promoter region of these genes are all changed after LSD1 knockdown. Our results show that LSD1 knockdown has a broad effect on histone lysine methylation, which indicates that LSD1 regulates histone lysine methylation in collaboration with other KMTs and KDMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The catalytic effect of L- and D-histidine on alanine and lysine peptide formation.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Daniel; Jakschitz, Thomas; Rode, Bernd M

    2008-12-01

    A starting phase of chemical evolution on our ancient Earth around 4 billion years ago was the formation of amino acids and their combination to peptides and proteins. The salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction has been shown to be appropriate for this condensation reaction under moderate and plausible primitive Earth conditions, forming short peptides from amino acids in aqueous solution containing sodium chloride and Cu(II) ions. In this paper we report results about the formation of dialanine and dilysine from their monomers in this reaction. The catalytic influence of l- and d-histidine dramatically increases dialanine yields when starting from lower alanine concentrations, but also dilysine formation is markedly boosted by these catalysts. Attention is paid to measurable preferences for one enantiomeric form of alanine and lysine in the SIPF reaction. Alanine, especially, shows stereospecific behaviour, mostly in favour of the l-form.

  6. C-terminal Lysine-Linked Magainin 2 with Increased Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lorenzón, Esteban N; Santos-Filho, Norival A; Ramos, Matheus A S; Bauab, Tais M; Camargo, Ilana L B C; Cilli, Eduardo M

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing problem of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the development of novel antimicrobial agents is a very important challenge. Dimerization of cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) is a potential strategy for enhancing antimicrobial activity. Here, we studied the effects of magainin 2 (MG2) dimerization on its structure and biological activity. Lysine and glutamic acid were used to synthesize the C- and N-terminal dimers of MG2, respectively, in order to evaluate the impact of linker position used to obtain the dimers. Both MG2 and its dimeric versions showed a random coil structure in aqueous solution. However, in the presence of a structure-inducing solvent or a membrane mimetic, all peptides acquired helical structure. N-terminal dimerization did not affect the biological activity of the peptide. On the other hand, the C-terminal dimer, (MG2)2K, showed antimicrobial activity 8-16 times higher than that of MG2, and the time required to kill Escherichia coli was lower. The enhanced antimicrobial activity was related to membrane permeabilization. (MG2)2K was also more active against multidrug-resistant bacteria of clinical origin. Overall, the results presented here demonstrate that C-terminal lysine-linked dimerization improve the activity of MG2, and (MG2)2K can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  7. Virucidal efficacy of glutaraldehyde against enteroviruses is related to the location of lysine residues in exposed structures of the VP1 capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Martine; Archimbaud, Christine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Gourgand, Jeanne-Marie; Charbonné, Françoise; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2004-03-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GTA) is a potent virucidal disinfectant whose exact mode of action against enteroviruses is not understood. Earlier reports showed that GTA reacts preferentially with the VP1 capsid protein of echovirus 25 and poliovirus 1 and that GTA has affinity for exposed lysine residues on proteins. To investigate further the inactivation of enteroviruses by GTA, seven strains were selected on the basis of differences in their overall number and the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequences of the VP1 polypeptide. Inactivation kinetics experiments were performed with 0.10% GTA. The viruses grouped into three clusters and exhibited significantly different levels of sensitivity to GTA. The results were analyzed in the light of current knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of enteroviruses and the viral life cycle. The differences observed in sensitivity to GTA were related to the number of lysine residues and their locations in the VP1 protein. The overall findings suggest that the BC and DE loops, which cluster at the fivefold axis of symmetry and are the most exposed on the outer surface of the virions, are primary reactive sites for GTA.

  8. Virucidal Efficacy of Glutaraldehyde against Enteroviruses Is Related to the Location of Lysine Residues in Exposed Structures of the VP1 Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chambon, Martine; Archimbaud, Christine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Gourgand, Jeanne-Marie; Charbonné, Françoise; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GTA) is a potent virucidal disinfectant whose exact mode of action against enteroviruses is not understood. Earlier reports showed that GTA reacts preferentially with the VP1 capsid protein of echovirus 25 and poliovirus 1 and that GTA has affinity for exposed lysine residues on proteins. To investigate further the inactivation of enteroviruses by GTA, seven strains were selected on the basis of differences in their overall number and the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequences of the VP1 polypeptide. Inactivation kinetics experiments were performed with 0.10% GTA. The viruses grouped into three clusters and exhibited significantly different levels of sensitivity to GTA. The results were analyzed in the light of current knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of enteroviruses and the viral life cycle. The differences observed in sensitivity to GTA were related to the number of lysine residues and their locations in the VP1 protein. The overall findings suggest that the BC and DE loops, which cluster at the fivefold axis of symmetry and are the most exposed on the outer surface of the virions, are primary reactive sites for GTA. PMID:15006797

  9. Incorporation of Amino Acids with Long-Chain Terminal Olefins into Proteins.

    PubMed

    Exner, Matthias P; Köhling, Sebastian; Rivollier, Julie; Gosling, Sandrine; Srivastava, Puneet; Palyancheva, Zheni I; Herdewijn, Piet; Heck, Marie-Pierre; Rademann, Jörg; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-02-29

    The increasing need for site-specific protein decorations that mimic natural posttranslational modifications requires access to a variety of noncanonical amino acids with moieties enabling bioorthogonal conjugation chemistry. Here we present the incorporation of long-chain olefinic amino acids into model proteins with rational variants of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS). Nε-heptenoyl lysine was incorporated for the first time using the known promiscuous variant PylRS(Y306A/Y384F), and Nε-pentenoyl lysine was incorporated in significant yields with the novel variant PylRS(C348A/Y384F). This is the only example of rational modification at position C348 to enlarge the enzyme's binding pocket. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of our chosen amino acids in the thiol-ene conjugation reaction with a thiolated polysaccharide.

  10. A model for protocellular coordination of nucleic acid and protein syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The proteinoid model for the coordination of protein synthesis with nucleic acid coding within the evolving protocell is discussed. Evidence for the self-ordering of amino acid chains, which would enhance the catalytic activity of a lysine-rich proteinoid, is presented, along with that for the preferential formation of microparticles, particularly proteinoid microparticles, in various solutions. Demonstrations of the catalytic activity of lysine-rich proteinoids in the synthesis of peptide and internucleotide bonds are pointed out. The view of evolution as a two stage sequence in which the geological synthesis of peptides evolved to the protocellular synthesis of peptides and oligonucleotides is discussed, and contrasted with the alternative view, in accord with the central dogma, that nucleic acids arose first then governed the production of proteins and protocells.

  11. Cadmium inhibits lysine acetylation and succinylation inducing testicular injury of mouse during development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiangzhen; Li, Peifei; Wen, Yi; Li, Sisi; Chen, Jun; Liu, Xurui; Wang, Lirui; Li, Xinhong

    2018-07-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) in the reproductive system have been confirmed, and lysine acetylation and succinylation play important roles in spermatogenesis. However, little attention determined whether Cd could affect lysine acylation and how it might have an impact on the reproductive system. Therefore, with the goal of contributing to this subject, we have examined the effects of Cd on lysine acetylation and succinylation of proteins in the germ cells of male mice testes during different developmental stages. We adopted intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride (1.2 mg/kg body weight) in mice once every 5 days from postnatal day 5-60. The results showed that Cd could restrict GAPDH activity, ATP and cAMP levels of germ cells to inhibit lysine acetylation and succinylation in the testes, inducing reproductive injuries. Cd also restricts acetylation of histone H4K5 and H4K12, which could result in failure of spermiogenesis. Remarkably, polarized acetylation occurs in meiosis, and high-level acetylation occurs earlier than high-level succinylation during spermatogenesis. Moreover, Cd has a limited effect on body weight but reduces the weight of the testis and litter size. Our research may provide a new way to reveal the mechanisms of Cd reproductive toxicity related to lysine acetylation and succinylation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Production of amino acids - Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-12-01

    The biotechnological production of amino acids occurs at the million-ton scale and annually about 6milliontons of l-glutamate and l-lysine are produced by Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. l-glutamate and l-lysine production from starch hydrolysates and molasses is very efficient and access to alternative carbon sources and new products has been enabled by metabolic engineering. This review focusses on genetic and metabolic engineering of amino acid producing strains. In particular, rational approaches involving modulation of transcriptional regulators, regulons, and attenuators will be discussed. To address current limitations of metabolic engineering, this article gives insights on recent systems metabolic engineering approaches based on functional tools and method such as genome reduction, amino acid sensors based on transcriptional regulators and riboswitches, CRISPR interference, small regulatory RNAs, DNA scaffolding, and optogenetic control, and discusses future prospects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein Complexation and pH Dependent Release Using Boronic Acid Containing PEG-Polypeptide Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Negri, Graciela E; Deming, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    New poly(L-lysine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) copolypeptides have been prepared, where the side-chain amine groups of lysine residues are modified to contain ortho-amine substituted phenylboronic acid, i.e., Wulff-type phenylboronic acid (WBA), groups to improve their pH responsive, carbohydrate binding properties. These block copolymers form nanoscale complexes with glycosylated proteins that are stable at physiological pH, yet dissociate and release the glycoproteins under acidic conditions, similar to those found in endosomal and lysosomal compartments within cells. These results suggest that WBA modified polypeptide copolymers are promising for further development as degradable carriers for intracellular protein delivery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparison of expression and enzymatic properties of Aspergillus oryzae lysine aminopeptidases ApsA and ApsB.

    PubMed

    Marui, Junichiro; Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2012-08-01

    The apsA and apsB genes encoding family M1 aminopeptidases were identified in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae. The apsB was transcriptionally up-regulated up to 2.5-fold in response to the deprivation of nitrogen or carbon sources in growth media, while up-regulation of apsA was less significant. The encoded proteins were bacterially expressed and purified to characterize their enzymatic properties. ApsA and ApsB were optimally active at pH 7.0 and 35 °C and stable at pH ranges of 6-10 and 4-10, respectively, up to 40 °C. The enzymes were inhibited by bestatin and EDTA, as has been reported for family M1 aminopeptidases that characteristically contain a zinc-binding catalytic motif. Both enzymes preferentially liberated N-terminal lysine, which is an essential amino acid and an important additive to animal feed. Enzymes that efficiently release N-terminal lysine from peptides could be useful for food and forage industries. Examination of the reactivity toward peptide substrate of varying length revealed that ApsB exhibited broader substrate specificity than ApsA although the reactivity of ApsB decreased as the length of peptide substrate decreased.

  15. Acid Evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 Eliminates Amino Acid Decarboxylases and Reregulates Catabolism.

    PubMed

    He, Amanda; Penix, Stephanie R; Basting, Preston J; Griffith, Jessie M; Creamer, Kaitlin E; Camperchioli, Dominic; Clark, Michelle W; Gonzales, Alexandra S; Chávez Erazo, Jorge Sebastian; George, Nadja S; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2017-06-15

    Acid-adapted strains of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 were obtained by serial culture in medium buffered at pH 4.6 (M. M. Harden, A. He, K. Creamer, M. W. Clark, I. Hamdallah, K. A. Martinez, R. L. Kresslein, S. P. Bush, and J. L. Slonczewski, Appl Environ Microbiol 81:1932-1941, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03494-14). Revised genomic analysis of these strains revealed insertion sequence (IS)-driven insertions and deletions that knocked out regulators CadC (acid induction of lysine decarboxylase), GadX (acid induction of glutamate decarboxylase), and FNR (anaerobic regulator). Each acid-evolved strain showed loss of one or more amino acid decarboxylase systems, which normally help neutralize external acid (pH 5 to 6) and increase survival in extreme acid (pH 2). Strains from populations B11, H9, and F11 had an IS 5 insertion or IS-mediated deletion in cadC , while population B11 had a point mutation affecting the arginine activator adiY The cadC and adiY mutants failed to neutralize acid in the presence of exogenous lysine or arginine. In strain B11-1, reversion of an rpoC (RNA polymerase) mutation partly restored arginine-dependent neutralization. All eight strains showed deletion or downregulation of the Gad acid fitness island. Strains with the Gad deletion lost the ability to produce GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and failed to survive extreme acid. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of strain B11-1 showed upregulated genes for catabolism of diverse substrates but downregulated acid stress genes (the biofilm regulator ariR , yhiM , and Gad). Other strains showed downregulation of H 2 consumption mediated by hydrogenases ( hya and hyb ) which release acid. Strains F9-2 and F9-3 had a deletion of fnr and showed downregulation of FNR-dependent genes ( dmsABC , frdABCD , hybABO , nikABCDE , and nrfAC ). Overall, strains that had evolved in buffered acid showed loss or downregulation of systems that neutralize unbuffered acid and showed altered regulation of

  16. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Yibchok-Anun, Sirintorn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by approximately 11.96-63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications.

  17. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives Inhibit Fructose-Mediated Protein Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Yibchok-anun, Sirintorn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by approximately 11.96–63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of Nɛ-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications. PMID:22408423

  18. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ran; Yang, Mingkun; Chen, Zhuo; Cheng, Zhongyi; Yi, Xingling; Li, Chongyang; He, Chenliu; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ge, Feng

    2015-02-06

    Cyanobacteria are the oldest known life form inhabiting Earth and the only prokaryotes capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) is a model cyanobacterium used extensively in research on photosynthesis and environmental adaptation. Posttranslational protein modification by lysine acetylation plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, its extent and function in cyanobacteria remain unexplored. Herein, we performed a global acetylome analysis on Synechocystis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and high accuracy LC-MS/MS analysis; identified 776 acetylation sites on 513 acetylated proteins; and functionally categorized them into an interaction map showing their involvement in various biological processes. Consistent with previous reports, a large fraction of the acetylation sites are present on proteins involved in cellular metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, many proteins involved in photosynthesis, including the subunits of phycocyanin (CpcA, CpcB, CpcC, and CpcG) and allophycocyanin (ApcA, ApcB, ApcD, ApcE, and ApcF), were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation may play regulatory roles in the photosynthesis process. Six identified acetylated proteins associated with photosynthesis and carbon metabolism were further validated by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Our data provide the first global survey of lysine acetylation in cyanobacteria and reveal previously unappreciated roles of lysine acetylation in the regulation of photosynthesis. The provided data set may serve as an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in cyanobacteria and facilitate the elucidation of the entire metabolic networks and photosynthesis process in this model cyanobacterium.

  19. Dextran hydrogels by crosslinking with amino acid diamines and their viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Naphtali A; Jitianu, Mihaela; Nunez, Greisly; Picard, Quentin; Wong, Madeline; Akpatsu, David; Negrin, Adam; Gharbaran, Rajendra; Lugo, Daniel; Shaker, Sundus; Jitianu, Andrei; Redenti, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Amine functionalized polysaccharide hydrogels such as those based on chitosan are widely examined as biomaterials. Here we set out to develop a facile procedure for developing such hydrogels by crosslinking dextran with amino acid diamines. The dextran-amino acid gels were formed by the addition of the amino acid diamines to a dextran and epichlorohydrin solution once it became homogeneous. This was demonstrated with three amino acid diamines, lysine, lysine methyl ester, and cystine dimethyl ester. Hydrogel networks with albumin entrapped were also demonstrated. These hydrogels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, rotational rheometry, swelling studies and cell biocompatibility analysis. These hydrogels showed the unexpected pH-responsive behavior of greater swelling at more basic pH, similar to that of an anionic hydrogel. This is uncharacteristic for amine functionalized gels as they typically exhibit cationic hydrogel behavior. All hydrogels showed similar biocompatibility to that of dextran crosslinked without amino acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-12-03

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents.

