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Sample records for acids lc n-3

  1. n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation: effects on infant and maternal outcomes.

    PubMed

    De Giuseppe, Rachele; Roggi, Carla; Cena, Hellas

    2014-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid, are, respectively, n-3 and n-6 family members and play an important role in fetal and infant growth and development. Pregnancy and lactation impose special nutritional needs for the mother-fetus situation. Since the LC-PUFA required by the fetus is supplied by preferential placental transfer of preformed LC-PUFA rather than their precursor, it has been hypothesized that additional maternal supply of LC-PUFA, especially DHA, during pregnancy may improve maternal and infant outcomes. To summarize evidences of the effect of n-3 LC-PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation on maternal and infant outcomes in order to offer a comprehensive view of this issue that should be useful for clinical practice. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation may reduce risk for early preterm birth >34 weeks and seems very promising for primary allergy prevention during childhood. On the contrary, there are not sufficient data proving that the consumption of oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy optimizes child's visual and neurodevelopment and reduces the risk for preeclampsia and perinatal depression; the implications of these findings remain to be elucidated. The implications of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on fetal development, maternal outcomes and later infant growth is worth being elucidated and is promising in its potential for a positive impact on fetal and maternal outcomes.

  2. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  3. The influence of n-3 PUFA supplements and n-3 PUFA enriched foods on the n-3 LC PUFA intake of Flemish women.

    PubMed

    Sioen, Isabelle; Devroe, Jolien; Inghels, David; Terwecoren, Ruth; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    Food consumption data of Flemish women of reproductive age collected in 2002 showed a large deficit for ALA and n-3 LC PUFA compared to the recommendations (mean ALA and EPA + DHA intake 1.4 g/day and 209 mg/day, respectively) and indicated a need to tackle the problem of low n-3 PUFA intake. Another recent Belgian study demonstrated that enrichment of commonly eaten food items with n-3 PUFA provides the opportunity to increase the n-3 PUFA intake up to 6.5 g/day and decrease the n-6/n-3 ratio. Since a large supply of n-3 PUFA supplements and n-3 PUFA enriched foods exists on the Belgian market, this study aimed at assessing the influence of these products on the n-3 LC PUFA intake for Flemish women of reproductive age. It was found that n-3 supplements are consumed by 5% of the Flemish women. Of all the n-3 PUFA enriched foods on the Flemish market, margarines and cooking fat are most frequently consumed by young women. The results indicated that a big gap remains between the EPA&DHA intake (mean = 276 mg/day) and the recommendation. Seafood remains the most important source of EPA&DHA. Only 11.6% of the population sample reached an intake level of 500 mg EPA&DHA per day. The study showed that other strategies will be needed to increase the EPA&DHA intake in the long term.

  4. n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J E

    1990-05-01

    Principal food sources of the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid are salad and cooking oil, salad dressing, shortening, margarine, and food-service fat and oil products made from canola oil or soybean oil. Using food production data provided by US trade associations and by Statistics Canada, I estimated the per capita availability of alpha-linolenic acid from vegetable-oil products in the United States to be approximately 1.2 g/d and in Canada, approximately 2 g/d. The higher alpha-linolenic acid availability in Canada is largely accounted for by widespread use of canola oil there. Considering also contributions to dietary alpha-linolenic acid of other foods such as nuts, dairy products, and vegetables, it would appear that total intake of alpha-linolenic acid in US and Canadian diets adequately exceeds the reported nutritional requirement. Emerging research has suggested possible health benefits associated with modest increases in dietary alpha-linolenic acid, including reduced blood-clotting tendency and reduced blood pressure.

  5. Opportunities to enhance alternative sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids within the diet.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Guriec, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Health benefits or advocated health benefits of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA are better known by medical doctors as well as by consumers, so that consumption increases. In addition, the development of aquaculture requires more fishmeal and fish oil. Humanisation of care of companion animals is also associated with addition of LC n-3 PUFA in pet foods. The risk of the increased demand for LC n-3 PUFA is the excess harvesting of natural sources, especially of marine origin (oily fishes, krill). In order to improve sustainability, alternative sources of LC n-3 PUFA have been developed. These alternative sources are: (a) terrestrial plants naturally or genetically enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA), which bypasses the first limiting step of (i.e. ∆6 desaturase) of the biosynthesis of LC n-3 PUFA; (b) single-cell oils rich in LC n-3 PUFA (microalgae, Escherichia coli) and krill. Currently, plants rich in SDA are expensive, metabolic engineering is unfavourably accepted by consumers in many countries, cultivation of microalgae is very expensive even though their ability (for some of them) to synthesise biofuels could induce a decrease in industrial costs, and Antarctic krill harvest must be restricted. Thus, it is difficult to predict their real development in the future.

  6. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  7. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Joyce A; Katz, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Historically, epidemiologic studies have reported a lower prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in populations consuming large amounts of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) found mainly in fish. Controlled clinical studies have shown that consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs has cardioprotective effects in persons with type 2 diabetes without adverse effects on glucose control and insulin activity. Benefits include lower risk of primary cardiac arrest; reduced cardiovascular mortality, particularly sudden cardiac death; reduced triglyceride levels; increased high-density lipoprotein levels; improved endothelial function; reduced platelet aggregability; and lower blood pressure. These favorable effects outweigh the modest increase in low-density lipoprotein levels that may result from increased n-3 LC-PUFA intake. Preliminary evidence suggests increased consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs with reduced intake of saturated fat may reduce the risk of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in overweight persons. Reported improvements in hemostasis, slower progression of artery narrowing, albuminuria, subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity require additional confirmation. Expected health benefits and public health implications of consuming 1 to 2 g/day n-3 LC-PUFA as part of lifestyle modification in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are discussed.

  8. The impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, C H S; Calder, P C; Reed, S C; Simpson, M J A

    2005-06-01

    A considerable literature has been published on the health benefits of fish, oil-rich fish and fish oils and their constituent long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Evidence from epidemiological studies highlights the cardioprotective attributes of diets rich in fish, especially oil-rich fish. Data from intervention trials are consistent in suggesting that LC n-3 PUFA lower the risk of CVD, probably by the multiple mechanisms of lowering serum triacylglycerols, improving the LDL:HDL ratio, anti-arrhythmic effects on heart muscle, improved plaque stability, anti-thrombotic effects and reduced endothelial activation. Research indicates LC n-3 PUFA provision has an impact during development, and there is preliminary evidence that docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy could optimise brain and retina development in the infant. LC n-3 PUFA are also postulated to ameliorate behavioural and mental health disturbances such as depression, schizophrenia, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, despite some positive evidence in each of these areas, use of LC n-3 PUFA in these conditions remains at the experimental stage. In the case of immune function, there is little doubt that LC n-3 PUFA have a positive effect. Although intervention trials in rheumatoid arthritis show strong evidence of benefit, evidence for efficacy in other inflammatory conditions, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, cystic fibrosis and asthma, is inconsistent or inadequate. More promising evidence in some conditions may come from studies which attempt to modify the fetal environment using LC n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy.

  9. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency.

  10. Regular consumption of n-3 fatty acid-enriched pork modifies cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Coates, Alison M; Sioutis, Stelios; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-02-01

    The long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA content of pork, particularly DHA, can be increased by including 15% PorcOmega (a fortified tuna fishmeal product) in pig finisher diets. The aim of the present study was to see whether this enriched pork could deliver cardiovascular health benefits to consumers. In a double-blind intervention trial, thirty-three healthy adult volunteers (sixteen female and seventeen male) were randomised to consume either n-3-enriched or regular (control) pork (a selection of five fresh cuts totalling 1000 g/week) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected every 4 weeks and analysed for serum lipids, maximally stimulated thromboxane production and erythrocyte fatty acid composition. The n-3-enriched pork provided subjects with 1.3 g LC n-3 PUFA per week. Erythrocyte DHA levels rose 15% in the n-3 group and fell 5% in the control group over 12 weeks (P=0.001). Compared with the control group, serum TAG decreased to a greater extent in the n-3 group (P=0.02) and serum thromboxane production increased to a lesser extent (P=0.004). Changes in the latter were inversely associated with changes in incorporation of DHA into erythrocytes (r -0.54; P<0.05). Thus the modest increases in LC n-3 PUFA intake resulting from regular consumption of enriched pork can improve cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Ciappolino, Valentina; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Agostoni, Carlo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-12-15

    Among emerging treatments for depressive disorders several studies suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) supplementation can be used. However, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differ in terms of biochemistry, metabolism and therapeutic effects. Therefore, a clear picture of their specific and different role on affective disorders has not yet emerged. To investigate the effects of n-3PUFAs on affective disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder and perinatal depression. a comprehensive search on PUBMED, Medline and PsychINFO of all RCTs using n-3PUFAs patients with depressive symptoms published up to April 2016 was performed. We included trials that examined unipolar or bipolar disorder and trials that investigated depressive symptoms in relation to pregnancy. Trials were excluded if the depressive symptomatology was related to other primary organic diseases. 264 RCT studies were identified but only 36 met the inclusion criteria. First, it has been reported that n-3PUFAs supplementation might have clinical benefits on depressive symptoms. Second, EPA supplement, rather than DHA, seems to be more effective in treating major depression. Third, n-3PUFAs can have beneficial effects in bipolar depression but not in perinatal depression. there are only some evidence on the efficacy of n-3PUFAs in affective disorders especially to unipolar and bipolar depression not powered enough to confirm a therapeutic effect for affective disorder. Therefore, further studies with larger and more homogeneous samples, are required to confirm these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Test meals rich in marine long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase postprandial chylomicron response.

    PubMed

    Griffo, E; Di Marino, L; Patti, L; Bozzetto, L; Annuzzi, G; Cipriano, P; Mangione, A; Della Pepa, G; Cocozza, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination. We randomly assigned 78 individuals who were at high cardiometabolic risk to 4 isoenergetic diets. These diets only differed in amount of LC n-3 PUFA and/or polyphenols. Prior to starting the intervention, each subject underwent a test meal similar to the type of diet assigned: low in LC n-3 PUFA and polyphenols (control), rich in LC n-3 PUFA and low in polyphenols, rich in polyphenols and low in LC n-3 PUFA, or rich in both. Blood samples were taken before and up to 6 hours after the test meal in order to evaluate cholesterol and triglycerides (plasma and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein), apolipoprotein B-48 (large very low density lipoprotein), glucagon-like peptide-1, and free fatty acid plasma levels. The levels of chylomicron cholesterol and triglyceride in response to the test meal rich in LC n-3 PUFA were significantly higher than after the control meal (P = .037 and P = .018); there was no difference in the other variables. In conclusion, this study indicates that acute administration of marine LC n-3 PUFA increases postprandial chylomicron response in contrast with their lowering chronic effects. These differences underline the importance of understanding the acute and chronic effects of nutritional, as well as of other types of, interventions.

  13. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  14. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    PubMed

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species.

  15. Estimation of nitric oxide synthase activity via LC-MS/MS determination of 15N3-citrulline in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Beom Soo; Fung, Ho-Leung; Upadhyay, Mahesh; Shin, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    Rationale We showed that the metabolite peaks of 15N3-citrulline (15N3-CIT) and 15N3-arginine (15N3-ARG) could be detected when 15N4-ARG was metabolized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in endothelial cells. The usefulness of these metabolites as potential surrogate indices of nitric oxide (NO) generation is evaluated. Methods A hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric assay (LC-MS/MS) was utilized for the simultaneous analysis of 15N4-ARG, ARG, CIT, 15N3-CIT and 15N3-ARG. 15N3-CIT and 15N3-ARG from impurities of 15N4-ARG were determined and corrected for the calculation of their concentration. 15N4-ARG-derived NO, i.e., 15NO formation was determined by analyzing 15N-nitrite accumulation by another LC-MS/MS assay. Results After EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were challenged with 15N4-ARG for 2 hours, the peak intensities of 15N3-CIT and 15N3-ARG significantly increased with 15N4-ARG concentration and positively correlated with 15N-nitrite production. The estimated Km values were independent of the metabolite (i.e., 15N3-CIT, 15N3-CIT+15N3-ARG or 15N-nitrite) used for calculation. However, after correction for its presence as a chemical contaminant of 15N4-ARG, 15N3-ARG was only a marginal contributor for the estimation of NOS activity. Conclusions These data suggest that the formation of 15N3-CIT can be used as an indicator of NOS activity when 15N4-ARG is used as a substrate. This approach may be superior to the radioactive 14C-CIT method which can be contaminated by 14C-urea, and to the 14N-nitrite method which lacks sensitivity. PMID:26349467

  16. Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer’s disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA. PMID:27924168

  17. Modulation of atherosclerosis by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have reviewed literature regarding the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on risk factors for atherosclerosis in human subjects. Dietary intervention with long chain n-3 PUFA decreased some risk factor (s) for atherosclerosis in most human studies reviewed. These benefits resulted ...

  18. Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Dementia.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer's disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA.

  19. Impact of maternal dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk medium-chain fatty acids and the implications for neonatal liver metabolism.

    PubMed

    Novak, Elizabeth M; Innis, Sheila M

    2011-11-01

    Levels of n-6, n-3, and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in milk are highly variable. Higher carbohydrate intakes are associated with increased mammary gland MCFA synthesis, but the role of unsaturated fatty acids for milk MCFA secretion is unclear. This study addressed whether n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which are known to inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, influence MCFA in rat and human milk and the implications of varying MCFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids in rat milk for metabolic regulation in the neonatal liver. Rats were fed a low-fat diet or one of six higher-fat diets, varying in 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids. Higher maternal dietary 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 did not influence milk MCFA, but lower maternal plasma triglycerides, due to either a low-fat or a high-fat high-LC n-3 diet led to higher milk MCFA. MCFA levels were inversely associated with 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in human milk, likely reflecting the association between dietary total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. High LC n-3 fatty acid in rat milk was associated with lower hepatic Pklr, Acly, Fasn, and Scd1 and higher Hmgcs2 in the milk-fed rat neonate, with no effect of milk 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, or MCFA. These studies show that the dietary fatty acid composition does not impact MCFA secretion in milk, but the fatty acid composition of milk, particularly the LC n-3 fatty acid, is relevant to hepatic metabolic regulation in the milk-fed neonate.

  20. N-3 fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Galli, C; Marangoni, F

    2006-09-01

    Fats in the diet of countries in the Mediterranean basin are typically represented by olive oil, but the high consumptions of vegetables and to some extent also of fish result in appreciable intakes of n-3 fatty acids. In fact, various plant foods are relatively rich in the 18 carbon n-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid, ALA, while the generally moderate consumption of fish, except for certain communities living close to the sea, contributes to the intake of the long-chain n-3. Although the amounts of fats in ALA-containing plant foods are low, the relatively high concentrations of this fatty acid and the large size of the portions consumed allow to reach appreciable doses of ALA, an n-3 fatty acid that has been shown to exert favourable effects on various relevant factors in cardiovascular protection. In addition, consumption of relatively small amounts of certain typical dry fruit components of the diet such as walnuts, provides a sizable supply of ALA that is also rather efficiently converted to the ALA derivative eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Additional rather typical wild food components of the diet in certain countries, i.e. snails and frogs, are also appreciable sources of ALA. It appears thus that the consumption of typical Mediterranean foods provides relevant intakes of n-3 fatty acids, especially ALA, that appears to be efficiently absorbed and also transformed at least to the long-chain derivative EPA.

  1. Chemical and immunochemical identification of propanoyllysine derived from oxidized n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hisaka, Shinsuke; Kato, Yoji; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kubushiro, Yoshiko; Naito, Michitaka; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2009-06-01

    It is known that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are rapidly oxidized in vitro. Nvarepsilon-(propanoyl)lysine (propionyllysine, or PRL) is formed from the reaction of the oxidized products of n-3 PUFAs and lysine. To evaluate the oxidized n-3 PUFA-derived protein modifications in vivo, we have developed detection methods using a novel monoclonal antibody against PRL as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The antibody obtained specifically recognized PRL. A strong positive staining in atherosclerotic lesions of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was observed. We have also simultaneously identified and quantified both urinary PRL and urinary Nvarepsilon-(hexanoyl)lysine, using LC/MS/MS using isotope dilution methods. The level of urinary PRL (21.6+/-10.6 micromol/mol of creatinine) significantly correlated with the other oxidative stress markers, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, dityrosine, and isoprostanes. The increase in the excretion of amide adducts into the urine of diabetic patients was also confirmed compared to healthy subjects. These results suggest that PRL may be good marker for n-3 PUFA-derived oxidative stress in vivo.

  2. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk is associate to weight gain and growth in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Sandra M Barboza; Sichieri, Rosely; Setta, Cecília L; Moura, Anibal S; Carmo, Maria G Tavares do

    2009-01-01

    Background Linoleic 18:2 (n-6) and α-linolenic 18:3 (n-3) essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential nutrients for growth and neonatal development. Consumption of preformed n-3 LC-PUFA has been shown to increase gestational duration and to decrease the incidence of premature birth in human studies. This study evaluated the association of essential fatty acids and LC-PUFA in breast milk on the growth of premature children (weight, height and head circumference). Study design Thirty-seven premature infants with a gestational age of 37 weeks or less were followed until 6 months of gestational age, adjusted for prematurity. The milk from mothers, weight, height and head circumference measures of children were collected during the follow up. The breast milk fatty acids were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Results Our results showed that total n-3 PUFA was positively associated with weight gain (p = 0.05), height (p = 0.04) and body mass index (BMI) of children (p = 0.05). Our results also indicate that both linoleic acid and total essential fatty acids were positively associated with BMI and head circumference, whereas oleic acid was positively associated only with head circumference. Conclusion These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA composition of milk may be associated with weight gain and growth. Considering the advantages of n-3 LC-PUFA consumption on infant growth and visual function and its association with reduced incidence of premature birth, dietitians should advise pregnant women to increase their intake of foods high in n-3 LC-PUFA. PMID:19558659

  3. Comparison of the bioavailability of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Fard, Samaneh; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results from a human study which showed significantly reduced incorporation of DPA compared with EPA into chylomicrons, this study was designed to test if dietary DPA was significantly less absorbed than EPA. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups of six, and were fed a semi-synthetic high fat diet (23.5% fat) for 9 days. The test omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DPA, 250mg/animal/day, free fatty acid form) or olive oil (250mg/animal/day) were added to the high fat diet on days 5, 6 and 7. Dietary EPA and DPA appeared in the faeces on days 6, 7 and 8, with the total amount of DPA excreted being 4.6-fold greater than that of EPA. The total amount of faecal fat did not differ significantly between the groups. At the conclusion of the study (day 9), it was found that liver DPA, EPA and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels were significantly increased by both DPA and EPA feeding compared with the olive oil fed control group. In the heart, DPA feeding increased the DPA content and both DPA and EPA feeding increased the total n-3 LC-PUFA levels. This study showed that DPA and EPA, both provided in free form, are metabolised differently, despite being chemically similar.

  4. n-3 fatty acids: role in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out.

  5. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  6. Randomized placebo-controlled intervention with n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented yoghurt: effects on circulating eicosanoids and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Massey, Karen A; Ness, Christina; Kiehntopf, Michael; Stepanow, Stefanie; Platzer, Matthias; Grün, Michael; Nicolaou, Anna; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the value of n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched yogurt as means of improving cardiovascular health. Fifty three mildly hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects (TAG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel designed study. The subjects consumed 1) control yoghurt; 2) yoghurt enriched with 0.8 g n-3 LC-PUFA/d; or 3) yoghurt enriched with 3 g n-3 LC-PUFA/d for a period of 10 wks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the study period. Following daily intake of 3 g n-3 LC-PUFA for 10 weeks, n-3 LC-PUFA levels increased significantly in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) with concomitant increase in the EPA-derived mediators (PGE₃, 12-, 15-, 18-HEPE) in plasma whilst cardiovascular risk factors such as HDL, TAG, AA/EPA ratio, and n-3 index were improved (P < 0.05); the decrease of TAG and increase in HDL were associated with the CD36 genotype. The observed increase of n-3 LC-PUFA in RBC and plasma lipids due to intake of n-3 LC-PUFA enriched yoghurt resulted in a reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory mediators showing that daily consumption of n-3 PUFA enriched yoghurt can be an effective way of supplementing the daily diet and improving cardiovascular health. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3), tetracosapentaenoic (24:5n-3) and tetracosahexaenoic (24:6n-3) acids on the desaturation and elongation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in trout liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R J; Burkow, I C; Buzzi, M; Bayer, A

    1998-06-15

    The effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the desaturation and elongation systems involved in the conversion of 18:3n-3 to 24:6n-3 were investigated. Microsomes were prepared from the livers of rainbow trout and incubated with 14C-labelled 18:3n-3 and cofactors required for elongation and/or desaturation in the presence of 22:6n-3, 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3. The formation of 24:6n-3 was significantly inhibited in the presence of 50 microM 22:6n-3, 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3, whereas the amount of radiolabelled 20:5n-3 formed was inhibited by only 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3 at the same concentration. When malonyl-CoA was omitted from the incubation system to allow the measurement of desaturation in the absence of elongation, the Delta6 desaturation of 14C-18:3n-3 to 14C-18:4n-3 was inhibited by approximately 25% in the presence of 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3 but was not affected by 22:6n-3. The Delta5 desaturation of 14C-20:4n-3 was not affected by the presence of any of the long chain PUFA and no significant effect of 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 or 24:6n-3 on the Delta6 desaturation of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3 was observed. To permit the measurement of individual elongation reactions, KCN was included in the incubation medium to inhibit desaturation and 14C-labelled 18:3n-3, 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 were examined as substrates. 18:4n-3 and 22:5n-3 were more extensively used for elongation than 18:3n-3, 20:4n-3 and 20:5n-3. The presence of 22:6n-3, 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3 in the incubation system had no effect on any of the specific elongations of any of the substrates examined. It is concluded that, in the conversion of 18:3n-3 to 24:6n-3 by trout liver microsomes, the Delta6 desaturation of 18:3n-3 may be subjected to direct feedback inhibition and that 24:5n-3 may be preferred over 18:3n-3 as a substrate for Delta6 desaturation.

  8. LC-PUFA-enriched oil production by microalgae: accumulation of lipid and triacylglycerols containing n-3 LC-PUFA is triggered by nitrogen limitation and inorganic carbon availability in the marine haptophyte Pavlova lutheri.

    PubMed

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2013-10-30

    In most microalgal species, triacyglycerols (TAG) contain mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, rather than PUFA, while PUFA-enriched oil is the form most desirable for dietary intake. The ability of some species to produce LC-PUFA-enriched oil is currently of specific interest. In this work, we investigated the role of sodium bicarbonate availability on lipid accumulation and n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG during batch cultivation of Pavlova lutheri. Maximum growth and nitrate uptake exhibit an optimum concentration and threshold tolerance to bicarbonate addition (~9 mM) above which both parameters decreased. Nonetheless, the transient highest cellular lipid and TAG contents were obtained at 18 mM bicarbonate, immediately after combined alkaline pH stress and nitrate depletion (day nine), while oil body and TAG accumulation were highly repressed with low carbon supply (2 mM). Despite decreases in the proportions of EPA and DHA, maximum volumetric and cellular EPA and DHA contents were obtained at this stage due to accumulation of TAG containing EPA/DHA. TAG accounted for 74% of the total fatty acid per cell, containing 55% and 67% of the overall cellular EPA and DHA contents, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that inorganic carbon availability and elevated pH represent two limiting factors for lipid and TAG accumulation, as well as n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG, under nutrient-depleted P. lutheri cultures.

  9. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to have potential beneficial effects for chronic diseases including cancer, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular have been studied extensively, whereas substantive evidence for a biological role for the precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is lacking. It is not enough to assume that ALA exerts effects through conversion to EPA and DHA, as the process is highly inefficient in humans. Thus, clarification of ALA's involvement in health and disease is essential, as it is the principle n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumed in the North American diet and intakes of EPA and DHA are typically very low. There is evidence suggesting that ALA, EPA and DHA have specific and potentially independent effects on chronic disease. Therefore, this review will assess our current understanding of the differential effects of ALA, EPA and DHA on cancer, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. Potential mechanisms of action will also be reviewed. Overall, a better understanding of the individual role for ALA, EPA and DHA is needed in order to make appropriate dietary recommendations regarding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. PMID:19664246

  10. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  11. Anti-obesity effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice fed high-fat diet is independent of cold-induced thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Janovská, P; Flachs, P; Kazdová, L; Kopecký, J

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert beneficial effects on health and they could help to prevent development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. In our previous studies in mice fed high-fat (cHF; ~60 % calories as fat) diet and maintained at 20 °C, dietary LC n-3 PUFA could counteract accretion of body fat, without inducing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissue, suggesting that the anti-obesity effect was not linked to adaptive (UCP1-mediated) thermogenesis. To exclude a possible dependence of the anti-obesity effect on any mechanism inducible by cold, experiments were repeated in mice maintained at thermoneutrality (30 °C). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either cHF diet, or cHF diet supplemented with LC n-3 PUFA, or standard diet for 7 months. Similarly as at 20 °C, the LC n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced accumulation of body fat, preserved lipid and glucose homeostasis, and induced fatty acid re-esterification in epididymal white adipose tissue. Food consumption was not affected by LC n-3 PUFA intake. Our results demonstrated anti-obesity metabolic effect of LC n-3 PUFA, independent of cold-induced thermogenesis and they suggested that induction of fatty acid re-esterification creating a substrate cycle in white fat, which results in energy expenditure, could contribute to the anti-obesity effect.

  12. Dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in allergy prevention and asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Linette E M

    2016-08-15

    The rise in non-communicable diseases, such as allergies, in westernized countries links to changes in lifestyle and diet. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) present in marine oils facilitate a favorable milieu for immune maturation and may contribute to allergy prevention. N-3 LCPUFA can suppress innate and adaptive immune activation and induce epigenetic changes. Murine studies convincingly show protective effects of fish oil, a source of n-3 LCPUFA, in food allergy and asthma models. Observational studies in human indicate that high dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFA and low intake of n-6 PUFA may protect against the development of allergic disease early in life. High n-6 PUFA intake is also associated with an increased asthma risk while n-3 LCPUFA may be protective and reduce symptoms. The quality of the marine oil used has impact on efficacy of allergy prevention and several observations link in particular n-3 LCPUFA DHA to allergy suppression. Randomized controlled trials indicate that optimal timing, duration and dosage of n-3 LC-PUFA is required to exert an allergy protective effect. Supplementation during early pregnancy and lactation has shown promising results regarding allergy prevention. However these findings should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Although clinical trials in asthma patients reveal no consistent clinical benefits of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on lung function, it can suppress airway inflammation. Future food-pharma approaches may reveal whether adjunct therapy with dietary n-3 LCPUFA can improve allergy prevention or immunotherapy via support of allergen specific oral tolerance induction or contribute to the efficacy of drug therapy for asthma patients.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  14. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL.

  16. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, Daan; Giltay, Erik J; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2010-11-18

    Results from prospective cohort studies and randomized, controlled trials have provided evidence of a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effect of the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on the rate of cardiovascular events among patients who have had a myocardial infarction. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4837 patients, 60 through 80 years of age (78% men), who had had a myocardial infarction and were receiving state-of-the-art antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and lipid-modifying therapy to receive for 40 months one of four trial margarines: a margarine supplemented with a combination of EPA and DHA (with a targeted additional daily intake of 400 mg of EPA-DHA), a margarine supplemented with ALA (with a targeted additional daily intake of 2 g of ALA), a margarine supplemented with EPA-DHA and ALA, or a placebo margarine. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events, which comprised fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and cardiac interventions. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with the use of Cox proportional-hazards models. The patients consumed, on average, 18.8 g of margarine per day, which resulted in additional intakes of 226 mg of EPA combined with 150 mg of DHA, 1.9 g of ALA, or both, in the active-treatment groups. During the follow-up period, a major cardiovascular event occurred in 671 patients (13.9%). Neither EPA-DHA nor ALA reduced this primary end point (hazard ratio with EPA-DHA, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.17; P=0.93; hazard ratio with ALA, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.05; P=0.20). In the prespecified subgroup of women, ALA, as compared with placebo and EPA-DHA alone, was associated with a reduction in the rate of major cardiovascular events that approached significance (hazard ratio

  17. Change in fatty acid composition of serum lipids in obese females after short-term weight-reducing regimen with the addition of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in comparison to controls.

    PubMed

    Hlavatý, P; Kunesová, M; Gojová, M; Tvrzická, E; Vecka, M; Roubal, P; Hill, M; Hlavatá, K; Kalousková, P; Hainer, V; Zák, A; Drbohlav, J

    2008-01-01

    Short-term weight-reducing regimens were shown to influence fatty acid composition of serum lipids unfavorably. Adding long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA) to a low-calorie diet (LCD) could avoid these changes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term in-patient weight-reducing regimen including LCD with yogurt enriched by low doses of n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCD). The enriched yogurt contained 790 mg of fish oil, predominantly eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA). Forty obese women were randomly assigned to the group consuming LCD and joghurt either with or without n-3 enrichment. Following the 3-week diet in the n-3 LCD group a significantly higher increase in the proportion of n-3 LC PUFA (sum of n-3 FA, EPA and DHA) in serum lipids was confirmed. In phospholipids (PL) a significant difference in the sum of n-6 fatty acids was found, a decrease in the n-3 LCD group and an increase in LCD group. Significantly higher increase in the PL palmitate (16:0) was shown in the LCD group. The results suggest that low doses of n-3 fatty acid enrichment can help to avoid unfavorable changes in fatty acid composition in serum lipids after a short-term weight-reducing regimen.

  18. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2007-09-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that modest consumption of fish or fish oil supplementation lowers the incidence of cardiac death and possibly other cardiovascular events. Precise physiologic mechanisms accounting for such reduced clinical risk are not well understood. Animal-experimental studies, randomized trials, and large observational studies indicate that consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affects cardiac haemodynamics. Independent effects include lowering of systemic vascular resistance (reducing systolic blood pressure by approximately 3-5 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by approximately 2-3 mmHg); reduction of resting heart rate (by approximately 3 bpm); and improvement of cardiac diastolic filling (by means of potential improvement in both active relaxation and passive compliance). Stroke volume increases, apparently a secondary effect of lower vascular resistance, slower heart rate, and improved filling; direct effects on resting contractility or cardiac output are not evident. These haemodynamic effects could in part account for clinical benefits of fish or fish oil intake, including lower risk of cardiac death and possibly ischaemic stroke, heart failure, cognitive decline, and nonfatal coronary events.

  19. Short-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation but not aspirin increases plasma proresolving mediators of inflammation[S

    PubMed Central

    Barden, Anne; Mas, Emilie; Croft, Kevin D.; Phillips, Michael; Mori, Trevor A.

    2014-01-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) formed from the n-3 fatty acids. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation and aspirin on plasma SPMs in healthy humans. Healthy volunteers (n = 21) were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (2.4g/day) for 7 days with random assignment to take aspirin (300 mg/day) or placebo from day 5 to day 7. Blood was collected at baseline (day 0), day 5, and day 7. Plasma 18R/S-HEPE, E-series resolvins, 17R/S-HDHA, D-series resolvins, 14R/S-HDHA, and MaR-1 were measured by LC/MS/MS. At baseline concentrations of E- and D- series resolvins and the upstream precursors 18R/S-HEPE, 17R/S-HDHA ranged from 0.1nM to 0.2nM. 14R/S-HDHA was 3-fold higher than the other SPMs at baseline but MaR-1 was below the limit of detection. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids significantly increased RvE1, 18R/S-HEPE, 17R/S-HDHA, and 14R/S-HDHA but not other SPMs. The addition of aspirin after 5 days of n-3 fatty acids did not affect concentrations of any SPM. N-3 fatty acid supplementation for 5 days results in concentrations of SPMs that are biologically active in healthy humans. Aspirin administered after n-3 fatty acids did not offer any additional benefit in elevating the levels of SPMs. PMID:25187667

  20. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

  1. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sarah M M; Garrioch, Colin F; Holub, Bruce J

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of essential fatty acid intakes, including (n-3) PUFA, are available in pediatric populations based on limited indirect approaches. Furthermore, recommended intakes for short- and long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA have emerged for this population. This study provides direct quantification of fatty acid intakes in children aged 4-8 y. Identical portions of all food and natural health products consumed over 3 d were collected. Duplicate samples were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by high performance capillary GLC. The results for 41 children [25 females, 16 males; 5.8 +/- 0.2 y (mean age +/- SEM)] showed daily energy intakes of 5879 +/- 211 kJ (mean +/- SEM) and (n-3) PUFA intakes in mg/d as follows: ALA, 1161 +/- 108; EPA, 38.4 +/- 9.3; DPA, 26.3 +/- 3.9; and DHA, 54.1 +/- 11.4. Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Institute of Medicine, 61% of the children met the adequate intake for ALA and 22% met the suggested adequate intake for DHA+EPA (10% of the adequate intake for ALA). These intakes were also compared with the recent Australia/New Zealand recommendations for children, where only 51% met the recommended intake for EPA+DPA+DHA. These results demonstrate a moderate shortfall in ALA intake in Canadian children and a nutrient gap for the LC (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, when comparing intakes for this population to suggested and recommended intakes.

  2. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  3. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    PubMed

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Sinclair, Andrew J; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1) of cell protein.hour(-1)) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  4. Bioconversion of α-Linolenic Acid into n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Hepatocytes and Ad Hoc Cell Culture Optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18∶3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20∶5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22∶5n-3 (DPA) and 22∶6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (Vmax = 3654 µmol.g−1 of cell protein.hour−1) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20∶5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro

  5. Influence of oilseed supplement ranging in n-6/n-3 ratio on fatty acid composition and Δ5-, Δ6-desaturase protein expression in steer muscles.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Mitchell, A; Duynisveld, J; Pickova, J; Doran, O; McNiven, M A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated effects of roasted or extruded oilseed supplementation ranging in n-6/n-3 ratios from 0.3 to 5.0 on the fatty acid composition and expression of delta-5 desaturase (Δ5d) and Δ6-desaturase (Δ6d) protein in commercial steer cheek (m. masseter) and diaphragm (pars costalis diaphragmatis) muscles. In general, the n-6/n-3 ratio of the diet had a subsequent effect on the muscle n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.05), with muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content relating to proportion of dietary soya bean and linseed (P < 0.01). Compared with canola, pure linseed and soya bean diets reduced 14:1c-9 and 16:1c-9 (P < 0.05) but increased 18:1t-11 and c-9,t-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content (P < 0.01). Oilseed processing had a minor influence but extruded oilseeds increase 18:1t-11 and c-9,t-11 CLA compared with roasted (P < 0.05). Polar lipid 18:3n-3 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC, ⩾20 carbons PUFA) derivative content increased in relation to dietary linseed supplementation in the diaphragm (P < 0.01), whereas only 18:3n-3 was increased in the cheek (P < 0.01). Protein expression did not differ between diets; however, in each muscle the Δ5d protein expression had a stronger association with the desaturase products rather than the precursors. The relationship between Δ5d protein expression and the muscle LC n-6/n-3 ratio was negative in both muscles (P < 0.05). The relationship between Δ6d protein expression and the LC n-6/n-3 ratio was positive in the cheek (P < 0.001) and negative in the diaphragm (P < 0.05). In conclusion, diet n-6/n-3 ratio affected muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 deposition, whereas the Δ5d and Δ6d protein expression had some influence on the polar lipid LC-PUFA profile. Results reaffirm that processed oilseeds can be used to increase the proportion of fatty acids potentially beneficial for human health, by influencing the formation of LC-PUFA and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio.

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  7. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  8. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: the potential role for supplementation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rachel A; Mourtzakis, Marina; Mazurak, Vera C

    2012-05-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have been implicated as potential mediators in pathways involved in cancer cachexia. This review summarizes recent findings on the n-3 fatty acid status of patients with cancer, the effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on weight and lean body mass and the potential role of supplementation during antineoplastic therapy. Due to suboptimal intakes and possible metabolic disturbances, physiological concentrations of n-3 fatty acids are low in patients with cancer. Low n-3 fatty acids are associated with loss of skeletal muscle, suggesting a need for supplementation. Recent trials have shown an effect of n-3 supplementation throughout antineoplastic therapy on weight, lean body mass and treatment outcomes. Attenuation or gain of weight and lean body mass was reported and the first clinical trials of n-3 fatty acids as an adjuvant to chemotherapy treatment suggest improved efficacy and milder treatment toxicity with n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Recent evidence appears to favour providing n-3 fatty acids early in the disease trajectory, during antineoplastic therapy for preservation of muscle and also to improve treatment tolerance. Additional, larger trials are needed to define these relationships further but it appears that fish oil has broad therapeutic potential in patients with cancer.

  9. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  10. The effects of isotope-labeled analogs on the LC-IDMS measurement by comparison of ESI responses and matrix effect of melamine, (13)C3-melamine, (13)C3+(15)N3-melamine, and (15)N3-melamine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Qing He; Yang, Zong; Li, Hong Mei; Huang, Dong Feng

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of isotope-labeled analogs on the liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) measurement was evaluated based on the comparison research of electrospray ionization responses (ESI) and matrix effect of melamine, (13)C3-melamine, (13)C3+(15)N3-melamine, and (15)N3-melamine. The isotope-labeled melamines had similar ionization efficiency with melamine in the electrospray ionization source, but the intensity of corresponding quantitative fragment ions had distinctive differences. Based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level, this phenomenon was explained very well. The rare cleavage pathways of melamine, which just could be exactly identified by (15)N-labeled melamines, resulted in the difference of quantitative fragment ions between (15)N-labeled melamines and melamine. The interaction of ESI response between melamine and isotope-labeled melamines was investigated using MRM monitor mode. (15)N-labeled melamine had significant ion inter-suppression effect on melamine, while (13)C-labeled melamine had little influence on melamine. Finally, the influence of different isotope-labeled melamines on the LC-IDMS result was evaluated using the IDMS correction factor (θ). Taking the determination of melamine in milk powder as an example, the matrix effects of different isotope-labeled melamines and melamine had notable difference and the impact of this difference on the measurement results depended on the concentrations of analyte and matrix solution. It was worth noting that (15)N3-melamine exhibited significant ion suppression to melamine in matrix solution. The deviation of the results from IDMS method might reach 59% using (15)N3-melamine as internal standard in special matrix solution. Graphical Abstract The comparison of ESI responses of melamine, (13)C3-melamine, (13)C3+(15)N3-melamine and (15)N3-melamine.

  11. Hierarchical scheme for LC-MSn identification of chlorogenic acids.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Michael N; Johnston, Kelly L; Knight, Susan; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2003-05-07

    The fragmentation behavior of 18 chlorogenic acids that are not substituted at position 1 has been investigated using LC-MS(4) applied to a methanolic coffee bean extract and commercial cider (hard cider). Using LC-MS(3), it is possible to discriminate between each of the three isomers of p-coumaroylquinic acid, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, and dicaffeoylquinic acid, and a hierarchical key has been prepared to facilitate this process when standards are not available. MS(4) fragmentations further support these assignments, but were not essential in reaching them. The distinctive behavior of 4-acyl and 3-acyl chlorogenic acids compared with the 5-acyl chlorogenic acids is a key factor permitting these assignments. The fragmentation patterns are dependent upon the particular stereochemical relationships between the individual substituents on the quinic acid moiety. Fragmentation is facilitated by 1,2-acyl participation and proceeds through quinic acid conformers in which the relevant substituents transiently adopt a 1,3-syn-diaxial relationship. Selected ion monitoring at m/z 529 clearly indicated the presence in coffee of six caffeoylferuloylquinic acid isomers, whereas previously only two or three had been demonstrated. The hierarchical key permitted specific structures to be assigned to each of the six isomers. These assignments are internally consistent and consistent with the limited data previously available.

  12. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans☆

    PubMed Central

    Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M.A.; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J.; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status. PMID:25573539

  13. Can long chain n-3 fatty acids from feed be converted into very long chain n-3 fatty acids in fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lušnic Polak, M.; Demšar, L.; Luzar, U.; Polak, T.

    2017-09-01

    The link between the basic chemical and fatty acid composition of trout feed on one hand and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) meat (fillet) was investigated.. The content of 52 fatty acids from feed and trout meat lipids was determined by in-situ transesterification and capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. On average, 100 g of trout feed contained 7.4 g of moisture, 47.7 g of proteins, 6.09 g of ash, 21.4 g of fat, and as for fatty acid composition, 47.8 wt. % were monounsaturated, 34.0 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.1 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 1.88, n-6/n-3 ratio 1.74, 0.80 wt. % of trans and 3.28 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. On average, 100 g of trout meat contained 76.1 g of moisture, 21.4 g of proteins, 1.34 g of ash, 2.52 g of fat, and in the fatty acid composition 42.1 wt. % were monounsaturated, 38.2 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.9 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 2.02, n-6/n-3 ratio 0.98, 0.95 wt. % of trans and 13.25 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids.

  14. When balanced for precursor fatty acid supply echium oil is not superior to linseed oil in enriching lamb tissues with long-chain n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Young, Paul; Nattrass, Greg; Gardner, Graham; Pearce, Kelly; Pethick, David W

    2012-07-14

    Vegetable oils containing stearidonic acid (SDA, 18 : 4n-3) are considered better precursors of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) than those with only α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3). The present study re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil. Lambs (n 6) were abomasally infused with saline (control (C), 25 ml), echium oil low (EL, 25 ml), echium oil high (EH, 50 ml), linseed oil low (LL, 25 ml) or linseed oil high (LH, 50 ml) for 4 weeks. The basal ration used was identical across all treatments. EPA (20 : 5n-3) in meat increased from 6·5 mg in the C lambs to 16·8, 17·7, 13·5 and 11·7 (SEM 0·86) mg/100 g muscle in the EL, EH, LL and LH lambs, respectively. For muscle DPA (docosapentaenoic acid; 22 : 5n-3), the corresponding values were 14·3, 22·2, 18·6 18·2 and 19·4 (SEM 0·57) mg/100 g muscle. The DHA (22 : 6n-3) content of meat was 5·8 mg/100 g in the C lambs and ranged from 4·53 to 5·46 (SEM 0·27) mg/100 g muscle in the oil-infused groups. Total n-3 PUFA content of meat (including ALA and SDA) increased from 39 mg to 119, 129, 121 and 150 (SEM 12·3) mg/100 g muscle. We conclude that both oil types were effective in enhancing the EPA and DPA, but not DHA, content of meat. Furthermore, we conclude that, when balanced for precursor n-3 fatty acid supply, differences between linseed oil and echium oil in enriching meat with LC n-3 PUFA were of little, if any, nutritional significance.

  15. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  16. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in

  17. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Claudia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2012-10-30

    The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA.The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply.Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the

  18. Inflammation in Response to n3 Fatty Acids in a Porcine Obesity Model

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Richard J; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Li, Jenny; Jones, Douglas E; Spurlock, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16–CD14+ macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue. PMID:23561883

  19. Role of n-3 fatty acids in muscle loss and myosteatosis.

    PubMed

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Almasud, Alaa; Mazurak, Vera C

    2014-06-01

    Image-based methods such as computed tomography for assessing body composition enables quantification of muscle mass and muscle density and reveals that low muscle mass and myosteatosis (fat infiltration into muscle) are common in people with cancer. Myosteatosis and low muscle mass have emerged as independent risk factors for mortality in cancer; however, the characteristics and pathogenesis of these features have not been resolved. Muscle depletion is associated with low plasma eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) in cancer and supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has been shown to ameliorate muscle loss and myosteatosis in clinical studies, suggesting a relationship between n-3 fatty acids and muscle health. Since the mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids alter body composition in cancer remain unknown, related literature from other conditions associated with myosteatosis, such as insulin resistance and obesity is considered. In these noncancer conditions, it has been reported that n-3 fatty acids act by increasing insulin sensitivity, reducing inflammatory mediators, and altering adipokine profiles and transcription factors; therefore, the plausibility of these mechanisms of action in the neoplastic state are considered. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known about the effects of n-3 fatty acids with regards to muscle condition and to discuss potential mechanisms for effects of n-3 fatty acids on muscle health.

  20. Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

    2014-05-14

    The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  1. Plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and inflammatory markers in Chinese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomei; Huang, Tao; Weng, Xiumei; Shou, Tianxing; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoqiong; Hu, Qinxin; Li, Duo

    2014-09-29

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake favorably affects chronic inflammatory-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship between the PUFA and inflammatory factors in the healthy vegetarians were not clear. We aimed to investigate the plasma fatty acids status, and its association with plasma inflammatory factors in Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. A total of 89 male vegetarians and 106 male omnivores were participated the study. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA, and as standard methods fatty acids were extracted and determined by chromatography. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians have significant higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasma n-6 PUFA, n-6/n-3, and 18:3n-3; while they have significant lower leukotriene B4 (LTB4), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA. In vegetarians, plasma 20:4n-6 was significant positively related to TNF-α. LTB4 was significantly positively related to plasma 22:6n-3, and negatively associated with n-6 PUFA. Vegetarians have higher plasma n-6 PUFA and IL-6, but lower LTB4, n-3 PUFA, 22:6n-3, COX2 and PGE2 levels. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA, while reduce dietary n-6 PUFA and thus reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory-related diseases.

  2. Regulation of tissue LC-PUFA contents, Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) gene expression and the methylation of the putative FADS2 gene promoter by different dietary fatty acid profiles in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Houguo; Dong, Xiaojing; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53 ± 0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter.

  3. Historical overview of n-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    The first evidence that fish oil fatty acids might have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease came from the discovery that Greenland Eskimos, who have a diet high in n-3 fatty acids, have a lower mortality from coronary heart disease than do Danes and Americans. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in our diets and can be classified in 2 groups: n-6 fatty acids found in plant seeds and n-3 fatty acids found in marine vertebrates. Further evidence of n-3 benefits to human health include a 1989 study demonstrating a 29% reduction in fatal cardiac arrhythmias among subjects with a recent myocardial infarction who had been advised to consume fish oil. The GISSI-Prevenzione Trial found a significant reduction in relative reduction of death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke in subjects consuming n-3 fatty acids. In a recent study, subjects with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) at high risk for fatal ventricular arrhythmias were randomly assigned to four 1-g capsules of either an ethyl ester concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or olive oil daily for 12 mo. Subjects receiving n-3 who thus had significantly higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in their red blood cell membranes showed a longer time to first ICD events and had a significantly lower relative risk of having an ICD event or probable event (P = 0.033). These studies demonstrate that fish oil fatty acids have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease.

  4. Δ-6 Desaturase Substrate Competition: Dietary Linoleic Acid (18∶2n-6) Has Only Trivial Effects on α-Linolenic Acid (18∶3n-3) Bioconversion in the Teleost Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Emery, James A.; Hermon, Karen; Hamid, Noor K. A.; Donald, John A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compete for Δ-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA). However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18∶2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18∶3n-3) (Δ-6 desaturase substrates) are in direct competition for access to Δ-6 desaturase. Two experimental diets were formulated with fixed levels of ALA, while LA levels were varied (high and low) to examine if increased availability of LA would result in decreased bioconversion of ALA to its LC-PUFA products through substrate competition. No significant difference in ALA metabolism towards n-3 LC-PUFA was exhibited between diets while significant differences were observed in LA metabolism towards n-6 LC-PUFA. These results are evidence for minor if any competition between substrates for Δ-6 desaturase, suggesting that, paradoxically, the activity of Δ-6 desaturase on n-3 and n-6 substrates is independent. These results call for a paradigm shift in the way we approach teleost fatty acid metabolism. The findings are also important with regard to diet formulation in the aquaculture industry as they indicate that there should be no concern for possible substrate competition between 18∶3n-3 and 18∶2n-6, when aiming at increased n-3 LC-PUFA bioconversion in vivo. PMID:23460861

  5. Associations between intake of fish and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and plasma metabolites related to the kynurenine pathway in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Therese; Strand, Elin; Dierkes, Jutta; Drevon, Christian A; Øyen, Jannike; Midttun, Øivind; Ueland, Per M; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Nygård, Ottar

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced tryptophan degradation via the kynurenine pathway has been related to several pathological conditions. However, little is known about the effect of diet on individual metabolites of this pathway. We investigated cross-sectional associations between reported intake of fish and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) and plasma metabolites related to the kynurenine pathway. Participants were 2324 individuals with coronary artery disease from the Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial. Fish and n-3 LC-PUFA intakes were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, neopterin, and kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR) were analyzed. Associations were investigated using partial Spearman's rank correlations and multiple linear regressions. Median age at inclusion was 62 years (80 % males), and 84 % had stable angina pectoris. Intake of fatty fish and n-3 LC-PUFA was inversely associated with plasma 3-hydroxykynurenine. Consumption of total fish, lean fish, and n-3 LC-PUFA was inversely associated with plasma neopterin. Intake of total fish, fatty fish, and n-3 LC-PUFA was inversely associated with KTR. All these correlations were weak (ρ between -0.12 and -0.06, P < 0.01). In 306 patients with diabetes, lean fish intake was positively associated with plasma 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (ρ = 0.22, P < 0.001, P for interaction = 0.01), and total fish intake was inversely associated with KTR (ρ = -0.17, P < 0.01, P for interaction = 0.02). Fish intake was not an important determinant of individual metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. However, some correlations were stronger in patients with diabetes. The inverse associations of fish or n-3 LC-PUFA with neopterin and KTR may suggest a slightly lower IFN-γ-mediated immune activation with a higher intake.

  6. Enriched eggs as a source of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N M; Seburg, S; Flanagan, N L

    2000-07-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) decreases the risk of heart disease, inhibits the growth of prostate and breast cancer, delays the loss of immunological functions, and is required for normal fetal brain and visual development. The US has not established a recommended daily intake for n-3 PUFA. However, Canada has established the Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intake (CRNI) at 0.5% of energy. Dietary sources of n-3 PUFA include fish, chicken, eggs, canola oil, and soybean oil. Food consumption studies in the US indicate that the majority of Americans do not meet the CRNI for n-3 PUFA. Mean n-3 PUFA consumption was 78% of the CRNI for Midwestern women during pregnancy. In Midwestern women at risk for breast cancer, the mean n-3 PUFA consumption is approximately 50% of the CRNI. Increased consumption of n-3 PUFA requires identification of a food source that the public would eat in sufficient amounts to meet recommended intake. N-3 PUFA-enriched eggs can be produced by modifying hens diets. When 70 g/kg of cod liver oil, canola oil, or linseed oil are added to a commercial control diet, the n-3 PUFA are increased from 1.2% of egg yolk fatty acids to 6.3, 4.6, and 7.8%, respectively. Feeding flaxseed increases linolenic acid in the egg yolk about 30-fold, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases nearly fourfold. When individuals are fed four n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs a day for 4 wk, plasma total cholesterol levels and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) do not increase significantly. Plasma triglycerides (TG) are decreased by addition of n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs to the diet. N-3 PUFA may influence LDL particle size, causing a shift toward a less atherogenic particle. Blood platelet aggregation is significantly decreased in participants consuming n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs. Overall results of studies to date demonstrate positive effects and no negative effects from consumption of n-3-enriched eggs. Three n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs provide approximately the

  7. N-(3-Chloro-4-methyl-phen-yl)succinamic acid.

    PubMed

    Chaithanya, U; Foro, Sabine; Gowda, B Thimme

    2012-03-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C(11)H(12)ClNO(3), the asymmetric unit contains two independent mol-ecules. The N-H bond in the amide segment is anti to the meta-Cl atom in the benzene ring, in both molecules. The amide and carboxyl C=O bonds are also anti to each other and anti to the H atoms on the adjacent -CH(2) groups. Furthermore, the C=O and O-H bonds of the acid group are in syn positions with respect to each other. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the amide group are 40.6 (2) and 44.9 (3)° in the two independent molecules. In the crystal, mol-ecules are packed into sheets parallel to the (11-3) plane through O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner, Margit; Singer, Ingrid; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to collect data on dietary fat intake of omnivores, vegetarians, vegans and semi-omnivores as well as its impact on n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in long-term markers such as sphingolipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as well as the calculated sphingo- and phospholipids (SPL) of erythrocytes. The present observational study included 98 Austrian adult volunteers of both genders, of which 23 were omnivores, 25 vegetarians, 37 vegans, and 13 semi-omnivores. Information on anthropometry using measured body weight and height was obtained. The amount and composition of ingested fat were calculated from 24-hour recalls and the fatty acid pattern in the phospholipids was assessed using gas chromatography. The unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio and the limited dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in vegans and vegetarians led to reductions in C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids in SPL, PC, PS and PE compared with omnivores and semi-omnivores. The total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids remained unchanged. The vegetarian diet, with an average n-6/n-3 ratio of 10/1, promotes biochemical n-3 tissue decline. To ensure physical, mental and neurological health vegetarians have to reduce the n-6/n-3 ratio with an additional intake of direct sources of EPA and DHA, regardless of age and gender. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Decrease of brain phospholipid synthesis in free-moving n-3 fatty acid deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gazzah, N; Gharib, A; Croset, M; Bobillier, P; Lagarde, M; Sarda, N

    1995-02-01

    The autoradiographic method with [14C]-docosahexaenoic acid ([14C]22:6 n-3) was used to determine whether a diet deficient in n-3 fatty acids, inducing a decrease in 22:6 n-3 circulating level, was associated with changes in local rates of phospholipid synthesis in the rat brain. As compared with rats fed a normal diet (peanut plus rapeseed oil), a n-3 fatty acid deficiency [peanut oil group (P group)] induced a generalized decrease (-35 to -76%) of 22:6 n-3 incorporation rates into phospholipids in all the regions examined. This effect was confirmed by using [3H]22:6 n-3 infusion by biochemical analysis and quantifications corrected for the contribution of docosahexaenoate derived from lipid store recycling to the unesterified pool, taken as the precursor pool for phospholipid synthesis in the whole brain. In normal or n-3 fatty acid-deficient rats, the values of the brain-to-plasma 22:6 n-3 specific activity ratio (psi) were similar (0.03), indicating that a considerable endogenous source of 22:6 n-3 (97%), likely derived from phospholipid degradation, dilutes the specific activity of the tracer coming from plasma. Using the specific activity of 22:6 n-3 in plasma instead of brain would thus lead to a gross underestimation of the rate of phospholipid synthesis. The results also demonstrate that the pattern of 14C or 3H distribution in brain lipids was not modified by the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet. The major lipids labeled were phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylethanolamine. Nevertheless, the unesterified 22:6 n-3 concentrations in plasma and brain were significantly reduced (eight-and threefold, respectively) in the P group. In addition, the proportion of 22:6 n-3 in the brain total lipid fraction, total phospholipids, and phosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, and -serine was significantly decreased in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rats. This was partially compensated for by an increase in the 22:5 n-6 level. These results are discussed in relation to the

  10. The enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids using aminopropyl solid phase extraction columns.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R; James Henderson, R; Burkow, I C; Sargent, J R

    1993-01-01

    A rapid, simple and reliable method is described for the preparation of concentrates of methyl or ethyl esters of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by solid phase extraction using aminopropyl bonded silica columns. After applying mixtures of fatty acid esters in hexane, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid esters are preferentially eluted with hexane whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can subsequently be eluted with dichloromethane. Concentrates containing 80-90% n-3 PUFA can thus be obtained using fish oil fatty acids esters as a starting material.

  11. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S F; Hansen, H S; Secher, N J; Jensen, B; Sandström, B

    1995-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that marine n-3 fatty acids ingested during pregnancy prolong duration of pregnancy and increase fetal growth rate in humans. By a combined self-administered questionnaire and interview applied in the 30th week of gestation we assessed dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy in a population-based sample of 965 pregnant Danish women; in a random 14% subsample we also measured marine n-3 fatty acids relative to arachidonic acid (FA-ratio) in erythrocytes. Mean intake of marine n-3 fatty acids was 0.25 (95% range 0-0.75) g/d. We could detect no association between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate.

  12. [Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cardiovascular system. Should their use be recommended?].

    PubMed

    Lahoz, C; Mata, P

    1993-10-01

    The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PFA) intake on lipoprotein metabolism, eicosanoid metabolism, coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, mediators of inflammation, and blood pressure are discussed. The possible role such effects may have on the process of atherogenesis is examined. Laboratory animal studies with n-3 PFA supplements are reviewed. Finally, a review of clinical and epidemiological studies in human subjects is made in order to evaluate whether the experimental findings have clinical relevance. The conclusion is that, at the present time, there is insufficient support for the use of n-3 PFA supplements either in prophylaxis or in treating ischemic cardiopathy.

  13. Changes in rat n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition during pregnancy are associated with progesterone concentrations and hepatic FADS2 expression.

    PubMed

    Childs, C E; Hoile, S P; Burdge, G C; Calder, P C

    2012-04-01

    The mechanisms responsible for changes to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) status during pregnancy have not been fully elucidated. Tissue samples were collected from virgin and pregnant (day 12 and 20) female rats. LC PUFA status, sex hormone concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of FADS1, FADS2 and elongase were assessed. Day 20 gestation females had higher plasma and liver docosahexaenoic acid and lower arachidonic acid content than virgin females (P<0.05). There was higher FADS2 mRNA expression during pregnancy (P=0.051). Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations positively correlated with hepatic FADS2 mRNA expression (P=0.043, P=0.004). Progesterone concentration positively correlated with hepatic n-6 docosapentaenoic acid content (P=0.006), and inversely correlated with intermediates in LC PUFA synthesis including n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and 20:2n-6 (P<0.05). Changes in progesterone and oestradiol during pregnancy may promote the synthesis of LC PUFA via increased FADS2 expression.

  14. Folate administration increases n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat plasma and tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Pita, M L; Delgado, M J

    2000-09-01

    It has been shown that folic acid deficiency can modify polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism and thus could contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. We have studied the effect of folate administration on fatty acid composition of plasma, platelet, erythrocyte, intestinal and liver lipids. Two groups of rats were daily injected with either saline solution (control group) or 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) solution (MTHF group) for 15 days. Changes induced by folate treatment on n-6 PUFA were not very significant. Linoleic acid only decreased in liver and intestinal phospholipids of MTHF rats whereas arachidonic acid was unaffected by folate administration. However, n-3 PUFA significantly increased in plasma lipid fractions and in platelet, erythrocyte and intestinal phospholipids. It is well known that n-3 PUFA show antithrombotic properties. Thus, the increase of n-3 PUFA observed after MTHF administration might contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders.

  15. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  16. Postprandial metabolism of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) in humans.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kaur, Gunveen; Miller, Eliza; Meikle, Peter J; Larsen, Amy E; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Nuora, Anu; Barlow, Christopher K; Kallio, Heikki P; Cameron-Smith, David; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    The study of the metabolism of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in humans has been limited by the unavailability of pure DPA and the fact that DPA is found in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in natural products. In this double blind cross over study, pure DPA and EPA were incorporated in meals served to healthy female volunteers. Mass spectrometric methods were used to study the chylomicron lipidomics. Plasma chylomicronemia was significantly reduced after the meal containing DPA compared with the meal containing EPA or olive oil only. Both EPA and DPA were incorporated into chylomicron TAGs, while there was less incorporation into chylomicron phospholipids. Lipidomic analysis of the chylomicron TAGs revealed the dynamic nature of chylomicron TAGs. The main TAG species that EPA and DPA were incorporated into were EPA/18:1/18:1, DPA/18:1/16:0 and DPA/18:1/18:1. There was very limited conversion of DPA and EPA to DHA and there were no increases in EPA levels during the 5h postprandial period after the DPA meal. In conclusion, EPA and DPA showed different metabolic fates, and DPA hindered the digestion, ingestion or incorporation into chylomicrons of the olive oil present in the meal.

  17. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on post-operative infection.

    PubMed

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else K; Jensen, Karin H; Damgaard, Birthe M; Halekoh, Ulrich; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

  18. Modulation of enzymatic activities by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Rafat A; Harvey, Kevin A; Zaloga, Gary P

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence from Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishing villages suggests that eating fish oil and marine animals can prevent coronary heart disease. Dietary studies from various laboratories have similarly indicated that regular fish oil intake affects several humoral and cellular factors involved in atherogenesis and may prevent atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, cardiac hypertrophy and sudden cardiac death. The beneficial effects of fish oil are attributed to their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; also known as omega-3 fatty acids) content, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Dietary supplementation of DHA and EPA influences the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids that, in turn, may affect cardiac cell functions in vivo. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may exert beneficial effects by affecting a wide variety of cellular signaling mechanisms. Pathways involved in calcium homeostasis in the heart may be of particular importance. L-type calcium channels, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are the most obvious key signaling pathways affecting the cardiovascular system; however, recent studies now suggest that other signaling pathways involving activation of phospholipases, synthesis of eicosanoids, regulation of receptor-associated enzymes and protein kinases also play very important roles in mediating n-3 PUFA effects on cardiovascular health. This review is therefore focused on the molecular targets and signaling pathways that are regulated by n-3 PUFAs in relation to their cardioprotective effects.

  19. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids - New anabolic compounds improving protein metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...

  20. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Fei; Li, Xin; Shi, Meiqi; Li, Duo

    2017-07-06

    The associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk have demonstrated inconsistent results. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher circulating n-3 PUFAs and dietary n-3 PUFAs intake have a protective effect on MetS risk. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted up to March 2017. Odd ratios (ORs) from case-control and cross-sectional studies were combined using a random-effects model for the highest versus lowest category. The differences of n-3 PUFAs between healthy subjects and patients with MetS were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Seven case-control and 20 cross-sectional studies were included. A higher plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs was associated with a lower MetS risk (Pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81). The plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs in controls was significantly higher than cases (WMD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.43), especially docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, no significant association was found between dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs or fish and MetS risk. The present study provides substantial evidence of a higher circulating n-3 PUFAs associated with a lower MetS risk. The circulating n-3 PUFAs can be regarded as biomarkers indicating MetS risk, especially DPA and DHA.

  1. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G

    2000-12-05

    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  2. Prevention of diabetes-promoted colorectal cancer by (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and (n-3) PUFA mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Rachel; Peri, Irena; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Schwartz, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The global obesity / diabetes epidemic has resulted in robust increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological, animal and human studies have indicated efficacy of (n-3) PUFA in chemoprevention of sporadic and genetic-driven CRC. However, diabetes-promoted CRC presents a treatment challenge that surpasses that of sporadic CRC. This report analyzes the efficacy of (n-3) PUFA generated by the fat-1 transgene that encodes an (n-6) to (n-3) PUFA desaturase, and of synthetic (n-3) PUFA mimetic (MEDICA analog), to suppress CRC development in carcinogen-induced diabetes-promoted animal model. Carcinogen-induced CRC is shown here to be promoted by the diabetes context, in terms of increased aberrant crypt foci (ACF) load, cell proliferation and epithelial dedifferentiation, being accompanied by increase in the expression of HNF4α, β-catenin, and β-catenin-responsive genes. Incorporating the fat-1 transgene in the diabetes context, or oral MEDICA treatment, resulted in ameliorating the diabetic phenotype and in abrogating CRC, with decrease in ACF load, cell proliferation and the expression of HNF-4α, β-catenin, and β-catenin-responsive genes. The specificity of (n-3) PUFA in abrogating CRC development, as contrasted with enhancing CRC by (n-6) PUFA, was similarly verified in CRC cell lines. These findings may indicate prospective therapeutic potential of (n-3) PUFA or MEDICA in the management of CRC, in particular diabetes-promoted CRC. PMID:25375205

  3. Prevention of diabetes-promoted colorectal cancer by (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and (n-3) PUFA mimetic.

    PubMed

    Algamas-Dimantov, Anna; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Hertz, Rachel; Peri, Irena; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Schwartz, Betty

    2014-10-30

    The global obesity / diabetes epidemic has resulted in robust increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological, animal and human studies have indicated efficacy of (n-3) PUFA in chemoprevention of sporadic and genetic-driven CRC. However, diabetes-promoted CRC presents a treatment challenge that surpasses that of sporadic CRC. This report analyzes the efficacy of (n-3) PUFA generated by the fat-1 transgene that encodes an (n-6) to (n-3) PUFA desaturase, and of synthetic (n-3) PUFA mimetic (MEDICA analog), to suppress CRC development in carcinogen-induced diabetes-promoted animal model. Carcinogen-induced CRC is shown here to be promoted by the diabetes context, in terms of increased aberrant crypt foci (ACF) load, cell proliferation and epithelial dedifferentiation, being accompanied by increase in the expression of HNF4α, β-catenin, and β-catenin-responsive genes. Incorporating the fat-1 transgene in the diabetes context, or oral MEDICA treatment, resulted in ameliorating the diabetic phenotype and in abrogating CRC, with decrease in ACF load, cell proliferation and the expression of HNF-4α, β-catenin, and β-catenin-responsive genes. The specificity of (n-3) PUFA in abrogating CRC development, as contrasted with enhancing CRC by (n-6) PUFA, was similarly verified in CRC cell lines. These findings may indicate prospective therapeutic potential of (n-3) PUFA or MEDICA in the management of CRC, in particular diabetes-promoted CRC.

  4. The effect of high n-3 fatty acids diets on the ultrastructural development of Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Danforth, H D; Allen, P C; Levander, O A

    1997-01-01

    A study of development of Eimeria tenella in chickens fed high n-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) diets showed ultrastructural degeneration of both asexual and sexual parasite stages. Abnormal shedding of asexual and sexual parasite developmental stages into the cecal lumen was also observed. Ultrastructural degeneration was characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization, chromatin condensation within the nucleus, a lack of parasitophorous vacuole delineation, and, in some cases, a complete loss of parasite ultrastructural organization. The results of this study indicate that diets high in n-3FA may be useful in the control of avian coccidia.

  5. An n-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Diet Affects Mouse Spatial Learning in the Barnes Circular Maze

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Irina; Hussein, Nahed; Di Martino, Carmine; Moriguchi, Toru; Hoshiba, Junji; Majchrzak, Sharon; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Deficiency in n-3 fatty acids has been accomplished through the use of an artificial rearing method in which ICR mouse pups were hand fed a deficient diet starting from the second day of life. There was a 51% loss of total brain DHA in mice with an n-3 fatty acid deficient diet relative to those with a diet sufficient in n-3 fatty acids. N-3 fatty acid adequate and deficient mice did not differ in terms of locomotor activity in the open field test or in anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze. The n-3 fatty acid deficient mice demonstrated impaired learning in the reference-memory version of the Barnes circular maze as they spent more time and made more errors in search of an escape tunnel. No difference in performance between all dietary groups in the cued and working memory version of the Barnes maze was observed. This indicated that motivational, motor and sensory factors did not contribute to the reference memory impairment. PMID:18037280

  6. Microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend raises plasma long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels compared to tuna oil with similar increases in ileal contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Bird, Anthony R; Patch, Craig S; Belobrajdic, Damien P

    2017-03-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0.3 or 2 g/100 g for 4 weeks. Final body and organ weights, feed intake and waste output were similar. ME-TOKO rats had higher plasma total LC n-3 PUFA levels compared to ME-TO, but liver LC n-3 PUFA levels and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in non-fasted rats. Diets containing 2% ME-TO and ME-TOKO also showed similar increases in ileal contractility. In summary, ME-TO bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA was similar to ME-TOKO.

  7. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Promising Nutrients for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Aihara, Ken-Ichi; Akaike, Masashi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2017-08-24

    The adoption of the Western-style diet, with decreased fish intake and lack of exercise, has increased the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japan. Statin treatment has been established to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events; however, 60%-70% of these events occur despite its use. Thus, the residual risk for CVD should be identified and resolved to reduce further cardiovascular events. The serum levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are reportedly associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, whereas the addition of n-3 PUFA treatment to the statin treatment decreases cardiovascular events. Similar to statins, n-3 PUFAs have pleiotropic effects in addition to lipid-modifying effects. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that n-3 PUFAs prevent cardiovascular events by ameliorating endothelial function and attenuating lipid accumulation, vascular inflammation, and macrophage recruitment, thereby causing coronary plaque development and rupture. Taken together, n-3 PUFAs are comprehensively able to attenuate the atherogenic response. Therefore, n-3 PUFA intake is recommended to prevent cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Achieving optimal n-3 fatty acid status: the vegetarian's challenge... or not.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S

    2014-07-01

    The long chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), although originally synthesized by microorganisms in the oceans, are primarily obtained from the consumption of fish. Vegetarians, by definition, do not eat fish and thus consume virtually no EPA and DHA. Because conversion of the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is very low, n-3 tissue concentrations in vegetarians are lower than in omnivores. This review asks 2 questions: what is the evidence that increased n-3 concentrations reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in vegetarians, and, if it does, how can vegetarians increase their blood and tissue concentrations of these animal-derived fatty acids? At present, both cardiovascular risk markers and cardiovascular events appear to be significantly reduced in vegetarians compared with those in omnivores. If so, and in the absence of data to show that risk in vegetarians could be even lower with higher n-3 concentrations, then the second question becomes moot. However, the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence; therefore, at our present state of knowledge, increasing n-3 concentrations is not an unreasonable goal for vegetarians. This can be accomplished by a variety of approaches, including increased intakes of ALA, consumption of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil (if and when it comes to the market), and the use of supplements containing EPA, DHA, or both derived from nonanimal sources (microalgae, biotech yeast, and, in the future, biotech plant oils). © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  10. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA. PMID:22253971

  11. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reverses endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental menopause.

    PubMed

    Gortan Cappellari, Gianluca; Losurdo, Pasquale; Mazzucco, Sara; Panizon, Emiliano; Jevnicar, Mitja; Macaluso, Loredana; Fabris, Bruno; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Carretta, Renzo; Zanetti, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In this condition, reduced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) contribute to cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether treatment with n-3 PUFA reverses endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental menopause. Thirty female rats underwent either sham-surgery or bilateral ovariectomy or bilateral ovariectomy+oral n-3 PUFA (0.8 g kg(-1) day(-1) for 2 months). Ovariectomy caused endothelial dysfunction to acetylcholine, which was reversed by superoxide scavenger Tiron. Erythrocyte membrane lipid composition was characterized by reduced n-3 PUFA total content and omega-3 index, and by concomitant increase in n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Ovariectomy-related oxidative stress, demonstrated by both enhanced superoxide production and 3-nitrotyrosine expression in aorta, was associated with increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit NOX-4 protein expression. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) functional inhibition by l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, protein expression and activity did not change. In ovariectomized rats, treatment with n-3 PUFA increased n-3 PUFA total content and omega-3 index and decreased n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio in erythrocyte membrane, reversed vascular oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, aortic 3-nitrotyrosine and markedly lowered NOX-4 protein expression; eNOS protein expression also increased, paralleled by reversal of inhibitory binding to Caveolin-1, while ex-vivo functional inhibition and NOS synthesis were unchanged. These findings demonstrate in vivo a therapeutic benefit of n-3 PUFA on menopause-associated endothelial dysfunction by reversal of alterations in membrane lipid composition induced by ovariectomy and by reduction of vascular oxidative stress. In this setting they also identify NOX-4 as a potential target to reduce oxidative stress-mediated vascular complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne; O'Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Puddey, Ian B; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-03-19

    DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F₂-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F₂-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients.

  13. n-3 fatty acids in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Tombesi, Massimo; Avanzini, Fausto; Barlera, Simona; Caimi, Vittorio; Longoni, Paolo; Marzona, Irene; Milani, Valentina; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Tognoni, Gianni; Marchioli, Roberto

    2013-05-09

    Trials have shown a beneficial effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with a previous myocardial infarction or heart failure. We evaluated the potential benefit of such therapy in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or atherosclerotic vascular disease who had not had a myocardial infarction. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we enrolled a cohort of patients who were followed by a network of 860 general practitioners in Italy. Eligible patients were men and women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or atherosclerotic vascular disease but not myocardial infarction. Patients were randomly assigned to n-3 fatty acids (1 g daily) or placebo (olive oil). The initially specified primary end point was the cumulative rate of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. At 1 year, after the event rate was found to be lower than anticipated, the primary end point was revised as time to death from cardiovascular causes or admission to the hospital for cardiovascular causes. Of the 12,513 patients enrolled, 6244 were randomly assigned to n-3 fatty acids and 6269 to placebo. With a median of 5 years of follow-up, the primary end point occurred in 1478 of 12,505 patients included in the analysis (11.8%), of whom 733 of 6239 (11.7%) had received n-3 fatty acids and 745 of 6266 (11.9%) had received placebo (adjusted hazard ratio with n-3 fatty acids, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.08; P=0.58). The same null results were observed for all the secondary end points. In a large general-practice cohort of patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, daily treatment with n-3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (Funded by Società Prodotti Antibiotici and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00317707.).

  14. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barden, Anne; O’Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B.; Watts, Gerald F.; Puddey, Ian B.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F2-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F2-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients. PMID:27007392

  15. Flaxseed fed pork: n-3 fatty acid enrichment and contribution to dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F; Zijlstra, R T; Dugan, M E R

    2014-01-01

    The potential to increase n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11 weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5 mm backfat (LSS)). The n-3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300 mg/100 g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4 fold that of controls (P<0.001), with further enrichment from inclusion of associated adipose tissues (P<0.001). Increasing flaxseed feeding levels in combination with adipose tissue inclusion amplified total long chain n-3 FA (P<0.05), particularly 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. Flaxseed-fed n-3 FA enriched pork can contribute substantially to daily long chain n-3 FA intakes, particularly for societies with typically low seafood consumption. © 2013.

  16. n-3 fatty acids modulate adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Zirpoli, Hylde; Qi, Kemin

    2013-03-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be related to a number of chronic metabolic abnormalities, including metabolic syndrome. This review presents an update on the effects of n-3 PUFAs on risk factors of metabolic syndrome, especially adipose tissue inflammation, oxidative stress and underlying mechanisms of these effects. Anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 PUFAs are thought to be mediated by the formation of their active metabolites (eicosanoids and other lipid mediators) as well as their regulation of the production of inflammatory mediators (e.g., adipocytokines, cytokines) and immune cell infiltration into adipose tissue. n-3 PUFAs mediate these effects by modulating several pathways, such as those involving nuclear factor-κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and Toll-like receptors. The antioxidative effects of n-3 PUFAs in adipocytes appear to inhibit reactive oxygen species production and alter mitochondrial function. This review summarizes the evidence for beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress. More studies are necessary to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and to relate this topic to human health.

  17. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention. PMID:27812288

  18. Clinical Benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-Linolenic Acid in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Veselinovic, Mirjana; Vasiljevic, Dragan; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Petrovic, Snjezana; Tomic-Lucic, Aleksandra; Savic, Maja; Zivanovic, Sandra; Stojic, Vladislava; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2017-03-25

    (1) Background: Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ɤ-linolenic acid (GLA) are well-known anti-inflammatory agents that may help in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Their effects were examined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; (2) Methods: Sixty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were involved in a prospective, randomized trial of a 12 week supplementation with fish oil (group I), fish oil with primrose evening oil (group II), or with no supplementation (group III). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were done at the beginning and at the end of the study; (3) Results: The Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28 score), number of tender joints and visual analogue scale (VAS) score decreased notably after supplementation in groups I and II (p < 0.001). In plasma phospholipids the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio declined from 15.47 ± 5.51 to 10.62 ± 5.07 (p = 0.005), and from 18.15 ± 5.04 to 13.50 ± 4.81 (p = 0.005) in groups I and II respectively. The combination of n-3 PUFA and GLA (group II) increased ɤ-linolenic acid (0.00 ± 0.00 to 0.13 ± 0.11, p < 0.001), which was undetectable in all groups before the treatments; (4) Conclusion: Daily supplementation with n-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with GLA exerted significant clinical benefits and certain changes in disease activity.

  19. Lipid Class Specific Quantitative Analysis of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Food Supplements.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Laura; Ostermann, Annika I; Konrad, Thade; Riegel, Dieter; Hellhake, Stefan; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-01-11

    Supplementation products containing n-3 PUFA from marine sources serve a large market. Although the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the products is provided by the manufacturer, no or little information is available on their lipid pattern. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed the fatty acid pattern in the lipid fractions triglycerides, phospholipids, ethyl esters, and free fatty acids in supplementation products by means of solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. Twelve products from the European and U.S. markets containing fish, krill, algal, or plant oil were analyzed. Total n-3 PUFA content ranged from 68 g/100 g fat (fish oil) to 42 g/100 g fat (algal oil) to 17 g/100 g fat (krill oil). On the basis of the n-3 PUFA containing lipid class, the supplements can be separated dominantly in ethyl ester, re-esterified triglyceride, triglyceride, and phospholipid containing products. Algae-based products contained natural triglycerides, krill oils a complex mixture of phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and fish oil products either ethyl esters, re-esterified triglycerides, or triglycerides. Even products of the same class and source showed distinct differences in their lipid pattern. A specification of the lipid composition of n-3 PUFA products would allow distinguishing the different (qualities of) supplements.

  20. n-3 Essential fatty acids decrease weight gain in genetically obese mice.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, S C; McAdoo, K R; Horrobin, D F

    1986-07-01

    1. Lean (ln/ln) and obese (ob/ob) mice were given diets containing a fat source of 100 g evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil (fatty acids 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6; EPO) or 100 g cod liver oil (20:5n-3, 22:6n-3; CLO)/kg diet. 2. Weight gain was lower in the ob/ob mice fed on CLO, an effect unrelated to food intake. 3. In the ob/ob mice fed on CLO, thromboxane synthesis by clotting platelets was reduced compared with that in ob/ob mice fed on EPO. 4. The ob/ob CLO-fed mice had lower arachidonic acid but higher levels of n-3 fatty acids in liver, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. 5. The n-3 fatty acids in CLO therefore replaced the n-6 fatty acids in tissue lipids and reduced synthesis of '2 series' prostaglandins in addition to causing lower weight gain in the CLO-fed ob/ob mice.

  1. Mechanisms increasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the heart.

    PubMed

    Glück, Tobias; Rupp, Heinz; Alter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Due to ambiguous findings on cardiovascular benefits of systemic omega-3 fatty acid therapy, endogenous mechanisms contributing to local organ-specific concentrations of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) were examined. Using gas chromatography, 43 fatty acids were analyzed in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in pericardial fluid of male Wistar rats. To examine the endogenous fatty acid metabolism, precursors were administered into the pericardial sac. Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions were induced by talc or fenofibrate, respectively. Physical exercise and a sedentary obese state were used for increased beta-oxidation. DHA (22:6n-3) was increased in ventricular when compared with atrial myocardium (9.0 ± 2.1% vs. 4.7 ± 1.0%, p < 0.001). Intrapericardial EPA (20:5n-3) application lead to an increase of the succeeding tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3) in atrial myocardium, which is a key precursor of DHA. In contrast, proinflammatory stimulation of the n-6 HUFA pathway did not influence the n-3 metabolism. Exercise- and obesity-induced increased beta-oxidation, the finalizing step of DHA synthesis, was associated with increased ventricular DHA concentrations (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.4 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the endogenous metabolism contributes markedly to myocardial HUFA concentrations. The findings are supposed to influence the efficacy of oral HUFA treatment and provide a rationale for divergent findings of previous trials on omega-3 therapy.

  2. n-3 fatty acids: functional differences between food intake, oral supplementation and drug treatments.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Franca; Poli, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for mammalian cells that are not able to synthesise de novo their precursor, α-linolenic acid, and may only partially convert it to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and to a very small extent to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). For this reason, nutritional guidelines for cardiovascular prevention recommend regular fish consumption (approximately two portions per week) in order to increase the intake of the n-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA, mainly referring to fatty fish, living in cold waters, usually very rich in these fatty acids. However, the indication to consume fish regularly is unlikely to be sufficient to ensure that patients with documented coronary heart diseases receive the daily amount of EPA+DHA (ca. 1g) necessary for effective secondary prevention of the disease. This has prompted the development of pharmaceutical formulations both for dietary supplementation and for therapeutic administration, based on several dietary sources, containing greatly variable amounts of EPA and DHA, often with different availabilities. Critical knowledge of these characteristics allows the selection of the best approach in order to optimise the n-3 PUFA supply in various individuals.

  3. Effect of type and level of fish oil supplementation on yolk fat composition and n-3 fatty acids retention efficiency in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cachaldora, P; García-Rebollar, P; Alvarez, C; De Blas, J C; Méndez, J

    2006-02-01

    1. Laying hen performance and yolk fat fatty acid (FA) concentrations were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of different sources and levels of marine fish oil (MFO). 2. Twelve diets were arranged factorially, with three sources (MFO1, MFO2_EPA, MFO3_DHA) and four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60 g/kg) of MFO. 3. Type of diet had little effect on egg production traits, although laying rate and shell thickness slightly decreased at the highest level of MFO supplementation. 4. An increase in level of inclusion of MFO from 15 to 60 g/kg linearly increased concentrations of C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3 and total n-3 FA in yolk fat, but greatly impaired their efficiencies of deposition (g retained/g ingested). 5. An interaction between type and dietary concentration of MFO was found, as the reduction in efficiency of retention of n-3 FA in egg fat with level of MFO was less when the proportion of n-3 in total FA decreased or when that of DHA in total n-3 FA increased. 6. MFO3_ DHA was more efficiently used for total n-3 FA yolk deposition than MFO2_EPA at a similar total n-3 FA intake. 7. Dietary inclusion of MFO reduced LC n-6 FA yolk fat content, which additionally decreased the ratio between total n-6 and total n-3 FA in egg fat. 8. Regression equations were calculated in order to predict efficiency of retention and n-3 FA concentration of yolk fat in the range of diets studied.

  4. Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into selective phosphatidylcholine lipids in human plasma after salmon intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...

  5. Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n-3 fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Murphy, Eric J

    2009-11-01

    There is little doubt regarding the essential nature of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), yet the capacity of dietary ALA to maintain adequate tissue levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids remains quite controversial. This simple point remains highly debated despite evidence that removal of dietary ALA promotes n-3 fatty acid inadequacy, including that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that many experiments demonstrate that dietary inclusion of ALA raises n-3 tissue fatty acid content, including DHA. Herein we propose, based upon our previous work and that of others, that ALA is elongated and desaturated in a tissue-dependent manner. One important concept is to recognize that ALA, like many other fatty acids, rapidly undergoes beta-oxidation and that the carbons are conserved and reused for synthesis of other products including cholesterol and fatty acids. This process and the differences between utilization of dietary DHA or liver-derived DHA as compared to ALA have led to the dogma that ALA is not a useful fatty acid for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 fatty acids, including DHA. Herein, we propose that indeed dietary ALA is a crucial dietary source of n-3 fatty acids and its dietary inclusion is critical for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 levels.