  1. A novel chimeric phage lysin with high in vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Díez-Martínez, Roberto; De Paz, Héctor D; García-Fernández, Esther; Bustamante, Noemí; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A; Menendez, Margarita; García, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant worldwide and new antimicrobials are urgently needed. Our aim was new chimeric phage endolysins, or lysins, with improved bactericidal activity by swapping the structural components of two pneumococcal phage lysozymes: Cpl-1 (the best lysin tested to date) and Cpl-7S. The bactericidal effects of four new chimeric lysins were checked against several bacteria. The purified enzymes were added at different concentrations to resuspended bacteria and viable cells were measured after 1 h. Killing capacity of the most active lysin, Cpl-711, was tested in a mouse bacteraemia model, following mouse survival after injecting different amounts (25-500 μg) of enzyme. The capacity of Cpl-711 to reduce pneumococcal biofilm formation was also studied. The chimera Cpl-711 substantially improved the killing activity of the parental phage lysozymes, Cpl-1 and Cpl-7S, against pneumococcal bacteria, including multiresistant strains. Specifically, 5 μg/mL Cpl-711 killed ≥7.5 log of pneumococcal R6 strain. Cpl-711 also reduced pneumococcal biofilm formation and killed 4 log of the bacterial population at 1 μg/mL. Mice challenged intraperitoneally with D39_IU pneumococcal strain were protected by treatment with a single intraperitoneal injection of Cpl-711 1 h later, resulting in about 50% greater protection than with Cpl-1. Domain swapping among phage lysins allows the construction of new chimeric enzymes with high bactericidal activity and a different substrate range. Cpl-711, the most powerful endolysin against pneumococci, offers a promising therapeutic perspective for the treatment of multiresistant pneumococcal infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fluorescent Phthalocyanine Assembly Distinguishes Chiral Isomers of Different Types of Amino Acids and Sugars.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuying; Liu, Chenxi; Wang, Xiqian; Wang, Tianyu; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2017-07-25

    The functions of some natural supramolecular architectures, such as ribosomes, are dependent on the recognition of different types of chiral biomolecules. However, the recognition of different types of chiral molecules (multiobject chiral recognition), such as amino acids and sugars, by independent and identically artificial supramolecular assembly, was rarely achieved. In this article, simple amphiphilic achiral phthalocyanine was found to form supramolecular chiral assemblies with charged water-soluble polymers upon host-guest interactions at the air/water interface. Among these systems, one identical phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly not only can distinguish enantiomers of different amino acids but also can recognize several epimers of monose. The chiral recognitions were achieved by comparing either the steady-state fluorescence intensity or fluorescence quenching rate of phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assemblies, before and after interaction with different small chiral molecules. It was demonstrated that the interactions between poly(l-lysine) and different small chiral molecules could change the aggregation of phthalocyanines. And the sensitivity of fluorescence and the excellent multiobject chiral recognition properties of the phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly are dependent on the subtle molecular packing mode and the cooperation of different noncovalent interactions.

  3. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cresyl Saligenin Phosphate, an Organophosphorus Toxicant, Makes Covalent Adducts with Histidine, Lysine and Tyrosine Residues of Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Liyasova, Mariya S.; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    CBDP (2-(2-cresyl)-4H-1-3-2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide) is a toxic organophosphorus compound. It is generated in vivo from tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a component of jet engine oil and hydraulic fluids. Exposure to TOCP was proven to occur on board aircraft by finding CBDP-derived phospho-butyrylcholinesterase in the blood of passengers. Adducts on BChE however do not explain the toxicity of CBDP. Critical target proteins of CBDP are yet to be identified. Our goal was to facilitate the search for the critical targets of CBDP by determining the range of amino acid residues capable of reacting with CBDP and characterizing the types of adducts formed. We used human albumin as a model protein. Mass spectral analysis of the tryptic digest of CBDP-treated human albumin revealed adducts on His-67, His-146, His-242, His-247, His-338, Tyr-138, Tyr-140, Lys-199, Lys-351, Lys-414, Lys-432, Lys-525. Adducts formed on tyrosine residues were different from those formed on histidines and lysines. Tyrosines were organophosphorylated by CBDP, while histidine and lysine residues were alkylated. This is the first report of an organophosphorus compound with both phosphorylating and alkylating properties. The hydroxybenzyl adduct on histidine is novel. The ability of CBDP to form stable adducts on histidine, tyrosine and lysine allows one to consider new mechanisms of toxicity from TOCP exposure. PMID:22793878

  5. Cresyl saligenin phosphate, an organophosphorus toxicant, makes covalent adducts with histidine, lysine, and tyrosine residues of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Liyasova, Mariya S; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2012-08-20

    CBDP [2-(2-cresyl)-4H-1-3-2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide] is a toxic organophosphorus compound. It is generated in vivo from tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a component of jet engine oil and hydraulic fluids. Exposure to TOCP was proven to occur on board aircraft by finding CBDP-derived phospho-butyrylcholinesterase in the blood of passengers. Adducts on BChE, however, do not explain the toxicity of CBDP. Critical target proteins of CBDP are yet to be identified. Our goal was to facilitate the search for the critical targets of CBDP by determining the range of amino acid residues capable of reacting with CBDP and characterizing the types of adducts formed. We used human albumin as a model protein. Mass spectral analysis of the tryptic digest of CBDP-treated human albumin revealed adducts on His-67, His-146, His-242, His-247, His-338, Tyr-138, Tyr-140, Lys-199, Lys-351, Lys-414, Lys-432, and Lys-525. Adducts formed on tyrosine residues were different from those formed on histidines and lysines. Tyrosines were organophosphorylated by CBDP, while histidine and lysine residues were alkylated. This is the first report of an organophosphorus compound with both phosphorylating and alkylating properties. The o-hydroxybenzyl adduct on histidine is novel. The ability of CBDP to form stable adducts on histidine, tyrosine, and lysine allows one to consider new mechanisms of toxicity from TOCP exposure.

  6. Proteomic profiling of maize opaque endosperm mutants reveals selective accumulation of lysine-enriched proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Kyla J.; Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced prolamin (zein) accumulation and defective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation occurs in maize opaque endosperm mutants opaque2 (o2), floury2 (fl2), defective endosperm*B30 (DeB30), and Mucronate (Mc), whereas other opaque mutants such as opaque1 (o1) and floury1 (fl1) are normal in these regards. This suggests that other factors contribute to kernel texture. A liquid chromatography approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics was used to compare non-zein proteins of nearly isogenic opaque endosperm mutants. In total, 2762 proteins were identified that were enriched for biological processes such as protein transport and folding, amino acid biosynthesis, and proteolysis. Principal component analysis and pathway enrichment suggested that the mutants partitioned into three groups: (i) Mc, DeB30, fl2 and o2; (ii) o1; and (iii) fl1. Indicator species analysis revealed mutant-specific proteins, and highlighted ER secretory pathway components that were enriched in selected groups of mutants. The most significantly changed proteins were related to stress or defense and zein partitioning into the soluble fraction for Mc, DeB30, o1, and fl1 specifically. In silico dissection of the most significantly changed proteins revealed novel qualitative changes in lysine abundance contributing to the overall lysine increase and the nutritional rebalancing of the o2 and fl2 endosperm. PMID:26712829

  7. Interaction of Sodium Hyaluronate with a Biocompatible Cationic Surfactant from Lysine: A Binding Study.

    PubMed

    Bračič, Matej; Hansson, Per; Pérez, Lourdes; Zemljič, Lidija F; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-11-10

    Mixtures of natural and biodegradable surfactants and ionic polysaccharides have attracted considerable research interest in recent years because they prosper as antimicrobial materials for medical applications. In the present work, interactions between the lysine-derived biocompatible cationic surfactant N(ε)-myristoyl-lysine methyl ester, abbreviated as MKM, and the sodium salt of hyaluronic acid (NaHA) are investigated in aqueous media by potentiometric titrations using the surfactant-sensitive electrode and pyrene-based fluorescence spectroscopy. The critical micelle concentration in pure surfactant solutions and the critical association concentration in the presence of NaHA are determined based on their dependence on the added electrolyte (NaCl) concentration. The equilibrium between the protonated (charged) and deprotonated (neutral) forms of MKM is proposed to explain the anomalous binding isotherms observed in the presence of the polyelectrolyte. The explanation is supported by theoretical model calculations of the mixed-micelle equilibrium and the competitive binding of the two MKM forms to the surface of the electrode membrane. It is suggested that the presence of even small amounts of the deprotonated form can strongly influence the measured electrode response. Such ionic-nonionic surfactant mixtures are a special case of mixed surfactant systems where the amount of the nonionic component cannot be varied independently as was the case for some of the earlier studies.

  8. Activation of neuronal Kv7/KCNQ/M-channels by the opener QO58-lysine and its anti-nociceptive effects on inflammatory pain in rodents.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bo-Chuan; Song, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Tian-Yang; Qi, Jin-Long; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Li, Gang; Wang, KeWei

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the activation of neuronal Kv7/KCNQ channels by a novel modified Kv7 opener QO58-lysine and to test the anti-nociceptive effects of QO58-lysine on inflammatory pain in rodent models. Assays including whole-cell patch clamp recordings, HPLC, and in vivo pain behavioral evaluations were employed. QO58-lysine caused instant activation of Kv7.2/7.3 currents, and increasing the dose of QO58-lysine resulted in a dose-dependent activation of Kv7.2/Kv7.3 currents with an EC50 of 1.2±0.2 μmol/L. QO58-lysine caused a leftward shift of the voltage-dependent activation of Kv7.2/Kv7.3 to a hyperpolarized potential at V1/2=-54.4±2.5 mV from V1/2=-26.0±0.6 mV. The half-life in plasma (t1/2) was derived as 2.9, 2.7, and 3.0 h for doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The absolute bioavailabilities for the three doses (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) of QO58-lysine (po) were determined as 13.7%, 24.3%, and 39.3%, respectively. QO58-lysine caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the licking times during phase II pain induced by the injection of formalin into the mouse hindpaw. In the Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model in rats, oral or intraperitoneal administration of QO58-lysine resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the paw withdrawal threshold, and the anti-nociceptive effect on mechanical allodynia could be reversed by the channel-specific blocker XE991 (3 mg/kg). Taken together, our findings show that a modified QO58 compound (QO58-lysine) can specifically activate Kv7.2/7.3/M-channels. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of QO58-lysine, which has improved bioavailability and a half-life of approximately 3 h in plasma, can reverse inflammatory pain in rodent animal models.

  9. Optimization of response surface and neural network models in conjugation with desirability function for estimation of nutritional needs of methionine, lysine, and threonine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mehri, Mehran

    2014-07-01

    The optimization algorithm of a model may have significant effects on the final optimal values of nutrient requirements in poultry enterprises. In poultry nutrition, the optimal values of dietary essential nutrients are very important for feed formulation to optimize profit through minimizing feed cost and maximizing bird performance. This study was conducted to introduce a novel multi-objective algorithm, desirability function, for optimization the bird response models based on response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The growth databases on the central composite design (CCD) were used to construct the RSM and ANN models and optimal values for 3 essential amino acids including lysine, methionine, and threonine in broiler chicks have been reevaluated using the desirable function in both analytical approaches from 3 to 16 d of age. Multi-objective optimization results showed that the most desirable function was obtained for ANN-based model (D = 0.99) where the optimal levels of digestible lysine (dLys), digestible methionine (dMet), and digestible threonine (dThr) for maximum desirability were 13.2, 5.0, and 8.3 g/kg of diet, respectively. However, the optimal levels of dLys, dMet, and dThr in the RSM-based model were estimated at 11.2, 5.4, and 7.6 g/kg of diet, respectively. This research documented that the application of ANN in the broiler chicken model along with a multi-objective optimization algorithm such as desirability function could be a useful tool for optimization of dietary amino acids in fractional factorial experiments, in which the use of the global desirability function may be able to overcome the underestimations of dietary amino acids resulting from the RSM model. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  11. Lysine acetylation stoichiometry and proteomics analyses reveal pathways regulated by sirtuin 1 in human cells.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Chiappe, Diego; Luna-Peñaloza, Juan; Fernandez-Reyes, Francis C; Arcos-Encarnación, Bolivar; Contreras, Sandra; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2017-11-03

    Lysine acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification affecting many biological pathways. Recent studies indicate that acetylated lysine residues mainly exhibit low acetylation occupancy, but challenges in sample preparation and analysis make it difficult to confidently assign these numbers, limiting understanding of their biological significance. Here, we tested three common sample preparation methods to determine their suitability for assessing acetylation stoichiometry in three human cell lines, identifying the acetylation occupancy in more than 1,300 proteins from each cell line. The stoichiometric analysis in combination with quantitative proteomics also enabled us to explore their functional roles. We found that higher abundance of the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) correlated with lower acetylation occupancy and lower levels of ribosomal proteins, including those involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 confirmed SIRT1's role in the regulation of pre-rRNA synthesis and processing. Specifically, proteins involved in pre-rRNA transcription, including subunits of the polymerase I and SL1 complexes and the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3, were up-regulated after SIRT1 inhibition. Moreover, many protein effectors and regulators of pre-rRNA processing needed for rRNA maturation were also up-regulated after EX-527 treatment with the outcome that pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA levels also increased. More generally, we found that SIRT1 inhibition down-regulates metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism. Together, these results provide the largest data set thus far of lysine acetylation stoichiometry (available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005903) and set the stage for further biological investigations of this central posttranslational modification. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Transcriptional regulation by the Set7 lysine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Samuel; El-Osta, Assam

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational histone modifications define chromatin structure and function. In recent years, a number of studies have characterized many of the enzymatic activities and diverse regulatory components required for monomethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and the expression of specific genes. The challenge now is to understand how this specific chemical modification is written and the Set7 methyltransferase has emerged as a key regulatory enzyme mediating methylation of lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. In this review, we comprehensively explore the regulatory proteins modified by Set7 and highlight mechanisms of specific co-recruitment of the enzyme to activating promoters. With a focus on signaling and transcriptional control in disease we discuss recent experimental data emphasizing specific components of diverse regulatory complexes that mediate chromatin modification and reinterpretation of Set7-mediated gene expression. PMID:23478572

  13. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors for G9a-Like Protein (GLP) Lysine Methyltransferase

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xiong, Yan; Li, Fengling; Babault, Nicolas

    G9a-like protein (GLP) and G9a are highly homologous protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) sharing approximately 80% sequence identity in their catalytic domains. GLP and G9a form a heterodimer complex and catalyze mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and nonhistone substrates. Although they are closely related, GLP and G9a possess distinct physiological and pathophysiological functions. Thus, GLP or G9a selective small-molecule inhibitors are useful tools to dissect their distinct biological functions. We previously reported potent and selective G9a/GLP dual inhibitors including UNC0638 and UNC0642. Here we report the discovery of potent and selective GLP inhibitors including 4 (MS0124) and 18more » (MS012), which are >30-fold and 140-fold selective for GLP over G9a and other methyltransferases, respectively. The cocrystal structures of GLP and G9a in the complex with either 4 or 18 displayed virtually identical binding modes and interactions, highlighting the challenges in structure-based design of selective inhibitors for either enzyme.« less

  14. Distance restraints from crosslinking mass spectrometry: Mining a molecular dynamics simulation database to evaluate lysine–lysine distances

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Eric D; Rysavy, Steven; Kahraman, Abdullah; Hafen, Ryan P; Daggett, Valerie; Adkins, Joshua N