  6. Low n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio Improves Lipid Metabolism, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function in Rats Using Plant Oils as n-3 Fatty Acid Source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li Gang; Song, Zhi Xiu; Yin, Hong; Wang, Yan Yan; Shu, Guo Fang; Lu, Hui Xia; Wang, Shao Kang; Sun, Gui Ju

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be affected by an imbalance in the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on these cardiovascular risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet using plant oils as the main n-3 PUFA source. The 1:1 and 5:1 ratio groups had significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proinflammatory cytokines compared with the 20:1 group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the 20:1 group had significantly increased serum levels of E-Selectin, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and numerous markers of oxidative stress compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The 1:1 group had a significantly decreased lipid peroxide level compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). Serum levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species and vWF tended to increase with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios increasing from 5:1 to 20:1. We demonstrated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (1:1 and 5:1) had a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors by enhancing favorable lipid profiles, having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects, and improving endothelial function. A high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (20:1) had adverse effects. Our results indicated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios exerted beneficial cardiovascular effects, suggesting that plant oils could be used as a source of n-3 fatty acids to prevent CVD. They also suggested that we should be aware of possible adverse effects from excessive n-3 PUFA.

  7. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols enriched in n-3 fatty acids by immobilized microbial lipase.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco de; Campos, Paula Renata Bueno; Alberto, Thiago Grando; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Carvalho, Patrícia de Oliveira

    The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w) for Aspergillus niger lipase and 1:5 (w/w) for Rhizopus javanicus lipase using Amberlite MB-1. Both lipases maintained constant activity for 6 months at 4°C. Reaction time, sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and initial water content of the lipase were investigated to determine their effects on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporation into soybean oil. Structured triacylglycerols with 11.7 and 7.2% of eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid were obtained using Aspergillus niger lipase and Rhizopus javanicus lipase, decreasing the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of soybean oil (11:1 to 3.5:1 and 4.7:1, respectively). The best reaction conditions were: initial water content of lipase of 0.86% (w/w), sardine-free faty acids:soybean oil mole ratio of 3:1 and reaction time of 36h, at 40°C. The significant factors for the acidolysis reaction were the sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and reaction time. The characterization of structured triacylglycerols was obtained using easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. The enzymatic reaction led to the formation of many structured triacylglycerols containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or both polyunsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements?

    PubMed

    Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-12-01

    Eating fish or taking n-3 fatty acid supplements can decrease the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease. Such supplements also provide symptomatic relief for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Recent research suggests that asthma, another highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease, may also respond to fish oil supplements.

  9. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  10. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jackie; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Dagenais, Gilles R; Díaz, Rafael; Dyal, Leanne; Jung, Hyejung; Maggiono, Aldo P; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Ramachandran, Ambady; Riddle, Matthew C; Rydén, Lars E; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-07-26

    The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown. In this double-blind study with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 12,536 patients who were at high risk for cardiovascular events and had impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes to receive a 1-g capsule containing at least 900 mg (90% or more) of ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids or placebo daily and to receive either insulin glargine or standard care. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes. The results of the comparison between n-3 fatty acids and placebo are reported here. During a median follow up of 6.2 years, the incidence of the primary outcome was not significantly decreased among patients receiving n-3 fatty acids, as compared with those receiving placebo (574 patients [9.1%] vs. 581 patients [9.3%]; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.10; P=0.72). The use of n-3 fatty acids also had no significant effect on the rates of major vascular events (1034 patients [16.5%] vs. 1017 patients [16.3%]; hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10; P=0.81), death from any cause (951 [15.1%] vs. 964 [15.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07; P=0.63), or death from arrhythmia (288 [4.6%] vs. 259 [4.1%]; hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.30; P=0.26). Triglyceride levels were reduced by 14.5 mg per deciliter (0.16 mmol per liter) more among patients receiving n-3 fatty acids than among those receiving placebo (P<0.001), without a significant effect on other lipids. Adverse effects were similar in the two groups. Daily supplementation with 1 g of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. (Funded by Sanofi; ORIGIN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00069784.).

  11. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes by targeting plasma membrane molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Jolly, Christopher A.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The effects of n-3 PUFAs are pleiotropic and complex; hence, an understanding of their cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Here we focus on recent data indicating n-3 PUFAs exert immunosuppressive effects on the function of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also present emerging evidence that n-3 PUFAs have immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We then focus on one multifaceted mechanism of n-3 PUFAs, which is the alteration of the biophysical and biochemical organization of the plasma membrane. This mechanism is central for downstream signaling, eicosanoid production, transcriptional regulation and cytokine secretion. We highlight recent work demonstrating n-3 PUFA acyl chains in the plasma membrane target the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts or signaling networks) and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. We conclude by proposing new functional and mechanistic questions in this area of research that will aid in the development of fish oil as adjuvant therapy for treating unresolved chronic inflammation. PMID:22020145

  12. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates triglyceride and inflammatory factors level in hfat-1 transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingxing; Pang, Daxin; Yuan, Ting; Li, Zhuang; Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Mingjun; Ren, Wenzhi; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Tang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-10

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important to human health, especially in cases of cardiovascular disease. Although beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs have been observed in a number of studies, the mechanisms involved in these effects have yet to be discovered. We generated hfat-1 transgenic pigs with traditional somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The fatty acid composition in ear tissue of pigs were detected with gas chromatography. The cholesterol, triglycerides (TAG) and inflammation mediators in circulation were investigated. The hfat-1 transgenic pigs were developed which accumulate high levels of n-3 PUFAs than wild-types pigs. Gas chromatography results demonstrated that the total n-3 PUFAs in the ear tissues of the transgenic founders were 2-fold higher than the wild-type pigs. A lipid analysis demonstrated that the levels of TAG in the transgenic pigs were decreased significantly. The basal levels of the inflammation mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transgenic pigs were inhibited markedly compared with the wild-type pigs. These results suggest that n-3 PUFAs accumulation in vivo may have beneficial effects on vascular and hfat-1 transgenic pigs may be a useful tool for investigating the involved mechanisms.

  13. Interactions between dietary n-3 fatty acids and genetic variants and risk of disease

    PubMed Central

    Corella, Dolores; Ordovás, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional genomics has undergone rapid development and the concept is now very popular with the general public. Therefore, there is increasing demand for knowledge on adapting dietary composition to the genome. Our aim has been to undertake a systematic review so as to find out the level of evidence existing on whether the effects of n-3 fatty acids on health can be modulated by genetic variation. A systematic literature search was conducted on studies that jointly analyse the effect of one or more genetic variants in candidate genes and n-3 fatty acids. Both observational and experimental studies were included. Results are classified in accordance with whether the study was undertaken on intermediate phenotypes (plasma lipid concentrations, glucose, inflammation markers, anthropometric measurements) or disease phenotypes (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, etc) and whether it was experimental or observational. A wide diversity of genetic variants and little consistency in the publication of replication studies was found. Greater consistency was observed in studies that involved the FADS1 and FADS2 locus in the determination of n-3 fatty acid concentrations in biological samples. Most of the studies were designed to measure gene-diet interactions and not diet-gene interactions. Despite the fact that multiple studies have shown statistically significant interactions between n-3 fatty acids and certain genetic variants on intermediate and disease phenotypes, the individual level of evidence is very low and recommendations cannot be made on increasing or reducing the intake of n-3 fatty acids based on each individual’s genotype. PMID:22591901

  14. Correlation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption and BDNF peripheral levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several studies have reported an association between mental disorders and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), this association is still poorly understood. The study of factors associated with both BDNF levels and mental disorders, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), may help to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the relationship between the two variables. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether the intake n-3 PUFAs correlates with serum levels of BDNF. Findings This study involved 137 adolescents drawn from a community sample, including a group with high levels of anxiety, assessed using the Screen for Children and Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Blood samples were collected and serum BDNF levels were measured. n-3 PUFAs were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire for adolescents. Correlations were performed to assess the association between n-3 PUFAs intake and BDNF levels. Effects of potential confounders (total fat consumption, age, gender and anxiety) were examined using linear regression models. There was a direct correlation between n-3 PUFAs consumption and serum BDNF levels, which remained significant even after accounting for potential confounders. Conclusions We were able to detect a correlation between n-3 PUFAs intake and peripheral BDNF levels. Our study was limited by its small sample size, and our external validity may be restricted by the oversampling of anxious adolescents. Our findings may help determine the nature of the association between mental disorders and serum levels of BDNF. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs intake affects BDNF levels, and how this may lead to an increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24593295

  15. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  16. Long chain N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette

    2012-01-01

    The diet is considered to have a major impact on human health. Dietary lipids including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) possess potent immunomodulatory activities. Over the last decades the incidence of inflammatory disorders including allergic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been rising. This phenomenon is associated with deficiencies in N-3 LCPUFA, found in fatty fish, and increased content of N-6 LCPUFA in the Western diet. LCPUFA act via different mechanisms including membrane fluidity, raft composition, lipid mediator formation, signaling pathways and transmembrane receptors. N-3 LCPUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the development of allergic disease by affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system involved in the initiation and persistence of allergic disease. Fish oil has been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of allergic disease in infants at risk when supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. Subtle effects of N-3 LCPUFA on the outcome of the immune response may underlie these protective effects. This review describes the currently reported effects of LCPUFA on dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and mast cells. Also CVD are positively affected by N-3 LCPUFA. Populations consuming high amounts of oily fish are protected against CVD. Moreover N-3 LCPUFA are effective in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Amongst other effects, EPA and DHA have been shown to suppress endothelial cell activation hereby reducing adhesion molecule expression and endothelial cell - leukocyte interactions. This review describes the mechanistic basis of the preventive role for N-3 LCPUFA in allergic disease and CVD.

  17. A new piece in the puzzling effect of n-3 fatty acids on atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) FA are reported to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD), notably through their beneficial action on atherosclerosis development. In this context dietary intake of long-chain marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended and randomised trials largely support that EPA and DHA intake is associated with a reduction of CVD. However, mechanisms governing the atheroprotective action of n-3 FA are still unclear and numerous studies using mouse models conducted so far do not allow to reach a precise view of the cellular and molecular effects of n-3 FA on atherosclerosis. In the current issue of Atherosclerosis, Chang et al. provide important new information on the anti-atherogenic properties of n-3 FA by analysing the incremental replacement of saturated FA by pure fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential role of dietary n-3 fatty acids in the prevention of dementia and macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2006-06-01

    Dementia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are major causes of disability in the elderly. n-3 Fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are highly concentrated in brain and retinal tissue and may prevent or delay the progression of dementia and AMD. Low dietary intakes and plasma concentrations have been reported to be associated with dementia, cognitive decline, and AMD risk. The major dietary sources of DHA are fish and fish oils, although dietary supplements are available. At this point, it is not possible to make firm recommendations regarding n-3 fatty acids and the prevention of dementia and AMD. Our own unpublished observations from the Framingham Heart Study suggest that > or =180 mg/d of dietary DHA (approximately 2.7 fish servings/wk) is associated with an approximately 50% reduction in dementia risk. At least this amount of DHA is generally found in one commercially available 1-g fish oil capsule given daily.

  19. N-3 fatty acids and membrane microdomains: from model membranes to lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Teague, Heather

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the author's research on fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids, plasma membrane organization and B cell function. We first cover basic model membrane studies that investigated how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) targeted the organization of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched lipid microdomains. A key finding here was that DHA had a relatively poor affinity for cholesterol. This work led to a model that predicted DHA acyl chains in cells would manipulate lipid-protein microdomain organization and thereby function. We then review how the predictions of the model were tested with B cells in vitro followed by experiments using mice fed fish oil. These studies reveal a highly complex picture on how n-3 fatty acids target lipid-protein organization and B cell function. Key findings are as follows: (1) n-3 fatty acids target not just the plasma membrane but also endomembrane organization; (2) DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), disrupts microdomain spatial distribution (i.e. clustering), (3) DHA alters protein lateral organization and (4) changes in membrane organization are accompanied by functional effects on both innate and adaptive B cell function. Altogether, the research over the past 10 years has led to an evolution of the original model on how DHA reorganizes membrane microdomains. The work raises the intriguing possibility of testing the model at the human level to target health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary flavonoids increase plasma very long-chain (n-3) fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Tonelli, Chiara; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids probably contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their effects are not fully elucidated. PUFA of the (n-3) series also have health benefits. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that wine flavonoids may interact with the metabolism of (n-3) PUFA and increase their blood and cell levels. The present studies in rats were designed to assess whether flavonoids actually increase plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main very long-chain (n-3) PUFA. Rats were fed a corn-derived anthocyanin (ACN)-rich (ACN-rich) or ACN-free diet with constant intakes of plant and marine (n-3) PUFA for 8 wk (Expt. 1). Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC. The ACN-rich diet contained ~0.24 ± 0.01 mg of ACN/g pellets. There were no significant differences between groups in the main saturated, monounsaturated, and (n-6) fatty acids. In contrast, plasma EPA and DHA were greater in the ACN-rich diet group than in the ACN-free diet group (P < 0.05). We obtained similar results in 2 subsequent experiments in which rats were administered palm oil (80 μL/d) and consumed the ACN-rich or ACN-free diet (Expt. 2) or were supplemented with fish oil (60 mg/d, providing 35 mg DHA and 12 mg EPA) and consumed the ACN-rich or ACN-free diet (Expt. 3). In both experiments, plasma EPA and DHA were significantly greater in the ACN-rich diet group. These studies demonstrate that the consumption of flavonoids increases plasma very long-chain (n-3) PUFA levels. These data confirm previous clinical and epidemiological studies and provide new insights into the health benefits of flavonoids.

  1. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary?

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-03-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  2. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in immunity and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Harbige, L S

    1998-11-01

    Clearly there is much evidence to show that under well-controlled laboratory and dietary conditions fatty acid intake can have profound effects on animal models of autoimmune disease. Studies in human autoimmune disease have been less dramatic; however, human trials have been subject to uncontrolled dietary and genetic backgrounds, infection and other environmental influences, and basic trial designs have been inadequate. The impact of dietary fatty acids on animal autoimmune disease models appears to depend on the animal model and the type and amount of fatty acids fed. Diets low in fat, essential fatty acid-deficient, or high in n-3 fatty acids from fish oils increase the survival and reduce disease severity in spontaneous autoantibody-mediated disease, whilst linoleic acid-rich diets appear to increase disease severity. In experimentally-induced T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, essential fatty acid-deficient diets or diets supplemented with n-3 fatty acids appear to augment disease, whereas n-6 fatty acids prevent or reduce the severity. In contrast, in both T-cell and antibody-mediated auto-immune disease the desaturated and elongated metabolites of linoleic acid are protective. Suppression of autoantibody and T lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by high-dose fish oils are all likely mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids ameliorate autoimmune disease. However, these could be undesirable long-term effects of high-dose fish oil which may compromise host immunity. The protective mechanism(s) of n-6 fatty acids in T-cell- mediated autoimmune disease are less clear, but may include dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid- and arachidonic acid-sensitive immunoregulatory circuits such as Th1 responses, TGF beta 1-mediated effects and Th3-like responses. It is often claimed that n-6 fatty acids promote autoimmune and inflammatory disease based on results obtained with linoleic acid only. It should be

  3. Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Liu, Ying; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  4. Twice-weekly consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon increases plasma content of phospholipid n-3 fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated intake of the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is related to risk reduction of cardiovascular and other diseases. Increased consumption of seafood such as farmed Atlantic salmon is an effective way to consume n-3 but there is a paucity of data as ...

  5. EPA, DHA, and Lipoic Acid Differentially Modulate the n-3 Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Atlantic Salmon Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bou, Marta; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Berge, Gerd M; Ruyter, Bente

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how EPA, DHA, and lipoic acid (LA) influence the different metabolic steps in the n-3 fatty acid (FA) biosynthetic pathway in hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon fed four dietary levels (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 mixture of these FA. The hepatocytes were incubated with [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 in the presence or absence of LA (0.2 mM). Increased endogenous levels of EPA and/or DHA and LA exposure both led to similar responses in cells with reduced desaturation and elongation of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, and EPA, in agreement with reduced expression of the Δ6 desaturase gene involved in the first step of conversion. DHA production, on the other hand, was maintained even in groups with high endogenous levels of DHA, possibly due to a more complex regulation of this last step in the n-3 metabolic pathway. Inhibition of the Δ6 desaturase pathway led to increased direct elongation to 20:3n-3 by both DHA and LA. Possibly the route by 20:3n-3 and then Δ8 desaturation to 20:4n-3, bypassing the first Δ6 desaturase step, can partly explain the maintained or even increased levels of DHA production. LA increased DHA production in the phospholipid fraction of hepatocytes isolated from fish fed 0 and 0.5% EPA and/or DHA, indicating that LA has the potential to further increase the production of this health-beneficial FA in fish fed diets with low levels of EPA and/or DHA.

  6. Mechanisms of enhanced insulin secretion and sensitivity with n-3 unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-06-01

    The widespread acceptance that increased dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), improve health is based on extensive studies in animals, isolated cells and humans. Visceral adiposity is part of the metabolic syndrome, together with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and inflammation. Alleviation of metabolic syndrome requires normalization of insulin release and responses. This review assesses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that allow n-3 PUFAs to improve insulin secretion and sensitivity. EPA has been more extensively studied than either ALA or DHA. The complex actions of EPA include increased G-protein-receptor-mediated release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) from enteroendocrine L-cells in the intestine, up-regulation of the apelin pathway and down-regulation of other control pathways to promote insulin secretion by the pancreatic β-cells, together with suppression of inflammatory responses to adipokines, inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α actions and prevention of decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion to improve peripheral insulin responses. The receptors involved and the mechanisms of action probably differ for ALA and DHA, with antiobesity effects predominating for ALA and anti-inflammatory effects for DHA. Modifying both GLP-1 release and the actions of adipokines by n-3 PUFAs could lead to additive improvements in both insulin secretion and sensitivity.

  7. Clinical Benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-Linolenic Acid in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Veselinovic, Mirjana; Vasiljevic, Dragan; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Petrovic, Snjezana; Tomic-Lucic, Aleksandra; Savic, Maja; Zivanovic, Sandra; Stojic, Vladislava; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ɤ-linolenic acid (GLA) are well-known anti-inflammatory agents that may help in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Their effects were examined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; (2) Methods: Sixty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were involved in a prospective, randomized trial of a 12 week supplementation with fish oil (group I), fish oil with primrose evening oil (group II), or with no supplementation (group III). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were done at the beginning and at the end of the study; (3) Results: The Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28 score), number of tender joints and visual analogue scale (VAS) score decreased notably after supplementation in groups I and II (p < 0.001). In plasma phospholipids the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio declined from 15.47 ± 5.51 to 10.62 ± 5.07 (p = 0.005), and from 18.15 ± 5.04 to 13.50 ± 4.81 (p = 0.005) in groups I and II respectively. The combination of n-3 PUFA and GLA (group II) increased ɤ-linolenic acid (0.00 ± 0.00 to 0.13 ± 0.11, p < 0.001), which was undetectable in all groups before the treatments; (4) Conclusion: Daily supplementation with n-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with GLA exerted significant clinical benefits and certain changes in disease activity. PMID:28346333

  8. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fetal pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Houeijeh, Ali; Aubry, Estelle; Coridon, Hélène; Montaigne, Karine; Sfeir, Rony; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    Although evidence exists that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may improve the outcome in patients with severe respiratory failure, little is known regarding their pulmonary circulatory effects. This question is clinically relevant in respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension, in particular in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fetal pulmonary circulation. Randomized, placebo-controlled comparative laboratory investigation. University research facility. Fifty-two chronically prepared lamb fetuses. Catheters and ultrasonic flow transducer were placed through a left thoracotomy in the lamb fetus to determine aortic, pulmonary, and left atrial pressures and left pulmonary artery blood flow. We compared the pulmonary vascular responses to 120 mins of Omegaven (lipid emulsions enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) or Intralipide (lipid emulsions enriched in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) infusion. Then we investigated the effects of Omegaven on the pulmonary circulation after nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-nitro-arginine, potassium channel blockade by tetraethylammonium, and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase inhibition by (methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide. Pulmonary artery and aortic pressures as well as blood gases and plasma lactate concentrations did not change during either fat emulsion infusion. Left pulmonary blood flow increased by 30% and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased by 28% during Omegaven infusion, whereas left pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary vascular resistance did not change during Intralipide infusion. This pulmonary vascular response to Omegaven was not altered by l-nitro-arginine. At the opposite, Omegaven induced pulmonary vasodilatation was abolished by tetraethylammonium and markedly attenuated by (methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide. Lipid emulsion containing

  9. Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid; Schulz, Richard; Günther, Andreas; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lijun; Roth, Joachim; Seeger, Werner; Kang, Jing X.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory potency. Objectives: To determine whether the ability of fat-1 mice to endogenously convert n-6 to n-3 FA, and thus generate an increased ratio of n-3 to n-6 FA, impacts experimental ALI. Methods: We investigated ALI induced by intratracheal instillation of endotoxin in fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice, assessing leukocyte numbers, protein concentration, and prostaglandin and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as free FA in plasma, and lung ventilator compliance. Body temperature and motor activity of mice—markers of sickness behavior—were also recorded. Measurements and Main Results: In ALI, fat-1 mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and thromboxane B2 levels in lavage fluid compared with WT mice. Free AA levels were increased in the plasma of WT mice in response to endotoxin, whereas EPA and DHA were increased in the fat-1 group. Ventilator compliance was significantly improved in fat-1 mice. Body temperature and motor activity were decreased in ALI. fat-1 Mice recovered body temperature and motor activity faster. Conclusions: fat-1 Mice exhibited reduced features of ALI and sickness behavior. Increasing the availability of n-3 FA may thus be beneficial in critically ill patients with ALI. PMID:19136374

  10. Blood pressure-lowering effects of long chain n-3 fatty acids from meals enriched with liquid fish oil and from microencapsulated powder.

    PubMed

    Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Martinsdottir, Emilia; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the etiology of hypertension. Blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are promising. The aim was to investigate whether different formulations of fish oil differently affect blood pressure in community-dwelling adults. The hypothesis was that fish oil formulations would improve BP in comparison with a placebo. In this 4-week randomized, placebo-controlled, doubly-blinded dietary intervention study, participants (N = 99, >50 years) from the capital area of Iceland were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (n = 38) received 6 meals/week fortified with a liquid fish oil and placebo powder. Group 2 (n = 30) received conventional (unfortified) meals and microencapsulated powder. Group 3 (n = 31) was the control group which received conventional meals and placebo powder. Calculated on a weekly basis, the amount of EPA + DHA provided was 1.5 g/d. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured before and after the intervention period. Seventy-seven subjects finished the study (77.8%). Drop-out rates were not different between groups. According to multivariate statistics, endpoint SBP was lower in Group 1 (-7.0 mmHg, p = 0.037) and in Group 2 (-7.2 mmHg, p = 0.037) as compared with Group 3. There was no significant difference in DBP between the groups. Our study shows that LC n-3 PUFA from microencapsulated powder are equally effective to meaningfully reduce SBP as LC n-3 PUFA from meals enriched with liquid fish oil in comparison with a control group.

  11. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the development of renovascular hypertension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, D.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Raederstorff, D.; Moreau, D.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of a dietary n-3 PUFA supply was investigated on the blood pressure (BP) increase elicited by left renal artery stenosis in rats distributed in 3 groups (n = 8) fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet either as control diet or enriched diets (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The PUFA intake induced large alterations in heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid profile, but did not influence body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, renal left atrophy and right hypertrophy. Within 4 weeks, BP raised from 120-180 +/- 2 mm Hg in the control group, but only to 165 +/- 3 mm Hg in the n-3 PUFA groups. After stabilization of BP in the 3 groups, the rats received a short administration of increasing dose of perindopril. The lower dose (0.5 mg/kg) moderately decreased BP only in the control group. With higher doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) BP was normalized in the 3 groups, with a higher amplitude of the BP lowering effect in the control group. A moderate n-3 PUFA intake can contribute to prevent the development of peripheral hypertension in rats by a mechanism that may involve angiotensin converting enzyme.

  12. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity. PMID:26729182

  13. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the development of renovascular hypertension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, D.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Raederstorff, D.; Moreau, D.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of a dietary n-3 PUFA supply was investigated on the blood pressure (BP) increase elicited by left renal artery stenosis in rats distributed in 3 groups (n = 8) fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet either as control diet or enriched diets (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The PUFA intake induced large alterations in heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid profile, but did not influence body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, renal left atrophy and right hypertrophy. Within 4 weeks, BP raised from 120-180 +/- 2 mm Hg in the control group, but only to 165 +/- 3 mm Hg in the n-3 PUFA groups. After stabilization of BP in the 3 groups, the rats received a short administration of increasing dose of perindopril. The lower dose (0.5 mg/kg) moderately decreased BP only in the control group. With higher doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) BP was normalized in the 3 groups, with a higher amplitude of the BP lowering effect in the control group. A moderate n-3 PUFA intake can contribute to prevent the development of peripheral hypertension in rats by a mechanism that may involve angiotensin converting enzyme.

  14. (N-3) Fatty Acids: Molecular Role and Clinical Uses in Psychiatric Disorders12

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Pedro Luis; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    New discoveries in the field of neurophysiology and neuropharmacology have revealed the role of (n-3) fatty acids in controlling inflammation and protecting neuron cells from oxidative damage, preserving their function. It has also been thought that their psychoactive properties could be beneficial in certain psychiatric illnesses. This article discusses the newest discoveries of the affected activities by these fats in the cerebral cortex and the efforts that have been made to put them in practice in clinical trials in humans. In general, we were able to detect certain discord in the scientific community when designing placebo-based studies (mainly in establishing the appropriate therapeutic dose of (n-3) fatty acids, varying from the recommended dietary dose to an amount that may be 3 or 4 times higher), and in interpreting results. Although many studies have had the validity of their results questioned because of their small sample size, several studies seem to indicate that the (n-3) fatty acids are useful therapeutic tools in treating psychiatric conditions such as major depression, bipolar disorder, and several other disorders. Larger sample size studies are still required to better analyze the treatment potential of these agents. PMID:22585900

  15. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  16. Erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid levels and carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Ping; Chen, Chao-gang; Chen, Yu-ming; Su, Yi-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Prospective studies have supported the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acid consumption on cardiac deaths, but limited data focused on atherosclerosis. We investigated the associations between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older Chinese. 847 subjects (285 men and 562 women), aged 40-65 years, from Guangzhou, China were included in this community-based cross-sectional study between December 2005 and January 2008. The levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes were measured by gas chromatography. Carotid ultrasound examination was conducted to obtain intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery and the carotid bifurcation. Dietary data and other covariates were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. After adjustment for age, sex, and other confounders, negative dose-response associations between the contents of individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane and the prevalence of carotid artery wall thickening and plaque were observed. A comparison in the highest and lowest tertiles gave odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for thickening in the walls of the common carotid artery of 0.58 (0. 34-0.97; P-trend = 0. 037) for DHA, and 0.39 (0.23-0.67; P-trend < 0.001) for ALA. However, EPA was not significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Similar results were found for thickening at the carotid bifurcation and the occurrence of carotid artery plaque. Higher levels of DHA and ALA in the erythrocyte membrane were significantly associated with a lower burden of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in fatty acids metabolism during differentiation of Atlantic salmon preadipocytes; effects of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Todorcević, Marijana; Vegusdal, Anne; Gjøen, Tor; Sundvold, Hilde; Torstensen, Bente E; Kjaer, Marte A; Ruyter, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preadipocytes, isolated from visceral adipose tissue, differentiate from an unspecialized fibroblast like cell type to mature adipocytes filled with lipid droplets in culture. The expression of the adipogenic gene markers peroxisome proliferated activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 1 and fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 3 increased during differentiation. In addition, we describe a novel alternatively spliced form of PPARgamma (PPARgamma short), the expression of which increased during differentiation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) lowered the triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in mature salmon adipocytes compared to oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA). This finding indicates that a reduced level of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (HUFAs) in fish diets, when the traditional marine oil is exchanged for n-9 fatty acids (FAs) rich vegetable oils (VOs), may influence visceral fat deposition in salmonids. Moreover, major differences in the metabolism of EPA, DHA and OA at different stages during differentiation of adipocytes occur. Most of the EPA and DHA were oxidized in preadipocytes, while they were mainly stored in TAGs in mature adipocytes in contrast to OA which was primarily stored in TAGs at all stages of differentiation.

  18. Effects of quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids on testicular injury induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Uygur, R; Yagmurca, M; Alkoc, O A; Genc, A; Songur, A; Ucok, K; Ozen, O A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids on the changes in testis induced by ethanol. Forty-five rats divided into five groups, control, ethanol, ethanol+quercetin, ethanol+fish n-3 fatty acids and ethanol+quercetin+fish n-3 fatty acids. At the end of 8 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed. Degenerative changes in histopathological analyses, the decreased body weight gain and seminiferous tubule diameters in ethanol group have been observed. TUNEL assay also showed an increase in apoptotic cell number. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), xanthine oxidase (XO) and testosterone levels were decreased as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased in ethanol group. Histopathological changes caused by ethanol have been improved by quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids. It was also found that protection was provided by increasing SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in groups administered quercetin, fish n-3 fatty acids and quercetin+fish n-3 fatty acids, and by decreasing the levels of MDA and NO in groups administered both quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids together. These results suggest that quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids are beneficial agents to reduce testicular injury induced by ethanol except for testosterone levels.

  19. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering egg quality or production in laying hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6-fatty acids and extruding defatted seed meal results in high protein meal (~40%) containing residual n-3 fatty acids. We examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina seed meal to commercial laying hens on egg production, quality, ...

  20. Nutritional biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease: the association between carotenoids, n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shinto, Lynne; Connor, William E; Quinn, Joseph F

    2008-02-01

    Carotenoids are fat-soluble antioxidants that may protect polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids from oxidation, and are potentially important for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention and treatment. Fasting plasma carotenoids were measured in 36 AD subjects and 10 control subjects by HPLC. Correlations between plasma carotenoid levels, red blood cell (RBC) n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity were examined in AD patients. Moderately severe AD patients (MMSE=16-19) had much lower plasma levels of two major carotenoids: lutein and beta-carotene, compared to mild AD patients (MMSE=24-27) or controls. Among AD patients, variables (lutein, beta-carotene, RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and LDL-cholesterol) were significantly correlated with MMSE. A lower MMSE score was associated with lower lutein, beta-carotene and RBC DHA levels, and a higher LDL-cholesterol level. These variables explained the majority of variation in dementia severity (55% of variance in MMSE). Lutein, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were positively correlated with RBC DHA in AD patients. The association between higher carotenoids levels and DHA and higher MMSE scores, supports a protective role of both types of nutrients in AD. These findings suggest targeting multiple specific nutrients, lutein, beta-carotene, and DHA in strategies to slow the rate of cognitive decline.

  1. Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 Mediates the Beneficial Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids on Body Composition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Jin; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Seung Hun; Im, Dong-Soon; Kim, Inki; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Sungsub; Kim, Beom-Jun

    2017-09-12

    As populations continue to age worldwide, sarcopenic obesity has heightened interest due to its medical importance. Although much evidence now indicates that n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may have beneficial effects on body composition including fat and muscle, their exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Because free FA receptor 4 (FFA4) has been reported to be a receptor for n-3 FAs, we hypothesized that the protective role of n-3 FAs on body composition could be mediated by FFA4. To test this possibility, we generated mice overexpressing n-3 FAs but lacking FFA4 by crossing fat-1 transgenic (fat-1 (Tg+)) and FFA4 knockout (Ffar4 (-/-)) mice. Because fat-1 (Tg+) mice, in which n-6 is endogenously converted into n-3 FAs, contain high n-3 FA levels, they could be a good animal model for studying the effects of n-3 FAs in vivo. Male and female littermates were included in high-fat-diet- (HFD) and ovariectomy-induced models, respectively. In the HFD model, male fat-1 (Tg+) mice had a lower percentage of fat mass and a higher percentage of lean mass than their wild-type littermates only when they had the Ffar4 (+/+) not the Ffar4 (-/-) background. Female fat-1 (Tg+) mice showed less increase of fat mass percentage and less decrease of lean mass percentage after ovariectomy than wild-type littermates. However, these effects on body composition were attenuated in the Ffar4 (-/-) background. Taken together, our results indicate that the beneficial effects of n-3 FAs on body composition were mediated by FFA4 and thus suggest that FFA4 may be a potential therapeutic target for modulating sarcopenic obesity.

  2. Application of partially fluorinated carboxylic acids as ion-pairing reagents in LC/ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eiichi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Asakawa, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the application of partially fluorinated carboxylic acids as ion-pairing reagents for basic analytes in high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) in positive-ion mode. Partially fluoridated carboxylic acids such as difluoroacetic acid, 3,3,3-trifluoropropionic acid and 3,3,3-trifluoromethyl-2-trifluoromethylpropionic acid functioned as volatile paired-ion similarly as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). These acids provided basic analytes larger retention factor (k) compared to acetic acid or formic acid in LC. The ESI-MS signal strength of analytes with these acids were higher than that of TFA and was analogous to that of acetic acid or formic acid. The performances of partially fluorinated carboxylic acids in LC and ESI-MS for basic analytes were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis using physicochemical descriptors of acids. Equations obtained in the analysis enabled us the quantitative evaluation of the performance of fluorinated carboxylic acids as ion-pair reagents for basic analytes in LC/ESI-MS.

  3. n-3 Oil sources for use in aquaculture--alternatives to the unsustainable harvest of wild fish.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-12-01

    The present review examines renewable sources of oils with n-3 long-chain (> or = C20) PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA) as alternatives to oil from wild-caught fish in aquafeeds. Due to the increased demand for and price of wild-caught marine sources of n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oil, their effective and sustainable replacement in aquafeeds is an industry priority, especially because dietary n-3 LC-PUFA from eating fish are known to have health benefits in human beings. The benefits and challenges involved in changing dietary oil in aquaculture are highlighted and four major potential sources of n-3 LC-PUFA for aquafeeds, other than fish oil, are compared. These sources of oil, which contain n-3 LC-PUFA, specifically EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) or precursors to these key essential fatty acids, are: (1) other marine sources of oil; (2) vegetable oils that contain biosynthetic precursors, such as stearidonic acid, which may be used by fish to produce n-3 LC-PUFA; (3) single-cell oil sources of n-3 LC-PUFA; (4) vegetable oils derived from oil-seed crops that have undergone genetic modification to contain n-3 LC-PUFA. The review focuses on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), because it is the main intensively cultured finfish species and it both uses and stores large amounts of oil, in particular n-3 LC-PUFA, in the flesh.

  4. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21-56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70-76% and Fe by 20-32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P < 0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone.

  5. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; O’Reilly, Éilis J.; Falcone, Guido J.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Importance Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe progressive disease that cannot be prevented or cured. Diet-derived long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are incorporated in brain lipids and modulate oxidative and inflammatory processes, and could thus affect ALS risk and progression. Objective To examine the association between n-6 and n-3 PUFA consumption and ALS risk. Design, setting, and participants Longitudinal analyses based on 1,002,082 participants (479,114 women; 522,968 men) in five prospective cohorts: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the Nurses’ Health Study. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire developed or modified for each cohort. Participants were categorized into cohort-specific quintiles of intake of energy-adjusted dietary variables. Main outcomes and measures Cohort-specific multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (RR) of ALS incidence or death estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression and pooled using random-effects methods. Results A total of 995 ALS cases were documented during the follow-up. A greater n-3 PUFA intake was associated with a reduced risk of ALS – the pooled, multivariable-adjusted RR for the highest to the lowest quintile was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53–0.81; P trend<0.001). Consumption of both α-linolenic acid (RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.89; P trend=0.003) and marine n-3 PUFAs (RR=0.84; 95% CI: 0.65–1.08, P trend=0.03) contributed to this inverse association. Intakes of n-6 PUFA were not associated with ALS risk. Conclusion and relevance Consumption of foods high in n-3 PUFAs may help prevent or delay onset of ALS. PMID:25023276

  6. Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.

  7. Frequency and type of seafood consumed influence plasma (n-3) fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyoju; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Barr, R Graham; Tsai, Michael Y; Tracy, Russell P; Siscovick, David S

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have adequately considered the type of seafood and background dietary factors when evaluating diet-biomarker and diet-disease associations. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between different seafood meals and long-chain (n-3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] biomarkers in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with white, Chinese-American, black, and Hispanic participants. Dietary intake from a FFQ and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed in 900 MESA participants who were not taking fish oil supplements. When simultaneously adjusting for all seafood groups, concentrations of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipids were positively correlated with nonfried fish consumption in all 4 ethnic groups (r = 0.24-0.46; P < 0.01) but not with nonfried shellfish, fried fish, or fish in mixed dishes. The magnitude of this correlation was attenuated by up to 67% when type of seafood was not taken into account. After further adjusting for demographic characteristics and other dietary characteristics in multivariate regression models, the association of nonfried fish consumption remained significant (P-trend < 0.001). Data were suggestive of a plateau effect at a nonfried fish intake of about twice weekly. The association of nonfried fish consumption was not modified by intake of (n-6) PUFA or alpha-linolenic acid. This study highlights the importance of cooking methods (nonfried vs. fried fish), types of seafood (fish vs. shellfish), and the overall seafood consumption when assessing health effects of long-chain (n-3) fatty acids of seafood consumption.

  8. Highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids status of Canadian Inuit: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan E; Kubow, Stan; Egeland, Grace M

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that dietary patterns and the extent of reliance upon traditional food vary among Inuit communities. Inuit traditional foods are an important source of nutrients such as highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (HUFA n-3), whose beneficial effects include protection against ischemic heart disease. Dietary transition is occurring with younger generations consuming less traditional foods and more market foods with low nutrient density. Utilizing erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition as an indicator of body HUFA n-3 status, which reflects dietary intake levels of traditional Inuit foods, we explored the regional and age variability of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (HUFA n-3) in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey. Cross-sectional health survey. Participants were recruited through random sampling of households. Fatty acid data were available among 2,200 adults (≥18 yr). HUFA n-3 levels in the Eastern Arctic were significantly higher than in the Western Arctic, with Nunatsiavut (northern Labrador) and Baffin showing the highest HUFA n-3 status compared to Kivalliq, Kitikmeot and Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) (p<0.0001). Fatty acid proportion in erythrocyte membranes showed pronounced differences between coastal communities and inland communities, including a higher HUFA n-3 status among the coastal communities (p<0.0001). Additionally, the HUFA n-3 status showed a strong positive association with age, particularly in Baffin and Kivalliq. HUFA n-3 were inversely associated with saturated (β=-0.98 [SE=0.03], R2=0.36, p<0.0001) and trans fatty acids (β=-0.06 [SE=0.004], R2=0.07, p<0.0001). The present study results provided biochemical support for varying dietary patterns and dietary transition among Inuit across the Canadian Arctic. The analyses also suggested multifactorial determinants of HUFA n-3 status among Canadian Arctic Inuit. A nutritional intervention strategy with multiple approaches may be needed to improve

  9. Dietary fat modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: n-3 fatty acids and beyond.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat has been recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Less is known of the health risks in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), of a diet with an unhealthy fat profile, in general characterized by insufficient polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and excess satu-rated fatty acids (SFA). The dietary intake of PUFA, both the n-3 and n-6 subfamilies, is increasingly gaining attention in CKD, owing to its broad cardioprotective effects. Conversely, dietary SFA may promote CVD in this vulnerable population. This review discusses the potential benefits of dietary fat modification in CKD patients, including plausible effects on renal function, albuminuria, lipoproteins, nutritional status, inflammation, thrombosis and clinical outcomes. Increasing evidence supports the concept that n-3 PUFA might have therapeutic potential in reducing proteinuria in CKD and reducing triglycerides and inflammation in dialysis patients. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that linoleic acid, a major n-6 PUFA derived from vegetable oils, may be beneficial for a number of CVD risk factors. Increased consumption of oily fish as part of plant-based diets with low content of SFA is likely to benefit patients who have CKD, or are at risk of developing CKD. Such recommendations are in line with the concept of a healthy "Mediterranean diet" and are in line with current dietary recommendations for CVD prevention in the community.

  10. 'Designer oils' low in n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio beneficially modifies cardiovascular risks in mice.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Natalie D; Azordegan, Nazila; Harris-Janz, Sydney; Ma, David W L; Suh, Miyoung; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular benefits of dietary n-3 fatty acids have been shown. However, benefits of n-3 fatty acids as part of a high fat, low n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio diet has not been fully characterized. Aim of this study is to investigate cardiovascular and metabolic benefits of 'designer oils' containing a low ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids in C57BL/6 mice. Three groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with either a fish oil- or flaxseed oil-based 'designer oil' with an approximate n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 (treated groups, n = 6 each) or with a safflower oil-based formulation with a high ratio (25:1) of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (control group, n = 6) for 6 weeks. Food intake, body weight, and blood lipid levels were monitored regularly. Fatty acid profile of the heart tissues was assessed. Histological assessment of liver samples was conducted. At the end of the study body weight and food intake was significantly higher in the flax group compared to control. The levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was significantly increased in the heart phospholipids in both flax and fish groups compared to control; tissue 20:4n-6 was significantly reduced in the fish group compared to control. Significant liver pathology was observed in the control group only. Lowering dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids may significantly reduce cardiovascular and metabolic risks in mice regardless of the source of n-3 fatty acids.