    2014-01-01

    Integrative structural biology attempts to model the structures of protein complexes that are challenging or intractable by classical structural methods (due to size, dynamics, or heterogeneity) by combining computational structural modeling with data from experimental methods. One such experimental method is chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry (XL-MS), in which protein complexes are crosslinked and characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to pinpoint specific amino acid residues in close structural proximity. The commonly used lysine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents disuccinimidylsuberate (DSS) and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3) have a linker arm that is 11.4 Å long when fully extended, allowing Cα (alpha carbon of protein backbone) atoms of crosslinked lysine residues to be up to ∼24 Å apart. However, XL-MS studies on proteins of known structure frequently report crosslinks that exceed this distance. Typically, a tolerance of ∼3 Å is added to the theoretical maximum to account for this observation, with limited justification for the chosen value. We used the Dynameomics database, a repository of high-quality molecular dynamics simulations of 807 proteins representative of diverse protein folds, to investigate the relationship between lysine–lysine distances in experimental starting structures and in simulation ensembles. We conclude that for DSS/BS3, a distance constraint of 26–30 Å between Cα atoms is appropriate. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for the widespread practice of adding a tolerance to the crosslinker length when comparing XL-MS results to structures or in modeling. We also discuss the comparison of XL-MS results to MD simulations and known structures as a means to test and validate experimental XL-MS methods. PMID:24639379

  15. Amino acid levels in nascent metabolic syndrome: A contributor to the pro-inflammatory burden.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Priya; Leong, Joseph; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2018-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors characterized by low-grade inflammation which confers an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prior studies have linked elevated branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with T2DM and CVD. Due to the paucity of data in MetS, the aim of this study was to investigate the status of amino acids as early biomarkers of nascent MetS patients without T2DM and CVD or smoking. Healthy controls (n = 20) and MetS (n = 29) patients were recruited for the study. MetS was defined by criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III of having at least 3 risk factors. Urinary amino acids were quantified by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the Western NIH Metabolomics Center as expressed to urinary creatinine. Tyrosine and Isoleucine levels were significantly elevated in MetS patients. Isoleucine positively correlated with salient cardio-metabolic features and inflammatory biomarkers. Lysine and Methionine levels were decreased in MetS patients. Lysine correlated negatively with cardio-metabolic features and inflammatory bimarkers. Methionine also correlated negatively with blood pressure and certain inflammatory biomarkers. Our novel results suggest that with regards to the cardio-metabolic risk factors and pro-inflammatory features of MetS, isoleucine (BCAA) demonstrated a positive correlation while lysine demonstrated a negative correlation. Thus, increased levels of isoleucine and decreased levels of lysine could be potential early biomarkers of MetS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A highly active and negatively charged Streptococcus pyogenes lysin with a rare D-alanyl-L-alanine endopeptidase activity protects mice against streptococcal bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Lood, Rolf; Raz, Assaf; Molina, Henrik; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2014-06-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins have shown great efficacy in killing Gram-positive bacteria. PlyC, a group C streptococcal phage lysin, represents the most efficient lysin characterized to date, with a remarkably high specificity against different streptococcal species, including the important pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, PlyC is a unique lysin, in terms of both its high activity and structure (two distinct subunits). We sought to discover and characterize a phage lysin active against S. pyogenes with an endolysin architecture distinct from that of PlyC to determine if it relies on the same mechanism of action as PlyC. In this study, we identified and characterized an endolysin, termed PlyPy (phage lysin from S. pyogenes), from a prophage infecting S. pyogenes. By in silico analysis, PlyPy was found to have a molecular mass of 27.8 kDa and a pI of 4.16. It was active against a majority of group A streptococci and displayed high levels of activity as well as binding specificity against group B and C streptococci, while it was less efficient against other streptococcal species. PlyPy showed the highest activity at neutral pH in the presence of calcium and NaCl. Surprisingly, its activity was not affected by the presence of the group A-specific carbohydrate, while the activity of PlyC was partly inhibited. Additionally, PlyPy was active in vivo and could rescue mice from systemic bacteremia. Finally, we developed a novel method to determine the peptidoglycan bond cleaved by lysins and concluded that PlyPy exhibits a rare d-alanyl-l-alanine endopeptidase activity. PlyPy thus represents the first lysin characterized from Streptococcus pyogenes and has a mechanism of action distinct from that of PlyC. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. A Highly Active and Negatively Charged Streptococcus pyogenes Lysin with a Rare d-Alanyl-l-Alanine Endopeptidase Activity Protects Mice against Streptococcal Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Rolf; Raz, Assaf; Molina, Henrik; Euler, Chad W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins have shown great efficacy in killing Gram-positive bacteria. PlyC, a group C streptococcal phage lysin, represents the most efficient lysin characterized to date, with a remarkably high specificity against different streptococcal species, including the important pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, PlyC is a unique lysin, in terms of both its high activity and structure (two distinct subunits). We sought to discover and characterize a phage lysin active against S. pyogenes with an endolysin architecture distinct from that of PlyC to determine if it relies on the same mechanism of action as PlyC. In this study, we identified and characterized an endolysin, termed PlyPy (phage lysin from S. pyogenes), from a prophage infecting S. pyogenes. By in silico analysis, PlyPy was found to have a molecular mass of 27.8 kDa and a pI of 4.16. It was active against a majority of group A streptococci and displayed high levels of activity as well as binding specificity against group B and C streptococci, while it was less efficient against other streptococcal species. PlyPy showed the highest activity at neutral pH in the presence of calcium and NaCl. Surprisingly, its activity was not affected by the presence of the group A-specific carbohydrate, while the activity of PlyC was partly inhibited. Additionally, PlyPy was active in vivo and could rescue mice from systemic bacteremia. Finally, we developed a novel method to determine the peptidoglycan bond cleaved by lysins and concluded that PlyPy exhibits a rare d-alanyl-l-alanine endopeptidase activity. PlyPy thus represents the first lysin characterized from Streptococcus pyogenes and has a mechanism of action distinct from that of PlyC. PMID:24637688

  18. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type1) diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096

  19. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  20. Effect of feeding three lysine to energy diets on growth, body composition and age at puberty in replacement gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White×Landrace gilts (n =641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, ...

  1. Report: Bioconversion of agriculture waste to lysine with UV mutated strain of brevibacterium flavum and its biological evaluation in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Alia; Hashmi, Abu Saeed; Masood, Faiza; Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir; Tayyab, Muhammad; Nawab, Amber; Nadeem, Asif; Sadeghi, Zahra; Mahmood, Adeel

    2015-07-01

    Lysine executes imperative structural and functional roles in body and its supplementation in diet beneficial to prevent the escalating threat of protein deficiency. The physical mutagenesis offers new fascinating avenues of research for overproduction of lysine through surplus carbohydrate containing agriculture waste especially in developing countries. The current study was aimed to investigate the potential of UV mutated strain of Brevibacterium flavum at 254 nm for lysine production. The physical and nutritional parameters were optimized and maximum lysine production was observed with molasses (4% substrate water ratio). Moreover, supplementation of culture medium with metal cations (i.e. 0.4% CaSO₄, 0.3% NaCl, 0.3% KH₂PO₄, 0.4% MgSO₄, and 0.2% (NH₄) ₂SO₄w/v) together with 0.75% v/v corn steep liquor significantly enhanced the lysine production up to 26.71 ± 0.31 g/L. Though, concentrations of urea, ammonium nitrate and yeast sludge did not exhibit any profound effect on lysine production. Biological evaluation of lysine enriched biomass in terms of weight gain and feed conversion ratio reflected non-significant difference for experimental and control (+ve) groups. Conclusively, lysine produced in the form of biomass was compatible to market lysine in its effectiveness and have potential to utilize at commercial scale.

  2. Specialization of the paralogue LYS21 determines lysine biosynthesis under respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Héctor; Aranda, Cristina; DeLuna, Alexander; Hernández, Hugo; Calcagno, Mario L; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; González, Alicia

    2008-06-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first committed step of the lysine biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by two homocitrate synthases encoded by LYS20 and LYS21. We undertook a study of the duplicate homocitrate synthases to analyse whether their retention and presumable specialization have affected the efficiency of lysine biosynthesis in yeast. Our results show that during growth on ethanol, homocitrate is mainly synthesized through Lys21p, while under fermentative metabolism, Lys20p and Lys21p play redundant roles. Furthermore, results presented in this paper indicate that, in contrast to that which had been found for Lys20p, lysine is a strong allosteric inhibitor of Lys21p (K(i) 0.053 mM), which, in addition, induces positive co-operativity for alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) binding. Differential lysine inhibition and modulation by alpha-KG of the two isozymes, and the regulation of the intracellular amount of the two isoforms, give rise to an exquisite regulatory system, which balances the rate at which alpha-KG is diverted to lysine biosynthesis or to other metabolic pathways. It can thus be concluded that retention and further biochemical specialization of the LYS20- and LYS21-encoded enzymes with partially overlapping roles contributed to the acquisition of facultative metabolism.

  3. Amorphous Silica-Promoted Lysine Dimerization: a Thermodynamic Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Nishiuchi, Kumiko; Nishii, Akari; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played a crucial role in the abiotic polymerization of amino acids that preceded the origin of life. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where the prebiotic process took place on the primitive Earth, because the amino acid-mineral interaction and its dependence on environmental conditions have yet to be understood adequately. Here we examined experimentally the adsorption of L-lysine (Lys) and its dimer (LysLys) on amorphous silica over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, adsorbate concentration, and the solid/water ratio, and determined the reaction stoichiometries and the equilibrium constants based on the extended triple-layer model (ETLM). The retrieved ETLM parameters were then used, in combination with the equilibrium constant for the peptide bond formation in bulk water, to calculate the Lys-LysLys equilibrium in the presence of amorphous silica under various aqueous conditions. Results showed that the silica surface favors Lys dimerization, and the influence varies greatly with changing environmental parameters. At slightly alkaline pH (pH 9) in the presence of a dilute NaCl (1 mM), the thermodynamically attainable LysLys from 0.1 mM Lys reached a concentration around 50 times larger than that calculated without silica. Because of the versatility of the ETLM, which has been applied to describe a wide variety of biomolecule-mineral interactions, future experiments with the reported methodology are expected to provide a significant constraint on the plausible geological settings for the condensation of monomers to polymers, and the subsequent chemical evolution of life.

  4. Acid-base interactions and secondary structures of poly-L-lysine probed by 15N and 13C solid state NMR and Ab initio model calculations.

    PubMed

    Dos, Alexandra; Schimming, Volkmar; Tosoni, Sergio; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-12-11

    The interactions of the 15N-labeled amino groups of dry solid poly-L-lysine (PLL) with various halogen and oxygen acids HX and the relation to the secondary structure have been studied using solid-state 15N and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy (CP = cross polarization and MAS = magic angle spinning). For comparison, 15N NMR spectra of an aqueous solution of PLL were measured as a function of pH. In order to understand the effects of protonation and hydration on the 15N chemical shifts of the amino groups, DFT and chemical shielding calculations were performed on isolated methylamine-acid complexes and on periodic halide clusters of the type (CH3NH3(+)X(-))n. The combined experimental and computational results reveal low-field shifts of the amino nitrogens upon interaction with the oxygen acids HX = HF, H2SO4, CH3COOH, (CH3)2POOH, H3PO4, HNO3, and internal carbamic acid formed by reaction of the amino groups with gaseous CO2. Evidence is obtained that only hydrogen-bonded species of the type (Lys-NH2***H-X)n are formed in the absence of water. 15N chemical shifts are maximum when H is located in the hydrogen bond center and then decrease again upon full protonation, as found for aqueous solution at low pH. By contrast, halogen acids interact in a different way. They form internal salts of the type (Lys-NH3(+)X(-))n via the interaction of many acid-base pairs. This salt formation is possible only in the beta-sheet conformation. By contrast, the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes can occur both in beta-sheet domains as well as in alpha-helical domains. The 15N chemical shifts of the protonated ammonium groups increase when the size of the interacting halogen anions is increased from chloride to iodide and when the number of the interacting anions is increased. Thus, the observed high-field 15N shift of ammonium groups upon hydration is the consequence of replacing interacting halogen atoms by oxygen atoms.

  5. Plasma free amino acid kinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a bolus injection of 15N-labeled amino acids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jacob William; Yanke, Dan; Mirza, Jeff; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2011-02-01

    To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were determined for 15 amino acids. When corrected for metabolic rate, the R(d) values obtained for trout for most amino acids were largely comparable to human values, with the exception of glutamine (which was lower) and threonine (which was higher). R(d) values ranged from 0.9 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (lysine) to 22.1 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (threonine) with most values falling between 2 and 6 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between R(d) and the molar proportion of amino acids in rainbow trout whole body protein hydrolysate. Other kinetic parameters did not correlate significantly with whole body amino acid composition. This indicates that an important design feature of the plasma-free amino acids system involves proportional delivery of amino acids to tissues for protein synthesis.

  6. Prediction of lysine glutarylation sites by maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhe; He, Jian-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Lysine glutarylation is new type of protein acylation modification in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To better understand the molecular mechanism of glutarylation, it is important to identify glutarylated substrates and their corresponding glutarylation sites accurately. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named GlutPred is developed to predict glutarylation sites by using multiple feature extraction and maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection. On the one hand, amino acid factors, binary encoding, and the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs features are incorporated to encode glutarylation sites. And the maximum relevance minimum redundancy method and the incremental feature selection algorithm are adopted to remove the redundant features. On the other hand, a biased support vector machine algorithm is used to handle the imbalanced problem in glutarylation sites training dataset. As illustrated by 10-fold cross-validation, the performance of GlutPred achieves a satisfactory performance with a Sensitivity of 64.80%, a Specificity of 76.60%, an Accuracy of 74.90% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.3194. Feature analysis shows that some k-spaced amino acid pair features play the most important roles in the prediction of glutarylation sites. The conclusions derived from this study might provide some clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of glutarylation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The histone lysine demethylase Kdm6b is required for activity-dependent preconditioning of hippocampal neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Wijayatunge, Ranjula; Chen, Liang-Fu; Cha, Young May; Zannas, Anthony S.; Frank, Christopher L.; West, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes that regulate histone lysine methylation play important roles in neuronal differentiation, but little is known about their contributions to activity-regulated gene transcription in differentiated neurons. We characterized activity-regulated expression of lysine demethylases and lysine methyltransferases in the hippocampus of adult male mice following pilocarpine-induced seizure. Pilocarpine drove a 20-fold increase in mRNA encoding the histone H3 lysine27-specific demethylase Kdm6b selectively in granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and this induction was recapitulated in cultured hippocampal neurons by bicuculline and 4-aminopyridine (Bic+4AP) stimulation of synaptic activity. Because activity-regulated gene expression is highly correlated with neuronal survival, we tested the requirement for Kdm6b expression in Bic+4AP induced preconditioning of neuronal survival. Prior exposure to Bic+4AP promoted neuronal survival in control neurons upon growth factor withdrawal, however this effect was ablated when we knocked down Kdm6b expression. Loss of Kdm6b did not disrupt activity-induced expression of most genes, including that of a gene set previously established to promote neuronal survival in this assay. However using bioinformatic analysis of RNA sequencing data, we discovered that Kdm6b knockdown neurons showed impaired inducibility of a discrete set of genes annotated for their function in inflammation. These data reveal a novel function for Kdm6b in activity-regulated neuronal survival, and they suggest that activity- and Kdm6b-dependent regulation of inflammatory gene pathways may serve as an adaptive pro-survival response to increased neuronal activity. PMID:24983519