  11. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA) content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM), because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as an enriched diet or as a

  12. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  13. Determination of Aristolochic Acid I in Botanicals and Dietary Supplements Potentially Contaminated with Aristolochic Acid I Using LC-UV with Confirmation by LC/MS: Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Wendy R.; Sullivan, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for the determination of aristolochic acid I, also known as aristolochic acid A, at levels >2.00 μg/g in botanical species and dietary supplements potentially contaminated with aristolochic acid I. Aristolochic acid I was extracted from various matrixes with aqueous acetonitrile. The amount of aristolochic acid I present was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) using an ultraviolet (UV) detector with confirmation by LC/mass spectrometry (MS). Thirteen blind duplicates were successfully analyzed by 10 collaborators, and aristolochic acid I was successfully confirmed in 1 blind duplicate by 8 collaborators. For repeatability, the relative standard deviation (RSDr) ranged from 1.72 to 16.3% and for reproducibility, the RSDR ranged from 5.42 to 19.8%. HorRat values were not applicable for 2 materials but varied from 0.7 to 1.8 for 11 materials. Each collaborating laboratory had calibration curves with correlation coefficients >0.998. In addition, all of the collaborators that conducted the confirmation were able to verify the identity of aristolochic acid I using LC/MS/MS (using either ion trap or triple quad). PMID:17760329

  14. N-3 fatty acids for hypertriglyceridemia in patients taking second-generation antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Fetter, Jeffrey Charles; Brunette, Mary; Green, Alan I

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a frequent cause of early disability and death in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Second-generation antipsychotic medications may cause increased risk of cardiovascular disease in some patients by elevating serum triglyceride levels. Idiopathic hypertriglyceridemia can be effectively treated with N-3 fatty acid (N-3 FA) supplementation, but little research has evaluated this treatment for hypertriglyceridemia that can occur in patients using second-generation antipsychotics. A six-week, open-label pilot study of N-3 FA, two grams twice daily, was performed to assess efficacy of this supplement in patients with SMI who were being treated with second-generation antipsychotics. Serum triglyceride levels (the main endpoint) were assessed at baseline and six weeks. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein [HDL] and low density lipoprotein [LDL]), fasting glucose, and fasting insulin (to calculate the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR]), as well as weight and blood pressure, were also assessed. Mean triglyceride levels decreased by 70.4±50.4 mg/dL (p=0.001). Among secondary endpoints, mean HDL increased by 2.6±3.5 (p=0.03). However, LDL and total cholesterol, blood pressure, HOMA-IR and CRP did not significantly change. In this pilot study, treatment with N-3 FA was associated with improvements in triglyceride and HDL levels. Further study is warranted to assess more completely whether this prescription dietary supplement can reduce triglycerides in patients taking second-generation antipsychotics.

  15. The efficacy of n-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA (fish oil) for perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Jans, Linda A W; Giltay, Erik J; Van der Does, A J Willem

    2010-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Although essential n-3 PUFA may have beneficial effects on depression, it remains unclear whether they are also effective for perinatal depression. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of n-3 supplementation for perinatal depression, by performing a meta-analysis on currently available data. After a thorough literature search, we included seven randomised controlled trials in the meta-analysis, all with EPA and/or DHA supplementation. Most studies were judged to be of low-to-moderate quality, mainly due to small sample sizes and failure to adhere to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. Some studies were not primarily designed to address perinatal depression. A total of 309 women on n-3 fatty acid supplementation were compared with 303 women on placebo treatment. n-3 Supplementation was not found to be significantly more effective than placebo at post-treatment with a pooled effect size (Hedges's g) of - 0.03 (95 % CI - 0.18, 0.13; P = 0.76) using a fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity was low-to-moderate (I2 = 30 %). In a subgroup analysis of three small studies of pregnant women with major depression, there was some indication of effectiveness (effect size 0.17; 95 % CI - 0.21, 0.55). In conclusion, the question of whether EPA and DHA administration is effective in the prevention or treatment of perinatal depression cannot be answered yet. Future research should focus on women who are clinically depressed (or at risk). The quality of research in this area needs to improve.

  16. Brain phospholipids as dietary source of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids for nervous tissue in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M; Dumont, O; Durand, G

    1993-06-01

    In a previous work, we calculated the dietary alpha-linolenic requirements (from vegetable oil triglycerides) for obtaining and maintaining a physiological level of (n-3) fatty acids in developing animal membranes as determined by the cervonic acid content [22:6(n-3), docosahexaenoic acid]. The aim of the present study was to measure the phospholipid requirement, as these compounds directly provide the very long polyunsaturated fatty acids found in membranes. Two weeks before mating, eight groups of female rats (previously fed peanut oil deficient in alpha-linolenic acid) were fed different semisynthetic diets containing 6% African peanut oil supplemented with different quantities of phospholipids obtained from bovine brain lipid extract, so as to add (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet. An additional group was fed peanut oil with rapeseed oil, and served as control. Pups were fed the same diet as their respective mothers, and were killed at weaning. Forebrain, sciatic nerve, retina, nerve endings, myelin, and liver were analyzed. We conclude that during the combined maternal and perinatal period, the (n-3) fatty acid requirement for adequate deposition of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the nervous tissue (and in liver) of pups is lower if animals are fed (n-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in brain phospholipids [this study, approximately 60 mg of (n-3) fatty acids/100 g of diet, i.e., approximately 130 mg/1,000 kcal] rather than alpha-linolenic acid from vegetable oil triglycerides [200 mg of (n-3) fatty acids/100 g of diet, i.e., approximately 440 mg/1,000 kcal].

  17. Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Elswyk, M E

    1997-07-01

    The nutritional manipulation of the diets of laying hens to include sources of n-3 fatty acids promotes the deposition of these nutrients into egg yolk, n-3 Fatty acid-rich eggs may provide an exciting alternative food source for enhancing consumer intake of these proposed healthful fatty acids. Care must be taken when designing n-3 fatty acid-rich poultry rations, however, to assure that the resulting egg fatty acid profile is useful for promoting consumer health yet maintaining egg sensory quality. In study 1 laying hens were fed on diets supplemented with graded levels of menhaden oil (MO), rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), for 4 weeks to determine maximal yolk fatty acid deposition attainable without sensory compromise. Yolk fatty acids were analysed for an additional 4 weeks, post-MO removal, to investigate yolk n-3 fatty acid tenacity. Dietary MO levels between 15 and 30 g/kg yielded the greatest yolk n-3 fatty acid content; however, only eggs from birds fed with 15 g MO/kg were considered acceptable by trained flavour panelists. Evaluation of eggs from hens fed with 15 g MO/ kg during storage verified that the shelf-life of enriched eggs was comparable with that of typical eggs. In study 2, graded levels of whole or ground flaxseed were used for the deposition of linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) and to determine in vivo production of DHA from dietary LNA for yolk deposition. Flaxseed form influenced yolk n-3 fatty acids only when given at 150 g/kg diet. In vivo production of DHA, while significant, was not enhanced by increasing the level of dietary flaxseed nor by grinding the seed. In the third study, a DHA-rich natural marine alga (MA) was investigated as an n-3 fatty acid supplement. Despite similar DHA profiles, dietary MA was found to be more efficient for yolk DHA deposition than dietary MO. These studies suggest that there are numerous viable n-3 fatty acid supplements for poultry rations. It must

  18. A quantitative analysis of prenatal intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua T; Bellinger, David C; Connor, William E; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2005-11-01

    Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish also contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of the nutritional benefits. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements) to quantify the net impact of resulting hypothetical changes in fish consumption across the population. This paper estimates the impact of prenatal n-3 intake on cognitive development. Other papers quantify the negative impact of prenatal exposure to MeHg on cognitive development, and the extent to which fish consumption protects against coronary heart disease mortality and stroke in adults. This paper aggregates eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing cognitive development in controls and in children who had received n-3 PUFA supplementation (seven studies of formula supplementation and one study of maternal dietary supplementation). Our analysis assigns study weights accounting for statistical precision, relevance of three endpoint domains (general intelligence, verbal ability, and motor skills) to prediction of IQ, and age at evaluation. The study estimates that increasing maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake by 100 mg/day increases child IQ by 0.13 points. The paper notes that findings were inconsistent across the RCTs evaluated (although our findings were relatively robust to changes in the weighting scheme used). Also, for seven of the eight studies reviewed, effects are extrapolated from formula supplementation to maternal dietary intake.

  19. Inflammatory response following heart surgery and association with n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and red blood cell membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Bjorgvinsdottir, L; Indridason, O S; Heidarsdottir, R; Skogstrand, K; Arnar, D O; Torfason, B; Hougaard, D M; Palsson, R; Skuladottir, G V

    2013-09-01

    Open heart surgery is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the n-6 LC-PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) may contribute to modulation of the inflammatory response. We investigated whether the preoperative levels of EPA, DHA and AA in plasma phospholipids (PL) and red blood cell (RBC) membrane lipids in patients (n=168) undergoing open heart surgery were associated with changes in the plasma concentration of selected inflammatory mediators in the immediate postoperative period. The postoperative concentration of TNF-β was lower (P<0.05) and those of hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18 and IL-10 higher (P<0.05) than the respective preoperative concentrations. We observed that the preoperative levels of EPA and AA in plasma PL and RBC membrane lipids were associated with changes in the concentration of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, suggesting a complex role in the postoperative inflammatory process. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Profiling of Hydroxy Lipid Metabolites in Mouse Organs Reveals Distinct Lipidomic Profiles and Modifications Due to Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cheng-Ying; Smyl, Christopher; Dogan, Inci; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten-H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung, spleen, muscle, heart and kidney tissue of healthy wildtype mice were characterized, and compared to profiles in organs from transgenic fat-1 mice engineered to express the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase and thereby with endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA levels. PUFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The lipid metabolites were assayed using LC-MS/MS. AA and DHA were the prominent PUFAs in wildtype and fat-1 mice. EPA levels were low in both groups even though there was a significant increase in fat-1 organs with an up to 12-fold increase in fat-1 spleen and kidney. DHA levels increased by approximately 1.5-fold in fat-1 as compared to wildtype mice. While HETEs remained the same or decreased moderately and HDHAs increased 1- to 3-fold, HEPE formation in fat-1 tissues increased from 8- (muscle) to 44-fold (spleen). These findings indicate distinct profiles of monohydroxy lipid metabolites in different organs and strong utilization of EPA for HEPE formation, by which moderate EPA supplementation might trigger formation of biologically active EPA-derived resolvins. PMID:28165385

  1. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  2. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids through the Lifespan: Implication for Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-12-01

    The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed using the following words, "n-3 PUFAs," "EPA," and "DHA" in combination with "stress," "cognition," "ADHD," "anxiety," "depression," "bipolar disorder," "schizophrenia," and "Alzheimer." The principal focus was on the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids throughout the lifespan and their implication for psychopathologies. Recommendations for future investigation on the potential clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined. The inconsistent and inconclusive results from randomized clinical trials limits the usage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in clinical practice. However, a body of literature demonstrates an inverse correlation between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and quality of life/ psychiatric diseases. Specifically, older healthy adults showing low habitual intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids benefit most from consuming them, showing improved age-related cognitive decline. Although further studies are required, there is an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential clinical value in the prevention and treatment of psychopathologies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  3. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids through the Lifespan: Implication for Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pusceddu, Matteo M.; Kelly, Philip; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease. Design: Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed using the following words, “n-3 PUFAs,” “EPA,” and “DHA” in combination with “stress,” “cognition,” “ADHD,” “anxiety,” “depression,” “bipolar disorder,” “schizophrenia,” and “Alzheimer.” The principal focus was on the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids throughout the lifespan and their implication for psychopathologies. Recommendations for future investigation on the potential clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined. Results: The inconsistent and inconclusive results from randomized clinical trials limits the usage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in clinical practice. However, a body of literature demonstrates an inverse correlation between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and quality of life/ psychiatric diseases. Specifically, older healthy adults showing low habitual intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids benefit most from consuming them, showing improved age-related cognitive decline. Conclusions: Although further studies are required, there is an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential clinical value in the prevention and treatment of psychopathologies. PMID:27608809

  4. A combination of dietary N-3 fatty acids and a cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, Viswanathan; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Ganesan, Murali; Desouza, Cyrus V; Alnouti, Yazen; Duryee, Michael J; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Nordgren, Tara M; Clemens, Dahn L

    2017-04-01

    We sought to determine whether a combination of purified n-3 fatty acids (n-3) and SC-560 (SC), a cyclooxygenase-1-specific inhibitor, is effective in ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obesity. Female wild-type mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HF) supplemented with n-3 in the presence or absence of SC. Mice treated with SC alone exhibited no change in liver lipids, whereas n-3-fed mice tended to have lower hepatic lipids. Mice given n-3+SC had significantly lower liver lipids compared with HF controls indicating enhanced lipid clearance. Total and sulfated bile acids were significantly higher only in n-3+SC-treated mice compared with chow diet (CD) controls. Regarding mechanisms, the level of pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor regulating drug/bile detoxification, was significantly higher in mice given n-3 or n-3+SC. Studies in precision-cut liver slices and in cultured hepatoma cells showed that n-3+SC enhanced not only the expression/activation of PXR and its target genes but also the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), another regulator of bile synthesis/clearance, indicating that n-3+SC can induce both PXR and FXR. The mRNA level of FGFR4 which inhibits bile formation showed a significant reduction in Huh 7 cells upon n-3 and n-3+SC treatment. PXR overexpression in hepatoma cells confirmed that n-3 or SC each induced the expression of PXR target genes and in combination had an enhanced effect. Our findings suggest that combining SC with n-3 potentiates its lipid-lowering effect, in part, by enhanced PXR and/or altered FXR/FGFR4 signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. n-3 fatty acids effectively improve the reference memory-related learning ability associated with increased brain docosahexaenoic acid-derived docosanoids in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Inoue, Takayuki; Hossain, Shahdat; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether a highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a concentrated n-3 fatty acid formulation (prescription TAK-085) containing EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester could improve the learning ability of aged rats and whether this specific outcome had any relation with the brain levels of EPA-derived eicosanoids and DHA-derived docosanoids. The rats were tested for reference memory errors (RMEs) and working memory errors (WMEs) in an eight-arm radial maze. Fatty acid compositions were analyzed by GC, whereas brain eicosanoid/docosanoids were measured by LC-ESI-MS-MS-based analysis. The levels of lipid peroxides (LPOs) were measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The administration of TAK-085 at 300 mg·kg⁻¹day⁻¹ for 17 weeks reduced the number of RMEs in aged rats compared with that in the control rats. Both TAK-085 and EPA administration increased plasma EPA and DHA levels in aged rats, with concurrent increases in DHA and decreases in arachidonic acid in the corticohippocampal brain tissues. TAK-085 administration significantly increased the formation of EPA-derived 5-HETE and DHA-derived 7-, 10-, and 17-HDoHE, PD1, RvD1, and RvD2. ARA-derived PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2α significantly decreased in TAK-085-treated rats. DHA-derived mediators demonstrated a significantly negative correlation with the number of RMEs, whereas EPA-derived mediators did not exhibit any relationship. Furthermore, compared with the control rats, the levels of LPO in the plasma, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus were significantly reduced in TAK-085-treated rats. The findings of the present study suggest that long-term EPA+DHA administration may be a possible preventative strategy against age-related cognitive decline.

  6. Long-chain, n-3 fatty acids and physical activity--independent and interactive associations with cardiac autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Matthew P; Manuck, Stephen B; Jennings, J Richard; Conklin, Sarah M; Yao, Jeffrey K; Muldoon, Matthew F

    2013-09-01

    Intake of the marine-based, n-3 fatty acids and engagement in physical activity are inversely related to cardiac morbidity and mortality. Among putative mechanisms, both n-3 fatty acids and physical activity may act through modulation of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. This investigation examined the independent and interactive associations of n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanenoic acid; EPA, DHA) and physical activity with heart rate variability (HRV). Subjects were 259 healthy 30-54 year-old adults. Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition was employed as a biomarker of dietary n-3 fatty acid exposure. Physical activity based on the Paffenbarger questionnaire was coded as < or ≥ 2000 kcal/week. Standard time-domain (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals and root-mean squared of successive differences; SDNN, RMSSD) and frequency domain (high frequency and low frequency power) measures of HRV were derived from resting electrocardiographic recordings. In linear regression models with covariate adjustment for age, gender and race, greater n-3 fatty acid exposure was associated with greater SDNN and RMSSD, and high physical activity was associated with greater RMSSD. n-3 fatty acid exposure also predicted variation in SDNN, RMSSD, and high-frequency power in interaction with physical activity. Specifically, n-3 fatty acid exposure covaried positively with these three HRV indices only among participants expending 2000 kcal per week or more in physical activity. These latter findings were noted for DHA but not EPA. These results suggest that the cardiovascular benefits of n-3 fatty acid consumption may be mediated, in part, by effects on cardiac autonomic control and may be dependent upon concomitant habitual exercise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rationale and use of n-3 fatty acids in artificial nutrition.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2010-11-01

    Lipids traditionally used in artificial nutrition are based on n-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils like soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because it may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. One alternative to the use of soyabean oil is its partial replacement by fish oil, which contains n-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids influence inflammatory and immune responses and so may be useful in particular situations where those responses are not optimal. Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in patterns of inflammatory mediators and in immune function and, in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to post-operative. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adults. Here the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function and clinical endpoints is not clear, since there are too few studies and those that are available report contradictory findings. Fish oil is included in combination with other nutrients in various enteral formulas. In post-surgical patients and in those with mild sepsis or trauma, there is clinical benefit from a formula including fish oil and arginine. A formula including fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants has demonstrated marked benefits on gas exchange, ventilation requirement, new organ failures, ICU stay and mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury or severe sepsis.

  8. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. n-3 Fatty acids as resolvents of inflammation in the A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Czepiel, Jacek; Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Wojtoń, Katarzyna; Grzywacz, Agata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Perucki, William; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    Fatty acids and their derivatives are one of the most crucial inflammation mediators. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids as eicosanoids precursors on the A549 cell line. Cells were incubated with 40 μM of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid for 24h, then activated with LPS. Fatty acids content in the cell membranes were determined using gas chromatography. COX-2, cPGES and FP-receptor quantities were determined by Western blot. 8-Isoprostane F2α concentrations were determined by EIA. Maresin and protectin D1 contents were analyzed by UHPLC/MS-TOF method. Significant differences in membrane fatty acids and levels of 8-isoPGF2α in the activated cells were detected. Elevated expression of COX-2 and FP-receptor was observed in cells treated with AA and activated with LPS. Moreover, compared to AA and AA+LPS groups, cells incubated with EPA, DHA, EPA+LPS and DHA+LPS showed decreased expression of COX-2, cPGES and FP-receptor. In cells incubated with EPA or DHA and activated with LPS maresin and protectin D1 were detected. The results of the study have revealed the pro-inflammatory properties of AA, while the EPA and DHA had the opposite, resolving effect. Interestingly, FP-receptor inhibition by EPA and DHA demonstrated the unique role of the FP-receptor as a potential target for antagonists, in the diseases of inflammatory character. This study provides new information about n-3 fatty acids and their pro-resolving mediators, which can be used in the process of developing new anti-inflammatory drugs. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into plasma and liver lipids of rats: importance of background dietary fat.

    PubMed

    MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2004-06-01

    The health benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) depend on the extent of incorporation of these FA into plasma and tissue lipids. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the background dietary fat (saturated, monounsaturated, or n-6 polyunsaturated) on the quantitative incorporation of dietary 18:3n-3 and its elongated and desaturated products into the plasma and the liver lipids of rats. Female weanling Wistar rats (n = 54) were randomly assigned to six diet groups (n = 9). The fat added to the semipurified diets was tallow (SFA), tallow plus linseed oil (SFA-LNA), sunola oil (MUFA), sunola oil plus linseed oil (MUFA-LNA), sunflower oil (PUFA), or sunflower oil plus linseed oil (PUFA-LNA). At the completion of the 4-wk feeding period, quantitative FA analysis of the liver and plasma was undertaken by GC. The inclusion of linseed oil in the rat diets increased the level of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and, to a smaller degree, 22:6n-3 in plasma and liver lipids regardless of the background dietary fat. The extent of incorporation of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3 followed the order SFA-LNA > MUFA-LNA > PUFA-LNA. Levels of 22:6n-3 were increased to a similar extent regardless of the type of major fat in the rat diets. This indicates that the background diet affects the incorporation in liver and plasma FA pools of the n-3 PUFA with the exception of 22:6n-3 and therefore the background diet has the potential to influence the already established health benefits of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  11. Endogenously elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiangyong; Kang, Jing X

    2015-01-01

    Effective means for the prevention of alcohol-induced liver disease, a global health problem, have yet to be developed. We evaluated whether the high endogenous levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) in fat-1 transgenic mice could protect them against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis. We induced alcoholic liver steatosis in 9-week-old male heterozygous fat-1 mice and their wild-type (WT) male littermates through three oral gavages of 60% ethanol at 4.7 g/kg body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in both alcohol treatment groups, but by much less in the fat-1 group compared with the WT group. Fat-1 mice exhibited significantly lower levels of total hepatic/plasma TG and plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Accordingly, hepatic expression of lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, FAS, and SCD-1) and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) were reduced in the fat-1 mice. Furthermore, decreased hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and increased hepatic levels of PPAR-α and HO-1 were observed in the fat-1 mice, compared to the WT mice. These findings show that elevated tissue n-3 PUFA protect against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in fat-1 mice, possibly through the down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress.

  12. Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect

    PubMed Central

    Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine

    2017-01-01

    As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers’ health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology. PMID:28071699

  13. Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine

    2017-01-10

    As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology.

  14. n-3 Fatty acids and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ischaemic heart disease and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Riahi, Sam; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Mølgaard, Henning; Kirstein Pedersen, Anders; Heath, Finn; Cosedis Nielsen, Jens; Toft, Egon

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We included 98 patients with ischaemic heart disease and an ICD. The numbers of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) events were assessed during a 12-month period and related to the concentration of n-3 PUFA in serum phospholipids. Patients with more than one arrhythmic event had significantly lower n-3 PUFA levels compared with patients without arrhythmias (mean 7.1% vs 9.2%, P<0.01). Dividing the patients into quintiles according to their n-3 PUFA level those with the lowest content of n-3 PUFA had more ventricular arrhythmias than patients with the highest concentration of n-3 PUFA (mean 1.3 event vs 0.2 event, P<0.05). Patients with a low content of n-3 PUFA in serum had a higher incidence of ventricular arrhythmias compared with patients with high serum levels of n-3 PUFA. The data suggest that the protection offered by n-3 PUFA against sudden cardiac death observed in previous studies is mediated by a direct antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFA.

  15. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Mersmann, Harry M; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-10-09

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  16. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  17. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Metcalf, Robert G; Sullivan, Thomas R; Spargo, Llewellyn D; James, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. This study examines the relationships between plasma phospholipid levels of the n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, EPA and DHA, and remission and DMARD use in recent-onset RA. EPA and DHA were measured in blood samples from both groups of the RCT. The data were analysed as a single cohort, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relationships between plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA and various outcome measures. When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1% total fatty acids) associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95% CI 1.02, 1.23; P=0.02). Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99; P=0.047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA, but not statistically significant. Biomarkers of n-3 status, such as plasma PL EPA, have the potential to predict clinical outcomes relevant to standard drug treatment of RA patients.

  18. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA during IVM affected oocyte developmental competence in cattle.

    PubMed

    Oseikria, Mouhamad; Elis, Sébastien; Maillard, Virginie; Corbin, Emilie; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2016-06-01

    The positive effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) on fertility in ruminants seems to be partly mediated through direct effects on the oocyte developmental potential. We aimed to investigate whether supplementation with physiological levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during IVM has an effect on oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo development in cattle. We reported that DHA (0, 1, 10, or 100 μM) had no effect on oocyte viability or maturation rate after 22-hour IVM. Incubation of oocyte-cumulus complexes with 1-μM DHA during IVM significantly increased (P < 0.05) oocyte cleavage rate as compared with control (86.1% vs. 78.8%, respectively) and the greater than 4-cell embryo rate at Day 2 after parthenogenetic activation (39.1% vs. 29.7%, respectively). Supplementation with 1 μM DHA during IVM also induced a significant increase in the blastocyst rate at Day 7 after IVF as compared with control (30.6% vs. 17.6%, respectively) and tended to increase the number of cells in the blastocysts (97.1 ± 4.9 vs. 81.2 ± 5.3, respectively; P = 0.08). On the contrary, 10-μM DHA had no effects, whereas 100-μM DHA significantly decreased the cleavage rate compared with control (69.5% vs.78.8%, respectively) and the greater than 4-cell embryo rate at Day 2 after parthenogenetic activation (19.5% vs. 29.7%). As was shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction, negative effects of 100-μM DHA were associated with significant increase of progesterone synthesis by oocyte-cumulus complexes, a three-fold increase in expression level of FA transporter CD36 and a two-fold decrease of FA synthase FASN genes in cumulus cells (CCs) of corresponding oocytes. Docosahexaenoic acid at 1 and 10 μM had no effect on expression of those and other key lipid metabolism-related genes in CC. In conclusion, administration of a low physiological dose of DHA (1 μM) during IVM may have beneficial effects on oocyte developmental

  19. Cholesterol and triglyceride reduction in rats fed Matthiola incana seed oil rich in (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Z; Schafferman, D; Shamir, I; Madar, Z

    1999-02-01

    Seeds of Matthiola incana contain oil rich (55-65%) in (n-3) linolenic acid. Selected lines were developed and evaluated for their agronomic and chemical parameters. Extracted oil was fed for 6 weeks to rats, which were compared with rats fed a diet containing coconut oil or sunflower oil. Cholesterol levels were significantly lowest in rats fed diets rich in M. incana oil (27% reduction), and triglycerides were significantly lower in rats receiving either M. incana or sunflower oil (36% reduction). The contents of arachidonic acid and other (n-6) fatty acids were significantly the lowest in the liver and plasma of rats that had received M. incana oil. The levels of (n-3) fatty acids were significantly greater in both the liver and plasma of rats fed M. incana oil. The ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) long-chain fatty acids in the plasma was 7 times higher in rats fed with M. incana oil than in those fed with sunflower oil and 6 times higher than in those fed coconut oil. The results demonstrate for the first time a beneficial effect of dietary M. incana oil in reducing cholesterol levels and increasing (n-3) fatty acid levels in the plasma. This new, terrestrial plant source of (n-3) fatty acids could replace marine oils and thereby contribute beneficially to the human diet.

  20. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  1. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase oxidative stress in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Nam, Somyoung; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Hong, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoungsook

    2009-11-01

    Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to associate with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that EPA and DHA increase oxidative stress and hemorrhage volume in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke. Thirty-five-week-old male rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0% (n = 27), 0.5% (n = 15), or 1% EPA + DHA of total energy for 5 weeks. Of 5 rats fed 1% EPA + DHA (41%), 5 died because of excessive bleeding within 12 hours after ICH surgery. Behavior test score and hemorrhage volume were significantly (P < .05) greater in the 1% EPA + DHA-fed rats than in other rats. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently showed that edema and bleeding were visible in only the rats fed 1% EPA + DHA. Levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were significantly (P < .05) lower in rats fed 0.5% and 1% EPA + DHA than those fed 0% EPA + DHA. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content was significantly (P < .05) higher in 1% EPA + DHA-fed rats than in 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA-fed rats. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was significantly (P < .05) higher in ICH rats with all diets than in sham surgery rats. Brain levels of EPA and DHA were highest in rats fed 1% EPA + DHA than in rats fed 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA. These results suggested that intake of 1% EPA + DHA of total energy could lead to oxidative damage to the brain and thus increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this rat model.

  2. Specialized proresolving lipid mediators in humans with the metabolic syndrome after n-3 fatty acids and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne E; Mas, Emilie; Croft, Kevin D; Phillips, Michael; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and may be affected by the ability to resolve inflammation, which is an active process that involves specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) derived from n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids. We compared plasma concentrations of SPMs in men and women with features of the MetS and in healthy matched control subjects in response to intakes of n-3 fatty acids and aspirin. MetS volunteers (n = 22) and healthy, matched controls (n = 21) were studied in parallel for 4 wk. Both groups took n-3 fatty acids (2.4 g/d) for 4 wk with the addition of aspirin (300 mg/d) during the last 7 d. Blood was collected at baseline and at 3 and 4 wk. Plasma SPMs were measured with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and included 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), D-series resolvins, 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA), and maresin-1. Baseline SPMs did not differ between groups. There was an increase in the SPM precursors 18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, and 14-HDHA after n-3 fatty acid supplementation that was significantly attenuated in the MetS (P < 0.05). However, the E-series resolvins increased to a similar extent in the groups after n-3 fatty acid supplementation, and the D-series resolvins were not different from those at baseline. The addition of aspirin to n-3 fatty acids did not alter any SPMs in either group. Volunteers with MetS had reduced plasma concentrations of the precursors of the E- and D- series resolvins as well as of 14-HDHA in response to n-3 fatty acid supplementation. However, plasma E-series resolvins were increased to a similar extent after n-3 fatty acid supplementation in both groups, and the addition of aspirin to n-3 fatty acid supplementation did not alter any of the plasma SPMs in MetS and control subjects. Additional studies in the MetS are required to determine whether SPMs affect the ability

  3. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from <1 y to >20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  4. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Jelena Vidakovic, Aleksandra; Santos, Susana; Williams, Michelle A.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations during pregnancy with infant subcutaneous fat. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 904 mothers and their infants, we measured maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations at mid-pregnancy. Body mass index, total subcutaneous fat and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio were calculated at 1.5, 6 and 24 months. Results Maternal n-3 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant body mass index or total subcutaneous fat. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were associated with higher central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months, whereas higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 6 months (all p-values<0.05). These associations were not present at 24 months. Maternal n-6 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant subcutaneous fat. A higher n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months only (p-value<0.05). Conclusions Maternal n-3 PUFA levels during pregnancy may have transient effects on infant subcutaneous fat. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of maternal PUFA concentrations on fat mass development during early infancy. PMID:27356181

  5. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  6. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  7. The acute and short-time effect of supplementation with the combination of n-3 fatty acids and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet function and plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Svaneborg, Niels; Kristensen, Steen D; Hansen, Lene M; Büllow, Inge; Husted, Steen E; Schmidt, Erik B

    2002-02-15

    Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is commonly used to reduce the risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Fish consumption has been inversely related to coronary disease, which has been partly attributed to an inhibitory effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on platelet production of tromboxane A2. In this study, we investigated the acute and short-time effect of supplementation with n-3 PUFA and intravenous ASA on platelet function, platelet fatty acid composition and plasma lipids. Eighteen healthy men were randomly allocated to a daily intake of 10 g n-3 PUFA or placebo. After this supplement (14 h and 14 days), blood was sampled before and after intravenous injection of 100 mg ASA. n-3 PUFA given for 14 days caused a minor inhibition of platelet reactivity but negligible compared to 100 mg ASA. No additive effect of n-3 PUFA and ASA could be demonstrated.

  8. Fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the role of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on depression during adolescence is sparse. We examined the association between fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and depressive symptoms in a group of adolescents. This cross-sectional study, conducted in all public junior high schools in Naha City and Nago City, Okinawa, Japan, included 3067 boys and 3450 girls aged 12 to 15 years (52.3% of the eligible sample). Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated, self-administered diet-history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when participants had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score of >or=16. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.5% for boys and 31.2% for girls. For boys, fish intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for depressive symptoms in the highest [compared with the lowest] quintile of intake: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.97]; P for trend=.04). EPA intake showed an inverse association with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.54-0.94]; P=.04). DHA intake also showed a similar inverse, albeit nonsignificant, association (OR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.59-1.05]; P=.11). In addition, intake of EPA plus DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.55-0.96]; P=.08). Conversely, no such associations were observed among girls. Higher intake of fish, EPA, and DHA was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in early male, but not female, adolescents.

  9. Dietary polychlorinated biphenyls, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Donat-Vargas, Carolina; Berglund, Marika; Glynn, Anders; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2017-02-01

    For malignant melanoma, other risk factors aside from sun exposure have been hardly explored. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-mainly from fatty fish- may affect melanogenesis and promote melanoma progression, while long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to exert antineoplastic actions in melanoma cells. We aimed to assess the association of validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA-DHA), accounting for sun habits and skin type, with the risk of malignant melanoma in middle-aged and elderly women. We included 20,785 women at baseline in 2009 from the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and EPA-DHA intake were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. Incident melanoma cases were ascertained through register-linkage. During 4.5 years of follow-up, we ascertained 67 incident cases of melanoma. After multivariable adjustments, exposure to dietary PCBs was associated with four-fold increased risk of malignant melanoma (hazard ratio [HR], 4.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-13; P for trend = 0.02]), while EPA-DHA intake was associated with 80% lower risk (HR, 0.2 [95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P for trend = 0.03]), comparing the highest exposure tertiles with the lowest. While we found a direct association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of melanoma, EPA-DHA intake showed to have a substantial protective association. Question of benefits and risk from fish consumption is very relevant and further prospective studies in the general population verifying these findings are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

  11. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Sunderland, Elsie M; Chan, Hing Man; Choi, Anna L; Grandjean, Philippe; Mariën, Koenraad; Oken, Emily; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Schoeny, Rita; Weihe, Pál; Yan, Chong-Huai; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. PMID:21884130

  12. Regulation of osteoarthritis by omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a naturally occurring model of disease.

    PubMed

    Knott, L; Avery, N C; Hollander, A P; Tarlton, J F

    2011-09-01

    To examine effects of high omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diets on development of osteoarthritis (OA) in a spontaneous guinea pig model, and to further characterise pathogenesis in this model. Modern diets low in n-3 PUFAs have been linked with increases in inflammatory disorders, possibly including OA. However, n-3 is also thought to increases bone density, which is a possible contributing factor in OA. Therefore we aim to determine the net influence of n-3 in disease development. OA-prone Dunkin-Hartley (DH) Guinea pigs were compared with OA-resistant Bristol Strain-2s (BS2) each fed a standard or an n-3 diet from 10 to 30 weeks (10/group). We examined cartilage and subchondral bone pathology by histology, and biochemistry, including collagen cross-links, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), alkaline phosphatase, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and denatured type II collagen. Dietary n-3 reduced disease in OA-prone animals. Most cartilage parameters were modified by n-3 diet towards those seen in the non-pathological BS2 strain - significantly active MMP-2, lysyl-pyridinoline and total collagen cross-links - the only exception being pro MMP-9 which was lower in the BS2, yet increased with n-3. GAG content was higher and denatured type II lower in the n-3 group. Subchondral bone parameters in the DH n-3 group also changed towards those seen in the non-pathological strain, significantly calcium:phosphate ratios and epiphyseal bone density. Dietary n-3 PUFA reduced OA in the prone strain, and most disease markers were modified towards those of the non-OA strain, though not all significantly so. Omega-3 did not increase markers of pathology in either strain. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The in vivo J-difference editing MEGA-PRESS technique for the detection of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skoch, Antonín; Tošner, Zdeněk; Hájek, Milan

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we present a method for the detection of n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) signals using MRS in adipose tissue in vivo. This method (called oMEGA-PRESS) is based on the selective detection of the CH3 signal of n-3 FA using the MEGA-PRESS (MEshcher-GArwood Point-RESolved Spectroscopy) J-difference editing technique. We optimized the envelope shape and frequency of spectral editing pulses to minimize the spurious co-editing and incomplete subtraction of the CH3 signal of other FAs, which normally obscure the n-3 FA CH3 signal in MR spectra acquired using standard PRESS techniques. The post-processing of the individual data scans with the phase and frequency correction before data subtraction and averaging was implemented to further improve the quality of in vivo spectra. The technique was optimized in vitro on lipid phantoms using various concentrations of n-3 FA and examined in vivo at 3 T on 15 healthy volunteers. The proportion of n-3 FA estimated by the oMEGA-PRESS method in phantoms showed a highly significant linear correlation with the n-3 FA content determined by gas chromatography. The signal attributed to n-3 FA was observed in all subjects. Comparisons with the standard PRESS technique revealed an enhanced identification of the n-3 FA signal using oMEGA-PRESS. The presented method may be useful for the non-invasive quantification of n-3 FA in adipose tissue, and could aid in obtaining a better understanding of various aspects of n-3 FA metabolism.

  14. Changes in Plasma and Tissue Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (LC-PUFA) Content in the Eel Anguilla japonica After External and Internal Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghao; Wong, Marty K S; Li, Yiqi; Li, Yuanyou; Takei, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the effect of external and internal osmotic stress on the profile of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in euryhaline eels Anguilla japonica. Freshwater (FW) fish were transferred to seawater (SW) for external osmotic stress or subjected to internal stress through injection with hypertonic saline. FW eels injected with isotonic saline served as controls. Plasma osmolality, Na(+) concentration, and gill Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase activity increased, but hematocrit decreased compared with controls in eels exposed to external or internal osmotic stress. The expression of two major transporter genes for SW adaptation, the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl - co-transporter 1a (NKCC1a) in the gill and NKCC2b in the intestine, was up-regulated only in SW-transferred eels, suggesting a direct impact of SW on the gill and intestine via SW ingestion. Total LC-PUFA contents and DHA (22:6 n-3) increased in the gill and liver of SW-transferred eels and in the intestine of hypertonic saline-injected eels. However, total LC-PUFA content in plasma decreased after both external and internal osmotic stimuli. In contrast, the gene expression of two key enzymes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis, Δ6 fatty acid desaturase and elongase, did not change in the gill, intestine and liver of osmotically stressed eels. These results indicate that LC-PUFA is possibly involved in osmoregulation and the increased LC-PUFA contents of osmoregulatory organs might be a result of LC-PUFA transport via circulation, rather than through de novo biosynthesis.

  15. Consequences of lipopolysaccharide and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid administration on aortic function of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kaprinay, Barbara; Sotnikova, Ruzena; Frimmel, Karel; Krizak, Jakub; Bernatova, Iveta; Navarova, Jana; Okruhlicova, Ludmila

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the work was to study the delayed effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on endothelial function of the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension. Further, the possibility to ameliorate LPS-induced changes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was tested. Rats received a bolus of 1 mg/kg LPS i.p.; n-3 PUFA were administered in the dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 10 days p.o.. Ten days after receiving of LPS, the body weight gain of rats was statistically lower compared to control rats (p < 0.05). n-3 PUFA administration to LPS rats had no effect on this parameter. The TBARS and NAGA concentrations in plasma were significantly increased in the LPS group (p < 0.05) and n-3 PUFA administration returned them to control values. In functional studies, phenylephrine (PE, 1 µmol/l) evoked contraction of aortas which was not statistically different among experimental groups. However, endothelium-dependent relaxation was depressed in the LPS group (p < 0.05) and n-3 PUFA slightly recovered it to control values. In conclusion, oxidative stress seems to be responsible for aortic endothelial dysfunction detected 10 days after administration of LPS to rats. n-3 PUFA slightly improved the function of the endothelium injured by LPS, probably thanks to their antioxidant properties. Prolonged administration of higher doses of n-3 PUFA should defend the vascular endothelium against detrimental effect of bacterial inflammation.

  16. A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function.

  18. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster.

    PubMed

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Julie; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Mette Behrmann; Guo, Zheng; Mu, Huiling

    2007-09-05

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues.

  19. n-3 Fatty Acids Induce Neurogenesis of Predominantly POMC-Expressing Cells in the Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Lucas F R; Souza, Gabriela F P; Morari, Joseane; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Solon, Carina; Moura, Rodrigo F; Victório, Sheila C; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia M; Razolli, Daniela S; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Velloso, Lício A

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons is believed to play an important role in the development and perpetuation of obesity. Similar to the hippocampus, the hypothalamus presents constitutive and stimulated neurogenesis, suggesting that obesity-associated hypothalamic dysfunction can be repaired. Here, we explored the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce hypothalamic neurogenesis. Both in the diet and injected directly into the hypothalamus, PUFAs were capable of increasing hypothalamic neurogenesis to levels similar or superior to the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Most of the neurogenic activity induced by PUFAs resulted in increased numbers of proopiomelanocortin but not NPY neurons and was accompanied by increased expression of BDNF and G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40). The inhibition of GPR40 was capable of reducing the neurogenic effect of a PUFA, while the inhibition of BDNF resulted in the reduction of global hypothalamic cell. Thus, PUFAs emerge as a potential dietary approach to correct obesity-associated hypothalamic neuronal loss. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, G. P.; Ghosh, T. K.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid (FA) on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate). Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21) and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39) phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001) for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05) for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05) for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05) for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products. PMID:25358321

  1. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients.

  2. Fish Oil Finishing Diet Maintains Optimal n-3 Long-Chain Fatty Acid Content in European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

    PubMed

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Tarvainen, Marko; Kallio, Heikki; Airaksinen, Susanna

    2017-08-31

    This study examined the effect of substituting vegetable oil for fish oil in feed, with subsequent re-introduction of fish oil-rich feed (finishing feeding) in late stages of growth, on the fatty acids of cultivated European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Restorative finishing feeding with fish oil-rich feed for 15 and 25 weeks was sufficient to change the total content of nutritionally valuable long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), to correspond to that of fish fed the fish oil-rich feed throughout their lifespan. Under natural conditions, 15 and 25 weeks correspond to weight gains of 75% and 100% (i.e. doubling), respectively. Also, the fatty acid profile of the fish was restored after finishing periods of 15 and 25 weeks. Limiting the use of fish oil by lowering the overall fat content of the feed (no vegetable oil added) resulted in a decrease in the long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Based on the results, after receiving a vegetable oil-rich diet, restorative fish oil-rich feeding in the last stages of growth in European whitefish is nutritionally justified in order to balance nutritional gain for consumers with sustainable use of finite marine oils. The results encourage commercial efforts to further utilize and optimize finishing feeding practices.