  8. Simple physics-based analytical formulas for the potentials of mean force of the interaction of amino-acid side chains in water. V. Like-charged side chains.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Mariusz; Liwo, Adam; Sobolewski, Emil; Scheraga, Harold A

    2011-05-19

    A new model of side-chain-side-chain interactions for charged side-chains of amino acids, to be used in the UNRES force-field, has been developed, in which a side chain consists of a nonpolar and a charged site. The interaction energy between the nonpolar sites is composed of a Gay-Berne and a cavity term; the interaction energy between the charged sites consists of a Lennard-Jones term, a Coulombic term, a generalized-Born term, and a cavity term, while the interaction energy between the nonpolar and charged sites is composed of a Gay-Berne and a polarization term. We parametrized the energy function for the models of all six pairs of natural like-charged amino-acid side chains, namely propionate-propionate (for the aspartic acid-aspartic acid pair), butyrate-butyrate (for the glutamic acid-glutamic acid pair), propionate-butyrate (for the aspartic acid-glutamic acid pair), pentylamine cation-pentylamine cation (for the lysine-lysine pair), 1-butylguanidine cation-1-butylguanidine cation (for the arginine-arginine pair), and pentylamine cation-1-butylguanidine cation (for the lysine-arginine pair). By using umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations in explicit TIP3P water, we determined the potentials of mean force of the above-mentioned pairs as functions of distance and orientation and fitted analytical expressions to them. The positions and depths of the contact minima and the positions and heights of the desolvation maxima, including their dependence on the orientation of the molecules were well represented by analytical expressions for all systems. The values of the parameters of all the energy components are physically reasonable, which justifies use of such potentials in coarse-grain protein-folding simulations. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; He, Ting; Yi, Ting; Yang, Ji-Ping; He, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Rutin exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and a number of plant-derived sources. Dietary sources containing rutin are considered beneficial because of their potential protective roles in multiple diseases related to oxidative stresses. In the present study, the change and antioxidation activity of rutin in Maillard reaction with lysine through a heating process were investigated. There is release of glucose and rhamnose that interact with lysine to give Maillard reaction products (MRPs), while rutin is converted to less-polar quercetin and a small quantity of isoquercitrin. Because of their high cell-membrane permeability, the rutin-lysine MRPs increase the free radical-scavenging activity in HepG2 cells, showing cellular antioxidant activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress higher than that of rutin. Furthermore, the MRPs significantly increased the Cu/Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and Cu/Zn SOD gene expression of HepG2 cells, consequently enhancing antioxidation activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the foundation layer on the layer-by-layer assembly of poly-L-lysine and poly(styrenesulfonate) and its usage in the fabrication of 3D microscale features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dejian; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batchelor, Matthew; Kang, Dae-Joon; Abell, Chris; Klenerman, David

    2004-10-12

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of a polypeptide, poly-L-lysine (PLL), with poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) on flat template-stripped gold (TSG) surfaces precoated with a self-assembled monolayer of alkanethiols terminated with positive (pyridinium), negative (carboxylic acid), and neutral [hexa(ethylene glycol)] groups is investigated. Both the topography and the rate of film thickness growth are found to be strongly dependent on the initial surface foundation layer. LBL assembly of PLL and PSS on patterned TSG surfaces produced by micro contact printing leads to structurally distinct microscale features, including pillars, ridges, and wells, whose height can be controlled with nanometer precision. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  11. Removal of acidic or basic α-amino acids in water by poorly water soluble scandium complexes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Jin, Shigeki; Ujihara, Tomomi

    2012-11-02

    To recognize α-amino acids with highly polar side chains in water, poorly water soluble scandium complexes with both Lewis acidic and basic portions were synthesized as artificial receptors. A suspension of some of these receptor molecules in an α-amino acid solution could remove acidic and basic α-amino acids from the solution. The compound most efficient at preferentially removing basic α-amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) was the receptor with 7,7'-[1,3-phenylenebis(carbonylimino)]bis(2-naphthalenesulfonate) as the ligand. The neutral α-amino acids were barely removed by these receptors. Removal experiments using a mixed amino acid solution generally gave results similar to those obtained using solutions containing a single amino acid. The results demonstrated that the scandium complex receptors were useful for binding acidic and basic α-amino acids.

  12. Aminoadipate semialdehyde synthase mRNA knockdown reduces the lysine requirement of a mouse hepatic cell line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    a-Aminoadipate d-semialdehyde synthase (AASS) is the bifunctional enzyme containing the lysine a-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase activities responsible for the first two steps in the irreversible catabolism of lysine. A rare disease in humans, familial hyperlysinemia, c...

  13. The Global Acetylome of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae V52 Reveals Lysine Acetylation of Major Transcriptional Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Jers, Carsten; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Lezyk, Mateusz; Sultan, Abida; Sjöling, Åsa; Wai, Sun N.; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes. PMID:29376036

  14. Endogenously Generated Plasmin at the Vascular Wall Injury Site Amplifies Lysine Binding Site-Dependent Plasminogen Accumulation in Microthrombi

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Tanaka-Murakami, Aki; Suzuki, Yuko; Sano, Hideto; Kanayama, Naohiro; Urano, Tetsumei

    2015-01-01

    The fibrinolytic system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hemostasis; however, it remains unclear how and when the system is triggered to induce thrombolysis. Using intra-vital confocal fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the process of plasminogen binding to laser-induced platelet-rich microthrombi generated in the mesenteric vein of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). The accumulation of GFP-expressing platelets as well as exogenously infused Alexa Fluor 568-labeled Glu-plasminogen (Glu-plg) on the injured vessel wall was assessed by measuring the increase in the corresponding fluorescence intensities. Glu-plg accumulated in a time-dependent manner in the center of the microthrombus, where phosphatidylserine is exposed on platelet surfaces and fibrin formation takes place. The rates of binding of Glu-plg in the presence of ε-aminocaproic acid and carboxypeptidase B, as well as the rates of binding of mini-plasminogen lacking kringle domains 1-4 and lysine binding sites, were significantly lower than that of Glu-plg alone, suggesting that the binding was dependent on lysine binding sites. Furthermore, aprotinin significantly suppressed the accumulation of Glu-plg, suggesting that endogenously generated plasmin activity is a prerequisite for the accumulation. In spite of the endogenous generation of plasmin and accumulation of Glu-plg in the center of microthrombi, the microthrombi did not change in size during the 2-hour observation period. When human tissue plasminogen activator was administered intravenously, Glu-plg further accumulated and the microthrombi were lysed. Glu-plg appeared to accumulate in the center of microthrombi in the early phase of microthrombus formation, and plasmin activity and lysine binding sites were required for this accumulation. PMID:25806939

  15. Amino acid-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles as safe and versatile gene delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagbir; Yang, Peng; Michel, Deborah; Verrall, Ronald E; Foldvari, Marianna; Badea, Ildiko

    2011-05-01

    Gene based therapy represents an important advance in the treatment of diseases that heretofore have had either no treatment or cure. To capitalize on the true potential of gene therapy, there is a need to develop better delivery systems that can protect these therapeutic biomolecules and deliver them safely to the target sites. Recently, we have designed and developed a series of novel amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants with the general chemical formula C(12)H(25) (CH(3))(2)N(+)-(CH(2))(3)-N(AA)-(CH(2))(3)-N(+) (CH(3))(2)-C(12)H(25) (AA= glycine, lysine, glycyl-lysine and, lysyl-lysine). These compounds were synthesized and tested in rabbit epithelial cells using a model plasmid and a helper lipid. Plasmid/gemini/lipid (P/G/L) nanoparticles formulated using these novel compounds achieved higher gene expression than the nanoparticles containing the parent unsubstituted compound. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of P/G/L nanoparticles and explored the relationship between transfection efficiency/toxicity and their physicochemical characteristics (such as size, binding properties, etc.). An overall low toxicity is observed for all complexes with no significant difference among substituted and unsubstituted compounds. An interesting result revealed by the dye exclusion assay suggests a more balanced protection of the DNA by the glycine and glycyl-lysine substituted compounds. Thus, the higher transfection efficiency is attributed to the greater biocompatibility and flexibility of the amino acid/peptide-substituted gemini surfactants and demonstrates the feasibility of using amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants as gene carriers for the treatment of diseases affecting epithelial tissue.

  16. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) ADG and G:F. In experiment 2, 90 piglets were housed three per pen and allocated to five dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The five diets contained 1.03%, 1.25%, 1.31%, 1.36% and 1.51% SID lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) G:F, linearly decreased (p < 0.05) day-14 PUN and quadratically (p < 0.05) increased ADG and ADFI. The ADG data from experiment 2 were subjected to linear and quadratic broken-lines regression analyses, and the SID lysine requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A lysine-to-arginine mutation on NEDD8 markedly reduces the activity of cullin RING E3 ligase through the impairment of neddylation cascades

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sui, Yiyan; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang, E-mail: gux2002@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-12

    Neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, which forms covalent conjugates on lysines of its substrates. This post-translational modification, neddylation, plays important roles in tumor cell proliferation and viability. Ubiquitin can form diverse polyubiquitin chains, on its seven lysines, which play important functions in various biological processes. However, the roles of lysines in NEDD8 have not been explored. Here, we generated nine NEDD8 point mutants, each with one lysine replaced by an arginine, to study the putative function of lysines in NEDD8. Our experiments discover that Lys27 in NEDD8 is a critical residue for protein neddylation. Replacement ofmore » this residue with arginine almost completely eliminates the conjugation of NEDD8 to its substrates. Furthermore, we find that the K27R mutant impairs NEDD8 conjugation to the E2 enzyme, which normally forms thioester bonds for further transferring NEDD8 to its ligases and substrates. Therefore, this mutation completely inhibits global protein neddylation, including neddylation of cullin family proteins, resulting in decreased activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. This work sheds new light on the roles of NEDD8 lysines on neddylation cascades and provides a dominant negative mutant for the study of neddylation and its biological functions. - Highlights: • Lys27 in NEDD8 is critical for protein neddylation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant impairs the NEDD8 conjugation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant significantly reduces the activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases.« less

  18. The Bromodomain of Gcn5 Regulates Site Specificity of Lysine Acetylation on Histone H3*

    PubMed Central

    Cieniewicz, Anne M.; Moreland, Linley; Ringel, Alison E.; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Raman, Ana; Gilbert, Tonya M.; Wolberger, Cynthia; Tackett, Alan J.; Taverna, Sean D.

    2014-01-01

    In yeast, the conserved histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Gcn5 associates with Ada2 and Ada3 to form the catalytic module of the ADA and SAGA transcriptional coactivator complexes. Gcn5 also contains an acetyl-lysine binding bromodomain that has been implicated in regulating nucleosomal acetylation in vitro, as well as at gene promoters in cells. However, the contribution of the Gcn5 bromodomain in regulating site specificity of HAT activity remains unclear. Here, we used a combined acid-urea gel and quantitative mass spectrometry approach to compare the HAT activity of wild-type and Gcn5 bromodomain-mutant ADA subcomplexes (Gcn5-Ada2-Ada3). Wild-type ADA subcomplex acetylated H3 lysines with the following specificity; H3K14 > H3K23 > H3K9 ≈ H3K18 > H3K27 > H3K36. However, when the Gcn5 bromodomain was defective in acetyl-lysine binding, the ADA subcomplex demonstrated altered site-specific acetylation on free and nucleosomal H3, with H3K18ac being the most severely diminished. H3K18ac was also severely diminished on H3K14R, but not H3K23R, substrates in wild-type HAT reactions, further suggesting that Gcn5-catalyzed acetylation of H3K14 and bromodomain binding to H3K14ac are important steps preceding H3K18ac. In sum, this work details a previously uncharacterized cross-talk between the Gcn5 bromodomain “reader” function and enzymatic HAT activity that might ultimately affect gene expression. Future studies of how mutations in bromodomains or other histone post-translational modification readers can affect chromatin-templated enzymatic activities will yield unprecedented insight into a potential “histone/epigenetic code.” MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001167. PMID:25106422

  19. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Aprotinin may increase mortality in low and intermediate risk but not in high risk cardiac surgical patients compared to tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid -- a meta-analysis of randomised and observational trials of over 30.000 patients.

    PubMed

    Meybohm, Patrick; Herrmann, Eva; Nierhoff, Julia; Zacharowski, Kai

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effect of aprotinin with the effect of lysine analogues (tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid) on early mortality in three subgroups of patients: low, intermediate and high risk of cardiac surgery. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational with the following data sources: Medline, Cochrane Library, and reference lists of identified articles. The primary outcome measure was early (in-hospital/30-day) mortality. The secondary outcome measures were any transfusion of packed red blood cells within 24 hours after surgery, any re-operation for bleeding or massive bleeding, and acute renal dysfunction or failure within the selected cited publications, respectively. Out of 328 search results, 31 studies (15 trials and 16 observational studies) included 33,501 patients. Early mortality was significantly increased after aprotinin vs. lysine analogues with a pooled risk ratio (95% CI) of 1.58 (1.13-2.21), p<0.001 in the low (n = 14,297) and in the intermediate risk subgroup (1.42 (1.09-1.84), p<0.001; n = 14,427), respectively. Contrarily, in the subgroup of high risk patients (n = 4,777), the risk for mortality did not differ significantly between aprotinin and lysine analogues (1.03 (0.67-1.58), p = 0.90). Aprotinin may be associated with an increased risk of mortality in low and intermediate risk cardiac surgery, but presumably may has no effect on early mortality in a subgroup of high risk cardiac surgery compared to lysine analogues. Thus, decisions to re-license aprotinin in lower risk patients should critically be debated. In contrast, aprotinin might probably be beneficial in high risk cardiac surgery as it reduces risk of transfusion and bleeding complications.

  1. In silico and in vitro studies of the reduction of unsaturated α,β bonds of trans-2-hexenedioic acid and 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid – Important steps towards biobased production of adipic acid

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Gunnar; Eriksson, Leif A.; Mapelli, Valeria

    2018-01-01

    The biobased production of adipic acid, a precursor in the production of nylon, is of great interest in order to replace the current petrochemical production route. Glucose-rich lignocellulosic raw materials have high potential to replace the petrochemical raw material. A number of metabolic pathways have been proposed for the microbial conversion of glucose to adipic acid, but achieved yields and titers remain to be improved before industrial applications are feasible. One proposed pathway starts with lysine, an essential metabolite industrially produced from glucose by microorganisms. However, the drawback of this pathway is that several reactions are involved where there is no known efficient enzyme. By changing the order of the enzymatic reactions, we were able to identify an alternative pathway with one unknown enzyme less compared to the original pathway. One of the reactions lacking known enzymes is the reduction of the unsaturated α,β bond of 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid and trans-2-hexenedioic acid. To identify the necessary enzymes, we selected N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli and Old Yellow Enzyme 1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus. Despite successful in silico docking studies, where both target substrates could fit in the enzyme pockets, and hydrogen bonds with catalytic residues of both enzymes were predicted, no in vitro activity was observed. We hypothesize that the lack of activity is due to a difference in electron withdrawing potential between the naturally reduced aldehyde and the carboxylate groups of our target substrates. Suggestions for protein engineering to induce the reactions are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the two metabolic pathways from lysine. We have highlighted bottlenecks associated with the lysine pathways, and proposed ways of addressing them. PMID:29474495

  2. High-level conversion of L-lysine into 5-aminovalerate that can be used for nylon 6,5 synthesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Oh, Young Hoon; Noh, Won; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Seungwoon; David, Yokimiko; Baylon, Mary Grace; Song, Bong Keun; Jegal, Jonggeon; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2014-10-01

    L-Lysine is a potential feedstock for the production of bio-based precursors for engineering plastics. In this study, we developed a microbial process for high-level conversion of L-lysine into 5-aminovalerate (5AVA) that can be used as a monomer in nylon 6,5 synthesis. Recombinant Escherichia coli WL3110 strain expressing Pseudomonas putida delta-aminovaleramidase (DavA) and lysine 2-monooxygenase (DavB) was grown to high density in fed-batch culture and used as a whole cell catalyst. High-density E. coli WL3110 expressing DavAB, grown to an optical density at 600 nm (OD600 ) of 30, yielded 36.51 g/L 5AVA from 60 g/L L-lysine in 24 h. Doubling the cell density of E. coli WL3110 improved the conversion yield to 47.96 g/L 5AVA from 60 g/L of L-lysine in 24 h. 5AVA production was further improved by doubling the L-lysine concentration from 60 to 120 g/L. The highest 5AVA titer (90.59 g/L; molar yield 0.942) was obtained from 120 g/L L-lysine by E. coli WL3110 cells grown to OD600 of 60. Finally, nylon 6,5 was synthesized by bulk polymerization of ϵ-caprolactam and δ-valerolactam prepared from microbially synthesized 5AVA. The hybrid system demonstrated here has promising possibilities for application in the development of industrial bio-nylon production processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamic Motion and Communication in the Streptococcal C1 Phage Lysin, PlyC

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Cyril F.; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Costa, Mauricio G. S.; Kass, Itamar; Jackson, Colin; Perahia, David; Buckle, Ashley M.; McGowan, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The growing problem of antibiotic resistance underlies the critical need to develop new treatments to prevent and control resistant bacterial infection. Exogenous application of bacteriophage lysins results in rapid and specific destruction of Gram-positive bacteria and therefore lysins represent novel antibacterial agents. The PlyC phage lysin is the most potent lysin characterized to date and can rapidly lyse Group A, C and E streptococci. Previously, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of PlyC, revealing a complicated and unique arrangement of nine proteins. The scaffold features a multimeric cell-wall docking assembly bound to two catalytic domains that communicate and work synergistically. However, the crystal structure appeared to be auto-inhibited and raised important questions as to the mechanism underlying its extreme potency. Here we use small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and reveal that the conformational ensemble of PlyC in solution is different to that in the crystal structure. We also investigated the flexibility of the enzyme using both normal mode (NM) analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Consistent with our SAXS data, MD simulations show rotational dynamics of both catalytic domains, and implicate inter-domain communication in achieving a substrate-ready conformation required for enzyme function. Our studies therefore provide insights into how the domains in the PlyC holoenzyme may act together to achieve its extraordinary potency. PMID:26470022

  4. General synthesis and physicochemical characterisation of a series of peptide-mimic lysine-based amino-functionalised lipids.

    PubMed

    Wölk, Christian; Drescher, Simon; Meister, Annette; Blume, Alfred; Langner, Andreas; Dobner, Bodo

    2013-09-16

    A series of novel malonic acid diamides (second generation) with two long hydrophobic alkyl chains and an alkaline polar head group was synthesised and characterised as a new class of amino-functionalised lipids. These peptide-mimic lipids are suitable for polynucleotide transfer. The lipids bear a novel backbone consisting of a lysine unit and a malonic acid unit. Six different head-group structures, which vary in size and number of amino groups that can be protonated, were attached to the backbone structure. Furthermore, different alkyl chains were used to build the lipophilic part (namely tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and oleyl). Phase transitions of the new compounds in aqueous dispersions at pH 10 were analysed and discussed in terms of head group and alkyl chain variations. The shape and size of the formed aggregates of selected lipid dispersions were investigated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Protein lysine-Nζ alkylation and O-phosphorylation mediated by DTT-generated reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nigam; Ippel, Hans; Weber, Christian; Hackeng, Tilman; Mayo, Kevin H

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in physiology and pathology. In this report, we use NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) to demonstrate that proteins (galectin-1, ubiquitin, RNase, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and lysozyme) under reducing conditions with dithiothreitol (DTT) become alkylated at lysine-Nζ groups and O-phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. These adduction reactions only occur in the presence of monophosphate, potassium, trace metals Fe/Cu, and oxygen, and are promoted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated via DTT oxidation. Superoxide mediates the chemistry, because superoxide dismutase inhibits the reaction, and hydroxyl and phosphoryl radicals are also likely involved. While lysine alkylation accounts for most of the adduction, low levels of phosphorylation are also observed at some serine and threonine residues, as determined by western blotting and MS fingerprinting. The adducted alkyl group is found to be a fragment of DTT that forms a Schiff base at lysine Nζ groups. Although its exact chemical structure remains unknown, the DTT fragment includes a SH group and a –CHOH–CH2– group. Chemical adduction appears to be promoted in the context of a well-folded protein, because some adducted sites in the proteins studied are considerably more reactive than others and the reaction occurs to a lesser extent with shorter, unfolded peptides and not at all with small organic molecules. A structural signature involving clusters of positively charged and other polar groups appears to facilitate the reaction. Overall, our findings demonstrate a novel reaction for DTT-mediated ROS chemistry with proteins. PMID:23315912

  6. Characterization of the Deoxyguanosine–Lysine Cross-Link of Methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is a mutagenic bis-electrophile that is produced endogenously from carbohydrate precursors. Methylglyoxal has been reported to induce DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) in vitro and in cultured cells. Previous work suggests that these cross-links are formed between guanine and either lysine or cysteine side chains. However, the chemical nature of the methylglyoxal induced DPC have not been determined. We have examined the reaction of methylglyoxal, deoxyguanosine (dGuo), and Nα-acetyllysine (AcLys) and determined the structure of the cross-link to be the N2-ethyl-1-carboxamide with the lysine side chain amino group (1). The cross-link was identified by mass spectrometry and the structure confirmed by comparison to a synthetic sample. Further, the cross-link between methylglyoxal, dGuo, and a peptide (AcAVAGKAGAR) was also characterized. The mechanism of cross-link formation is likely to involve an Amadori rearrangement. PMID:24801980

  7. Aprotinin May Increase Mortality in Low and Intermediate Risk but Not in High Risk Cardiac Surgical Patients Compared to Tranexamic Acid and ε-Aminocaproic Acid – A Meta-Analysis of Randomised and Observational Trials of over 30.000 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Herrmann, Eva; Nierhoff, Julia; Zacharowski, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background To compare the effect of aprotinin with the effect of lysine analogues (tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid) on early mortality in three subgroups of patients: low, intermediate and high risk of cardiac surgery. Methods and Findings We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational with the following data sources: Medline, Cochrane Library, and reference lists of identified articles. The primary outcome measure was early (in-hospital/30-day) mortality. The secondary outcome measures were any transfusion of packed red blood cells within 24 hours after surgery, any re-operation for bleeding or massive bleeding, and acute renal dysfunction or failure within the selected cited publications, respectively. Out of 328 search results, 31 studies (15 trials and 16 observational studies) included 33,501 patients. Early mortality was significantly increased after aprotinin vs. lysine analogues with a pooled risk ratio (95% CI) of 1.58 (1.13–2.21), p<0.001 in the low (n = 14,297) and in the intermediate risk subgroup (1.42 (1.09–1.84), p<0.001; n = 14,427), respectively. Contrarily, in the subgroup of high risk patients (n = 4,777), the risk for mortality did not differ significantly between aprotinin and lysine analogues (1.03 (0.67–1.58), p = 0.90). Conclusion Aprotinin may be associated with an increased risk of mortality in low and intermediate risk cardiac surgery, but presumably may has no effect on early mortality in a subgroup of high risk cardiac surgery compared to lysine analogues. Thus, decisions to re-license aprotinin in lower risk patients should critically be debated. In contrast, aprotinin might probably be beneficial in high risk cardiac surgery as it reduces risk of transfusion and bleeding complications. PMID:23483965

  8. Hydrogen bonding between phosphate and amino acid side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, P.; Rodriguez, M. L.

    1986-03-01

    Hydrogen bonds between polar groups of amino acid side chains (histidine, lysine, glutamic acid) and phosphate ions have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Proton transfer from amino acid groups to phosphate occur mainly in case that tribasic and dibasic phosphate ions take part in hydrogen bonds. Conformational changes and continuum are strongly related to the degree of proton transfer and hydration. It is pointed out that the aforementioned properties should be of great significance for nucleation and growth of prostatic and renal stones.

  9. THE USE OF RADIOACTIVE LYSINE IN STUDIES OF PROTEIN METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-01-01

    Racemic lysine labeled with C14 in the epsilon carbon position was fed to dogs. The distribution of C14 in blood and tissue fractions is recorded. In normal dogs sacrificed at 24 hours, approximately one-third of the C14 was found in the urine, one-third in expired air, and one-third in the body, mostly in protein, predomantly as lysine residues. The rate of C14 excretion as CO2, hour by hour, paralleled closely the amount of non-protein C14 in the blood plasma. The liver, kidney, pancreas, and spleen all have high values for C14 in 24 hour and 17 day experiments. The gastrointestinal tract is significantly high in the 24 hour experiments. Plasma protein from animals previously fed C14 containing lysine and thus in turn labeled, was transfused into other dogs and the rate of disappearance of albumin and globulin fractions from the circulation of the recipient dog followed. The results lead to the conclusion that as a whole, plasma proteins are utilized and replaced at a rate of at least 10 per cent per 24 hours. This minimum rate is substantially faster than turnover rates commonly accepted and emphasizes the rôle played by the plasma proteins in the protein economy of the body. The exact rate determination is made uncertain by the lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the amount of protein in solution in extracellular and lymph spaces and its rate of equilibrium with circulating plasma proteins. Evidence from these transfusion studies indicates that plasma globulin is metabolized at a significantly faster rate than plasma albumin. This is confirmed by the observation that following the feeding of labeled lysine to dogs, C14 is first incorporated in globulin in high concentration but that later it also disappears more rapidly from the globulin fraction. These data suggest that the period of bone marrow maturation of the red cell during which time its related hemoglobin is synthesized does not exceed 3 to 5 days. PMID:18140663

  10. Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches

    PubMed Central

    Koutmou, Kristin S; Schuller, Anthony P; Brunelle, Julie L; Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Djuranovic, Sergej; Green, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially impact protein synthesis: insertion of iterated AAA codons into an ORF diminishes protein expression more than insertion of synonymous AAG codons. Kinetic studies in E. coli reveal that differential protein production results from pausing on consecutive AAA-lysines followed by ribosome sliding on homopolymeric A sequence. Translation in a cell-free expression system demonstrates that diminished output from AAA-codon-containing reporters results from premature translation termination on out of frame stop codons following ribosome sliding. In eukaryotes, these premature termination events target the mRNAs for Nonsense-Mediated-Decay (NMD). The finding that ribosomes slide on homopolymeric A sequences explains bioinformatic analyses indicating that consecutive AAA codons are under-represented in gene-coding sequences. Ribosome ‘sliding’ represents an unexpected type of ribosome movement possible during translation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05534.001 PMID:25695637

  11. Interactions between Therapeutic Proteins and Acrylic Acid Leachable.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dengfeng; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Brems, David N; Ren, Da

    2012-01-01

    Leachables are chemical compounds that migrate from manufacturing equipment, primary containers and closure systems, and packaging components into biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical products. Acrylic acid (at concentration around 5 μg/mL) was detected as leachable in syringes from one of the potential vendors (X syringes). In order to evaluate the potential impact of acrylic acid on therapeutic proteins, an IgG 2 molecule was filled into a sterilized X syringe and then incubated at 45 °C for 45 days in a pH 5 acetate buffer. We discovered that acrylic acid can interact with proteins at three different sites: (1) the lysine side chain, (2) the N-terminus, and (3) the histidine side chain, by the Michael reaction. In this report, the direct interactions between acrylic acid leachable and a biopharmaceutical product were demonstrated and the reaction mechanism was proposed. Even thought a small amount (from 0.02% to 0.3%) of protein was found to be modified by acrylic acid, the modified protein can potentially be harmful due to the toxicity of acrylic acid. After being modified by acrylic acid, the properties of the therapeutic protein may change due to charge and hydrophobicity variations. Acrylic acid was detected to migrate from syringes (Vendor X) into a therapeutic protein solution (at a concentration around 5 μg/mL). In this study, we discovered that acrylic acid can modify proteins at three different sites: (1) the lysine side chain, 2) the N-terminus, and 3) the histidine side chain, by the Michael reaction. In this report, the direct interactions between acrylic acid leachable and a biopharmaceutical product were demonstrated and the reaction mechanism was proposed.

  12. Formation of peptides from amino acids by single or multiple additions of ATP to suspensions of nucleoproteinoid microparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of peptides from individual amino acids or pairs of amino acids and ATP in the presence of catalysis by nucleoproteinoid microparticles is investigated. Experiments were performed with suspensions formed from the condensation of lysine-rich and acidic proteinoids with polyadenylic acid, to which were added glycine, phenylalanine, proline, lysine or glycine-phenylalanine mixtures, and ATP either at once or serially. Peptide yields are found to be greatest for equal amounts of acidic and basic proteinoids. The addition of imidazole is found to alter the preference of glycine-phenylalanine mixtures to form mixed heteropeptides rather than homopeptides. A rapid ATP decay in the peptide synthesis reaction is observed, and a greater yield is obtained for repeated small additions than for a single addition of ATP. The experimental system has properties similar to modern cells, and represents an organizational unit ready for the evolution of associated biochemical pathways.

  13. Photochemical reaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen) with basic amino acids and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Shinoda, Mio; Osanai, Yohei; Isozaki, Tasuku

    2013-08-22

    Photoreaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen, KP) with basic amino acids (histidine, lysine, and arginine) and dipeptides (carnosine and anserine) including a histidine moiety in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) has been investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. With UV irradiation KP(-) gave rise to a carbanion through a decarboxylation reaction, and the carbanion easily abstracted a proton from the surrounding molecule to yield a 3-ethylbenzophenone ketyl biradical (EBPH). The dipeptides as well as the basic amino acids were found to accelerate the proton transfer reaction whereas alanine and glycine had no effect on the reaction, revealing that these amino acids having a protonated side chain act as a proton donor. The formation quantum yield of EBPH was estimated to be fairly large by means of an actinometrical method with benzophenone, and the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer between the carbanion and the protonated basic amino acids or the protonated dipeptides was successfully determined. It has become apparent that the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer depended on the acid dissociation constant for the side chain of the amino acids for the first time. This reaction mechanism was interpreted by difference of the heat of reaction for each basic amino acid based on the thermodynamical consideration. These results strongly suggest that the side chain of the basic amino acid residue in protein should play an important role for photochemistry of KP in vivo.

  14. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-05-01

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  15. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  16. Alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine: Formation of alpha-helical fibrils by poly-l-lysine.