  3. Effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid resources on egg quality and n-3 fatty acid profile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pingping; Tang, Chuanqiu; Ding, Zongqing; Huang, Hui; Sun, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) resources (flax, perilla, and Eucommia ulmoides [E. ulmoides] seeds) and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) resources (Schizochytrium sp.) on egg quality and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profile. Methods Dietary treatments were as follows: i) diet C (control diet); ii) diet F (diet C+10% flaxseeds); iii) diet P, (diet C+10% perilla seeds); iv) diet E (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds); v) diet A (diet C+1.5% microalage); vi) diet AF (diet C+10% flaxseeds+1.5% microalage); vii) diet AP (diet C+10% perilla seeds+1.5% microalgae); viii) diet AE (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds+ 1.5% microalage). Results Egg weight, yolk weight and production ratio were not significantly affected by either algae or in combination with seeds (p>0.05). No significant difference was observed in ALA and DHA concentration in eggs between flaxseed, perila, and E. ulmodies seeds supplementation alone (p>0.05). N-3 PUFA in eggs was slightly improved by microalgae supplementation. The best supplementation, a combination of microalgae and perilla seeds, elevated (p<0.05) ALA from 19.7 to 202.5 mg/egg and EPA+DHA from 27.5 to 159.7 mg/egg. Highest n-3 PUFA enrichment (379.6 mg/yolk) was observed with supplementation of a combination of perilla seed and microalgae (362.2 mg/yolk), followed by a combination of flaxseed and microalgae (348.4 mg/yolk). The ALA, EPA, and DHA content obtained with a combination of microalgae and seeds surpassed the total sum of that obtained with microalgae or ALA-seeds alone. Conclusion It is feasible to enrich eggs with n-3 PUFAs by perilla or E. ulmodies seeds instead of flaxseeds. Simultaneous supplementation of microalgae and seeds helped improve the transfer from EPA and docosapentaenoic acid into DHA. PMID:28111448

  4. Age-Related Decline in Rod Phototransduction Sensitivity in Rhesus Monkeys Fed an n-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Diet

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Brett G; Neuringer, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. Methods From birth to ≅ 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3 deficient diet (n=9) known to reduce retinal DHA by 80%. Monkeys in the control group (n=12) received either 8% α-linolenic acid (ALA) or 0.6% DHA both of which support normal retinal DHA levels. None of the diets contained carotenoids. Photoactivation kinetics were assessed from the rate of increase, and a P3 model fit of the ERG a-wave. Maximal cone amplitude and sensitivity were measured from the cone a-wave at 4 ms. The rod photoresponse and rod recovery were derived using a paired flash method. Results Rod sensitivity was reduced by 40% in the n-3 deficient monkeys at 9 but not 4.5 years. The onset of the rising phase of the photoresponse was significantly delayed (p<0.004) at 9 years. Rod recovery was delayed by 20% in n-3 deficient monkeys at both ages, but only for bright saturating flashes. Cone phototransduction was not altered by n-3 deficiency Conclusions Long-term dietary n-3 deficiency in the rhesus monkey was associated with two changes in retinal function. First, there was a delay in rod recovery that has remained relatively constant throughout life. Second, there was an age dependent loss in rod phototransduction sensitivity; the lack of dietary carotenoids may have contributed to this decline. PMID:19369246

  5. Characterization of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment in laying hens fed an extruded flax enrichment source.

    PubMed

    Nain, S; Renema, R A; Korver, D R; Zuidhof, M J

    2012-07-01

    The time required to reach a plateau of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in plasma and egg yolk and dynamics of the enrichment process were examined in laying hens. A group of 75 Lohmann White Leghorn layers (65 wk) were fed one of 3 diets: control, moderate, or high n-3 PUFA-enriched diet for 18 d. Diets provided similar ME and CP and contained 0, 7.5%, or 15% LinPRO (source of n-3 PUFA), respectively. Prior to dietary treatment, baseline values were established for the BW, fatty acid composition in egg yolk on a whole-egg basis, and in plasma. These measurements were repeated at 6, 12, and 18 d of feeding. Enzymatic conversion rates of linolenic acid (LNA) to long-chain fatty acids were calculated. Data were analyzed with Proc Mixed of SAS, and broken stick analysis was used to determine n-3 PUFA plateau using the NLIN procedure of SAS (P < 0.05). The total egg yolk n-3 PUFA reached a plateau of 343.7 mg/egg and 272.9 mg/egg after 6.6 and 5.9 d on the high and moderate diets, respectively. In blood plasma, the n-3 PUFA concentrations reached saturation in 7.2 d with 0.93 mg/mL and 0.67 mg/mL on high and moderate diets, respectively. The transfer efficiency of total n-3 PUFA from the diet to the egg yolk was calculated as 55.6% in control birds, 30.5% in moderate birds, and 22.2% in high birds, demonstrating reduced transfer efficiency of n-3 PUFA as inclusion in the feed increases. Final egg yolk n-3 PUFA concentrations had a CV of 16.5% compared with 28.5% for plasma. After 12 d, the long-chain n-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were significantly higher in egg yolk from hens on the moderate and high enriched diets compared with those from hens fed the control diet, whereas in plasma values did not differ. Broken stick analysis of egg enrichment indicated that high birds reached the target threshold of 300 mg of total n-3 PUFA/egg in 5 d. A significant increase in EPA, DPA, and

  6. Direct and maternal n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improved triglyceridemia and glycemia through the regulation of hepatic and muscle sphingolipid synthesis in offspring hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Krempf, Michel; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2016-03-01

    We recently reported that direct and maternal supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) alleviates the metabolic disturbances in adult hamster pups fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we hypothesized that these results involved a perinatal modulating effect of sphingolipids by n-3 LC-PUFA. We studied the effect of direct and maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on sphingolipid contents in liver and muscle, hepatic triglycerides (TG) secretion and glucose tolerance. Offspring male hamsters born from supplemented (Cω) or unsupplemented (C) mothers were subjected after weaning to a HFD during 16 weeks, without (Cω-HF or C-HF) or with direct supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA (C-HFω). Direct supplementation decreased sphingosine, sphinganine and ceramides in liver and decreased sphingosine, sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramides in muscle in C-HFω compared to C-HF (p < 0.05). Maternal supplementation decreased C20 ceramide and lactosylceramide in liver and sphinganine, S1P and lactosylceramide in muscle (p < 0.05). This supplementation tended to decrease glucosylceramide in liver (p < 0.06) and muscle (p < 0.07) in Cω-HF compared to C-HF. Direct supplementation increased glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic TG secretion and hepatic gene expression levels of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Maternal supplementation decreased basal glycemia and hepatic TG secretion. We observed a positive correlation between hepatic TG secretion and hepatic ceramide (p = 0.0059), and between basal glycemia and hepatic ceramide (p = 0.04) or muscle lactosylceramide contents (p = 0.001). We observed an improvement of lipids and glucose metabolism in hamster with n-3 LC-PUFA direct supplementation and a decrease in glycemia and hepatic TG secretion with maternal

  7. Human Fatty Acid Transport Protein 2a/Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 1 (FATP2a/Acsvl1) Has a Preference in Mediating the Channeling of Exogenous n-3 Fatty Acids into Phosphatidylinositol*

    PubMed Central

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; Watkins, Paul A.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    The trafficking of fatty acids across the membrane and into downstream metabolic pathways requires their activation to CoA thioesters. Members of the fatty acid transport protein/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FATP/Acsvl) family are emerging as key players in the trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into the cell and in intracellular fatty acid homeostasis. We have expressed two naturally occurring splice variants of human FATP2 (Acsvl1) in yeast and 293T-REx cells and addressed their roles in fatty acid transport, activation, and intracellular trafficking. Although both forms (FATP2a (Mr 70,000) and FATP2b (Mr 65,000 and lacking exon3, which encodes part of the ATP binding site)) were functional in fatty acid import, only FATP2a had acyl-CoA synthetase activity, with an apparent preference toward very long chain fatty acids. To further address the roles of FATP2a or FATP2b in fatty acid uptake and activation, LC-MS/MS was used to separate and quantify different acyl-CoA species (C14–C24) and to monitor the trafficking of different classes of exogenous fatty acids into intracellular acyl-CoA pools in 293T-REx cells expressing either isoform. The use of stable isotopically labeled fatty acids demonstrated FATP2a is involved in the uptake and activation of exogenous fatty acids, with a preference toward n-3 fatty acids (C18:3 and C22:6). Using the same cells expressing FATP2a or FATP2b, electrospray ionization/MS was used to follow the trafficking of stable isotopically labeled n-3 fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The expression of FATP2a resulted in the trafficking of C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA into both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol but with a distinct preference for phosphatidylinositol. Collectively these data demonstrate FATP2a functions in fatty acid transport and activation and provides specificity toward n-3 fatty acids in which the corresponding n-3 acyl-CoAs are preferentially trafficked into acyl-CoA pools

  8. Biophysical and biochemical mechanisms by which dietary N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil disrupt membrane lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2012-02-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish oil exert their functional effects by targeting multiple mechanisms. One mechanism to emerge in the past decade is the ability of n-3 PUFA acyl chains to perturb the molecular organization of plasma membrane sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched lipid raft domains. These domains are nanometer-scale assemblies that coalesce to compartmentalize select proteins for optimal function. Here we review recent evidence on how n-3 PUFAs modify lipid rafts from biophysical and biochemical experiments from several different model systems. A central theme emerges from these studies. N-3 PUFA acyl chains display tremendous conformational flexibility and a low affinity for cholesterol and saturated acyl chains. This unique flexibility of n-3 PUFA acyl chains impacts the organization of inner and outer leaflet lipid rafts by disrupting acyl chain packing and molecular order within rafts. Ultimately, the disruption in raft organization has consequences for protein clustering and thereby signaling. Overall, elucidating the complex mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA acyl chains reorganize membrane architecture will enhance the translation of these fatty acids into the clinic for treating several diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endogenous n-3 Fatty Acids Alleviate Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Fat-1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruibing; Wang, Meng; Yan, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for numerous models of liver diseases. The probable protective effects of n-3 PUFA against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury were evaluated in a fat-1 transgenic mouse that synthesizes endogenous n-3 from n-6 PUFA. Fat-1 mice and their WT littermates were fed a modified AIN93 diet containing 10% corn oil and were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 or vehicle. CCl4 challenge caused severe liver injury in WT mice, as indicated by serum parameters and histopathological changes, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice. Endogenous n-3 PUFA decreased the elevation of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 challenge, which might be attributed to the activation of Nrf2/keap1 pathway. Additionally, endogenous n-3 PUFA reduces hepatocyte apoptosis via suppressing MAPK pathway. These findings indicate that n-3 PUFA has potent protective effects against acute liver injury induced by CCl4 in mice, suggesting that n-3 PUFA can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver injury. PMID:27891208

  10. The role of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in inflammatory processes, atherosclerosis and plaque stability.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2012-07-01

    Atherosclerosis has an important inflammatory component and acute cardiovascular events can be initiated by inflammatory processes occurring in advanced plaques. Fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or associated with, the fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Human inflammatory cells are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these are usually biologically weak. EPA and DHA give rise to resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. EPA and DHA also affect production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines, etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of human inflammatory cells influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may contribute to their protective actions towards atherosclerosis and plaque rupture.

  11. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids reduce cecal lesion scores in chickens infected with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Danforth, H D; Levander, O A

    1996-02-01

    Four experiments were run in which diets incorporating various levels of n-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) from fish (menhaden) oil or flax seed were tested for their abilities to reduce the severity of Eimeria tenella infections in young broiler chicks. The diets were fed from 1 d of age through 3 wk of age. Chickens were infected at 2 wk of age. Diets consisting of broiler starter ration supplemented with 2.5 to 10% fish oil, 10% flax seed oil, or 10% linseed oil significantly decreased cecal lesions and maintained weight gains as compared to unsupplemented diets. Light micrographs of ceca from chickens that consumed high n-3FA diets showed reduced parasite invasion and development. Short-term feeding of diets high in n-3FA to young chicks may be a practical method for reducing production losses from cecal coccidiosis.

  12. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  13. [Lipidic pattern of 25 Mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in their n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals components].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Ojeda, Anayté; Silencio, José Luis; Cassis, Lorena; Ledesma, Hector; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the lipidic composition of mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals. The edible portion of 25 species: humidity (H), crude protein (CP), total lipids (TL) and fatty acids (FA). The average content (g/100g edible portion) of H was 75.20, PC was 18.40, TL was 3.60. Four n-3 FA were identified in all the samples and they were found in the next abundance order (mg/100g edible portion): C22:6n-3 (DHA)(229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) and C20:3 n-3 (2.25). By their origin and climate there were no difference. By their biologycal classification, n-3 FA content was higher in bony fishes than cartilaginous fishes. It was detected a proportional relation with the n-3 FA concentration and total lipid content. According to their ecotic distribution there were numerical differences in DHA content (mg/100g edible portion) between pelagics (420.70), benthopelagics (125.30) and demersals fishes (225.40). Fatty fishes had higher content of EPA and DHA (mg/100g edible portion) (109.27 and 552.72) than semifatty fishes (56.12 and 226.29) and leanness (15.95 and 96.52), respectively. Bony, fatty and pelagic fishes had a higher content of EPA+DHA. According with the international recommendation values (200 to 600 mg EPA+DHA/day) the 44% of the analyzed species could be considered as functional foods due to their high content of EPA + DHA in a range of 220 to 1300 mg/100g.

  14. Kinetics study of phase separation in polyacrylic acid/nematic LC system by optical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Maria; Krolikowski, Z.

    2002-06-01

    Thin polymer layers containing liquid crystal LC of non- linear optical properties were obtained from polyacrylic acid. Samples were produced by phase separation as a consequence of chemical polymerization (PIPS method) resulting in precipitation of liquid crystals in the form of droplets in a polymer matrix being formed. Films were produced in variable conditions of polymerization time and temperature and different content of an initiator (1 - 3 wt%). They contained of 10 - 40 wt% of LC. The cell thickness was constant and equal to 20 micrometers . Systems obtained in this way were subjected to thermo-optical and electro-optical studies, morphological structure investigation and DSC analysis. The polymerization time has a significant influence on the size and number of LC droplets. The presence of benzoyl peroxide can cause partial destruction of LC properties which is reflected by a decrease of isotropization temperature TI of the liquid crystal. An increase of the initiator amount shortens the time of polymerization (ti), while process enthalpy ((Delta) H) increases. Hence, the liquid crystal separation time decreases as well. Films prepared by this method present good electro-optical properties. Rise and decay times of orientation are short and equal to 2 - 17 ms (depending on driving voltage applied) and about 80 ms, respectively. Threshold voltage for the best sample is equal to 5 V. Optimal conditions are found: LC content equals 20%, wt(i) equals 1%, polymerization temperature Tp equals 100 - 110 degree(s)C.

  15. In male rats with concurrent iron and (n-3) fatty acid deficiency, provision of either iron or (n-3) fatty acids alone alters monoamine metabolism and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Concurrent deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids [(n-3)FAD)] in rats can alter brain monoamine pathways and impair learning and memory. We examined whether repletion with Fe and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, corrects the deficits in brain monoamine activity (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory [by Morris water maze (MWM) testing] associated with deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and (n-3)FAD [ID+(n-3)FAD] were fed an Fe+DHA/EPA, Fe+(n-3)FAD, ID+DHA/EPA, or ID+(n-3)FAD diet for 5 wk [postnatal d 56-91]. Biochemical measures and MWM performance after repletion were compared to age-matched control rats. The provision of Fe in combination with DHA/EPA synergistically increased Fe concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) (Fe x DHA/EPA interaction). Similarly, provision of DHA/EPA in combination with Fe resulted in higher brain DHA concentrations than provision of DHA alone in the frontal cortex (FC) and OB (P < 0.05). Dopamine (DA) receptor D1 was upregulated in the hippocampus of Fe+DHA/EPA rats (fold-change = 1.25; P < 0.05) and there were significant Fe x DHA/EPA interactions on serotonin (5-HT) in the OB and on the DA metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the FC and striatum. Working memory performance was impaired in ID+DHA/EPA rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). In the reference memory task, Fe+DHA/EPA improved learning behavior, but Fe or DHA/EPA alone did not. These findings suggest that feeding either Fe or DHA/EPA alone to adult rats with both ID and (n-3)FAD affects the DA and 5-HT pathways differently than combined repletion and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency.

  16. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  17. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  18. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. Determination of Insecticidal Effect (LC50 and LC90) of Organic Fatty Acids Mixture (C8910+Silicone) Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dunford, James C; Falconer, Aneika; Leite, Laura N; Wirtz, Robert A; Brogdon, William G

    2016-05-01

    Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue and associated Aedes vectors are expanding their historical ranges; thus, there is a need for the development of novel insecticides for use in vector control programs. The mosquito toxicity of a novel insecticide and repellent consisting of medium-chain carbon fatty acids (C8910) was examined. Determination of LC50 and LC90 was made against colony-reared Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) using probit analysis on mortality data generated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays. Six different concentrations of C8910 + silicone oil yielded an LC50 of 160.3 µg a.i/bottle (147.6-182.7) and LC90 of 282.8 (233.2-394.2) in Ae. aegypti; five concentrations yielded an LC50 of 125.4 (116.1-137.6) and LC90 of 192.5 (165.0-278.9) in Ae. albopictus. Further development of C8910 and similar compounds could provide vector control specialists novel insecticides for controlling insect disease vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. [Measurement of the amino acid sequence for the fusion protein FP3 with LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Xiang-Dong; Tao, Lei; Pei, De-Ning; Guo, Ying; Rao, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of the fusion protein FP3 was measured by two types of LC-MS/MS and its primary structure was confirmed. After reduction and alkylation, the protein was digested with trypsin and glycosyl groups in glycopeptide were removed by PNGase F. The mixed peptides were separated by LC, then Q-TOF and Ion trap tandem mass spectrometry were used to measure b, y fragment ions of each peptide to analyze the amino acid sequence of fusion protein FP3. Seventy-six percent of full amino acid sequence of the fusion protein FP3 was measured by LC-ESI-Q-TOF with the remaining 24% completed by LC-ESI-Trap. As LC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry are rapid, sensitive, accurate to measure the protein amino acid sequence, they are important approach to structure analysis and identification of recombinant protein.

  1. High-fat diets containing different amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated acids modulate adipokine production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different...

  2. Preparation of 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-ylacetic acid and its [13C2], [5-n-3H], and [5-n-3H]-7-O-glucosyl analogues for use in the study of indol-3-ylacetic acid catabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    An improved synthesis of 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-ylacetic acid via the base-induced condensation reaction between oxalate esters and 7-benzyloxyindolin-2-one is described. 7-Benzyloxyindolin-2-one was prepared in four steps and 50% overall yield from 3-hydroxy-2-nitrotoluene. The yield of the title compound from 7-benzyloxyindolin-2-one was 56%. This route was used to prepare 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl[13C2]acetic acid in 30% yield from [13C2]oxalic acid dihydrate. The method could not be extended to the preparation of the corresponding [14C2]-compound. However, an enzyme preparation from Zea mays roots catalysed the conversion of carrier-free [5-n-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid with a specific activity of 16.7 Ci mmol-1 to a mixture of 7-hydroxy-2-oxo[5-n-3H]indolin-3-ylacetic acid and its [5-n-3H]-7-O-glucoside in ca. 3 and 40% radiochemical yield respectively. The glucoside was converted into the 7-hydroxy compound in 80% yield by means of beta-glucosidase.

  3. Preparation of 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-ylacetic acid and its [13C2], [5-n-3H], and [5-n-3H]-7-O-glucosyl analogues for use in the study of indol-3-ylacetic acid catabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    An improved synthesis of 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-ylacetic acid via the base-induced condensation reaction between oxalate esters and 7-benzyloxyindolin-2-one is described. 7-Benzyloxyindolin-2-one was prepared in four steps and 50% overall yield from 3-hydroxy-2-nitrotoluene. The yield of the title compound from 7-benzyloxyindolin-2-one was 56%. This route was used to prepare 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl[13C2]acetic acid in 30% yield from [13C2]oxalic acid dihydrate. The method could not be extended to the preparation of the corresponding [14C2]-compound. However, an enzyme preparation from Zea mays roots catalysed the conversion of carrier-free [5-n-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid with a specific activity of 16.7 Ci mmol-1 to a mixture of 7-hydroxy-2-oxo[5-n-3H]indolin-3-ylacetic acid and its [5-n-3H]-7-O-glucoside in ca. 3 and 40% radiochemical yield respectively. The glucoside was converted into the 7-hydroxy compound in 80% yield by means of beta-glucosidase.

  4. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on rat livers after partial hepatectomy via LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, X P; Wang, S; Yang, Y; Qiu, Y D

    2011-12-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) are considered to be associated with liver regeneration. We investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA on hepatic tight junction (TJs) and liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham group; control group, fish oil (FO; 1 mL/kg), and the FO (2 mL/kg) group. We examined changes in expression of hepatic TJs by at confocal microscopy in liver regeneration by routine clinical chemistry methods for hepatic function, and in activation of liver kinase B1-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Using Western blot analysis. After PH survival was higher in the FO than the control group. We observed treatment with n-3 PUFA to activated the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway as well as to earlier, stronger and prolonged of the expression of Occludin, Claudin-3, zonula occludens-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen proteins. In addition, hepatic TJ structures and the level of liver function were protected after n-3 PUFA treatment. After PH in rats, n-3 PUFA enhanced expression and protected the structure of hepatic TJs via the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. Moreover, it may promote liver regeneration partly via the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. It protected postoperative hepatic function and may be a liver protective agent against liver failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperactivity in the rat is associated with spontaneous low level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Vancassel, S; Blondeau, C; Lallemand, S; Cador, M; Linard, A; Lavialle, M; Dellu-Hagedorn, F

    2007-06-18

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness are the main symptoms of the heterogeneous attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been suggested that ADHD is associated with an imbalance in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition, with abnormal low levels of the main n-3 PUFA, DHA (22: 6n-3). DHA is highly accumulated in nervous tissue membranes and is implicated in neural function. Animal studies have shown that diet-induced lack of DHA in the brain leads to alterations in cognitive processes, but the relationship between DHA and hyperactivity is unclear. We examined the membrane phospholipid fatty acid profile in frontal cortex of rats characterized for attention, impulsiveness and motricity in various environmental contexts to determine the relationship between brain PUFA composition and the symptoms of ADHD. The amounts of n-3 PUFA in the PE were significantly correlated with nocturnal locomotor activity and the locomotor response to novelty: hyperactive individuals had less n-3 PUFA than hypoactive ones. We conclude that spontaneous hyperactivity in rats is the symptom of ADHD that best predicts the n-3 PUFA content of the frontal cortex. This differential model in rats should help to better understand the role of PUFA in several psychopathologies in which PUFA composition is modified.

  6. Fish oil (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids beneficially affect biliary cholesterol nucleation time in obese women losing weight.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Sánchez, N; González, V; Aguayo, P; Sánchez, J M; Tanimoto, M A; Elizondo, J; Uribe, M

    2001-09-01

    It has been reported that intake of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and decreases biliary cholesterol saturation in the bile of gallstone patients. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA on cholesterol saturation index (CSI) and nucleation time (NT) in obese subjects who were losing weight. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Obese women (n = 35) with a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m(2), with no prior history of gallstones or cholecystectomy by ultrasound were first studied to ensure absence of stones or biliary sludge. The women were then assigned to a hypocaloric regimen [5.02 MJ (1200 kcal)/d] and to receive 1200 mg/d of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 11.3 g/d of (n-3) PUFA or a placebo for 6 wk. BMI, CSI and NT were recorded at baseline and at the end of the experimental period. BMI decreased 5.75 +/- 2.7%/mo (range, 1.5-12.42%/mo) during the experiment. The CSI did not change in any of the groups. Cholesterol NT decreased significantly in the UDCA and placebo groups, but not in the (n-3) PUFA group. None of the women had developed gallstones at 6 wk. These results suggest that (n-3) PUFA maintain the CSI and NT in obese women during rapid weight loss, which probably results in the prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation.

  7. Fasting lipoprotein and postprandial triacylglycerol responses to a low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Volek, J S; Gómez, A L; Kraemer, W J

    2000-06-01

    The effects of a prolonged low-carbohydrate diet rich in n-3 fatty acids on blood lipid profiles have not been addressed in the scientific literature. This study examined the effects of an eight-week ketogenic diet rich in n-3 fatty acids on fasting serum lipoproteins and postprandial triacylglycerol (TG) responses. Ten men consumed a low-carbohydrate diet rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after one week of habitual diet and on two consecutive days after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of the intervention diet. Postprandial TG responses to a fat-rich test meal were measured prior to and after the intervention diet. Compared to the habitual diet, subjects consumed significantly (p < or = 0.05) greater quantities of protein, fat, MUFA and n-3 fatty acids and significantly less total energy, carbohydrate and dietary fiber. Body weight significantly declined over the experimental period (-4.2+/-2.7 kg). Compared to baseline, fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were not significantly different after the intervention diet (+1.5%, +9.7% and +10.0%, respectively). Fasting TG were significantly reduced after the intervention diet (-55%). There was a significant reduction in peak postprandial TG (-42%) and TG area under the curve (-48%) after the intervention diet. A hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet rich in MUFA and supplemented with n-3 fatty acids significantly reduced postabsorptive and postprandial TG in men that were not hypertriglyceridemic as a group before the diet. This may be viewed as a clinically significant positive adaptation in terms of cardiovascular risk status. However, transient increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were also evident and should be examined further in regard to which particular subfractions are elevated.

  8. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  9. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA methylation in blood leukocytes: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohsen; Vedin, Inger; Freund Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Faxén Irving, Gerd; Eriksdotter, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Schultzberg, Marianne; Hjorth, Erik; Cederholm, Tommy; Palmblad, Jan

    2017-08-30

    Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors-such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation-are poorly described.Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients.Design: In the present study, DNA methylation in four 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) sites of long interspersed nuclear element-1 repetitive sequences was assessed in a group of 63 patients (30 given the n-3 FA preparation and 33 given placebo) as an estimation of the global DNA methylation in blood cells. Patients originated from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled OmegAD study, in which 174 AD patients received either 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (the n-3 FA group) or placebo daily for 6 mo.Results: At 6 mo, the n-3 FA group displayed marked increases in DHA and EPA plasma concentrations (2.6- and 3.5-fold), as well as decreased methylation in 2 out of 4 CpG sites (P < 0.05 for all), respectively. This hypomethylation in CpG2 and CpG4 sites showed a reverse correlation to changes in plasma EPA concentration (r = -0.25, P = 0.045; and r = -0.26, P = 0.041, respectively), but not to changes in plasma DHA concentration, and were not related to apolipoprotein E-4 allele frequency.Conclusion: Supplementation with n-3 FA for 6 mo was associated with global DNA hypomethylation in PBLs. Our data may be of importance in measuring various effects of marine oils, including gene expression, in patients with AD

  11. Efficient generation of sFat-1 transgenic rabbits rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Lu, Fenghua; Liu, Qingyou; Liu, Yubing; Guan, Xiaomei; Wei, Yingming; Tan, Shijian; Shi, Deshun

    2016-03-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have their first double bond at the third carbon from the methyl end of the fatty-acid chain and had been proven to be beneficial to human health. However, mammals cannot produce n-3 PUFAs by themselves because they lack the n-3 fatty-acid desaturase (Fat-1) gene. Thus, the possibility of producing sFat-1 transgenic rabbits was explored in this study. The transgenic cassette of pPGK1-sFat-1-CMV-EGFP was constructed and transgenic rabbit embryos were produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). When 123 EGFP-positive embryos at the 2-8-cell stage were transplanted into the oviduct of four oestrous-synchronised recipients, two of them became pregnant and gave birth to seven pups. However, transfer of embryos into the uterus of oestrous-synchronised recipients and oviduct or uterus of oocyte donor rabbits did not result in pregnancy. The integration of the sFat-1 gene was confirmed in six of the seven live pups by PCR and Southern blot. The expression of the sFat-1 gene in the six transgenic pups was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that transgenic rabbits exhibited an ~15-fold decrease in the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs in muscle compared with wild-type rabbits and non-transgenic rabbits. These results demonstrate that sFat-1 transgenic rabbits can be produced by ICSI and display a low ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs.

  12. Brain cell and tissue recovery in rats made deficient in n-3 fatty acids by alteration of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M; Durand, G; Pascal, G; Youyou, A

    1989-01-01

    Rats were fed a purified diet containing either 1.5% sunflower oil [940 mg linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)]/100 g diet; 6 mg alpha-linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)]/300 g diet] or 1.9% soybean oil [940 mg 18:2(n-6)/100 g diet; 130 mg 18:3(n-3)/100 g diet]. In all cases and tissues examined 22:6(n-3) was lower and 22:5(n-6) was higher in rats fed sunflower oil than in rats fed soybean oil. Levels of 22:4(n-6) and 20:4(n-6) were largely unaffected. Expressed as a percentage of that in soybean oil-fed rats, 22:6(n-3) in sunflower oil-fed rats was as follows: neurons, 49; astrocytes, 47; oligodendrocytes, 10; lung, 27; testes, 32; retina, 36; liver, 35 and kidneys, 45. Ten wk after the change in diet of 60-d-old rats from one containing sunflower oil to one containing soybean oil, the fatty acid composition of the brain cells had not reached control values, e.g., that obtained in animals continuously fed soybean oil; 22:6(n-3) was 77, 65 and 80% of control levels for astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons, respectively. In contrast, the recovery measured by the decay of 22:5(n-6) was complete within 10 wk. For 22:6(n-3), it took approximately 2 wk for liver and kidney to recover to the control value, 3 wk for lung, 6 wk for retina and 10 wk for testes. The decrease of 22:5(n-6) was rapid: the control values were reached within 2 wk for kidney, liver and lung and within 6 wk for retina.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. n-3 Fatty Acids, Ventricular Arrhythmia–Related Events, and Fatal Myocardial Infarction in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Mulder, Barbara J.M.; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Deckers, Jaap W.; Boersma, Eric; Zock, Peter L.; Giltay, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA) will reduce the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and fatal MI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A subgroup of 1,014 post-MI patients with diabetes aged 60–80 years was randomly allocated to receive one of four trial margarines, three with an additional amount of n-3 fatty acids and one placebo for 40 months. The end points were ventricular arrhythmia–related events and fatal MI. The data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS The patients consumed on average 18.6 g of margarine per day, which resulted in an additional intake of 223 mg EPA plus 149 mg DHA and/or 1.9 g ALA in the active treatment groups. During follow-up, 29 patients developed a ventricular arrhythmia–related events and 27 had a fatal MI. Compared with placebo patients, the EPA-DHA plus ALA group experienced less ventricular arrhythmia–related events (hazard ratio 0.16; 95% CI 0.04–0.69). These n-3 fatty acids also reduced the combined end-point ventricular arrhythmia–related events and fatal MI (0.28; 0.11–0.71). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that low-dose supplementation of n-3 fatty acids exerts a protective effect against ventricular arrhythmia–related events in post-MI patients with diabetes. PMID:22110169

  14. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  15. Fifteen weeks of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases turnover of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in rat-brain phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Miki; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Gao, Fei; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    Docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6, 22:5n-6) is an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) whose brain concentration can be increased in rodents by dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency, which may contribute to their behavioral dysfunction. We used our in vivo intravenous infusion method to see if brain DPAn-6 turnover and metabolism also were altered with deprivation. We studied male rats that had been fed for 15 weeks post-weaning an n-3 PUFA adequate diet containing 4.6% alpha-linolenic acid (α-LNA, 18:3n-3) or a deficient diet (0.2% α-LNA), each lacking docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). [1-14C]DPAn-6 was infused intravenously for 5 min in unanesthetized rats, after which the brain underwent high-energy microwaving, and then was analyzed. The n-3 PUFA deficient compared with adequate diet increased DPAn-6 and decreased DHA concentrations in plasma and brain, while minimally changing brain AA concentration. Incorporation rates of unesterified DPAn-6 from plasma into individual brain phospholipids were increased 5.2–7.7 fold, while turnover rates were increased 2.1–4.7 fold. The observations suggest that increased metabolism and brain concentrations of DPAn-6 and its metabolites, together with a reduced brain DHA concentration, contribute to behavioral and functional abnormalities reported with dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation in rodents. PMID:22142872

  16. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of different cooking methods on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of n-3 fatty acids fortified tilapia meat with or without clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Romano, Nicholas; Goh, Yong-Meng; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ehteshami, Fariborz; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Tilapia farmers are increasingly relying on dietary fish oil alternatives which substantially reduces health beneficial n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in tilapia products.? This may be further exacerbated depending on the cooking method.? This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of tilapia minced meat after prior fish oil fortifications with or without clove essential oil. Results showed that frying tilapia in either sunflower or palm oil significantly increased the saturated fatty acid and linoleic acid content, respectively, of tilapia. However, fish oil fortifications significantly increased the n-3 PUFA content, but tended to decrease oxidative stability, particularly when microwaving. This was mitigated by clove essential oil, which significantly improved oxidative stability after cooking. Results indicate that n-3 PUFA and clove essential oil fortifications is an effective method to deliver and protect these beneficial fatty acids for human consumers. ?

  18. Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Macintosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Ringel, Amit; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Feldstein, Ariel E; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne; Lynch, Chanee; Coble, Rebecca; Mas, Emilie; Palsson, Olafur; Barrow, David A; Mann, J Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to lipid mediators with antinociceptive and pronociceptive properties. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial to assess clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alteration in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for treatment of chronic headaches. After a 4-week preintervention phase, ambulatory patients with chronic daily headache undergoing usual care were randomized to 1 of 2 intensive, food-based 12-week dietary interventions: a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) intervention, or a low n-6 (L6) intervention. Clinical outcomes included the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, primary clinical outcome), Headache Days per month, and Headache Hours per day. Biochemical outcomes included the erythrocyte n-6 in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) score (primary biochemical outcome) and bioactive n-3 and n-6 derivatives. Fifty-six of 67 patients completed the intervention. Both groups achieved targeted intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. In intention-to-treat analysis, the H3-L6 intervention produced significantly greater improvement in the HIT-6 score (-7.5 vs -2.1; P<0.001) and the number of Headache Days per month (-8.8 vs -4.0; P=0.02), compared to the L6 group. The H3-L6 intervention also produced significantly greater reductions in Headache Hours per day (-4.6 vs -1.2; P=0.01) and the n-6 in HUFA score (-21.0 vs -4.0%; P<0.001), and greater increases in antinociceptive n-3 pathway markers 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (+118.4 vs +61.1%; P<0.001) and 17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (+170.2 vs +27.2; P<0.001). A dietary intervention increasing n-3 and reducing n-6 fatty acids reduced headache pain, altered antinociceptive lipid mediators, and improved quality-of-life in this population.

  19. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  20. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2013-11-14

    Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek

  1. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids are Selective Targets of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Lipid Peroxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol withdrawal is a potentially life-threatening neurological syndrome owing to decreased GABA transmission and increased glutamatergic transmission resulting in a pro-excitotoxic state. Previous data indicate that ethanol withdrawal may increase CNS lipid peroxidation particularly to the n-3 fa...

  2. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition.

  3. Dietary n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios Alter Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Populations in Goats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Jafari, Saeid; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Meng, Goh Yong; Ghaffari, Morteza Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Revealing the ruminal fermentation patterns and microbial populations as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the role of the rumen in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios on fermentation characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profiles, and microbial populations in the rumen of goats. A total of twenty-one goats were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments with different n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 2.27:1 (low ratio, LR), 5.01:1 (medium ratio, MR), and 10.38:1 (high ratio, HR). After 100 days of feeding, all goats were slaughtered. Dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios had no effect (P > 0.05) on rumen pH and NH3N concentration. Goats fed HR diet had lower (P < 0.05) propionate and total volatile fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) butyrate compared with those fed the MR and LR diets. The proportion of C18:0 decreased (P < 0.05) as dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios increased. The proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, cis-9 trans-11 CLA, and C20:4n-6 were greater in the HR goats compared with the MR and LR goats. Lowering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios enhanced (P < 0.05) the proportion of C18:3n-3 and total n-3 PUFA in the rumen fluid of goats. The populations of R. albus and R. flavefaciens decreased (P < 0.05) as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios increased in diet. Diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on the ruminal populations of F. succinogenes, total bacteria, methanogens, total protozoa, Entiodinium, and Holotrich. The population of B. fibrisolvens was lower (P < 0.05) in the LR goats compared with the MR and HR goats. It was concluded that HR would increase the concentration of cis-9 trans-11 CLA and C18:1 trans-11 in the rumen. However, LR whould decrease the B. fibrisolvens population, which is involved in the BH process in the rumen. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential role and contribution of rumen microbiome in the metabolism of FA in the

  4. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p < 0.001) and egg mass (p = 0.003) were significantly lower and feed conversion (p = 0.008) significantly higher for the n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Slow recovery of the fatty acid composition of sciatic nerve in rats fed a diet initially low in n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M; Youyou, A; Durand, G; Pascal, G

    1987-07-01

    The sciatic nerve of rats fed sunflower oil (6 mg 18:3-n-3/100 g of diet) presented dramatic alterations in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in comparison with those fed soy oil (130 mg 18:3n-3/100 g of diet). In both 15-day-old and 60-day-old animals fed sunflower oil, 22:6n-3 (cervonic acid) was four-fold less, 22:5n-6 was 10-fold greater; adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was slightly greater and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was close to that in rats fed soy oil. The percentage distribution of total polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as the individual saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were the same in both groups. When the sunflower oil-fed animals were switched to a soy oil-containing diet for either 15 or 60 days, the percentage distribution of 22:6n-3 increased slowly to reach the control value 2.5 months later. Conversely 22:5n-6 decreased slowly. The decay of 22:5n-6 was more rapid than the increase of 22:6n-3.

  6. Consumption of a high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet during gradual mild physiological stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M; Grippo, A J; Beltz, T G; Johnson, A K

    2015-04-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) may be beneficial for anxiety and depression under stressful conditions. Studies however, typically utilise physical or sudden physiological stress, while gradual physiological stress is also relevant to human conditions. Using deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration to induce gradual physiological stress, this study investigated the impact of n-3PUFAs under gradual physiological stress in rats. Animals (aged 2 months) (N=8-12/group) received daily injections of DOCA or vehicle and were concurrently fed a high n-3PUFA or control diet for eight weeks. Behavioural measures were taken throughout. Behavioural tests and physiological measures were conducted after six and eight weeks respectively. DOCA administration decreased plasma renin, plasma proteins and relative adrenal weight, and increased water intake, relative kidney weight, and anxiety in the open field. These findings demonstrate disruptions to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, a result of mild physiological stress, that also impact on anxiety behaviours. No effects of n-3PUFAs were found.

  7. Lysophospatidylserine enhances the transfer of 22:6n3 to lysophosphatidic acid in rat brain microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, P.G.; Hu, Zhong-Yi; Sun, G. Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Although the acyl groups of phosphatidylserine in brain are uniquely enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), the mechanism for this enrichment is not well understood. When rat brain homogenates and microsomes were incubated in the presence of lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) together with ({sup 14}C)22:6n3 and cofactors for activation to its acylCoA, very little radioactivity was incorporated into phosphatidylserine (PS). On the other hand, ({sup 14}C)20:4n6 was more actively incorporated into PS. Addition of LPS (1-10 uM), however, resulted in a 2.5 fold enhancement of the transfer of labeled 22:6n3 and 20:4n6 to phosphatidic acid (PA). Kinetic analysis indicated the ability of LPS to lower the Km and increase the Vmax of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase reaction. Among other lysophospholipids tested, lysophosphatidylserine was most effective in enhancing PA biosynthesis. Since PA is an important intermediate for de novo biosynthesis of phospholipids, these results reveal a novel mechanism for promoting synthesis of PA enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain.

  8. 18-HEPE, an n-3 fatty acid metabolite released by macrophages, prevents pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Endo, Jin; Sano, Motoaki; Isobe, Yosuke; Fukuda, Keiichi; Kang, Jing X; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have potential cardiovascular benefit, although the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Fat-1 transgenic mice expressing Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase, which is capable of producing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, exhibited resistance to pressure overload-induced inflammation and fibrosis, as well as reduced cardiac function. Lipidomic analysis revealed selective enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fat-1 transgenic bone marrow (BM) cells and EPA-metabolite 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 transgenic macrophages. BM transplantation experiments revealed that fat-1 transgenic BM cells, but not fat-1 transgenic cardiac cells, contributed to the antiremodeling effect and that the 18-HEPE-rich milieu in the fat-1 transgenic heart was generated by BM-derived cells, most likely macrophages. 18-HEPE inhibited macrophage-mediated proinflammatory activation of cardiac fibroblasts in culture, and in vivo administration of 18-HEPE reproduced the fat-1 mice phenotype, including resistance to pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling. © 2014 Endo et al.

  9. 18-HEPE, an n-3 fatty acid metabolite released by macrophages, prevents pressure overload–induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Jin; Sano, Motoaki; Isobe, Yosuke; Fukuda, Keiichi; Kang, Jing X.; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have potential cardiovascular benefit, although the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Fat-1 transgenic mice expressing Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase, which is capable of producing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, exhibited resistance to pressure overload–induced inflammation and fibrosis, as well as reduced cardiac function. Lipidomic analysis revealed selective enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fat-1 transgenic bone marrow (BM) cells and EPA-metabolite 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 transgenic macrophages. BM transplantation experiments revealed that fat-1 transgenic BM cells, but not fat-1 transgenic cardiac cells, contributed to the antiremodeling effect and that the 18-HEPE–rich milieu in the fat-1 transgenic heart was generated by BM-derived cells, most likely macrophages. 18-HEPE inhibited macrophage-mediated proinflammatory activation of cardiac fibroblasts in culture, and in vivo administration of 18-HEPE reproduced the fat-1 mice phenotype, including resistance to pressure overload–induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling. PMID:25049337

  10. Serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychological distress in early pregnancy: Adjunct Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, K; Harauma, A; Otaka, Y; Moriguchi, T; Inadera, H

    2016-02-16

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially long-chain types such as docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients in pregnancy, but the relationship between n-3 PUFA levels and perinatal and postnatal depression remains controversial. This study examined the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFA levels and psychological distress among expectant mothers in early pregnancy. Data and specimen samples were obtained in a birth cohort study started at Toyama Regional Center in July 2012 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Blood samples were collected at 9-14 weeks' gestation (75% of samples) or after 15 weeks (25%). Subjects with a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score (K6) ⩾ 9 were assigned to the psychological distress group (n=283). The control group (n=283) was matched for age, educational level and family income. Fatty acid composition was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. After adjusting for possible confounders, eicosapentaenoic acid showed an inverse association with risk of psychological distress, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.73) for the highest tertile. This inverse association remained even after applying a higher cutoff score (K6 ⩾ 13) indicating severe psychological distress (74 pairs). We believe this is the first study to reveal the associations between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in early pregnancy. Further research is required to verify the causality of these associations.

  11. Serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychological distress in early pregnancy: Adjunct Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamazaki, K; Harauma, A; Otaka, Y; Moriguchi, T; Inadera, H

    2016-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially long-chain types such as docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients in pregnancy, but the relationship between n-3 PUFA levels and perinatal and postnatal depression remains controversial. This study examined the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFA levels and psychological distress among expectant mothers in early pregnancy. Data and specimen samples were obtained in a birth cohort study started at Toyama Regional Center in July 2012 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Blood samples were collected at 9–14 weeks' gestation (75% of samples) or after 15 weeks (25%). Subjects with a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score (K6) ⩾9 were assigned to the psychological distress group (n=283). The control group (n=283) was matched for age, educational level and family income. Fatty acid composition was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. After adjusting for possible confounders, eicosapentaenoic acid showed an inverse association with risk of psychological distress, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.73) for the highest tertile. This inverse association remained even after applying a higher cutoff score (K6 ⩾13) indicating severe psychological distress (74 pairs). We believe this is the first study to reveal the associations between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in early pregnancy. Further research is required to verify the causality of these associations. PMID:26882037

  12. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  13. Direct analysis of underivatized amino acids in plant extracts by LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Björn; Stein, Nadine; Oldiges, Marco; Hofmann, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for quantification of 20 proteinogenic amino acids as well as 13 (15)N-labeled amino acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry without the need for derivatization and use of organic solvents. Analysis of the underivatized amino acids is performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) in the positive ESI mode. Separation is achieved on a strong cation exchange (SCX) column (Luna 5 μm SCX 100 Å) with 30 mM ammonium acetate in water (A) and 5% acetic acid in water (B). Quantification is accomplished by use of d(5)-phenylalanine as internal standard achieving limits of detection of 0.1-3.0 μM. The method was successfully applied for the determination of proteinogenic and (15)N-labeled amino acids in plant extracts.

  14. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20-35 and 49-69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n-3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n-3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (-5% and -23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15-20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n-3 PUFA in human nutrition.

  15. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  16. Heart rate variability and n-3 fatty acids in patients with chronic renal failure--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J H; Aarøe, J; Knudsen, N; Dideriksen, K; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J; Schmidt, E B

    1998-02-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) often have autonomic cardiac dysfunction, which can be assessed by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). This dysfunction prediposes the patients to sudden cardiac death. This study describes 24-hour HRV in patients with CRF compared to HRV in patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, associations between HRV in patients with CRF and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cell membranes were examined, because n-3 PUFA may improve HRV. Twenty-nine patients with CRF treated with dialysis were enrolled. A 24-hour Holter recording was obtained at baseline and the HRV variables, RR (= mean of all normal RR intervals during the 24-hour recording) and SDNN (= standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in the entire 24-hour recording) were analyzed. Also, granulocyte fatty acid composition was determined. The patients were allocated to dietary supplementation with either 5.2 g of n-3 PUFA or a placebo oil (olive oil) daily for 12 weeks in a double-blind design. At the end of the supplementation period the Holter recording and blood sampling were repeated. At baseline the CRF patients' mean SDNN ws 86 ms compared to 118 ms (p < 0.01) in patients with a previous MI. After supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or placebo a highly significant correlation was observed between the content of n-3 PUFA in cell membranes and HRV (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). Furthermore, when the patients were dichotomized according to their mean SDNN, it was found, that those with the highest SDNN had a higher content of n-3 PUFA in cell membranes compared to those with the lowest SDNN (7.8% vs 4.2%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HRV was decreased in CRF patients indicating a cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. The positive correlation between the n-3 PUFA content in cell membranes and HRV suggests that the effects of an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in CRF patients should be further studied.

  17. Serum levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Icelanders, Japanese, Koreans, and Americans - A descriptive epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, Akira; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Shin, Chol; Curb, J. David; Evans, Rhobert W.; Hauksdottir, Alda M.; Kadota, Aya; Choo, Jina; Masaki, Kamal; Thorsson, Bolli; Launer, Lenore J.; Garcia, Melisa E.; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Willcox, Bradley J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Harris, Tamara B.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the 1990’s Iceland and Japan were known as countries with high fish consumption whereas coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Iceland was high and that in Japan was low among developed countries. We described recent data fish consumption and CHD mortality from publicly available data. We also measured CHD risk factors and serum levels of marine-derived n-3 and other fatty acids from population-based samples of 1,324 men in Iceland, Japan, South Korea, and the US. CHD mortality in men in Iceland was almost 3 times as high as that in Japan and South Korea. Generally a profile of CHD risk factors in Icelanders compared to Japanese was more favorable. Serum marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Iceland were significantly lower than in Japan and South Korea but significantly higher than in the US. PMID:22658580

  18. [Study on determination of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid in rat plasma and their pharmacokinetics with LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Dai, Guo-Liang; Ma, Shi-Tang; Liu, Shi-Jia; Cheng, Xiao-Gui; Zang, Yu-Xin; Ju, Wen-Zheng; Tan, Heng-Shan

    2013-11-01

    To establish a LC-MS/MS method to determine caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid in rat plasma and study their pharmacokinetics in rats. Six Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with 4 mL x kg(-1) of Dengzhanxixin injection, respectively. Their drug plasma concentration was determined by LC-MS/MS, with tinidazole as an internal standard. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 1.0. The linear concentration ranges of caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid were 2-128 microg x L(-1) (r = 0.998 1) and 3-384 microg x L(-1) (r = 0.998 7), respectively. The methodological test showed conformance to the requirements. The intraday and inter-day variable coefficients were both less than 10.0%, indicating that both of legitimate precise and accuracy were in conformity with the requirements of biological sample analysis. For caffeic acid, the pharmacokinetic parameter t1/2beta AUC0-t, and CL were (130.91 +/- 38.77) min, (4.89 +/- 0.96) mg x min x L(-1) and (0.12 +/- 0.02) L x min(-1) x kg(-1), respectively. For chlorogenic acid, the pharmacokinetic parameter t1/2beta , AUC0-t, and CL were (49.38 +/- 8.85) min, (9.54 +/- 0.95) mg x min x L(-1) and (0.09 +/- 0.003) L x min(-1) x kg(-1), respectively. The LC-MS/MS analysis method established in this study was proved to be so accurate and sensitive that it can be applied to the pharmacokinetic study of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid.

  19. A study on the causes for the elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows' milk of alpine origin.

    PubMed

    Leiber, Florian; Kreuzer, Michael; Nigg, Daniel; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf; Scheeder, Martin Richard Leo

    2005-02-01

    The influence of grass-only diets either from rye-grass-dominated lowland pastures (400 m above sea level) or botanically diverse alpine pastures (2000 m) on the FA profile of milk was investigated using three groups of six Brown Swiss cows each. Two groups were fed grass-only on pasture (P) or freshly harvested in barn (B), both for two experimental periods in the lowlands and, consecutively, two periods on the alp. Group C served as the control, receiving a silage-concentrate diet and permanently staying in the lowlands. Effects of vegetation stage or pasture vs. barn feeding on milk fat composition were negligible. Compared with the control, alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) consumption was elevated in groups P and B (79%; P< 0.001) during the lowland periods but decreased on the alp to the level of C owing to feed intake depression and lower 18:3n-3 concentration in the alpine forage. Average 18:3n-3 contents of milk fat were higher in groups P and B than in C by 33% (P< 0.01) at low and by 96% (P < 0.001) at high altitude, indicating that 18:3n-3 levels in milk were to some extent independent of 18:3n-3 consumption. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk of grass-fed cows was higher compared with C but lower for the alpine vs. lowland periods whereas the trans-11, cis-13 isomer further increased with altitude. Long-chain n-3 FA and phytanic acid increased while arachidonic acid decreased with grass-only feeding, but none of them responded to altitude. Grass-only feeding increased milk alpha-tocopherol concentration by 86 and 134% at low and high altitude (P < 0.001), respectively. Changes in the ruminal ecosystem due to energy shortage or specific secondary plant metabolites are discussed as possible causes for the high 18:3n-3 concentrations in alpine milk.

  20. Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Turchini, G M; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

    2010-07-01

    The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 : 2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85.2 v. 73.6 % of net intake), whereas diet did not affect 18 : 3n-3 accumulation (mean 63 % of net intake). Bioconversion of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased in the order Palm>Lin>Soya>Fish (4.7, 3.9, 3.4 and 1 % of net intake, respectively). The 18 : 3n-3 bioconversion on the Palm and Soya diets was similar and significantly higher than in broilers on the Lin diet (9.1 v. 5.8 % of net intake). The beta-oxidation of 18 : 2n-6 was significantly lower on the Lin diet than on the other diets (10.8 v. 23.3 % of net intake), whereas beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was significantly higher on the Fish diet than on the other diets (41.5 v. 27.3 % of net intake). Feeding fish oil suppressed apparent elongase and desaturase activity, whereas a higher dietary supply of 18 : 3n-3 and 18 : 2n-6 enhanced apparent elongation and desaturation activity on the PUFA involved in the n-3 and n-6 pathway, respectively. Accumulation of 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 increased and beta-oxidation decreased with age. Sex had a marginal effect on the PUFA metabolism.

  1. First LC/MS determination of cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine in groundwater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E.M.; Barceló, Damià

    2000-01-01

    Cyanazine and two of its major metabolites, cyanazine amide and cyanazine acid, were measured at trace levels in groundwater using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/APCI/MS). Solid-phase extraction was carried out by passing 20 mL of groundwater sample through a cartridge containing a polymeric phase (PLRP-s), with recoveries ranging from 99 to 108% (n = 5). Using LC/MS detection in positive ion mode, useful structural information was obtained by increasing the fragmentor voltage, thus permitting the unequivocal identification of these compounds in groundwater samples with low sample volumes. The fragmentation of the amide, carboxylic acid, and cyano group was observed for both metabolites and cyanazine, respectively, leading to a diagnostic ion at m/z 214. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002−0.005 μg/L for the three compounds. Finally, the newly developed method was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater samples from New York containing the compounds under study and presents evidence that the metabolites, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine amide may leach to groundwater and serve as sources for deisopropylatrazine. The combination of on-line SPE and LC/APCI/MS represents an important advance in environmental analysis of herbicide metabolites in groundwater since it demonstrates that trace amounts of polar metabolites may be determined rapidly. Furthermore, the presence of both cyanazine amide and cyanazine acid indicate that another degradation product, deisopropylatrazine, may be occurring at depth because of the subsequent degradation of cyanazine.

  2. (n-3) Fatty Acids Alleviate Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Mechanistic Insights12

    PubMed Central

    Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a significant risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the adipose tissue of obese individuals is causally linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Although the exact trigger of this inflammatory process is unknown, adipose tissue hypoxia, endoplasmic reticular stress, and saturated fatty acid–mediated activation of innate immune processes have been identified as important processes in these disorders. Furthermore, macrophages and T lymphocytes have important roles in orchestrating this immune process. Although energy restriction leading to weight loss is the primary dietary intervention to reverse these obesity-associated metabolic disorders, other interventions targeted at alleviating adipose tissue inflammation have not been explored in detail. In this regard, (n-3) PUFA of marine origin both prevent and reverse high-fat-diet–induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in rodents. We provide an update on the pathogenesis of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity and discuss potential mechanisms by which (n-3) PUFA prevent and reverse these changes and the implications in human health. PMID:22332072

  3. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Crispie, Fiona; O’Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored. Methods and Results Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS) female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress. Conclusions In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression. PMID:26426902

  4. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; El Aidy, Sahar; Crispie, Fiona; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored. Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS) female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress. In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

  5. A low fat diet enhances polyunsaturated fatty acid desaturation and elongation independent of n3 enrichment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low fat diets are associated with risk reduction for chronic metabolic diseases compared to high fat diets. To evaluate effects of varied fat and fatty acid intake on lipid metabolism, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured and delta 5 and 6 desaturase activities (D5D, D6D) were calculated in...

  6. The chemistry of cyanuric acid (H3C3N3O3) under high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, W; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M; Jeanloz, R

    2008-03-06

    We have studied cyanuric acid (H(3)C(3)N(3)O(3)) at static pressures up to 8.1 GPa and simultaneous temperatures up to 750 K, using primarily infrared absorption spectroscopy and visual observation. The corresponding phase diagram compares favorably with theoretical predictions of metastable organic materials. Two reactions were observed and characterized; both are irreversible. Below 2 GPa, melting is accompanied by a decomposition reaction, and upon cooling, cyanuric acid is not recovered. Above 2 GPa, heating results in a solid product recoverable at ambient conditions. Corresponding infrared spectra suggest that pressure leads to the formation of heterocycles of increasing complexity and biological potential, with the composition determined by the pressure of formation. Cyanuric acid is of interest at these conditions because it and its monomer, isocyanic acid, are "prebiotic" compounds found in stellar dust clouds, meteorites, and other remnants of the early Earth.

  7. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B.; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M.; Holven, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions. PMID:27630989

  8. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores.

  9. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of dietary sialic acid in n-3 fatty acid-deficient dams during pregnancy and lactation on the learning abilities of their pups after weaning.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Honma, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Yoichi; Yasuda, Yuki; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary sialic acid in dams on the learning abilities of their pups after weaning were investigated using rats deficient in n-3 fatty acids. Nine-week-old female Wistar rats were fed an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet for 3 wk and were mated at 12 wk of age. During pregnancy and lactation, the female rats were fed the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet, and were given water or water containing 1% N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) ad libitum. After weaning, the learning abilities of the pups were evaluated using a novel object recognition test. The recognition index of pups nursed by dams fed on water containing 1% NANA (NANA-intake dams) was significantly higher than that of pups nursed by dams fed only on water (NANA non-intake dams). There were no significant differences in the total sialic acid or docosahexaenoic acid contents in the cerebral cortex or hippocampus of pups nursed by dams fed on either type of water. The total dimethylacetal (DMA, from plasmalogen) level in the cerebral cortex of pups nursed by NANA-intake dams was significantly higher than that of pups nursed by NANA non-intake dams. These results suggest that dietary sialic acid in dams during pregnancy and lactation might be beneficial for the learning abilities of pups after weaning, which may be related to the plasmalogen level in the brain of pups.

  11. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity.

  12. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  13. Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.

    PubMed

    Elvevoll, Edel O; Barstad, Harald; Breimo, Einar S; Brox, Jan; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Lund, Trine; Olsen, Jan Ole; Osterud, Bjarne

    2006-12-01

    This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB2, and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.

  14. ALA, fatty fish or marine n-3 fatty acids for preventing DM?: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Muley, Arti; Muley, Prasad; Shah, Monali

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a global problem. Role of n-3 FA in its prevention is still not completely understood. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relation of dietary intake of fish and n-3PUFA with risk of diabetes. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE and GOOGLE with cross references to identify relevant articles. Since no RCTs were available, we searched for prospective cohort studies. Sixteen studies with 6,79,763 participants which assessed the association of dietary intake of fish and n-3 PUFA (marine or alpha-linolenic acid) with incidence of T2DM in > 18 years population and provided relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of T2DM for each category of fish or n-3 PUFA intake were included. Three independent reviewers reviewed all eligible studies and abstracted the relevant information from individual studies. Meta-analysis confirmed the previous finding that marine n-3 FA increased risk of T2DM in Americans but reduced the same in Asians. We observed that two and seven times increased intake of ALA and fatty fish respectively reduced the risk of T2DM significantly and ALA did not increase the risk in Americans. We concluded that ALA may have some role in preventing T2DM, but is not studied widely. Hence, it should be studied in greater details (with higher degrees of intake; more than two times) to aid in developing effective preventive strategies against diabetes.

  15. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) was 71.7%. Serum 25(OH)D negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.294; P < .0001) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.323; P < .0001). N-3 PUFA intake negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.286; P = .017), total cholesterol (r = -0.292; P = .015), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333; P = .005) and positively correlated with the intake of fat meats and eggs (r = 0.391; P = .006), vegetable proteins (r = 0.297; P = .048), fats/oils (r = 0.574; P < .001), and refined cereals (r = 0.351; P = .006). Vitamin D status and n-3 PUFA intake were related with better nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A modified n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae produced high proportion of DHA and DPA in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiming; Chen, Hongxing; Wu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Yanrong; Lu, Jianshen; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jixian

    2008-08-01

    The functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been widely investigated. In mammals, levels of n-3 PUFAs are relatively low compared to those of n-6 PUFAs. Either a lack of n-3 PUFAs or an excess of n-6 PUFAs could potentially cause health problems in humans. Hence, methods to increase the amount of n-3 PUFAs in diet have been intensely sought. In this study, we demonstrated that the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene (sFat-1) synthesized from revised and optimized codons based on roundworm Caenorhabditis briggsae genomic gene for enhanced expression in mammals was successfully expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and significantly elevated cellular n-3 PUFA contents. We generated sFat-1 transgenic mice by introducing mammal expression vector DNAs containing the sFat-1 gene into regular mice through the method of microinjection. Fatty acid compositions were then altered and the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) were greatly increased in these transgenic mice. Various types of tissues in the transgenic mice produced many types of n-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), DPA, and DHA, for example, muscle tissues of the transgenic mice contained 12.2% DHA, 2.0% DPA, and 23.1% total n-3 PUFAs. These research results demonstrated that the synthesized sFat-1 gene with modified and optimized codons from C. briggsae possess functional activity and greater capability of producing n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and DPA, in transgenic mice.

  17. α-lipoic acid ameliorates n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids induced lipid peroxidation via regulating antioxidant defenses in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Chen; Jin, Ai; Sun, Jian; Yang, Zhou; Tian, Jing-Jing; Ji, Hong; Yu, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang; Zhou, Ji-Shu; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), thereby inducing lipid peroxidation in liver and muscle of grass carp. Meanwhile, compared with control group, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and kidney index (KI) of grass carp were markedly increased in n-3 HUFAs-only group. However, diets with LA remarkably inhibited the n-3 HUFAs-induced increase of HSI, KI, and MDA level in serum, liver and muscle (P < 0.05). Interestingly, LA also significantly elevated the ratio of total n-3 HUFAs in fatty acid composition of muscle and liver (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LA significantly promoted the activity of antioxidant enzymes in serum, muscle and liver of grass carp (P < 0.05), including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione s-transferase (GST). The further results showed that LA significantly elevated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes with promoting the mRNA expression of NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) and decreasing Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA level. From the above, these results suggested that LA could attenuate n-3 HUFAs-induced lipid peroxidation, remit the toxicity of the lipid peroxidant, and protect n-3 HUFAs against lipid peroxidation to promote its deposition in fish, likely strengthening the activity of antioxidant enzymes through regulating mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzyme genes via mediating Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal models with neuroinflammation: An update.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Orr, Sarah K; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-08-15

    Neuroinflammation is a characteristic of a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Modulating inflammatory pathways offers a potential therapeutic target in these disorders. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties in the periphery, however, their effect on neuroinflammation is less studied. This review summarizes 61 animal studies that tested the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuroinflammatory outcomes in vivo in various models including stroke, spinal cord injury, aging, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, lipopolysaccharide and IL-1β injections, diabetes, neuropathic pain, traumatic brain injury, depression, surgically induced cognitive decline, whole body irradiation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity and lupus. The evidence presented in this review suggests anti-neuroinflammatory properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, however, it is not clear by which mechanism omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their effect. Future research should aim to isolate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuroinflammatory signaling in vivo and elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and HER2-positive breast cancer: interest of the fat-1 transgenic mouse model over conventional dietary supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zuquan; Bidu, Célia; Bellenger, Sandrine; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25%-30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Even if numerous studies have shown prevention of breast cancer by n-3 fatty acid intake, the experimental conditions under which n-3 fatty acids exert their protective effect have been variable from study to study, preventing unifying conclusions. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on BC. When animals are fed with dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids (the traditional approach to modify tissue content and decrease the n-6/n-3 ratio) complex dietary interactions can occur among dietary lipids (antioxidants, vitamins…) that can modulate the activity of n-3 fatty acids. So, what are the specific roles of these n-3 PUFA in reducing breast cancer risk and particularly preventing HER2-positive breast cancer? In this review, we discuss crucial points that may account for discrepancies of results and provide a highly effective genetic approach that can eliminate confounding factors of diet for evaluating the molecular mechanisms of n-3 PUFA in HER2 signaling pathway regulation. The fat-1 transgenic mouse model is capable of converting n-6 to n-3 fatty acids leading to an increase in n-3 fatty acid content with a balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in all tissues. The fat-1 mouse model allows well-controlled studies in HER2-positive breast cancer prevention to be performed, without the conflict of potential confounding factors of diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Combination of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by inhibiting macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Akira; Fukuda, Daiju; Tanaka, Kimie; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Hirata, Yoichiro; Nishimoto, Sachiko; Yagi, Shusuke; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Taketani, Yutaka; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-11-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major components of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) which inhibit atherogenesis, although few studies have examined the effects of the combination of EPA and DHA on atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHA has additional anti-atherosclerotic effects when combined with EPA. Male 8-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a western-type diet supplemented with different amounts of EPA and DHA; EPA (2.5%, w/w), low-dose EPA + DHA (2.5%, w/w), or high-dose EPA + DHA (5%, w/w) for 20 weeks. The control group was fed a western-type diet containing no n-3 PUFA. Histological and gene expression analysis were performed in atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. To address the mechanisms, RAW264.7 cells were used. All n-3 PUFA treatments significantly attenuated the development and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques compared with the control. The anti-atherosclerotic effects were enhanced in the high-dose EPA + DHA group (p < 0.001), whereas the pure EPA group and low-dose EPA + DHA group showed similar results. EPA and DHA additively attenuated the expression of inflammatory molecules in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. DHA or EPA + DHA suppressed LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in lipid rafts on RAW264.7 cells (p < 0.05). Lipid raft disruption by methyl-β-cyclodextrin suppressed mRNA expression of inflammatory molecules in LPS-stimulated macrophages. n-3 PUFAs suppressed atherogenesis. DHA combined with EPA had additional anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited atherogenesis in Apoe(-/-) mice. The reduction of TLR4 expression in lipid rafts in macrophages by DHA might be involved in this mechanism, at least partially. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salen, Patricia; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Calani, Luca; Bresciani, Letizia; López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, François; Brugère, Jean-François; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. Methods For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). The WR diet provided more fiber (+21%) and polyphenols (+29%) than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon) n-3 and n-6 LCFAs. Results The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites–including enterolactone–compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA–in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids–in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices), decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in cecum and feces (p<0.05). Finally, acetate was lower (p<0.001) in the cecum of WR rats while butyrate was lower (p<0.05) in the feces of WR rats. Interpretation This study shows for the first time that WR consumption results in major biological modifications–increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity–known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the

  2. Development and enteral long-chain n-3 fatty acids differentially alters muscle intracellular pools of free amino acids in the neonate piglet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies suggest that feeding long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FA) in the diet may blunt the developmental reduction in insulin sensitivity and anabolism in the neonate piglet. To examine the effect of LCn-3FA on protein anabolism, 2-day-old piglets (n=28) were weaned and assigned to one of t...

  3. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  4. Understanding the acid-base properties of adenosine: the intrinsic basicities of N1, N3 and N7.

    PubMed

    Kapinos, Larisa E; Operschall, Bert P; Larsen, Erik; Sigel, Helmut

    2011-07-11

    Adenosine (Ado) can accept three protons, at N1, N3, and N7, to give H(3) (Ado)(3+) , and thus has three macro acidity constants. Unfortunately, these constants do not reflect the real basicity of the N sites due to internal repulsions, for example, between (N1)H(+) and (N7)H(+). However, these macroconstants are still needed for the evaluations and the first two are taken from our own earlier work, that is, pK(H)(H(3))((Ado)) = -4.02 and pK(H)(H(2))((Ado)) = -1.53; the third one was re-measured as pK(H)(H)((Ado)) = 3.64 ± 0.02 (25 °C; I=0.5 M, NaNO(3)), because it is the main basis for evaluating the intrinsic basicities of N7 and N3. Previously, contradicting results had been published for the micro acidity constant of the (N7)H(+) site; this constant has now been determined in an unequivocal manner, and that of the (N3)H(+) site was obtained for the first time. The micro acidity constants, which describe the release of a proton from an (N)H(+) site under conditions for which the other nitrogen atoms are free and do not carry a proton, decrease in the order pk(N7-N1)(N7(Ado)N1·H)) = 3.63 ± 0.02 > pk(N7-N1)(H·N7(Ado)N1) = 2.15 ± 0.15 > pk(N3-N1,N7)(H·N3(Ado)N1,N7) =1.5 ± 0.3, reflecting the decreasing basicity of the various nitrogen atoms, that is, N1>N7>N3. Application of the above-mentioned microconstants allows one to calculate the percentages (formation degrees) of the tautomers formed for monoprotonated adenosine, H(Ado)(+) , in aqueous solution; the results are 96.1, 3.2, and 0.7% for N7(Ado)N1·H(+), (+)H·N7(Ado)N1, and (+)H·N3(Ado)N1,N7, respectively. These results are in excellent agreement with theoretical DFT calculations. Evidently, H(Ado)(+) exists to the largest part as N7(Ado)N1·H(+) having the proton located at N1; the two other tautomers are minority species, but they still form. These results are not only meaningful for adenosine itself, but are also of relevance for nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides, as they help to understand

  5. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V; Schmidt, Erik B; Aalkjær, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe H; Ivarsen, Per

    2016-11-21

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated correlations between hemodynamic measurements, resistance artery function and fish consumption to the content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue, a long-term marker of seafood intake. Seventeen patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 + 5d and 27 healthy kidney donors were evaluated with hemodynamic measurements before surgery; from these subjects, 11 patients and 11 healthy subjects had vasodilator properties of subcutaneous resistance arteries examined. The measurements were correlated to adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Information on fish intake was obtained from a dietary questionnaire and compared with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish intake and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue did not differ between patients and controls. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in adipose tissue were positively correlated to systemic vascular resistance index; (r = 0.44; p = 0.07 and r = 0.62; p < 0.05, chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects respectively) and negatively correlated to cardiac output index (r = -0.69; p < 0.01 and r = -0.50; p < 0.05, chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects respectively). No correlation was observed between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in adipose tissue and vasodilator properties in resistance arteries. n-3 PUFA content in adipose tissue increased with increasing self-reported fish intake. The correlations found, suggest a role for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemodynamic properties. However, this is apparently not due to changes in intrinsic properties of the resistance arteries as no correlation was found to n

  6. Plant compared with marine n-3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2014-07-01

    Plants provide α-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3n-3 (18:3ω-3)], which can be converted via eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which is required for normal visual and cognitive function. Dietary ALA is provided mainly by vegetable oils, especially soybean and rapeseed oils, but is destroyed by partial hydrogenation; it is also present in high amounts in walnuts and flaxseed. Dietary EPA and DHA are provided mainly by fish and so are absent from vegan diets and only present in trace amounts in vegetarian diets. Vegetarians and vegans have lower proportions of DHA in blood and tissue lipids compared with omnivores. High intakes of EPA and DHA (typically in the range of 3-5 g/d) but not ALA have favorable effects on several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and have been postulated to delay arterial aging and cardiovascular mortality, but these intakes are beyond the range of normal dietary intake. Arterial stiffness, which is a measure of arterial aging, appears to be lower in vegans than in omnivores; and risk of CVD in vegetarians and vegans is approximately one-third that in omnivores. Prospective cohort studies showed higher intakes of EPA+DHA, and less consistently ALA, to be associated with a lower risk of CVD, especially fatal coronary heart disease, but meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of supplementation of EPA+DHA or ALA in secondary prevention of CVD showed no clear benefit. Current evidence is insufficient to warrant advising vegans and vegetarians to supplement their diets with EPA or DHA for CVD prevention.

  7. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain phospholipid arachidonic acid half-lives are not altered following 15 weeks of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid adequate or deprived diet

    PubMed Central

    Green, Joshua T.; Liu, Zhen; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have infused radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) into rat brains and followed AA esterification into phospholipids for up to 24 h; however, the half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids is unknown. Eighteen day old rats were fed either an n-3 PUFA adequate or deprived diet for 15 weeks. Following the 15 weeks, 40 µCi of [3H] AA was injected intracerebroventricularly into the right lateral ventricle using stereotaxic surgery and returned to their dietary treatment. From 4–120 days after [3H] AA administration, brains were collected for chemical analyses. The half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids was 44 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA adequate group and 46 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA deprived group, which closely approximates the predicted half-life previously reported, based on the rate of entry from the plasma unesterified pool, suggesting the plasma unesterified pool is a major contributor to brain uptake of AA. Furthermore, unlike a previous report in which the half-life of brain phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased in n-3 PUFA deprived rats, n-3 PUFA deprivation did not significantly alter the AA half-life, suggesting different mechanisms exist to maintain brain concentrations of AA and DHA. PMID:19661256

  9. The Salmon in Pregnancy Study: study design, subject characteristics, maternal fish and marine n-3 fatty acid intake, and marine n-3 fatty acid status in maternal and umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Rosenlund, Grethe; Urwin, Heidi; Yaqoob, Parveen; Rossary, Adrien; Farges, Marie-Chantal; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Liaset, Bjørn; Frøyland, Livar; Helmersson, Johanna; Basu, Samar; Garcia, Erika; Olza, Josune; Mesa, Maria D; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Gil, Angel; Robinson, Sian M; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C

    2011-12-01

    Oily fish provides marine n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids that are considered to be important in the growth, development, and health of the fetus and newborn infant. The objectives were to increase salmon consumption among pregnant women and to determine the effect on maternal and umbilical cord plasma marine n-3 fatty acid content. Women (n = 123) with low habitual consumption of oily fish were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet or were provided with 2 portions of farmed salmon/wk to include in their diet from week 20 of pregnancy until delivery. Median weekly consumption frequency of study salmon in the salmon group was 1.94 portions, and total fish consumption frequency was 2.11 portions/wk in the salmon group and 0.47 portions/wk in the control group (P < 0.001). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the diet, from seafood, and from oily fish were higher in the salmon group (all P < 0.001). Percentages of EPA and DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine decreased during pregnancy in the control group (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.008, respectively), whereas they increased in the salmon group (P for trend for both < 0.001). EPA and DHA percentages were higher in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine at weeks 34 and 38 of pregnancy and in umbilical cord plasma phosphatidylcholine in the salmon group (P < 0.001 for all). If pregnant women, who do not regularly eat oily fish, eat 2 portions of salmon/wk, they will increase their intake of EPA and DHA, achieving the recommended minimum intake; and they will increase their and their fetus' status of EPA and DHA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00801502.

  10. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-03-29

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.

  11. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  12. The importance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in the major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, Kristian Søborg; Bouzinova, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the relation between the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the development of depression. It is explained how these fatty acids are involved in the production of eicosanoids and how these fatty acids can affect the membrane fluidity, by their incorporation into membrane phospholipids. In addition, it is described how omega-3 derivatives are shown to regulate gene transcription. In view of the pathophysiology of depression, the mechanisms of how an altered ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 could be involved in depression are discussed. Possible mechanisms could include an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can activate the HPA axis and a changed membrane fluidity, which potentially affects membrane bound enzymes, ion channels, receptor activity and neurotransmitter binding. In view of clinical trials, it is also discussed whether omega-3 supplementation could have a beneficial effect in the treatment of depressive patient. There are strong indications that an increased ratio of membrane omega-6 to omega-3 is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and so far, omega-3 supplementation has shown positive effects in clinical trials.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated up-regulation of syndecan-1 by n-3 fatty acids promotes apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiguo; Berquin, Isabelle M; Owens, Rick T; O'Flaherty, Joseph T; Edwards, Iris J

    2008-04-15

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against breast cancer but biochemical mechanisms are unclear. Our studies showed that the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up-regulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) in human breast cancer cells, and we tested the hypothesis that DHA-mediated up-regulation of SDC-1 induces apoptosis. DHA was delivered to MCF-7 cells by n-3 PUFA-enriched low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or by albumin in the presence or absence of SDC-1 small interfering RNA. The n-3 PUFA induced apoptosis, which was blocked by SDC-1 silencing. We also confirmed that SDC-1 up-regulation and apoptosis promotion by n-3 PUFA was mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Using a luciferase gene driven by either a PPAR response element or a DR-1 site present in the SDC-1 promoter, reporter activities were enhanced by n-3 LDL, DHA, and PPAR gamma agonist, whereas activity of a luciferase gene placed downstream of a mutant DR-1 site was unresponsive. Cotransfection with dominant-negative PPAR gamma DNA eliminated the increase in luciferase activity. These data provide strong evidence that SDC-1 is a molecular target of n-3 PUFA in human breast cancer cells through activation of PPAR gamma and that n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis is mediated by SDC-1. This provides a novel mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of n-3 PUFA in breast cancer.

  14. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces insulin resistance in hepatitis C virus infected patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Freire, T O; Boulhosa, R S S B; Oliveira, L P M; de Jesus, R P; Cavalcante, L N; Lemaire, D C; Toralles, M B P; Lyra, L G C; Lyra, A C

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance promotes liver disease progression and may be associated with a lower response rate in treated hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may reduce insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on insulin resistance in these patients. In a randomised, double-blind clinical trial, 154 patients were screened. After applying inclusion criteria, 52 patients [homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥2.5)] were randomly divided into two groups: n-3 PUFA (n = 25/6000 mg day(-1) of fish oil) or control (n = 27/6000 mg day(-1) of soybean oil). Both groups were supplemented for 12 weeks and underwent monthly nutritional consultation. Biochemical tests were performed at baseline and after intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test for comparisons and the Wilcoxon test for paired data. Statistical package r, version 3.02 (The R Project for Statistical Computing) was used and P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant. Comparisons between groups showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation was more effective than the control for reducing HOMA-IR (P = 0.015) and serum insulin (P = 0.016). The n-3 PUFA group not only showed a significant reduction in HOMA-IR 3.8 (3.2-5.0) versus 2.4 (1.8-3.3) (P = 0.002); serum insulin 17.1 (13.8-20.6) μIU mL(-1) versus 10.9 (8.6-14.6) μIU mL(-1) (P = 0.001); and glycated haemoglobin 5.4% (5.0-5.7%) versus 5.1% (4.8-5.6%) (P = 0.011), but also presented an increase in interleukin-1 97.5 (0.0-199.8) pg mL(-1) versus 192.4 (102.2-266.8) pg mL(-1) (P = 0.003) and tumour necrosis factor 121.2 (0.0-171.3) pg mL(-1) versus 185.7 (98.0-246.9) pg mL(-1) (P = 0.003). n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces insulin resistance in genotype 1 HCV infected patients. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Is a dietary n-3 fatty acid supplement able to influence the cardiac effect of the psychological stress?

    PubMed

    Rousseau, D; Moreau, D; Raederstorff, D; Sergiel, J P; Rupp, H; Muggli, R; Grynberg, A

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Stress is known to increase the incidence of CVD and the present study was realised to evaluate some physiological and biochemical effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in male Wistar rats subjected to a psycho social stress. Rats were fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet containing 10% of either sunflower seed oil or the same oil supplemented with DHA. This food supply represented 50% of their daily requirement. The remaining 50% were supplied as 45 mg food pellets designed to induce stress in rats by an intermittent-feeding schedule process. The control group (n = 12) was fed the equivalent food ration as a single daily feeding. The physiological cardiovascular parameters were recorded by telemetry through a transmitter introduced in the abdomen. At the end of the experimentation, the heart and adrenals were withdrawn and the fatty acid composition and the catecholamine store were determined. Dietary DHA induced a pronounced alteration of the fatty acid profile of cardiac phospholipids (PL). The level of all the n-6 PUFAs was reduced while 22:6 n-3 was increased. The stress induced a significant increase in heart rate which was not observed in DHA-fed group. The time evolution of the systolic blood pressure was not affected by the stress and was roughly similar in the stressed rats of either dietary group. Conversely, the systolic blood pressure decreased in the unstressed rats fed DHA. Similar data were obtained for the diastolic blood pressure. The beneficial effect of DHA was also observed on cardiac contractility, since the dP/dt(max) increase was prevented in the DHA-fed rats. The stress-induced modifications were associated with an increase in cardiac noradrenaline level which was not observed in DHA-fed rats. The fatty acid composition of adrenals was significantly related to the fatty acid intake particularly the

  16. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation.

  17. Modulation of lipid metabolism by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in gestational diabetic rats and their macrosomic offspring.

    PubMed

    Soulimane-Mokhtari, Nassima A; Guermouche, Baya; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Saker, Myrieum; Moutairou, Kebirou; Hichami, Aziz; Merzouk, Hafida; Khan, Naim A

    2005-09-01

    The time course of changes in lipid metabolism by dietary n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats during pregnancy (days 12 and 21) and their macrosomic offspring at birth (day 0) and through adulthood (days 60 and 90) was studied with respect to adipose tissue, liver and serum lipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition. Glucose and insulin levels were also assessed in order to characterize the diabetic state of macrosomic offspring. Pregnant diabetic and control rats were fed either an Isio-4 or EPAX diet (enriched with n-3 PUFA). The same diets were also consumed by pups at weaning. Compared with control rats, during pregnancy diabetic rats had a significant elevation in liver and serum triacylglycerol (triglyceride) and cholesterol concentrations. At birth, macrosomic pups had higher serum insulin and glucose levels than control pups. The macrosomic rats maintained accelerated postnatal growth combined with high adipose tissue weight and lipid content through the first 12 weeks of age. The macrosomic pups from diabetic rats fed the Isio-4 diet also showed a significant enhancement in liver and serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels at birth and during adulthood. Feeding the EPAX diet to diabetic mothers as well as their macrosomic pups increased serum and liver levels of EPA (eicospentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) with a reduction in arachidonic acid. The EPAX diet induced a significant decrease in liver and serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in mothers during pregnancy and in their macrosomic pups during adulthood. Since the EPAX diet improves lipid anomalies considerably in diabetic mothers and their macrosomic offspring, it may prevent long-term metabolic abnormalities associated with macrosomia.

  18. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root characterised using LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P; McLoughlin, P

    2014-02-01

    The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study. Two distinct fractions of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol were isolated and characterised by spectroscopic methods. The (1)H NMR spectra and MS data revealed two groups of compounds, one of which were derivatives of the di-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative of the inositol compound tetrahydroxy-5-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl] oxycyclohexyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate, while the other group consisted of similar tri-substituted inositol derivatives. For both fractions the derivatives of inositols vary in the number of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid groups present and their position and geometry on the inositol ring. In total, three di-substituted and three tri-substituted 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid inositol derivates were identified for the first time along with a further two previously reported di-substituted inositol derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases and highly concentrated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

    PubMed

    Weber, Heinz S; Selimi, Dzevair; Huber, Gustav

    2006-12-01

    30 years ago the observation of a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Inuits (Eskimos) was related to the higher fish consumption when compared to the residual Danish population. Clinical studies confirmed this finding. It was explained by the higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in fish, especially of omega-3 PUFAs. Experimental studies in cell cultures and also in animals with and without infarction models verified the anti-arrhythmic effect of omega-3 PUFAs among other possible contributing factors when compared to other fatty acids. In clinical studies a significant reduction (ca. 40%) of sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) could be found in patients after an acute myocardial infarction, if they were treated with at least 1 g omega-3 PUFAs daily, either by consumption of fish twice weekly or of a highly purified preparation omega-3 PUFAs in capsules. These findings led to recommendations of the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology to a higher fish consumption and/or the daily intake of 1 g omega-3 PUFAs for primary and especially for secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The much fewer side-effects, and the standardised dosage on one hand and the negative effect of the sometimes higher mercury content of fish make the intake of omega-3 PUFAs as capsules the better choice.

  20. An advanced LC-MS (Q-TOF) technique for the detection of amino acids in atmospheric aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology for detection of native (underivitized) amino acids in atmospheric aerosols has been developed. This article describes the use of LC-MS (Q-TOF) and microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis for detection of free and combined amino acids in aerosols collected in a Southe...