    PubMed

    Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    The temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine (PLL), accompanied by the gauche-to-trans isomerization of CH 2 groups in the hydrocarbon side chains of Lys amino acid residues, and formation of β-sheet as well as α-helix fibrillar aggregates of PLL have been studied using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a low-temperature alkaline water solution or in a methanol-rich water mixture, the secondary structure of PLL is represented by α-helical conformations with unordered and gauche-rich hydrocarbon side chains. Under these conditions, PLL molecules aggregate into α-helical fibrils. PLLs dominated by extended antiparallel β-sheet structures with highly ordered trans-rich hydrocarbon side chains are formed in a high-temperature range at alkaline pD and aggregate into fibrillar, protofibrillar, and spherical forms. Presented data support the idea that fibrillar aggregation is a varied phenomenon possible in repetitive structural elements with not only a β-sheet-rich conformation, but also an α-helical-rich conformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Copolymers of poly-L-lysine with serine and tryptophan form stable DNA vectors: implications for receptor-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Valadés, A G; Molas, M; Vidal-Alabró, A; Bermúdez, J; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2005-01-20

    Inefficient gene transfer and poor stability in physiological medium are important shortcomings for receptor-mediated gene transfer vectors. Here, we evaluate vectors formulated with random copolymers of L-lysine/L-serine (3:1) and L-lysine/L-tryptophan (4:1), focusing on both their biophysical and functional characterization. By means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we demonstrate that poly-L-lysine (pK), poly-L-lysine-L-tryptophan (pKW) and poly-L-lysine-L-serine (pKS) are able to form compacted, small particles when mixed with plasmid DNA in the absence of salt. Upon dilution in physiological medium, copolymers of both lys/ser and lys/trp do not aggregate, in contrast with poly-L-lysine DNA complexes as determined by scattering, DLS and TEM measurements. Tight packing, as demonstrated by resistance to heparin, SDS and trypsin treatments, is also featured in tryptophan-containing complexes. Successful receptor-mediated endocytosis gene transfer using galactosylated copolymers into cells expressing the asiagloglycoprotein receptor correlated with lack of aggregation. Particles obtained using galactosylated poly-L-lysine-L-tryptophan (Gal-pKW) copolymer demonstrated specific receptor-mediated gene transfer since reporter gene activity dropped in the presence of an excess ligand in the culture medium during transfection. Although copolymers of galactosylated poly-L-lysine-L-serine (Gal-pKS) do not aggregate in the presence of salt, they are not able to internalize in a specific receptor-mediated endocytosis fashion. The introduction of bulky aromatic/hydrophobic (tryptophan) or hydrophillic (serine) moieties into the positively charged vectors allows the compacted particles to disperse into salt-containing medium avoiding salt-induced aggregation. Moreover, tryptophan-containing particles are able to mediate specific gene transfer via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  18. Improved safety and efficacy of 213Bi-DOTATATE-targeted alpha therapy of somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in mice pre-treated with L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho Sze; Konijnenberg, Mark W; Daniels, Tamara; Nysus, Monique; Makvandi, Mehran; de Blois, Erik; Breeman, Wouter A; Atcher, Robert W; de Jong, Marion; Norenberg, Jeffrey P

    2016-12-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers advantages over current β-emitting conjugates for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT with 177 Lu-DOTATATE or 90 Y-DOTATOC has shown dose-limiting nephrotoxicity due to radiopeptide retention in the proximal tubules. Pharmacological protection can reduce renal uptake of radiopeptides, e.g., positively charged amino acids, to saturate in the proximal tubules, thereby enabling higher radioactivity to be safely administered. The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of 213 Bi-DOTATATE with and without renal protection using L-lysine in mice. Tumor uptake and kinetics as a function of injected mass of peptide (range 0.03-3 nmol) were investigated using 111 In-DOTATATE. These results allowed estimation of the mean radiation absorbed tumor dose for 213 Bi-DOTATATE. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of 213 Bi-DOTATATE was determined in mice, in combination with renal protection. A dose escalation study with 213 Bi-DOTATATE was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with and without pre-administration of L-lysine as for renal protection. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) served as renal biomarker to determine kidney injury. The maximum mean radiation absorbed tumor dose occurred at 0.03 nmol and the minimum at 3 nmol. Similar mean radiation absorbed tumor doses were determined for 0.1 and 0.3 nmol with a mean radiation absorbed dose of approximately 0.5 Gy/MBq 213 Bi-DOTATATE. The optimal mass of injected peptide was found to be 0.3 nmol. Tumor uptake was similar for 111 In-DOTATATE and 213 Bi-DOTATATE at 0.3 nmol peptide. Lysine reduced the renal uptake of 213 Bi-DOTATATE by 50% with no effect on the tumor uptake. The MTD was <13.0 ± 1.6 MBq in absence of L-lysine and 21.7 ± 1.9 MBq with L-lysine renal protection, both imparting an LD 50 mean renal radiation absorbed dose of 20 Gy. A correlation was found between the

  19. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  20. Effect of lean growth genotype and dietary amino acid regimen on the lactational performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sauber, T E; Stahly, T S; Williams, N H; Ewan, R C

    1998-04-01

    The effect of dietary amino acid regimen and genetic capacity for lean tissue growth on the lactational performance of sows was determined in primiparous sows with a high (350 to 390 g/d) or low (240 to 280 g/d) genetic capacity for lean tissue growth from 18 to 110 kg of body weight. During lactation, sows were offered daily 6.5 kg of one of four fortified corn-soybean meal diets containing .58, .77, .96, and 1.15% lysine (L). Litters were standardized to 14 pigs within 8 h after birth. On d 2 of lactation, the high lean growth (LG) sows possessed more proteinaceous tissues and protein and less fat tissue and lipid. During lactation (d 2 to 28 postpartum), high LG sows consumed more feed, mobilized more body protein, and lost less body lipid. Milk, milk energy, and milk lysine yields (pooled across dietary regimens) were similar between genotypes. As daily dietary lysine intakes increased from 27 to 62 g and total digestible lysine supplies (from diet and mobilized tissues) increased from 39 to 68 g, daily yields of milk, milk energy, and milk lysine increased, but the magnitude of the response differed (P < .05) between genotypes, evidently because of differences in the ability of the high and low LG sows to mobilize energy from body tissue. Based on these data, the lactational capacities of high and low LG sows nursing 12 to 14 pigs are similar when similar supplies of lysine and energy are available from dietary intake and mobilized body tissue stores. When supplies of ME do not limit milk synthesis, daily digestible lysine intakes of at least 54 g (> or = 66 g from a corn-soy diet) are needed by these sows nursing litters of 12 to 14 pigs to support milk synthesis and minimize maternal protein losses. This is equivalent to a total digestible lysine need of 4.3 to 4.6 g/kg of milk produced. When ME provided by the diet is less than that needed to fuel maximum milk synthesis, however, the dietary amino acid needs of genetically lean sows may be reduced because

  1. Lysine succinylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (ICL) fine-tunes the microbial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingliang; Xie, Longxiang; Yang, Zhaozhen; Zhou, Jiahai; Xie, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Lysine succinylation (Ksucc) is a newly identified protein posttranslational modification (PTM), which may play an important role in cellular physiology. However, the role of lysine succinylation in antibiotic resistance remains elusive. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is crucial for broad-spectrum antibiotics tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously found that MtbICL (Rv0467) has at least three succinylated lysine residues, namely K189, K322, and K334.To explore the effect of succinylation on the activity of MtbICL, mutants' mimicry of the lysine succinylation were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. ICL-K189E mutant strain is more sensitive than the wild-type to rifampicin and streptomycin, but not isoniazid. For the in vitro activity of the purified isocitrate lyase, only K189E mutant showed significantly decreased activity. Crystal structure analysis showed that Lys189 Glu dramatically increased the pKa of Glu188 and decreased the pKa of Lys190, whereas had negligible effect on other residues within 5 Å as well as disruption of the electrostatic interaction between Lys189 and Glu182, which might prevent the closure of the active site loop and cause severe reduction of the enzyme activity. Considering the genetic, biochemical, and crystallographical evidences together, the succinylation of specific ICL residue can fine-tune the bacterial resistance to selected antibiotics. The decreased enzymatic activity resulting from the succinylation-changed electrostatic interaction might underlie this phenotype. This study provided the first insight into the link between lysine succinylation and antibiotic resistance.

  2. Chemical and structural biology of protein lysine deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIDA, Minoru; KUDO, Norio; KOSONO, Saori; ITO, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification that plays a fundamental role in regulating eukaryotic gene expression and chromatin structure/function. Key enzymes for removing acetyl groups from histones are metal (zinc)-dependent and NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs). The molecular function of HDACs have been extensively characterized by various approaches including chemical, molecular, and structural biology, which demonstrated that HDACs regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic homeostasis, and that their alterations are deeply involved in various human disorders including cancer. Notably, drug discovery efforts have achieved success in developing HDAC-targeting therapeutics for treatment of several cancers. However, recent advancements in proteomics technology have revealed much broader aspects of HDACs beyond gene expression control. Not only histones but also a large number of cellular proteins are subject to acetylation by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylation by HDACs. Furthermore, some of their structures can flexibly accept and hydrolyze other acyl groups on protein lysine residues. This review mainly focuses on structural aspects of HDAC enzymatic activity regulated by interaction with substrates, co-factors, small molecule inhibitors, and activators. PMID:28496053

  3. Exploration of the binding modes of buffalo PGRP1 receptor complexed with meso-diaminopimelic acid and lysine-type peptidoglycans by molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Dubey, Praveen Kumar; Goyal, Shubham; Bhoi, Gopal Krushna; Lenka, Santosh Kumar; Maharana, Jitendra; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; Kataria, Ranjit Singh

    2014-09-05

    The peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are the key components of innate-immunity, and are highly specific for the recognition of bacterial peptidoglycans (PGN). Among different mammalian PGRPs, the PGRP1 binds to murein PGN of Gram-positive bacteria (lysine-type) and also have bactericidal activity towards Gram-negative bacteria (diaminopimelic acid or Dap-type). Buffaloes are the major sources of milk and meat in Asian sub-continents and are highly exposed to bacterial infections. The PGRP activates the innate-immune signaling, but their studies has been confined to limited species due to lack of structural and functional information. So, to understand the structural constituents, 3D model of buffalo PGRP1 (bfPGRP1) was constructed and conformational and dynamics properties of bfPGRP1 was studied. The bfPGRP1 model highly resembled human and camel PGRP structure, and shared a highly flexible N-terminus and centrally placed L-shaped cleft. Docking simulation of muramyl-tripeptide, tetrapeptide, pentapeptide-Dap-(MTP-Dap, MTrP-Dap and MPP-Dap) and lysine-type (MTP-Lys, MTrP-Lys and MPP-Lys) in AutoDock 4.2 and ArgusLab 4.0.1 anticipated β1, α2, α4, β4, and loops connecting β1-α2, α2-β2, β3-β4 and α4-α5 as the key interacting domains. The bfPGRP1-ligand complex molecular dynamics simulation followed by free binding energy (BE) computation conceded BE values of -18.30, -35.53, -41.80, -25.03, -24.62 and -22.30 kJ mol(-1) for MTP-Dap, MTrP-Dap, MPP-Dap, MTP-Lys, MTrP-Lys and MPP-Lys, respectively. The groove-surface and key binding residues involved in PGN-Dap and Lys-type interaction intended by the molecular docking, and were also accompanied by significant BE values directed their importance in pharmacogenomics, and warrants further in vivo studies for drug targeting and immune signaling pathways exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lysine-Tryptophan-Crosslinked Peptides Produced by Radical SAM Enzymes in Pathogenic Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Schramma, Kelsey R; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R

    2017-04-21

    Macrocycles represent a common structural framework in many naturally occurring peptides. Several strategies exist for macrocyclization, and the enzymes that incorporate them are of great interest, as they enhance our repertoire for creating complex molecules. We recently discovered a new peptide cyclization reaction involving a crosslink between the side chains of lysine and tryptophan that is installed by a radical SAM enzyme. Herein, we characterize relatives of this metalloenzyme from the pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus suis. Our results show that the corresponding enzymes, which we call AgaB and SuiB, contain multiple [4Fe-4S] clusters and catalyze Lys-Trp crosslink formation in their respective substrates. Subsequent high-resolution-MS and 2D-NMR analyses located the site of macrocyclization. Moreover, we report that AgaB can accept modified substrates containing natural or unnatural amino acids. Aside from providing insights into the mechanism of this unusual modification, the substrate promiscuity of AgaB may be exploited to create diverse macrocyclic peptides.

  5. Transitional metaplasia in intestinal epithelium of rats submitted to intestinal cystoplasty and treatment with L -lysine.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alessandra Marques Dos; Coelho, Joao Paulo Ferreira; Juanes, Camila de Carvalho; Azevedo, Rafael Barbosa de; Diniz, Clara Araujo; Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine; Dornelas, Conceição Aparecida

    2017-04-01

    To evaluated the effects of L-lysine on the intestinal and urothelial epithelia in cystoplasty in rats. Twenty-eight 9-week-old rats were assigned to 4 groups: Group A (n=8) cystoplasty followed by administration of L-lysine (150 mg/kg body weight by gavage) for 30 weeks; Group B (n=8) cystoplasty + water for 30 weeks; Group C (n=6) L-lysine for 30 weeks; Group D (n=6) water for 30 weeks. On histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin, mild to moderate hyperplasia transitional was observed in at the site of anastomosis in all animals submitted to cystoplasty (Groups A and B), but "transitional metaplasia" of the intestinal glandular epithelium was more accentuated in Group A (p=0.045). No inflammatory cells, dysplasia or abnormalities were observed. Staining with Alcian blue revealed a substantial reduction of goblet cells and mucins in the colon segment (Groups A and B). The administration of L-lysine to rats accelerated the development of transitional metaplasia in the epithelium of the colon segment in cystoplasty.

  6. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B₁-lysine albumin biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Groopman, John D; Egner, Patricia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illustrates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori

    2012-10-03

    To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and γ-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile.

  8. Complexation des acides aminés basiques arginine, histidine et lysine avec l'ADN plasmidique en solution aqueuse : participation à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq Khalil, Talat; Taillefumier, Baptiste; Boulanouar, Omar; Mavon, Christophe; Fromm, Michel

    2016-09-01

    L'environnement chimique de l'ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d'histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l'ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l'ADN en situation d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg). Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ) lors d'expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé - ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV). A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l'ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l'ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg). Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d'interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l'ADN. La sp

  9. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Groopman, John D.; Egner, Patricia A.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A.; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illus trates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. PMID:25308602

  10. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Biodistribution and catabolism of 18F-labelled isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Hultsch, C; Bergmann, R; Pawelke, B; Pietzsch, J; Wuest, F; Johannsen, B; Henle, T

    2005-12-01

    Isopeptide bonds between the epsilon-amino group of lysine and the gamma-carboxamide group of glutamine are formed during strong heating of pure proteins or, more important, by enzymatic reaction mediated by transglutaminases. Despite the wide use of a microbial transglutaminase in food biotechnology, up to now little is known about the metabolic fate of the isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine. In the present study, N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate was used to modify N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine at each of its two alpha-amino groups, resulting in the 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoylated derivatives, for which biodistribution, catabolism, and elimination were investigated in male Wistar rats. A significant different biochemical behavior of the two labelled isopeptides was observed in terms of in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism as well as biodistribution. The results suggest that the metabolic fate of isopeptides is likely to be dependent on how they are reabsorbed - free or peptide bound.

  12. Chemical modification of lysine residues in lysozyme may dramatically influence its amyloid fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2010-04-01

    Studies on the aggregation of mutant proteins have provided new insights into the genetics of amyloid diseases and the role of the net charge of the protein on the rate, extent, and type of aggregate formation. In the present work, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was employed as the model protein. Acetylation and (separately) citraconylation were employed to neutralize the charge on lysine residues. Acetylation of the lysine residues promoted amyloid formation, resulting in more pronounced fibrils and a dramatic decline in the nucleation time. In contrast, citraconylation produced the opposite effect. In both cases, native secondary and tertiary structures appeared to be retained. Studies on the effect of pH on aggregation suggested greater possibilities for amorphous aggregate formation rather than fibrillation at pH values closer to neutrality, in which the protein is known to take up a conformation more similar to its native form. This is in accord with reports in the literature suggesting that formation of amorphous aggregates is more favored under relatively more native conditions. pH 5 provided a critical environment in which a mixture of amorphous and fibrillar structures were observed. Use of Tango and Aggrescan software which describe aggregation tendencies of different parts of a protein structure suggested critical importance of some of the lysine residues in the aggregation process. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of the net charge in control of protein-protein interactions leading to aggregate formation and possible specific roles of lysine residues 96 and 97. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products.