  1. An advanced LC-MS (Q-TOF) technique for the detection of amino acids in atmospheric aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology for detection of native (underivitized) amino acids in atmospheric aerosols has been developed. This article describes the use of LC-MS (Q-TOF) and microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis for detection of free and combined amino acids in aerosols collected in a Southe...

  2. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant behaviours of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and plant extracts in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid rich oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chamila; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the oxidative stability of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) rich (35% n-3 HUFA) oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil) with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts. Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and the extracts of Indian gooseberry fruit (Emblica officinalis) (IGFE) and sweet basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) (SBLE) were used for the study as antioxidants. The progress of oxidation in the systems was evaluated at 35 °C over 120 h against a control (without antioxidant) by monitoring the formation of primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary (volatile carbonyl compounds) oxidation products. Volatile carbonyl compounds were trapped as derivatives of pentafluorophenyl hydrazine and quantified by headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis. About 40 volatile carbonyls were successfully identified by this method. trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal, trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal, 3,5-octadien-2-one, and 1-penten-3-ol were predominant. The volatile carbonyl compounds and conjugated dienes were formed at low rates in emulsion systems in which α-tocopherol and natural plant extracts had been introduced, compared to the control. Emulsion systems containing ascorbic acid showed low stability, as indicated by the oxidation products that were formed at high rates compared to the control. These results indicated that ascorbic acid activated the oxidation reactions in n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions, while natural plant extracts that were rich in polyphenols and α-tocopherol were active as antioxidants. The present study further demonstrated the applicability of the polar paradox theory in the determination of stability for n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts.

  3. Effect of cooking on protein oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched beef. Implication on nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Gatellier, Ph; Kondjoyan, A; Portanguen, S; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2010-08-01

    The effect of cooking on protein oxidation was investigated in M. Longissimus thoracis of eight Normand cows fed during a 100 days finishing period with two different diets: a conventional diet (concentrate/straw based diet) and a diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), obtained by addition to the conventional diet of a mixture of extruded linseed and extruded rapeseed. After 11 days storage, at 4 degrees C under vacuum, meat was cooked by applying jets of steam. Three experimental heating treatments were tested: two with constant surface temperatures of 65 and 96 degrees C during 300s, and one with a continuous increasing surface temperature up to 207 degrees C. Protein oxidation was evaluated by the measurement of carbonyls, aromatic amino acids, and free thiols content. The formation of Schiff bases due to the reaction of proteins with aldehydic products of the lipid oxidation was also evaluated. Cooking resulted in a significant increase of carbonyl groups and Schiff bases as well as a significant degradation of tyrosine and tryptophan. Nevertheless, enrichment of the animal diet in n-3 PUFAs had minor effects on protein oxidation induced by cooking which are unlikely to be of nutritional significance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oil-in-water emulsions as a delivery system for n-3 fatty acids in meat products.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Hanna; Herrmann, Kurt; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    The oxidative and physical stabilities of oil-in-water emulsions containing n-3 fatty acids (25 wt.% oil, 2.5 wt.% whey protein, pH 3.0 or pH 6.0), and their subsequent incorporation into meat products were investigated. The physical stability of fish oil emulsions was excellent and neither coalescence nor aggregation occurred during storage. Oxidative stability was better at pH 6.0 compared to pH 3.0 likely due to antioxidative continuous phase proteins. Incorporation of fish oil emulsions into pork sausages led to an increase in oxidation compared to sausages without the added fish oil emulsion. Confocal microscopy of pork sausages with fish oil emulsions revealed that droplets had coalesced in the meat matrix over time which may have contributed to the decreased oxidative stability. Results demonstrate that although interfacial engineering of n-3 fatty acids containing oil-in-water emulsions provides physical and oxidative stability of the base-emulsion, their incorporation into complex meat matrices is a non-trivial undertaking and products may incur changes in quality over time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Verónica M; Actis, Adriana B

    2012-02-01

    The role of dietary fatty acids on cancer is still controversial. To examine the current literature on the protective role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and marine long-chain fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and the risk of breast and prostate cancer, data from 41 case-control and cohort studies and relevant in vitro and animal experiments were included in this 2000-2010 revision. Epidemiological studies on CLA intake or its tissue concentration related to breast and prostate tumorigenesis are not conclusive; EPA and DHA intake have shown important inverse associations just in some studies. Additional research on the analysed association is required.

  6. Can prenatal N-3 fatty acid deficiency be completely reversed after birth? Effects on retinal and brain biochemistry and visual function in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory J; Neuringer, Martha; Lin, Don S; Connor, William E

    2005-11-01

    Our previous studies of rhesus monkeys showed that combined prenatal and postnatal n-3 fatty acid deficiency resulted in reduced visual acuity, abnormal retinal function, and low retina and brain docosahexaenoic acid content. We now report effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency during intrauterine development only. Rhesus infants, born to mothers fed an n-3 fatty acid deficient diet throughout pregnancy, were repleted with a diet high in alpha-linolenic acid from birth to 3 y. Fatty acid composition was determined for plasma and erythrocytes at several time points, for prefrontal cerebral cortex biopsies at 15, 30, 45, and 60 wk, and for cerebral cortex and retina at 3 y. Visual acuity was determined behaviorally at 4, 8, and 12 postnatal weeks, and the electroretinogram was recorded at 3-4 mo. Total n-3 fatty acids were reduced by 70-90% in plasma, erythrocytes, and tissues at birth but recovered to control values within 4 wk in plasma, 8 wk in erythrocytes, and 15 wk in cerebral cortex. At 3 y, fatty acid composition was normal in brain phospholipids, but in the retina DHA recovery was incomplete (84% of controls). Visual acuity thresholds did not differ from those of control infants from mothers fed a high linolenic acid diet. However, the repleted group had lower amplitudes of cone and rod ERG a-waves. These data suggest that restriction of n-3 fatty acid intake during the prenatal period may have long-term effects on retinal fatty acid composition and function.

  7. Validity and reliability of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring n-3 fatty acid intakes in cardiac patients in the Midwest: a validation pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Lewis, Nancy M; Heidal, Kimberly B; Eskridge, Kent M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to test the validity and reliability of a quantitative n-3 fatty acid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for later use with larger groups of individuals. A convenience sample of heart patients provided dietary data via three 24-hour food recalls and FFQs. Participants were women (n=17) and men (n=11), 43 to 77 years of age. The association of mean daily intake of n-3 fatty acids obtained using food recalls and the FFQ was assessed by Pearson correlation. The reliability of the FFQ was assessed using coefficient alpha. Correlation of n-3 fatty acid intake using the food recalls and the FFQ was r=0.42 (P<0.05). The coefficient alpha for the test-retest of the FFQ was .83. The top two foods, walnuts and flaxseed, contributed 58% of the n-3 fatty acid intake, and the third food, salmon, contributed 5%. This quantitative n-3 FFQ is a valid instrument for use in place of food recalls for estimating n-3 fatty acid intakes in heart patients and is a reliable instrument to estimate n-3 fatty acid intakes from plant, animal, and seafood sources. The FFQ should be tested in a larger population. Registered dietitians can use this FFQ to screen for intakes, educate patients on food sources, and measure change in intakes after nutrition intervention.

  8. Gaussian and linear deconvolution of LC-MS/MS chromatograms of the eight aminobutyric acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Harika; Kitase, Yukiko; Ayon, Navid J; Bonewald, Lynda; Gutheil, William G

    2017-01-01

    Isomeric molecules present a challenge for analytical resolution and quantification, even with MS-based detection. The eight aminobutyric acid (ABA) isomers are of interest for their various biological activities, particularly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the d- and l-isomers of β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIBA; BAIBA). This study aimed to investigate LC-MS/MS-based resolution of these ABA isomers as their Marfey's (Mar) reagent derivatives. HPLC was able to separate three Mar-ABA isomers l-β-ABA (l-BABA), and l- and d-α-ABA (AABA) completely, with three isomers (GABA, and d/l-BAIBA) in one chromatographic cluster, and two isomers (α-AIBA (AAIBA) and d-BABA) in a second cluster. Partially separated cluster components were deconvoluted using Gaussian peak fitting except for GABA and d-BAIBA. MS/MS detection of Marfey's derivatized ABA isomers provided six MS/MS fragments, with substantially different intensity profiles between structural isomers. This allowed linear deconvolution of ABA isomer peaks. Combining HPLC separation with linear and Gaussian deconvolution allowed resolution of all eight ABA isomers. Application to human serum found a substantial level of l-AABA (13 μM), an intermediate level of l-BAIBA (0.8 μM), and low but detectable levels (<0.2 μM) of GABA, l-BABA, AAIBA, d-BAIBA, and d-AABA. This approach should be useful for LC-MS/MS deconvolution of other challenging groups of isomeric molecules.

  9. Functional bread with n-3 alpha linolenic acid from whole chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Luna Pizarro, Patricia; Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Coelho, Alessandra Silva; Sammán, Norma Cristina; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2015-07-01

    This work proposed to study the effects of the addition of whole chia flour (WCF) on the technological, nutritional and sensory qualities of bread. Different WCF contents (0 and 20 %) and vital gluten (VG) (0 and 4 %) were added to bread according to a 2(2) central composite rotational design. WCF decreased the specific volume, lightness and hue angle of the bread loaves, but did not affect the chroma values. WCF and VG contributed to maintenance of the moisture content of the loaves during the storage period. The increased firmness found with the addition of high levels of WCF (more than 10 %) was countered by larger amounts of VG (more than 2 %). The optimum loaf (10 % WCF and 2 % VG) showed 26 % more lipids, 19 % more protein and 11 % more ash than the standard loaf (0 % WCF and 0 % VG). A better lipid profile was also found (higher omega-3 fatty acid content and a better omega-6/omega-3 ratio). Both breads were positively rated in the sensory profile analysis.

  10. Changes in fatty acid composition and distribution of N-3 fatty acids in goat tissues fed different levels of whole linseed.

    PubMed

    Abuelfatah, Kamaleldin; Zakaria, Md Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio.

  11. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  12. Identification of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids of arnica flowers and burdock roots using a standardized LC-DAD-ESI/MS profiling method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2008-11-12

    A screening method using LC-DAD-ESI/MS was developed for the identification of common hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids based on direct comparison with standards. A complete standard set for mono-, di-, and tricaffeoylquinic isomers was assembled from commercially available standards, positively identified compounds in common plants (artichokes, asparagus, coffee bean, honeysuckle flowers, sweet potato, and Vernonia amygdalina leaves) and chemically modified standards. Four C18 reversed phase columns were tested using the standardized profiling method (based on LC-DAD-ESI/MS) for 30 phenolic compounds, and their elution order and retention times were evaluated. Using only two columns under standardized LC condition and the collected phenolic compound database, it was possible to separate all of the hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid conjugates and to identify 28 and 18 hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids in arnica flowers (Arnica montana L.) and burdock roots (Arctium lappa L.), respectively. Of these, 22 are reported for the first time.

  13. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation does not reduce vulnerability to atrial fibrillation in remodeling atria.

    PubMed

    Ramadeen, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Leong-Poi, Howard; Hu, Xudong; Fujii, Hiroko; Van Krieken, Richard; Laurent, Gabriel; Holub, Bruce J; Bazinet, Richard P; Dorian, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Prophylactic supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF). The effect of PUFAs given after cardiac injury has occurred is unknown. To investigate using a model of pacing-induced cardiac injury, the time course of development of injury and whether it was altered by postinjury PUFAs. Sixty-five dogs were randomized to undergo simultaneous atrial and ventricular pacing (SAVP, 220 beats/min) for 0, 2, 7, or 14 days. Twenty-two dogs received PUFAs (850 mg/d) either prophylactically or after some pacing had occurred (postinjury). Electrophysiologic and echocardiographic measurements were taken at baseline and sacrifice. Atrial tissue samples were collected at sacrifice for histologic and molecular analyses. With no PUFAs, the inducibility of AF increased with pacing duration (P < .001). Postinjury PUFAs (started after 7 days of pacing) did not reduce the inducibility of AF after 14 days of pacing (9.3% ± 8.8% no PUFAs vs 9.7% ± 9.9% postinjury PUFAs; P = .91). Atrial myocyte size and fibrosis increased with pacing duration (P < .05). Postinjury PUFAs did not significantly attenuate the cell size increase after 14 days of pacing (no PUFAs 38% ± 30% vs postinjury PUFAs 19% ± 28%; P = .11). Similarly, postinjury PUFAs did not attenuate the increase in fibrosis after 14 days of pacing (no PUFAs 66% ± 51% vs postinjury PUFAs 63% ± 76%; P = .90). PUFA supplementation begun after cardiac injury has already occurred does not reduce atrial structural remodeling or vulnerability to AF. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Recent biochemical nutrition knowledge in relation to metabolism and the significance of essential fatty acids and n-3-fatty acids contained in fish].

    PubMed

    Kolb, E

    1989-10-01

    A survey is given on some newer knowledge about metabolism and about the importance of the essential fatty acids and of the n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenic, docosapentaenic, docosahexaenic acids) which occur in fish oils. In the body the linoleic acid via intermediate steps can be transformed into the arachidonic acid, from which various prostaglandins and leucotriens as well as the thromboxane A2 can be formed. The transformation of the linolenic acid into the eicosapentaenic acid is slight in man. The docosahexaenic acid is necessary for the construction of phospholipids in the brain and in the retina. The uptake of fish fatty acids inhibits the formation of thromboxane A2 and of leukotriens from the arachidonic acid. The fish fatty acids further in the liver in the peroxisomas the activity of the enzymes for the beta-oxidation; the formation of lipoproteins of high density increases under their influence: the triacylglyceride content, the cholesterol as well as the lipoprotein content of very low and low density decreases, when there is an adequate part of fish fatty acids in the nutrition.

  15. Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Esparza, X; Moyano, E; de Boer, J; Galceran, M T; van Leeuwen, S P J

    2011-10-30

    Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was chosen for the LC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. An ion-pair reagent was added to the injection solvent to improve peak shape. Different solvents were studied for the extraction from solid samples. For clean-up and pre-concentration, weak anion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used. Water samples were extracted using the same cartridges. The method was used for screening PFPAs in the Dutch aquatic environment. PFPAs were not observed in sediment or sludge samples. PFOPA was found at 1 ng L(-1) in one surface water sample. PFOS was found at levels between 0.07 ng g(-1) and 48 ng g(-1) (dry weight) in sediments and sewage sludge samples. PFOS concentrations in surface water ranged from 3.3 ng L(-1) to 25.4 ng L(-1).

  16. Associations of the Ratios of n-3 to n-6 Dietary Fatty Acids With Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Symptoms Among US Women.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie T; Beydoun, Hind A; Rostant, Ola S; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we examined longitudinal changes in self-reported depressive symptoms (and related domains) in relation to baseline intakes of n-3 fatty acids (absolute and relative to n-6 fatty acids). Sex-specific associations were evaluated in a prospective cohort of adults (n = 2,053) from Baltimore, Maryland, who were 30-64 years of age at baseline and were followed for a mean of 4.65 (standard deviation, 0.93) years (2004-2013). Using mean intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids reported on two 24-hour dietary recalls, we estimated the ratios of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids for both highly unsaturated fatty acids (≥20 carbon atoms) (HUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (≥18 carbon atoms) (PUFAs). Outcomes included total and domain-specific scores on the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Based on mixed-effects regression models, among women, both higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratios were associated with a slower rate of increase in total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scores over time. Higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 HUFA ratios were associated with slower increases in somatic complaints in men, whereas among women, higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratios were both linked to putative longitudinal improvement in positive affect over time. Among US adults, n-3:n-6 dietary fatty acid ratio was associated with longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms, with a higher ratio linked to a slower increase in depressive symptoms over time, particularly among women.

  17. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  18. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  19. Hepatic gene expression in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Fahrenkrug, S C; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows were fed supplemental dietary fat and treated with bST to assess effects of n-3 fatty acid supply, bovine somatotropin (bST), and stage of lactation on hepatic gene expression. Cows were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatment. Supplemental dietary fat was provided from calving as either whole high-oil sunflower seeds (SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; n-6/n-3 ratio of 4.6) as a source of linoleic acid or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids. Cows were treated with 0 (SSN, AFN) or 500 (SSY, AFY) mg of bST every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk (DIM) and at 14-d intervals thereafter. Liver biopsies were collected on -12, 10, 24, and 136 DIM for gene expression analysis. Growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha), fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) were the target genes and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) was used as an endogenous control gene. Expression was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses of 4 samples from each of 32 cows (8 complete blocks). Amounts of hepatic HPRT mRNA were not affected by bST or diet but were increased by approximately 3.8% in early lactation (3.42, 3.52, 3.54, and 3.41 x 10(4) message copies for -12, 10, 24, and 136 DIM, respectively). This small change had little detectable impact on the ability of HPRT to serve as an internal control gene. Amounts of hepatic GHR, IGF-I, and IGFBP3 mRNA were reduced by 1.5 to 2-fold after calving. Expression of GHR and IGF-I increased and IGFBP3 tended to increase within 12 d (by 24 DIM) of bST administration. These effects of bST persisted through 136 DIM. Hepatic HNF4alpha mRNA was not altered by DIM or

  20. Normal phase LC-MS determination of retinoic acid degradation products.

    PubMed

    Bempong, D K; Honigberg, I L; Meltzer, N M

    1995-03-01

    The degradation products formed when 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA) and all-trans RA were exposed to fluorescent light and air were investigated. These retinoids are known to undergo Z-E isomerization (due to the existence of four unsaturated double bonds) and oxidation when exposed to light and air. Analysis by LC was carried out on a 25 cm x 4.6 mm Zorbax Rx-SIL (5 microns) with a mobile phase (1.4 ml min-1) of heptane-THF-acetic acid (96.5:3.5:0.015) and an in-line UV (365 nm) detector. The LC eluate was coupled through a Vestec universal interface to a Finnigan 4023 mass spectrometer. EI-mass spectra were obtained at 77 eV from m/z 200 to 350 with multiplier voltage of 1200 V. Solid samples of 13-cis RA and all-trans RA exposed to light and air and also solutions of these retinoids in the mobile phase exposed to the same conditions were used for the analysis. Tentative identities of the degradation products from the mass spectra suggest the isomerization of the retinoids (Z-E isomerism) and the formation of the 5,6-epoxides of these isomers. Identities of the 5,6-epoxides were confirmed with chromatographic and mass spectral data from synthetic samples of the epoxides. Isomerization occurred more readily in solution than in the solid form and the 13-cis RA isomer oxidized more readily than the all-trans isomer.

  1. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin Treated Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Seo Kwang; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Yun, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Statins remain the mainstay of secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention, but n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) display biological effects that may also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and CAD. However, data on the possible antiatherosclerotic benefits of adding ω-3 PUFA to statin therapy are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential additive effects of ω-3 PUFA on regression of atherosclerosis in CAD patients receiving statin therapy and stent implantation. Subjects and Methods Seventy-four CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation were enrolled, prescribed statins, and randomly assigned to two groups: n-3 group (ω-3 PUFA 3 g/day, n=38) or placebo group (placebo, n=36). All patients completed the study follow-up consisting of an intravascular ultrasound at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics and distribution of other medications. No significant differences were observed in primary endpoints, including changes in atheroma volume index (−12.65% vs. −8.51%, p=0.768) and percent atheroma volume (−4.36% vs. −9.98%, p=0.526), and in secondary endpoints including a change in neointimal volume index (7.84 vs. 4.94 mm3/mm, p=0.087). Conclusion ω-3 PUFA had no definite additional effect on the regression of coronary atherosclerosis when added to statin in CAD patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27482256

  2. The macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide is a time-dependent fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Almukadi, Haifa; Wu, Hui; Böhlke, Mark; Kelley, Charles J; Maher, Timothy J; Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    The Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have also demonstrated the activity of the pentane extract and its macamides, the most representative lipophilic constituents of Maca, in the endocannabinoid system as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. One of the most active macamides, N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide, was studied to determine its mechanism of interaction with FAAH and whether it has inhibitory activity on mono-acyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), the second enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. Macamide concentrations from 1 to 100 μM were tested using FAAH and MAGL inhibitor assay methods and showed no effect on MAGL. Tests with other conditions were performed in order to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of FAAH inhibition. N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide displayed significant time-dependent and dose-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity. The mechanism of inhibition was most likely irreversible or slowly reversible. These results suggest the potential application of macamides isolated from Maca as FAAH inhibitors, as they might act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters.

  3. Liquid lipases for enzymatic concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via ethanolysis: Catalytic specificity and parameterization.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Balle, Thomas; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This work examined catalytic specificity and fatty acid selectivity of five liquid lipases C. antarctica lipase A and B (CAL-A/B), and lipase TL (T. lanuginosus), Eversa Transfrom and NS in ethanolysis of fish oil with the aim to concentrate n-3 PUFAs into monoacylglycerols (MAGs) products. Lipase TL, Eversa Transform & NS entail a much faster reaction and produce higher MAGs yield (>30%); whereas CAL-A obtains the highest concentration of n-3 PUFAs/DHA/EPA into MAGs products (88.30%); followed by lipase NS (81.02%). (13)C NMR analysis indicates that CAL-B and lipase TL are sn-1,3 specific; but CAL-A and lipase Eversa Transform are non-regiospecific or weak sn-2 specific; which plausibly explains high enrichment effect of the latter two lipases. All liquid lipases are observed reusable for a certain times (lipase Eversa Transform up to 12 times), demonstrating their competitive advantage over immobilized form for industrial application because of their higher activity and cheaper operation cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding the Analytical Window for Amino Acids in Marine Particles through tandem LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcmahon, R.; Mikan, M.; Harvey, H. R.

    2016-02-01

    Amino acids have long provided important information on the cycling and degradative state of marine organic materials. Traditional methods of characterizing the amino acid fraction of organic matter, however, often requires a lengthy derivitization process, significant sample amounts, and are limited to a subset of the 20 biosynthetic amino acids, or specialized to determine modified structures. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity and mass accuracy of chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, UHPLC methods were developed to allow quantification of more than 45 amino acids from varied sources in a single analysis. By using an ion pairing reagent and deuterated internal standards, derivitization is not required and identification can be made at low pM limits of detection and high precision. Comparisons of this approach to the recent use of GC/MS suggests that the use of LC/MS lowers the limit of detection by up to 10 fold and expands the suite of compounds with similar precision. This method is being used to investigate varied environmental questions including amino acids as osmosis regulators in sea grasses and broader analysis of POM samples gathered in the Arctic Ocean. The results of a suite of sample types examined thus far show low limit of detection and high precision independent of the matrixes complexity. Initial analysis of marine diatoms and of heterotrophic marine bacteria show significant amount of thio-proline, sarcocine and arginine not seen in GC/MS measurements. Sarcosine is an intermediate in the synthesis of glycine and arginine is an important player in the urea cycle while the role of thio-proline is under investigation. This approach adapted for marine systems makes it possible to characterize a broader suite of amino acids which can be important measures of the carbon and nitrogen cycle.

  5. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids are influenced by a ketogenic diet enriched with n-3 fatty acids in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Maria; Hjelte, Lena; Nilsson, Susanne; Amark, Per

    2007-02-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat medically refractory epilepsy in children. Alterations of fatty acid (FA) levels may reflect one mechanism of action. We examined the influence of the KD on FA levels and seizure control. The levels of 17 FAs in plasma phospholipids were determined before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation of the KD in 25 children (mean age 6.3 years) with intractable epilepsy. Fluid omega-3 FA was supplemented in the diet after one month. Highly significant changes of the levels of several FAs were found. Linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased, whereas arachidonic acid (AA) and Mead acid (20:3 n-9) decreased. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increased insignificantly. However, no correlation of changes in FA levels with seizure response was found. The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 gradually decreased from 7.0 before to 4.9 at 12 months after starting the diet, presumably a cardiovascular benefit. The composition of the KD differs as to FA content and type between different treating centers but, still, the efficacy reports are very similar. This study demonstrates the possibility of composing the KD in such a way that the FA profile is kept within a normal range, which may reduce cardiovascular risks.

  6. Dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation for 15 weeks reduces arachidonic acid concentrations while increasing n-3 PUFA concentrations in organs of post-weaning male rats

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Miki; Gao, Fei; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Ma, Kaizong; Bell, Jane M.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined effects of feeding animals a diet deficient in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but with an adequate amount of n-3 PUFAs. To do this, we fed post-weaning male rats a control n-6 and n-3 PUFA adequate diet and an n-6 deficient diet for 15 weeks, and measured stable lipid and fatty acid concentrations in different organs. The deficient diet contained nutritionally essential linoleic acid (LA,18:2n-6) as 2.3% of total fatty acids (10% of the recommended minimum LA requirement for rodents) but no arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), and an adequate amount (4.8% of total fatty acids) of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). The deficient compared with adequate diet did not significantly affect body weight, but decreased testis weight by 10%. AA concentration was decreased significantly in serum (−86%), brain (−27%), liver (−68%), heart (−39%), testis (−25%), and epididymal adipose tissue (−77%). Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) concentrations were increased in all but adipose tissue, and the total monounsaturated fatty acid concentration was increased in all organs. The concentration of 20:3n-9, a marker of LA deficiency, was increased by the deficient diet, and serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and total phospholipid were reduced. In summary, 15 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA deficiency with n-3 PUFA adequacy significantly reduced n-6 PUFA concentrations in different organs of male rats, while increasing n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations. This rat model could be used to study metabolic, functional and behavioral effects of dietary n-6 PUFA deficiency. PMID:19073280

  7. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. Methods In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56–91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. Results In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. Conclusion These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on

  8. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-06-13

    We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56-91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA.

  9. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mechanisms to mitigate inflammatory paracrine signaling in obesity-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Turk, Harmony F; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2014-10-30

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer.

  10. Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05μg/L) and hair (0.49μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138

  11. Healthy Spanish salchichón enriched with encapsulated n-3 long chain fatty acids in konjac glucomannan matrix.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Jose M; Munekata, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti; Pateiro, Mirian; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Domínguez, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    Reduction of fat content and improving fatty acid composition were the strategies used to reformulate Spanish salchichón with better lipid content by partial substitution of pork backfat by microencapsulated fish oil in konjac glucomannan matrix. For the present study, four different batches were manufactured: control (CO) with 100% of pork backfat and ME25, ME50 and ME75 where the pork backfat was replaced with 25, 50 and 75% by microencapsulated fish oil, respectively. The fat replacement by microencapsulated fish oil was accompanied by a decrease (P<0.05) in lightness and redness. On the other hand, the incorporation of microencapsulated fish oil increased (P<0.001) hardness, gumminess and chewiness, but did not influence springiness and cohesiveness. The incorporation of microencapsulated fish oil in konjac gel significantly (P>0.001) decreased the fat content (30.4%) as compared with the CO group. The total amount of PUFA in the modified sausages increased by 2.3% compared to the control batches. Finally, the reformulation process showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the lipid oxidation (TBARs values and aldehydes content) related to the greater susceptibility to lipid oxidation of unsaturated (particularly EPA and DHA) fatty acids. To conclude, it is technologically feasible to develop Spanish salchichón enriched with microencapsulated n-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish intake guidelines: incorporating n-3 fatty acid intake and contaminant exposure in the Korean and Japanese communities.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Ami; Hardy, Joan; Burbacher, Thomas M; Faustman, Elaine M; Mariën, Koenraad

    2008-06-01

    Fish consumption advisories are developed to prevent overexposure to various contaminants. Recently, discussion has centered on the need to consider the benefits of fish consumption alongside possible risks when providing guidance. As part of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study involving the Japanese and Korean communities living in Washington State, we obtained fish and nutrient intake data. Japanese and Korean women of childbearing age (n = 214) participated in this longitudinal study. We used these data, along with hair-mercury data to determine the need for both the nutritional benefits and concern about contaminants to be included when providing guidance. We examined the intake of 2 n-3 long-chain fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in fish and associated with a variety of beneficial health effects. Intakes of these lipids were used as surrogates to characterize the beneficial effect from fish consumption, and the intake of mercury was used to establish the risk from consumption. These 2 populations provided an ideal basis from which to examine this issue because their fish consumption rates were identical and higher than national rates, but their mercury intakes vary substantially because of different consumption behaviors. Results indicate that basing fish consumption guidelines on contaminant concentrations alone can have the unintended consequence of causing a portion of the population to have inadequate intake of required nutrients. Public health goals may be better served if nutritional elements and contaminant concerns are quantitatively incorporated into fish consumption guidelines.

  13. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun Jun; Zhou, Weiliang; Wang, Qingbo; Zhu, Rongchang; Wang, Fenglai; Thacker, Phil

    2012-12-27

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P < 0.10). Litter weight gain (1.77 kg/d) from d 0 to d 14 was tended to increase in 9:1 groups compared with the other two treatments (P < 0.10). A significant difference was observed for the content of α -linolenic acid, total n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in the colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P < 0.01). The effects of different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA in sow diets on colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P < 0.01) concentrations in piglet plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P < 0.05) was observed at d14. Furthermore, at d 21 of lactation, piglet plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01).In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average

  15. Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26–29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P < 0.10). Litter weight gain (1.77 kg/d) from d 0 to d 14 was tended to increase in 9:1 groups compared with the other two treatments (P < 0.10). A significant difference was observed for the content of α -linolenic acid, total n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in the colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P < 0.01). The effects of different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA in sow diets on colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P < 0.01) concentrations in piglet plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P < 0.05) was observed at d14. Furthermore, at d 21 of lactation, piglet plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01). In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average

  16. Fatty acid composition of milk from multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Dahlen, C R; Lamb, G C; Baumgard, L H; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatments to determine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and source of dietary fat on milk fatty acid composition during the first 140 d in milk. Diets were provided from calving and included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds (SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; n-6/n-3 ratio of 4.6) as a source of linoleic acid or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids (15.7% 18:3, 1.3% 20:5, and 1.3% 22:6). Treatments were derived from a 2 x 2 combination of supplemental fat source (SS, AF) and with 0 (SSN, AFN) or 500 (SSY, AFY) mg of bST administered every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk and at 14-d intervals thereafter. Milk fatty acid composition was determined in samples collected from 32 cows (8 complete blocks) during wk 2, 8, and 20 of lactation. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using mixed model procedures to determine the effects of diet, bST, week of lactation, and their interactions. Proportions of 18:3 (4.02 vs. 3.59 +/- 0.16%), 20:5 (0.52 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%), and 22:6 (0.11 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.02%) were greater and the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio (7.40 vs. 8.80 +/- 0.30) was reduced in milk from cows fed AF compared with SS. Proportions of de novo-synthesized fatty acids increased and preformed fatty acids decreased as lactation progressed, but bST administration delayed this shift in origin of milk fatty acids. Transfer efficiency of 18:3, 20:5, and 22:6 from AF to milk fat averaged 36.2, 4.9, and 5.2%, respectively. These efficiencies increased as lactation progressed, but were delayed by bST. Apparent mammary Delta(9)-desaturase activity and milk conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content increased through the

  17. The Development of a Specific and Sensitive LC-MS-Based Method for the Detection and Quantification of Hydroperoxy- and Hydroxydocosahexaenoic Acids as a Tool for Lipidomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Derogis, Priscilla B. M. C.; Freitas, Florêncio P.; Marques, Anna S. F.; Cunha, Daniela; Appolinário, Patricia P.; de Paula, Fernando; Lourenço, Tiago C.; Murgu, Michael; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Miyamoto, Sayuri

    2013-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is highly enriched in the brain, and the oxidation products of DHA are present or increased during neurodegenerative disease progression. The characterization of the oxidation products of DHA is critical to understanding the roles that these products play in the development of such diseases. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific analytical tool for the detection and quantification of twelve major DHA hydroperoxide (HpDoHE) and hydroxide (HDoHE) isomers (isomers at positions 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19 and 20) in biological systems. In this study, HpDoHE were synthesized by photooxidation, and the corresponding hydroxides were obtained by reduction with NaBH4. The isolated isomers were characterized by LC-MS/MS, and unique and specific fragment ions were chosen to construct a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method for the targeted quantitative analysis of each HpDoHE and HDoHE isomer. The detection limits for the LC-MS/MS-SRM assay were 1−670 pg for HpDoHE and 0.5−8.5 pg for HDoHE injected onto a column. Using this method, it was possible to detect the basal levels of HDoHE isomers in both rat plasma and brain samples. Therefore, the developed LC-MS/MS-SRM can be used as an important tool to identify and quantify the hydro(pero)xy derivatives of DHA in biological system and may be helpful for the oxidative lipidomic studies. PMID:24204871

  18. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease the Protein Expression of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase via Oxidative Stress-Induced P38 Kinase in Rat Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tawa, Masashi; Kondo, Keiko; Sekine, Osamu; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-24

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips. Both DHA and EPA suppressed sEH protein expression in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Furthermore, the concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid peroxidation product of n-3 PUFAs, increased in n-3 PUFA-treated RAECs. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed sEH expression in RAECs, suggesting that 4-HHE (derived from n-3 PUFAs) is involved in this phenomenon. The suppression of sEH was attenuated by the p38 kinase inhibitor (SB203580) and by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, sEH expression decreased after n-3 PUFAs treatment, potentially through oxidative stress and p38 kinase. Mild oxidative stress induced by n-3 PUFAs may contribute to their cardio-protective effect.

  19. Fish oil and mental health: the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cognitive development and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Assisi, Alessandro; Banzi, Rita; Buonocore, Carmela; Capasso, Filippo; Di Muzio, Valeria; Michelacci, Francesca; Renzo, Danila; Tafuri, Giovanni; Trotta, Francesco; Vitocolonna, Maria; Garattini, Silvio

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that consumption of more n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the risk for a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders, diabetes and cancer. This article focuses on the role of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain functions, including the development of the central nervous system and neurological disorders. An overview of the major animal studies and clinical trials is provided here, focusing on fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and infancy, and prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Although an optimal balance in n-3/n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio is important for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive functions, results from randomized controlled trials are controversial and do not confirm any useful effect of supplementation on development of preterm and term infants. The relationship between fatty acid status and mental disorders is confirmed by reduced levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of patients with central nervous system disorders. Nevertheless, there are very little data supporting the use of fish oil in those patients. The only way to verify whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are a potential therapeutic option in the management and prevention of mental disorders is to conduct a large definitive randomized controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment.

  20. Maternal dietary fat alters amniotic fluid and fetal intestinal membrane essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the rat.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Russell; Innis, Sheila M

    2006-03-01

    We investigated whether maternal fat intake alters amniotic fluid and fetal intestine phospholipid n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed a 20% by weight diet from fat with 20% linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) and 8% alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) (control diet, n = 8) or 72% LA and 0.2% ALA (n-3 deficient diet, n = 7) from 2 wk before and then throughout gestation. Amniotic fluid and fetal intestine phospholipid fatty acids were analyzed at day 19 gestation using HPLC and gas-liquid chromotography. Amniotic fluid had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and higher docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) levels in the n-3-deficient group than in the control group (DHA: 1.29 +/- 0.10 and 6.29 +/- 0.33 g/100 g fatty acid; DPA: 4.01 +/- 0.35 and 0.73 +/- 0.15 g/100 g fatty acid, respectively); these differences in DHA and DPA were present in amniotic fluid cholesterol esters and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Fetal intestines in the n-3-deficient group had significantly higher LA, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and DPA levels; lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and DHA levels in PC; and significantly higher DPA and lower EPA and DHA levels in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) than in the control group; the n-6-to-n-3 fatty acid ratio was 4.9 +/- 0.2 and 32.2 +/- 2.1 in PC and 2.4 +/- 0.03 and 17.1 +/- 0.21 in PE in n-3-deficient and control group intestines, respectively. We demonstrate that maternal dietary fat influences amniotic fluid and fetal intestinal membrane structural lipid essential fatty acids. Maternal dietary fat can influence tissue composition by manipulation of amniotic fluid that is swallowed by the fetus or by transport across the placenta.

  1. Identification and Quantitative Analysis of Acetaminophen, Acetylsalicylic Acid, and Caffeine in Commercial Analgesic Tablets by LC-MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Hickman, Nicole M.; Fincke, Melissa A.; Motry, Douglas H.; Lavine, Barry

    2010-01-01

    An undergraduate LC-MS experiment is described for the identification and quantitative determination of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine in commercial analgesic tablets. This inquiry-based experimental procedure requires minimal sample preparation and provides good analytical results. Students are provided sufficient background…

  2. GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

  3. GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

  4. Identification and Quantitative Analysis of Acetaminophen, Acetylsalicylic Acid, and Caffeine in Commercial Analgesic Tablets by LC-MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Hickman, Nicole M.; Fincke, Melissa A.; Motry, Douglas H.; Lavine, Barry

    2010-01-01

    An undergraduate LC-MS experiment is described for the identification and quantitative determination of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine in commercial analgesic tablets. This inquiry-based experimental procedure requires minimal sample preparation and provides good analytical results. Students are provided sufficient background…

  5. Recovery of altered fatty acid composition induced by a diet devoid of n-3 fatty acids in myelin, synaptosomes, mitochondria, and microsomes of developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Youyou, A; Durand, G; Pascal, G; Piciotti, M; Dumont, O; Bourre, J M

    1986-01-01

    Rats were fed a semisynthetic diet containing either sunflower oil or soya oil. Half the litter fed with sunflower oil diet was changed to a soya oil diet when the pups were 15 days old (during active myelination). Fatty acid analysis was then performed on subcellular fractions of the animals fed (a) soya oil, (b) sunflower oil, and (c) soya oil replacing sunflower oil from the 15th day, to determine the speed of the recovery. All material from animals fed sunflower oil showed an important reduction in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3), compensated by an increase in docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-6), whereas arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) was not affected. In all fractions examined, when sunflower oil was replaced by soya oil in 15-day-old pups the recovery started from the very first day but lasted more than 2 months (this recovery was determined by the increase of 22:6 n-3 up to the normal value and decrease of the 22:5 n-6). In addition a delay was found for myelin recovery, starting only from the 25th day.

  6. Kinetics of eicosapentaenoic acid in brain, heart and liver of conscious rats fed a high n-3 PUFA containing diet.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2013-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), a precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may benefit cardiovascular and brain health. Quantifying EPA's in vivo kinetics might elucidate these effects. [1-(14)C]EPA was infused i.v. for 5min in unanesthetized male rats fed a standard EPA-DHA diet. Plasma and microwaved tissue were analyzed. Kinetic parameters were calculated using our compartmental model. At 5min, 31-48% of labeled EPA in brain and heart was oxidized, 7% in liver. EPA incorporation rates from brain and liver precursor EPA-CoA pools into lipids, mainly phospholipids, were 36 and 2529nmol/s/g×10(-4), insignificant for heart. Deacylation-reacylation half-lives were 22h and 38-128min. Conversion rates to DHA equaled 0.65 and 25.1nmol/s/g×10(-4), respectively. The low brain concentration and incorporation rate and high oxidation of EPA suggest that, if EPA has a beneficial effect in brain, it might result from its suppression of peripheral inflammation and hepatic conversion to bioactive DHA.

  7. Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids supplementation on fatty acid metabolism in atorvastatin-administered SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Hossain, Shahdat; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model. Supplementation with 10mg/kg body weight/day of atorvastatin for 17 weeks significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Atorvastatin alone caused a subtle change in fatty acid composition particularly of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver or erythrocyte membranes. However, the TAK-085 consistently increased both the levels of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver and erythrocyte membranes. After confirming the reduction of plasma total cholesterol, 300mg/kg body weight/day of TAK-085 was continuously administered for another 6 weeks. Supplementation with TAK-085 did not decrease plasma total cholesterol but significantly increased the EPA and DHA levels in both the plasma and liver compared with rats administered atorvastatin only. Supplementation with atorvastatin alone significantly decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases, elongase-5, and stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase-2 levels and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the liver compared with control rats. TAK-085 supplementation significantly increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that long-term supplementation with atorvastatin decreases the EPA and DHA levels by inhibiting the desaturation and elongation of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, while TAK-085 supplementation effectively replenishes this effect in SHRcp rat liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  8. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems.

  9. Quantitation of N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzamide and 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine in rat and mouse plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, K C; Muc, M; Hsu, R; Jayyosi, Z; Marietta, M P

    2000-06-01

    The metabolism of N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzamide (RP73401), a phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV) inhibitor is extensive (unpublished); however, until recently, studies for this compound did not report 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine (ADCP) as a metabolite either in vitro or in vivo. This prompted a reinvestigation into the metabolism of RP73401 in rats and mice using mass spectrometry. The results of the reinvestigation confirmed that 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine was formed via the metabolism of RP73401 both in vitro and in vivo. In order to further investigate RP73401 hydrolysis in vivo, a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of RP73401 and ADCP in rat and mouse plasma. The method used Waters Oasis HLB brand solid phase extraction cartridges to isolate the analytes (RP73401 and ADCP) and internal standard from the plasma. HPLC chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax SB C18 HPLC column and detection was accomplished using positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectroscopy in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was developed and validated over the range of 0.5-100 ng ml(-1) for RP73401 and 5-500 ng ml(-1) for ADCP using 0.050 ml of plasma. The assay proved to be sensitive, accurate, precise and specific for RP73401 and ADCP. Intraday and interday quality control results routinely showed accuracy and precision to be within +/- 20%. This LC/MS/MS method was subsequently employed to investigate the hydrolysis of RP73401 in the rat and mouse, and determine the effects of tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP, a carboxylesterase inhibitor) preadministration on the hydrolysis reaction in the rat.