  14. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products. PMID:26620920

  15. In vitro and in vivo protein release and anti-ischemia/reperfusion injury properties of bone morphogenetic protein-2-loaded glycyrrhetinic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Fang; Liu, YuJuan; Jiang, Haiying; Tong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Here, we describe a bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) nanocarrier based on glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-poly(l-lysine) (PLL). A protein nanocarrier was synthesized, characterized and evaluated as a BMP-2 delivery system. The designed nanocarrier was synthesized based on the ring-opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydride. The final product was measured with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. GA-PEG-b-PLL nanocarrier could combine with BMP-2 through electrostatic interaction to form polyion complex (PIC) micelles. BMP-2 could be rapidly and efficiently encapsulated through the GA-PEG-b-PLL nanocarrier under physiological conditions, exhibiting efficient encapsulation and sustained release. In addition, the GA-PEG-b-PLL-mediated BMP-2 delivery system could target the liver against hepatic diseases as it has GA-binding receptors. The anti-hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (anti-HI/RI) effect of BMP-2/GA-PEG-b-PLL PIC micelles was investigated in rats using free BMP-2 and BMP-2/PEG-b-PLL PIC micelles as controls, and the results showed that BMP-2/GA-PEG-b-PLL PIC micelles indicated significantly enhanced anti-HI/RI property compared to BMP-2 and BMP-2/PEG-b-PLL. All results suggested that GA-PEG-b-PLL could be used as a potential BMP-2 nanocarrier. PMID:29089759

  16. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A; Gascoyne, Randy D; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-10-01

    The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma; however, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center involution and impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination. Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) and expression of a set of genes, including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor and B cell receptor signaling pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3 and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell-activating pathways.

  17. Effect of a new injectable male contraceptive on the seminal plasma amino acids studied by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Koel; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, N R; Guha, Sujoy K

    2002-09-01

    Effect of RISUG, a newly developed male contraceptive, on various amino acids of seminal plasma ejaculates was studied by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 400 MHz. Levels of amino acids were compared with the seminal plasma of obstructive azoospermia and controls. Glutamic acid, glutamine, and arginine were found to be high in concentration in human seminal plasma. The concentration of aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine, histidine, and phenylalanine in RISUG-injected subjects showed no significant difference compared to controls (p > 0.1); however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of these amino acids in obstructive azoospermia. The concentration of some prominent amino acids that showed overlapping resonances, such as isoleucine+leucine+valine (p < 0.01), alanine+isoleucine+lysine (p < 0.01), arginine+lysine+leucine (p < 0.01), and glutamic acid+glutamine (p < 0.01), showed a statistically significant decrease in RISUG-injected subjects compared to controls. Overlap of these amino acid resonances were noticed even at 600 MHz. In general, the total amino acids concentration in RISUG-injected subjects was found to be higher than in azoospermic subjects, confirming the occurrence of 'partial' obstructive azoospermia in subjects injected with this contraceptive.

  18. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol–Water Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water–ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine in water and ethanol mixtures and the solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, l-asparagine, l-glutamine, l-histidine, and l-leucine in pure ethanol systems were measured and are published here for the first time. The impact on the solubility of amino acids that can convert in solution, l-glutamic acid and l-cysteine, was studied. At lower concentrations, only the ninhydrin method and the ultraperfomance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method yield reliable results. In the case of α-amino acids that convert in solution, only the UPLC method was able to discern between the different α-amino acids and yields reliable results. Our results demonstrate that α-amino acids with similar physical structures have similar changes in solubility in mixed water/ethanol mixtures. The solubility of l-tryptophan increased at moderate ethanol concentrations. PMID:29545650

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of coarse-grained poly(L-lysine) dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ali; Amjad-Iranagh, Sepideh; Modarress, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    Poly(L-lysine) (PLL) dendrimer are amino acid based macromolecules and can be used as drug delivery agents. Their branched structure allows them to be functionalized by various groups to encapsulate drug agents into their structure. In this work, at first, an attempt was made on all-atom simulation of PLL dendrimer of different generations. Based on all-atom results, a course-grained model of this dendrimer was designed and its parameters were determined, to be used for simulation of three generations of PLL dendrimer, at two pHs. Similar to the all-atom, the coarse-grained results indicated that by increasing the generation, the dendrimer becomes more spherical. At pH 7, the dendrimer had larger size, whereas at pH 12, due to back folding of branching chains, they had the tendency to penetrate into the inner layers. The calculated radial probability and radial distribution functions confirm that at pH 7, the PLL dendrimer has more cavities and as a result it can encapsulate more water molecules into its inner structure. By calculating the moment of inertia and the aspect ratio, the formation of spherical structure for PLL dendrimer was confirmed.

  20. Crude protein and essential amino acid requirements in chicks during the first week posthatch.

    PubMed

    Sklan, D; Noy, Y

    2003-05-01

    1. This study examined optimal lysine and sulphur amino acid supply in the first week posthatch in broilers and the relationship between essential amino acids and dietary crude protein during the first week posthatch on performance at 7 d and through marketing. 2. The optimal supply during the 7 d posthatch using a 230 g/kg crude protein diet for sulphur amino acids was 9.1 and for lysine was 10.3-10.8 g/kg with maximal body weight (BW) or feed efficiency as the criteria. 3. Feeding diets with crude protein content ranging from 200 to 260 g/kg with either constant amounts of essential amino acids at different crude protein levels or constant ratios of essential amino acids to crude protein resulted in enhanced performance at 7 but not at 4 d with high protein intake and proportionally increased essential amino acids. 4. Performance on diets with crude protein ranging from 160 to 280 g/kg, with constant ratios of essential amino acid to crude protein, was much enhanced with the high crude protein diets at 7 d. All chicks were transferred to standard diets after 7 d and the BW advantage due to the balanced amino acid-high crude protein diet remained through marketing. 5. Thus increasing essential amino acids in a constant ratio to crude protein enhanced performance during the 7 d posthatch.

  1. C-terminal amino acid residue loss for deprotonated peptide ions containing glutamic acid, aspartic acid, or serine residues at the C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Yalcin, Talat; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2006-07-01

    Deprotonated peptides containing C-terminal glutamic acid, aspartic acid, or serine residues were studied by sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer with ion production by electrospray ionization (ESI). Additional studies were performed by post source decay (PSD) in a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) mass spectrometer. This work included both model peptides synthesized in our laboratory and bioactive peptides with more complex sequences. During SORI-CID and PSD, [M - H]- and [M - 2H]2- underwent an unusual cleavage corresponding to the elimination of the C-terminal residue. Two mechanisms are proposed to occur. They involve nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the adjacent residue by either the carboxylate group of the C-terminus or the side chain carboxylate group of C-terminal glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues. To confirm the proposed mechanisms, AAAAAD was labelled by 18O specifically on the side chain of the aspartic acid residue. For peptides that contain multiple C-terminal glutamic acid residues, each of these residues can be sequentially eliminated from the deprotonated ions; a driving force may be the formation of a very stable pyroglutamatic acid neutral. For peptides with multiple aspartic acid residues at the C-terminus, aspartic acid residue loss is not sequential. For peptides with multiple serine residues at the C-terminus, C-terminal residue loss is sequential; however, abundant loss of other neutral molecules also occurs. In addition, the presence of basic residues (arginine or lysine) in the sequence has no effect on C-terminal residue elimination in the negative ion mode.

  2. Lysines 72, 80 and 213 and aspartic acid 210 of the Lactococcus lactis LacR repressor are involved in the response to the inducer tagatose-6-phosphate leading to induction of lac operon expression.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, R J; Dechering, K J; Niek, C; Wilmink, J; de Vos, W M

    1993-02-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of the Lactococcus lactis lacR gene was performed to identify residues in the LacR repressor that are involved in the induction of lacABCDFEGX operon expression by tagatose-6-phosphate. A putative inducer binding domain located near the C-terminus was previously postulated based on homology studies with the Escherichia coli DeoR family of repressors, which all have a phosphorylated sugar as inducer. Residues within this domain and lysine residues that are charge conserved in the DeoR family were changed into alanine or arginine. The production of the LacR mutants K72A, K80A, K80R, D210A, K213A and K213R in the LacR-deficient L.lactis strain NZ3015 resulted in repressed phospho-beta-galactosidase (LacG) activities and decreased growth rates on lactose. Gel mobility shift assays showed that the complex between a DNA fragment carrying the lac operators and LacR mutants K72A, K80A, K213A and D210A did not dissociate in the presence of tagatose-6-phosphate, in contrast to wild type LacR. Other mutations (K62A/K63A, K72R, K73A, K73R, T212A, F214R, R216R and R216K) exhibited no gross effects on inducer response. The results strongly suggest that the lysines at positions 72, 80 and 213 and aspartic acid at position 210 are involved in the induction of lac operon expression by tagatose-6-phosphate.

  3. The reaction of iodobenzene-p-sulphonyl chloride (pipsyl chloride) with certain amino acids and peptides, and with insulin

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A system of separation using buffered Celite columns is described that enables the pipsyl derivatives of most of the common amino acids to be separated. 2. The reaction of pipsyl chloride with several amino acids not included in previous studies has been investigated. In particular, knowledge of the acid-soluble pipsyl derivatives of arginine, histidine, lysine, tyrosine and cysteic acid has been extended. 3. Reproducible factors have been obtained that enable corrections to be applied for the breakdown of pipsylamino acids on acid hydrolysis. 4. The reaction of pipsyl chloride with peptides has been studied under various conditions. 5. The extent of the reaction between pipsyl chloride and insulin depends on the nature of the solvent–buffer system, and under the best conditions so far found is about 75% complete. 6. In an Appendix, the separation of pipsylamino acids by thin-layer chromatography is described. PMID:16742498

  4. Seizures after open heart surgery: comparison of ε-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid.

    PubMed

    Martin, Klaus; Knorr, Jürgen; Breuer, Tamás; Gertler, Ralph; Macguill, Martin; Lange, Rüdiger; Tassani, Peter; Wiesner, Gunther

    2011-02-01

    Although the lysine analogs tranexamic acid (TXA) and aminocaproic acid (EACA) are used widely for antifibrinolytic therapy in cardiac surgery, relatively little research has been performed on their safety profiles, especially in the setting of cardiac surgery. Two antifibrinolytic protocols using either TXA or aminocaproic acid were compared according to postoperative outcome. A retrospective analysis. A university-affiliated hospital. Six hundred four patients undergoing cardiac surgery. One cohort of 275 consecutive patients received TXA; a second cohort of 329 consecutive patients was treated with EACA. Except for antifibrinolytic therapy, the anesthetic and surgical teams and their protocols remained unchanged. Besides major outcome criteria, namely postoperative bleeding, the need for allogeneic transfusions, operative revision because of bleeding, postoperative renal dysfunction, neurologic events, heart failure, and in-hospital mortality, the authors specifically sought differences between the groups concerning seizures. The 2 cohorts were comparable over a range of perioperative factors. Postoperative seizures occurred significantly more frequently in TXA patients (7.6% v 3.3%, p = 0.019), whereas EACA patients had a higher incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction (20.0% v 30.1%, p = 0.005). There were no differences in all other measured major outcome factors. Both lysine analogs are associated with significant side effects, which must be taken into account when performing risk-benefit analyses of their use. Their use should be restricted to patients at high risk for bleeding; routine use on low-risk patients undergoing standard surgeries should face renewed critical reappraisal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tarsal taste neuron activity and proboscis extension reflex in response to sugars and amino acids in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Feng; van Loon, Joop J A; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2010-08-15

    In adult female Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the fifth tarsomere of the prothoracic legs bears 14 gustatory trichoid chemosensilla. These chemosensilla were characterized through electrophysiological experiments by stimulating with sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, myo-inositol and 20 common amino acids. In electrophysiological recordings from nine sensilla, responses were obtained to certain compounds tested at 100 mmol l(-1), and the response spectra differed from broad to narrow. The four sugars excited the same receptor neuron in sensillum a and sensillum b; sucrose and myo-inositol, sucrose and lysine, myo-inositol and lysine excited two different receptor neurons respectively in sensillum a; fructose and lysine excited two different receptor neurons in sensillum n. Furthermore, the four sugars, myo-inositol and lysine all elicited concentration-dependent electrophysiological responses. These six compounds also induced the proboscis extension reflex (PER) followed by ingestion of the solution when they were applied on the tarsi. Lysine and sucrose caused the strongest electrophysiological responses. However, sucrose had the strongest stimulatory effect on the PER whereas lysine had the weakest. Mixtures of sucrose with the other sugars or with lysine had a similar stimulatory effect on the PER as sucrose alone. The electrophysiological and behavioural responses caused by a range of sucrose concentrations were positively correlated. We conclude that the tarsal gustatory sensilla play an essential role in perceiving sugars available in floral nectar and provide chemosensory information determining feeding behaviour. Tarsal taste-receptor-neuron responses to lysine are implicated in oviposition behaviour.

  6. Quantification of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Stoichiometry in Proteins Using Mass Spectrometric Data-Independent Acquisitions (SWATH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jesse G.; D'Souza, Alexandria K.; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modification of lysine residues by NƐ-acylation is an important regulator of protein function. Many large-scale protein acylation studies have assessed relative changes of lysine acylation sites after antibody enrichment using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Although relative acylation fold-changes are important, this does not reveal site occupancy, or stoichiometry, of individual modification sites, which is critical to understand functional consequences. Recently, methods for determining lysine acetylation stoichiometry have been proposed based on ratiometric analysis of endogenous levels to those introduced after quantitative per-acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride. However, in our hands, we find that these methods can overestimate acetylation stoichiometries because of signal interferences when endogenous levels of acylation are very low, which is especially problematic when using MS1 scans for quantification. In this study, we sought to improve the accuracy of determining acylation stoichiometry using data-independent acquisition (DIA). Specifically, we use SWATH acquisition to comprehensively collect both precursor and fragment ion intensity data. The use of fragment ions for stoichiometry quantification not only reduces interferences but also allows for determination of site-level stoichiometry from peptides with multiple lysine residues. We also demonstrate the novel extension of this method to measurements of succinylation stoichiometry using deuterium-labeled succinic anhydride. Proof of principle SWATH acquisition studies were first performed using bovine serum albumin for both acetylation and succinylation occupancy measurements, followed by the analysis of more complex samples of E. coli cell lysates. Although overall site occupancy was low (<1%), some proteins contained lysines with relatively high acetylation occupancy.

  7. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Viala, Julie P M; Méresse, Stéphane; Pocachard, Bérengère; Guilhon, Aude-Agnès; Aussel, Laurent; Barras, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i) to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii) to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii) to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  8. Drosophila BRUCE inhibits apoptosis through non-lysine ubiquitination of the IAP-antagonist REAPER

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, C; Ryoo, H D

    2012-01-01

    Active caspases execute apoptosis to eliminate superfluous or harmful cells in animals. In Drosophila, living cells prevent uncontrolled caspase activation through an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, dIAP1, and apoptosis is preceded by the expression of IAP-antagonists, such as Reaper, Hid and Grim. Strong genetic modifiers of this pathway include another IAP family gene encoding an E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme domain, dBruce. Although the genetic effects of dBruce mutants are well documented, molecular targets of its encoded protein have remained elusive. Here, we report that dBruce targets Reaper for ubiquitination through an unconventional mechanism. Specifically, we show that dBruce physically interacts with Reaper, dependent upon Reaper's IAP-binding (IBM) and GH3 motifs. Consistently, Reaper levels were elevated in a dBruce −/− background. Unexpectedly, we found that dBruce also affects the levels of a mutant form of Reaper without any internal lysine residues, which normally serve as conventional ubiquitin acceptor sites. Furthermore, we were able to biochemically detect ubiquitin conjugation on lysine-deficient Reaper proteins, and knockdown of dBruce significantly reduced the extent of this ubiquitination. Our results indicate that dBruce inhibits apoptosis by promoting IAP-antagonist ubiquitination on unconventional acceptor sites. PMID:21886178

  9. The effects of added sulphur amino acids, threonine and an ideal amino acid ratio on nitrogen metabolism in mature, overweight dogs.

    PubMed

    Bohaty, Robin E; de Godoy, Maria R C; McLeod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of added essential amino acids in conjunction with a dietary lysine/MJ of 0.72 on nitrogen (N) metabolism in dogs. Treatments were; a control diet, a diet that provided an ideal amino acid profile (IAA), a diet with added total sulphur amino acids (TSAA), and a diet with added TSAA and threonine (TT). Diets were fed to eight overweight, mature, female hounds using a replicated 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Food intake was similar across treatments, however, food N intake was higher (p < 0.001) for TSAA than control, IAA or TT. Nitrogen absorbed was higher (p < 0.01) for TSAA than IAA and control. Urea N excretion was greater for control than TT (p < 0.05). Urine N excretion did not differ between diets. There were no differences in digestibility or N retention of diets. There were no differences in protein turnover, synthesis, or degradation. Blood metabolites were within normal ranges and did not differ due to dietary treatment. Based on the measurements made in this study, there is no benefit for added TSAA, TT or additional EAA in diets for mature dogs formulated to provide a 0.72 g lysine/MJ ME ratio.

  10. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

  11. Bacillus methanolicus pyruvate carboxylase and homoserine dehydrogenase I and II and their roles for L-lysine production from methanol at 50 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Brautaset, Trygve; Jakobsen, Øyvind M; Degnes, Kristin F; Netzer, Roman; Naerdal, Ingemar; Krog, Anne; Dillingham, Rick; Flickinger, Michael C; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2010-07-01

    We here present the pyc gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and the hom-1 and hom-2 genes encoding two active homoserine dehydrogenase (HD) proteins, in methylotrophic Bacillus methanolicus MGA3. In general, both PC and HD are regarded as key targets for improving bacterial L-lysine production; PC plays a role in precursor oxaloacetate (OAA) supply while HD controls an important branch point in the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway. The hom-1 and hom-2 genes were strongly repressed by L-threonine and L-methionine, respectively. Wild-type MGA3 cells secreted 0.4 g/l L-lysine and 59 g/l L-glutamate under optimised fed batch methanol fermentation. The hom-1 mutant M168-20 constructed herein secreted 11 g/l L-lysine and 69 g/l of L-glutamate, while a sixfold higher L-lysine overproduction (65 g/l) of the previously constructed classical B. methanolicus mutant NOA2#13A52-8A66 was accompanied with reduced L-glutamate production (28 g/l) and threefold elevated pyc transcription level. Overproduction of PC and its mutant enzyme P455S in M168-20 had no positive effect on the volumetric L-lysine yield and the L-lysine yield on methanol, and caused significantly reduced volumetric L-glutamate yield and L: -glutamate yield on methanol. Our results demonstrated that hom-1 represents one key target for achieving L-lysine overproduction, PC activity plays an important role in controlling L-glutamate production from methanol, and that OAA precursor supply is not a major bottleneck for L-lysine overproduction by B. methanolicus.

  12. Evaluation of Drosophila metabolic labeling strategies for in vivo quantitative proteomic analyses with applications to early pupa formation and amino acid starvation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Che; Tang, Hong-Wen; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Pu, Tsung-Hsien; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Chen, Guang-Chao

    2013-05-03

    Although stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics was first developed as a cell culture-based technique, stable isotope-labeled amino acids have since been successfully introduced in vivo into select multicellular model organisms by manipulating the feeding diets. An earlier study by others has demonstrated that heavy lysine labeled Drosophila melanogaster can be derived by feeding with an exclusive heavy lysine labeled yeast diet. In this work, we have further evaluated the use of heavy lysine and/or arginine for metabolic labeling of fruit flies, with an aim to determine its respective quantification accuracy and versatility. In vivo conversion of heavy lysine and/or heavy arginine to several nonessential amino acids was observed in labeled flies, leading to distorted isotope pattern and underestimated heavy to light ratio. These quantification defects can nonetheless be rectified at protein level using the normalization function. The only caveat is that such a normalization strategy may not be suitable for every biological application, particularly when modified peptides need to be individually quantified at peptide level. In such cases, we showed that peptide ratios calculated from the summed intensities of all isotope peaks are less affected by the heavy amino acid conversion and therefore less sequence-dependent and more reliable. Applying either the single Lys8 or double Lys6/Arg10 metabolic labeling strategy to flies, we quantitatively mapped the proteomic changes during the onset of metamorphosis and upon amino acid deprivation. The expression of a number of steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulated proteins was found to be changed significantly during larval-pupa transition, while several subunits of the V-ATPase complex and components regulating actomyosin were up-regulated under starvation-induced autophagy conditions.

  13. Localized hydroxylamine mutagenesis, and cotransduction of threonine and lysine genes, in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed Central

    Stuttard, C

    1983-01-01

    A lysate of the generalized transducing phage SV1, grown on the prototrophic type strain 10712 of Streptomyces venezuelae, was mutagenized with hydroxylamine and used to transduce a lysineless auxotroph to lysine independence on supplemented minimal agar. A complex threonine mutant, strain VS95, was isolated from among the transductants and was shown to be carrying at least two different thr mutations. These were about 50% cotransducible with alleles of four independently isolated lysA mutations, as were two other independently isolated threonine mutations, thr-1 and hom-5. The location of thr genes close to lysA occurs in at least three other streptomycetes, but apparently not in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), in which the lysA and thr loci are at diametrically opposite locations on the linkage map. This first observation of cotransduction between loci governing the biosynthesis of different amino acids in the genus Streptomyces demonstrates the feasibility of fine-structure genetic analysis by transduction in these antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:6411685

  14. Association of plasma free amino acids with hyperuricemia in relation to diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, M H; Yamaguchi, Natsu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi-Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Kageyama, Naoko; Nakamura, Mina; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-12-15

    Previous studies demonstrated independent contributions of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) and high uric acid (UA) concentrations to increased risks of lifestyle-related diseases (LSRDs), but the important associations between these factors and LSRDs remain unknown. We quantified PFAAs and UA amongst Japanese subjects without LSRDs (no-LSRD, n = 2805), and with diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 415), dyslipidemia (n = 3207), hypertension (n = 2736) and metabolic syndrome (MetS, n = 717). The concentrations of most amino acids differed significantly between the subjects with and without hyperuricemia (HU) and also between the no-LSRD and LSRD groups (p < 0.05 to 0.001). After adjustment, the logistic regression analyses revealed that lysine in DM, alanine, proline and tyrosine in dyslipidemia, histidine, lysine and ornithine in hypertension, and lysine and tyrosine in MetS demonstrated significant positive associations with HU among the patients with LSRDs only (p < 0.05 to 0.005). By contrast, arginine, asparagine and threonine showed significant inverse associations with HU in the no-LSRD group only (p < 0.05 to 0.01). For the first time, we provide evidence for distinct patterns of association between PFAAs and HU in LSRDs, and postulate the possibility of interplay between PFAAs and UA in their pathophysiology.

  15. Influence of Amino Acids in Dairy Products on Glucose Homeostasis: The Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Dominic; Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Dairy products have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes because of their high content of whey proteins, rich in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) - leucine, isoleucine and valine - and lysine, which may decrease postprandial glucose responses and stimulate insulin secretion. Paradoxically, epidemiologic studies also show that higher levels of plasma BCAAs have been linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the objective was to review the recent clinical evidence concerning the intake of amino acids found in dairy proteins so as to determine their impact on glucose homeostasis in healthy persons and in those with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have reported that the major dairy amino acids, namely, leucine, isoleucine, glutamine, phenylalanine, proline and lysine, have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Yet the reported doses of amino acids investigated are too elevated to be reached through adequate dairy product intake. The minor dairy amino acids, arginine and glycine, may improve glucose homeostasis by improving other risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Further, the combination of amino acids may also improve glucose-related outcomes, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Nevertheless, additional long-term studies in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are needed to ascertain the benefits for glucose homeostasis of amino acids found in dairy foods. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of NSD family histone lysine methyltransferases in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Richard L.; Swaroop, Alok; Troche, Catalina; Licht, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear receptor-binding SET Domain (NSD) family of histone H3 lysine 36 methyl transferases is comprised of NSD1, NSD2 (MMSET/WHSC1), and NSD3 (WHSC1L1). These enzymes recognize and catalyze methylation of histone lysine marks to regulate chromatin integrity and gene expression. The growing number of reports demonstrating that alterations or translocations of these genes fundamentally affect cell growth and differentiation leading to developmental defects illustrates the importance of this family. In addition, overexpression, gain of function somatic mutations and translocations of NSDs are associated with human cancer and can trigger cellular transformation in model systems. Here we review the functions of NSD family members and the accumulating evidence that these proteins play key roles in tumorigenesis. Since epigenetic therapy is an important emerging anti-cancer strategy, understanding the function of NSD family members may lead to the development of novel therapies. PMID:28193767

  17. CNP-1 (ARRD-17), a novel substrate of calcineurin, is critical for modulation of egg-laying and locomotion in response to food and lysine sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Jee, Changhoon; Choi, Tae-Woo; Kalichamy, Karunambigai; Yee, Jong Zin; Song, Hyun-Ok; Ji, Yon Ju; Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Jin Il; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Ahnn, Joohong; Lee, Sun-Kyung

    2012-03-30

    Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase involved in calcium signaling pathways. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the loss of calcineurin activity causes pleiotropic defects including hyperadaptation of sensory neurons, hypersensation to thermal difference and hyper-egg-laying when worms are refed after starvation. In this study, we report on arrd-17 as calcineurin-interacting protein-1 (cnp-1), which is a novel molecular target of calcineurin. CNP-1 interacts with the catalytic domain of the C. elegans calcineurin A subunit, TAX-6, in a yeast two-hybrid assay and is dephosphorylated by TAX-6 in vitro. cnp-1 is expressed in ASK, ADL, ASH and ASJ sensory neurons as TAX-6. It acts downstream of tax-6 in regulation of locomotion and egg-laying after starvation, ASH sensory neuron adaptation and lysine chemotaxis, that is known to be mediated by ASK neurons. Altogether, our biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that CNP-1 is a direct target of calcineurin and required in stimulated egg-laying and locomotion after starvation, adaptation to hyperosmolarity and attraction to lysine, which is modulated by calcineurin. We suggest that the phosphorylation status of CNP-1 plays an important role in regulation of refed stimulating behaviors after starvation and attraction to amino acid, which provides valuable nutritious information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiolabelling of isopeptide N epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Wüst, F; Hultsch, C; Bergmann, R; Johannsen, B; Henle, T

    2003-07-01

    The isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine 4 was labelled with 18F via N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB). A modified approach for the convenient synthesis of [18F]SFB was used, and [18F]SFB could be obtained in decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 44-53% (n = 20) and radiochemical purity >95% within 40 min after EOB. For labelling N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine with [18F]SFB the effects of isopeptide concentration, temperature, and pH were studied to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The coupling reaction was shown to be temperature and pH independent while being strongly affected by the isopeptide concentration. Using the optimized labelling conditions, in a typical experiment 1.3GBq of [18F]SFB could be converted into 447MBq (46%, decay-corrected) of [18F]fluorobenzoylated isopeptide within 45 min, including HPLC purification.

  19. Optimum dietary arginine:lysine ratio for broiler chickens is altered during heat stress in association with changes in intestinal uptake and dietary sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Balnave, D; Dibner, J J

    1998-12-01

    1. The effects of varying the dietary arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys) ratio for broiler chickens at thermoneutral and high temperatures was studied in a series of 5 experiments which measured intestinal epithelial transport or evaluated growth and food efficiency with practical diets or diets supplemented with L-arginine free base. 2. The growth studies showed that increasing the Arg:Lys ratio at high temperatures produced consistent improvements in food conversion without any loss in growth. 3. Increasing dietary sodium chloride concentration reduced the Arg:Lys ratio necessary for optimum food conversion. 4. Food conversion responses were improved whether L-arginine free base was used as a dietary supplement in place of an inert filler or practical diets with differing ingredients were used to vary the Arg:Lys ratio. 5. In the presence of an equimolar concentration of lysine the uptake of arginine by the intestinal epithelium of heat-stressed broilers was reduced significantly compared with that of broilers at thermoneutral temperatures. 6. The results indicate that the ideal amino acid balance for broilers varies with ambient temperature.

  20. Biological and Structural Characterization of a Host-Adapting Amino Acid in Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shinya; Hatta, Masato; Staker, Bart L.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Shinya, Kyoko; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Ito, Mutsumi; Ozawa, Makoto; Watanabe, Tokiko; Sakabe, Saori; Li, Chengjun; Kim, Jin Hyun; Myler, Peter J.; Phan, Isabelle; Raymond, Amy; Smith, Eric; Stacy, Robin; Nidom, Chairul A.; Lank, Simon M.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; O'Connor, David H.; Neumann, Gabriele; Stewart, Lance J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Two amino acids (lysine at position 627 or asparagine at position 701) in the polymerase subunit PB2 protein are considered critical for the adaptation of avian influenza A viruses to mammals. However, the recently emerged pandemic H1N1 viruses lack these amino acids. Here, we report that a basic amino acid at position 591 of PB2 can compensate for the lack of lysine at position 627 and confers efficient viral replication to pandemic H1N1 viruses in mammals. Moreover, a basic amino acid at position 591 of PB2 substantially increased the lethality of an avian H5N1 virus in mice. We also present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the C-terminus of a pandemic H1N1 virus PB2 protein. Arginine at position 591 fills the cleft found in H5N1 PB2 proteins in this area, resulting in differences in surface shape and charge for H1N1 PB2 proteins. These differences may affect the protein's interaction with viral and/or cellular factors, and hence its ability to support virus replication in mammals. PMID:20700447

  1. Therapeutic use of chimeric bacteriophage (phage) lysins in staphylococcal endophthalmitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Phage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases that are produced at the end of the phage lytic cycle to digest the host bacterial cell wall, facilitating the release of mature phage progeny. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chimeric phage lysins against cli...

  2. Bacillus methanolicus: a candidate for industrial production of amino acids from methanol at 50 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Brautaset, Trygve; Jakobsen, Øyvind M; Josefsen, Kjell D; Flickinger, Michael C; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2007-02-01

    Amino acids are among the major products in biotechnology in both volume and value, and the global market is growing. Microbial fermentation is the dominant method used for industrial production, and today the most important microorganisms used are Corynebacteria utilizing sugars. For low-prize bulk amino acids, the possibility of using alternative substrates such as methanol has gained considerable interest. In this mini review, we highlight the unique genetics and favorable physiological traits of thermotolerant methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus, which makes it an interesting candidate for overproduction of amino acids from methanol. B. methanolicus genes involved in methanol consumption are plasmid-encoded and this ba