  10. Age-related changes of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Sarah M; Runyan, Caroline A; Leonard, Sherry; Reddy, Ravinder D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Yao, Jeffrey K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence finds a relative deficiency of peripheral membrane fatty acids in persons with affective disorders such as unipolar and bipolar depression. Here we sought to investigate whether postmortem brain fatty acids within the anterior cingulate cortex (BA-24) varied according to the presence of major depression at the time of death. Using capillary gas chromatography we measured fatty acids in a depressed group (n=12), and in a control group without lifetime history of psychiatric diagnosis (n=14). Compared to the control group, the depressed group showed significantly lower concentrations of numerous saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids including both the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Additionally, significant correlations between age at death and precursor (or metabolites) in the n-3 fatty acid pathway were demonstrated in the depressed group but not in control subjects. In the n-6 fatty acid family, the ratio of 20:3(n-6)/18:2(n-6) was higher in patients than in control groups, whereas the ratio of 20:4(n-6)/20:3(n-6) was relatively decreased in patients. Lastly, a significant negative correlation between age and the ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) was found in patients, but not in controls. Taken together, decreases in 22:6(n-3) may be caused, at least in part, by the diminished formation of 20:5(n-3), which is derived from 20:4(n-3) through a Delta5 desaturase reaction. The present findings from postmortem brain tissue raise the possibility that an increased ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) may provide us with a biomarker for depression. Future research should further investigate these relationships.

  11. Association between erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with and without depression.

    PubMed

    Baek, Dawon; Park, Yongsoon

    2013-10-01

    Associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), inflammation, oxidative stress and the risk of depression have been suggested. We hypothesize that erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs are inversely associated with biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress in Koreans with and without depression. Study participants comprised 80 cases diagnosed with depression based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Korea version (CES-D-K) scores ≥25 and psychiatrist confirmation and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without histories of depression. Depressed patients had lower levels of n-3 PUFAs and higher circulating levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), superoxide dismutase, interferon-γ, and nitrotyrosine compared to the controls. CES-D-K scores and levels of iNOS and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were negatively associated with Omega-3 Index (erythrocyte levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) after adjusting for confounding factors. Concentrations of iNOS, TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and nitrotyrosine were negatively correlated with erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFAs, but positively with erythrocyte levels of n-6 PUFAs. Erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFAs were inversely associated with circulating markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Koreans with and without depression in this case control study. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether dietary or supplemental n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, and reduce depressive symptoms in humans.

  12. Fatty acid binding protein 7 and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid supply in early rat brain development.

    PubMed

    Maximin, Elise; Langelier, Bénédicte; Aïoun, Josiane; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Bordat, Christian; Lavialle, Monique; Heberden, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), abundant in the embryonic brain, binds with the highest affinity to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and is expressed in the early stages of embryogenesis. Here, we have examined the consequences of the exposure to different DHA levels and of the in utero depletion of FABP7 on early rat brain development. Neurodevelopment was evaluated through the contents of two proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), both involved in neuroblast proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The dams were fed with diets presenting different DHA contents, from deficiency to supplementation. DHA brain embryos contents already differed at embryonic day 11.5 and the differences kept increasing with time. Cx43 and CDK5 contents were positively associated with the brain DHA levels. When FABP7 was depleted in vivo by injections of siRNA in the telencephalon, the enhancement of the contents of both proteins was lost in supplemented animals, but FABP7 depletion did not modify phospholipid compositions regardless of the diets. Thus, FABP7 is a necessary mediator of the effect of DHA on these proteins synthesis, but its role in DHA uptake is not critical, although FABP7 is localized in phospholipid-rich areas. Our study shows that high contents of DHA associated with FABP7 are necessary to promote early brain development, which prompted us to recommend DHA supplementation early in pregnancy.

  13. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) investigation of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) reaction.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Daniel; Antolovich, Michael; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2002-03-13

    The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay is a commonly used method for the detection of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde is formed as a result of lipid peroxidation and reacts with thiobarbituric acid to form a pink pigment that has an absorption maximum at 532 nm. Other compounds also react with thiobarbituric acid to form colored species that can interfere with this assay, but little is known about these interfering species. This is the first investigation using LC-MS and MS-MS to study the structures of the pink adduct as well as a common unstable yellow interference compound, which absorbs at 455 nm. Also, the presence of barbituric acid impurities in the thiobarbituric acid reagent was found to produce 1:1:1 thiobarbituric acid/malondialdehyde/barbituric acid and 2:1 barbituric acid/malondialdehyde adducts that absorbed at 513 and 490 nm, respectively, indicating that thiobarbituric acid should be purified before use.

  14. Effects of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acids on Hepatic and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lalia, Antigoni Z.; Johnson, Matthew L.; Jensen, Michael D.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Port, John D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevent insulin resistance and stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in rodents, but the findings of translational studies in humans are thus far ambiguous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of EPA and DHA on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and muscle mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic humans using a robust study design and gold-standard measurements. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-one insulin-resistant adults received 3.9 g/day EPA+DHA or placebo for 6 months in a randomized double-blind study. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with somatostatin was used to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Postprandial glucose disposal and insulin secretion were measured after a meal. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Abdominal fat distribution was evaluated by MRI. Muscle oxidative capacity was measured in isolated mitochondria using high-resolution respirometry and noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA did not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity, postprandial glucose disposal, or insulin secretion. Hepatic insulin sensitivity, determined from the suppression of endogenous glucose production by insulin, exhibited a small but significant improvement with EPA+DHA compared with placebo. Muscle mitochondrial function was unchanged by EPA+DHA or placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that dietary EPA+DHA does not improve peripheral glucose disposal, insulin secretion, or skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant nondiabetic humans. There was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity with EPA+DHA, but this was not associated with any improvements in clinically meaningful outcomes. PMID:25852206

  15. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sontrop, Jessica; Avison, William R; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Campbell, M Karen

    2008-07-01

    An inverse association between depression and the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily obtained from fish consumption, is observed in both observational and experimental research and is biologically plausible. Study objectives were to examine whether prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower intakes of fish or EPA+DHA. Pregnant women (n = 2394) completed a telephone interview between 10 and 22 weeks' gestation in London, Ontario, 2002-05. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). Intakes of fish and EPA+DHA were measured using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Sequential multiple regression was used to examine associations of depressive symptoms with intake of fish and EPA+DHA, respectively, while controlling for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. The mean CES-D score was 9.9 (SD 8.0). Intake of EPA+DHA was dichotomised at the median value of 85 mg/day. Fish consumption and intake of EPA+DHA were not associated with prenatal depressive symptoms after adjustment for confounders; however, depressive symptoms were significantly higher for lower intakes of EPA+DHA among current smokers and women of single/separated/divorced marital status. The adjusted difference in CES-D scores between intake categories of EPA+DHA was -2.4 [95% CI -4.2, -0.4] for current smokers and -2.8 [95% CI -5.2, -0.4] for women of single marital status. Although pregnant women may be at risk for low concentrations of EPA and DHA, an association between low intakes of EPA+DHA and increased depressive symptoms was only observed among current smokers and women of single marital status.

  16. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipids, platelet function, coagulation, fibrinolysis and monocyte chemotaxis in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E B; Nielsen, L K; Pedersen, J O; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J

    1990-07-01

    We have studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4 g of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) daily for 6 wk on plasma lipids, haemostasis and monocyte chemotaxis in 10 patients with untreated hypertension. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change, but the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced after the fish oil supplement. Platelet function was unaltered by intake of n-3. Plasma fibrinogen and fibronectin decreased after supplementation with n-3 PUFA, while the effects on fibrinolysis were equivocal. Monocyte chemotaxis was reduced by the supplement. These data lend support to a role for an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in the management of patients with hypertension.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid at the sn-2 position of structured triacylglycerols improved n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid assimilation in tissues of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bandarra, Narcisa M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Ferreira, Júlia; Alfaia, Cristina M; Rolo, Eva A; Correia, Jorge J; Pinto, Rui M A; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; Batista, Irineu; Prates, José A M; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position, which enhances efficacy and health benefits of dietary DHA n-3 supplementation. Ten-week-old Golden Syrian male hamsters were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups with 10 animals in each: linseed oil (LSO; control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE), and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL). After 12 weeks, there were no variations in the hamsters' body composition parameters across dietary groups. The DHA-SL diet had the lowest values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipids, and aspartate aminotransferase activity, whereas the inverse was observed for the FO diet. Glucose was increased in the LSO diet without affecting insulin and insulin resistance markers. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was increased in the brain of hamsters fed the DHA-SL diet, higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid were observed in the liver and erythrocytes of the LSO. The highest omega-3 index was obtained with the DHA-SL diet. The principal component analyses discriminated DHA from other metabolites and set apart 4 clusters matching the 4 diets. Similarly, liver, erythrocytes, and brain were separated from each other, pointing toward an individual signature on fatty acid deposition. The structured sn-2 position DHA-containing TAG ameliorated blood lipids and fatty acid incorporation, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA in liver, erythrocytes, and brain, relative to commercially FOs, thus improving the health benefits of DHA due to its higher bioavailability.

  18. Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Shakya-Shrestha, Subodha; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-11-01

    Intakes of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for health. Because fish is the major source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), non-fish-eaters may have suboptimal n-3 PUFA status, although the importance of the conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is debated. The objective was to determine intakes, food sources, and status of n-3 PUFAs according to dietary habit (fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans) and estimated conversion between dietary ALA and circulating long-chain n-3 PUFAs. This study included 14,422 men and women aged 39-78 y from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort with 7-d diary data and a substudy in 4902 individuals with plasma phospholipid fatty acid measures. Intakes and status of n-3 PUFAs were measured, and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of ALA to circulating n-3 PUFAs was calculated. Most of the dietary intake of EPA and DHA was supplied by fish; however, meat was the major source in meat-eaters, and spreading fats, soups, and sauces were the major sources in vegetarians. Total n-3 PUFA intakes in non-fish-eaters were 57-80% of those in fish-eaters, but status differences were considerably smaller [corrected]. The estimated product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in women than in men and greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters. Substantial differences in intakes and in sources of n-3 PUFAs existed between the dietary-habit groups, but the differences in status were smaller than expected, possibly because the product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, potentially indicating increased estimated conversion of ALA. If intervention studies were to confirm these findings, it could have implications for fish requirements.

  19. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong; and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  20. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the blood pressure control in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension - a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, Carina N; Strandhave, Charlotte; Skov, Charlotte M; Svensson, My; Schmidt, Erik B; Christensen, Jeppe H

    2017-02-28

    Marine long-chained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized for their cardio-protective effects, including potential lowering of blood pressure. We hypothesized that higher habitual fish intake and n-3 PUFA plasma levels were associated with lower blood pressure and being less likely to receive antihypertensive medication after one-year follow-up. In this prospective study of 115 patients, we assessed 24 h ambulatory and central blood pressure, plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition using gas chromatography and participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, including fish-eating habits. All measurements were repeated at one-year follow-up. At baseline, patients consuming fish ≥2 times per month for dinner had significantly higher plasma levels of total marine n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as significantly lower central blood pressure and a trend towards lower peripheral blood pressure. At follow-up, 21 patients (18%) without antihypertensive medication had significantly higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as a higher, but still acceptable 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (137/85 mmHg) compared to subjects receiving antihypertensive medication. The untreated group was more prone to take fish oil capsules and increased their plasma levels of n-3 PUFA compared to baseline. In patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension, regular fish consumption was accompanied by lower blood pressure. After one year, patients without antihypertensive medication were characterized by a significant increase and higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA. This supports a blood pressure-lowering effect and suggests an increase in marine n-3 PUFA intake as part of non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension.

  1. Transcriptome-based identification of new anti-anti-inflammatory and vasodilating properties of the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in vascular endothelial cell under proinflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Valentina; Scoditti, Egeria; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Calabriso, Nadia; Buonomo, Tonia; Stuppia, Liborio; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Scope High intakes of n-3 fatty acids exert anti-inflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection, but the underlying molecular basis is incompletely defined. By genome-wide analysis we searched for novel effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on gene expression and pathways in human vascular endothelium under pro-inflammatory conditions. Methods and Results Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with DHA and then stimulated with interleukin(IL)-1β. Total RNA was extracted, and gene expression examined by DNA microarray. DHA alone altered the expression of 188 genes, decreasing 92 and increasing 96. IL-1β changed the expression of 2031 genes, decreasing 997 and increasing 1034. Treatment with DHA before stimulation significantly affected the expression of 116 IL-1β-deregulated genes, counter-regulating the expression of 55 genes among those decreased and of 61 among those increased. Functional and network analyses identified immunological, inflammatory and metabolic pathways as the most affected. Newly identified DHA-regulated genes are involved in stemness, cellular growth, cardiovascular system function and cancer, and included cytochrome p450 4F2(CYP4F2), transforming growth factor(TGF)-β2, Cluster of Differentiation (CD)47, caspase recruitment domain(CARD)11 and phosphodiesterase(PDE)5α. Conclusions Endothelial exposure to DHA regulates novel genes and related pathways. Such unbiased identification should increase our understanding of mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids affect human diseases. PMID:26114549

  2. Characterization of the acidic species of a monoclonal antibody using weak cation exchange chromatography and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Kita, Adriana; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Kori, Yekaterina; Rajendran, Saravanamoorthy; Liu, Hongcheng

    2015-09-01

    Charge variants, especially acidic charge variants, of recombinant monoclonal antibodies have been challenging to fully characterize despite the fact that several posttranslational modifications have already been identified. The acidic species of a recombinant monoclonal antibody were collected using weak cation exchange (WCX)-10 chromatography and characterized by LC-MS at multiple levels. In this study, methionine oxidation and asparagine deamidation are the only two modifications identified in the acidic species. Incubation of the collected main chromatographic peak with hydrogen peroxide generated acidic species, which confirmed that acidic species were enriched in oxidized antibody. Differences observed between the original acidic species and the oxidization-induced acidic species indicate that different mechanisms are involved in the formation of acidic species. Additionally, acidic species were generated by thermal stress of the collected main peak from the original sample. Thermal stress of the collected main peak in pH 9 buffer or ammonium bicarbonate generated chromatograms that are highly similar to those from the analysis of the original molecule. LC-MS analysis identified oxidation of the same methionine residue and deamidation of the same asparagine in the corresponding acidic fractions generated by thermal stress; however, relatively lower levels of methionine oxidation and higher levels of asparagine deamdiation were observed. The results support the use of stressed conditions to generate low abundance species for detailed characterization of recombinant monoclonal antibody charge variants, but with caution.

  3. Effects of Different Ratio of n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats with Reflux Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jia-Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Yao; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Du-Peng; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhuang, Ze-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Background We designed this study to investigate the influence of different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the diet of reflux esophagitis (RE) rats’ and the effect on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Material/Methods RE rats were randomly divided into a sham group and modeling groups of different concentrations of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA): 12:1 group, 10:1 group, 5:1 group, and 1:1 group. RT-PCR and Western-blot were used to detect the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, NF-κBp50, and NF-κBp65 proteins in esophageal tissue. Results In the n-6/n-3 PUFAs groups the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, nf-kbp50, and NF-κBp65 mRNA decreased with the decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios in the diet. The lowest expression of each indicator occurred in the 1:1 n-6/n-3 group compared with other n-6/n-3 groups, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions The inhibition of n-3 PUFAs in the development of esophageal inflammation in rats with RE was attributed to the function of PI3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:28134235

  4. Circulating n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids, PLA2G2A gene variation and sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Bartz, Traci M; King, Irena B; Brody, Jennifer A; McKnight, Barbara; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; Johnson, Catherine O; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hesselson, Stephanie; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Siscovick, David S

    2016-01-01

    Whether genetic factors influence the associations of fatty acids with the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is largely unknown. To investigate possible gene-fatty acid interactions on SCA risk, we used a case-only approach and measured fatty acids in erythrocyte samples from 1869 SCA cases in a population-based repository with genetic data. We selected 191 SNP in ENCODE-identified regulatory regions of fifty-five candidate genes in fatty acid metabolic pathways. Using linear regression and additive genetic models, we investigated the association of the selected SNP with erythrocyte levels of fatty acids, including DHA, EPA and trans-fatty acids among the SCA cases. The assumption of no association in non-cases was supported by analysis of publicly available datasets containing over 8000 samples. None of the SNP-fatty acid associations tested among the cases reached statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. One SNP, rs4654990 near PLA2G2A, with an allele frequency of 0·33, was nominally associated with lower levels of DHA and EPA and higher levels of trans-fatty acids. The strongest association was with DHA levels (exponentiated coefficient for one unit (1 % of total fatty acids), 0·90, 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97; P = 0·003), indicating that for subjects with a coded allele, the OR of SCA associated with one unit higher DHA is about 90 % what it is for subjects with one fewer coded allele. These findings suggest that the associations of circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids with SCA risk may be more pronounced in carriers of the rs4654990 G allele.

  5. Novel Hybrid Catalyst for the Oxidation of Organic Acids: Pd Nanoparticles Supported on Mn-N-3D-Graphene Nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Perry, Albert; Kabir, Sadia; Matanovic, Ivana; ...

    2017-06-16

    This paper reports the fabrication and electrochemical performance of a hybrid catalyst composed of Pd nanoparticles and atomically dispersed Mn active centers integrated into the nitrogen-doped three-dimensional graphene nanosheets (Pd/Mn-N-3D-GNS). Our results show that the synergistic integration of both Pd nanoparticles and atomically dispersed Mn can be used to enhance the activity toward the electrochemical oxidation of organic acids at biologically relevant pH values. The hybrid catalyst (Pd/Mn-N-3D-GNS) showed increased maximum currents toward the oxidation of oxalic acid when compared to its individual catalysts, namely, Pd/3D-GNS and Mn N-3D-GNS catalysts. The hybrid also showed a decreased onset potential for oxidationmore » of mesoxalic acid as compared to Mn-N-3D-GNS and decreased onset potentials for the oxidation of glyoxalic acid when compared to both of its constituent catalysts. Oxidation of formic acid was also tested and the hybrid was shown to catalyze both dehydration and dehydrogenation mechanisms of formic acid electro-oxidation. Using density functional theory calculations, it was elucidated that a two-site catalysis most likely promotes dehydrogenation reaction for formic acid oxidation, which can explain the selectivity of Pd nanoparticles and atomically dispersed Mn towards the dehydrogenation/ dehydration pathway.« less

  6. Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, M; Dahlen, C R; Weber, W J; Lamb, G C; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    number of class 2 follicles was reduced by AF. Initiation of bST administration at 12 DIM and dietary n-3 fatty acids altered ovarian activity during the first 90 DIM and could benefit reproductive performance. Dietary n-3 fatty acids interacted with bST administration in early lactation to increase the incidence of estrous cycles with 3 follicular waves. Although these changes could benefit reproductive performance, evaluation with a larger number of cows is needed to determine if these alterations improve fertility.

  7. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanisms to Mitigate Inflammatory Paracrine Signaling in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Turk, Harmony F.; Liddle, Danyelle M.; De Boer, Anna A.; Power, Krista A.; Ma, David W.L.; Robinson, Lindsay E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer. PMID:25360510

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking.

  9. Comparison of simple, double and gelled double emulsions as hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acid delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Flaiz, Linda; Freire, María; Cofrades, Susana; Mateos, Raquel; Weiss, Jochen; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Bou, Ricard

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different emulsion-based systems, namely simple emulsion, double emulsion and gelled double emulsion, for delivery of n-3 fatty acids (perilla oil at 300g/kg) and hydroxytyrosol (300mg/kg). Considering that their structural differences may affect their physical and oxidative stability, this was studied by storing them at 4°C for 22days in the dark. The results showed that the oxidative status was maintained in all systems by the addition of hydroxytyrosol. However, there was some loss of hydroxytyrosol, mainly during sample storage and during preparation of the gelled double emulsion. Moreover, the antioxidant loss was more pronounced in more compartmentalized systems, which was attributed to their increased surface area. However, the double emulsion was found to be less stable than the gelled emulsion. Overall, the encapsulation of labile compounds in more complex systems needs to be carefully studied and adapted to specific technological and/or nutritional requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-02-13

    the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD's positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD-4.7 kg, KDO3-4.03 kg, body fat KD-5.41 kg, KDO3-5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

  11. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A.; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. PMID:25689563

  12. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation, tissue lipid composition, ex vivo prostaglandin production, and stress tolerance in juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.).

    PubMed

    Logue, J A; Howell, B R; Bell, J G; Cossins, A R

    2000-07-01

    Larval Dover sole fed an Artemia diet supplemented with n-3 long-chain (C20 + C22) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be more resistant to low-temperature injury. Here we explore the relationship between tissue fatty acid composition and tolerance of stressful environmental conditions over the larval and early juvenile periods. Artemia nauplii supplemented with n-3 long-chain PUFA-deficient and PUFA-enriched oil emulsions were fed to two groups of larvae. Whole body tissue samples from the resulting PUFA-deficient and -enriched juveniles possessed 12.1 and 21.9% n-3 long-chain PUFA, respectively. These differences were at the expense of C18 PUFA, while proportions of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and total PUFA were unaffected. Brain and eye tissues from the PUFA-deficient fish contained lower levels of 22:6n-3, known to be important for optimal nervous system function, incorporating instead a range of fatty acids of lower unsaturation. PUFA-deprived juveniles showed substantially greater mortality when exposed to a combination of low temperature and low salinity, as well as to high temperature and to hypoxia. After adaptation to the different diets, both dietary groups were fed a common formulated feed high in n-3 long-chain PUFA. Tissue PUFA in both groups progressively increased to the same high value, with a consequent loss of the differences in cold-susceptibility. These correlated changes support a link between dietary manipulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA and development of a stress-sensitive phenotype. PUFA deprivation had no detectable effect upon static hydrocarbon order of purified brain membranes (as assessed by fluorescence polarization) but was associated with an increase in the whole-body content of prostaglandins. We conclude that susceptibility to environmental stress is responsive to dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA manipulation, possibly due to altered tissue development or the overproduction of eicosanoids.

  13. Transgenic expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (fat-1) in C57/BL6 mice: Effects on glucose homeostasis and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaonin; Hardy, Robert W; Wood, Philip A

    2009-07-01

    The fat-1 gene, derived from Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes for a fatty acid n-3 desaturase. In order to study the potential metabolic benefits of n-3 fatty acids, independent of dietary fatty acids, we developed seven lines of fat-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6) controlled by the regulatory sequences of the adipocyte protein-2 (aP2) gene for adipocyte-specific expression (AP-lines). We were unable to obtain homozygous fat-1 transgenic offspring from the two highest expressing lines, suggesting that excessive expression of this enzyme may be lethal during gestation. Serum fatty acid analysis of fat-1 transgenic mice (AP-3) fed a high n-6 unsaturated fat (HUSF) diet had an n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduced by 23% (P < 0.025) and the n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration increased by 61% (P < 0.020). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased by 19% (P < 0.015) in white adipose tissue. Male AP-3-fat-1 line of mice had improved glucose tolerance and reduced body weight with no change in insulin sensitivity when challenged with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. In contrast, the female AP-3 mice had reduced glucose tolerance and no change in insulin sensitivity or body weight. These findings indicate that male transgenic fat-1 mice have improved glucose tolerance likely due to increased insulin secretion while female fat-1 mice have reduced glucose tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Finally the inability of fat-1 transgenic mice to generate homozygous offspring suggests that prolonged exposure to increased concentrations of n-3 fatty acids may be detrimental to reproduction.

  14. Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets, and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Niva; Weill, Pierre; Loewenbach, Rachel

    2008-04-01

    As high dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio may contribute to many western ailments, increasing n-3 PUFA in foods could be beneficial. The nutritional significance of n-3 PUFA-fortified egg vs. enzymatically competitive high n-6 PUFA diets is debatable. To evaluate the dietary contribution of 'field fortification' of eggs by adding n-3 PUFA to high n-6 PUFA hen feed and to assess whether it meets consumer preferences. Laying hens (n=3500) were fed n-3 PUFA-fortified (5% extruded linseed) feed or standard (control) feed for 5 weeks. Nutritional significance was evaluated for western (American, Israeli) populations. Compared to regular (control) eggs, fortified eggs yielded a 3.8-fold increase in total n-3 PUFA, 6.4-fold alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), and 2.4-fold docohexaenoic acid 22:6). N-6:n-3 PUFA ratio decreased 3.6-fold, and n-6:n-3 long chain PUFA ratio (AA:DHA) 3.0-fold (P< 0.0003). Sensory evaluations were not significantly different. Egg cost increased by 1.5-3.0%. Fortified egg n-3 PUFA content averaged 14.3% of the current intake of Americans and 15.9% of Israelis - 9.8 and 10.6% of upper Dietary Reference Intakes, respectively. Egg DHA content averaged 33.7 and 41.4% of upper DRI. Current cholesterol intakes average 281 and 263 mg/day (median 214 and 184 mg/day) including 0.7 and 0.5 egg/day; reported hypercholesterolemia rates are 17.7 and 16.5%, respectively. Effective concentration and transformation of supplemental n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA from feed to egg substantially enhanced egg n-3 PUFA %DRI, particularly of DHA, critical for health but often deficient. Such land-based n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA fortification may be applicable to high n-6 PUFA diets, fitting within cholesterol limitations and market criteria. It may contribute to general health and specific requirements (i.e., pregnancy and lactation), with possibilities of wide accessibility and standardization.

  15. Identification and characterization of chlorogenic acids, chlorogenic acid glycosides and flavonoids from Lonicera henryi L. (Caprifoliaceae) leaves by LC-MSn.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Müller, Heiko; Müller, Anja; Karar, Mohamed Gamaleldin Elsadig; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-12-01

    The chlorogenic acids, chlorogenic acid glycosides and flavonoids of the leaves of Lonicera henryi L. (Caprifoliaceae) were investigated qualitatively by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-one chlorogenic acids and their glycosides were detected and characterized to their regioisomeric level on the basis of their unique fragmentation pattern in the negative ion mode tandem MS spectra. All of them were extracted for the first time from this source and thirteen of them were not reported previously in nature. For the positive identification of chlorogenic acid glycosides by LC-MS(n), multiple reaction monitoring and targeted MS(n) experiments were performed. We have developed an LC-MS(n) method for the systematic identification of chlorogenic acid glycosides and were also able to discriminate between chlorogenic acids and their isobaric glycosides. It was also possible to discriminate between 5-O-(3'-O-caffeoyl glucosyl)quinic acid and 5-O-(4'-O-caffeoyl glucosyl)quinic acid by LC-MS(n). This method can be applied for the rapid and positive identification of chlorogenic acids and their glycosides in plant materials, food and beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant inverse association of marine n-3 fatty acids with plasma fibrinogen levels in Japanese in Japan but not in whites or Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Hassen, L J; Ueshima, H; Curb, J D; Choo, J; Lee, S; Masaki, K; Kadowaki, T; Shin, C; Evans, R W; Seto, T B; Fujiyoshi, A; Willcox, B J; Sutton-Tyrrell, K; Kadota, A; El-Saed, A; Miura, K; Kuller, L H; Sekikawa, A

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies reported beneficial effects of marine n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. However, the association of marine n-3 FAs with plasma fibrinogen, a risk factor for CVD, remains uncertain. In a population-based, cross-sectional study of 795 men aged 40-49 without CVD (262 whites in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA, 302 Japanese in Kusatsu, Japan and 229 Japanese Americans in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA), we examined the association of marine n-3 FAs with plasma fibrinogen. Serum FAs were measured by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Marine n-3 FAs were defined as the sum of docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids. Plasma fibrinogen was measured by an automated clot-rate assay. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association. White, Japanese and Japanese-American men had mean marine n-3 FAs levels of 3.47%, 8.78% and 4.46%, respectively. Japanese men had a significant inverse association of marine n-3 FAs with fibrinogen (standardized regression coefficient of -0.11, P=0.049), after adjusting for age, body-mass index and current smoking. The significant inverse association remained after further adjusting for diabetes, C-reactive protein, triglycerides and other variables. White or Japanese-American men did not show a significant association. We observed the significant inverse association of marine n-3 FAs with fibrinogen in Japanese, but not in whites or Japanese Americans. The observation suggests that marine n-3 FAs at very high levels, as seen in the Japanese, may decrease plasma fibrinogen levels.

  17. Cord blood LC-PUFA composition and allergic diseases during the first 10 yr. Results from the LISAplus study.

    PubMed

    Standl, Marie; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in blood are associated with risk of allergic diseases, although results are inconclusive. Low levels of n-6 LC-PUFA and high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are anticipated to have beneficial effects. Pregnancy is considered a critical time period for imprinting the developing immune system. We examined whether n-6 LC-PUFA, n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations or the n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood (CB) serum are associated with allergic diseases up to the age of 10 yr. This analysis included 436 children from the Munich LISAplus birth cohort study. Information on doctor-diagnosed asthma, hay fever/allergic rhinitis, and eczema was collected using questionnaires completed at the ages 6 and 10 yr, and for eczema additionally at 2 yr. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against inhalant allergens was measured at 6 and 10 yr. Fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography in serum from CB and from blood collected at 2, 6, and 10 yr. Associations between n-3, n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations, and the n-6/n-3 ratio in CB serum and allergic diseases or atopy were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) considering the longitudinal structure. Models were adjusted for LC-PUFA concentrations at follow-up and potential confounding factors. There was no significant association between n-3 LC-PUFA, n-6 LC-PUFA, or the n-6/n-3 ratio in CB serum with eczema, asthma, hay fever/allergic rhinitis, or aeroallergen sensitization. There is no indication of a beneficial effect of increased n-3 LC-PUFA in CB serum on the development of any of the disease entities. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. PPAR mRNA Levels Are Modified by Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Restriction and Energy Restriction in the Brain and Liver of Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Johnson, LuAnn; Idso, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Without dietary sources of n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) affects ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces n-3 LCPUFA concentrations in tissues of growing rats fed diets replete with and deficient in ALA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (23 d old) were provided AIN93G diets (4 wk) made with soybean oil (SO; ALA sufficient) or corn oil (CO; ALA deficient) providing 16% of energy as fat. For each dietary oil, ER rats were individually pair-fed 75% of another rat's ad libitum (AL) intake. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in brain regions, liver, and plasma were analyzed. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), uncoupling proteins (UCPs), and mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in the brain and liver. AL rats consuming CO had a 65% lower concentration of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) and a 10% lower DHA concentration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum than did the SO-AL group. ER did not alter cerebral n-3 LCPUFA status. Liver n-3 LCPUFA concentrations were reduced in rats fed CO compared with SO. ER reduced hepatic linoleic acid (18:2n-6), ALA, and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) regardless of oil. ER and n-3 FA deficiency had independent effects on the mRNA levels of Pparα, Pparβ/δ, and Pparγ in the liver, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. ER reduced Ucp3 mRNA by nearly 50% in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and liver, and Ucp5 mRNA was 30% lower in the cerebellum of rats receiving the CO diet. Small perturbations in PUFA concentration and ER modify the mRNA levels of Ppar and Ucp in the juvenile rat brain. More research is needed to identify the long-term physiologic and behavioral impacts of ER and PUFA restriction in the juvenile brain. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Short communication: the effects of supplementation of various n-3 fatty acids to late-pregnant dairy cows on plasma fatty acid composition of the newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Zachut, M

    2012-07-01

    The passage of long-chain fatty acids (FA) through the placenta in ruminants is limited. However, essential long-chain polyunsaturated FA, and especially n-3 FA, are crucial for normal development of the bovine fetus; therefore, uptake of these FA by the embryo must occur during pregnancy. The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of enrichment of dam plasma with various n-3 FA during late gestation on newborn calf plasma FA composition. Twenty-seven multiparous cows at 256 d of pregnancy were divided into 3 groups and fed encapsulated fats as follows: 1) control: supplemented at 240 g/d per cow with saturated FA; 2) flaxseed oil (FLX): supplemented at 300 g/d per cow with fat that provided 56.1g/d per cow of α-linolenic acid (ALA) from flaxseed oil; and 3) fish oil (FO): supplemented at 300 g/d per cow with fat that provided 5.8 and 4.3g/d per cow eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil, respectively. Blood samples were taken from dams twice weekly and from calves immediately after calving before first colostrum. The FA composition in plasma was determined in dams at the last sample before parturition, on average 2d before calving. Feeding cows with FLX resulted in a 2.6-fold increase in the proportion of ALA in dam plasma as compared with the control. The proportion of EPA in cow plasma was not different between groups; however, the percentage of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) was 1.4 and 2 times higher, respectively, in cows fed FLX and FO than in the controls. In addition, the plasma proportion of DHA was 15 times higher in FO cows than in controls. In calves, no differences between groups were observed in the plasma proportions of ALA and EPA; however, the proportion of DHA was 1.9 times higher in the FO calves than in controls. Across treatments, data showed no correlation between the proportions of ALA, EPA, and DPA in dam and calf plasma; however, positive correlation was demonstrated between dams and

  20. Adjunct therapy of n-3 fatty acids to 5-ASA ameliorates inflammatory score and decreases NF-κB in rats with TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Mbodji, Khaly; Charpentier, Cloé; Guérin, Charlène; Querec, Coraline; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Aziz, Moutaz; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have evaluated the potential of nutritional intervention as adjunct therapy to 5-ASA in IBD. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown potent anti-inflammatory properties in gut inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the dual therapy (n-3 PUFA plus 5-ASA) in rats with 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of TNBS while control rats received the vehicle. Rats received by gavage a fish oil-rich formula (n-3 groups) or an isocaloric and isolipidic oil formula supplemented with 5-ASA for 14 days. A dose response of 5-ASA (5-75 mg. suppression mg kg(-1) d(-1)) was tested. Colitis was evaluated and several inflammatory markers were quantified in the colon. COX-2 expression (P<.05) and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids production of prostaglandin E2 (P<.001) and leukotriene B4 (P<.001) were significantly inhibited by n-3 PUFA or 5-ASA therapy. 5-ASA also reduces mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (P<.05). n-3 PUFA or 5-ASA significantly inhibits nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). The dual therapy n-3 PUFA plus 5-ASA also inhibited inflammatory response by lowering NF-κB activation (P<.01) or inducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression (P<.05). These results indicate that 5-ASA plus n-3 PUFAs are more effective than a higher dose of 5-ASA alone to reduce NF-κB activation and to induce PPARγ. By contrast, the dual therapy did not improve the effects of individual treatments on eicosanoids or cytokine production. Use of n-3 PUFA in addition to 5-ASA may reduce dose of standard therapy.

  1. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids revert renal responses induced by a combination of 2 protocols that increase the amounts of advanced glycation end product in rats.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Adriano M; Rech, Anderson; Longoni, Aline; da Silva Morrone, Maurílio; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus A; Perry, Marcos L S; Souza, Diogo O; Moreira, José C F

    2015-06-01

    Renal dysfunction is a severe complication that is caused by diabetes mellitus. Many factors associate the progression of this complication with high levels of proinflammatory and pro-oxidant substances, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which form a heterogeneous group of compounds that can accumulate in tissues such as retinas, joints, and kidneys. The hypothesis of this study is that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have a nephroprotective effect on rats after exposing them to a combination of 2 protocols that increase the AGE amounts: a high-fat diet enriched with AGEs and a diabetes rat model. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups that received the following diets for 4 weeks: (1) control group; 2) HAGE: high AGE fat-containing diet group; (3) HAGE + n-3: high AGE fat-containing diet plus n-3 PUFAs group; (4) diabetic group; (5) Db + HAGE: high AGE fat-containing diet diabetic group; and (6) Db + HAGE + n-3: high AGE fat-containing diet plus n-3 PUFAs diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg kg(-1)). In diabetic and nondiabetic rats, the high HAGE fat-containing diet increased the serum creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and reactive oxygen species levels, as well as the superoxide dismutase/catalase + glutathione peroxidase ratio and the superoxide dismutase 2 and receptor for advanced glycation end products immunocontent of the kidneys. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuated these alterations and influenced the receptor for advanced glycation end products/oxidative stress/tumor necrosis factor-α axis. In summary, this study showed that the extrinsic AGE pathway (HAGE diet) had a greater effect on renal metabolism than the intrinsic AGE pathway (diabetes induction) and that n-3 PUFAs appear to prevent renal dysfunction via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways.

  2. Association of serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with psychological distress in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: Adjunct Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Kei; Harauma, Akiko; Tanabe, Satoru; Namai, Miho; Moriguchi, Toru; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2016-11-01

    The results of several epidemiological studies and clinical trials investigating the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on antenatal and postnatal depression remain controversial. In a previous case-control study of early pregnancy in Japan, we found an inverse association between eicosapentaenoic acid and risk of psychological distress after adjusting for possible confounders. Here, in a 1:2 matched case-control study, we further investigated the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The psychological distress group (n=71) consisted of subjects with a score of ≥13 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The control group (n=142) was matched for age, educational level, and family income. Fatty acid composition of total lipid was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incidence of psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. Sixty-six percent of blood samples were collected in the second trimester and the remainder in the third. There were no significant differences in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the two groups. After adjustment for possible confounders, none of the n-3 PUFAs showed an association with risk of psychological distress. Peripheral n-3 PUFA levels might not influence the risk of psychological distress in later pregnancy. Further research is warranted to clarify this finding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Acid Herbicides Using Modified QuEChERS with Fast Switching ESI(+)/ESI(-) LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sack, Chris; Vonderbrink, John; Smoker, Michael; Smith, Robert E

    2015-11-04

    A method for the determination of 35 acid herbicides in food matrices was developed, validated, and implemented. It utilizes a modified QuEChERS extraction procedure coupled with quantitation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The acid herbicides analyzed are all organic carboxylic acids, including the older chlorophenoxy acid herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), dicamba, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), quinclorac, and many of the newer imidazolinone herbicides such as imazethapyr and imazaquin. In the procedure, 10 mL of water is added to 5 g of sample and then extracted with 1% formic acid in acetonitrile for 1 min. The acetonitrile phase is salted out of the extract by adding sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate, followed by centrifugation. The acetonitrile is diluted 1:1 with water to enable quantitation by LC-MS/MS using fast switching between positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The average recoveries for all the compounds except aminocyclopyrachlor were 95% with a precision of 8%. The method detection limits for all residues were less than 10 ng/g, and the correlation coefficients for the calibration curves was greater than 0.99 for all but two compounds tested. The method was used successfully for the quantitation of acid herbicides in the FDA's total diet study. The procedure proved to be accurate, precise, linear, sensitive, and rugged.

  4. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  5. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-12-02

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  6. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils with different levels of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Wolynetz, M S; Jones, G; Rock, G A

    1994-12-01

    To test if linolenic acid (18:3n-3) from vegetable oils would affect bleeding times and platelet counts in newborns, piglets were used as a model fed milk replacer diets containing 25% (by wt) vegetable oils or oil mixtures for 28 d and compared to sow-reared piglets. The oils tested included soybean, canola, olive, high oleic sunflower (HOAS), a canola/coconut mixture and a mixture of oils mimicking canola in fatty acid composition. All piglets fed the milk replacer diets showed normal growth. Bleeding times increased after birth from 4-6 min to 7-10 min by week 4 (P < 0.001), and were higher in pigs fed diets containing 18:3n-3, as well as in sow-reared piglets receiving n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the milk, as compared to diets low in 18:3n-3. Platelet numbers increased within the first week in newborn piglets from 300 to 550 x 10(9)/L, and remained high thereafter. Milk replacer diets, containing vegetable oils, generally showed a transient delay in the rise of platelet numbers, which was partially associated with an increased platelet volume. The oils showed differences in the length of delay, but by the third week of age, all platelet counts were > 500 x 10(9)/L. The delay in rise in platelet counts appeared to be related to the fatty acid composition of the oil, as the effect was reproduced by a mixture of oils with a certain fatty acid profile, and disappeared upon the addition of saturated fatty acids to the vegetable oil. There were no alterations in the coagulation factors due to the dietary oils. Blood plasma, platelets and red blood cell membranes showed increased levels of 18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 PUFA in response to dietary 18:3n-3. The level of saturated fatty acids in blood lipids was generally lower in canola and HOAS oil-fed piglets as compared to piglets fed soybean oil or reared with the sow. The results suggest that consumption of milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils rich in 18:3n-3 does not represent a bleeding risk

  7. The near-ideal catalytic property of Candida antarctica lipase A to highly concentrate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via one-step ethanolysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Declining quantity/quality of available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) resources demand innovative technology to concentrate n-3 PUFAs from low quality oils into value-added products/health-beneficial ingredients rich in n-3 PUFAs. This work proposed the catalytic property and specificity of an ideal enzyme required to tackle this task and identified Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) is such a near-ideal enzyme in practice, which concentrates n-3 PUFAs from 25% to 27% in oils to a theoretically closer value 90% in monoacylglycerols (MAGs) via one-step enzymatic ethanolysis. Non-regiospecificity and high non-n-3 PUFAs preference of CAL-A are the catalytic feature to selectively cleave non-n-3 PUFAs in all 3 positions of triacylglycerols (TAGs); while high ethanol/TAGs ratio, low operation temperature and high tolerance to polar ethanol are essential conditions beyond biocatalyst itself. C-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis and competitive factor estimation verified the hypothesis and confirmed the plausible suggestion of catalytic mechanism of CAL-A.

  8. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk