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Sample records for acids lysine methionine

  1. Correlation of carnitine levels to methionine and lysine intake.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Babinská, K; Béder, I

    2000-01-01

    Plasma carnitine levels were measured in two alternative nutrition groups--strict vegetarians (vegans) and lactoovovegetarians (vegetarians consuming limited amounts of animal products such as milk products and eggs). The results were compared to an average sample of probands on mixed nutrition (omnivores). Carnitine levels were correlated with the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine (as substrates of its endogenous synthesis), since the intake of carnitine in food is negligible in the alternative nutrition groups (the highest carnitine content is in meat, lower is in milk products, while fruit, cereals and vegetables contain low or no carnitine at all). An average carnitine level in vegans was significantly reduced with hypocarnitinemia present in 52.9% of probands. Similarly, the intake of methionine and lysine was significantly lower in this group due to the exclusive consumption of plant proteins with reduced content of these amino acids. Carnitine level in lactoovovegetarians was also significantly reduced, but the incidence of values below 30 micromol/l was lower than in vegans representing 17.8% vs. 3.3% in omnivores. Intake of methionine and lysine was also significantly reduced in this group, but still higher compared to vegans (73% of protein intake covered by plant proteins). Significant positive correlation of carnitine levels with methionine and lysine intake in alternative nutrition groups indicates that a significant portion of carnitine requirement is covered by endogenous synthesis. Approximately two thirds of carnitine requirement in omnivores comes from exogenous sources. The results demonstrate the risks of alternative nutrition with respect to the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine, and with respect to the intake and biosynthesis of carnitine. PMID:11043928

  2. Influence of dietary protein level and the amino acids methionine and lysine on leather properties of blue fox (Alopex lagopus) pelts.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Tuula; Mäntysalo, Marja; Rasmussen, Palle V; Skovløkke, L L

    2002-12-01

    The influence of dietary protein, methionine, and lysine on leather quality in blue fox pelts was studied. The pelt material originated from animals in two consecutive feeding trials (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) with three protein levels: conventional, slightly lowered, and very low. The two lowest protein diets were fed as such or as supplemented with methionine or with lysine (lysine only in Exp. 2). The following physical leather properties were measured: breaking load (BRL), tensile strength (TEN), relative elongation at break (PEB), straining of skins at pelting, and shrinkage at dressing. A decline in the dietary protein content reduced BRL and, hence, leather firmness, and increased straining and the corresponding shrinking in Exp. 1. The supplemented methionine tended to improve leather strength and elasticity by increasing TEN and PEB in Exp. 1, whereas lysine elicited no response. Methionine supplementation at the slightly lowered protein level increased BRL in both experiments by almost 10% as compared with the respective non-supplemented diet. We conclude that with high protein quality diets, a level of 200 g/kg DM (as digestible protein) appears to be adequate for producing pelts with firm, elastic leather, provided that an adequate amount of methionine is included in the diet. PMID:12553694

  3. Response of lactating cows to methionine or methionine plus lysine added to high protein diets based on alfalfa and heated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Armentano, L E; Bertics, S J; Ducharme, G A

    1997-06-01

    Lactation diets based on wilted alfalfa silage and heated whole soybeans are common in the midwestern US. We examined the milk production response of multiparous Holstein cows to the addition of ruminally protected methionine at two percentages to a basal total mixed ration. An additional total mixed ration included both methionine and lysine supplementation. Sixteen Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake were determined for the last 5 d of each period. Milk production (41.5 kg/d), dry matter intake (25.9 kg/d), and milk fat concentration (3.26%) were unaffected by the supplementation of amino acids. The addition of methionine increased milk protein concentration and yield linearly. Each gram of methionine increased milk protein yield by 4 g, and milk protein concentration increased from 2.89 to 2.99% with the addition of 10.5 g/d of methionine. The proportion of casein N in total milk N was unaffected by treatment. The addition of lysine did not elicit a response. Total mixed rations based on alfalfa haylage, heated soybeans, and animal proteins were clearly limited by their methionine content but were adequate in their lysine content. PMID:9201591

  4. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  5. Histone H3 lysine-to-methionine mutants as a paradigm to study chromatin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Hans-Martin; Morgan, Marc; Gao, Xin; Jackson, Jessica; Rickels, Ryan; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Eissenberg, Joel C.; Shilatifard, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine27-to-methionine (H3K27M) gain-of-function mutations occur in highly aggressive pediatric gliomas. Here, we establish a Drosophila animal model for the pathogenic histone H3K27M mutation and show that its overexpression resembles Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) loss-of-function phenotypes, causing de-repression of PRC2 target genes and developmental perturbations. Similarly, a H3K9M mutant depletes H3K9 methylation levels and suppresses position-effect variegation in various Drosophila tissues. The histone H3K9 demethylase KDM3B/JHDM2 associates with H3K9M nucleosomes and its overexpression in Drosophila results in loss of H3K9 methylation levels and heterochromatic silencing defects. Here we establish histone lysine-to-methionine mutants as robust in vivo tools for inhibiting methylation pathways that also function as biochemical reagents for capturing site-specific histone-modifying enzymes, thus providing molecular insight into chromatin-signaling pathways. PMID:25170156

  6. Histone H3 lysine-to-methionine mutants as a paradigm to study chromatin signaling.

    PubMed

    Herz, Hans-Martin; Morgan, Marc; Gao, Xin; Jackson, Jessica; Rickels, Ryan; Swanson, Selene K; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Eissenberg, Joel C; Shilatifard, Ali

    2014-08-29

    Histone H3 lysine(27)-to-methionine (H3K27M) gain-of-function mutations occur in highly aggressive pediatric gliomas. We established a Drosophila animal model for the pathogenic histone H3K27M mutation and show that its overexpression resembles polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) loss-of-function phenotypes, causing derepression of PRC2 target genes and developmental perturbations. Similarly, an H3K9M mutant depletes H3K9 methylation levels and suppresses position-effect variegation in various Drosophila tissues. The histone H3K9 demethylase KDM3B/JHDM2 associates with H3K9M-containing nucleosomes, and its misregulation in Drosophila results in changes of H3K9 methylation levels and heterochromatic silencing defects. We have established histone lysine-to-methionine mutants as robust in vivo tools for inhibiting methylation pathways that also function as biochemical reagents for capturing site-specific histone-modifying enzymes, thus providing molecular insight into chromatin signaling pathways. PMID:25170156

  7. Stimulation of Lysine Decarboxylase Production in Escherichia coli by Amino Acids and Peptides1

    PubMed Central

    Cascieri, T.; Mallette, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    A commercial hydrolysate of casein stimulated production of lysine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.18) by Escherichia coli B. Cellulose and gel chromatography of this hydrolysate yielded peptides which were variably effective in this stimulation. Replacement of individual, stimulatory peptides by equivalent amino acids duplicated the enzyme levels attained with those peptides. There was no indication of specific stimulation by any peptide. The peptides were probably taken up by the oligopeptide transport system of E. coli and hydrolyzed intracellularly by peptidases to their constituent amino acids for use in enzyme synthesis. Single omission of amino acids from mixtures was used to screen them for their relative lysine decarboxylase stimulating abilities. Over 100 different mixtures were evaluated in establishing the total amino acid requirements for maximal synthesis of lysine decarboxylase by E. coli B. A mixture containing all of the common amino acids except glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine increased lysine decarboxylase threefold over an equivalent weight of casein hydrolysate. The nine most stimulatory amino acids were methionine, arginine, cystine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamine, threonine, tyrosine, and asparagine. Methionine and arginine quantitatively were the most important. A mixture of these nine was 87% as effective as the complete mixture. Several amino acids were inhibitory at moderate concentrations, and alanine (2.53 mM) was the most effective. Added pyridoxine increased lysine decarboxylase activity 30%, whereas other B vitamins and cyclic adenosine 5′-monophosphate had no effect. PMID:4588201

  8. S-adenosyl methionine is necessary for inhibition of the methyltransferase G9a by the lysine 9 to methionine mutation on histone H3

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Hariharan; Hoelper, Dominik; Jain, Siddhant U.; Cantone, Nico; Lundgren, Stefan M.; Poy, Florence; Allis, C. David; Cummings, Richard; Bellon, Steven; Lewis, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine to methionine (K-to-M) mutations in genes encoding histone H3 are thought to drive a subset of pediatric brain and bone cancers. These high-frequency K-to-M mutations occur at sites of methylation on histone H3, and tumors containing the mutant histones exhibit a global loss of specific histone methylation marks. Previous studies showed that K-to-M mutant histones, also known as oncohistones, are potent orthosteric inhibitors of specific Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain methyltransferases. However, the biochemical and biophysical details of the interaction between K-to-M mutant histones and the respective SET domain methyltransferases are currently unknown. Here, we use the histone H3K9-directed methyltransferase G9a as a model to explore the mechanism of inhibition by K-to-M oncohistones. X-ray cocrystal structures revealed that the K9M residue of histone H3 occupies the active site cavity of G9a, and kinetic analysis indicates competitive inhibition of G9a by histone H3K9M. Additionally, we find that the cofactor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is necessary for stable interaction between G9a and H3K9M histone. Consistent with the formation of a ternary complex, we find that the inhibitory peptide is uncompetitive with regard to SAM. These data and others indicate that K-to-M oncohistones promote global loss of specific lysine methylation through sequestration and inhibition of SAM-bound SET domain methyltransferases. PMID:27185940

  9. S-adenosyl methionine is necessary for inhibition of the methyltransferase G9a by the lysine 9 to methionine mutation on histone H3.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Hariharan; Hoelper, Dominik; Jain, Siddhant U; Cantone, Nico; Lundgren, Stefan M; Poy, Florence; Allis, C David; Cummings, Richard; Bellon, Steven; Lewis, Peter W

    2016-05-31

    Lysine to methionine (K-to-M) mutations in genes encoding histone H3 are thought to drive a subset of pediatric brain and bone cancers. These high-frequency K-to-M mutations occur at sites of methylation on histone H3, and tumors containing the mutant histones exhibit a global loss of specific histone methylation marks. Previous studies showed that K-to-M mutant histones, also known as oncohistones, are potent orthosteric inhibitors of specific Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain methyltransferases. However, the biochemical and biophysical details of the interaction between K-to-M mutant histones and the respective SET domain methyltransferases are currently unknown. Here, we use the histone H3K9-directed methyltransferase G9a as a model to explore the mechanism of inhibition by K-to-M oncohistones. X-ray cocrystal structures revealed that the K9M residue of histone H3 occupies the active site cavity of G9a, and kinetic analysis indicates competitive inhibition of G9a by histone H3K9M. Additionally, we find that the cofactor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is necessary for stable interaction between G9a and H3K9M histone. Consistent with the formation of a ternary complex, we find that the inhibitory peptide is uncompetitive with regard to SAM. These data and others indicate that K-to-M oncohistones promote global loss of specific lysine methylation through sequestration and inhibition of SAM-bound SET domain methyltransferases. PMID:27185940

  10. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72±1.8kg of body weight, 58 to 60d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21d of the first trial and 10 of 14d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  11. Supplementing rumen-protected methionine and lysine in low-protein diets based on corn distillers grains fed to lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and lysine (RPL) may allow feeding lower crude protein (CP) diets to dairy cows, thereby increasing nitrogen efficiency and reducing environmental impact. Moreover, RPL supplementation may improve the value of corn distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS)...

  12. Starvation induced alterations in hepatic lysine metabolism in different families of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysine is the second limiting amino acid in fish meal based diets, second only to methionine. However, little is known about lysine metabolism in rainbow trout (RBT). Therefore, lysine catabolism by the lysine alpha-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR) pathway was studied. Additionally, since genetically i...

  13. Liquid methionine hydroxy analog (free acid) and DL-methionine attenuate calcium-induced kidney damage in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Ford, B C; Leach, R M; Wise, D F; Robey, W W

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the possibility that kidney damage may be induced by the commercial practice of feeding high-Ca (HCa) prelayer rations, and to evaluate the protective efficacy of supplementing HCa diets with liquid methionine hydroxy analog free acid or DL-methionine, 12-wk-old female Single Comb White Leghorn pullets were fed one of the following corn-soybean meal-based diets until they reached 22 wk of age: normal-Ca (NC, 1% Ca); HCa (HC, 3.5% Ca); HCa supplemented with .34 or .68% liquid methionine hydroxy analog free acid (HC3A or HC6A); or HCa supplemented with .3 or .6% DL-methionine (HC3DL or HC6DL). The unsupplemented HC diet caused a significant reduction in kidney mass and a significant increase in the incidence of gross kidney damage and urolithiasis in pullets necropsied at 22 wk of age. Calcium-induced kidney damage was attenuated in a dose-response fashion by supplementing the HC diet with liquid methionine hydroxy analog and DL-methionine. None of the diets caused a significant metabolic acidosis. Plasma uric acid concentrations were not predictive of the extent of Ca-induced kidney damage. Analyses of glomerular size distributions indicated that subclinical or "hidden" kidney damage may not progressively develop into urolithiasis as hens mature. When compared with hens reared on the NC diet, rearing hens on the HC, HC3A, HC3DL, HC6A, or HC6DL diets did not consistently affect hen-day egg production, egg mass, eggshell mass, percentage eggshell, or bone mineralization. PMID:8346150

  14. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  15. Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-02-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving, on glucose and methionine metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 2 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply methionine as 1.83% metabolizable protein, equivalent to 76% of methionine requirement, whereas the 2 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented daily with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine. Within each diet, the cows were administrated either no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B(12.) To investigate metabolic changes at 12 wk of lactation, glucose and methionine kinetics were measured by isotope dilution using infusions of 3[U-(13)C]glucose, [(13)C]NaHCO(3) and 3[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)] methionine. Milk and plasma concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B(12) increased with vitamin injections. Supplementary B-vitamins increased milk production from 34.7 to 38.9 +/- 1.0 kg/d and increased milk lactose, protein, and total solids yields. Whole-body glucose flux tended to increase with vitamin supplementation with a similar quantitative magnitude as the milk lactose yield increase. Vitamin supplementation increased methionine utilization for protein synthesis through increased protein turnover when methionine was deficient and through decreased methionine oxidation when rumen-protected methionine was fed. Vitamin supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of homocysteine independently of rumen-protected methionine feeding, although no effect of vitamin supplementation was measured on methionine remethylation, but this could be due to the limitation of the technique used. Therefore, the effects of these B-vitamins on lactation performance

  16. Efficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid in comparison to DL-methionine in growing male white Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H; Gessner, D K; Herzog, E; Eder, K

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the bioefficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA) in comparison to DL-methionine (DLM) as sources of methionine for growing male white Pekin ducks in the first 3 wk of life. For this aim, 580 1-day-old male ducks were allocated into 12 treatment groups and received a basal diet that contained 0.29% of methionine, 0.34% of cysteine and 0.63% of total sulphur containing amino acids or the same diet supplemented with either DLM or MHA in amounts to supply 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25% of methionine equivalents. Ducks fed the control diet without methionine supplement had the lowest final body weights, daily body weight gains and feed intake among all groups. Supplementation of methionine improved final body weights and daily body weight gains in a dose dependent-manner. There was, however, no significant effect of the source of methionine on all of the performance responses. Evaluation of the data of daily body weight gains with an exponential model of regression revealed a nearly identical efficacy (slope of the curves) of both compounds for growth (DLM = 100%, MHA = 101%). According to the exponential model of regression, 95% of the maximum values of daily body weight gain were reached at methionine supplementary levels of 0.080% and 0.079% for DLM and MHA, respectively. Overall, the present study indicates that MHA and DLM have a similar efficacy as sources of methionine for growing ducks. It is moreover shown that dietary methionine concentrations of 0.37% are required to reach 95% of the maximum of daily body weight gains in ducks during the first 3 wk of life. PMID:26706358

  17. Effects of dietary lysine and methionine supplementation on ross 708 male broilers from 21 to 42 days of age (III): serum metabolites, hormones, and their relationship with growth performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study has shown that a limited increase of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) in broiler diets may improve feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW, carcass yield, and breast meat yield. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Lys and Met supplementation on various blood serum ...

  18. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan. PMID:24244480

  19. Effect of L-Methionine on the Optical Properties of Potassium Acid Phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, N. A.; Shah, M. A.

    The effect of L-methionine doping on the optical properties of potassium acid phthalate have been studied. Bulk single crystals of L-methionine-doped potassium acid phthalate (LMDKAP) were grown by a slow cooling method using a constant temperature bath. X-ray powder diffraction study has revealed the significant variation in the cell parameter values and the shift in peak positions, which confirms the presence of dopant in the sample. The UV-VIS cut off wavelength of LMDKAP was found to be 300 nm and it is slightly less than KAP. The presence of functional groups present in LMDKAP were confirmed through FT-IR analysis.

  20. Lysine and sulfur amino acid utilization in Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks as affected by narasin.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, O A; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H

    1987-10-01

    The effects of supplemental narasin (80 mg/kg) on several dietary factors were investigated in chicks infected with Eimeria acervulina. In Trial 1, chicks were fed a lysine-deficient corn-corn gluten meal diet containing graded increments of crystalline L-lysine.HCl with or without narasin. Supplemental narasin increased weight gain and feed efficiency at all lysine levels fed. Based upon slope-ratio methodology, efficiency of L-lysine utilization was virtually the same in both narasin-fed and control chicks. Trials 2 and 3 evaluated the effect of narasin on methionine utilization in crossbred chicks fed a methionine-deficient soy-feather meal diet supplemented with graded levels of DL-methionine. Narasin supplementation increased weight gain, feed efficiency, and utilization of supplemental methionine in chicks infected with E. acervulina (Trial 2), but had no effect on any of the performance parameters in uninfected chicks (Trial 3). The effects of dietary protein level and source and dietary electrolyte balance on the narasin response of commercial broiler chicks infected with E. acervulina were studied in Trials 4 and 5, respectively. In Trial 4, narasin supplementation increased performance in all cases, and protein source or level had no effect on the narasin response. In Trial 5, rate and efficiency of gain were improved as the electrolyte balance (meq Na + K-Cl/kg diet) increased from 100 to 250, with no further improvement being observed from 250 to 350 meq. Supplemental narasin improved performance and no interaction between electrolyte balance and narasin was observed. PMID:3124089

  1. Evolution of initiator tRNAs and selection of methionine as the initiating amino acid.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Varshney, Umesh

    2016-09-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have been important in shaping biomolecular evolution. Initiator tRNAs (tRNAi), a special class of tRNAs, carry methionine (or its derivative, formyl-methionine) to ribosomes to start an enormously energy consuming but a highly regulated process of protein synthesis. The processes of tRNAi evolution, and selection of methionine as the universal initiating amino acid remain an enigmatic problem. We constructed phylogenetic trees using the whole sequence, the acceptor-TψC arm ('minihelix'), and the anticodon-dihydrouridine arm regions of tRNAi from 158 species belonging to all 3 domains of life. All the trees distinctly assembled into 3 domains of life. Large trees, generated using data for all the tRNAs of a vast number of species, fail to reveal the major evolutionary events and identity of the probable elongator tRNA sequences that could be ancestor of tRNAi. Therefore, we constructed trees using the minihelix or the whole sequence of species specific tRNAs, and iterated our analysis on 50 eubacterial species. We identified tRNA(Pro), tRNA(Glu), or tRNA(Thr) (but surprisingly not elongator tRNA(Met)) as probable ancestors of tRNAi. We then determined the factors imposing selection of methionine as the initiating amino acid. Overall frequency of occurrence of methionine, whose metabolic cost of synthesis is the highest among all amino acids, remains almost unchanged across the 3 domains of life. Our correlation analysis shows that its high metabolic cost is independent of many physicochemical properties of the side chain. Our results indicate that selection of methionine, as the initiating amino acid was possibly a consequence of the evolution of one-carbon metabolism, which plays an important role in regulating translation initiation. PMID:27322343

  2. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  3. Sulfur amino acid deficiency upregulates intestinal methionine cycle activity and suppresses epithelial growth in neonatal pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently showed that the developing gut is a significant site of methionine transmethylation to homocysteine and transsulfuration to cysteine. We hypothesized that sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency would preferentially reduce mucosal growth and antioxidant function in neonatal pigs. Neonatal pi...

  4. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals. PMID:26190253

  5. Safety, efficacy and physiological actions of a lysine-free, arginine-rich formula to treat glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: focus on cerebral amino acid influx.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Brumbaugh, Joan; Duffy, Alana; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Tortorelli, Silvia; Moser, Ann B; Puffenberger, Erik G; Rider, Nicholas L; Morton, D Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Striatal degeneration from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type 1, GA1) is associated with cerebral formation and entrapment of glutaryl-CoA and its derivatives that depend on cerebral lysine influx. In 2006 we designed a lysine-free study formula enriched with arginine to selectively block lysine transport across cerebral endothelia and thereby limit glutaryl-CoA production by brain. Between 2006 and present, we treated twelve consecutive children with study formula (LYSx group) while holding all other treatment practices constant. Clinical and biochemical outcomes were compared to 25 GA1 patients (PROx group) treated between 1995 and 2005 with natural protein restriction (dietary lysine/arginine ratio of 1.7±0.3 mg:mg). We used published kinetic parameters of the y+and LAT1 blood-brain barrier transporters to model the influx of amino acids into the brain. Arginine fortification to achieve a mean dietary lysine/arginine ratio of 0.7±0.2 mg:mg was neuroprotective. All 12 LYSx patients are physically and neurologically healthy after 28 aggregate patient-years of follow up (current ages 28±21 months) and there were no adverse events related to formula use. This represents a 36% reduction of neurological risk (95% confidence interval 14-52%, p=0.018) that we can directly attribute to altered amino acid intake. During the first year of life, 20% lower lysine intake and two-fold higher arginine intake by LYSx patients were associated with 50% lower plasma lysine, 3-fold lower plasma lysine/arginine concentration ratio, 42% lower mean calculated cerebral lysine influx, 54% higher calculated cerebral arginine influx, 15-26% higher calculated cerebral influx of several anaplerotic precursors (isoleucine, threonine, methionine, and leucine), 50% less 3-hydroxyglutarate excretion, and a 3-fold lower hospitalization rate (0.8 versus 2.3 hospitalizations per patient per year). The relationship between arginine fortification and plasma lysine

  6. Pathways of Amino Acid Degradation in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) with Special Reference to Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Yuan, San-Yue; Tang, Yao-Hua; Li, Kai-Long; Yang, Lu; Fu, Qiang; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens harbors yeast-like symbionts (YLSs). In present paper, a genome-wide analysis found 115 genes from Ni. lugens and 90 genes from YLSs that were involved in the metabolic degradation of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. These 205 genes encoded for 77 enzymes. Accordingly, the degradation pathways for the 20 amino acids were manually constructed. It is postulated that Ni. lugens can independently degrade fourteen amino acids (threonine, alanine, glycine, serine, aspartate, asparagine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamate, glutamine, proline, histidine, leucine and lysine). Ni. lugens and YLSs enzymes may work collaboratively to break down tryptophan, cysteine, arginine, isoleucine, methionine and valine. We cloned a lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase gene (Nllkr/sdh) that encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism. Nllkr/sdh is widely expressed in the first through fifth instar nymphs and adults, and is highly expressed in the fat body, ovary and gut in adults. Ingestion of dsNllkr/sdh by nymphs successfully knocked down the target gene, and caused nymphal/adult mortality, shortened nymphal development stage and reduced adult fresh weight. Moreover, Nllkr/sdh knockdown resulted in three defects: wings were shortened and thickened; cuticles were stretched and thinned; and old nymphal cuticles remained on the tips of legs and abdomen and were not completely shed. These data indicate that impaired lysine degradation negatively affects the survival and development of Ni. lugens. PMID:26000452

  7. Nonnatural amino acid incorporation into the methionine 214 position of the metzincin Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease

    PubMed Central

    Walasek, Paula; Honek, John F

    2005-01-01

    Background The alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AprA) is a member of the metzincin superfamily of metalloendoproteases. A key feature of these proteases is a conserved methionine-containing 1,4-tight β turn at the base of the active site zinc binding region. Results To explore the invariant methionine position in this class of protease, incorporation of a nonnatural fluorinated methionine, L-difluoromethionine (DFM), into this site was accomplished. Although overproduction of the N-terminal catalytic fragment of AprA resulted in protein aggregates which could not be resolved, successful heterologous production of the entire AprA was accomplished in the presence and absence of the nonnatural amino acid. DFM incorporation was found to only slightly alter the enzyme kinetics of AprA. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry indicated no significant alteration in the thermal stability of the modified enzyme. Conclusion Although invariant in all metzincin proteases, the methionine 214 position in AprA can be successfully replaced by the nonnatural amino acid DFM resulting in little effect on protein structure and function. This study indicates that the increased size of the methyl group by the introduction of two fluorines is still sufficiently non-sterically demanding, and bodes well for the application of DFM to biophysical studies of protein structure and function in this class of protease. PMID:16221305

  8. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  9. Comprehensive profiling of amino acid response uncovers unique methionine-deprived response dependent on intact creatine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaohu; Keenan, Melissa M; Wu, Jianli; Lin, Chih-An; Dubois, Laura; Thompson, J Will; Freedland, Stephen J; Murphy, Susan K; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-04-01

    Besides being building blocks for protein synthesis, amino acids serve a wide variety of cellular functions, including acting as metabolic intermediates for ATP generation and for redox homeostasis. Upon amino acid deprivation, free uncharged tRNAs trigger GCN2-ATF4 to mediate the well-characterized transcriptional amino acid response (AAR). However, it is not clear whether the deprivation of different individual amino acids triggers identical or distinct AARs. Here, we characterized the global transcriptional response upon deprivation of one amino acid at a time. With the exception of glycine, which was not required for the proliferation of MCF7 cells, we found that the deprivation of most amino acids triggered a shared transcriptional response that included the activation of ATF4, p53 and TXNIP. However, there was also significant heterogeneity among different individual AARs. The most dramatic transcriptional response was triggered by methionine deprivation, which activated an extensive and unique response in different cell types. We uncovered that the specific methionine-deprived transcriptional response required creatine biosynthesis. This dependency on creatine biosynthesis was caused by the consumption of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) during creatine biosynthesis that helps to deplete SAM under methionine deprivation and reduces histone methylations. As such, the simultaneous deprivation of methionine and sources of creatine biosynthesis (either arginine or glycine) abolished the reduction of histone methylation and the methionine-specific transcriptional response. Arginine-derived ornithine was also required for the complete induction of the methionine-deprived specific gene response. Collectively, our data identify a previously unknown set of heterogeneous amino acid responses and reveal a distinct methionine-deprived transcriptional response that results from the crosstalk of arginine, glycine and methionine metabolism via arginine

  10. Comprehensive Profiling of Amino Acid Response Uncovers Unique Methionine-Deprived Response Dependent on Intact Creatine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohu; Keenan, Melissa M.; Wu, Jianli; Lin, Chih-An; Dubois, Laura; Thompson, J. Will; Freedland, Stephen J.; Murphy, Susan K.; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Besides being building blocks for protein synthesis, amino acids serve a wide variety of cellular functions, including acting as metabolic intermediates for ATP generation and for redox homeostasis. Upon amino acid deprivation, free uncharged tRNAs trigger GCN2-ATF4 to mediate the well-characterized transcriptional amino acid response (AAR). However, it is not clear whether the deprivation of different individual amino acids triggers identical or distinct AARs. Here, we characterized the global transcriptional response upon deprivation of one amino acid at a time. With the exception of glycine, which was not required for the proliferation of MCF7 cells, we found that the deprivation of most amino acids triggered a shared transcriptional response that included the activation of ATF4, p53 and TXNIP. However, there was also significant heterogeneity among different individual AARs. The most dramatic transcriptional response was triggered by methionine deprivation, which activated an extensive and unique response in different cell types. We uncovered that the specific methionine-deprived transcriptional response required creatine biosynthesis. This dependency on creatine biosynthesis was caused by the consumption of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) during creatine biosynthesis that helps to deplete SAM under methionine deprivation and reduces histone methylations. As such, the simultaneous deprivation of methionine and sources of creatine biosynthesis (either arginine or glycine) abolished the reduction of histone methylation and the methionine-specific transcriptional response. Arginine-derived ornithine was also required for the complete induction of the methionine-deprived specific gene response. Collectively, our data identify a previously unknown set of heterogeneous amino acid responses and reveal a distinct methionine-deprived transcriptional response that results from the crosstalk of arginine, glycine and methionine metabolism via arginine

  11. One-Step Biosynthesis of α-Keto-γ-Methylthiobutyric Acid from L-Methionine by an Escherichia coli Whole-Cell Biocatalyst Expressing an Engineered L-Amino Acid Deaminase from Proteus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-dong; Du, Guocheng; Wang, Miao; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    α-Keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid (KMTB), a keto derivative of l-methionine, has great potential for use as an alternative to l-methionine in the poultry industry and as an anti-cancer drug. This study developed an environment friendly process for KMTB production from l-methionine by an Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing an engineered l-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) from Proteus vulgaris. We first overexpressed the P. vulgaris l-AAD in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and further optimized the whole-cell transformation process. The maximal molar conversion ratio of l-methionine to KMTB was 71.2% (mol/mol) under the optimal conditions (70 g/L l-methionine, 20 g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5 mM CaCl2, 40°C, 50 mM Tris-HCl [pH 8.0]). Then, error-prone polymerase chain reaction was used to construct P. vulgaris l-AAD mutant libraries. Among approximately 104 mutants, two mutants bearing lysine 104 to arginine and alanine 337 to serine substitutions showed 82.2% and 80.8% molar conversion ratios, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of these mutations enhanced the catalytic activity and molar conversion ratio by 1.3-fold and up to 91.4% with a KMTB concentration of 63.6 g/L. Finally, the effect of immobilization on whole-cell transformation was examined, and the immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst with Ca2+ alginate increased reusability by 41.3% compared to that of free cell production. Compared with the traditional multi-step chemical synthesis, our one-step biocatalytic production of KMTB has an advantage in terms of environmental pollution and thus has great potential for industrial KMTB production. PMID:25531756

  12. Alkylamine-Dependent Amino-Acid Oxidation by Lysine Monooxygenase—Fragmented Substrate of Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shozo; Yamauchi, Takashi; Hayaishi, Osamu

    1972-01-01

    Lysine monooxygenase catalyzes the oxygenative decarboxylation of L-lysine and produces a corresponding acid amide. L-Alanine was inactive as substrate. However, when propylamine was present, oxidation, but not oxygenation, of alanine was demonstrated with the oxygenase. Alanine was converted to pyruvate, with the liberation of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide, but propylamine remained unchanged. Other α-monoamino acids were also oxidized in the presence of alkylamines with various carbon chain lengths. The highest oxidase activity was observed when the total chain length of both amino acid and amine was nearly identical with that of lysine. Available evidence indicates that the amine-dependent amino-acid oxidase activity is associated with the lysine oxygenase activity. PMID:4509334

  13. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition. PMID:20233939

  14. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in children with severe childhood undernutrition: methionine kinetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with edematous but not nonedematous severe childhood undernutrition (SCU) have lower plasma and erythrocyte-free concentrations of cysteine and methionine, which suggests a decreased availability of methionine for cysteine synthesis. We propose that methionine production and metabolism will...

  15. Structural Insights Into Amino Acid Binding and Gene Control by a Lysine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Serganov, A.; Huang, L; Patel, D

    2008-01-01

    In bacteria, the intracellular concentration of several amino acids is controlled by riboswitches1, 2, 3, 4. One of the important regulatory circuits involves lysine-specific riboswitches, which direct the biosynthesis and transport of lysine and precursors common for lysine and other amino acids. To understand the molecular basis of amino acid recognition by riboswitches, here we present the crystal structure of the 174-nucleotide sensing domain of the Thermotoga maritima lysine riboswitch in the lysine-bound (1.9 A) and free (3.1 A) states. The riboswitch features an unusual and intricate architecture, involving three-helical and two-helical bundles connected by a compact five-helical junction and stabilized by various long-range tertiary interactions. Lysine interacts with the junctional core of the riboswitch and is specifically recognized through shape-complementarity within the elongated binding pocket and through several direct and K+-mediated hydrogen bonds to its charged ends. Our structural and biochemical studies indicate preformation of the riboswitch scaffold and identify conformational changes associated with the formation of a stable lysine-bound state, which prevents alternative folding of the riboswitch and facilitates formation of downstream regulatory elements. We have also determined several structures of the riboswitch bound to different lysine analogues5, including antibiotics, in an effort to understand the ligand-binding capabilities of the lysine riboswitch and understand the nature of antibiotic resistance. Our results provide insights into a mechanism of lysine-riboswitch-dependent gene control at the molecular level, thereby contributing to continuing efforts at exploration of the pharmaceutical and biotechnological potential of riboswitches.

  16. A Candida guilliermondii lysine hyperproducer capable of elevated citric acid production.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2016-05-01

    A mutant of the yeast Candida guilliermondii ATCC 9058 exhibiting elevated citric acid production was isolated based upon its ability to overproduce lysine. This method involved the use of a solid medium containing a combination of lysine analogues to identify a mutant that produced a several-fold higher lysine level compared to its parent strain using glucose or glycerol as a carbon source. The mutant strain was also capable of producing more than a fivefold higher citric acid level on glycerol as a carbon source compared to its parent strain. It was concluded that the screening of yeast lysine hyperproducer strains could provide a rapid approach to isolate yeast citric acid hyperproducer strains. PMID:27038943

  17. Biofortification of rice with the essential amino acid lysine: molecular characterization, nutritional evaluation, and field performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Chan, Man-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Jin-Zhu; Wang, Qing; Li, Qian-Feng; Yu, Heng-Xiu; Gu, Ming-Hong; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major staple crop worldwide, has limited levels of the essential amino acid lysine. We previously produced engineered rice with increased lysine content by expressing bacterial aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase and inhibiting rice lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase activity. However, the grain quality, field performance, and integration patterns of the transgenes in these lysine-enriched lines remain unclear. In the present study, we selected several elite transgenic lines with endosperm-specific or constitutive regulation of the above key enzymes but lacking the selectable marker gene. All target transgenes were integrated into the intragenic region in the rice genome. Two pyramid transgenic lines (High Free Lysine; HFL1 and HFL2) with free lysine levels in seeds up to 25-fold that of wild type were obtained via a combination of the above two transgenic events. We observed a dramatic increase in total free amino acids and a slight increase in total protein content in both pyramid lines. Moreover, the general physicochemical properties were improved in pyramid transgenic rice, but the starch composition was not affected. Field trials indicated that the growth of HFL transgenic rice was normal, except for a slight difference in plant height and grain colour. Taken together, these findings will be useful for the potential commercialization of high-lysine transgenic rice. PMID:27252467

  18. YjeH Is a Novel Exporter of l-Methionine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Shang, Xiuling; Liu, Shuwen; Wen, Jifu

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid efflux transport systems have important physiological functions and play vital roles in the fermentative production of amino acids. However, no methionine exporter has yet been identified in Escherichia coli. In this study, we identified a novel amino acid exporter, YjeH, in E. coli. The yjeH overexpression strain exhibited high tolerance to the structural analogues of l-methionine and branched-chain amino acids, decreased intracellular amino acid levels, and enhanced export rates in the presence of a Met-Met, Leu-Leu, Ile-Ile, or Val-Val dipeptide, suggesting that YjeH functions as an exporter of l-methionine and the three branched-chain amino acids. The export of the four amino acids in the yjeH overexpression strain was competitively inhibited in relation to each other. The expression of yjeH was strongly induced by increasing cytoplasmic concentrations of substrate amino acids. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged YjeH was visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to confirm the plasma membrane localization of YjeH. Phylogenetic analysis of transporters indicated that YjeH belongs to the amino acid efflux family of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. Structural modeling revealed that YjeH has the typical “5 + 5” transmembrane α-helical segment (TMS) inverted-repeat fold of APC superfamily transporters, and its binding sites are strictly conserved. The enhanced capacity of l-methionine export by the overexpression of yjeH in an l-methionine-producing strain resulted in a 70% improvement in titer. This study supplements the transporter classification and provides a substantial basis for the application of the methionine exporter in metabolic engineering. PMID:26319875

  19. YjeH Is a Novel Exporter of l-Methionine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Shang, Xiuling; Liu, Shuwen; Wen, Jifu; Wen, Tingyi

    2015-11-01

    Amino acid efflux transport systems have important physiological functions and play vital roles in the fermentative production of amino acids. However, no methionine exporter has yet been identified in Escherichia coli. In this study, we identified a novel amino acid exporter, YjeH, in E. coli. The yjeH overexpression strain exhibited high tolerance to the structural analogues of l-methionine and branched-chain amino acids, decreased intracellular amino acid levels, and enhanced export rates in the presence of a Met-Met, Leu-Leu, Ile-Ile, or Val-Val dipeptide, suggesting that YjeH functions as an exporter of l-methionine and the three branched-chain amino acids. The export of the four amino acids in the yjeH overexpression strain was competitively inhibited in relation to each other. The expression of yjeH was strongly induced by increasing cytoplasmic concentrations of substrate amino acids. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged YjeH was visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to confirm the plasma membrane localization of YjeH. Phylogenetic analysis of transporters indicated that YjeH belongs to the amino acid efflux family of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. Structural modeling revealed that YjeH has the typical "5 + 5" transmembrane α-helical segment (TMS) inverted-repeat fold of APC superfamily transporters, and its binding sites are strictly conserved. The enhanced capacity of l-methionine export by the overexpression of yjeH in an l-methionine-producing strain resulted in a 70% improvement in titer. This study supplements the transporter classification and provides a substantial basis for the application of the methionine exporter in metabolic engineering. PMID:26319875

  20. Comparison of methionine sources around requirement levels using a methionine efficacy method in 0 to 28 day old broilers.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Dalibard, P; Mercier, Y; Van der Aar, P; Van der Klis, J D

    2016-03-01

    The addition of methionine in the poultry feed industry is still facing the relative efficacy dilemma between DL-methionine (DLM) and hydroxy-methionine (HMTBA). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary DLM and HMTBA on broiler performance at different levels of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA). The treatments consisted of a basal diet without methionine addition, and 4 increasing methionine doses for both sources resulting in TSAA/Lysine ratios from 0.62 to 0.73 in the starter phase and 0.59 to 0.82 in the grower phase. The comparison of product performance was performed by three-way ANOVA analysis and by methionine efficacy calculation as an alternative method of comparison. Growth results obtained during the starter phase with the different methionine supplementations did not show significant growth responses to TSAA levels, indicating a lower methionine requirement in the starter phase than currently assumed. However, a significant methionine dose effect was obtained for the period 10 to 28 day of age and for the entire growth period of 0 to 28 day of age. Excepting a significant gender effect, the statistical analysis did not allow for the discrimination of methionine sources, and no interaction between source and dose level was observed up to 28 days of age. A significant interaction between source and dose level was observed for methionine efficacy for the grower phase, and the total growth period showed better HMTBA efficacy at higher TSAA value. The exponential model fitted to each methionine source for body weight response depending on methionine intake or for feed conversion ratio (FCR) depending on methionine doses did not allow the methionine sources to be distinguished. Altogether, these results conclude that methionine sources lead to similar performances response when compared at TSAA values around the broiler requirement level. These results also showed that at TSAA values above requirement, HMTBA had a better methionine efficacy

  1. Methionine and serine synergistically suppress hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency, but not by guanidinoacetic acid, in rats fed a low casein diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-qun; Liu, Ying; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 0.5% methionine, 2.5% serine, or both on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by deprivation of dietary choline or by dietary addition of 0.5% guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) were investigated in rats fed a 10% casein diet. Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deprivation was not suppressed by methionine alone and was only partially suppressed by serine alone, whereas it was completely suppressed by a combination of methionine and serine, suggesting a synergistic effect of methionine and serine. Fatty liver was also completely prevented by the combination of methionine and serine. Compared with methionine alone, the combination of methionine and serine decreased hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine concentrations and increased hepatic betaine and serine concentrations and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity. GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was partially suppressed by methionine alone, but no interacting effect of methionine and serine was detected. In contrast, GAA-induced fatty liver was completely prevented by the combination of methionine and serine. These results indicate that a combination of methionine and serine is effective in suppressing both hyperhomocysteinemia and fatty liver induced by choline deprivation, and that methionine alone is effective in suppressing GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia partially. PMID:22146711

  2. Effects of single oral doses of lysine clonixinate and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet functions in man.

    PubMed

    Pallapies, D; Muhs, A; Bertram, L; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1996-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate is an analgesic drug with a so far unknown mechanism of action. We have determined its effect on platelet cyclooxygenase in man. Biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)B2 and prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha in clotting whole blood ex vivo as well as collagen-induced platelet aggregation measured before and at various time points after oral administration of 125 mg lysine clonixinate were compared to results obtained with 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). While biosynthesis of both TXB2 and PGF2 alpha measured radioimmunologically was inhibited significantly 2.5 h, but not 6 h, after administration of lysine clonixinate, inhibition by ASA was much greater and still highly significant after 48 h. Similarly, collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma was inhibited for a longer period and to a greater extent after administration of ASA than after lysine clonixinate. Our results indicate that lysine clonixinate is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor of moderate potency. It remains to be investigated whether mechanisms other than inhibition of cyclooxygenase contribute to the analgesic activity of lysine clonixinate. PMID:8866627

  3. Role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine in Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Kinzel, J J; Bhattacharjee, J K

    1979-05-01

    The role of pipecolic acid in the biosynthesis of lysine was investigated in Rhodotorula glutinis, an aerobic red yeast. Supplementation of pipecolic acid in the minimal medium supported the growth of mutants lys2, lys3, and lys5; alpha-aminoadipic acid supported the growth of lys5; but neither alpha-aminoadipic acid nor pipecolic acid supported the growth of mutants MNNG42 and MNNG37. During the growth of the appropriate mutants, pipecolic acid was removed from the growth medium and the intracellular pool. In tracer experiments, radioactivity from [(14)C]pipecolic acid was selectively incorporated into the cellular lysine of lys5 and the wild-type strain. l-Pipecolic acid-dependent enzyme activity did not require any cofactor and was inhibited by mercuric chloride and potassium cyanide. This activity was present in the wild-type strain and all of the mutants tested and was repressed in mutant lys5 when grown in the presence of higher concentration of lysine. The reaction product of pipecolic acid was converted to saccharopine by lys5 enzyme in the presence of glutamate and reduced nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Mutant MNNG37 lacked the saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, indicating that this step is involved in the conversion of alpha-aminoadipic acid and pipecolic acid to lysine. Mutants MNNG37 and MNNG42 accumulated a p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reacting product in the culture supernatant and in the intracellular pool. Chromatographic properties of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde adduct and that of the pipecolic acid-dependent reaction product were similar. The reaction product and the accumulation product were characterized on the basis of mass and absorption spectra as alpha-aminoadipic-semialdehyde, which in solution remains in equilibrium with Delta(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid. Since alpha-aminoadipic-semialdehyde is a known intermediate of the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway for the biosynthesis of lysine, it is concluded that pipecolic

  4. Unbalance of L-lysine flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum and its use for the isolation of excretion-defective mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Vrljic, M; Kronemeyer, W; Sahm, H; Eggeling, L

    1995-01-01

    We found that the simple addition of L-methionine to the wild type of Corynebacterium glutamicum results in excretion of the cellular building block L-lysine up to rates of 2.5 nmol/min/mg (dry weight). Biochemical analyses revealed that L-methionine represses the homoserine dehydrogenase activity and reduces the intracellular L-threonine level from 7 to less than 2 mM. Since L-lysine synthesis is regulated mainly by L-threonine (plus L-lysine) availability, the result is enhanced flux towards L-lysine. This indicates a delicate and not well controlled type of flux control at the branch point of aspartate semialdehyde conversion to either L-lysine or L-threonine, probably due to the absence of isoenzymes in C. glutamicum. The inducible system of L-lysine excretion discovered was used to isolate mutants defective in the excretion of this amino acid. One such mutant characterized in detail accumulated 174 mM L-lysine in its cytosol without extracellular excretion of L-lysine, whereas the wild type accumulated 53 mM L-lysine in the cytosol and 5.9 mM L-lysine in the medium. The mutant was unaffected in L-lysine uptake or L-isoleucine or L-glutamate excretion, and also the membrane potential was unaltered. This mutant therefore represents a strain with a defect in an excretion system for the primary metabolite L-lysine. PMID:7608075

  5. Study on mutual interactions and electronic structures of hyaluronan with Lysine, 6-Aminocaproic acid and Arginine.

    PubMed

    Chytil, Martin; Trojan, Martin; Kovalenko, Alexander

    2016-05-20

    Interactions between polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants have been in a great interest for several decades, yet the conventional surfactants may cause a problem in medical applications. Interactivity between polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) and amino acids Lysine, 6-Aminocaproic acid (6-AcA), and Arginine as an alternative system is reported. The interactions were investigated by means of rheology and electric conductance and the electronic structures were explored by the density functional theory (DFT). Lysine exhibits the strongest interaction of all, which was manifested, e.g. by nearly 6-time drop of the initial viscosity comparing with only 1.3-time lower value in the case of 6-AcA. Arginine interaction with HA was surprisingly weaker in terms of viscosity than that of Lysine due to a lower and delocalized charge density on its guanidine group. According to the DFT calculations, the binding of Lysine to HA was found to be more flexible, while Arginine creates more rigid structure with HA. PMID:26917367

  6. In vitro degradation of lysine by ruminal fluid-based fermentations and by Fusobacterium necrophorum.

    PubMed

    Elwakeel, E A; Amachawadi, R G; Nour, A M; Nasser, M E A; Nagaraja, T G; Titgemeyer, E C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to characterize some factors affecting lysine degradation by mixed ruminal bacteria and by ruminal Fusobacterium necrophorum. Mixed ruminal bacteria degraded lysine, and addition of pure cultures of F. necrophorum did not increase lysine degradation. Addition of acetic or propionic acid strikingly reduced NH(3) production from lysine by mixed ruminal bacteria at pH 6, but not at pH 7. Although typical ruminal environments with acidic pH and normal concentrations of volatile fatty acids might inhibit lysine degradation by F. necrophorum, ruminal fluid contained enough bacteria with a lysine-degrading capacity to ferment 50 mM lysine in vitro. Of 7 strains of ruminal F. necrophorum tested, all grew on both lactate and lysine as the primary energy source. Both subspecies of ruminal F. necrophorum (necrophorum and funduliforme) used lysine as a primary C and energy source. Lysine and glutamic acid were effectively fermented by F. necrophorum, but alanine and tryptophan were not, and histidine and methionine were fermented only to a minor extent. The end products of lactate fermentation by F. necrophorum were propionate and acetate, and those of lysine degradation were butyrate and acetate. Fermentation of glutamic acid by F. necrophorum yielded acetate and butyrate in a ratio near to 2:1. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tylosin for F. necrophorum was not dependent on whether bacteria were grown with lactate or lysine, but F. necrophorum was more susceptible to monensin when grown on lysine than on lactate. Although F. necrophorum is generally resistant to monensin, the ionophore may reduce lysine degradation by F. necrophorum in the rumen. The essential oil components limonene, at 20 or 100 μg/mL, and thymol, at 100 μg/mL, inhibited F. necrophorum growth, whereas eugenol, guaiacol, and vanillin had no effect. Our findings may lead to ways to minimize ruminal lysine degradation and thus increase its availability to the animal

  7. The methionine precursor DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid protects intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Brufau, M Teresa; Guerrero-Zamora, Ana Maria; Mercier, Yves; Geraert, Pierre-André; Ferrer, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) is a source of dietary methionine (Met) that is widely used in poultry nutrition. We have previously shown that HMTBA is preferentially diverted to the transsulfuration pathway, which gives antioxidant metabolites such as taurine and glutathione. Therefore, here we hypothesize that this Met source can protect epithelial barrier function in an in vitro model of intestinal inflammation of Caco-2 cells. The results show that HMTBA prevents the increase in paracellular permeability induced by H2O2 or tumour necrosis factor-α. This effect can be attributed to the increased production of taurine and reduced glutathione. Similar results were obtained for DL-Met, although the protective role of the amino acid was less pronounced than that of the hydroxy analogue. In conclusion, the diversion to the transsulfuration pathway means that this Met precursor is of greater value than previously thought, due to its capacity to improve intestinal homeostasis and the quality of poultry products destined for human consumption. PMID:23870881

  8. Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kaewtapee, C.; Krutthai, N.; Bunchasak, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid (DL-MHA) on growth performance and gastrointestinal conditions of piglets. One hundred and eighty crossbred barrow piglets (Large White×Landrace, body weight: 12.48±0.33 kg) were divided into three groups with ten replications of six piglets each. Piglets received DL-MHA in diet at a concentration of 0 (control group), 0.15%, or 0.24%. The results indicated that increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) of sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (SID SAA:Lys) ratio by supplementation of DL-MHA tended to increase (quadratic; p<0.10) weight gain and ADG, and showed slightly greater (linear; p<0.10) gain:feed ratio. The pH in the diet and cecum linearly decreased (p<0.01), whereas pH in colon had a quadratic response (p<0.01) with increasing supplementation of DL-MHA. By greater supplementation of DL-MHA, the population of Lactobacillus spp. in rectum was likely to increase (quadratic; p<0.10), but Escherichia coli population in the diet was reduced (quadratic; p<0.05). Acetic acid concentration and total short-chain fatty acids in cecum linearly increased (p<0.05), whereas valeric acid in cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels. Moreover, the villous height of the jejunum quadratically increased (p<0.01) as the supplementation of DL-MHA was increased. It is concluded that the addition of DL-MHA in diet improved the growth performance and the morphology of gastrointestinal tract of piglets. PMID:26954213

  9. Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Kaewtapee, C; Krutthai, N; Bunchasak, C

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid (DL-MHA) on growth performance and gastrointestinal conditions of piglets. One hundred and eighty crossbred barrow piglets (Large White×Landrace, body weight: 12.48±0.33 kg) were divided into three groups with ten replications of six piglets each. Piglets received DL-MHA in diet at a concentration of 0 (control group), 0.15%, or 0.24%. The results indicated that increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) of sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (SID SAA:Lys) ratio by supplementation of DL-MHA tended to increase (quadratic; p<0.10) weight gain and ADG, and showed slightly greater (linear; p<0.10) gain:feed ratio. The pH in the diet and cecum linearly decreased (p<0.01), whereas pH in colon had a quadratic response (p<0.01) with increasing supplementation of DL-MHA. By greater supplementation of DL-MHA, the population of Lactobacillus spp. in rectum was likely to increase (quadratic; p<0.10), but Escherichia coli population in the diet was reduced (quadratic; p<0.05). Acetic acid concentration and total short-chain fatty acids in cecum linearly increased (p<0.05), whereas valeric acid in cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels. Moreover, the villous height of the jejunum quadratically increased (p<0.01) as the supplementation of DL-MHA was increased. It is concluded that the addition of DL-MHA in diet improved the growth performance and the morphology of gastrointestinal tract of piglets. PMID:26954213

  10. Photooxidation of Methionine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which the photooxidation of methionine using free methylene blue as the sensitizer is applied to the isolated amino acid or to the methionyl residues of a complex polypeptide. (MLH)

  11. Obesity-induced lysine acetylation increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation and impairs insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Alrob, Osama Abo; Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Ma, Cary; Wagg, Cory S.; Fillmore, Natasha; Jaswal, Jagdip S.; Sack, Michael N.; Lehner, Richard; Gupta, Mahesh P.; Michelakis, Evangelos D.; Padwal, Raj S.; Johnstone, David E.; Sharma, Arya M.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Lysine acetylation is a novel post-translational pathway that regulates the activities of enzymes involved in both fatty acid and glucose metabolism. We examined whether lysine acetylation controls heart glucose and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet (HFD) obese and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice. Methods and results C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a HFD (60% fat) or a low-fat diet (LFD; 4% fat) for 16 or 18 weeks. Cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates were significantly increased in HFD vs. LFD mice (845 ± 76 vs. 551 ± 87 nmol/g dry wt min, P < 0.05). Activities of the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) were increased in hearts from HFD vs. LFD mice, and were associated with LCAD and β-HAD hyperacetylation. Cardiac protein hyperacetylation in HFD-fed mice was associated with a decrease in SIRT3 expression, while expression of the mitochondrial acetylase, general control of amino acid synthesis 5 (GCN5)-like 1 (GCN5L1), did not change. Interestingly, SIRT3 deletion in mice also led to an increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation compared with wild-type (WT) mice (422 ± 29 vs. 291 ± 17 nmol/g dry wt min, P < 0.05). Cardiac lysine acetylation was increased in SIRT3 KO mice compared with WT mice, including increased acetylation and activity of LCAD and β-HAD. Although the HFD and SIRT3 deletion decreased glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase acetylation was unaltered. However, the HFD did increase Akt acetylation, while decreasing its phosphorylation and activity. Conclusion We conclude that increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation in response to high-fat feeding is controlled, in part, via the down-regulation of SIRT3 and concomitant increased acetylation of mitochondrial β-oxidation enzymes. PMID:24966184

  12. Role of surface lysine residues of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein in fatty acid transfer to phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Liou, H L; Storch, J

    2001-05-29

    The tertiary structure of murine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) is a flattened 10-stranded beta-barrel capped by a helix-turn-helix segment. This helical domain is hypothesized to behave as a "lid" or portal for ligand entry into and exit from the binding cavity. Previously, we demonstrated that anthroyloxy-labeled fatty acid (AOFA) transfer from AFABP to phospholipid membranes occurs by a collisional process, in which ionic interactions between positively charged lysine residues on the protein surface and negatively charged phospholipid headgroups are involved. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues located in the portal and other regions of AFABP was directly examined using site-directed mutagenesis. The results showed that isoleucine replacement for lysine in the portal region, including the alphaI- and alphaII-helices and the beta C-D turn, resulted in much slower 2-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitate (2AP) transfer rates to acidic membranes than those of native AFABP. An additive effect was found for mutant K22,59I, displaying the slowest rates of FA transfer. Rates of 2AP transfer from "nonportal" mutants on the beta-G and I strands were affected only moderately; however, a lysine --> isoleucine mutation in the nonportal beta-A strand decreased the 2AP transfer rate. These studies suggest that lysines in the helical cap domain are important for governing ionic interactions between AFABP and membranes. Furthermore, it appears that more than one distinct region, including the alphaI-helix, alphaII-helix, beta C-D turn, and the beta-A strand, is involved in these charge-charge interactions. PMID:11371211

  13. Metabolic engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the L-lysine production by increasing the flux into L-lysine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Han, Mei; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-09-01

    The experiments presented here were based on the conclusions of our previous results. In order to avoid introduction of expression plasmid and to balance the NADH/NAD ratio, the NADH biosynthetic enzyme, i.e., NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), was replaced by NADP-dependent GADPH, which was used to biosynthesize NADPH rather than NADH. The results indicated that the NADH/NAD ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and L-lysine production drastically improved. Moreover, increasing the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and disruption of ilvN and hom, which involve in the branched amino acid and L-methionine biosynthesis, further improved L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Compared to the original strain C. glutamicum Lys5, the L-lysine production and glucose conversion efficiency (α) were enhanced to 81.0 ± 6.59 mM and 36.45% by the resulting strain C. glutamicum Lys5-8 in shake flask. In addition, the by-products (i.e., L-threonine, L-methionine and L-valine) were significantly decreased as results of genetic modification in homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) and acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). In fed-batch fermentation, C. glutamicum Lys5-8 began to produce L-lysine at post-exponential growth phase and continuously increased over 36 h to a final titer of 896 ± 33.41 mM. The L-lysine productivity was 2.73 g l(-1) h(-1) and the α was 47.06% after 48 h. However, the attenuation of MurE was not beneficial to increase the L-lysine production because of decreasing the cell growth. Based on the above-mentioned results, we get the following conclusions: cofactor NADPH, precursor, the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and DCW are beneficial to improve L-lysine production in C. glutamicum. PMID:24879631

  14. Effects of Dietary Lysine Levels on Apparent Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Amino Acid Absorption Mode in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, P. L.; Yan, H. C.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhang, C. M.; Zhu, C.; Shu, G.; Jiang, Q. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different dietary lysine levels on the apparent nutrient digestibility, the serum amino acid (AA) concentration, and the biochemical parameters of the precaval and portal vein blood in growing pigs. In Experiment 1, 15 noncannulated pigs received diets with different lysine densities (0.65%, 0.95%, and 1.25% lysine) for 13 d. A total collection digestion test was performed, and blood samples were collected from the precaval vein at the end of the experiment. In Experiment 2, four cannulated pigs were fed the same diets of Experiment 1. The experiment used a self-control experimental design and was divided into three periods. On d 5 of each period, at 0.5 h before feeding and hourly up to 8 h after feeding, single blood samples were collected from catheters placed in the portal vein. In Experiment 1, some serum AAs (including lysine), serum urinary nitrogen (SUN), and total protein (TP) concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary lysine levels (p<0.05). Moreover, the 0.65% lysine treatment showed a significant lower apparent digestibility of gross energy, dry matter, crude protein, and phosphorus than the other treatments (p<0.05). In Experiment 2, serum lysine, histidine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, isoleucine (p = 0.0588), triglyceride, and SUN (p = 0.0572) concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary lysine levels (p<0.05). Additionally, almost all of the determined serum AA and total AA concentrations reached their lowest values at 0.5 h before feeding and their highest values at 2 h after feeding (p<0.05). These findings indicate that the greatest absorption of AA occurred at 2 h after feeding and that the dynamic profile of serum AA is affected by the dietary lysine levels. Moreover, when the dietary lysine content was 0.95%, the growing pigs achieved a better nutrient digestibility and serum metabolites levels. PMID:25049879

  15. Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Lysine Acylation in Mycobacteria Regulates Fatty Acid and Propionate Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Gupta, Kallol; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Ramakrishnan, Parvathy; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Siddiqui, Nida; Thomas, Ann Terene; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2013-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is a posttranslational modification that is used by both eukaryotes and prokaryotes to regulate a variety of biological processes. Here we identify multiple substrates for the cAMP-dependent protein lysine acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KATmt). We demonstrate that a catalytically important lysine residue in a number of FadD (fatty acyl CoA synthetase) enzymes is acetylated by KATmt in a cAMP-dependent manner and that acetylation inhibits the activity of FadD enzymes. A sirtuin-like enzyme can deacetylate multiple FadDs, thus completing the regulatory cycle. Using a strain deleted for the KATmt ortholog in Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), we show for the first time that acetylation is dependent on intracellular cAMP levels. KATmt can utilize propionyl CoA as a substrate and, therefore, plays a critical role in alleviating propionyl CoA toxicity in mycobacteria by inactivating acyl CoA synthetase (ACS). The precision by which mycobacteria can regulate the metabolism of fatty acids in a cAMP-dependent manner appears to be unparalleled in other biological organisms and is ideally suited to adapt to the complex environment that pathogenic mycobacteria experience in the host. PMID:23553634

  16. LHT1, a lysine- and histidine-specific amino acid transporter in arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Bush, D R

    1997-01-01

    We have identified a new amino acid transporter from the Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag cDNA collection by functional complementation of a yeast amino acid transport mutant. Transport analysis of the expressed protein in yeast shows that it is a high-affinity transporter for both lysine (Lys) and histidine with Michaelis constant values of 175 and 400 microM, respectively. This transporter (LHT1, lysine histidine transporter) has little affinity for arginine when measured directly in uptake experiments or indirectly with substrate competition. The cDNA is 1.7 kb with an open reading frame that codes for a protein with 446 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 50.5 kD. Hydropathy analysis shows that LHT1 is an integral membrane protein with 9 to 10 putative membrane-spanning domains. Southern-blot analysis suggests that LHT1 is a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. RNA gel-blot analysis shows that this transporter is present in all tissues, with the strongest expression in young leaves, flowers, and siliques. Wholemount, in situ hybridization revealed that expression is further localized on the surface of roots in young seedlings and in pollen. Overall, LHT1 belongs to a new class of amino acid transporter that is specific for Lys and histidine, and, given its substrate specificity, it has significant promise as a tool for improving the Lys content of Lys-deficient grains. PMID:9390441

  17. Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.

    PubMed

    Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens. PMID:22912451

  18. Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for fast production of L-lysine and L-pipecolic acid.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Fernando; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-09-01

    The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely used for fermentative production of amino acids. The world production of L-lysine has surpassed 2 million tons per year. Glucose uptake and phosphorylation by C. glutamicum mainly occur by the phosphotransferase system (PTS) and to lesser extent by inositol permeases and glucokinases. Heterologous expression of the genes for the high-affinity glucose permease from Streptomyces coelicolor and Bacillus subtilis glucokinase fully compensated for the absence of the PTS in Δhpr strains. Growth of PTS-positive strains with glucose was accelerated when the endogenous inositol permease IolT2 and glucokinase from B. subtilis were overproduced with balanced translation initiation rates using plasmid pEKEx3-IolTBest. When the genome-reduced C. glutamicum strain GRLys1 carrying additional in-frame deletions of sugR and ldhA to derepress glycolytic and PTS genes and to circumvent formation of L-lactate as by-product was transformed with this plasmid or with pVWEx1-IolTBest, 18 to 20 % higher volumetric productivities and 70 to 72 % higher specific productivities as compared to the parental strain resulted. The non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA), a precursor of immunosuppressants, peptide antibiotics, or piperidine alkaloids, can be derived from L-lysine. To enable production of L-PA by the constructed L-lysine-producing strain, the L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase gene lysDH from Silicibacter pomeroyi and the endogenous pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase gene proC were overexpressed as synthetic operon. This enabled C. glutamicum to produce L-PA with a yield of 0.09 ± 0.01 g g(-1) and a volumetric productivity of 0.04 ± 0.01 g L(-1) h(-1).To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fermentative process for the production of L-PA from glucose. PMID:27345060

  19. Dynamics of supercooled water in a biological model system of the amino acid L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Silvina; Swenson, Jan

    2014-10-28

    The dynamics of supercooled water in aqueous solutions of the single amino acid L-lysine has been studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The chosen biological system is unique in the sense that the water content is high enough to fully dissolve the amino acid, but low enough to avoid crystallisation to ice at any temperature. This is not possible to achieve for proteins or other larger biomolecules, where either hydrated samples without ice or solutions with large quantities of ice, or a cryoprotectant sugar, have to be studied at low temperatures. Thus, it is a key finding to be able to study water and biomolecular dynamics in a non-crystallized and biologically realistic solution at supercooled temperatures. Here, we focus on the water dynamics in this unique biological solution of L-lysine and water. We show that this unique system also gives rise to unique water dynamics, since, for the first time, a continuation of a cooperative (α-like) water relaxation is observed after a crossover to a more local β-like water relaxation has occurred with decreasing temperature. This implies that the supercooled water in the biological solution shows a twofold relaxation behaviour, with one relaxation identical to the main relaxation of water in hard confinements and one relaxation almost identical to the main water relaxation in ordinary aqueous solutions. PMID:25224819

  20. Hypochlorous acid reacts with the N-terminal methionines of proteins to give dehydromethionine, a potential biomarker for neutrophil-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jennifer L; Foster, Steven B; Ashby, Michael T

    2009-11-24

    Electrophilic halogenating agents, including hypohalous acids and haloamines, oxidize free methionine and the N-terminal methionines of peptides and proteins (e.g., Met-1 of anti-inflammatory peptide 1 and ubiquitin) to produce dehydromethionine (a five-membered isothiazolidinium heterocycle). Amide derivatives of methionine are oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives under the same reaction conditions (e.g., Met-3 of anti-inflammatory peptide 1). Other biological oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, also produce only the corresponding sulfoxides. Hypothiocyanite does not react with methionine residues. We suggest that dehydromethionine may be a useful biomarker for the myeloperoxidase-induced oxidative stress associated with many inflammatory diseases. PMID:19839600

  1. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P≤0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  2. Synthesis of peptides from amino acids and ATP with lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the synthesis of peptides from aminoacids and ATP with a lysine-rich protenoid. The latter in aqueous solution catalyzes the formation of peptides from free amino acids and ATP; this catalytic activity is not found in acidic protenoids, even though the latter contain a basic aminoacid. The pH optimum for the synthesis is about 11, but it is appreciable below 8 and above 13. Temperature data indicate an optimum at 20 C or above, with little increase in rate up to 60 C. Pyrophosphate can be used instead of ATP, but the yields are lower. The ATP-aided syntheses of peptides in aqueous solution occur with several types of proteinous aminoacids.

  3. Plasma amino-acids in hereditary retinal disease. Ornithine, lysine, and taurine.

    PubMed Central

    Berson, E. L.; Schmidt, S. Y.; Rabin, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma free amino-acids were measured in 41 patients with hereditary chorio-retinal degenerations including 26 with retinitis pigmentosa and five with gyrate atrophy of the choroid, six relatives of patients with gyrate atrophy, and 13 normal subjects. Patients with gyrate atrophy had very increased levels of ornithine and slightly decreased mean lysine values. Most relatives had slightly increased ornithine. Taurine, known to be deficient in the plasma of casein-fed cats with photoreceptor degeneration, was normal in all patients. Amino-acid precursors and metabolites of ornithine and taurine were also normal in the plasma. Although the association of high ornithine and gyrate atrophy appears constant, high levels of ornithine alone do not necessarily lead to this degeneration; one patient with known hyperammonaemia, homocitrullinuria and a tenfold increase in plasma ornithine was found to have a normal fundus appearance and normal electroretinogram. PMID:1268174

  4. Stretch-Induced Helical Conformations in Poly(l-lysine)/Hyaluronic Acid Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zahouani, Sarah; Chaumont, Alain; Senger, Bernard; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc; Lavalle, Philippe

    2016-06-22

    We investigate the effect of stretching on the secondary structure of cross-linked poly(l-lysine)/hyaluronic acid (PLL/HA) multilayers. We show that stretching these films induces changes in the secondary structure of PLL chains. Our results suggest that not only α- but also 310-helices might form in the film under stretching. Such 310-helices have never been observed for PLL so far. These changes of the secondary structure of PLL are reversible, i.e., when returning to the nonstretched state one recovers the initial film structure. Using molecular dynamics simulations of chains composed of 20 l-lysine residues (PLL20), we find that these chains never adopt a helical conformation in water. In contrast, when the end-to-end distance of the chains is restrained to values smaller than the mean end-to-end distance of free chains, a distance domain rarely explored by the free chains, helical conformations become accessible. Moreover, the formation of not only α- but also 310-helices is predicted by the simulations. These results suggest that the change of the end-to-end distance of PLL chains in the stretched film is at the origin of the helix formation. PMID:26646202

  5. The effect of glutamic acid side chain on acidity constant of lysine in beta-sheet: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargolzaei, M.; Afshar, M.; Sadeghi, M. S.; Kavee, M.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the possibility of proton transfer between side chain of lysine and glutamic acid in peptide of Glu--Ala-Lys+ was demonstrated using density functional theory (DFT). We have shown that the proton transfer takes place between side chain of glutamic and lysine residues through the hydrogen bond formation. The structures of transition state for proton transfer reaction were detected in gas and solution phases. Our kinetic studies show that the proton transfer reaction rate in gas phase is higher than solution phase. The ionization constant (p K a) value of lysine residue in peptide was estimated 1.039 which is lower than intrinsic p K a of lysine amino acid.

  6. The structure, vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical properties of the L-lysine × tartaric acid complex—Theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, M.; Marchewka, M. K.

    2006-05-01

    The room temperature X-ray studies of L-lysine × tartaric acid complex are not unambiguous. The disorder of three atoms of carbon in L-lysine molecule is observed. These X-ray studies are ambiguous. The theoretical geometry study performed by DFT methods explain the most doubts which are connected with crystallographic measurements. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and potential energy distribution (PED) of L-lysine × tartaric acid were calculated by B3LYP method. The calculated frequencies were compared with experimental measured IR spectra. The complete assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The restricted Hartee-Fock (RHF) methods were used for calculation of the hyperpolarizability for investigated compound. The theoretical results are compared with experimental value of β.

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid affects the oxidative stress in various brain structures in mice with methionine and choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Veskovic, Milena; Mladenovic, Dusan; Jorgacevic, Bojan; Stevanovic, Ivana; de Luka, Silvio; Radosavljevic, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Deficiency in methionine or choline can induce oxidative stress in various organs such as liver, kidney, heart, and brain. This study was to examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by methionine and choline deficiency (MCD) in several brain structures. Male mice C57BL/6 (n = 28) were divided into four groups: (1) control - continuously fed with standard chow; (2) LA - fed with standard chow and receiving LA; (3) MCD2 - fed with MCD diet for two weeks, and (4) MCD2+LA - fed with MCD diet for two weeks and receiving LA (100 mg/kg/day intraperitonealy [i.p.]). Brain tissue (cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus) was taken for determination of oxidative stress parameters. MCD diet induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NOx concentration in all brain regions, while LA restored their content to normal values. Similar to this, in MCD2 group, activity of total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD was reduced by MCD diet, while LA treatment improved their activities in all brain structures. Besides, in MCD2 group a decrease in catalase activity in cortex and GSH content in hypothalamus was evident, while LA treatment induced an increase in catalase activity in cortex and striatum and GSH content in hypothalamus. LA treatment can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress, caused by MCD diet, in all brain regions by restoring antioxidant enzymes activities, predominantly total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD, and to a lesser extent by modulating catalase activity and GSH content. LA supplementation may be used in order to prevent brain oxidative injury induced by methionine and choline deficiency. PMID:25193852

  8. Methionine requirements in healthy adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate methionine requirements in healthy adolescents, we conducted an experiment in 28 children age 15.6+2.1 years, wt. 57.8+9.7 kg, using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (IV-IAAOB) technique. Children were randomly assigned to 7 different levels of methionine int...

  9. Plant Thioredoxin CDSP32 Regenerates 1-Cys Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B Activity through the Direct Reduction of Sulfenic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Tarrago, Lionel; Laugier, Edith; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe H.; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Rey, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous enzymes catalyzing the reduction of disulfide bonds, thanks to a CXXC active site. Among their substrates, 2-Cys methionine sulfoxide reductases B (2-Cys MSRBs) reduce the R diastereoisomer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and possess two redox-active Cys as follows: a catalytic Cys reducing MetSO and a resolving one, involved in disulfide bridge formation. The other MSRB type, 1-Cys MSRBs, possesses only the catalytic Cys, and their regeneration mechanisms by Trxs remain unclear. The plant plastidial Trx CDSP32 is able to provide 1-Cys MSRB with electrons. CDSP32 includes two Trx modules with one potential active site 219CGPC222 and three extra Cys. Here, we investigated the redox properties of recombinant Arabidopsis CDSP32 and delineated the biochemical mechanisms of MSRB regeneration by CDSP32. Free thiol titration and 4-acetamido-4′-maleimidyldistilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid alkylation assays indicated that the Trx possesses only two redox-active Cys, very likely the Cys219 and Cys222. Protein electrophoresis analyses coupled to mass spectrometry revealed that CDSP32 forms a heterodimeric complex with MSRB1 via reduction of the sulfenic acid formed on MSRB1 catalytic Cys after MetSO reduction. MSR activity assays using variable CDSP32 amounts revealed that MSRB1 reduction proceeds with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and redox titrations indicated that CDSP32 and MSRB1 possess midpoints potentials of −337 and −328 mV at pH 7.9, respectively, indicating that regeneration of MSRB1 activity by the Trx through sulfenic acid reduction is thermodynamically feasible in physiological conditions. PMID:20236937

  10. Hydrolysis of proteins with methanesulfonic acid for improved HPLC-ICP-MS determination of seleno-methionine in yeast and nuts.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Katarzyna; Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Caruso, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the use of methanesulfonic acid for protein hydrolysis is proposed for evaluation of Se-methionine in yeast, Brazil nuts, and possibly other selenium-rich biological samples. The hydrolysis was carried out by heating the sample with 4 mol L(-1) acid at reflux for 8 h. Two chromatographic techniques (size-exclusion and ion-pairing) coupled with ICP-MS detection were used to compare the release of Se-methionine from proteins by enzymatic (proteinase K, protease XIV) and acid hydrolyses. A more efficient liberation of Se-methionine was observed by acid hydrolysis. For quantification, the sample extracts were introduced onto a C8 Alltima column, and the separation was achieved with a mobile phase containing 5 mmol L(-1) hexanesulfonic acid in citrate buffer (pH 4.5)/methanol (95:5). The results obtained by standard addition showed 816+/-17 micro g g(-1) and 36.2+/-1.5 micro g g(-1) of selenium in the form of Se-methionine in yeast and nuts, respectively (65% and 75% of total selenium). PMID:12520449

  11. Surface lysine residues modulate the collisional transfer of fatty acid from adipocyte fatty acid binding protein to membranes.

    PubMed

    Herr, F M; Matarese, V; Bernlohr, D A; Storch, J

    1995-09-19

    The transfer of unesterified fatty acids (FA) from adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) to phospholipid membranes is proposed to occur via a collisional mechanism involving transient ionic and hydrophobic interactions [Wootan & Storch (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10517-10523]. In particular, it was suggested that membrane acidic phospholipids might specifically interact with basic residues on the surface of A-FABP. Here we addressed whether lysine residues on the surface of the protein are involved in this collisional transfer mechanism. Recombinant A-FABP was acetylated to neutralize all positively charged surface lysine residues. Protein fluorescence, CD spectra, and chemical denaturant data indicate that acetylation did not substantially alter the conformational integrity of the protein, and nearly identical affinities were obtained for binding of the fluorescently labeled FA [12-(9-anthroyloxy)oleate] to native and acetylated protein. Transfer of 2-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitate (2AP) from acetylated A-FABP to small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) was 35-fold slower than from native protein. In addition, whereas the 2AP transfer rate from native A-FABP was directly dependent on SUV concentration, 2AP transfer from acetylated protein was independent on the concentration of acceptor membranes. Factors which alter aqueous-phase solubility of FA, such as ionic strength and acyl chain length and saturation, affected the AOFA transfer rate from acetylated but not native A-FABP. Finally, an increase in the negative charge density of the acceptor SUV resulted in a marked increase in the rate of transfer from native A-FABP but did not increase the rate from acetylated A-FABP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7547918

  12. Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

  13. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Teck Chwen, Loh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN-γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN-γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. PMID:24198724

  14. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Addison

    2004-03-01

    Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of ( S )-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids, ( S )-glutamic acid being used as a flavor-enhancing additive (MSG) for the human diet, and ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine as supplements for the feeding of domestic animals. Examples include chemical, enzymatic, and fermentation synthesis, and two clever continuous processes for the resolution of enantiomers. See Featured Molecules .

  15. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine protects the probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, from acid-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast routinely used to prevent and to treat gastrointestinal disorders, including the antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile infections. However, only 1-3% of the yeast administered orally is recovered alive in the feces suggesting that this yeast is unable to survive the acidic environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Results We provide evidence that suggests that S. boulardii undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) in acidic environments, which is accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of caspase-like activity. To better understand the mechanism of cell death at the molecular level, we generated microarray gene expression profiles of S. boulardii cells cultured in an acidic environment. Significantly, functional annotation revealed that the up-regulated genes were significantly over-represented in cell death pathways Finally, we show that S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), a commercially available, FDA-approved dietary supplement, enhances the viability of S. boulardii in acidic environments, most likely by preventing programmed cell death. Conclusions In toto, given the observation that many of the proven health benefits of S. boulardii are dependent on cell viability, our data suggests that taking S. boulardii and AdoMet together may be a more effective treatment for gastrointestinal disorders than taking the probiotic yeast alone. PMID:23402325

  16. A l-Lysine Transporter of High Stereoselectivity of the Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Olkhova, Elena; Malviya, Viveka Nand; Grell, Ernst; Michel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play an important role in the regulation of cellular processes. We report the heterologous production of the LysP-related transporter STM2200 from Salmonella typhimurium in Escherichia coli, its purification, and functional characterization. STM2200 is assumed to be a proton-dependent APC transporter of l-lysine. The functional interaction between basic amino acids and STM2200 was investigated by thermoanalytical methods, i.e. differential scanning and isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of l-lysine to STM2200 in its solubilized monomer form is entropy-driven. It is characterized by a dissociation constant of 40 μm at pH 5.9 and is highly selective; no evidence was found for the binding of l-arginine, l-ornithine, l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid, and l-alanine. d-Lysine is bound 45 times more weakly than its l-chiral form. We thus postulate that STM2200 functions as a specific transport protein. Based on the crystal structure of ApcT (Shaffer, P. L., Goehring, A., Shankaranarayanan, A., and Gouaux, E. (2009) Science 325, 1010–1014), a proton-dependent amino acid transporter of the APC superfamily, a homology model of STM2200 was created. Docking studies allowed identification of possible ligand binding sites. The resulting predictions indicated that Glu-222 and Arg-395 of STM2200 are markedly involved in ligand binding, whereas Lys-163 is suggested to be of structural and functional relevance. Selected variants of STM2200 where these three amino acid residues were substituted using single site-directed mutagenesis showed no evidence for l-lysine binding by isothermal titration calorimetry, which confirmed the predictions. Molecular aspects of the observed ligand specificity are discussed. PMID:24257746

  17. Methionine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Perpète, Philippe; Duthoit, Olivier; De Maeyer, Simon; Imray, Louise; Lawton, Andrew I; Stavropoulos, Konstantinos E; Gitonga, Virginia W; Hewlins, Michael J E; Dickinson, J Richard

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of methionine to methionol and methanethiol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using (13)C NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, enzyme assays and a number of mutants. Methionine is first transaminated to alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate. Methionol is formed by a decarboxylation reaction, which yields methional, followed by reduction. The decarboxylation is effected specifically by Ydr380wp. Methanethiol is formed from both methionine and alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate by a demethiolase activity. In all except one strain examined, demethiolase was induced by the presence of methionine in the growth medium. This pathway results in the production of alpha-ketobutyrate, a carbon skeleton, which can be re-utilized. Hence, methionine catabolism is more complex and economical than the other amino acid catabolic pathways in yeast, which use the Ehrlich pathway and result solely in the formation of a fusel alcohol. PMID:16423070

  18. Methionine deficiency leads to hepatic fat accretion via impairment of fatty acid import by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.

    PubMed

    Kikusato, M; Sudo, S; Toyomizu, M

    2015-04-01

    1. To clarify the underlying mechanism of hepatic fat accretion due to methionine (Met) deficiency in broiler chickens, the present study investigated the effect of Met deficiency on the hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system, which imports fatty acids into mitochondria. 2. Fifteen-d-old male meat-type chickens were fed on either a control diet (containing 0.52 g/100 g Met) or a Met-deficient diet (containing 0.27 g Met/100 g). After a 10-d feeding period, the birds were killed by decapitation and their livers excised to determine hepatic CPT1 and CPT2 mRNA levels and for the related hepatic fatty acid-supported mitochondrial respiration to be measured. 3. Met deficiency decreased body weight gain and feed efficiency and increased hepatic lipid content compared to the control group. Whereas the hepatic CPT2 mRNA level in the Met-deficient group remained unchanged compared to that of the control group, the CPT1 mRNA level was decreased in the Met-deficient group and CPT1-dependent hepatic mitochondrial respiration was impaired. 4. Our results suggest that the hepatic lipid accretion that occurs in response to Met deficiency might be attributable to the impairment of CPT1-mediated fatty acid import into mitochondria. PMID:25561085

  19. Wet-chemical green synthesis of L-lysine amino acid stabilized biocompatible iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rahul; Titus, Elby; Krishna, Rohit; Bardhan, Neelkanth; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Gracio, José

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for the synthesis of L-Lysine (lys) amino acid coated maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The facile and cost effective method permitted preparation of the high-quality superparamagnetic gamma-Fe2O3 MNPs with hydrophilic and biocompatible nature. For this work, first we synthesized magnetite phase Fe3O4/lys by wet chemical method and oxidized to y-Fe2O3 in controlled oxidizing environment, as evidenced by XRD and VSM magnetometry. The crystallite size and magnetization of gamma-Fe2O3/lys MNPs was found to be 14.5 nm, 40.6 emu/gm respectively. The surface functionalization by L-lysine amino acid and metal-ligand bonding was also confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The hydrodynamic diameter, colloidal stability and surface charge on MNPs were characterized by DLS and zeta potential analyser. PMID:22962801

  20. Heterologous Production of Hyaluronic Acid in an ε-Poly-l-Lysine Producer, Streptomyces albulus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Tomohiro; Shibata, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in a wide range of medical applications, where its performance and therapeutic efficacy are highly dependent on its molecular weight. In the microbial production of HA, it has been suggested that a high level of intracellular ATP enhances the productivity and molecular weight of HA. Here, we report on heterologous HA production in an ε-poly-l-lysine producer, Streptomyces albulus, which has the potential to generate ATP at high level. The hasA gene from Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which encodes HA synthase, was refactored and expressed under the control of a late-log growth phase-operating promoter. The expression of the refactored hasA gene, along with genes coding for UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, which are involved in HA precursor sugar biosynthesis, resulted in efficient production of HA in the 2.0 MDa range, which is greater than typical bacterial HA, demonstrating that a sufficient amount of ATP was provided to support the biosynthesis of the precursor sugars, which in turn promoted HA production. In addition, unlike in the case of streptococcal HA, S. albulus-derived HA was not cell associated. Based on these findings, our heterologous production system appears to have several advantages for practical HA production. We propose that the present system could be applicable to the heterologous production of a wide variety of molecules other than HA in the case their biosynthesis pathways require ATP in vivo. PMID:25795665

  1. Increased lysine production by flux coupling of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the lysine biosynthetic pathway--metabolic engineering of the availability of succinyl-CoA in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kind, Stefanie; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate increased lysine production by flux coupling using the industrial work horse bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, which was mediated by the targeted interruption of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle at the level of succinyl-CoA synthetase. The succinylase branch of the lysine production pathway functions as the bridging reaction to convert succinyl-CoA to succinate in this aerobic bacterium. The mutant C. glutamicum ΔsucCD showed a 60% increase in the yield of lysine when compared to the advanced lysine producer which was used as parent strain. This mutant was highly vital and exhibited only a slightly reduced specific growth rate. Metabolic flux analysis with (13)C isotope studies confirmed that the increase in lysine production was mediated by pathway coupling. The novel strain exhibited an exceptional flux profile, which was closer to the optimum performance predicted by in silico pathway analysis than to the large set of lysine-producing strains analyzed thus far. Fluxomics and transcriptomics were applied as further targets for next-level strain engineering to identify the back-up mechanisms that were activated upon deletion of the enzyme in the mutant strain. It seemed likely that the cells partly recruited the glyoxylate shunt as a by-pass route. Additionally, the α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase pathway emerged as the potential compensation mechanism. This novel strategy appears equally promising for Escherichia coli, which is used in the industrial production of lysine, wherein this bacterium synthesizes lysine exclusively by succinyl-CoA activation of pathway intermediates. The channeling of a high flux pathway into a production pathway by pathway coupling is an interesting metabolic engineering strategy that can be explored to optimize bio-production in the future. PMID:22871505

  2. Needlelike and spherical polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of poly(l-lysine) and copolymers of maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Reihs, T; Ouyang, W

    2005-01-01

    We report on the bulk and surface properties of dispersions consisting of nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles. PEC nanoparticles were prepared by mixing poly(l-lysine) (PLL) or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with poly(maleic acid-co-alpha-methylstyrene) (PMA-MS) or poly(maleic acid-co-propylene) (PMA-P). The monomolar mixing ratio was n-/n+ = 0.6, and the concentration ranged from 1 to 6 mmol/L. Subsequent centrifugation enabled the separation of the excess polycation, resulting in a stable coacervate phase further used in the experiments. The bulk phase parameters turbidity and hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the PEC nanoparticles showed a linear dependence on the total polymer content independently of the mixed polyelectrolytes. This can be interpreted by the increased collision probability of the polyelectrolyte chains when the overlap concentration is approached or exceeded. Different morphologies of the cationic PEC nanoparticles, which were solution-cast onto Si supports, were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combinations of PLL/PMA-MS and PDADMAC/PMA-MS revealed more or less hemispherical particle shapes, whereas that of PLL/PMA-P revealed an elongated needlelike particle shape. Circular dichroism and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements proved the alpha-helical conformation for the PEC PLL/PMA-P and the random coil conformation for the PEC PLL/PMA-MS. We conclude that stiff alpha-helical PLL induces anisotropic elongated PEC nanoparticles, whereas randomly coiled PLL forms isotropic spherical PEC nanoparticles. PMID:15620340

  3. Ethylene production from methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, M.; Kunishi, A. T.; Mapson, L. W.; Wardale, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    1. A new reaction is described in which ethylene is formed from the Cu+-catalysed breakdown of methionine in phosphate buffer at 30° in air. Some of the other products of the reaction are methionine sulphone, methionine sulphoxide, homocysteic acid, homocystine, acrolein, dimethyl disulphide, methanethiol, ethyl methyl sulphide, methane and ethane. These are considered to be produced in different reaction pathways. 2. Hydrogen peroxide is an intermediate in this reaction and can support ethylene production in the model system in anaerobic atmospheres. Cuprous copper is the active form that catalyses the formation of ethylene from an oxidized intermediate. The initial reaction is probably a Strecker degradation, but the aldehyde product is further degraded to ethylene and other products. 3. Methional (CH3·S·CH2·CH2·CHO) is the most effective producer of ethylene in the model system and appears to be an intermediate in the reaction. 4. The evidence, from both tracer studies and from other precursors of ethylene in the reaction, indicates that ethylene is derived from the −CH2·CH2− group of methionine. PMID:16749150

  4. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 is up-regulated in Caco-2 cells by the methionine precursor DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Brufau, M Teresa; Mañas-Cano, Oriol; Mercier, Yves; Nonis, Magalie K; Ferrer, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    The methionine precursor, DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA), is a synthetic source of dietary methionine, which is widely used as a poultry nutritional supplement. In the intestinal epithelium, HMTBA transport across the apical membrane is mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). The first step in biological utilisation of this methionine precursor is the stereospecific conversion of HMTBA to the corresponding keto acid. In the present study, the regulation of trans-epithelial HMTBA transport was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Differentiated Caco-2 cells were maintained under control conditions (apical compartment: 0.2 mmol/L L-methionine) or in a HMTBA-enriched medium (2 mmol/L HMTBA). The effect of culture on HMTBA transport was evaluated from apical and basolateral kinetic parameters. MCT1 and MCT4 immuno-localisation and gene expression were investigated by confocal microscopy and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The results indicated that apical MCT1 was up-regulated by exposure to HMTBA (1.4-fold increase in Vmax without changes in Km). Moreover, total monolayer MCT1 immunoreactivity increased 1.8-fold in HMTBA-supplemented cultures, this effect mainly being localised at the apical membrane. Functional and immuno-localisation data suggest involvement of MCT1 and MCT4 in basolateral HMTBA transport, although, in this case, no effect was observed for HMTBA-enrichment. Molecular analysis confirmed MCT1 mRNA up-regulation (1.8-fold), with no effect on MCT4 mRNA expression. Thus, exposure to HMTBA up-regulates the trans-epithelial transport of this methionine precursor by increasing the expression and the transport capacity of apical MCT1. PMID:25447800

  5. Conditions for the formation of dilysyl-dipyrrolones A and B, and novel yellow dipyrrolone derivatives formed from xylose and amino acids in the presence of lysine.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Yuri; Sakamoto, Junko; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Murata, Masatsune

    2011-01-01

    Foods derived from plants contain pentose in addition to hexose. It is well known that pentose contributes more to browning by the Maillard reaction than hexose does. We have recently found novel yellow compounds formed from xylose and lysine under weakly acidic conditions, named dilysyldipyrrolones (dilysyl-DPLs) A and B. We indicate in this study that dilysyl-DPLs were specifically formed under weakly acidic conditions from pentose, but not hexose. Moreover, we found novel DPL derivatives which were formed from xylose and such amino acids as alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, and valine in the presence of lysine. PMID:21307606

  6. First hyperpolarizability of the natural aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine and the tripeptide lysine-tryptophan-lysine determined by hyper-Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Duboisset, J; Matar, G; Russier-Antoine, I; Benichou, E; Bachelier, G; Jonin, Ch; Ficheux, D; Besson, F; Brevet, P F

    2010-11-01

    We report the first hyperpolarizability of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) and an upper limit for that of phenylalanine (Phe), three natural aromatic amino acids. The measurements were performed with hyper-Rayleigh scattering in an aqueous Tris buffer solution at a pH of 8.5 and 150 mM salt concentration with a fundamental wavelength of 780 nm. A value of (4.7 ± 0.7) × 10(-30) esu is found for Trp and (4.1 ± 0.7) × 10(-30) esu for Tyr whereas the upper limit of 1.4 × 10(-30) esu is found for that of Phe due to its limited solubility. The influence of the presence of lysine (Lys) in close vicinity of Trp is investigated with a measurement of the first hyperpolarizabilty of Trp in an excess of Lys and compared to the first hyperpolarizability obtained for the tripeptide Lys-Trp-Lys. The clear decrease of the values measured in these two cases indicates that the first hyperpolarizabilty of Trp is very sensitive to its local environment. PMID:20939548

  7. Gene expression profiling of DBA/2J mice cochleae treated with l-methionine and valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Fuyuki; Mutai, Hideki; Fujii, Masato; Boroevich, Keith A.; Matsunaga, Tatsuo; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    DBA/2J mice, which have homozygous mutations in Cdh23 and Fscn2, are characterized by early onset hearing loss at as early as three-weeks of age (Noben-Trauth et al., 2003 [1]) and are an animal model for progressive hearing loss research. Recently, it has been reported that epigenetic regulatory pathways likely play an important role in hearing loss (Provenzano and Domann, 2007 [2]; Mutai et al., 2009 [3]; Waldhaus et al., 2012 [4]). We previously reported that DBA/2J mice injected subcutaneously with a combination of epigenetic modifying reagents, l-methionine (MET) as methyl donor and valproic acid (VPA) as a pan-histone deacetylases (Hdac) inhibitor, showed a significant attenuation of progressive hearing loss by measuring their auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds (Mutai et al., 2015 [5]). Here we present genome wide expression profiling of the DBA/2J mice cochleae, with and without treatment of MET and VPA, to identify the genes involved in the reduction of progressive hearing loss. The raw and normalized data were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE62173) for ease of reproducibility and reanalysis. PMID:26484279

  8. Differences in plasma metabolomics between sows fed DL-methionine and its hydroxy analogue reveal a strong association of milk composition and neonatal growth with maternal methionine nutrition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Hao; Liu, Guangmang; Wan, Haifeng; Mercier, Yves; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2015-02-28

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or its hydroxy analogue DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMTBA) could benefit milk synthesis and neonatal growth. For this purpose, eighteen cross-bred (Landrace × Yorkshire) primiparous sows were fed a control (CON), DLM or HMTBA diet (n 6 per diet) from 0 to 14 d post-partum. At postnatal day 14, piglets in the HMTBA group had higher body weight (P= 0·02) than those in the CON group, tended (P= 0·07) to be higher than those in the DLM group, and had higher (P< 0·05) mRNA abundance of jejunal fatty acid-binding protein 2, intestinal than those in the CON and DLM groups. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, milk protein, non-fat solid, and lysine, histidine and ornithine concentrations decreased in the DLM diet-fed sows (P< 0·05), and milk fat, lactose, and cysteine and taurine concentrations increased in the HMTBA diet-fed sows (P< 0·05). Plasma homocysteine and urea N concentrations that averaged across time were increased (P< 0·05) in sows fed the DLM diet compared with those fed the CON diet. Metabolomic results based on ¹H NMR spectroscopy revealed that consumption of the HMTBA and DLM diets increased (P< 0·05) both sow plasma methionine and valine levels; however, consumption of the DLM diet led to lower (P< 0·05) plasma levels of lysine, tyrosine, glucose and acetate and higher (P< 0·05) plasma levels of citrate, lactate, formate, glycerol, myo-inositol and N-acetyl glycoprotein in sows. Collectively, neonatal growth and milk synthesis were regulated by dietary methionine levels and sources, which resulted in marked alterations in amino acid, lipid and glycogen metabolism. PMID:25639894

  9. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds: synthesis, physiochemical characterization, and nucleic acid binding studies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Randeep; Chitanda, Jackson M; Michel, Deborah; Maley, Jason; Borondics, Ferenc; Yang, Peng; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that, because of their size (4–5 nm), stable inert core, alterable surface chemistry, fluorescence, and biocompatibility, are emerging as bioimaging agents and promising tools for the delivery of biochemical molecules into cellular systems. However, diamond particles possess a strong propensity to aggregate in liquid formulation media, restricting their applicability in biomedical sciences. Here, the authors describe the covalent functionalization of NDs with lysine in an attempt to develop nanoparticles able to act as suitable nonviral vectors for transferring genetic materials across cellular membranes. Methods: NDs were oxidized and functionalized by binding lysine moieties attached to a three-carbon-length linker (1,3-diaminopropane) to their surfaces through amide bonds. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopic imaging, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the lysine-functionalized NDs. Finally, the ability of the functionalized diamonds to bind plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA was investigated by gel electrophoresis assay and through size and zeta potential measurements. Results: NDs were successfully functionalized with the lysine linker, producing surface loading of 1.7 mmol g−1 of ND. These modified NDs formed highly stable aqueous dispersions with a zeta potential of 49 mV and particle size of approximately 20 nm. The functionalized NDs were found to be able to bind plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA by forming nanosized “diamoplexes”. Conclusion: The lysine-substituted ND particles generated in this study exhibit stable aqueous formulations and show potential for use as carriers for genetic materials. PMID:22904623

  10. Simple, Fast, and Simultaneous Detection of Plasma Total Homocysteine, Methylmalonic Acid, Methionine, and 2-Methylcitric Acid Using Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Xu, Yan-Kang; Chan, Penny; Pattengale, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) plays an essential role both in the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA and in the synthesis of methionine (Met) from homocysteine (Hcy). Elevations of total homocysteine (tHcy), Met, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and 2-methylcitric acid (2MCA) are indicative of disorders in these related pathways, and can clinically present as methylmalonic acidemia, cobalamin defects or deficiency, propionic acidemia, homocystinuria, and hypermethioninemia. We have developed a fast, sensitive, and simple method for the simultaneous detection of plasma tHcy, MMA, Met, and 2MCA using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All analytes were directly determined without the need of derivatization. Both positive and negative modes were used to achieve the best sensitivity and specificity. The two stereo isomers of 2MCA (2S, 3S) and (2R, 3S) were successfully separated and were designated as 2MCA1 and 2MCA2. The assays were linear up to a concentration of 800 μMol/l for tHcy, 2,000 μMol/l for Met, 80 μMol/l for MMA, 40 μMol/l for 2MCA1, and 40 μMol/l for 2MCA2 (80 μMol/l for total 2MCA), respectively. The recovery was between 84.42 % and 120.05 %. The intra-assay coefficient of variations (CVs) ranged from 2.1 % to 6.9 % (n = 20), and the inter-assay CVs ranged from 2.7 % to 11.6 % (n = 20). Reference intervals were established and verified (n = 125). A total of 15 patients with variable disorders in related pathway were successfully confirmed. The assay can be performed either in diagnostic laboratories or as second-tier, follow-up test in newborn screening laboratories.A fast, sensitive, and simple LC/MS/MS method was developed successfully for the simultaneous detection of plasma total homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, methionine, and 2-methylcitric acid for diagnosis of disorders in related pathways. PMID:23430805

  11. Identification of N-terminal methionine in the precursor of immunoglobulin light chain. Initiation of translation of messenger ribonucleic acid in plants and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, I; Burstein, Y

    1976-01-01

    The proteins programmed in the wheat-germ cell-free system by the mRNA coding for the MOPC-321 mouse myeloma L (light) chain were labelled with [35S]methionine, [4,5-3H]leucine or [3-3H]serine, and were subjected to amino acid-sequence analyses. Over 95% of the total cell-free product was sequenced as one homogeneous protein, which corresponds to the precursor of the L-chain protein. In the precursor, 20 amino acid residues precede the N-terminus of the mature protein. This extra piece contains one methionine residue at the N-terminus, one serine residue at position 18, and six leucine residues, which are clustered in two triplets at positions 6, 7, 8 and 11, 12, 13. The identification of methionine at the N-terminus of the precursor is in agreement with the evidence showing that unblocked methionine is the initiator residue for protein synthesis in eukaryotes. The absence of methionine at position 20, which precedes the N-terminal residue of the mature protein, suggests that myeloma cells synthesize the precursor. However, within the cell the precursor should be rapidly processed to the mature L chain, since precursor molecules have not yet been found in the intact animal. The abundance (30%) of leucine residues indicates that the extra-piece moiety is quite hydrophobic. The extra piece of the MOPC-321 L-chain precursor synthesized with the aid of the Krebs II ascites cell-free system is of identical size and it has the same leucine sequence [Schechter et al. (1975) Science 188, 160-162]. This indicates that cell-free systems derived from the plant and animal kingdom initiate mRNA translation from the same point. It is shown that the amino acid sequence of minute amounts of a highly labelled protein (0.1 pmol) can be faithfully determined in the presence of a large excess (over 2000 000-fold) of unrelated non-radioactive proteins. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 PMID:821467

  12. Effect of L- or DL-methionine Supplementation on Nitrogen Retention, Serum Amino Acid Concentrations and Blood Metabolites Profile in Starter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Q Y; Zeng, Z K; Zhang, Y X; Long, S F; Piao, X S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of either L-methionine (L-Met) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) to diets of starter pigs on nitrogen (N) balance, metabolism, and serum amino acid profile. Eighteen crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) barrows weighing 15.45±0.88 kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets with 6 pigs per treatment. The diets included a basal diet (Met-deficient diet) containing 0.24% standardized ileal digestibility Met with all other essential nutrients meeting the pig's requirements. The other two diets were produced by supplementing the basal diet with 0.12% DL-Met or L-Met. The experiment lasted for 18 days, consisting of a 13-day adaptation period to the diets followed by a 5-day experimental period. Pigs were fed ad libitum and free access to water throughout the experiment. Results showed that the supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met improved N retention, and serum methionine concentration, and decreased N excretion compared with basal diet (p<0.01). The N retention of pigs fed diets supplemented with the same inclusion levels of DL-Met or L-Met were not different (p>0.05). In conclusion, on equimolar basis DL-Met and L-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources for starter pigs. PMID:26954214

  13. Effect of L- or DL-methionine Supplementation on Nitrogen Retention, Serum Amino Acid Concentrations and Blood Metabolites Profile in Starter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Q. Y.; Zeng, Z. K.; Zhang, Y. X.; Long, S. F.; Piao, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of either L-methionine (L-Met) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) to diets of starter pigs on nitrogen (N) balance, metabolism, and serum amino acid profile. Eighteen crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) barrows weighing 15.45±0.88 kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets with 6 pigs per treatment. The diets included a basal diet (Met-deficient diet) containing 0.24% standardized ileal digestibility Met with all other essential nutrients meeting the pig’s requirements. The other two diets were produced by supplementing the basal diet with 0.12% DL-Met or L-Met. The experiment lasted for 18 days, consisting of a 13-day adaptation period to the diets followed by a 5-day experimental period. Pigs were fed ad libitum and free access to water throughout the experiment. Results showed that the supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met improved N retention, and serum methionine concentration, and decreased N excretion compared with basal diet (p<0.01). The N retention of pigs fed diets supplemented with the same inclusion levels of DL-Met or L-Met were not different (p>0.05). In conclusion, on equimolar basis DL-Met and L-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources for starter pigs. PMID:26954214

  14. Oxidation of methionine in PrP is dependent upon the oxidant and the amino acid two positions removed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. Methionine oxidation has been shown both to be associated with prion formation and implicated in the inhibition of amyloid formation in model systems. This work is based on model systems where hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidant. Materials and Methods. We developed...

  15. Disruption of metF increased L-lysine production by Methylophilus methylotrophus from methanol.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kohei; Asahara, Takayuki; Gunji, Yoshiya; Yasueda, Hisashi; Asano, Kozo

    2008-05-01

    Methionine auxotrophic mutants of Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 expressing a mutant form of dapA (dapA24) encoding a dihydrodipicolinate synthase desensitized from feedback inhibition by L-lysine, and mutated lysE (lysE24) encoding the L-lysine exporter from Corynebacterium glutamicum 2256, produced higher amounts of L-lysine from methanol as sole carbon source than did other amino acid auxotrophic mutants. Especially, the M. methylotrophus 102 strain, carrying both dapA24 and lysE24, produced L-lysine in more than 1.5 times amounts higher than the parent. A single-base substitution was identified in this auxotroph in codon-329 of the open reading frame of metF, encoding 5,10-methylene-tetra-hydrofolate reductase. We constructed a metF disruptant mutant carrying both dapA24 and lysE24, and confirmed increases in L-lysine production. This is the first report to the effect that metF deficient increased L-lysine production in methylotroph. PMID:18460806

  16. Mycobacterium Lysine ε-aminotransferase is a novel alarmone metabolism related persister gene via dysregulating the intracellular amino acid level

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiangke; Li, Yunsong; Du, Qinglin; Huang, Qinqin; Guo, Siyao; Xu, Mengmeng; Lin, Yanping; Liu, Zhidong; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial persisters, usually slow-growing, non-replicating cells highly tolerant to antibiotics, play a crucial role contributing to the recalcitrance of chronic infections and treatment failure. Understanding the molecular mechanism of persister cells formation and maintenance would obviously inspire the discovery of new antibiotics. The significant upregulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3290c, a highly conserved mycobacterial lysine ε-aminotransferase (LAT) during hypoxia persistent model, suggested a role of LAT in persistence. To test this, a lat deleted Mycobacterium smegmatis was constructed. The expression of transcriptional regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (LrpA) and the amino acids abundance in M. smegmatis lat deletion mutants were lowered. Thus, the persistence capacity of the deletion mutant was impaired upon norfloxacin exposure under nutrient starvation. In summary, our study firstly reported the involvement of mycobacterium LAT in persister formation, and possibly through altering the intracellular amino acid metabolism balance. PMID:26806099

  17. Mycobacterium Lysine ε-aminotransferase is a novel alarmone metabolism related persister gene via dysregulating the intracellular amino acid level.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiangke; Li, Yunsong; Du, Qinglin; Huang, Qinqin; Guo, Siyao; Xu, Mengmeng; Lin, Yanping; Liu, Zhidong; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial persisters, usually slow-growing, non-replicating cells highly tolerant to antibiotics, play a crucial role contributing to the recalcitrance of chronic infections and treatment failure. Understanding the molecular mechanism of persister cells formation and maintenance would obviously inspire the discovery of new antibiotics. The significant upregulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3290c, a highly conserved mycobacterial lysine ε-aminotransferase (LAT) during hypoxia persistent model, suggested a role of LAT in persistence. To test this, a lat deleted Mycobacterium smegmatis was constructed. The expression of transcriptional regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (LrpA) and the amino acids abundance in M. smegmatis lat deletion mutants were lowered. Thus, the persistence capacity of the deletion mutant was impaired upon norfloxacin exposure under nutrient starvation. In summary, our study firstly reported the involvement of mycobacterium LAT in persister formation, and possibly through altering the intracellular amino acid metabolism balance. PMID:26806099

  18. The Coding Properties of Lysine-accepting Transfer Ribonucleic Acids from Black-eyed Peas 1

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Donald R.; Kofoid, Eric C.

    1971-01-01

    Lysine-accepting transfer RNA from ungerminated and germinated embryo axes of black-eyed peas (Vigna sinensis L. Savi) was fractionated on benzoylated diethylaminoethyl cellulose and reverse phase Freon columns. Cochromatography indicated the presence of two similar lysyl transfer RNA fractions in each tissue. Ribosome binding studies revealed that the larger of the two fractions in each case is specific for the AAG codon, while the smaller one recognizes AAA and AAG. Possible implications of this difference in quantities of isoacceptors in translation of genetic information are discussed. PMID:16657787

  19. Preparation, characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation of poly(Nɛ-acryloyl-L-lysine)/hyaluronic acid interpenetrating network hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ning; Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Xu, Minghui; Zhao, Na; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2016-01-20

    In the present study, poly(Nɛ-acryloyl-L-lysine)/hyaluronic acid (pLysAAm/HA) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were successfully fabricated through the combination of hydrazone bond crosslinking and photo-crosslinking reactions. The HA hydrogel network was first synthesized from 3,3'-dithiodipropionate hydrazide-modified HA and polyethylene glycol dilevulinate by hydrazone bond crosslinking. The pLysAAm hydrogel network was prepared from Nɛ-acryloyl-L-lysine and N,N'-bis(acryloyl)-(L)-cystine by photo-crosslinking. The resultant pLysAAm/HA hydrogels had a good shape recovery property after loading and unloading for 1.5 cycles (up to 90%) and displayed a highly porous microstructure. Their compressive moduli were at least 5 times higher than that of HA hydrogels. The pLysAAm/HA hydrogels had an equilibrium swelling ratio of up to 37.9 and displayed a glutathione-responsive degradation behavior. The results from in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cells revealed that the pLysAAm/HA hydrogels could support cell viability and proliferation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that the pLysAAm/HA hydrogels allowed cell and tissue infiltration, confirming their good in vivo biocompatibility. Therefore, the novel pLysAAm/HA IPN hydrogels have great potential for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26572442

  20. Solid-Phase Synthesis with Attachment of Peptide to Resin through an Amino Acid Side Chain: [8-Lysine]-Vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Meienhofer, Johannes; Trzeciak, Arnold

    1971-01-01

    It is proposed that the scope of solid-phase peptide synthesis could be considerably broadened by attaching peptides to the solid-phase through functional side-chain groups rather than through the commonly used α-carboxyl groups. Side-chain attachment offers the use of a large variety of chemical linkages to solid supports. Attachment through the ε-amino group of the lysine residue to a polystyrene resin has been applied to a solid-phase synthesis of lysine-vasopressin. Nα-tert-butyl-oxycarbonyl-L-lysyl-glycinamide was condensed with chloroformoxymethyl polystyrene-2% divinylbenzene resin. After removal of the Nα-protecting tert-butyloxycarbonyl group, the peptide chain was elongated by standard Merrifield procedures to give Tos-Cys(Bzl)-Tyr-Phe-Glu-(NH2) - Asp(NH2) - Cys(Bzl) - Pro - Lys(Z - resin) - Gly-NH2. Cleavage from the resin with HBr in dioxane or trifluoroacetic acid gave a partially protected nonapeptide hydrobromide. For purification, it was converted into a fully protected peptide by treatment with benzyl p-nitro-phenyl carbonate and crystallized. Deprotection by sodium in liquid ammonia, oxidative cyclization, IRC-50 desalting, and ion-exchange chromatography gave lysinevasopressin with high potency in a rat-pressor assay. PMID:5280519

  1. Methionine kinetics and first pass disappearance in healthy adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine, an indispensable amino acid serves as precursor for important substrates. There are no data on methionine first-pass disappearance (SU) and whole body kinetics in healthy children receiving methionine by the oral or intravenous route. We studied four healthy adolescents, (age 15.0 +/- 1....

  2. Isoxazole-Derived Amino Acids are Bromodomain-Binding Acetyl-Lysine Mimics: Incorporation into Histone H4 Peptides and Histone H3.

    PubMed

    Sekirnik Née Measures, Angelina R; Hewings, David S; Theodoulou, Natalie H; Jursins, Lukass; Lewendon, Katie R; Jennings, Laura E; Rooney, Timothy P C; Heightman, Tom D; Conway, Stuart J

    2016-07-11

    A range of isoxazole-containing amino acids was synthesized that displaced acetyl-lysine-containing peptides from the BAZ2A, BRD4(1), and BRD9 bromodomains. Three of these amino acids were incorporated into a histone H4-mimicking peptide and their affinity for BRD4(1) was assessed. Affinities of the isoxazole-containing peptides are comparable to those of a hyperacetylated histone H4-mimicking cognate peptide, and demonstrated a dependence on the position at which the unnatural residue was incorporated. An isoxazole-based alkylating agent was developed to selectively alkylate cysteine residues in situ. Selective monoalkylation of a histone H4-mimicking peptide, containing a lysine to cysteine residue substitution (K12C), resulted in acetyl-lysine mimic incorporation, with high affinity for the BRD4 bromodomain. The same technology was used to alkylate a K18C mutant of histone H3. PMID:27264992

  3. Asymmetrical transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), leucine and lysine across the in vitro perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Proegler, M; Sodha, R; Dancis, J

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism for establishing transplacental gradients for leucine, lysine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) has been investigated in the perfused human placenta. Experiments were done with either the maternal or the fetal circulation closed and the donor circulation open. Transfer of the amino acids towards the fetal side was more rapid than it was in the reverse direction. When the maternal perfusate was recirculated, the amino acid concentrations were maintained at a considerably lower level in the maternal circulation than in the open fetal circuit. When the fetal circuit was closed, the concentrations approached or slightly exceeded those in the maternal perfusate over a period of three hours. Within the placenta, higher concentrations were established during the experiments with transfer towards the fetal side than in the reverse direction. Of the three amino acids, leucine was transferred most rapidly across the placenta while AIB reached the highest concentrations in the placental tissue. The asymmetry of the transplacental amino acid flux is favoured by rapid uptake from the maternal circulation and transfer towards the fetus. Both rates exceed those observed in the reverse direction. The transfer rate of D-leucine was 1.7 times that of L-glucose. For in vitro studies of the transfer rate of physiological compounds a correction for diffusion is required. The results may differ considerably depending on which marker is used as the basis. PMID:3112761

  4. Comparison of single-dose ibuprofen lysine, acetylsalicylic acid, and placebo for moderate-to-severe postoperative dental pain.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S L; Brahim, J S; Korn, S H; Greene, S S; Suchower, L J

    1994-01-01

    In a single-dose, double-blind, parallel-group, single-site study, ibuprofen lysine 200 mg (IBL 200) was compared with acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg (ASA 500) and placebo in 183 patients with moderate-to-severe postoperative dental pain. The relative onset of analgesic response, duration and degree of analgesia, and safety were assessed over a 6-hour postdose period. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patient self-rating of pain intensity, pain relief, time to meaningful pain relief, global evaluation, and requirement for additional analgesic medication; both IBL 200 and ASA 500 were significantly more effective than placebo. IBL 200 also had a significantly faster onset of action, greater peak and overall analgesic effect, and longer duration of analgesia than ASA 500. All treatments were generally well tolerated. PMID:7923312

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acid with a Lysine Side Chain at the β-Position: Synthesis and Application for DNA Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toru; Kuwata, Keiko; Imamura, Yasutada; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of new β-Lys peptide nucleic acid (PNA) monomers and their incorporation into a 10-residue PNA sequence. PNA containing β-Lys PNA units formed a stable hybrid duplex with DNA. However, incorporation of β-Lys PNA units caused destabilization of PNA-DNA duplexes to some extent. Electrostatic attractions between β-PNA and DNA could reduce this destabilization effect. Subsequently, bipyridine-conjugated β-Lys PNA was prepared and exhibited sequence selective cleavage of DNA. Based on the structures of the cleavage products and molecular modeling, we reasoned that bipyridine moiety locates within the minor groove of the PNA-DNA duplexes. The lysine side chain of β-PNA is a versatile handle for attaching various functional molecules. PMID:27373637

  6. Characteristics of methionine production by an engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum strain.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Dong; Lee, Joo-Young; Sim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2007-07-01

    A methionine-producing strain was derived from a lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum through a process of genetic manipulation in order to assess its potential to synthesize and accumulate methionine during growth. The strain carries a deregulated hom gene (hom(FBR)) to abolish feedback inhibition of homoserine dehydrogenase by threonine and a deletion of the thrB gene (delta thrB) to abolish threonine synthesis. The constructed C. glutamicum MH20-22B/hom(FBR)/delta thrB strain accumulated 2.9 g/l of methionine by batch fermentation and showed resistance to methionine analogue ethionine at concentrations up to 30 mM. The growth of the strain was apparently impaired as a result of the accumulation of methionine biosynthetic intermediate, homocysteine. Production assays also revealed that the accumulation of methionine in the growth medium was transient and declined as the carbon source was depleted. During the period of methionine disappearance, the methionine biosynthetic genes were completely repressed in the engineered strains but not in the parental strain. After all, we have not only successfully constructed a methionine-producing C. glutamicum strain by genetic manipulation, but also revealed cellular constraints in attaining high yield and productivity. PMID:17604670

  7. The dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Bertolo, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Methionine is an indispensable amino acid that, when not incorporated into protein, is converted into the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine as entry into the methionine cycle. Following transmethylation, homocysteine is either remethylated to reform methionine or irreversibly trans-sulfurated to form cysteine. Methionine flux to transmethylation and to protein synthesis are both high in the neonate and this review focuses on the dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development, when growth requires expansion of pools of protein and transmethylation products such as creatine and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The nutrients folate and betaine (derived from choline) donate a methyl group during remethylation, providing an endogenous supply of methionine to meet the methionine demand. During early development, variability in the dietary supply of these methionine cycle-related nutrients can affect both the supply and the demand of methionine. For example, a greater need for creatine synthesis can limit methionine availability for protein and PC synthesis, whereas increased availability of remethylation nutrients can increase protein synthesis if dietary methionine is limiting. Moreover, changes to methyl group availability early in life can lead to permanent changes in epigenetic patterns of DNA methylation, which have been implicated in the early origins of adult disease phenomena. This review aims to summarize how changes in methyl supply and demand can affect the availability of methionine for various functions and highlights the importance of variability in methionine-related nutrients in the infant diet. PMID:27177124

  8. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Limits Lipotoxicity by Promoting Hepatic Fatty Acid Activation in Mice on Methionine and Choline-deficient Diets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, ffolliott M.; Chui, Patricia C.; Nasser, Imad A.; Popov, Yury; Cunniff, Jeremy C.; Lundasen, Thomas; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Schuppan, Detlef; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common consequence of human and rodent obesity. Disruptions in lipid metabolism lead to accumulation of triglycerides and fatty acids, which can promote inflammation and fibrosis and lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 increase in patients with NAFLD or NASH, so we assessed the role of FGF21 in the progression of murine fatty liver disease, independent of obesity, caused by methionine and choline deficiency. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type and FGF21-knockout (FGF21-KO) mice were placed on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD), high-fat, or control diets for 8–16 weeks. Mice were weighed; serum and liver tissues were collected and analyzed for histology, levels of malondialdehyde and liver enzymes, gene expression, and lipid content. Results The MCD diet increased hepatic levels of FGF21 mRNA more than 50-fold and serum levels 16-fold, compared with the control diet. FGF21-KO mice had more severe steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and peroxidative damage than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. FGF21-KO mice had reduced hepatic fatty acid activation and β oxidation, resulting in increased levels of free fatty acid. FGF21-KO mice given continuous subcutaneous infusions of FGF21 for 4 weeks while on MCD diets had reduced steatosis and peroxidative damage, compared with mice not receiving FGF21. The expression of genes that regulate inflammation and fibrosis were reduced in FGF21-KO mice given FGF21, similar to those of wild-type mice. Conclusions FGF21 regulates fatty acid activation and oxidation in livers of mice. In the absence of FGF21, accumulation of inactivated fatty acids results in lipotoxic damage and increased steatosis. PMID:25083607

  9. 5-aminovaleric acid suppresses the development of severe seizures in the methionine sulfoximine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Roni; Damisah, Eyiyemisi C; Wang, Helen; Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Ong, Caroline; Zaveri, Hitten P; Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Eid, Tore

    2014-07-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common forms of drug-resistant, localization-related epilepsies in humans. One potential therapeutic target is the brain glutamine-glutamate-GABA metabolic pathway, which is perturbed in patients with MTLE. Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes may be critically involved in this perturbation, which can be modeled by infusing the GS inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) into the entorhinal-hippocampal area in rats. Because 5-aminovaleric acid (5-AV) has been implicated in modulation of the glutamine-glutamate-GABA metabolic pathway, we hypothesized that 5-AV would alter the expression of seizures in the MSO model of MTLE. Male Sprague Dawley rats (300-330g) were implanted with an Alzet pump placed subcutaneously in the abdominal region to release either 5-AV (0.05mg/mL, n=6) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n=6) at a rate of 2.5μl/h over 28days. Five to 7days after surgery, all rats were implanted with an intracranial pump infusing MSO (2.5mg/mL; 0.25μl/h) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation. Following the second surgery, intracranial EEG was measured from the left and right hemispheres above the dorsal hippocampal formations for a continuous period of 21days. The EEG was correlated with simultaneous video recordings to determine the stage of seizures according to a modified Racine scale. Five-AV-treated rats experienced a 3.5 fold reduction in the number of seizures (6.7±1.4seizures/day) than PBS-treated rats (23.2±6.3seizures/day) during the first 2days following MSO pump placement (p<0.005). Both groups showed similar seizure frequency over days 3-21 (~1seizure/day). However, the fraction of the most severe type of seizures (Racine stages 4 and 5) increased over time in the PBS treated group, but not in the 5-AV treated group. Notably, 5-AV treated rats experienced a 2.3 and 2.6 fold lower fraction of stage 4 and 5 seizures than PBS-treated rats during the 2nd and 3rd weeks of MSO

  10. 5-Aminovaleric Acid Suppresses the Development of Severe Seizures in the Methionine Sulfoximine Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dhaher, Roni; Damisah, Eyiyemisi C; Wang, Helen; Gruenbaum, Shaun; Ong, Caroline; Zaveri, Hitten P; Gruenbaum, Benjamin; Eid, Tore

    2014-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common forms of drug-resistant, localization-related epilepsies in humans. One potential therapeutic target is the brain glutamine-glutamate-GABA metabolic pathway, which is perturbed in patients with MTLE. Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes may be critically involved in this perturbation, which can be modeled by infusing the GS inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) into the entorhinal-hippocampal area in rats. Because 5-aminovaleric acid (5-AV) has been implicated in modulation of the glutamine-glutamate-GABA metabolic pathway, we hypothesized that 5-AV would alter the expression of seizures in the MSO model of MTLE. Male Sprague Dawley rats (300-330 g) were implanted with an Alzet pump placed subcutaneously in the abdominal region to release either 5-AV (0.05 mg/mL, n = 6) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 6) at a rate of 2.5 μl/hr over 28 days. Five to 7 days after surgery, all rats were implanted with an intracranial pump infusing MSO (2.5 mg/mL; 0.25 μl/hr) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation. Following the second surgery, intracranial EEG was measured from the left and right hemispheres above the dorsal hippocampal formations for a continuous period of 21 days. The EEG was correlated with simultaneous video recordings to determine the stage of seizures according to a modified Racine scale. Five-AV-treated rats experienced a 3.5 fold reduction in the number of seizures (6.7 ± 1.4 seizures/day) than PBS-treated rats (23.2 ± 6.3 seizures/day) during the first 2 days following MSO pump placement (p < 0.005). Both groups showed similar seizure frequency over days 3-21 (~ 1 seizure/day). However, the fraction of the most severe type of seizures (Racine stage 4 and 5) increased over time in the PBS treated group, but not in the 5-AV treated group. Notably, 5-AV treated rats experienced a 2.3 and 2.6 fold lower fraction of stage 4 and 5 seizures than PBS-treated rats during the 2nd

  11. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amino acids and proteins. Side-chain mobility of methionine in the crystalline amonio acid and in crystallne sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Keniry, M.A.; Rothgeb, T.M.; Smith, R.L.; Gutowsky, H.S.; Oldfield, E.

    1983-04-12

    Deuterium (/sup 2/H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/) were obtained of L-(epsilon-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)methionine, L-(epsilon-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)methionine in a D,L lattice, and (S-methyl-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)methionine in the crystalline solid state, as a function of temperature, in addition to obtaining /sup 2/H T/sub 1/ and line-width results as a function of temperature on (epsilon-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)methionine-labeled sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobins by using the method of magnetic ordering. Also recorded were /sup 13/C cross-polarization ''magic-angle'' sample-spinning NMR spectra of (epsilon-/sup 13/C)methionine-labeled crystalline cyanoferrimyoglobin (at 37.7 MHz, corresponding to a magnetic field strength of 3.52 T) and of the same protein in aqueous solution. (JMT)

  13. Interactions between the lysine-rich histone F1 and deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Johns, E W; Forrester, S

    1969-02-01

    1. The interactions of the lysine-rich histone F1 with DNA have been studied at various histone to DNA ratios, in water and in the presence of uni- and bi-valent cations. In water only, histone F1, even in fourfold excess, is unable to precipitate all the DNA. In 0.14m-sodium chloride, 0.8mg. of histone F1 is required to precipitate 1mg. of DNA, whereas in 0.07m-magnesium chloride only 0.4mg. is required. 2. Bivalent cations are also shown to be more effective in dissociating the DNA-histone complex. Histone F1 can be selectively removed from deoxyribonucleoprotein with 0.1m-magnesium chloride. 3. The precipitation of DNA by histone F1 is a reversible process and the complex can be taken in and out of solution by changing the ionic environment. 4. The bearing of these results on the observed ability of various DNA-histone complexes to act as templates for RNA synthesis is discussed. PMID:4975020

  14. Poly(L-diaminopropionic acid), a novel non-proteinic amino acid oligomer co-produced with poly(ε-L-lysine) by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Zhaoxian; Chi, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) producer strain Streptomyces albulus PD-1 secreted a novel polymeric substance into its culture broth along with ε-PL. The polymeric substance was purified to homogeneity and identified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as other analytical techniques revealed that the substance was poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP). PDAP is an L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid oligomer linking between amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. The molecular weight of PDAP ranged from 500 to 1500 Da, and no co-polymers composed of L-diaminopropionic acid and L-lysine were present in the culture broth. Compared with ε-PL, PDAP exhibited stronger inhibitory activities against yeasts but weaker activities against bacteria. ε-PL and PDAP co-production was also investigated. Both ε-PL and PDAP were synthesized during the stationary phase of growth, and the final ε-PL and PDAP concentration reached 21.7 and 4.8 g L(-1), respectively, in fed-batch fermentation. Citric acid feeding resulted in a maximum ε-PL concentration of 26.1 g L(-1) and a decrease in the final concentration of PDAP to 3.8 g L(-1). No studies on ε-PL and PDAP co-production in Streptomyces albulus have been reported previously, and inhibition of by-products such as PDAP is potentially useful in ε-PL production. PMID:23775267

  15. Cloning and expression of genes of aspartate-family amino acid aiosynthesis from medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four of the amino acids that must be acquired in the human diet, lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine, are derived from a common precursor, aspartate, and are produced in a branched, highly-regulated, biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, the common dietary sources of plant proteins, cereals grain...

  16. L-leucine, L-methionine, and L-phenylalanine share a Na(+)/K (+)-dependent amino acid transporter in shrimp hepatopancreas.

    PubMed

    Duka, Ada; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), made from Atlantic White shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), were used to characterize the transport properties of (3)H-L-leucine influx by these membrane systems and how other essential amino acids and the cations, sodium and potassium, interact with this transport system. (3)H-L-leucine uptake by BBMV was pH-sensitive and occurred against transient transmembrane concentration gradients in both Na(+)- and K(+)-containing incubation media, suggesting that either cation was capable of providing a driving force for amino acid accumulation. (3)H-L-leucine uptake in NaCl or KCl media were each three times greater in acidic pH (pH 5.5) than in alkaline pH (pH 8.5). The essential amino acid, L-methionine, at 20 mM significantly (p < 0.0001) inhibited the 2-min uptakes of 1 mM (3)H-L-leucine in both Na(+)- and K(+)-containing incubation media. The residual (3)H-L-leucine uptake in the two media were significantly greater than zero (p < 0.001), but not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05) and may represent an L-methionine- and cation-independent transport system. (3)H-L-leucine influxes in both NaCl and KCl incubation media were hyperbolic functions of [L-leucine], following the carrier-mediated Michaelis-Menten equation. In NaCl, (3)H-L-leucine influx displayed a low apparent K M (high affinity) and low apparent J max, while in KCl the transport exhibited a high apparent K M (low affinity) and high apparent J max. L-methionine or L-phenylalanine (7 and 20 mM) were competitive inhibitors of (3)H-L-leucine influxes in both NaCl and KCl media, producing a significant (p < 0.01) increase in (3)H-L-leucine influx K M, but no significant response in (3)H-L-leucine influx J max. Potassium was a competitive inhibitor of sodium co-transport with (3)H-L-leucine, significantly (p < 0.01) increasing (3)H-L-leucine influx K M in the presence of sodium, but having negligible effect on (3)H-L-leucine influx J

  17. Methionine metabolism in Yucatan miniature swine.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid which when not incorporated into protein, can be converted to S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor in over 200 transmethylation reactions, which include creatine and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis, as well as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation. Following transmethylation, homocysteine is formed, which can be converted to cysteine via transsulfuration or remethylated to methionine by receiving a methyl group from folate or betaine. Changes to methyl group availability in utero can lead to permanent changes in epigenetic patterns of DNA methylation, which has been implicated in "fetal programming", a phenomenon associated with poor nutrition during fetal development that results in low birth weight and disease in later life. It has been shown that programming can also occur in the neonate. Our global objective was to understand how the variability of nutrients involved in methionine metabolism can affect methionine and methyl group availability. We hypothesize that nutrients that converge on methionine metabolism can affect methionine availability for its various functions. In this thesis, we used intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets to investigate whether a global nutritional insult in utero can lead to a perturbed methionine metabolism. Our results demonstrate that IUGR piglets have a lower capacity to dispose of homocysteine via both transsulfuration and remethylation pathways, as well as a lower incorporation of methyl groups into PC. The second objective of this thesis was to determine whether variation in methionine supply and demand can affect methionine availability. We demonstrated that stimulating either acute or chronic creatine synthesis leads to lower methyl incorporation into protein and PC in pigs. Furthermore, when methionine is limiting, supplementation with either folate or betaine leads to higher methionine availability for protein synthesis. Finally, because creatine is

  18. Role of portal region lysine residues in electrostatic interactions between heart fatty acid binding protein and phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Herr, F M; Aronson, J; Storch, J

    1996-01-30

    The structure of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) is a flattened beta-barrel comprising 10 antiparallel beta-sheets capped by two alpha-helical segments. The helical cap region is hypothesized to behave as a portal "lid" for the entry and release of ligand from the binding pocket. The transfer of fatty acid from HFABP is thought to occur via effective collisional interactions with membranes, and these interactions are enhanced when transfer is to membranes of net negative charge, thus implying that specific basic residues on the surface of HFABP may govern the transfer process [Wootan, M. G., & Storch, J. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10517-10523]. To directly examine the role of charged lysine residues on the HFABP surface in specific interactions with membranes, chemical modification and selective mutagenesis of HFABP were used. All surface lysine residues were neutralized by acetylation of recombinant HFABP with acetic anhydride. In addition, seven mutant HFABPs were generated that resulted in charge alterations in five distinct sites of HFABP. Modification of the protein did not significantly alter the structural or ligand binding properties of HFABP, as assessed by circular dichroism, fluorescence quantum yield, and ligand binding analyses. By using a resonance energy transfer assay, transfer of 2-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitate (2AP) from acetylated HFABP to membranes was significantly slower than transfer from native HFABP. In addition, in distinct contrast to transfer from native protein, the 2AP transfer rate from acetylated HFABP was not increased to acceptor membranes of increased negative charge. Transfer of 2AP from HFABP mutants involving K22, located on alpha-helix I (alpha-I) of the helical cap region, was 3-fold slower than transfer from wild-type protein, whereas rates from a mutant involving the K59 residue, located on the beta 2-turn of the barrel near the helical cap, were 2-fold faster than those of wild type. A double mutant involving K22 and K

  19. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  20. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  1. The reaction of proteins with 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid as a possible model for senile nuclear cataract in man.

    PubMed

    Truscott, R J; Martin, F

    1989-12-01

    Proteins, including lens proteins, were incubated in the presence of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (30 HA) under oxidizing conditions. Samples were monitored for alterations in color, fluorescence, sulfhydryl content, lysine availability, methionine content, tryptophan content and protein size. Incubation of proteins with 30 HA produced rapid brown coloration and a correspondingly rapid decrease in sulfhydryl content. Alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins were all found to react with 30 HA. An increase in protein fluorescence (excitation 340/emission 425 nm) accompanied the color development. No significant decrease in the content of tryptophan or any other amino acid was detected by amino acid analysis. The levels of available lysine were not affected significantly by treatment with 30 HA. Oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide and the covalent cross-linking of polypeptides was obtained by subsequent treatment of the tanned proteins with H2O2. The modifications observed are very similar to those found in the senile nuclear cataract lens. PMID:2515071

  2. Functional impact of polar and acidic substitutions in the lactose repressor hydrophobic monomer.monomer interface with a buried lysine.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hongli; Sun, Zhifei; Matthews, Kathleen Shive

    2009-02-17

    Despite predicted energetic penalties, the charged K84 side chains of tetrameric lactose repressor protein (LacI) are found buried within the highly hydrophobic monomer.monomer interface that includes side chains of V94 and V96. Once inducer binding has occurred, these K84 side chains move to interact with the more solvent-exposed side chains of D88 and E100'. Previous studies demonstrated that hydrophobic substitutions for K84 increased protein stability and significantly impaired the allosteric response. These results indicated that enhanced hydrophobic interactions at the monomer.monomer interface remove the energetic driving force of the buried charges, decreasing the likelihood of a robust conformational change and stabilizing the structure. We hypothesized that creating a salt bridge network with the lysine side chains by including nearby negatively charged residues might result in a similar outcome. To that end, acidic residues, D and E, and their neutral amides, N and Q, were substituted for the valines at positions 94 and 96. These variants exhibited one or more of the following functional changes: weakened inducer binding, impaired allosteric response, and diminished protein stability. For V96D and V96E, ion pair formation with K84 appears optimal, and the loss of inducer response exceeds that of the hydrophobic K84A and -L variants. However, impacts on functional properties indicate that stabilizing the buried positive charge with polar or ion pair interactions is not functionally equivalent to structural stabilization via hydrophobic enhancement. PMID:19166325

  3. Intracellular traffic of the lysine and glutamic acid rich protein KERP1 reveals features of endomembrane organization in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Doranda; Manich, Maria; Syan, Sylvie; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Dufour, Alexandre C; Guillén, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    The development of amoebiasis is influenced by the expression of the lysine and glutamic acid rich protein 1 (KERP1), a virulence factor involved in Entamoeba histolytica adherence to human cells. Up to date, it is unknown how the protein transits the parasite cytoplasm towards the plasma membrane, specially because this organism lacks a well-defined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. In this work we demonstrate that KERP1 is present at the cell surface and in intracellular vesicles which traffic in a pathway that is independent of the ER-Golgi anterograde transport. The intracellular displacement of vesicles enriched in KERP1 relies on the actin-rich cytoskeleton activities. KERP1 is also present in externalized vesicles deposited on the surface of human cells. We further report the interactome of KERP1 with its association to endomembrane components and lipids. The model for KERP1 traffic here proposed hints for the first time elements of the endocytic and exocytic paths of E. histolytica. PMID:26857352

  4. Actin depolymerization under force is governed by lysine 113:glutamic acid 195-mediated catch-slip bonds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cho-yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G; Ono, Shoichiro; Chien, Shu; Rubenstein, Peter A; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V

    2013-03-26

    As a key element in the cytoskeleton, actin filaments are highly dynamic structures that constantly sustain forces. However, the fundamental question of how force regulates actin dynamics is unclear. Using atomic force microscopy force-clamp experiments, we show that tensile force regulates G-actin/G-actin and G-actin/F-actin dissociation kinetics by prolonging bond lifetimes (catch bonds) at a low force range and by shortening bond lifetimes (slip bonds) beyond a threshold. Steered molecular dynamics simulations reveal force-induced formation of new interactions that include a lysine 113(K113):glutamic acid 195 (E195) salt bridge between actin subunits, thus suggesting a molecular basis for actin catch-slip bonds. This structural mechanism is supported by the suppression of the catch bonds by the single-residue replacements K113 to serine (K113S) and E195 to serine (E195S) on yeast actin. These results demonstrate and provide a structural explanation for actin catch-slip bonds, which may provide a mechanoregulatory mechanism to control cell functions by regulating the depolymerization kinetics of force-bearing actin filaments throughout the cytoskeleton. PMID:23460697

  5. Effect of l-lysine-assisted surface grafting for nano-hydroxyapatite on mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Liuyun, Jiang; Lixin, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lijuan, Xu; Ye, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is promising and challenging to study surface modification for nano-hydroxyapatite to improve the dispersion and enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). In this paper, we designed an effective new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite, and the nano-hydroxyapatite surface grafted with the assist of l-lysine (g-nano-hydroxyapatite) was incorporated into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) to develop a series of g-nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nano-composites. The surface modification reaction for nano-hydroxyapatite, the mechanical properties, and in vitro human osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) response were characterized and investigated by Fourier transformation infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, dispersion test, electromechanical universal tester, differential scanning calorimeter measurements, and in vitro cells culture experiment. The results showed that the grafting amount on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite was enhanced with the increase of l-lysine, and the dispersion of nano-hydroxyapatite was improved more, so that it brought about better promotion crystallization and more excellent mechanical enhancement effect for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), comparing with the unmodified nano-hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the cells' attachment and proliferation results confirmed that the incorporation of the g-nano-hydroxyapatite into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) exhibited better biocompatibility than poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). The above results indicated that the new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite was an ideal novel surface modification method, which brought about better mechanical enhancement effect and in vitro bioactivity for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) with adding higher g-nano-hydroxyapatite content, suggesting it had a great potential to be used as bone fracture internal fixation materials

  6. Possible Evidence of Amide Bond Formation Between Sinapinic Acid and Lysine-Containing Bacterial Proteins by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Sultan, Omar; Carter, Michelle Q.

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, Hde, and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and post-source decay (PSD). We also reported the absence of adduct formation when using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix. Further mass spectrometric analysis of disulfide-intact and disulfide-reduced over-expressed HdeA and HdeB proteins from lysates of gene-inserted E. coli plasmids suggests covalent attachment of SA occurs not at cysteine residues but at lysine residues. In this revised hypothesis, the attachment of SA is preceded by formation of a solid phase ammonium carboxylate salt between SA and accessible lysine residues of the protein during sample preparation under acidic conditions. Laser irradiation at 355 nm of the dried sample spot results in equilibrium retrogradation followed by nucleophilic attack by the amine group of lysine at the carbonyl group of SA and subsequent amide bond formation and loss of water. The absence of CHCA adducts suggests that the electron-withdrawing effect of the α-cyano group of this matrix may inhibit salt formation and/or amide bond formation. This revised hypothesis is supported by dissociative loss of SA (-224 Da) and the amide-bound SA (-206 Da) from SA-adducted HdeA and HdeB ions by MS/MS (PSD). It is proposed that cleavage of the amide-bound SA from the lysine side-chain occurs via rearrangement involving a pentacyclic transition state followed by hydrogen abstraction/migration and loss of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-ynal (-206 Da).

  7. Effects of Chromium Methionine Supplementation on Blood Metabolites and Fatty Acid Profile of Beef during Late Fattening Period in Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Byong-Wan; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Sung, Kyung Il

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate supplementation on blood metabolites and fatty acid profile of beef from Holstein steers during late fattening period. Fifteen Holstein steers were allotted randomly into two groups including the control (non Cr-Met feeding, NCM, ave. body weight [BW] = 483±25.7 kg) and the treatment (Cr-Met feeding for 4 months, 4CM, ave. BW = 486±27.5 kg) group. The feeding amount of Cr-Met to animals was limited to 400 ppb/cow/d and was supplemented to total mixed ration. No difference in blood albumin, alkaline phosphatase, urea-nitrogen, calcium, creatine, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol were observed between the treatment groups (p>0.05). The level of high density lipoprotein was higher in the 4CM group than the NCM group, whereas low density lipoprotein was lower in the 4CM group (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition (caprate, laurate, myristate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, palmitoleate, margarate, cis-11 heptadodecanoate, stearate, oleate, trans-vaccenate, linoleate, cis-11 eicosenoate, docosa hexaenoic acid, and docosa pentaenoic acid) of the beef showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The arachidonic acid level tended to be higher in the 4CM than the NCM group (p = 0.07). Cr-Met had no influence (p>0.05) on the ratio of saturated, unsaturated, unsaturated/saturated, monounsaturated/saturated and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the 4CM group was comparatively higher than the NCM group (p<0.05). This study concluded that feeding Cr-Met supplementation in 400 ppb/d to Holstein steers for 4 months during late fattening period can improve some blood metabolites and beef quality by increasing PUFA and gamma-linoleate compositions of beef. PMID:26950869

  8. Effects of Chromium Methionine Supplementation on Blood Metabolites and Fatty Acid Profile of Beef during Late Fattening Period in Holstein Steers.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Byong-Wan; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Sung, Kyung Il

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate supplementation on blood metabolites and fatty acid profile of beef from Holstein steers during late fattening period. Fifteen Holstein steers were allotted randomly into two groups including the control (non Cr-Met feeding, NCM, ave. body weight [BW] = 483±25.7 kg) and the treatment (Cr-Met feeding for 4 months, 4CM, ave. BW = 486±27.5 kg) group. The feeding amount of Cr-Met to animals was limited to 400 ppb/cow/d and was supplemented to total mixed ration. No difference in blood albumin, alkaline phosphatase, urea-nitrogen, calcium, creatine, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol were observed between the treatment groups (p>0.05). The level of high density lipoprotein was higher in the 4CM group than the NCM group, whereas low density lipoprotein was lower in the 4CM group (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition (caprate, laurate, myristate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, palmitoleate, margarate, cis-11 heptadodecanoate, stearate, oleate, trans-vaccenate, linoleate, cis-11 eicosenoate, docosa hexaenoic acid, and docosa pentaenoic acid) of the beef showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The arachidonic acid level tended to be higher in the 4CM than the NCM group (p = 0.07). Cr-Met had no influence (p>0.05) on the ratio of saturated, unsaturated, unsaturated/saturated, monounsaturated/saturated and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the 4CM group was comparatively higher than the NCM group (p<0.05). This study concluded that feeding Cr-Met supplementation in 400 ppb/d to Holstein steers for 4 months during late fattening period can improve some blood metabolites and beef quality by increasing PUFA and gamma-linoleate compositions of beef. PMID:26950869

  9. Quantum Computational Calculations of the Ionization Energies of Acidic and Basic Amino Acids: Aspartate, Glutamate, Arginine, Lysine, and Histidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Guzman, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, M.; Lee, Y. S.; Andrianarijaona, V.

    An extensive knowledge of the ionization energies of amino acids can provide vital information on protein sequencing, structure, and function. Acidic and basic amino acids are unique because they have three ionizable groups: the C-terminus, the N-terminus, and the side chain. The effects of multiple ionizable groups can be seen in how Aspartate's ionizable side chain heavily influences its preferred conformation (J Phys Chem A. 2011 April 7; 115(13): 2900-2912). Theoretical and experimental data on the ionization energies of many of these molecules is sparse. Considering each atom of the amino acid as a potential departing site for the electron gives insight on how the three ionizable groups affect the ionization process of the molecule and the dynamic coupling between the vibrational modes. In the following study, we optimized the structure of each acidic and basic amino acid then exported the three dimensional coordinates of the amino acids. We used ORCA to calculate single point energies for a region near the optimized coordinates and systematically went through the x, y, and z coordinates of each atom in the neutral and ionized forms of the amino acid. With the calculations, we were able to graph energy potential curves to better understand the quantum dynamic properties of the amino acids. The authors thank Pacific Union College Student Association for providing funds.

  10. Changes in N-acetylglutamate are involved in regulating urea synthesis in rats given a low gluten diet supplemented with L-lysine, L-methinone and L-threonine.

    PubMed

    Tujioka, Kazuyo; Tuchiya, Tamami; Shi, Xianglan; Ohsumi, Miho; Hayase, Kazutoshi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that urinary urea excretion decreased in rats fed a low gluten diet supplemented with dietary limiting amino acids. The purpose of present study was to determine whether the addition of dietary limiting amino acids to a low gluten diet affected the synthesis and degradation of N-acetylglutamate and regulated urea synthesis. Experiments were done on two groups of rats, given diets containing 10% gluten or 10% gluten+0.5% L-lysine, 0.2% L-threonine and 0.2% L-methionine for 10 d. The urinary excretion of urea, and the liver concentration of N-acetylglutamate, and the liver activity of N-acetylglutamate synthetase decreased with the addition of dietary L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine. N-Acetylglutamate concentration in the liver was closely correlated with the N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity in the liver and excretion of urea. The greater degradation of N-acetylglutamate was observed in the group fed the 10% gluten+L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine. The hepatic concentration of glutamate and plasma concentration of arginine were not related to the N-acetylglutamate concentration in the liver. These results suggest that the addition of limiting amino acids to the low gluten diet controls the synthesis and degradation of N-acetylglutamate in the liver and lowers urea synthesis. PMID:19926928

  11. Metabolism of 5-methylthioribose to methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.; Yang, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine is released as 5'-methylthioadenosine, which is recycled to methionine via 5-methylthioribose (MTR). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted into labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB), as intermediates. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, indicating the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR. Tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract requires an amino donor. Among several potential donors examined, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Anaerobiosis inhibited only partially the oxidation of MTR to formate, KMB/HMB, and methionine by avocado extract. The role of O/sub 2/ in the conversion of MTR to methionine is discussed.

  12. The regulatory effect of citric acid on the co-production of poly(ε-lysine) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) in Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiaohai; Bo, Fangfang

    2014-10-01

    Streptomyces albulus PD-1 can co-produce antimicrobial homo-polymers poly(ε-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP). In this study, a novel feeding strategy of citric acid coupled with glucose-(NH4)2SO4 feeding was employed to S. albulus PD-1. When the pH of the culture broth dropped to 4.0, the feeding solution was added continuously to maintain the concentrations of glucose and citric acid at 10 and 4 g L(-1), respectively. As a result, the final concentration of ε-PL increased from 21.7 to 29.7 g L(-1) and the final concentration of PDAP decreased from 4.8 to 3.2 g L(-1). Assays on intracellular nucleotide levels and key enzyme activities were performed to elucidate the underlying regulation mechanism. The addition of citric acid increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio and decreased intracellular ATP level; meanwhile, the activities of pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase decreased while aspartate aminotransferase activity increased. Therefore, we deduced that citric acid feeding resulted in metabolic flux redistribution at the node of phosphoenolpyruvate; the metabolic pathway from phosphoenolpyruvate directed into tricarboxylic acid cycle was weakened and thus PDAP production was inhibited. On the other hand, the metabolic pathway from phosphoenolpyruvate directed into oxaloacetate and L-aspartate was enhanced, thereby improving ε-PL production. This fermentation strategy may be potentially useful in ε-PL production because it can effectively inhibit the formation of by-products, such as PDAP. PMID:24752482

  13. Distinct Paths for Basic Amino Acid Export in Escherichia coli: YbjE (LysO) Mediates Export of l-Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Amit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Escherichia coli, argO encodes an exporter for l-arginine (Arg) and its toxic analogue canavanine (CAN), and its transcriptional activation and repression, by Arg and l-lysine (Lys), respectively, are mediated by the regulator ArgP. Accordingly argO and argP mutants are CAN supersensitive (CANss). We report the identification of ybjE as a gene encoding a predicted inner membrane protein that mediates export of Lys, and our results confirm the previous identification with a different approach of YbjE as a Lys exporter, reported by Ueda and coworkers (T. Ueda, Y. Nakai, Y. Gunji, R. Takikawa, and Y. Joe, U.S. patents 7,629,142 B2 [December 2009] and 8,383,363 B1 [February 2013] and European patent 1,664,318 B1 [September 2009]). ybjE was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the CANss phenotype of a strain lacking ArgO. The absence of YbjE did not confer a CANss phenotype but instead conferred hypersensitivity to the lysine antimetabolite thialysine and led to growth inhibition by the dipeptide lysylalanine, which is associated with elevated cellular Lys content. YbjE overproduction resulted in Lys excretion and syntrophic cross-feeding of a Lys auxotroph. Constitutive overexpression of argO promoted Lys cross-feeding that is indicative of a latent Lys export potential of ArgO. Arg modestly repressed ybjE transcription in an ArgR-dependent manner, and ArgR displayed Arg-sensitive binding to the ybjE promoter region in vitro. Our studies suggest that the reciprocal repression of argO and ybjE, respectively, by Lys and Arg confers the specificity for basic amino acid export by distinct paths and that such cross-repression contributes to maintenance of cytoplasmic Arg/Lys balance. We propose that YbjE be redesignated LysO. IMPORTANCE This work ascribes a lysine export function to the product of the ybjE gene of Escherichia coli, leading to a physiological scenario wherein two proteins, ArgO and YbjE, perform the task of separately exporting arginine and

  14. Amino-acid selective experiments on uniformly 13C and 15N labeled proteins by MAS NMR: Filtering of lysines and arginines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Stefan; Rehbein, Kristina; Diehl, Anne; van Rossum, Barth-Jan

    2006-12-01

    Amino-acid selective magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments can aid the assignment of ambiguous cross-peaks in crowded spectra of solid proteins. In particular for larger proteins, data analysis can be hindered by severe resonance overlap. In such cases, filtering techniques may provide a good alternative to site-specific spin-labeling to obtain unambiguous assignments that can serve as starting points in the assignment procedure. In this paper we present a simple pulse sequence that allows selective excitation of arginine and lysine residues. To achieve this, we make use of a combination of specific cross-polarization for selective excitation [M. Baldus, A.T. Petkova, J. Herzfeld, R.G. Griffin, Cross polarization in the tilted frame: assignment and spectral simplification in heteronuclear spin systems, Mol. Phys. 95 (1998) 1197-1207.] and spin diffusion for transfer along the amino-acid side-chain. The selectivity of the filter is demonstrated with the excitation of lysine and arginine side-chain resonances in a uniformly 13C and 15N labeled protein preparation of the α-spectrin SH3 domain. It is shown that the filter can be applied as a building block in a 13C- 13C lysine-only correlation experiment.

  15. Methionine sulphoxide reductases revisited: free methionine as a primary target of H₂O₂stress in auxotrophic fission yeast.

    PubMed

    García-Santamarina, Sarela; Boronat, Susanna; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Amino acid methionine can suffer reversible oxidation to sulphoxide and further irreversible over-oxidation to methionine sulphone. As part of the cellular antioxidant scavenging activities are the methionine sulphoxide reductases (Msrs), with a reported role in methionine sulphoxide reduction, both free and in proteins. Three families of Msrs have been described, but the fission yeast genome only includes one representative for two of these families: MsrA/Mxr1 and MsrB/Mxr2. We have investigated their role in methionine reduction and H2 O2 sensitivity. We show here that MsrA/Mxr1 is able to reduce free oxidized methionine. Cells lacking each one of the genes are not significantly sensitive to different types of oxidative stresses, neither display altered life span. However, only when deletion of msrA/mxr1 is combined with deletion of met6, which confers methionine auxotrophy, the survival upon H2 O2 stress decreases by 100-fold. In fact, cells lacking only Met6, and which therefore require addition of methionine to the growth media, are extremely sensitive to H2 O2 stress. These and other evidences suggest that oxidation of free methionine is a primary target of peroxide toxicity in cells devoid of methionine biosynthetic capacity, and that an important role of Msrs is to recycle this oxidized free amino acid. PMID:24118096

  16. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine). PMID:24679256

  17. Efficacy of a Complex of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Glycyl-Histidyl-Lysine Peptide on Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Yim, Soon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Pattern hair loss is a very common problem. Although effective therapeutics for the treatment of pattern hair loss have been used, novel therapeutic modalities are still required to enhance hair growth. Objective We investigated the efficacy and safety of a complex (ALAVAX) of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK) peptide for the treatment of pattern hair loss. Methods Forty-five patients with male pattern hair loss were treated with ALAVAX 100 mg/ml (group A), ALAVAX 50 mg/ml (group B) or placebo (group C) once a day for 6 months. Total hair count, hair length, hair thickness, patient's assessment and adverse events were evaluated at month 1, 3, and 6. Results An increase in hair count for 6 months was 52.6 (p<0.05) in group A, 71.5 (p<0.05) in group B, and 9.6 in group C. The ratio of changes in hair count between group B (2.38) and group C (1.21) at 6 months showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The proportion above good satisfaction was higher in group A (26.7%) than in the other groups (group B: 14.3%, group C: 7.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in hair length and hair thickness among 3 groups at 6 months. There was no adverse event in 3 groups. Conclusion Our study showed that a complex of 5-ALA and GHK peptide may be considered as one of the complementary agents for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. PMID:27489425

  18. Human milk nonprotein nitrogen components: changing patterns of free amino acids and urea in the course of early lactation.

    PubMed

    Harzer, G; Franzke, V; Bindels, J G

    1984-08-01

    Free amino acids and urea were analyzed in 78 human milk samples obtained during the first 5 wk of lactation from 10 mothers delivering at term. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) in the concentrations between colostral and mature milk were found for glutamic acid, glutamine, alanine, glycine, cystine, and phosphoethanolamine which increased, and with serine, phosphoserine, aspartic acid + asparagine, arginine, lysine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, and beta-alanine which decreased. Some of these changes occurred within the first 5 days of lactation, so that differences between transitional and mature milk became negligible (glutamic acid, alanine, and serine, aspartic acid + asparagine, lysine, isoleucine, methionine, tryptophan, respectively). No significant differences between any of the three stages of lactation were found regarding the concentrations of total free amino acids, urea, taurine, threonine, valine, leucine, histidine, and tyrosine. Possible relevances for free amino acids, including nonprotein ones, in human milk are discussed. PMID:6147084

  19. Experimental and theoretical proton affinities of methionine, methionine sulfoxide and their N- and C-terminal derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioe, Hadi; O'Hair, Richard A. J.; Gronert, Scott; Austin, Allen; Reid, Gavin E.

    2007-11-01

    The proton affinities of methionine, methionine sulfoxide and their derivatives (methionine methyl ester, methionine sulfoxide methyl ester, methionine methyl amide, methionine sulfoxide methyl amide, N-acetyl methionine, N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide, N-acetyl methionine methyl ester, N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide methyl ester, N-acetyl methionine methyl amide and N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide methyl amide) were experimentally determined using the kinetic method, in which proton bound dimers formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) were subjected to collision induced dissociation (CID) in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In addition, theoretical calculations carried out at the MP2/6-311 + G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory to determine the global minima of the neutral and protonated species of all derivatives studied, were used to predict theoretical proton affinities. The density function theory calculations not only support the experimental proton affinities, but also provide structural insights into the types of hydrogen bonding that stabilize the neutral and protonated methionine or methionine sulfoxide derivatives. Comparison of the proton affinities of the various methionine and methionine sulfoxide derivatives reveals that: (i) oxidation of methionine derivatives to methionine sulfoxide derivatives results in an increase in proton affinity due to higher intrinsic proton affinity and an increase in the ring size formed through charge complexation of the sulfoxide group, which allows more efficient hydrogen bonding compared to the sulfide group; (ii) C-terminal modification by methyl esterification or methyl amidation increases the proton affinity in the order of methyl amide > methyl ester > carboxylic acid due to improved charge stabilization; (iii) N-terminal modification by N-acetylation decreases proton affinity of the derivatives due to lower intrinsic proton affinity of the N-acetyl group as well as due to stabilization of the attached

  20. Carnitine biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa: enzymatic conversion of lysine to epsilon-N-trimethyllysine.

    PubMed Central

    Rebouche, C J; Broquist, H P

    1976-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of L-lysine, epsilon-N-trimethyl-L-lysine the first series of reactions in the biosynthesis of carnitine in Neurospora crassa, proceeds via sequential methylation of free L-lysine, epsilon-N-methyl-L-lysine, and epsilon -N-dimethyl-L-lysine. The latter two compounds have been shown to be intermediates in the biosynthesis of carnitine by radioisotope dilution and incorporation experiments in growing cultures of N. crassa 33933 (lys-) and 38706 (met-). Methionine but not choline, has been recognized as an effective methyl donor in vivo. Inclusion of choline in the growth medium of strain 33933 does, however, enhance incorporation of the methyl groups of L-[methyl-3H]methionine into carnitine in an apparent "sparing" effect on methionine synthesis. Studies in cell-free extracts of the lysine auxotroph strain 33933 of N. crassa have established that lysine and epsilon-N-methyl and epsilon-N-dimethyllysine are enzymatically methylated, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl group donor. The enzyme system appears to have no essential cofactors. Lysine does not induce synthesis of the enzyme system in the wild-type strain 262, whereas both carnitine and epsilon-N-trimethyllysine repress its synthesis in strain 33933. PMID:133101

  1. Cobalamin inactivation decreases purine and methionine synthesis in cultured lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Boss, G R

    1985-07-01

    The megaloblastic anemia of cobalamin deficiency appears secondary to decreased methionine synthetase activity. Decreased activity of this enzyme should cause 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to accumulate intracellularly, and consequently, decrease purine and DNA synthesis; this is the basis of the "methylfolate trap" hypothesis of cobalamin deficiency. However, only some of the clinical and biochemical manifestations of cobalamin deficiency can be explained by the methylfolate trap. We investigated cobalamin deficiency by treating cultured human lymphoblasts with N2O since N2O inhibits methionine synthetase activity by inactivating cobalamin. We found that 4 h of N2O exposure reduced rates of methionine synthesis by 89%. Rates of purine synthesis were not significantly reduced by N2O when folate and methionine were present at 100 microM in the medium; however, at the physiologic methionine concentration of 10 microM, N2O decreased rates of purine synthesis by 33 and 57% in the presence of 100 microM folate and in the absence of folate, respectively. The dependency of rates of purine synthesis on methionine availability would be expected in cells with restricted methionine synthetic capacity because methionine is the immediate precursor of S-adenosylmethionine, a potent inhibitor of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate synthesis; methionine serves as a source of formate for purine synthesis; and rates of purine synthesis are dependent on the intracellular availability of essential amino acids. We conclude that cobalamin inactivation decreases purine synthesis by both methylfolate trapping and reduction of intracellular methionine synthesis. PMID:2862163

  2. Influence of methionine supply on the response of lactational performance of dairy cows to supplementary folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-04-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine if the effects of supplementary folic acid on lactational performance were caused by improved methylneogenesis and if the supply in vitamin B(12) could affect this metabolic pathway. In this eventuality, supplementary Met, a major source of preformed methyl groups, should reduce the requirements for these vitamins. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply Met as 1.83% metabolizable protein and 3 cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) to supply Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10 mg of vitamin B(12) from 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving. There was no treatment effect on dry matter intake during pre- and postcalving periods: 13.4 +/- 0.4 and 21.8 +/- 0.4 kg/d, respectively. Milk production was not affected by RPM supplementation. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) given together tended to increase milk production during the 16 wk of lactation. This effect was more pronounced during the first 4 wk of lactation: 37.5, 37.7, and 40.3 +/- 0.9 kg/d for cows receiving no vitamin supplement, folic acid alone, or folic acid combined with vitamin B(12), respectively. Milk fat yield was not affected by treatments. Lactose, crude protein, and total solid yields were greater, in early lactation, in cows injected with folic acid and vitamin B(12) together but this effect diminished as lactation progressed. Intramuscular injections of folic acid alone or combined with vitamin B(12) tended to decrease plasma concentrations of homocysteine from 5.51 microM with no vitamin supplement to 4.54 and 4.77 +/- 0.37 microM, respectively. Results of the present experiment suggest that the effects of the combined

  3. Nutritional value and safety of methionine derivatives, isomeric dipeptides and hydroxy analogs in mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Gumbmann, M R

    1988-03-01

    Weight gains in mice fed amino acid diets containing methionine and 16 methionine derivatives and analogs were compared at graded dietary concentrations. Linear response was closely approximated for concentrations below those yielding maximum growth. Derivatization of L-methionine generally lowered potency, calculated as the ratio of the slopes of the two dose-response curves. However, the three isomeric dipeptides L-L-, L-D- and D-L-methionylmethionine, N-acetyl- and N-formyl-L-methionine, L-methionine sulfoxide and D-methionine were well utilized. The double derivative N-acetyl-L-methionine sulfoxide reduced potency below 60%. D-Methionine sulfoxide, N-acetyl-D-methionine and D-methionyl-D-methionine had potencies between 4 and 40%. The calcium salts of L- and D-alpha-hydroxy analogs of methionine had potencies of 55.4 and 85.7%, respectively. Several of the analogs were less growth-inhibiting or toxic at high concentrations in the diet than was L-methionine. These results imply that some methionine dipeptides or analogs may be better candidates for fortifying foods than L-methionine. Possible biochemical pathways for the utilization of methionine derivatives and analogs are also described. PMID:3351635

  4. Production of the amino acids l-glutamate, l-lysine, l-ornithine and l-arginine from arabinose by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jens; Niermann, Karin; Wendisch, Volker F

    2011-07-10

    Amino acid production processes with Corynebacterium glutamicum are based on media containing glucose from starch hydrolysis or fructose and sucrose as present in molasses. Simultaneous utilization of various carbon sources, including glucose, fructose and sucrose, in blends is a typical characteristic of this bacterium. The renewable non-food carbon source arabinose, which is present in hemicellulosic hydrolysates, cannot be utilized by most C. glutamicum strains. Heterologous expression of the araBAD operon from Escherichia coli in the wild-type and in an l-lysine producing strain of C. glutamicum was shown to enable production of l-glutamate and l-lysine, respectively, from arabinose as sole carbon source. l-Ornithine and l-arginine producing strains were constructed and shown to produce l-ornithine and l-arginine from arabinose when araBAD from E. coli was expressed. Moreover, the recombinant strains produced l-glutamate, l-lysine, l-ornithine and l-arginine respectively, from arabinose also when glucose-arabinose blends were used as carbon sources. PMID:20638422

  5. Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Lysine Malonylation Suggest Its Malonic Aciduria-associated Regulatory Role in Mitochondrial Function and Fatty Acid Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Colak, Gozde; Pougovkina, Olga; Dai, Lunzhi; Tan, Minjia; Te Brinke, Heleen; Huang, He; Cheng, Zhongyi; Park, Jeongsoon; Wan, Xuelian; Liu, Xiaojing; Yue, Wyatt W; Wanders, Ronald J A; Locasale, Jason W; Lombard, David B; de Boer, Vincent C J; Zhao, Yingming

    2015-11-01

    The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts. Increased malonyl-CoA levels in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD)-deficient cells induces Kmal levels in substrate proteins. We identified 461 Kmal sites showing more than a 2-fold increase in response to MCD deficiency as well as 1452 Kmal sites detected only in MCD-/- fibroblast but not MCD+/+ cells, suggesting a pathogenic role of Kmal in MCD deficiency. Cells with increased lysine malonylation displayed impaired mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that lysine malonylation plays a role in pathophysiology of malonic aciduria. Our study establishes an association between Kmal and a genetic disease and offers a rich resource for elucidating the contribution of the Kmal pathway and malonyl-CoA to cellular physiology and human diseases. PMID:26320211

  6. The first seven amino acids encoded by the v-src oncogene act as a myristylation signal: Lysine 7 is a critical determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.M.; Mardon, G.; Bishop, J.M.; Varmus, H.E.

    1988-06-01

    The transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, pp60/sup v-src/, is covalently coupled to myristic acid by an amide linkage to glycine 2. Myristylation promotes the association of pp60/sup v-src/ with cellular membranes, and this subcellular location is essential for transforming activity. The findings presented here, in conjunction with the previous reports of others, imply that the seventh amino acid encoded by v-src might be important in the myristlyation reaction. Replacement of lysine 7 by asparagine greatly reduced the myristylation, membrane association, and transforming activity of pp60/sup v-src/. In contrast, substitution of arginine at residue 7 had no effect on any of these properties of pp60/sup v-src/. Addition of amino acids 1 to 7 encoded by v-src was sufficient to cause myristylation of a src-pyruvate kinase function protein. The authors conclude that the recognition sequence for myristylation of pp60/sup v-src/ comprises amino acids 1 to 7 and that lysine 7 is a critical component of this sequence.

  7. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids was studied. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins.

  8. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids has been studied further. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins

  9. Modulation of potassium channel function by methionine oxidation and reduction

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A.; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Weissbach, Herbert; Brot, Nathan; Hoshi, Toshinori

    1997-01-01

    Oxidation of amino acid residues in proteins can be caused by a variety of oxidizing agents normally produced by cells. The oxidation of methionine in proteins to methionine sulfoxide is implicated in aging as well as in pathological conditions, and it is a reversible reaction mediated by a ubiquitous enzyme, peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase. The reversibility of methionine oxidation suggests that it could act as a cellular regulatory mechanism although no such in vivo activity has been demonstrated. We show here that oxidation of a methionine residue in a voltage-dependent potassium channel modulates its inactivation. When this methionine residue is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, the inactivation is disrupted, and it is reversed by coexpression with peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase. The results suggest that oxidation and reduction of methionine could play a dynamic role in the cellular signal transduction process in a variety of systems. PMID:9275229

  10. Methionine transmethylation and transsulfuration in the piglet gastrointestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine is an indispensable sulfur amino acid that functions as a key precursor for the synthesis of homocysteine and cysteine. Studies in adult humans suggest that splanchnic tissues convert dietary methionine to homocysteine and cysteine by means of transmethylation and transsulfuration, respec...

  11. Lysine residues direct the chlorination of tyrosines in YXXK motifs of apolipoprotein A-I when hypochlorous acid oxidizes high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bergt, Constanze; Fu, Xiaoyun; Huq, Nabiha P; Kao, Jeff; Heinecke, Jay W

    2004-02-27

    Oxidized lipoproteins may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific end product of the reaction between hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and tyrosine residues of proteins, have been detected in atherosclerotic tissue. Thus, HOCl generated by the phagocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase represents one pathway for protein oxidation in humans. One important target of the myeloperoxidase pathway may be high density lipoprotein (HDL), which mobilizes cholesterol from artery wall cells. To determine whether activated phagocytes preferentially chlorinate specific sites in HDL, we used tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to analyze apolipoprotein A-I that had been oxidized by HOCl. The major site of chlorination was a single tyrosine residue located in one of the protein's YXXK motifs (where X represents a nonreactive amino acid). To investigate the mechanism of chlorination, we exposed synthetic peptides to HOCl. The peptides encompassed the amino acid sequences YKXXY, YXXKY, or YXXXY. MS/MS analysis demonstrated that chlorination of tyrosine in the peptides that contained lysine was regioselective and occurred in high yield if the substrate was KXXY or YXXK. NMR and MS analyses revealed that the N(epsilon) amino group of lysine was initially chlorinated, which suggests that chloramine formation is the first step in tyrosine chlorination. Molecular modeling of the YXXK motif in apolipoprotein A-I demonstrated that these tyrosine and lysine residues are adjacent on the same face of an amphipathic alpha-helix. Our observations suggest that HOCl selectively targets tyrosine residues that are suitably juxtaposed to primary amino groups in proteins. This mechanism might enable phagocytes to efficiently damage proteins when they destroy microbial proteins during infection or damage host tissue during inflammation. PMID:14660678

  12. Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Homocysteine Metabolism through Regulating the Gene Expressions Involved in Methionine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Hu, Xiaojie; Khan, Nicholas; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the regulatory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on mRNA expression of key genes involved in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups. The oils were orally administered daily for 8 weeks. Plasma Hcy, phospholipids fatty acids, and mRNA expression were determined. Compared with the control group, plasma Hcy was significantly decreased in the 22:6n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) groups; mRNA expression of Mthfr was significantly upregulated in the 22:6n-3, 20:5n-3, and 18:3n-3 groups and downregulated in the 18:2n-6 and stearolic acid (SO) groups. Mat1a was upregulated in the 22:6n-3, 20:5n-3, 18:3n-3, and CLA groups. In addition, Cbs was upregulated in the 22:6n-3, 20:5n-3, 18:3n-3 and CLA groups while downregulated in 18:2n-6 and SO groups. Dietary 22:6n-3 and CLA decrease the plasma concentration of Hcy. mRNA expression of Mthfr, Mat1a, Cbs and Pemt, Gnmt, Mtrr, and Bad is upregulated by n-3 PUFA and downregulated by n-6 PUFA. CLA upregulates mRNA expression of Mat1a and Cbs. PMID:23766724

  13. Recurrent selection to control grain methionine content and improve nutritional value of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine is an essential amino acid that is limiting in maize-based diets. The objective of this work was to determine if we could alter methionine content in random-mated maize populations by recurrent selection for grain methionine content. In one study, we developed two populations by selecting...

  14. Methionine-to-Cysteine Recycling in Klebsiella aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Seiflein, Thomas A.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    In the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, sulfate is reduced to sulfide and assimilated into the amino acid cysteine; in turn, cysteine provides the sulfur atom for other sulfur-bearing molecules in the cell, including methionine. These organisms cannot use methionine as a sole source of sulfur. Here we report that this constraint is not shared by many other enteric bacteria, which can use either cysteine or methionine as the sole source of sulfur. The enteric bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes appears to use at least two pathways to allow the reduced sulfur of methionine to be recycled into cysteine. In addition, the ability to recycle methionine on solid media, where cys mutants cannot use methionine as a sulfur source, appears to be different from that in liquid media, where they can. One pathway likely uses a cystathionine intermediate to convert homocysteine to cysteine and is induced under conditions of sulfur starvation, which is likely sensed by low levels of the sulfate reduction intermediate adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate. The CysB regulatory proteins appear to control activation of this pathway. A second pathway may use a methanesulfonate intermediate to convert methionine-derived methanethiol to sulfite. While the transsulfurylation pathway may be directed to recovery of methionine, the methanethiol pathway likely represents a general salvage mechanism for recovery of alkane sulfide and alkane sulfonates. Therefore, the relatively distinct biosyntheses of cysteine and methionine in E. coli and Salmonella appear to be more intertwined in Klebsiella. PMID:11114934

  15. Oxidation of methionine residues in proteins of activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Fliss, H; Weissbach, H; Brot, N

    1983-01-01

    A simple assay for the detection of 35S-labeled methionine sulfoxide residues in proteins is described. The assay, which is based on the ability of CNBr to react with methionine but not with methionine sulfoxide, requires the prelabeling of cellular proteins with [35S]methionine. The assay was used to study the extent of methionine oxidation in newly synthesized proteins of both activated and quiescent human neutrophils. In cells undergoing a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced respiratory burst, about 66% of all methionine residues in newly synthesized proteins were oxidized to the sulfoxide derivative, as compared with 9% in cells not treated with the phorbol ester. In contrast, quantitation of methionine sulfoxide content in the total cellular protein by means of amino acid analysis showed that only 22% of all methionine residues were oxidized in activated cells as compared with 9% in quiescent cells. It is proposed that methionine residues in nascent polypeptide chains are more susceptible to oxidation than those in completed proteins. PMID:6580633

  16. A Methionine Residue Promotes Hyperoxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine of Mouse Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geumsoo; Levine, Rodney L

    2016-06-28

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (msrA) reduces methionine sulfoxide in proteins back to methionine. Its catalytic cysteine (Cys72-SH) has a low pKa that facilitates oxidation by methionine sulfoxide to cysteine sulfenic acid. If the catalytic cycle proceeds efficiently, the sulfenic acid is reduced back to cysteine at the expense of thioredoxin. However, the sulfenic acid is vulnerable to "irreversible" oxidation to cysteine sulfinic acid that inactivates msrA (hyperoxidation). We observed that human msrA is resistant to hyperoxidation while mouse msrA is readily hyperoxidized by micromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. We investigated the basis of this difference in susceptibility to hyperoxidation and established that it is controlled by the presence or absence of a Met residue in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the enzyme, Met229. This residue is Val in human msrA, and when it was mutated to Met, human msrA became sensitive to hyperoxidation. Conversely, mouse msrA was rendered insensitive to hyperoxidation when Met229 was mutated to Val or one of five other residues. Positioning of the methionine at residue 229 is not critical, as hyperoxidation occurred as long as the methionine was located within the group of 14 carboxyl-terminal residues. The carboxyl domain of msrA is known to be flexible and to have access to the active site, and Met residues are known to form stable, noncovalent bonds with aromatic residues through interaction of the sulfur atom with the aromatic ring. We propose that Met229 forms such a bond with Trp74 at the active site, preventing formation of a protective sulfenylamide with Cys72 sulfenic acid. As a consequence, the sulfenic acid is available for facile, irreversible oxidation to cysteine sulfinic acid. PMID:27259041

  17. Dissimilation of Methionine by Achromobacter starkeyi1

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrera, José; Starkey, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Methionine was decomposed by some bacteria which were isolated from soil. The sulfur of the methionine was liberated as methanethiol, and part of this became oxidized to dimethyl disulfide. Detailed studies with one of these cultures, Achromobacter starkeyi, indicated that the first step in methionine decomposition was its oxidadative deamination to α-keto-γ-methyl mercaptobutyrate by a constitutive amino acid oxidase. The following steps were carried out by inducible enzymes, the synthesis of which was inhibited by chloramphenicol. α-Keto-γ-methyl mercaptobutyrate was split producing methanethiol and α-keto butyrate which was oxidized to propionate. The metabolism of propionate was similar to that described for animal tissues; the propionate was carboxylated to succinate via methyl malonyl coenzyme A, and the succinate was metabolized through the Krebs cycle. PMID:16559105

  18. Synthesis and Anchoring of Antineoplastic Ferrocene and Phthalocyanine Derivatives on Water-Soluble Polymeric Drug Carriers Derived from Lysine and Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Maree, M. David; Neuse, Eberhard W.; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Swarts, Jannie C.

    2008-01-01

    The general synthetic strategy towards water-soluble biodegradable drug carriers and the properties that they must have are discussed. The syntheses of water-soluble biodegradable copolymers of lysine and aspartic acid as potential drug-delivering devices, having amine-functionalised side chains are then described. Covalent anchoring of carboxylic acid derivatives of the antineoplastic ferrocene and photodynamically active phthalocyanine moieties to the amine-containing drug carrier copolymers under mild coupling conditions has been achieved utilising the coupling reagent O-benzotriazolyl-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate to promote formation of the biodegradable amide bond. Even though the parent antineoplastic ferrocene and phthalocyanine derivatives are themselves insoluble in water at pH < 7, the new carrier-drug conjugates that were obtained are well water-soluble. PMID:18288243

  19. Methionine-dependent histone methylation at developmentally important gene loci in mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Mari; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Sugimoto, Miki; Kume, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of specific nutrients in epigenetic gene regulation is a possible mechanism underlying nutrition-directed phenotypic alteration. However, the involvement of nutrients in gene-specific epigenetic regulation remains poorly understood. Methionine has been received attention as a possible nutrient involved in epigenetic modifications, as it is a precursor of the universal methyl donor for epigenetic methylation of DNA and histones. In the present study, the disruption of methionine metabolism by ethionine, an antimetabolite of methionine, induced abnormally higher expression of genes related to cell lineage differentiation and resulted in impaired blastocyst development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro. These effects were mitigated by the presence of methionine. Importantly, ethionine treatment induced lower trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 but did not affect methylation of DNA in the promoter regions of the examined genes. These results demonstrated that intact methionine metabolism is required for proper epigenetic histone modifications and normal expression of developmentally important genes during preimplantation development. PMID:26372092

  20. Reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ejiri, S I; Weissbach, H; Brot, N

    1979-01-01

    L-Methionine-dl-sulfoxide can support the growth of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph, suggesting the presence of an enzyme(s) capable of reducing the sulfoxide to methionine. This was verified by showing that a cell-free extract of E. coli catalyzes the conversion of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. This reaction required reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and a generating system for this compound. The specific activity of the enzyme increased during logarithmic growth and was maximal when the culture attained a density of about 10(9) cells per ml. PMID:37234

  1. Engineering of methionine chain elongation part of glucoraphanin pathway in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nadia; Crocoll, Christoph; Erik Olsen, Carl; Ann Halkier, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The methionine-derived glucosinolate glucoraphanin is associated with the health-promoting properties of broccoli. This has developed a strong interest in producing this compound in high amounts from a microbial source. Glucoraphanin synthesis starts with a five-gene chain elongation pathway that converts methionine to dihomo-methionine, which is subsequently converted to glucoraphanin by the seven-gene glucosinolate core structure pathway. As dihomo-methionine is the precursor amino acid for glucoraphanin production, a first challenge is to establish an expression system for production of dihomo-methionine. In planta, the methionine chain elongation enzymes are physically separated within the cell with the first enzyme in the cytosol while the rest are located in the chloroplast. A de-compartmentalization approach was applied to produce dihomo-methionine by expression of the respective plant genes in Escherichia coli cytosol. Introduction of two plasmids encoding the methionine chain elongation pathway into E. coli resulted in production of 25mgL(-1) of dihomo-methionine. In addition to chain-elongated methionine products, side-products from chain elongation of leucine were produced. Methionine supplementation enhanced dihomo-methionine production to 57mgL(-1), while keeping a steady level of the chain-elongated leucine products. Engineering of the de-compartmentalized pathway of dihomo-methionine in E. coli cytosol provides an important first step for microbial production of the health-promoting glucoraphanin. PMID:26410451

  2. Oxidation of methionine in PrP is dependent upon the oxidant and the amino acid two positions removed(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. Methionine oxidation has been shown both to be associated with prion formation and implicated in the inhibition of amyloid formation in model systems. This work is based on model systems where hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidant. Materials and Methods. We developed a se...

  3. A phase transition from monoclinic C2 with Z' = 1 to triclinic P1 with Z' = 4 for the quasiracemate L-2-aminobutyric acid-D-methionine (1/1).

    PubMed

    Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Wragg, David S; Bakke, Ingrid Marie Bergh; Fleischer, Christian; Grønnevik, Gaute; Mykland, Maria; Park, Yoomin; Trovik, Kristian Wiedicke; Serigstad, Halvard; Sundsli, Bård Edgar Vestheim

    2016-07-01

    Racemates of hydrophobic amino acids with linear side chains are known to undergo a unique series of solid-state phase transitions that involve sliding of molecular bilayers upon heating or cooling. Recently, this behaviour was shown to extend also to quasiracemates of two different amino acids with opposite handedness [Görbitz & Karen (2015). J. Phys. Chem. B, 119, 4975-4984]. Previous investigations are here extended to an L-2-aminobutyric acid-D-methionine (1/1) co-crystal, C4H9NO2·C5H11NO2S. The significant difference in size between the -CH2CH3 and -CH2CH2SCH3 side chains leads to extensive disorder at room temperature, which is essentially resolved after a phase transition at 229 K to an unprecedented triclinic form where all four D-methionine molecules in the asymmetric unit have different side-chain conformations and all three side-chain rotamers are used for the four partner L-2-aminobutyric acid molecules. PMID:27377274

  4. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eli K.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Villanueva, Laura; Wienk, Hans; Schoutsen, Frans; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their environmental niche. The membrane lipids of these species were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/IT/MS) and high resolution accurate mass/mass spectrometry (HRAM/MS). Abundant unknown intact polar lipids (IPLs) from P. saltans were isolated and further characterized using amino acid analysis and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Ornithine IPLs (OLs) with variable (hydroxy) fatty acid composition were observed in both bacterial species. Lysine-containing IPLs (LLs) were also detected in both species and were characterized here for the first time using HPLC-MS. Novel LLs containing hydroxy fatty acids and novel hydroxylysine lipids with variable (hydroxy) fatty acid composition were identified in P. saltans. The confirmation of OL and LL formation in F. johnsoniae and P. saltans and the presence of OlsF putative homologs in P. saltans suggest the OlsF gene coding protein is possibly involved in OL and LL biosynthesis in both species, however, potential pathways of OL and LL hydroxylation in P. saltans are still undetermined. Triplicate cultures of P. saltans were grown at three temperature/pH combinations: 30°C/pH 7, 15°C/pH 7, and 15°C/pH 9. The fractional abundance of total amino acid containing IPLs containing hydroxylated fatty acids was significantly higher at higher temperature, and the fractional abundance of lysine-containing IPLs was significantly higher at lower temperature and higher pH. These results suggest that these amino acid-containing IPLs, including the novel hydroxylysine lipids, could be involved in temperature and pH stress

  5. NMR studies of protonation and hydrogen bond states of internal aldimines of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate acid-base in alanine racemase, aspartate aminotransferase, and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Dos, Alexandra; Zander, Reinhard; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Compton, Shara; Fogle, Emily; Toney, Michael D; Shenderovich, Ilya; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-12-01

    Using (15)N solid-state NMR, we have studied protonation and H-bonded states of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) linked as an internal aldimine in alanine racemase (AlaR), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and poly-L-lysine. Protonation of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP and the coupled proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen (enolimine form) to the aldimine nitrogen (ketoenamine form) is often considered to be a prerequisite to the initial step (transimination) of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Indeed, using (15)N NMR and H-bond correlations in AspAT, we observe a strong aspartate-pyridine nitrogen H-bond with H located on nitrogen. After hydration, this hydrogen bond is maintained. By contrast, in the case of solid lyophilized AlaR, we find that the pyridine nitrogen is neither protonated nor hydrogen bonded to the proximal arginine side chain. However, hydration establishes a weak hydrogen bond to pyridine. To clarify how AlaR is activated, we performed (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR experiments on isotopically labeled PLP aldimines formed by lyophilization with poly-L-lysine. In the dry solid, only the enolimine tautomer is observed. However, a fast reversible proton transfer involving the ketoenamine tautomer is observed after treatment with either gaseous water or gaseous dry HCl. Hydrolysis requires the action of both water and HCl. The formation of an external aldimine with aspartic acid at pH 9 also produces the ketoenamine form stabilized by interaction with a second aspartic acid, probably via a H-bond to the phenolic oxygen. We postulate that O-protonation is an effectual mechanism for the activation of PLP, as is N-protonation, and that enzymes that are incapable of N-protonation employ this mechanism. PMID:24147985

  6. Lysine catabolism in Rhizoctonia leguminicola and related fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F P; Broquist, H P

    1976-01-01

    The catabolism of lysine was studied in several yeasts and fungi. Results with cell-free extracts of Rhizoctonia leguminicola support a proposed pathway involving (D- and L-) EPSILON-N-acetyllysine, alpha-keto-epsilon-acetamidohexanoic acid, delta-acetamidovaleric acid, and delta-aminovaleric acid in the conversion of L-lysine to shortchain organic acids. Label from radioactive L-lysine was found to accumulate in D- and L-epsilon-N-acetyllysine, delta-acetamidovaleric acid, delta-aminovaleric acid, and glutaric acid in cultures of R. leguminicola, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hansenula saturnus, suggesting that the proposed omega-acetyl pathway of lysine catabolism is generalized among yeasts and fungi. In N. crassa, as is the case in R. leguminicola, the major precursor of L-pipecolic acid was the L-isomer of lysine; 15N experiments were consistent with delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylic acid as an intermediate in the transformation. PMID:131119

  7. N-Terminal methionine processing by the zinc-activated Plasmodium falciparum methionine aminopeptidase 1b.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Sarah; Klein, Christian D

    2016-08-01

    The methionine aminopeptidase 1b from Plasmodium falciparum (PfMetAP 1b) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) that require heavy-metal cofactors such as cobalt, the enzyme is reliably activated by zinc ions. Immobilization of the enzyme is possible by His-tag metal chelation to iminodiacetic acid-agarose and by covalent binding to chloroacetamido-hexyl-agarose. The covalently immobilized enzyme shows long-term stability, allowing a continuous, heterogenous processing of N-terminal methionines, for example, in recombinant proteins. Activation by zinc, instead of cobalt as for other MetAPs, avoids the introduction of heavy metals with toxicological liabilities and oxidative potential into biotechnological processes. The PfMetAP 1b therefore represents a useful tool for the enzymatic, posttranslational processing of recombinant proteins. PMID:27023914

  8. A pH-responsive drug nanovehicle constructed by reversible attachment of cholesterol to PEGylated poly(l-lysine) via catechol-boronic acid ester formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Lv, Yin; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Han, Yun-Tao; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hai; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2014-08-01

    The present work reports the construction of a drug delivery nanovehicle via a pH-sensitive assembly strategy for improved cellular internalization and intracellular drug liberation. Through spontaneous formation of boronate linkage in physiological conditions, phenylboronic acid-modified cholesterol was able to attach onto catechol-pending methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine). This comb-type polymer can self-organize into a micellar nanoconstruction that is able to effectively encapsulate poorly water-soluble agents. The blank micelles exhibited negligible in vitro cytotoxicity, yet doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles could effectively induce cell death at a level comparable to free DOX. Owing to the acid-labile feature of the boronate linkage, a reduction in environmental pH from pH 7.4 to 5.0 could trigger the dissociation of the nanoconstruction, which in turn could accelerate the liberation of entrapped drugs. Importantly, the blockage of endosomal acidification in HeLa cells by NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased the nuclear uptake efficiency and cell-killing effect mediated by the DOX-loaded nanoassembly, suggesting that acid-triggered destruction of the nanoconstruction is of significant importance in enhanced drug efficacy. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay revealed the effective internalization of the nanoassemblies, and their cellular uptake exhibited a cholesterol dose-dependent profile, indicating the contribution of introduced cholesterol functionality to the transmembrane process of the nanoassembly. PMID:24879311

  9. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  10. The determination of methionine in proteins by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, G M; Duncan, A

    1976-01-01

    Intact methionine residues in proteins were rapidly and precisely determined by measuring methyl thiocyanate released during the reaction with CNBr and separated by g.l.c. Conditions for the reaction and for chromatography on columns of Porapak P-S are described. The recovery of methyl thiocyanate from several methionine derivatives and analogues were examined. Carbamoylmethionine was adopted as a stable primary standard and ethyl thiocyanate as internal standard. The measured methionine content of several isolated proteins was close to the theoretical value indicated by previous work and the results for these and a range of food proteins agreed well with results obtained by ion-exchange chromatography after performic acid oxidation. Since CNBr does not react with methionine sulphoxide and a preliminary hydrolysis is not required, the method discriminates between methionine and any methionine sulphoxide that may be present. It could be useful in studies on the nutritional availability of methionine in processed foods. PMID:949322

  11. Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Wong, Eric A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Dietary methionine is indispensable for animal maintenance, growth and development. L-methionine (L-Met), and its synthetic forms DL-methionine (DL-Met) and 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) are common supplemental methionine sources in animal diets. There are different characteristics for cellular absorption, transport, metabolism and bio-efficiency between these three dietary methionine sources. Moreover, there are differences in their utilization among various species such as chickens, pigs and ruminants. As a methionine precursor, HMTBA is efficacious in the promotion of growth in animals. It is absorbed mainly by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), coupled with the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), while DL-Met uptake occurs via multiple carrier-mediated systems. Liver, kidney and small intestine can metabolize D-Met and HMTBA to L-Met through oxidation and transamination. In ruminants, the non-hepatic tissues act as major sites of HMTBA conversion, which are different from that in chickens and pigs. HMTBA also has additional benefits in anti-oxidation. Understanding the characteristics of uptake and metabolism of different methionine sources will greatly benefit the industry and bioscience research. PMID:25961426

  12. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

  13. Predicting lysine phosphoglycerylation with fuzzy SVM by incorporating k-spaced amino acid pairs into Chou׳s general PseAAC.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhe; Cao, Jun-Zhe; Gu, Hong

    2016-05-21

    As a new type of post-translational modification, lysine phosphoglycerylation plays a key role in regulating glycolytic process and metabolism in cells. Due to the traditional experimental methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, it is important to develop computational methods to identify the potential phosphoglycerylation sites. However, the prediction performance of the existing phosphoglycerylation site predictor is not satisfactory. In this study, a novel predictor named CKSAAP_PhoglySite is developed to predict phosphoglycerylation sites by using composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs and fuzzy support vector machine. On the one hand, after many aspects of assessments, we find the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs is more suitable for representing the protein sequence around the phosphoglycerylation sites than other encoding schemes. On the other hand, the proposed fuzzy support vector machine algorithm can effectively handle the imbalanced and noisy problem in phosphoglycerylation sites training dataset. Experimental results indicate that CKSAAP_PhoglySite outperforms the existing phosphoglycerylation site predictor Phogly-PseAAC significantly. A matlab software package for CKSAAP_PhoglySite can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/juzhe1120/Matlab_Software/blob/master/CKSAAP_PhoglySite_Matlab_Software.zip. PMID:26908349

  14. Transsulfuration in an adult with hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gahl, W A; Bernardini, I; Finkelstein, J D; Tangerman, A; Martin, J J; Blom, H J; Mullen, K D; Mudd, S H

    1988-02-01

    We investigated sulfur and methyl group metabolism in a 31-yr-old man with partial hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency. The patient's cultured fibroblasts and erythrocytes had normal MAT activity. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was slightly decreased. This clinically normal individual lives with a 20-30-fold elevation of plasma methionine (0.72 mM). He excretes in his urine methionine and L-methionine-d-sulfoxide (2.7 mmol/d), a mixed disulfide of methanethiol and a thiol bound to an unidentified group X, which we abbreviate CH3S-SX (2.1 mmol/d), and smaller quantities of 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate and 3-methylthiopropionate. His breath contains 17-fold normal concentrations of dimethylsulfide. He converts only 6-7 mmol/d of methionine sulfur to inorganic sulfate. This abnormally low rate is due not to a decreased flux through the primarily defective enzyme, MAT, since SAM is produced at an essentially normal rate of 18 mmol/d, but rather to a rate of homocysteine methylation which is abnormally high in the face of the very elevated methionine concentrations demonstrated in this patient. These findings support the view that SAM (which is marginally low in this patient) is an important regulator that helps to determine the partitioning of homocysteine between degradation via cystathionine and conservation by reformation of methionine. In addition, these studies demonstrate that the methionine transamination pathway operates in the presence of an elevated body load of that amino acid in human beings, but is not sufficient to maintain methionine levels in a normal range. PMID:3339126

  15. Selenium and Methionine Sulfoxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element because it is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine residue. Functionally characterized selenoproteins are oxidoreductases. Selenoprotein methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1) is a repair enzyme that reduces ROS-oxidized methionine residues in proteins. Here, we explored a possibility that reversible methionine oxidation is also a mechanism that regulates protein function. We found that MsrB1, together with Mical proteins, regulated mammalian actin assembly via stereospecific methionine oxidation and reduction in a reversible, site-specific manner. Two methionine residues in actin were specifically converted to methionine-R-sulfoxide by Mical1 and Mical2 and reduced back to methionine by MsrB1, supporting actin disassembly and assembly, respectively. Macrophages utilized this redox control during cellular activation by stimulating MsrB1 expression and activity. Thus, we identified the regulatory role of MsrB1 as a Mical antagonist in orchestrating actin dynamics and macrophage function. More generally, our study showed that proteins can be regulated by reversible site-specific methionine-R-sulfoxidation and that selenium is involved in this regulation by being a catalytic component of MsrB1. PMID:26461418

  16. Identification of oxidized methionine residues in peptides containing two methionine residues by derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hollemeyer, Klaus; Heinzle, Elmar; Tholey, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    Oxidation of methionine residues in peptides and proteins occurs in vivo or may be an artifact resulting from purification steps. We present a three step method for the localization of methionine sulfoxides in peptides with two methionine residues. In the first step, the N-terminus as well as other reactive side chain functions are blocked by acetylation. The resulting protected peptides are cleaved by cyanogen bromide. The cleavage does not occur at methionine sulfoxide but only at reduced methionine residues forming new amino termini. The newly formed amino group is then derivatized with a bromine containing compound in the last step of the procedure. The resulting peptide can easily be identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry using both the characteristic isotope pattern of the halogen and the metastable loss of methanesulfenic acid from oxidized residues. This procedure allows the unequivocal localization of oxidized methionines even in complex peptide mixtures. PMID:12442252

  17. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  18. Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Location of specifically modified methionine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K W

    1976-01-01

    Bovine lutropin (luteinizing hormone) was carboxymethylated at pH3.0 for 12 h at 37 degrees C with iodoacetic acid for specific modification of methionine residues. To facilitate the location of preferentially modified methionine residues, iodoE114C]acetic acid was added as tracer. The alpha and beta subunits of bovine lutropin were carboxymethylated with a 2- or 5-fold molar excess of iodoacetic acid either in the presence or absence of their counterpart subunits. The modified subunits were separated and isolated by counter-current distribution followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. To locate the modified methiones, the isolated alpha or beta chain was reduced. S-carboxymethylated and subjected to tryptic hydrolysis. The tryptic peptides were fractionated by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-10. From analyses of the purified 14C-labelled tryptic peptides, it was observed that methionine-8 and -33 in bovine lutropin alpha chain and methionine-52 in the beta chain were preferentially modified. Similar results were obtained when isolated alpha and beta subunits were individually carboxymethylated in the absence of their counterpart subunit under identical conditions. The fact that a recombinant of native human lutropin alpha chain, in which a valine residue is present in the position corresponding to methionine-8 of bovine lutropin alpha chain, and carboxymethylated bovine lutropin beta chain regenerated a substantial amount of receptor-site-binding activity indicated that methionine-8 in bovine alpha chain was biologically not essential. These studies showed clearly that both methionine-33 in the alpha chain and methionine-52 in the beta subunit were involved for optimum binding between bovine lutropin and its receptors for expression of hormonal activity. Images PLATE 1 PMID:999646

  19. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, with little evolution of other /sup 14/C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR.

  20. Potential for Development of an Escherichia coli—Based Biosensor for Assessing Bioavailable Methionine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chalova, Vesela I.; Froelich, Clifford A.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and is typically considered one of the first limiting amino acids in animal feed formulations. Methionine deficiency or excess in animal diets can lead to sub-optimal animal performance and increased environmental pollution, which necessitates its accurate quantification and proper dosage in animal rations. Animal bioassays are the current industry standard to quantify methionine bioavailability. However, animal-based assays are not only time consuming, but expensive and are becoming more scrutinized by governmental regulations. In addition, a variety of artifacts can hinder the variability and time efficacy of these assays. Microbiological assays, which are based on a microbial response to external supplementation of a particular nutrient such as methionine, appear to be attractive potential alternatives to the already established standards. They are rapid and inexpensive in vitro assays which are characterized with relatively accurate and consistent estimation of digestible methionine in feeds and feed ingredients. The current review discusses the potential to develop Escherichia coli-based microbial biosensors for methionine bioavailability quantification. Methionine biosynthesis and regulation pathways are overviewed in relation to genetic manipulation required for the generation of a respective methionine auxotroph that could be practical for a routine bioassay. A prospective utilization of Escherichia coli methionine biosensor would allow for inexpensive and rapid methionine quantification and ultimately enable timely assessment of nutritional profiles of feedstuffs. PMID:22319312

  1. Methionine dependency of cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hall, C A; Begley, J A; Chu, R C

    1986-06-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and a lymphocyte model consisting of the RPMI 6410 cell, a human virus-transformed B cell, required added methionine (Met) for growth of the cultures. This failure to meet all needs for Met via endogenous synthesis, which is characteristic of oncogenic transformation, occurred even in the presence of adequate homocysteine, methylfolate (5-CH3-H4PteGlu) and cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent methionine synthetase activity. Folinic acid (5-CHO-H4PteGlu), which provides available folate independently of Cbl, improved growth only slightly in the absence of Met. Free Cbl at 222 nM, an amount great enough to alter other intracellular events, failed to increase growth in the absence of Met, but 0.22 nM Cbl bound to transcobalamin II did, however, enhance growth. PMID:3703873

  2. Oxidation of Methionine Residues in Polypeptide Ions Via Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilo, Alice L.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2014-06-01

    The gas-phase oxidation of methionine residues is demonstrated here using ion/ion reactions with periodate anions. Periodate anions are observed to attach in varying degrees to all polypeptide ions irrespective of amino acid composition. Direct proton transfer yielding a charge-reduced peptide ion is also observed. In the case of methionine and, to a much lesser degree, tryptophan-containing peptide ions, collisional activation of the complex ion generated by periodate attachment yields an oxidized peptide product (i.e., [M + H + O]+), in addition to periodic acid detachment. Detachment of periodic acid takes place exclusively for peptides that do not contain either a methionine or tryptophan side chain. In the case of methionine-containing peptides, the [M + H + O]+ product is observed at a much greater abundance than the proton transfer product (viz., [M + H]+). Collisional activation of oxidized Met-containing peptides yields a signature loss of 64 Da from the precursor and/or product ions. This unique loss corresponds to the ejection of methanesulfenic acid from the oxidized methionine side chain and is commonly used in solution-phase proteomics studies to determine the presence of oxidized methionine residues. The present work shows that periodate anions can be used to `label' methionine residues in polypeptides in the gas phase. The selectivity of the periodate anion for the methionine side chain suggests several applications including identification and location of methionine residues in sequencing applications.

  3. Degradation of Amino Acids and Structure in Model Proteins and Bacteriophage MS2 by Chlorine, Bromine, and Ozone.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Richards, David H; Wilson, Corey J; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    Proteins are important targets of chemical disinfectants. To improve the understanding of disinfectant-protein reactions, this study characterized the disinfectant:protein molar ratios at which 50% degradation of oxidizable amino acids (i.e., Met, Tyr, Trp, His, Lys) and structure were observed during HOCl, HOBr, and O3 treatment of three well-characterized model proteins and bacteriophage MS2. A critical question is the extent to which the targeting of amino acids is driven by their disinfectant rate constants rather than their geometrical arrangement. Across the model proteins and bacteriophage MS2 (coat protein), differing widely in structure, methionine was preferentially targeted, forming predominantly methionine sulfoxide. This targeting concurs with its high disinfectant rate constants and supports its hypothesized role as a sacrificial antioxidant. Despite higher HOCl and HOBr rate constants with histidine and lysine than for tyrosine, tyrosine generally was degraded in preference to histidine, and to a lesser extent, lysine. These results concur with the prevalence of geometrical motifs featuring histidines or lysines near tyrosines, facilitating histidine and lysine regeneration upon Cl[+1] transfer from their chloramines to tyrosines. Lysine nitrile formation occurred at or above oxidant doses where 3,5-dihalotyrosine products began to degrade. For O3, which lacks a similar oxidant transfer pathway, histidine, tyrosine, and lysine degradation followed their relative O3 rate constants. Except for its low reactivity with lysine, the O3 doses required to degrade amino acids were as low as or lower than for HOCl or HOBr, indicating its oxidative efficiency. Loss of structure did not correlate with loss of particular amino acids, suggesting the need to characterize the oxidation of specific geometric motifs to understand structural degradation. PMID:26488608

  4. Lysine-doped polypyrrole/spider silk protein/poly(l-lactic) acid containing nerve growth factor composite fibers for neural application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Kefeng; Xing, Yiming; Yu, Qiaozhen

    2015-11-01

    Lysine-doped polypyrrole (PPy)/regenerated spider silk protein (RSSP)/poly(l-lactic) acid (PLLA)/nerve growth factor (NGF) (L-PRPN) composite scaffold was fabricated by co-axial electrospraying and electrospinning. This L-PRPN composite scaffold had a structure of microfibers with a core-shell structure as the stems and nanofibers as branches. Assessment in vitro demonstrated that the L-PRPN composite micro/nano-fibrous scaffold could maintain integrated structure for at least 4months and the pH value of PBS at about 7.28. It had good biocompatibility and cell adhesion and relatively stable conductivity. PC 12 cells cultured on this scaffold, anisotropic cell-neurite-cell-neurite or neurite-neurite sheets were formed after being cultured for 6days. Evaluations in vivo also showed that L-PRPN composite fibrous conduit was effective at bridging 2.0cm sciatic nerve gap in adult rat within 10months. This conduit and electrical stimulation (ES) through it promoted Schwann cell migration and axonal regrowth. PMID:26249628

  5. Extracellular matrix-mediated control of aortic smooth muscle cell growth and migration by a combination of ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, and catechins.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Roomi, M Waheed; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2007-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) function and structure are severely compromised at atherosclerotic lesion sites, contributing to initiation and progression of the disease. This study investigated whether ECM biological properties would be beneficially affected by exposure to nutrients essential for collagen synthesis and posttranslational modification. Confluent layers of human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) grown on collagen substrate were cultured in the presence of the tested compounds for 7 to 10 days. Pretreated cells were removed from the ECM surface by differential treatment and replaced with secondary innocent SMC cultures. Secondary SMC growth rate and invasiveness were assayed in standard growth medium. ECM protein composition was assayed immunochemically. ECM produced in the presence of ascorbic acid reduced SMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Plant-derived phenolic extracts expressed different degrees of SMC growth inhibition when present during ECM production. A combination of selected nutrients had a greater effect than did individual components. The ECM deposited by SMC in the presence of ascorbate, lysine, proline, and green tea catechins inhibited SMC migration rate up to 70%. The ECM produced under conditions of chronic essential nutrient deficiency can support proatherosclerotic SMC behavior. A combination of selected nutrients can counteract these adverse effects stronger than individual components. PMID:18030064

  6. Bacterial Lysine Decarboxylase Influences Human Dental Biofilm Lysine Content, Biofilm Accumulation and Sub-Clinical Gingival Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lohinai, Z.; Keremi, B.; Szoko, E.; Tabi, T.; Szabo, C.; Tulassay, Z.; Levine, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental biofilms contain a protein that inhibits mammalian cell growth, possibly lysine decarboxylase from Eikenella corrodens. This enzyme decarboxylates lysine, an essential amino acid for dentally attached cell turnover in gingival sulci. Lysine depletion may stop this turnover, impairing the barrier to bacterial compounds. The aims of this study were to determine biofilm lysine and cadaverine contents before oral hygiene restriction (OHR), and their association with plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after OHR for a week. Methods Laser-induced fluorescence after capillary electrophoresis was used to determine lysine and cadaverine contents in dental biofilm, tongue biofilm and saliva before OHR and in dental biofilm after OHR. Results Before OHR, lysine and cadaverine contents of dental biofilm were similar and 10-fold greater than in saliva or tongue biofilm. After a week of OHR, the biofilm content of cadaverine increased and that of lysine decreased, consistent with greater biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity. Regression indicated that PI and GCF exudation were positively related to biofilm lysine post-OHR, unless biofilm lysine exceeded the minimal blood plasma content in which case PI was further increased but GCF exudation was reduced. Conclusions After OHR, lysine decarboxylase activity seems to determine biofilm lysine content and biofilm accumulation. When biofilm lysine exceeds minimal blood plasma content after OHR, less GCF appeared despite more biofilm. Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Clinical Relevance Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis. PMID:22141361

  7. Gene expression, serum amino acid levels, and growth performance of pigs fed dietary leucine and lysine at different ratios.

    PubMed

    García, H; Morales, A; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-01-01

    We examined 96 pigs (28.1 ± 0.83 kg) to analyze the effect of Leu:Lys ratios on expression of the cationic amino acid transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and liver as well as myosin expression in 2 muscles to estimate the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys ratio for growth rate and efficiency. A wheat-and wheat bran-based diets were formulated to meet the requirements of SID amino acids other than Leu (0.70%) and Lys (0.80%). L-Leu was added to the basal diet in 5 SID Leu:Lys ratios (88, 100, 120, 140, and 160% in diets 1-5). Tissue samples were collected from 8 pigs with ratios of 88, 120, and 160%. Relative expression of b(0,+), CAT-1, and myosin was analyzed. b(0,+) expression in the jejunum was higher but lower in the liver of pigs with the 120% ratio compared to those with the 88 or 160% ratio; myosin expression in longissimus dorsi was also higher in pigs with the 120% ratio (P < 0.05). CAT-1 was lower in the jejunum and longissimus dorsi of pigs with 120 or 160% ratios than in pigs with 88%. Serum concentration of nearly all amino acids decreased with excess dietary Leu (P < 0.05). The SID Leu:Lys of 104 and 109% optimized average daily gain and feed conversion ratio, respectively. Thus, the dietary Leu:Lys ratio affects the expression of genes coding for amino acid transporters and myosin, the availability of Lys, and the growth rate and efficiency in pigs. PMID:25867302

  8. The Pediatric Methionine Requirement Should Incorporate Remethylation Potential and Transmethylation Demands.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jason L; Bertolo, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    The metabolic demand for methionine is great in neonates. Indeed, methionine is the only indispensable sulfur amino acid and is required not only for protein synthesis and growth but is also partitioned to a greater extent to transsulfuration for cysteine and taurine synthesis and to >50 transmethylation reactions that serve to methylate DNA and synthesize metabolites, including creatine and phosphatidylcholine. Therefore, the pediatric methionine requirement must accommodate the demands of rapid protein turnover as well as vast nonprotein demands. Because cysteine spares the methionine requirement, it is likely that the dietary provision of transmethylation products can also feasibly spare methionine. However, understanding the requirement of methionine is further complicated because demethylated methionine can be remethylated by the dietary methyl donors folate and betaine (derived from choline). Intakes of dietary methyl donors are highly variable, which is of particular concern for newborns. It has been demonstrated that many populations have enhanced requirements for these nutrients, and nutrient fortification may exacerbate this phenomenon by selecting phenotypes that increase methyl requirements. Moreover, higher transmethylation rates can limit methyl supply and affect other transmethylation reactions as well as protein synthesis. Therefore, careful investigations are needed to determine how remethylation and transmethylation contribute to the methionine requirement. The purpose of this review is to support our hypothesis that dietary methyl donors and consumers can drive methionine availability for protein synthesis and transmethylation reactions. We argue that nutritional strategies in neonates need to ensure that methionine is available to meet requirements for growth as well as for transmethylation products. PMID:27184279

  9. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  10. Exploring lysine riboswitch for metabolic flux control and improvement of L-lysine synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Bang; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-06-19

    Riboswitch, a regulatory part of an mRNA molecule that can specifically bind a metabolite and regulate gene expression, is attractive for engineering biological systems, especially for the control of metabolic fluxes in industrial microorganisms. Here, we demonstrate the use of lysine riboswitch and intracellular l-lysine as a signal to control the competing but essential metabolic by-pathways of lysine biosynthesis. To this end, we first examined the natural lysine riboswitches of Eschericia coli (ECRS) and Bacillus subtilis (BSRS) to control the expression of citrate synthase (gltA) and thus the metabolic flux in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in E. coli. ECRS and BSRS were then successfully used to control the gltA gene and TCA cycle activity in a lysine producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LP917, respectively. Compared with the strain LP917, the growth of both lysine riboswitch-gltA mutants was slower, suggesting a reduced TCA cycle activity. The lysine production was 63% higher in the mutant ECRS-gltA and 38% higher in the mutant BSRS-gltA, indicating a higher metabolic flux into the lysine synthesis pathway. This is the first report on using an amino acid riboswitch for improvement of lysine biosynthesis. The lysine riboswitches can be easily adapted to dynamically control other essential but competing metabolic pathways or even be engineered as an "on-switch" to enhance the metabolic fluxes of desired metabolic pathways. PMID:25575181

  11. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents. PMID:18789600

  12. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. PMID:24446756

  13. Higher endogenous methionine in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds affects the composition of storage proteins and lipids.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hagai; Pajak, Agnieszka; Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Amir, Rachel; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies demonstrate that exogenous application of the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine into cultured soybean cotyledons and seedlings reduces the level of methionine-poor storage proteins and elevates those that are methionine-rich. However, the effect of higher endogenous methionine in seeds on the composition of storage products in vivo is not studied yet. We have recently produced transgenic Arabidopsis seeds having significantly higher levels of methionine. In the present work we used these seeds as a model system and profiled them for changes in the abundances of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, the two major groups of storage proteins, using 2D-gels and MALDI-MS detection. The findings suggest that higher methionine affects from a certain threshold the accumulation of several subunits of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, regardless of their methionine contents, resulting in higher total protein contents. The mRNA abundances of most of the genes encoding these proteins were either correlated or not correlated with the abundances of these proteins, implying that methionine may regulate storage proteins at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The elevations in total protein contents resulted in reduction of total lipids and altered the fatty acid composition. Altogether, the data provide new insights into the regulatory roles of elevated methionine levels on seed composition. PMID:26888094

  14. Analysis of cyclic pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Seen; Ko, Ji-Eun

    2011-11-18

    Amino acid was mixed with silica and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to favor pyrolysis of amino acid monomer. The pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer were using GC/MS and GC. 20 amino acids of alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine were analyzed. The pyrolysis products were divided into cyclic and non-cyclic products. Among the 20 amino acids, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, and phenylalanine generated cyclic pyrolysis products of the monomer. New cyclic pyrolysis products were formed by isolation of amino acid monomers. They commonly had polar side functional groups to 5-, 6-, or 7-membered ring structure. Arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, and phenylalanine generated only 5- or 6-membered ring products. However, lysine generated both 6- and 7-membered ring compounds. Variations of the relative intensities of the cyclic pyrolysis products with the pyrolysis temperature and amino acid concentration were also investigated. PMID:21993510

  15. The effect of amino acids on the intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins in the neonatal rat

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, D. R.; Donnelly, H.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro preparation of 10-day-old rat intestine was used to examine the absorption of a number of amino acids and immunoglobulins. Evidence was obtained for the active absorption of alanine, leucine, methionine, histidine and lysine, but not for aspartic acid. A selective absorption of the homologous molecule was found in experiments where 131I-labelled rat and bovine IgG were presented to the ileum in 10-minute incubations. The greater uptake of rat IgG was unrelated to the relative rates of catabolism of the two molecules. Although the uptake of rat IgG was unaffected by 100 mM concentrations of neutral and acidic amino acids, the basic amino acids arginine and lysine significantly stimulated uptake. PMID:4854740

  16. Effect of L-lysine on expression of selected genes, serum concentration of amino acids, muscle growth and performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; García, H; Arce, N; Cota, M; Zijlstra, R T; Araiza, B A; Cervantes, M

    2015-08-01

    Lysine (Lys) is the first limiting amino acid (AA) in most feed formulations for pigs and most abundant, along with leucine, in muscle proteins. An experiment was conducted with 17 pigs (17.7 ± 0.05 kg initial BW) to identify a role of dietary Lys in the control of protein synthesis in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly assigned to one of the two wheat-based dietary treatments: Lys-deficient, 3.0 g/kg (DEF) and Lys-adequate, 10.8 g/kg (ADE). Samples from jejunum mucosa, liver, Longissumus and Semitendinosus muscles, and blood were collected. The other three pigs were sacrificed at the beginning of the trial to measure basal carcass composition. Weight gain, gain:feed ratio, Lys intake and loin eye area were greater in ADE than in DEF pigs (p < 0.01). Muscle-related carcass characteristics were better, and myosin heavy chain IIb expression (MyHC IIb) in Semitendinosus was higher in ADE than in DEF pigs. Expression of AA transporters CAT-1 was lower (p < 0.05), serum Lys was higher and serum Val was lower in pigs fed the ADE diet. The higher muscularity, MyHC IIb expression in Semitendinosus muscle and Lys serum of pigs fed the ADE diet suggest that Lys increases growth rate not only by functioning as protein construction unit but also as potential control of the protein synthesis process. PMID:25354230

  17. Disruption of Methionine Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster Impacts Histone Methylation and Results in Loss of Viability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengying; Barnes, Valerie L.; Pile, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Histone methylation levels, which are determined by the action of both histone demethylases and methyltransferases, impact multiple biological processes by affecting gene expression activity. Methionine metabolism generates the major methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for histone methylation. The functions of methionine metabolic enzymes in regulating biological processes as well as the interaction between the methionine pathway and histone methylation, however, are still not fully understood. Here, we report that reduced levels of some enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and histone demethylases lead to lethality as well as wing development and cell proliferation defects in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, disruption of methionine metabolism can directly affect histone methylation levels. Reduction of little imaginal discs (LID) histone demethylase, but not lysine-specific demethylase 2 (KDM2) demethylase, is able to counter the effects on histone methylation due to reduction of SAM synthetase (SAM-S). Taken together, these results reveal an essential role of key enzymes that control methionine metabolism and histone methylation. Additionally, these findings are an indication of a strong connection between metabolism and epigenetics. PMID:26546310

  18. Use of a tritium release assay to measure 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine hydroxylase activity: synthesis of 6-N-(3-/sup 3/H)Trimethyl-DL-lysine

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.; England, S.

    1981-09-01

    6-N-(3-/sup 3/H)Trimethyl-DL-lysine was synthesized from 6-N-acetyl-L-lysine by the following chemical scheme: 6-N-acetyl-L-lysine ..-->.. 2-keto-6-N-acetylcaproic acid ..-->.. 2-(3-/sup 3/H)keto-6-N-acetylcaproic acid ..-->.. 2-(3-/sup 3/H)keto-6-N-acetylcaproic acid oxime ..-->.. 6-N-(3-/sup 3/H)acetyl-DL-lysine ..-->.. DL-(3-/sup 3/H)lysine ..-->.. 2-N-(3-/sup 3/H)formyl-DL-lysine ..-->.. 2-(3-/sup 3/H)formyl-6-N-trimethyl-DL-lysine ..-->.. 6-N-(3-/sup 3/H)trimethyl-DL-lysine. Using a 70% ammonium sulfate fraction obtained from a high-speed rate kidney supernatant, the cosubstrate and cofactor requirements for 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine hydroxylase activity as measured by tritium release from 6-N-(3-/sup 3/H)trimethyl-DL-lysine were: ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, ferrous ions, L-ascorbate, and oxygen, with added catalase showing a slight but distinct stimulatory effect. On incubation with the crude rat kidney preparation, the release of tritium from 6-N-(3-/sup 3/H)trimethyl-DL-lysine was linear with both time of incubation and protein concentration. Hydroxylation of 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine, as measured by tritium release from the labeled substrate, was examined in rat kidney, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues, and found to be most active in the kidney.

  19. Methionine restriction inhibits chemically-induced malignant transformation in the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Nicken, Petra; Empl, Michael T; Gerhard, Daniel; Hausmann, Julia; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    High consumption of red meat entails a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. Methionine, which is more frequently a component of animal proteins, and folic acid are members of the one carbon cycle and as such important players in DNA methylation and cancer development. Therefore, dietary modifications involving altered methionine and folic acid content might inhibit colon cancer development. In the present study, the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay was used to investigate whether methionine and folic acid are able to influence the malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts after treatment with the known tumour initiator 3-methylcholanthrene. Three different methionine concentrations (representing a -40%, a "normal" and a +40% cell culture medium concentration, respectively) and two different folic acid concentrations (6 and 20 μM) were thereby investigated. Methionine restriction led to a decrease of type III foci, while enhancement of both methionine and folic acid did not significantly increase the cell transformation rate. Interestingly, the focus-lowering effect of methionine was only significant in conjunction with an elevated folic acid concentration. In summary, we conclude that the malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts is influenced by methionine levels and that methionine restriction could be a possible approach to reduce cancer development. PMID:27427305

  20. Serine Metabolism Supports the Methionine Cycle and DNA/RNA Methylation through De Novo ATP Synthesis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Oliver D K; Labuschagne, Christiaan F; Adams, Peter D; Vousden, Karen H

    2016-01-21

    Crosstalk between cellular metabolism and the epigenome regulates epigenetic and metabolic homeostasis and normal cell behavior. Changes in cancer cell metabolism can directly impact epigenetic regulation and promote transformation. Here we analyzed the contribution of methionine and serine metabolism to methylation of DNA and RNA. Serine can contribute to this pathway by providing one-carbon units to regenerate methionine from homocysteine. While we observed this contribution under methionine-depleted conditions, unexpectedly, we found that serine supported the methionine cycle in the presence and absence of methionine through de novo ATP synthesis. Serine starvation increased the methionine/S-adenosyl methionine ratio, decreasing the transfer of methyl groups to DNA and RNA. While serine starvation dramatically decreased ATP levels, this was accompanied by lower AMP and did not activate AMPK. This work highlights the difference between ATP turnover and new ATP synthesis and defines a vital function of nucleotide synthesis beyond making nucleic acids. PMID:26774282

  1. Serine Metabolism Supports the Methionine Cycle and DNA/RNA Methylation through De Novo ATP Synthesis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Labuschagne, Christiaan F.; Adams, Peter D.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Crosstalk between cellular metabolism and the epigenome regulates epigenetic and metabolic homeostasis and normal cell behavior. Changes in cancer cell metabolism can directly impact epigenetic regulation and promote transformation. Here we analyzed the contribution of methionine and serine metabolism to methylation of DNA and RNA. Serine can contribute to this pathway by providing one-carbon units to regenerate methionine from homocysteine. While we observed this contribution under methionine-depleted conditions, unexpectedly, we found that serine supported the methionine cycle in the presence and absence of methionine through de novo ATP synthesis. Serine starvation increased the methionine/S-adenosyl methionine ratio, decreasing the transfer of methyl groups to DNA and RNA. While serine starvation dramatically decreased ATP levels, this was accompanied by lower AMP and did not activate AMPK. This work highlights the difference between ATP turnover and new ATP synthesis and defines a vital function of nucleotide synthesis beyond making nucleic acids. PMID:26774282

  2. Methionine Metabolism Alters Oxidative Stress Resistance via the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kate; Vowinckel, Jakob; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient uptake and metabolism have a significant impact on the way cells respond to stress. The amino acid methionine is, in particular, a key player in the oxidative stress response, and acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, methionine is implicated in caloric restriction phenotypes and aging. We here provide evidence that some effects of methionine in stress situations are indirect and caused by altered activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) producing oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both methionine prototrophic (MET15) and auxotrophic (met15Δ) cells supplemented with methionine showed an increase in PPP metabolite concentrations downstream of the NADPH producing enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Proteomics revealed this enzyme to also increase in expression compared to methionine self-synthesizing cells. Oxidant tolerance was increased in cells preincubated with methionine; however, this effect was abolished when flux through the oxidative PPP was prevented by deletion of its rate limiting enzyme, ZWF1. Stress resistance phenotypes that follow methionine supplementation hence involve the oxidative PPP. Effects of methionine on oxidative metabolism, stress signaling, and aging have thus to be seen in the context of an altered activity of this NADP reducing pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 543-547. PMID:26596469

  3. Methionine Metabolism Alters Oxidative Stress Resistance via the Pentose Phosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kate; Vowinckel, Jakob; Keller, Markus A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nutrient uptake and metabolism have a significant impact on the way cells respond to stress. The amino acid methionine is, in particular, a key player in the oxidative stress response, and acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, methionine is implicated in caloric restriction phenotypes and aging. We here provide evidence that some effects of methionine in stress situations are indirect and caused by altered activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) producing oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both methionine prototrophic (MET15) and auxotrophic (met15Δ) cells supplemented with methionine showed an increase in PPP metabolite concentrations downstream of the NADPH producing enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Proteomics revealed this enzyme to also increase in expression compared to methionine self-synthesizing cells. Oxidant tolerance was increased in cells preincubated with methionine; however, this effect was abolished when flux through the oxidative PPP was prevented by deletion of its rate limiting enzyme, ZWF1. Stress resistance phenotypes that follow methionine supplementation hence involve the oxidative PPP. Effects of methionine on oxidative metabolism, stress signaling, and aging have thus to be seen in the context of an altered activity of this NADP reducing pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 543–547. PMID:26596469

  4. Optimization of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method with methyl chloroformate derivatization for quantification of amino acids in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Vancompernolle, Bram; Croes, Kim; Angenon, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Rapid, easy and reliable quantification of amino acids is crucial in research on plant amino acid metabolism and nutritional improvement of crops via enrichment of essential amino acids. A recently reported analysis method, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with methyl chloroformate and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized and tested on three-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissues. Optimization of the SPE cleanup yielded recovery rates of minimum 95% for all amino acids (except arginine). Variations in accuracy and precision did not exceed 12.5%, except for cysteine, histidine and tryptophane, which were excluded from analysis. Quantification of overlapping peaks for isoleucine/threonine and proline/asparagine was possible by selection of two specific fragment ions for each amino acid. Of the 16 selected amino acids, 14 were quantified successfully in at least 75% of the samples, while methionine and tyrosine were only quantifiable in 6% and 42%, respectively. A case study on the aspartate super pathway confirmed the applicability of the optimized method on wild type and genetically modified plants: external supplementation of methionine or lysine yielded a 146-fold or 27-fold increase in the respective absolute amino acid levels compared with the control treatment. Induced expression of dhdps-r1 (a mutated lysine biosynthesis gene encoding a feedback insensitive enzyme) caused an 83-fold increase in absolute lysine levels. PMID:26994331

  5. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  6. Epithelial cells isolated from chicken jejunum: an experimental model for the study of the functional properties of amino acid transport system b(0,+).

    PubMed

    Angelo, S; Rojas, A M; Ramírez, H; Devés, R

    2002-07-01

    The transport of lysine has been investigated in epithelial cells isolated from chicken jejunum. The kinetics of lysine transport and the pattern of interaction with zwitterionic amino acids were consistent with system b(0,+) activity, the broad-spectrum and Na(+)-independent amino acid transporter. The half-saturation constant for lysine entry (K(m)+/-S.E.) was 0.029+/-0.002 mM and the flux was not affected significantly by Na(+) replacement with choline. Lysine influx was inhibited by L-leucine both in Na(+) and choline medium with inhibition constants (K(i)+/-S.E.) 0.068+/-0.006 mM (in Na(+)) and 0.065+/-0.009 mM (in choline). Other inhibitory amino acids (K(i)+/-S.E.) were (mM): L-tyrosine (0.073+/-0.018), L-methionine (0.15+/-0.015), L-cystine (0.42+/-0.04), L-cysteine (1.1+/-0.07), L-isoleucine (1.1+/-0.09), L-glutamine (1.8+/-0.16) and L-valine (2.5+/-0.13). Lysine exit was trans-accelerated (approx. 20 fold) by 2 mM L-lysine and L-leucine. The flux was resistant to pretreatment of the cells with p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate (0.2 mM), which is an inhibitor of system y(+)L, the broad-spectrum and cation-modulated transporter. PMID:12044773

  7. Crystallography captures catalytic steps in human methionine adenosyltransferase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ben; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Marina, Alberto; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, Jose M; Hasnain, S Samar; Rojas, Adriana L

    2016-02-23

    The principal methyl donor of the cell, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), is produced by the highly conserved family of methionine adenosyltranferases (MATs) via an ATP-driven process. These enzymes play an important role in the preservation of life, and their dysregulation has been tightly linked to liver and colon cancers. We present crystal structures of human MATα2 containing various bound ligands, providing a "structural movie" of the catalytic steps. High- to atomic-resolution structures reveal the structural elements of the enzyme involved in utilization of the substrates methionine and adenosine and in formation of the product SAMe. MAT enzymes are also able to produce S-adenosylethionine (SAE) from substrate ethionine. Ethionine, an S-ethyl analog of the amino acid methionine, is known to induce steatosis and pancreatitis. We show that SAE occupies the active site in a manner similar to SAMe, confirming that ethionine also uses the same catalytic site to form the product SAE. PMID:26858410

  8. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span. PMID:26995762

  9. Influence of dietary methionine on the metabolism of selenomethionine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D. )

    1989-07-01

    To determine the influence of methionine on selenomethionine (SeMet) metabolism, weanling male rats were fed for 8 wk a basal diet marginally deficient in sulfur amino acids, containing 2.0 micrograms selenium (Se)/g as DL-SeMet and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2% DL-methionine. Increased dietary methionine caused decreased selenium deposition in all tissues examined but increased glutathione peroxidase activity in testes, liver and lungs. A positive correlation was found between dietary methionine and the calculated percentage of selenium associated with GSHPx. In a second experiment, {sup 75}SeMet was injected into weanling male rats which had been fed the basal diet containing 2.0 micrograms selenium as DL-SeMet with or without the addition of 1.0% methionine. The selenoamino acid content of tissues and the distribution of {sup 75}Se in erythrocyte proteins were determined. In comparison to the rats fed the basal diet without added methionine, significantly more {sup 75}Se-selenocysteine was found in liver and muscle, more {sup 75}Se was found in erythrocyte GSHPx and less {sup 75}Se was found in erythrocyte hemoglobin of rats fed 1.0% methionine. These data suggest that methionine diverts SeMet from incorporation into general proteins and enhances its conversion to selenocysteine for specific selenium-requiring proteins, such as GSHPx.

  10. Interfacing protein lysine acetylation and protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hue T.; Uhrig, R. Glen; Nimick, Mhairi; Moorhead, Greg B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition that different protein covalent modifications can operate in concert to regulate a single protein has forced us to re-think the relationship between amino acid side chain modifications and protein function. Results presented by Tran et al. 2012 demonstrate the association of a protein phosphatase (PP2A) with a histone/lysine deacetylase (HDA14) on plant microtubules along with a histone/lysine acetyltransferase (ELP3). This finding reveals a regulatory interface between two prevalent covalent protein modifications, protein phosphorylation and acetylation, emphasizing the integrated complexity of post-translational protein regulation found in nature. PMID:22827947

  11. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  12. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  13. Identification of L-Methionine-S-Sulfoximine as the Convulsant Isomer of Methionine Sulfoximine*

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, W. Bruce; Meister, Alton

    1970-01-01

    The convulsant agent methionine sulfoximine inhibits brain glutamine synthetase irreversibly and the inhibitor becomes bound to the active site of the enzyme as methionine sulfoximine phosphate. Only one of the four isomers of methionine sulfoximine, L-methionine-S-sulfoximine, inhibits glutamine synthetase. In the present work, D-methionine-SR-sulfoximine, and highly purified preparations of L-methionine-S-sulfoximine and L-methionine-R-sulfoximine were tested in mice for convulsant activity; only L-methionine-S-sulfoximine produced convulsions. The finding that only one of the four optical isomers of methionine sulfoximine induces convulsions, and that only this same isomer inhibits glutamine synthetase, lends support to the conclusion that these two effects of methionine sulfoximine are closely connected. PMID:4393740

  14. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine. PMID:27105833

  15. Methionine deficiency reduces autophagy and accelerates death in intestinal epithelial cells infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Li, Fengna; Ren, Wenkai; Kong, Xiangfeng; Qiu, Wei; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

    2015-10-01

    Infections by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) result in large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Dietary supplementation with amino acids has been considered as a potential mechanism to improve host defenses against infection. The goal of this study was to determine whether methionine deprivation alters ETEC interactions with porcine intestinal epithelial cells. IPEC-1 cells were cultured in media with or without L-methionine. Methionine deprivation resulted in enhanced ETEC adhesion and increased both the cytotoxicity and apoptotic responses of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. Methionine deprivation inhibited IPEC-1 cell autophagic responses, suggesting that the increased cytotoxicity of ETEC to methionine-deprived IPEC-1 cells might be due to defects in autophagy. PMID:24965529

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury Alters Methionine Metabolism: Implications for Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Pramod K.; Hergenroeder, Georgene W.; Jeter, Cameron B.; Choi, H. Alex; Kobori, Nobuhide; Moore, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid that is obtained from the diet. In addition to its requirement for protein biosynthesis, methionine is metabolized to generate metabolites that play key roles in a number of cellular functions. Metabolism of methionine via the transmethylation pathway generates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) that serves as the principal methyl (−CH3) donor for DNA and histone methyltransferases (MTs) to regulate epigenetic changes in gene expression. SAM is also required for methylation of other cellular proteins that serve various functions and phosphatidylcholine synthesis that participate in cellular signaling. Under conditions of oxidative stress, homocysteine (which is derived from SAM) enters the transsulfuration pathway to generate glutathione, an important cytoprotective molecule against oxidative damage. As both experimental and clinical studies have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) alters DNA and histone methylation and causes oxidative stress, we examined if TBI alters the plasma levels of methionine and its metabolites in human patients. Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (HV; n = 20) and patients with mild TBI (mTBI; GCS > 12; n = 20) or severe TBI (sTBI; GCS < 8; n = 20) within the first 24 h of injury. The levels of methionine and its metabolites in the plasma samples were analyzed by either liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS). sTBI decreased the levels of methionine, SAM, betaine and 2-methylglycine as compared to HV, indicating a decrease in metabolism through the transmethylation cycle. In addition, precursors for the generation of glutathione, cysteine and glycine were also found to be decreased as were intermediate metabolites of the gamma-glutamyl cycle (gamma-glutamyl amino acids and 5-oxoproline). mTBI also decreased the levels of methionine, α-ketobutyrate, 2 hydroxybutyrate and glycine, albeit to lesser degrees than

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury Alters Methionine Metabolism: Implications for Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Dash, Pramod K; Hergenroeder, Georgene W; Jeter, Cameron B; Choi, H Alex; Kobori, Nobuhide; Moore, Anthony N

    2016-01-01

    Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid that is obtained from the diet. In addition to its requirement for protein biosynthesis, methionine is metabolized to generate metabolites that play key roles in a number of cellular functions. Metabolism of methionine via the transmethylation pathway generates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) that serves as the principal methyl (-CH3) donor for DNA and histone methyltransferases (MTs) to regulate epigenetic changes in gene expression. SAM is also required for methylation of other cellular proteins that serve various functions and phosphatidylcholine synthesis that participate in cellular signaling. Under conditions of oxidative stress, homocysteine (which is derived from SAM) enters the transsulfuration pathway to generate glutathione, an important cytoprotective molecule against oxidative damage. As both experimental and clinical studies have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) alters DNA and histone methylation and causes oxidative stress, we examined if TBI alters the plasma levels of methionine and its metabolites in human patients. Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (HV; n = 20) and patients with mild TBI (mTBI; GCS > 12; n = 20) or severe TBI (sTBI; GCS < 8; n = 20) within the first 24 h of injury. The levels of methionine and its metabolites in the plasma samples were analyzed by either liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS). sTBI decreased the levels of methionine, SAM, betaine and 2-methylglycine as compared to HV, indicating a decrease in metabolism through the transmethylation cycle. In addition, precursors for the generation of glutathione, cysteine and glycine were also found to be decreased as were intermediate metabolites of the gamma-glutamyl cycle (gamma-glutamyl amino acids and 5-oxoproline). mTBI also decreased the levels of methionine, α-ketobutyrate, 2 hydroxybutyrate and glycine, albeit to lesser degrees than detected

  18. Maternal obesity disrupts the methionine cycle in baboon pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Yan, Jian; Green, Ralph; Nijland, Mark; Miller, Joshua W; Wu, Guoyao; McDonald, Thomas J; Caudill, Marie A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of dietary methyl-micronutrients (e.g. folate, choline, betaine and vitamin B-12) during pregnancy is essential for normal maternal and fetal methionine metabolism, and is critical for important metabolic processes including those involved in developmental programming. Maternal obesity and nutrient excess during pregnancy influence developmental programming potentially predisposing adult offspring to a variety of chronic health problems. In the present study, we hypothesized that maternal obesity would dysregulate the maternal and fetal methionine cycle. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nulliparous baboon obesity model fed a high fat, high energy diet (HF-HED) prior to and during gestation, and examined methionine cycle biomarkers (e.g., circulating concentrations of homocysteine, methionine, choline, betaine, key amino acids, folate, and vitamin B-12). Animals were group housed allowing full physical activity and social interaction. Maternal prepregnancy percent body fat was 5% in controls and 19% in HF-HED mothers, while fetal weight was 16% lower in offspring of HF-HED mothers at term. Maternal and fetal homocysteine were higher, while maternal and fetal vitamin B-12 and betaine were lower in the HF-HED group. Elevations in circulating maternal folate were evident in the HF-HED group indicating impaired folate metabolism (methyl-trap) as a consequence of maternal vitamin B-12 depletion. Finally, fetal methionine, glycine, serine, and taurine were lower in the HF-HED fetuses. These data show that maternal obesity disturbs the methionine cycle in primate pregnancy, providing a mechanism for the epigenetic changes observed among obese pregnant women and suggesting diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities in human pregnancies complicated by obesity. PMID:26537341

  19. Maternal obesity disrupts the methionine cycle in baboon pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Yan, Jian; Green, Ralph; Nijland, Mark; Miller, Joshua W; Wu, Guoyao; McDonald, Thomas J; Caudill, Marie A

    2015-11-01

    Maternal intake of dietary methyl-micronutrients (e.g. folate, choline, betaine and vitamin B-12) during pregnancy is essential for normal maternal and fetal methionine metabolism, and is critical for important metabolic processes including those involved in developmental programming. Maternal obesity and nutrient excess during pregnancy influence developmental programming potentially predisposing adult offspring to a variety of chronic health problems. In the present study, we hypothesized that maternal obesity would dysregulate the maternal and fetal methionine cycle. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nulliparous baboon obesity model fed a high fat, high energy diet (HF-HED) prior to and during gestation, and examined methionine cycle biomarkers (e.g., circulating concentrations of homocysteine, methionine, choline, betaine, key amino acids, folate, and vitamin B-12). Animals were group housed allowing full physical activity and social interaction. Maternal prepregnancy percent body fat was 5% in controls and 19% in HF-HED mothers, while fetal weight was 16% lower in offspring of HF-HED mothers at term. Maternal and fetal homocysteine were higher, while maternal and fetal vitamin B-12 and betaine were lower in the HF-HED group. Elevations in circulating maternal folate were evident in the HF-HED group indicating impaired folate metabolism (methyl-trap) as a consequence of maternal vitamin B-12 depletion. Finally, fetal methionine, glycine, serine, and taurine were lower in the HF-HED fetuses. These data show that maternal obesity disturbs the methionine cycle in primate pregnancy, providing a mechanism for the epigenetic changes observed among obese pregnant women and suggesting diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities in human pregnancies complicated by obesity. PMID:26537341

  20. Methionine kinetics in adult men: effects of dietary betaine on L-(2H3-methyl-1-13C)methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, K.J.; Wagner, D.A.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-08-01

    The effects of a daily 3-g supplement of betaine on kinetic aspects of L-(2H3-methyl-1-13C)methionine (MET) metabolism in healthy young adult men were explored. Four groups of four subjects each were given a control diet, based on an L-amino acid mixture supplying 29.5 and 21.9 mg.kg-1.d-1 of L-methionine and L-cystine for 4 d before the tracer study, conducted on day 5 during the fed state. Two groups received the control diet and two groups received the betaine supplement. Tracer was given intravenously (iv) or orally. The transmethylation rate of MET (TM), homocysteine remethylation (RM), and oxidation of methionine were estimated from plasma methionine labeling and 13C enrichment of expired air. RM tended to increase (P = 0.14) but the TM and methionine oxidation were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher after betaine supplementation when estimated with the oral tracer. No differences were detected with the intravenous tracer. Methionine concentration in plasma obtained from blood taken from subjects in the fed state was higher (P less than 0.01) with betaine supplementation. These results suggest that excess methyl-group intake may increase the dietary requirement for methionine.

  1. NH2-terminal globular domain of human platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha has a methionine 145/threonine145 amino acid polymorphism, which is associated with the HPA-2 (Ko) alloantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, R W; Faber, N M; Cuypers, H T; Ouwehand, W H; von dem Borne, A E

    1992-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX complex, a prominent platelet GP complex, is the primary receptor for vWF. Previously, we have established that an antigenic polymorphism of platelets, the HPA-2 or Ko alloantigen system, is located on the 45-kD amino-terminal globular domain of GPIb alpha. With the polymerase chain reaction, we have amplified two segments of the GPIb alpha gene coding for the first 382 amino acids of two HPA-2a and two HPA-2b homozygous individuals. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed as the only difference a C-T polymorphism at position 434 of the coding region for the mature protein. This base change results in a substitution of threonine (ACG) in HPA-2a (Kob) to methionine (ATG) in HPA-2b (Koa) at amino acid position 145. The C-T polymorphism is reflected in a difference in restriction enzyme recognition, resulting in an Aha 2-site in the HPA-2b allele and a SfaN1 site in the HPA-2a allele. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplified DNA of 3 HPA-2(a-,b+), 2 HPA-2(a+,b+), and 11 HPA-2(a+,b-) donors showed that these restriction sites were associated with the HPA-2 alleles. DNA-typing for the HPA-2 alloantigen system on genomic DNA obtained from a small number of cells may be applied for determining the genotype of a fetus from an immunized mother or of severely thrombocytopenic patients. Images PMID:1346615

  2. Effects of Graded Levels of Chromium Methionine on Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Fatty Acid Profiles of Fat, Tissue Chromium Concentrations, and Antioxidant Status in Growing-Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yao-Yao; Gong, Li-Min; Xue, Jian-Xiang; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ying

    2015-11-01

    A 97-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profiles of fat, tissue chromium concentrations, and antioxidant status in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 180 crossbred pigs with a mean initial body weight (BW) 30.18 ± 0.28 kg were allotted to 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on BW and sex. Treatments were added with 0 (control), 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/kg chromium as CrMet. Blood samples were obtained from the anterior vena cava on days 97. Carcass characteristics, pork quality, and tissue chromium concentration data were collected from one pig per pen. The results indicated that supplemental CrMet did not significantly affect growth performance, carcass traits, or meat amino acid profiles. Chromium at 100, 400, and 800 μg/kg decreased drip loss but increased shear force (P < 0.05). Pigs fed 100 or 400 μg/kg had a higher 24-h pH than the control (P < 0.05). While meat color, muscle moisture, crude protein, or crude fat were not affected by CrMet. Supplemental 800 μg/kg chromium reduced C18:0 levels in belly fat (P < 0.05), and chromium supplementation increased cis-9, trans 11-conjugated linoleic acid levels linearly (P < 0.05). Dietary CrMet supplementation increased serum, kidney, and muscle chromium contents (P < 0.05) but did not affect liver chromium contents. Besides, tissue chromium concentrations were increased linearly with increased chromium dosage (P < 0.05). Chromium at 400 μg/kg increased serum glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05), and chromium at 800 μg/kg decreased serum total antioxidant capacity levels (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, liver and kidney antioxidant status were not significantly affected by CrMet. These results indicated that dietary supplementation CrMet did not significantly influence growth

  3. CE-LIF determination of salivary cadaverine and lysine concentration ratio as an indicator of lysine decarboxylase enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tábi, Tamás; Lohinai, Zsolt; Pálfi, Melinda; Levine, Martin; Szöko, Eva

    2008-05-01

    Salivary bacteria produce the enzyme lysine decarboxylase which converts lysine to cadaverine. In the absence of appropriate oral hygiene, overgrowth of these bacteria depletes lysine. This may contribute to gingival inflammation, while cadaverine contributes to oral malodor. A selective and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method with laser-induced fluorescence detection has been developed for the determination of cadaverine and lysine in saliva, as an indicator of lysine decarboxylase enzyme activity. The diamino compounds were separated in acidic background electrolyte in their mono-labeled form after derivatization with 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-F). Linearity and reproducibility of the method in the range 1-50 μmol L(-1) have been demonstrated using saliva samples. The method was applied for the measurement of cadaverine and lysine in the saliva of healthy volunteers with or without proper oral hygiene. In the absence of oral hygiene, the mol fraction of cadaverine to cadaverine plus lysine in saliva increased significantly (0.65 ± 0.13 vs. 0.39 ± 0.18, P < 0.001), indicating the presence of higher amount of bacterial lysine decarboxylase, that may contribute to periodontal diseases. PMID:18389226

  4. Regulation of C1 metabolism by l-methionine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lor, K. L.; Cossins, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    1. The concentrations of folate derivatives in aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (A.T.C.C. 9763) were determined by microbiological assay employing Lactobacillus casei (A.T.C.C. 7469) and Pediococcus cerevisiae (A.T.C.C. 8081). Cells cultured in media lacking l-methionine contained higher concentrations of folate derivatives than cells grown in the same media supplemented with 2.5μmol of l-methionine/ml. The concentrations of highly conjugated derivatives were also decreased by supplementing the growth medium with l-methionine. 2. DEAE-cellulose column chromatography of extracts prepared from cells grown under these conditions revealed that the concentrations of methylated tetrahydrofolates were drastically decreased by the methionine supplement. Smaller decreases were also observed in the concentrations of formylated and unsubstituted derivatives. 3. The concentrations of four enzymes of C1 metabolism were compared after 6h of growth in the presence and in the absence of l-methionine (2.5μmol/ml). The specific activities of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase were not altered by this treatment but that of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate–homocysteine methyltransferase was decreased by approx. 65% when l-methionine was supplied. The activities of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate–homocysteine methyltransferase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase were not appreciably altered by l-methionine in vitro. In contrast this amino acid was found to inhibit the activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. 4. Feeding experiments employing sodium [14C]formate indicated that cells grown in the presence of exogenous methionine, although having less ability to convert formate into methionine, readily incorporated 14C into serine and the adenosyl moiety of S-adenosylmethionine. 5. It is suggested that exogenous l-methionine controls C1 metabolism in Saccharomyces

  5. Modified bean seed protein phaseolin did not accumulate stably in transgenic tobacco seeds after methionine enhancement mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three dimensional structure...

  6. Partial derepression of the isoleucine-valine enzymes during methionine starvation is Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Rizzino, A; Mastanduno, M; Freundlich, M

    1977-03-18

    Methionine starvation of methionine auxotrophs in the presence of excess branched-chain amino acids results in a partial derepression of the isoleucine and valine enzymes. Reversed-phase chromatography indicated that isoleucine, valine and leucine tRNA were altered during methionine starvation. In addition, the total tRNA isolated from cells under these conditions were undermethylated. The observed derepression may be caused by the inability of methyl-deficient tRNA's to participate adequately in normal regulatory functions. PMID:321028

  7. (11)C-Methionine uptake in secondary brain epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopci, E; Bello, L; Chiti, A

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-11 methionine ((11)C-Methionine) is a radio-labeled amino acid currently utilized in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for imaging primary and metastatic brain tumors. Its clinical use relies mostly on oncologic applications, but the tracer has the potential to investigate other non-malignant conditions. So far, very limited evidence concerns the use of (11)C-Methionine in patients suffering from seizure; however, the tracer can find a proper utilization in this setting especially as a diagnostic complement to (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). Herein we report the case of a 57-year-old patient presenting with epileptic crises secondary to a brain metastasis from bladder carcinoma, who was investigated in our institution with (11)C-Methionine PET. The scan documented the disease recurrence in the left parietal lobe associated with a diffused tracer uptake in the surrounding cerebral circumvolutions, derived from the comitial status. After surgical removal of the metastatic lesion, the patient experienced a complete recovery of symptoms and no further onset of secondary seizure. PMID:24630372

  8. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  9. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  10. Wanted and Wanting: Antibody Against Methionine Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine residues in protein can be oxidized by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species to generate methionine sulfoxide. This covalent modification has been implicated in processes ranging from normal cell signaling to neurodegenerative diseases. A general method for detecting methionine sulfoxide in proteins would be of great value in studying these processes, but development of a chemical or immunochemical technique has been elusive. Recently, an antiserum raised against an oxidized corn protein, DZS18, was reported to be specific for methionine sulfoxide in proteins (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 485:35–40 2009.) However, data included in that report indicate that the antiserum is not specific. Utilizing well-characterized native and methionine-oxidized glutamine synthetase and aprotinin, we confirm that the antiserum does not possess specificity for methionine sulfoxide. PMID:22771451

  11. Mutants of Saccharomycopsis lipolytica defective in lysine catabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Gaillardin, C; Fournier, P; Sylvestre, G; Heslot, H

    1976-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Saccharomycopsis lipolytica are able to use lysine as a carbon or a nitrogen source, but not as a unique source for both. Mutants were selected that could not use lysine either as a nitrogen or as a carbon source. Some of them, however, utilized N-6-acetyllysine or 5-aminovaleric acid. Many of the mutants appeared to be blocked in both utilizations, suggesting a unique pathway for lysine degradation (either as a carbon or as a nitrogen source). Genetic characterization of these mutants was achieved by complementation and recombination tests. PMID:1245461

  12. Heterologous expression of lactose- and galactose-utilizing pathways from lactic acid bacteria in Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of lysine in whey.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Eoin; Stanton, Catherine; Zelder, Oskar; Fitzgerald, Gerald; Ross, R Paul

    2004-05-01

    The genetic determinants for lactose utilization from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and galactose utilization from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363 were heterologously expressed in the lysine-overproducing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21253. The C. glutamicum strains expressing the lactose permease and beta-galactosidase genes of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus exhibited beta-galactosidase activity in excess of 1000 Miller units/ml of cells and were able to grow in medium in which lactose was the sole carbon source. Similarly, C. glutamicum strains containing the lactococcal aldose-1-epimerase, galactokinase, UDP-glucose-1-P-uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose-4-epimerase genes in association with the lactose permease and beta-galactosidase genes exhibited beta-galactosidase levels in excess of 730 Miller units/ml of cells and were able to grow in medium in which galactose was the sole carbon source. When grown in whey-based medium, the engineered C. glutamicum strain produced lysine at concentrations of up to 2 mg/ml, which represented a 10-fold increase over the results obtained with the lactose- and galactose-negative control, C. glutamicum 21253. Despite their increased catabolic flexibility, however, the modified corynebacteria exhibited slower growth rates and plasmid instability. PMID:15128544

  13. [Effect of proteolysis inhibitors on the incorporation of labelled amino acids into proteins].

    PubMed

    Konikova, A S; Korotkina, R N

    1975-01-01

    Role of peptide bond breaks in the incorporation of amino acids into proteins in a "protein--amino acid" system is investigated. For this purpose the incorporation of labelled amino acids into trypsin under the inhibition of its autolysis by a specific inhibitor from soybean and epsilon-amino-caproic acid is studied. The trypsin inhibitor from soybean is found to suppress considerably the incorporation of 14C-glycine, 14C-lysine and 14C-methionine into crystal trypsin and not to affect the incorporation of labelled amino acids into chomotrypsin, papain and carboxypeptidase. Epsilon-Aminocaproic acid inhibited 14C-glycine incorporation into crystal trypsin by 40% and did not change its incorporation level into serum albumin. The dependency of amino acid incorporation level into trypsin on the activity of autolysis in the "protein--amino acid" system is demonstrated. PMID:1212456

  14. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  15. Enzymatic aminoacylation of sequence-specific RNA minihelices and hybrid duplexes with methionine.

    PubMed Central

    Martinis, S A; Schimmel, P

    1992-01-01

    RNA hairpin helices whose sequences are based on the acceptor stems of alanine and histidine tRNAs are specifically aminoacylated with their cognate amino acids. In these examples, major determinants for the identities of the respective tRNAs reside in the acceptor stem; the anticodon and other parts of the tRNA are dispensable for aminoacylation. In contrast, the anticodon is a major determinant for the identity of a methionine tRNA. RNA hairpin helices and hybrid duplexes that reconstruct the acceptor-T psi C stem and the acceptor stem, respectively, of methionine tRNA were investigated here for aminoacylation with methionine. Direct visualization of the aminoacylated RNA product on an acidic polyacrylamide gel by phosphor imaging demonstrated specific aminoacylation with substrates that contained as few as 7 base pairs. No aminoacylation with methionine was detected with several analogous RNA substrates whose sequences were based on noncognate tRNAs. While the efficiency of aminoacylation is reduced by orders of magnitude relative to methionine tRNA, the results establish that specific aminoacylation with methionine of small duplex substrates can be achieved without the anticodon or other domains of the tRNA. The results, combined with earlier studies, suggest a highly specific adaptation of the structures of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to the acceptor stems of their cognate tRNAs, resulting in a relationship between the nucleotide sequences/structures of small RNA duplexes and specific amino acids. Images PMID:1729719

  16. Insights into the regulatory landscape of the lysine riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Garst, Andrew D.; Porter, Ely B.; Batey, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    A prevalent means of regulating gene expression in bacteria is by riboswitches found within mRNA leader sequences. Like protein repressors these RNA elements must bind an effector molecule with high specificity against a background of other cellular metabolites of similar chemical structure to elicit the appropriate regulatory response. Current crystal structures of the lysine riboswitch do not provide a complete understanding of selectivity as recognition is substantially mediated through main chain atoms of the amino acid. Using a directed set of lysine analogs and other amino acids, the relative contributions of the polar functional groups to binding affinity and the regulatory response have been determined. Our results reveal that the lysine riboswitch has >1,000-fold specificity for lysine over other amino acids. To achieve this specificity, the aptamer is highly sensitive to the precise placement of the ε-amino group and relatively tolerant of alterations to the main chain functional groups. At low NTP concentrations, we observe good agreement between the half-maximal regulatory activity (T50) and the affinity of the receptor for lysine (KD) as well many of its analogs. However, above 400 µM [NTP] the concentration of lysine required to elicit transcription termination rises, moving into the riboswitch into a kinetic control regime. These data demonstrate that under physiologically relevant conditions riboswitches can integrate both effector and NTP concentrations to generate a regulatory response appropriate for global metabolic state of the cell. PMID:22771573

  17. Insights into the regulatory landscape of the lysine riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Garst, Andrew D; Porter, Ely B; Batey, Robert T

    2012-10-12

    A prevalent means of regulating gene expression in bacteria is by riboswitches found within mRNA leader sequences. Like protein repressors, these RNA elements must bind an effector molecule with high specificity against a background of other cellular metabolites of similar chemical structure to elicit the appropriate regulatory response. Current crystal structures of the lysine riboswitch do not provide a complete understanding of selectivity as recognition is substantially mediated through main-chain atoms of the amino acid. Using a directed set of lysine analogs and other amino acids, we have determined the relative contributions of the polar functional groups to binding affinity and the regulatory response. Our results reveal that the lysine riboswitch has >1000-fold specificity for lysine over other amino acids. The aptamer is highly sensitive to the precise placement of the ε-amino group and relatively tolerant of alterations to the main-chain functional groups in order to achieve this specificity. At low nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) concentrations, we observe good agreement between the half-maximal regulatory activity (T(50)) and the affinity of the receptor for lysine (K(d)), as well as many of its analogs. However, above 400 μM [NTP], the concentration of lysine required to elicit transcription termination rises, moving into the riboswitch into a kinetic control regime. These data demonstrate that, under physiologically relevant conditions, riboswitches can integrate both effector and NTP concentrations to generate a regulatory response appropriate for global metabolic state of the cell. PMID:22771573

  18. Efficiency of methionine retention in ducks.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Olayiwola

    2007-03-01

    The accretion of methionine and protein as a function of methionine intake was assessed in growing ducks between 22 and 42 d post-hatching. Four graded doses of dl-methionine at 0, 0 x 5, 1 x 0 or 1 x 5 g/kg diet were added to a methionine-limiting basal diet and fed to four replicate groups of four ducks each. The growth and efficiency of food use for growth increased linearly (P<0 x 05) as a function of methionine intake. The accretion of body protein increased (P<0 x 001) from 87 x 5 to 182 x 2 g, and that of methionine from 1616 to 3125 mg, over the 21 d period as dietary methionine increased. The accretion rate of methionine in the body (y, mg/d) as a function of methionine intake (x, mg/d) of ducks fed diets containing supplemental methionine at 0, 0 x 5, 1 x 0 or 1 x 5 g/kg diet from day 22 to day 42 post-hatching gave the regression equation: y=-148 x 86 (se 32 x 558)+0 x 312 (se 0 x 0384)X, r2=0 x 8253. For protein accretion rate in the body (y, mg/d) as a function of methionine intake (x, mg/d), the regression equation was: y= -9782 (se 2204)+19 x 505 (se 2 x 5994)x, r2=0 x 8009. There was a linear relationship between methionine (y, mg/d) and protein (x, mg/d) accretion in ducks that was described by the equation y=12 x 757 (se 7 x 4019)+0 x 01 525 (se 0 x 00 107)x, r2=0 x 9355. The results of these studies suggest a constant utilisation of methionine over the range 2 x 4-3 x 9 g digestible methionine/kg diet, with an efficiency of 31 %. Furthermore, the results suggest a quantitative relationship of 15 mg methionine for every gram of protein accretion. PMID:17313709

  19. In Salmonella enterica, the Gcn5-Related Acetyltransferase MddA (Formerly YncA) Acetylates Methionine Sulfoximine and Methionine Sulfone, Blocking Their Toxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hentchel, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Protein and small-molecule acylation reactions are widespread in nature. Many of the enzymes catalyzing acylation reactions belong to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT; PF00583) family, named after the yeast Gcn5 protein. The genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encodes 26 GNATs, 11 of which have no known physiological role. Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the role of the MddA (methionine derivative detoxifier; formerly YncA) GNAT in the detoxification of oxidized forms of methionine, including methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO). MSX and MSO inhibited the growth of an S. enterica ΔmddA strain unless glutamine or methionine was present in the medium. We used an in vitro spectrophotometric assay and mass spectrometry to show that MddA acetylated MSX and MSO. An mddA+ strain displayed biphasic growth kinetics in the presence of MSX and glutamine. Deletion of two amino acid transporters (GlnHPQ and MetNIQ) in a ΔmddA strain restored growth in the presence of MSX. Notably, MSO was transported by GlnHPQ but not by MetNIQ. In summary, MddA is the mechanism used by S. enterica to respond to oxidized forms of methionine, which MddA detoxifies by acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation. PMID:25368301

  20. In Salmonella enterica, the Gcn5-related acetyltransferase MddA (formerly YncA) acetylates methionine sulfoximine and methionine sulfone, blocking their toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Hentchel, Kristy L; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2015-01-01

    Protein and small-molecule acylation reactions are widespread in nature. Many of the enzymes catalyzing acylation reactions belong to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT; PF00583) family, named after the yeast Gcn5 protein. The genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encodes 26 GNATs, 11 of which have no known physiological role. Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the role of the MddA (methionine derivative detoxifier; formerly YncA) GNAT in the detoxification of oxidized forms of methionine, including methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO). MSX and MSO inhibited the growth of an S. enterica ΔmddA strain unless glutamine or methionine was present in the medium. We used an in vitro spectrophotometric assay and mass spectrometry to show that MddA acetylated MSX and MSO. An mddA(+) strain displayed biphasic growth kinetics in the presence of MSX and glutamine. Deletion of two amino acid transporters (GlnHPQ and MetNIQ) in a ΔmddA strain restored growth in the presence of MSX. Notably, MSO was transported by GlnHPQ but not by MetNIQ. In summary, MddA is the mechanism used by S. enterica to respond to oxidized forms of methionine, which MddA detoxifies by acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation. PMID:25368301

  1. Solubility Behavior of Cyanophycin Depending on Lysine Content

    PubMed Central

    Wiefel, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Study of the synthesis of cyanophycin (CGP) in recombinant organisms focused for a long time mostly on the insoluble form of CGP, due to its easy purification and its putative use as a precursor for biodegradable chemicals. Recently, another form of CGP, which, in contrast to the insoluble form, was soluble at neutral pH, became interesting due to its high lysine content, which was also assumed to be the reason for the solubility of the polymer. In this study, we demonstrate that lysine incorporated into insoluble CGP affected the solubility of the polymer in relation to its lysine content. Insoluble CGP can be separated along a temperature gradient of 90°C to 30°C, where CGP showed an increasing lysine content corresponding to a decreasing temperature needed for solubilization. CGP with less than 3 to 4 mol% lysine did not become soluble even at 90°C, while CGP with 31 mol% lysine was soluble at 30°C. In lysine fractions at higher than 31 mol%, CGP was soluble. The temperature separation will be suitable for improving the downstream processing of CGP synthesized in large-scale fermentations, including faster and more efficient purification of CGP, as well as enrichment and separation of dipeptides and CGP with specific amino acid compositions. PMID:24271185

  2. Methionine Biosynthesis is Essential for Infection in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Gagey, Marie Josèphe; Frelin, Océane; Beffa, Roland; Lebrun, Marc Henri; Droux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a sulfur amino acid standing at the crossroads of several biosynthetic pathways. In fungi, the last step of methionine biosynthesis is catalyzed by a cobalamine-independent methionine synthase (Met6, EC 2.1.1.14). In the present work, we studied the role of Met6 in the infection process of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. To this end MET6 null mutants were obtained by targeted gene replacement. On minimum medium, MET6 null mutants were auxotrophic for methionine. Even when grown in presence of excess methionine, these mutants displayed developmental defects, such as reduced mycelium pigmentation, aerial hypha formation and sporulation. They also displayed characteristic metabolic signatures such as increased levels of cysteine, cystathionine, homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine while methionine and glutathione levels remained unchanged. These metabolic perturbations were associated with the over-expression of MgCBS1 involved in the reversed transsulfuration pathway that metabolizes homocysteine into cysteine and MgSAM1 and MgSAHH1 involved in the methyl cycle. This suggests a physiological adaptation of M. oryzae to metabolic defects induced by the loss of Met6, in particular an increase in homocysteine levels. Pathogenicity assays showed that MET6 null mutants were non-pathogenic on both barley and rice leaves. These mutants were defective in appressorium-mediated penetration and invasive infectious growth. These pathogenicity defects were rescued by addition of exogenous methionine and S-methylmethionine. These results show that M. oryzae cannot assimilate sufficient methionine from plant tissues and must synthesize this amino acid de novo to fulfill its sulfur amino acid requirement during infection. PMID:25856162

  3. Reactions of lysine with montmorillonite at 80 degrees C: implications for optical activity, H+ transfer and lysine-montmorillonite binding.

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Javier; Aldega, Luca; Vetterlein, Jonathan; Drickamer, Kurt; Dubbin, William

    2009-05-01

    Amino acid-smectite interaction may have catalyzed prebiotic reactions essential for the emergence of life. Lysine solutions (0.05 M) were reacted with Na-smectite in adsorption-desorption experiments. The lysine-smectite complexes were heated at 80 degrees C for 10 days to investigate (1) possible slow processes taking place at surface temperature that would be accelerated at higher temperature and (2) processes taking place in hydrothermal systems. Three sets of experiments were performed: thermal treatment in closed tubes and water added regularly; thermal treatment in closed tubes without adding water; and thermal treatment in open tubes and no added water. After lysine desorption (displacement with 0.1 M CaCl(2)), the solutions were investigated using circular dichroism (CD) and the smectite samples using FTIR and CHN elemental analysis. CD spectra were dependent on the solution pH, which was controlled by lysine protonation state. The lysine protonation state was altered by the adsorption-desorption process, with a higher Lys(+)/Lys(+/-) ratio after desorption. The CD and CHN analyses show that the thermal treatment in a moist state causes stronger smectite-lysine binding. FTIR data suggest that the stronger binding is caused by more or stronger H bonds between -NH(3)(+) lysine groups and smectite basal O atoms. PMID:19185874

  4. Lysine Biosynthesis in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1974-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following precursors into the endosperm of the seedlings: acetate-1-14C; acetate-2-14C; pyruvate-1-14C; pyruvate-2-14C; pyruvate-3-14C; alanine-1-14C; aspartic acid-1-14C; aspartic acid-2-14C; aspartic acid-3-14C; aspartic acid-4-14C; α-aminoadipic acid-1-14C; and α, ε-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C. The distribution of activity in the individual carbon atoms of lysine in the different biosynthetic experiments was determined by chemical degradation. The incorporation percentages and labeling patterns obtained are in agreement with the occurrence of the diaminopimelic acid pathway. The results do not fit the incorporation percentages and labeling patterns expected if the α-aminoadipic acid pathway was operating. However, the results show that barley seedlings are able to convert a small part of the α-aminoadipic acid administered directly to lysine. The labeling pattern of lysine was found to be symmetrical around carbon 4. This indicates that the biosynthetic pathway proceeds via a symmetrical intermediate like ll-α, ε-diaminopimelic acid, or includes compounds as 2, 3-dihydrodipicolinic acid or Δ1-piperideine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid which probably isomerise with concomitant lack of asymmetry in the labeling. The percentages of incorporation show that both the mesoand ll-forms of α, ε-diaminopimelic acid are metabolically convertible to lysine in seedlings of barley. PMID:16658942

  5. Methionine production--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Willke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an updated critical review about several attempts to contribute methionine (Met) to the world market with an emphasis on fermentation processes, especially from natural biological sources. Analytical methods for the determination of methionine are reviewed as well as applications in feed, food, pharmacy, and medicine. Fermentation studies published within the last five decades are elucidated critically, mainly with respect to the sulfur balance, substrate yield, and the analytical validity. From all the published fermentation data, it can be concluded that up to now no more than 5 g/L methionine are achievable without using genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The highest L-methionine concentration from natural sources reached so far amounts to 35 g/L and is published as a patent using a GMO of Escherichia coli. The review closes with a comprehensive overview of the role and activities of global methionine manufacturers. Some current market data is also presented. PMID:25381187

  6. Topological dispositions of lysine. alpha. 380 and lysine. gamma. 486 in the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P. )

    1991-04-23

    The locations have been determined, with respect to the plasma membrane, of lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 in the {alpha} subunit and the {gamma} subunit, respectively, of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. Immunoadsorbents were constructed that recognize the carboxy terminus of the peptide GVKYIAE released by proteolytic digestion from positions 378-384 in the amino acid sequence of the {alpha} subunit of the acetylcholine receptor and the carboxy terminus of the peptide KYVP released by proteolytic digestion from positions 486-489 in the amino acid sequence of the {gamma} subunit. They were used to isolate these peptides from proteolytic digests of polypeptides from the acetylcholine receptor. Sealed vesicles containing the native acetylcholine receptor were labeled with pyridoxal phosphate and sodium ({sup 3}H)-borohydride. The effect of saponin on the incorporation of pyridoxamine phosphate into lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 from the acetylcholine receptor in these vesicles was assessed with the immunoadsorbents. The conclusions that follow from these results are that lysine {alpha}380 is on the inside surface of a vesicle and lysine {gamma}486 is on the outside surface. Because a majority (85%) of the total binding sites for {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind the toxin in the absence of saponin, the majority of the vesicles are right side out with the inside of the vesicle corresponding to the cytoplasmic surface and the outside of the vesicle corresponding to the extracytoplasmic, synaptic surface. Because lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 lie on opposite sides of the membrane, a membrane-spanning segment must be located between the two positions occupied by these two amino acids in the common sequence of a polypeptide of the acetylcholine receptor.

  7. Lysine mediation of neuroendocrine food regulation in guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Payne, A; Wang, X; Ivy, M T; Stewart, A; Nelson, K; Darris, C; Nahashon, S N

    2016-02-01

    In poultry, obesity is partly influenced by food intake, and is increasingly becoming a nationwide problem. Hypothalamic food intake mechanisms are involved metabolically and neurologically via two peptide hormones, leptin and ghrelin, and the amino acid glutamate, which is enzymatically derived from lysine metabolism. We hypothesize that lysine homeostasis mediates regulation of feed intake and performance characteristics via the brain-liver axis through glutamate sensing. The objective was to examine the effects of lysine homeostasis in avian food regulation and performance through neuroendocrine signaling. One-day-old male French Guinea fowl (GF) keets (n = 270) were weighed and randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments (0.80%, 0.86%, 0.92%, 1.10% control, and 1.22% lysine) in 3 replicates. At 4 and 8 wk of age 20% of experimental birds were randomly selected, weighed and euthanatized. The liver, pancreas, and hypothalamus were excised, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until use. Tissue mRNA was extracted and cDNA synthesized for qPCR assays. Lysine at 0.80 and 0.86% hindered growth, development of digestive organs, expression of brain and liver glutamate and leptin receptors, and caused high mortality in GF. The fold change for metabotropic glutamate receptor I was lower (P < 0.05) in liver and higher in brain at 0.86 and 0.92% than the control (1.10%) and 1.22% lysine. The 1.22% lysine exhibited highest expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor, while brain ghrelin receptor expression was highest at 0.86 and 0.92% lysine. Therefore, dietary lysine concentration may influence signaling pathways regulating food intake in brain-liver axis via glutamate synthesis. PMID:26614682

  8. Methionine and choline regulate the metabolic phenotype of a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Pissios, Pavlos; Hong, Shangyu; Kennedy, Adam Richard; Prasad, Deepthi; Liu, Fen-Fen; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets are commonly used as weight loss alternatives to low-fat diets, however the physiological and molecular adaptations to these diets are not completely understood. It is assumed that the metabolic phenotype of the ketogenic diet (KD) is caused by the absence of carbohydrate and high fat content, however in rodents the protein content of KD affects weight gain and ketosis. In this study we examined the role of methionine and choline in mediating the metabolic effects of KD. We have found that choline was more effective than methionine in decreasing the liver steatosis of KD-fed mice. On the other hand, methionine supplementation was more effective than choline in restoring weight gain and normalizing the expression of several fatty acid and inflammatory genes in the liver of KD-fed mice. Our results indicate that choline and methionine restriction rather than carbohydrate restriction underlies many of the metabolic effects of KD. PMID:24049742

  9. Biofortification of rice with lysine using endogenous histones.

    PubMed

    Wong, H W; Liu, Q; Sun, S S M

    2015-02-01

    Rice is the most consumed cereal grain in the world, but deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Therefore, people in developing countries with limited food diversity who rely on rice as their major food source may suffer from malnutrition. Biofortification of stable crops by genetic engineering provides a fast and sustainable method to solve this problem. In this study, two endogenous rice lysine-rich histone proteins, RLRH1 and RLRH2, were over-expressed in rice seeds to achieve lysine biofortification. Their protein sequences passed an allergic sequence-based homology test. Their accumulations in rice seeds were raised to a moderate level by the use of a modified rice glutelin 1 promoter with lowered expression strength to avoid the occurrence of physiological abnormalities like unfolded protein response. The expressed proteins were further targeted to protein storage vacuoles for stable storage using a glutelin 1 signal peptide. The lysine content in the transgenic rice seeds was enhanced by up to 35 %, while other essential amino acids remained balanced, meeting the nutritional standards of the World Health Organization. No obvious unfolded protein response was detected. Different degrees of chalkiness, however, were detected in the transgenic seeds, and were positively correlated with both the levels of accumulated protein and lysine enhancement. This study offered a solution to the lysine deficiency in rice, while at the same time addressing concerns about food safety and physiological abnormalities in biofortified crops. PMID:25512028

  10. Simultaneous detection of lysine metabolites by a single LC-MS/MS method: monitoring lysine degradation in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Pena, Izabella A; Marques, Lygia A; Laranjeira, Angelo B A; Yunes, José A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of lysine degradation metabolites in plasma is necessary for the diagnosis and follow-up of diseases such as pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. The principal metabolites involved in the disease are related to the first steps of lysine oxidation, either through the saccharopine or the pipecolate pathways. Currently, there are three different analytical methods used to assess the content of these metabolites in urine and plasma, but they require different sample preparations and analytical equipment. Here, we describe a protocol that calls for a simple sample preparation and uses liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of underivatized l-saccharopine, l-aminoadipic acid, l-pipecolic acid, piperideine-6-carboxylate, l-glutamic acid, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate in plasma samples. To validate the method we analyzed the time course degradation after intraperitoneal injection of l-lysine in C57BL/6/J mice. We observed that the degradation of lysine through the saccharopine pathway reached a maximum within the first 2 h. At this time point there was an increase in the levels of the metabolites saccharopine, aminoadipic acid, and pipecolic acid by 3-, 24- and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared to time zero levels. These metabolites returned to basal levels after 4-6 h. In conclusion, we have developed a LC-MS/MS approach, which allows simultaneous analysis of lysine degradation metabolites without the need for derivatization. PMID:27026869

  11. Immunomodulating effects of methionine enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y

    1998-01-01

    Methionine enkephalin (Met-Enk), the endogenous neuropeptide, is suggested to be involved in the regulatory loop between immune and neuroendocrine systems. Our studies showed that Met-Enk over a wide range of concentrations increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) production from mouse peritoneal macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and naloxone did not block the enhancing effect. Met-Enk promoted the proliferation of mouse splenocyte and the production of IL-2 and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. The up-regulating effects of IL-2 and IL-6 not only augmented their mRNA transcription but also increased their stability. Thus Met-Enk appears to be an important immunomodulatory signaling molecule to exert regulatory actions concerned with the expressing of pre-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:10375747

  12. The Regulation of Essential Amino Acid Synthesis and Accumulation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Galili, Gad; Amir, Rachel; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-04-29

    Although amino acids are critical for all forms of life, only proteogenic amino acids that humans and animals cannot synthesize de novo and therefore must acquire in their diets are classified as essential. Nine amino acids-lysine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and histidine-fit this definition. Despite their nutritional importance, several of these amino acids are present in limiting quantities in many of the world's major crops. In recent years, a combination of reverse genetic and biochemical approaches has been used to define the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for synthesizing, degrading, and regulating these amino acids. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the metabolism of the essential amino acids, discuss approaches for enhancing their levels in plants, and appraise efforts toward their biofortification in crop plants. PMID:26735064

  13. Comparative nutrition and metabolism: Explication of open questions with emphasis on protein and amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David H.

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century saw numerous important discoveries in the nutritional sciences. Nonetheless, many unresolved questions still remain. Fifteen questions dealing with amino acid nutrition and metabolism are posed in this review. The first six deal with the functionality of sulfur amino acids (methionine and cysteine) and related compounds. Other unresolved problems that are discussed include priorities of use for amino acids having multiple functions; interactions among lysine, niacin and tryptophan; amino acid contributions to requirements from gut biosynthesis; the potential for gluconeogenesis to divert amino acids away from protein synthesis; the unique nutritional and metabolic idiosyncrasies of feline species, with emphasis on arginine; controversies surrounding human amino acid requirements; and the potential for maternal diet to influence sex ratio of offspring. PMID:16326801

  14. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  15. Methionine kinetics and balance at the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU intake requirement in adult men studied with L-(2H3-methyl-1-13C)methionine as a tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Young, V.R.; Wagner, D.A.; Burini, R.; Storch, K.J. )

    1991-08-01

    The upper range of the requirement for methionine plus cystine in healthy adults was proposed in 1985 by FAO/WHO/UNU to be 13 mg.kg body wt-1.d-1. To explore the validity of this estimate, five healthy, young adult men were given for 7 d a diet based on an L-amino acid mixture supplying 13 mg methionine.kg-1.d-1 (87 mumol.kg-1.d-1) without cystine. Constant intravenous infusions of L-(2H3-methyl-1-13C)methionine were given on days 5 and 7 while subjects were in the fed and postabsorptive states, respectively. Estimates were made of methionine oxidation, and daily methionine balance was derived from the intake-oxidation data. For the five subjects, methionine balances were -0.9, +0.7, +3.5, -3.1, and -3.8 mg kg-1.d-1, or -6, +5, +23, -21, and -26 mumol.kg-1.d-1. These findings lead to the conclusion that the upper range of the requirement for methionine plus cystine probably exceeds 13 mg.kg-1.d-1 in healthy young adults. The implications of this conclusion for establishing an appropriate amount of sulfur amino acids in an amino acid requirement pattern for adults is discussed.

  16. Acidic pH shock induced overproduction of ε-poly-L-lysine in fed-batch fermentation by Streptomyces sp. M-Z18 from agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xi-Dong; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Zeng, Xin; Wang, Liang; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-06-01

    ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is produced by Streptomyces as a secondary metabolite with wide industrial applications, but its production still needs to be further enhanced. Environmental stress is an important approach for the promotion of secondary metabolites production by Streptomyces. In this study, the effect of acidic pH shock on enhancing ε-PL production by Streptomyces sp. M-Z18 was investigated in a 5-L fermenter. Based on the evaluation of acidic pH shock on mycelia metabolic activity and shock parameters optimization, an integrated pH-shock strategy was developed as follows: pre-acid-shock adaption at pH 5.0 to alleviate the damage caused by the followed pH shock, and then acidic pH shock at 3.0 for 12 h (including pH decline from 4.0 to 3.0) to positively regulate mycelia metabolic activity, finally restoring pH to 4.0 to provide optimal condition for ε-PL production. After 192 h of fed-batch fermentation, the maximum ε-PL production and productivity reached 54.70 g/L and 6.84 g/L/day, respectively, which were 52.50 % higher than those of control without pH shock. These results demonstrated that acidic pH shock is an efficient approach for improving ε-PL production. The information obtained should be useful for ε-PL production by other Streptomyces. PMID:25605030

  17. Mutagenicity of Maillard browning reaction products from various nitrosated amino acid-glucose mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yen, G C; Lee, T C

    1988-01-01

    Ten different amino acid-glucose Maillard browning products before and after reaction with nitrite were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay. No mutagenic response was observed in the methylene chloride extracts of any browning products tested before nitrosation. However, mutagenicity was showed in most of the browning mixtures, e.g., glycine-glucose, lysine-glucose (I), arginine-glucose, phenylalanine-glucose (II), and methionine-glucose after nitrosation when examined by Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 either with or without S-9 metabolic activation. Among the browning mixtures, (I) and (II) showed the greatest mutagenic activity after reaction with nitrite. The mutagenicity of lysine-glucose with nitrite was dependent on browning intensity, nitrosation pH, nitrosation time, nitrite level and blocking agents. PMID:3406207

  18. Molecular Basis for Lysine Specificity in the Yeast Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Cdc34 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Martin; Suryadinata, Randy; Lai, Xianning; Heierhorst, Jörg; Sarcevic, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) catalyze the attachment of Ub to lysine residues in substrates and Ub during monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Lysine selection is important for the generation of diverse substrate-Ub structures, which provides versatility to this pathway in the targeting of proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection remain poorly understood, with previous studies suggesting that the ubiquitination site(s) is selected by the E2/E3-mediated positioning of a lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site. By studying the polyubiquitination of Sic1 by the E2 protein Cdc34 and the RING E3 Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) protein, we now demonstrate that in addition to E2/E3-mediated positioning, proximal amino acids surrounding the lysine residues in Sic1 and Ub are critical for ubiquitination. This mechanism is linked to key residues composing the catalytic core of Cdc34 and independent of SCF. Changes to these core residues altered the lysine preference of Cdc34 and specified whether this enzyme monoubiquitinated or polyubiquitinated Sic1. These new findings indicate that compatibility between amino acids surrounding acceptor lysine residues and key amino acids in the catalytic core of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes is an important mechanism for lysine selection during ubiquitination. PMID:20194622

  19. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] inhibits vitamin B12 and causes cytotoxicity in HL60 cells: methionine protects cells completely.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J H

    1997-06-15

    The [c-lactam] derivative of cobalamin antagonizes vitamin B12 in vivo. Therefore, we investigated its effects in tissue culture to develop a model in which to study vitamin B12-deficient hemopoiesis. HL60 cells were cultured in medium containing either methionine or L-homocysteine thiolactone, and various concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate or pteroylglutamic acid. In medium with L-homocysteine thiolactone, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and dialyzed serum, cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] caused cell death, reversible by additional vitamin B12. Pteroylglutamic acid did not prevent this cytotoxic effect. Methionine completely protected cells against cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] for periods of up to 4 months of culture, irrespective of the folate source. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] reversibly impaired the incorporation of 5-[14CH3]-tetrahydrofolate and [1-(14)C] propionic acid by intact cells, consistent with inhibition of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. A substantial proportion of 5-[14CH3]-tetrahydrofolate uptake could not be suppressed by methionine and may, therefore, have occurred outside of the methionine synthase pathway. These findings are the first indication that cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] antagonizes vitamin B12 in vitro and causes cell death from methionine deficiency. The model should be valuable for investigating the biochemical pathology of vitamin B12-deficient hemopoiesis. The results suggest that methylfolate is not trapped when methionine synthase is inhibited in HL60 cells, but they do not disprove the methylfolate trap hypothesis as applied to normal blood cells. PMID:9192785

  20. Global Profiling of Protein Lysine Malonylation in Escherichia coli Reveals Its Role in Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Nie, Litong; Chen, Ming; Liu, Ping; Zhu, Jun; Zhai, Linhui; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhao, Yingming; Tan, Minjia

    2016-06-01

    Protein lysine malonylation is a recently identified post-translational modification (PTM), which is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals. Although analysis of lysine malonylome in mammalians suggested that this modification was related to energy metabolism, the substrates and biological roles of malonylation in prokaryotes are still poorly understood. In this study, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses to globally identify lysine malonylation substrates in Escherichia coli. We identified 1745 malonylation sites in 594 proteins in E. coli, representing the first and largest malonylome data set in prokaryotes up to date. Bioinformatic analyses showed that lysine malonylation was significantly enriched in protein translation, energy metabolism pathways and fatty acid biosynthesis, implying the potential roles of protein malonylation in bacterial physiology. Quantitative proteomics by fatty acid synthase inhibition in both auxotrophic and prototrophic E. coli strains revealed that lysine malonylation is closely associated with E. coli fatty acid metabolism. Protein structural analysis and mutagenesis experiment suggested malonylation could impact enzymatic activity of citrate synthase, a key enzyme in citric acid (TCA) cycle. Further comparative analysis among lysine malonylome, succinylome and acetylome data showed that these three modifications could participate in some similar enriched metabolism pathways, but they could also possibly play distinct roles such as in fatty acid synthesis. These data expanded our knowledge of lysine malonylation in prokaryotes, providing a resource for functional study of lysine malonylation in bacteria. PMID:27183143

  1. Influence of various nitrogen applications on protein and amino acid profiles of amaranth and quinoa.

    PubMed

    Thanapornpoonpong, Sa-nguansak; Vearasilp, Suchada; Pawelzik, Elke; Gorinstein, Shela

    2008-12-10

    The effect of nitrogen application levels (0.16 and 0.24 g N kg(-1) soil) on seed proteins and their amino acid compositions of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) was studied. Total proteins of amaranth and quinoa had high contents of lysine (6.3-8.2 g 100 g(-1) protein) but low contents of methionine (1.2-1.8 g 100 g(-1) protein). Seed proteins were fractionated on the basis of different solubility in water, saline, and buffer as albumin-1 (Albu-1), albumin-2 (Albu-2), globulin (Glob), and glutelin (Glu) and were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Albu-1 was high in lysine (5.4-8.6 g 100 g(-1) protein), while Albu-2, which is a part of storage proteins, had a high leucine content (7.2-8.9 g 100 g(-1) protein) as an effect of different nitrogen application levels. Glu fractions were well-balanced in their essential amino acids with the exception of methionine. In conclusion, nitrogen application can be used for the nutritional improvement in human diet by increasing and maintaining protein and essential amino acid contents. PMID:19006392

  2. Possible evidence of amide bond formation between sinapinic acid and lysine-containing bacterial proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, HdeB and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALD...

  3. Metformin Eased Cognitive Impairment Induced by Chronic L-methionine Administration: Potential Role of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Karem. H; Khabour, Omar. F; Al-azzam, Sayer I; Tashtoush, Murad H; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic administration of L-methionine leads to memory impairment, which is attributed to increase in the level of oxidative stress in the brain. On the other hand, metformin is a commonly used antidiabetic drug with strong antioxidant properties. In the current study, we tested if chronic metformin administration prevents memory impairment induced by administration of L-methionine. In addition, a number of molecules related to the action of metformin on cognitive functions were examined. Both metformin and L-methionine were administered to animals by oral gavage. Testing of spatial learning and memory was carried out using radial arm water maze (RAWM). Additionally, hippocampal levels or activities of catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and GSH/GSSG ratio were determined. Results showed that chronic L-methionine administration resulted in both short- and long- term memory impairment, whereas metformin treatment prevented such effect. Additionally, L-methionine treatment induced significant elevation in GSSG and TBARs, along with reduction in GSH/GSSG ratio and activities of catalase, and GPx. These effects were shown to be restored by metformin treatment. In conclusion, L-methionine induced memory impairment, and treatment with metformin prevented this impairment probably by normalizing oxidative stress in the hippocampus. PMID:24669211

  4. Crystallography captures catalytic steps in human methionine adenosyltransferase enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Ben; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Marina, Alberto; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, Jose M.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Rojas, Adriana L.

    2016-01-01

    The principal methyl donor of the cell, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), is produced by the highly conserved family of methionine adenosyltranferases (MATs) via an ATP-driven process. These enzymes play an important role in the preservation of life, and their dysregulation has been tightly linked to liver and colon cancers. We present crystal structures of human MATα2 containing various bound ligands, providing a “structural movie” of the catalytic steps. High- to atomic-resolution structures reveal the structural elements of the enzyme involved in utilization of the substrates methionine and adenosine and in formation of the product SAMe. MAT enzymes are also able to produce S-adenosylethionine (SAE) from substrate ethionine. Ethionine, an S-ethyl analog of the amino acid methionine, is known to induce steatosis and pancreatitis. We show that SAE occupies the active site in a manner similar to SAMe, confirming that ethionine also uses the same catalytic site to form the product SAE. PMID:26858410

  5. Selective cleavage enhanced by acetylating the side chain of lysine.

    PubMed

    Fu, Leixiaomeng; Chen, Tingting; Xue, Gaiqing; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Selective cleavage is of great interest in mass spectrometry studies as it can help sequence identification by promoting simple fragmentation pattern of peptides and proteins. In this work, the collision-induced dissociation of peptides containing internal lysine and acetylated lysine residues were studied. The experimental and computational results revealed that multiple fragmentation pathways coexisted when the lysine residue was two amino acid residues away from N-terminal of the peptide. After acetylation of the lysine side-chain, b(n)+ ions were the most abundant primary fragment products and the Lys(Ac)-Gly amide bond became the dominant cleavage site via an oxazolone pathway. Acetylating the side-chain of lysine promoted the selective cleavage of Lys-Xxx amide bond and generated much more information of the peptide backbone sequence. The results re-evaluate the selective cleavage due to the lysine basic side-chain and provide information for studying the post-translational modification of proteins and other bio-molecules containing Lys residues. PMID:23303756

  6. Tropomyosin lysine reactivities and relationship to coiled-coil structure.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock-DeGregori, S E; Lewis, S F; Chou, T M

    1985-06-18

    We have carried out a detailed analysis of tropomyosin structure using lysines as specific probes for the protein surface in regions of the molecule that have not been investigated by other methods. We have measured the relative reactivities of lysines in rabbit skeletal muscle alpha, alpha-tropomyosin with acetic anhydride using a competitive labeling procedure. We have identified 37 of 39 lysines and find that they range 20-fold in reactivity. The observed reactivities are related to the coiled-coil model of the tropomyosin molecule [Crick, F.H.C. (1953) Acta Crystallogr. 6, 689-697; McLachlan, A.D., Stewart, M., & Smillie, L.B. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 98, 281-291] and other available chemical and physical information about the structure. In most cases, the observed lysine reactivities can be explained by allowable interactions with neighboring amino acid side chains on the same or facing alpha-helix. However, we found no correlation between reactivity and helical position of a given lysine. For example, lysines in the outer helical positions included lysines of low as well as high reactivity, indicating that they vary widely in their accessibility to solvent and that the coiled coil is heterogeneous along its length. Furthermore, the middle of the molecule (residues 126-182) that is susceptible to proteolysis and known to be the least stable region of the protein also contains some of the least and most reactive lysines. We have discussed the implications of our results on our understanding the structures of tropomyosin and other coiled-coil proteins as well as globular proteins containing helical regions. PMID:3927977

  7. Selective Deletion of the Internal Lysine Residue from the Peptide Sequence by Collisional Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-11-01

    The gas-phase peptide ion fragmentation chemistry is always the center of attraction in proteomics to analyze the amino acid sequence of peptides and proteins. In this work, we describe the formation of an anomalous fragment ion, which corresponds to the selective deletion of the internal lysine residue from a series of lysine containing peptides upon collisional activation in the ion trap. We detected several water-loss fragment ions and the maximum number of water molecules lost from a particular fragment ion was equal to the number of lysine residues in that fragment. As a consequence of this water-loss phenomenon, internal lysine residues were found to be deleted from the peptide ion. The N,N-dimethylation of all the amine functional groups of the peptide stopped the internal lysine deletion reaction, but selective N-terminal α-amino acetylation had no effect on this process indicating involvement of the side chains of the lysine residues. The detailed mechanism of the lysine deletion was investigated by multistage CID of the modified and unmodified peptides, by isotope labeling and by energy resolved CID studies. The results suggest that the lysine deletion might occur through a unimolecular multistep mechanism involving a seven-membered cyclic imine intermediate formed by the loss of water from a lysine residue in the protonated peptide. This intermediate subsequently undergoes degradation reaction to deplete the interior imine ring from the peptide backbone leading to the deletion of an internal lysine residue.

  8. Intermediates in the recycling of 5-methylthioribose to methionine in fruits.

    PubMed

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J

    1983-10-01

    The recycling of 5-methylthioribose (MTR) to methionine in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv Hass) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv unknown) was examined. [(14)CH(3)]MTR was not metabolized in cell free extract from avocado fruit. Either [(14)CH(3)]MTR plus ATP or [(14)CH(3)]5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) alone, however, were metabolized to two new products by these extracts. MTR kinase activity has previously been detected in these fruit extracts. These data indicate that MTR must be converted to MTR-1-P by MTR kinase before further metabolism can occur. The products of MTR-1-P metabolism were tentatively identified as alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-KMB) and alpha-hydroxy-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-HMB) by chromatography in several solvent systems. [(35)S]alpha-KMB was found to be further metabolized to methionine and alpha-HMB by these extracts, whereas alpha-HMB was not. However, alpha-HMB inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to methionine. Both [U-(14)C]alpha-KMB and [U-(14)C]methionine, but not [U-(14)C]alpha-HMB, were converted to ethylene in tomato pericarp tissue. In addition, aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to ethylene. These data suggest that the recycling pathway leading to ethylene is MTR --> MTR-1-P --> alpha-KMB --> methionine --> S-adenosylmethionine --> 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid --> ethylene. PMID:16663204

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of l-methionine γ-lyase from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Daizou; Yasuda, Eri; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    A pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) was cloned from Streptomyces avermitilis catalyzed the degradation of methionine to α-ketobutyrate, methanethiol, and ammonia. The sav7062 gene (1,242 bp) was corresponded to 413 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 42,994 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other MGL enzymes. The sav7062 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and exhibited the MGL catalytic activities. We cloned the enzyme that has the MGL activity in Streptomyces for the first time. PMID:25817696

  10. Characterization and crystal structure of lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase (cDHDPS) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, E.A.; Bannon, G.A.; Glenn, K.C.; Jeong, S.S.; Sturman, E.J.; Rydel, T.J.

    2008-11-21

    The lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase enzyme (cDHDPS) was recently successfully introduced into maize plants to enhance the level of lysine in the grain. To better understand lysine insensitivity of the cDHDPS, we expressed, purified, kinetically characterized the protein, and solved its X-ray crystal structure. The cDHDPS enzyme has a fold and overall structure that is highly similar to other DHDPS proteins. A noteworthy feature of the active site is the evidence that the catalytic lysine residue forms a Schiff base adduct with pyruvate. Analyses of the cDHDPS structure in the vicinity of the putative binding site for S-lysine revealed that the allosteric binding site in the Escherichia coli DHDPS protein does not exist in cDHDPS due to three non-conservative amino acids substitutions, and this is likely why cDHDPS is not feedback inhibited by lysine.

  11. Determination of amino acids in fodders and raw materials using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Komarova, N V; Kamentsev, J S; Solomonova, A P; Anufrieva, R M

    2004-02-01

    Two schemes were offered for analysis of amino acid contents in fodders and raw materials for mixed fodders by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The first variant provides express analysis of four technologically important amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine, cystine) in borate buffer on characteristic absorption of aminogroup (190 nm), with limits of quantitation being on average 0.2%. The second scheme includes pre-capillary derivatization of amino acids using phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and separation of phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-derivatives obtained by CZE with a detection on 254 nm, which allows to widen a list of detectable components up to 19 (without tryptophan) and significantly improve detection limits down to 0.01%. Acid hydrolysis was used for a sample preparation. The results of analysis of fodders were compared using such methods, as CZE, ion exchange chromatography (amino acid analyzer) and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC (with gradient technique of elution). PMID:14698247

  12. Identification of methionine as a possible precursor to the selenocysteine catalytic site of glutathione peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    The selenium (Se) moiety of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) occurs as selenocysteine and is present at the catalytic active site of the enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxides and lipid peroxides. The presence of this unusual amino acid at the active site raises the question as to the origin of the carbon skeleton of Se-cysteine. ICR Swiss mice were fed a Se deficient diet for 50 days and then were fed a Se adequate diet (1 ppm Se as SeO/sub 3/). Mice were i.p. injected with either (U-/sup 14/C) methionine, serine, or alanine (0.5 ..mu..Ci/0.1 ml/mouse/day) for 25 days. Recovered GSHPx activity in liver and blood was carboxymethylated (CM) with iodoacetic acid. CM-GSHPx was partially purified by column chromatography. /sup 14/C-GSHPx fractions were collected, lyophilized, and hydrolyzed. /sup 14/C-amino acids were separated by TLC and ion-exchange chromatography. TLC (phenol, cyclohexane, acetic acid, and water (90;6.5;3.5;8)) revealed a GSHPx /sup 14/C-amino acid derived from U-/sup 14/C-methionine, but not from serine or alanine corresponding to CM-selenocysteine (R/sub f/; 0.16). Ion-exchange chromatography of U-/sup 14/C-methionine labeled GSHPx hydrolyzate revealed two radio carbon ninhydrin positive peaks corresponding to /sup 14/C-CM-selenocysteine and /sup 14/C-methionine. No corresponding /sup 14/C-labeled peaks were observed for CM-selenocysteine derived from U-/sup 14/C serine or alanine. The results suggest that methionine may contribute a portion of the carbon skeleton to selenocysteine which may include an alternative metabolic pathway. Animal studies demonstrated that GSHPx activity is increased by methionine supplementation may be due to its contribution of carbon source to the catalytic site of the enzyme.

  13. Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p < 0.05) food intake, but retarded (p < 0.05) growth, increased (p < 0.05) liver and muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen levels and mRNA levels of the serine-synthesizing 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene, but decreased (p < 0.05) urea cycle arginase gene mRNA levels. In contrast, the 50% lysine restriction did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23441935

  14. Role of methionine in the active site of alpha-galactosidase from Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed Central

    Kachurin, A M; Golubev, A M; Geisow, M M; Veselkina, O S; Isaeva-Ivanova, L S; Neustroev, K N

    1995-01-01

    alpha-Galactosidase from Trichoderma reesei when treated with H2O2 shows a 12-fold increase in activity towards p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside. A similar effect is produced by the treatment of alpha-galactosidase with other non-specific oxidants: NaIO4, KMnO4 and K4S4O8. In addition to the increase in activity, the Michaelis constant rises from 0.2 to 1.4 mM, the temperature coefficient decreases by a factor of 1.5 and the pH-activity curve falls off sharply with increasing pH. Galactose (a competitive inhibitor of alpha-galactosidase; Ki 0.09 mM for the native enzyme at pH 4.4) effectively inhibits oxidative activation of the enzyme, because the observed activity changes are related to oxidation of the catalytically important methionine in the active site. NMR measurements and amino acid analysis show that oxidation to methionine sulphoxide of one of five methionines is sufficient to activate alpha-galactosidase. Binding of galactose prevents this. Oxidative activation does not lead to conversion of other H2O2-sensitive amino acid residues, such as histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan and cysteine. The catalytically important cysteine thiol group is quantitatively titrated after protein oxidative activation. Further oxidation of methionines (up to four of five residues) can be achieved by increasing the oxidation time and/or by prior denaturation of the protein. Obviously, a methionine located in the active site of alpha-galactosidase is more accessible. The oxidative-activation phenomenon can be explained by a conformational change in the active site as a result of conversion of non-polar methionine into polar methionine sulphoxide. Images Figure 10 PMID:8948456

  15. Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T

    1998-08-01

    Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

  16. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Four 28-d experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine (Val) to lysine (Lys) ratio required for 26- to 46- (Exp. 1), 49- to 70- (Exp. 2), 71- to 92- (Exp. 3), and 94- to 119-kg (Exp. 4) pigs fed low CP diets supplemented with crystalline AA. The first 3 experiments utilized 150 pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White), while Exp. 4 utilized 90 finishing pigs. Pigs in all 4 experiments were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 diets with 6 pens per treatment (3 pens of barrows and 3 pens of gilts) and 5 pigs per pen for the first 3 experiments and 3 pigs per pen for Exp. 4. Diets for all experiments were formulated to contain SID Val to Lys ratios of 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, or 0.75. In Exp. 1 (26 to 46 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.039; quadratic, = 0.042) with an increasing dietary Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize ADG was 0.62 using a linear broken-line model and 0.71 using a quadratic model. In Exp. 2 (49 to 70 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.042) as the SID Val:Lys ratio increased. G:F improved (linear, = 0.039) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.024) with an increased SID Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.65, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.71, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 3 (71 to 92 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.007; quadratic, = 0.022) and SUN decreased (linear, = 0.011; quadratic, = 0.034) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.67, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 4 (94 to 119 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.041) and G:F was improved (linear, = 0.004; quadratic, = 0.005) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize G:F was 0

  17. Methionine sustituted polyamides are RNAse mimics that inhibit translation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohtash; Garneau, Philippe; Nguyen, Nhi; William Lown, J; Pelletier, Jerry

    2004-04-01

    RNAse mimics are small molecules that can cleave RNA in a fashion similar to ribonucleases. These compounds would be very useful as gene specific reagents if their activities could be regulated and targeted. We demonstrate here that polyamides with methionine substituents show enhanced RNA cleavage activity relative to other polyamides. Conjugation of these compounds to aminoglycosides produced RNAse mimics that are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic protein synthesis. As a new class of compounds capable of interacting with nucleic acids, these novel aminoglycoside-polyamides constitute promising scaffolds for the construction of nuclease mimics with biological activity. PMID:15203891

  18. Determining the Optimum Dietary Tryptophan to Lysine Ratio in Growing Pigs Fed Diets Formulated with Hhigher Levels of Other Essential Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on amino acid (AA) ratios require the first limiting AA (generally Lys) to be set below the requirement estimate. Graded levels of the AA being investigated are then fed to determine the required ratio. Essential AA (EAA) not under investigation are often set at their presumed requirement ra...

  19. Conserved methionine dictates substrate preference in Nramp-family divalent metal transporters.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, Aaron T; Bane, Lukas B; Weihofen, Wilhelm A; McCabe, Anne L; Singharoy, Abhishek; Chipot, Christophe J; Schulten, Klaus; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-09-13

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family transporters catalyze uptake of essential divalent transition metals like iron and manganese. To discriminate against abundant competitors, the Nramp metal-binding site should favor softer transition metals, which interact either covalently or ionically with coordinating molecules, over hard calcium and magnesium, which interact mainly ionically. The metal-binding site contains an unusual, but conserved, methionine, and its sulfur coordinates transition metal substrates, suggesting a vital role in their transport. Using a bacterial Nramp model system, we show that, surprisingly, this conserved methionine is dispensable for transport of the physiological manganese substrate and similar divalents iron and cobalt, with several small amino acid replacements still enabling robust uptake. Moreover, the methionine sulfur's presence makes the toxic metal cadmium a preferred substrate. However, a methionine-to-alanine substitution enables transport of calcium and magnesium. Thus, the putative evolutionary pressure to maintain the Nramp metal-binding methionine likely exists because it-more effectively than any other amino acid-increases selectivity for low-abundance transition metal transport in the presence of high-abundance divalents like calcium and magnesium. PMID:27573840

  20. Exploration of the binding modes of buffalo PGRP1 receptor complexed with meso-diaminopimelic acid and lysine-type peptidoglycans by molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Dubey, Praveen Kumar; Goyal, Shubham; Bhoi, Gopal Krushna; Lenka, Santosh Kumar; Maharana, Jitendra; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; Kataria, Ranjit Singh

    2014-09-01

    The peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are the key components of innate-immunity, and are highly specific for the recognition of bacterial peptidoglycans (PGN). Among different mammalian PGRPs, the PGRP1 binds to murein PGN of Gram-positive bacteria (lysine-type) and also have bactericidal activity towards Gram-negative bacteria (diaminopimelic acid or Dap-type). Buffaloes are the major sources of milk and meat in Asian sub-continents and are highly exposed to bacterial infections. The PGRP activates the innate-immune signaling, but their studies has been confined to limited species due to lack of structural and functional information. So, to understand the structural constituents, 3D model of buffalo PGRP1 (bfPGRP1) was constructed and conformational and dynamics properties of bfPGRP1 was studied. The bfPGRP1 model highly resembled human and camel PGRP structure, and shared a highly flexible N-terminus and centrally placed L-shaped cleft. Docking simulation of muramyl-tripeptide, tetrapeptide, pentapeptide-Dap-(MTP-Dap, MTrP-Dap and MPP-Dap) and lysine-type (MTP-Lys, MTrP-Lys and MPP-Lys) in AutoDock 4.2 and ArgusLab 4.0.1 anticipated β1, α2, α4, β4, and loops connecting β1-α2, α2-β2, β3-β4 and α4-α5 as the key interacting domains. The bfPGRP1-ligand complex molecular dynamics simulation followed by free binding energy (BE) computation conceded BE values of -18.30, -35.53, -41.80, -25.03, -24.62 and -22.30 kJ mol(-1) for MTP-Dap, MTrP-Dap, MPP-Dap, MTP-Lys, MTrP-Lys and MPP-Lys, respectively. The groove-surface and key binding residues involved in PGN-Dap and Lys-type interaction intended by the molecular docking, and were also accompanied by significant BE values directed their importance in pharmacogenomics, and warrants further in vivo studies for drug targeting and immune signaling pathways exploration. PMID:25014416

  1. The Methionine Transamination Pathway Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism through Regulation of the GCN5 Acetyltransferase and the PGC-1α Transcriptional Coactivator.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Clint D J; Sharabi, Kfir; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Isasa, Marta; Orozco, Jose M; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Griffin, Patrick R; Gygi, Steven P; Puigserver, Pere

    2016-05-13

    Methionine is an essential sulfur amino acid that is engaged in key cellular functions such as protein synthesis and is a precursor for critical metabolites involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In mammals, in response to nutrient conditions, the liver plays a significant role in regulating methionine concentrations by altering its flux through the transmethylation, transsulfuration, and transamination metabolic pathways. A comprehensive understanding of how hepatic methionine metabolism intersects with other regulatory nutrient signaling and transcriptional events is, however, lacking. Here, we show that methionine and derived-sulfur metabolites in the transamination pathway activate the GCN5 acetyltransferase promoting acetylation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Methionine was the only essential amino acid that rapidly induced PGC-1α acetylation through activating the GCN5 acetyltransferase. Experiments employing metabolic pathway intermediates revealed that methionine transamination, and not the transmethylation or transsulfuration pathways, contributed to methionine-induced PGC-1α acetylation. Moreover, aminooxyacetic acid, a transaminase inhibitor, was able to potently suppress PGC-1α acetylation stimulated by methionine, which was accompanied by predicted alterations in PGC-1α-mediated gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in primary murine hepatocytes. Methionine administration in mice likewise induced hepatic PGC-1α acetylation, suppressed the gluconeogenic gene program, and lowered glycemia, indicating that a similar phenomenon occurs in vivo These results highlight a communication between methionine metabolism and PGC-1α-mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis, suggesting that influencing methionine metabolic flux has the potential to be therapeutically exploited for diabetes treatment. PMID:27022023

  2. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    PubMed

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.). PMID:21391500

  3. Kinetics of methionine transport and metabolism by Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, B; Rattendi, D; Lloyd, D; Yarlett, N; Bacchi, C J

    2000-05-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, little is known concerning its utilization in African trypanosomes, protozoa of the Trypanosoma brucei group. This study explored the Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants for transport and pool formation as well as metabolic utilization of methionine by two divergent strains of African trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei brucei (a veterinary pathogen), highly sensitive to trypanocidal agents, and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (a human pathogenic isolate), highly refractory to trypanocidal arsenicals. The Michaelis-Menten constants derived by Hanes-Woolf analysis for transport of methionine for T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, respectively, were as follows: K(M) values, 1. 15 and 1.75 mM; V(max) values, 3.97 x 10(-5) and 4.86 x 10(-5) mol/L/min. Very similar values were obtained by Lineweaver-Burk analysis (K(M), 0.25 and 1.0 mM; V(max), 1 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol/L/min, T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, respectively). Cooperativity analyses by Hill (log-log) plot gave Hill coefficients (n) of 6 and 2 for T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, respectively. Cytosolic accumulation of methionine after 10-min incubation with 25 mM exogenous methionine was 1.8-fold greater in T. b. rhodesiense than T. b. brucei (2.1 vs 1.1 mM, respectively). In African trypanosomes as in their mammalian host, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is the major product of methionine metabolism. Accumulation of AdoMet was measured by HPLC analysis of cytosolic extracts incubated in the presence of increasing cytosolic methionine. In trypanosomes incubated for 10 min with saturating methionine, both organisms accumulated similar amounts of AdoMet (approximately 23 microM), but the level of trans-sulfuration products (cystathionine and cysteine) in T. b. rhodesiense was double that of T. b. brucei. Methionine incorporation during protein synthesis in T. b. brucei was 2.5 times that of T. b. rhodesiense

  4. Site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance substrate specificity towards maltodextrin for enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G).

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase towards maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) by CGTase. When using maltodextrin as glycosyl donor, four mutants K47F (lysine→ phenylalanine), K47L (lysine→ leucine), K47V (lysine→ valine) and K47W (lysine→ tryptophan) showed higher AA-2G yield as compared with that produced by the wild-type CGTase. The transformation conditions (temperature, pH and the mass ratio of L-ascorbic acid to maltodextrin) were optimized and the highest titer of AA-2G produced by the mutant K47L could reach 1.97 g/l, which was 64.2% higher than that (1.20 g/l) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics analysis confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, the four mutants had relatively lower cyclization activities and higher disproportionation activities, which was favorable for AA-2G synthesis. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was further explored by structure modeling and it was indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be due to the short residue chain and the removal of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the sugar at -3 subsite. Here the obtained mutant CGTases, especially the K47L, has a great potential in the production of AA-2G with maltodextrin as a cheap and easily soluble substrate. PMID:23129181

  5. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  6. Sugar Substrates for l-Lysine Fermentation by Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A.; Ledezma, M.; Carreño, R.

    1970-01-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; KLa in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O2 per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  7. Sugar substrates for L-lysine fermentation by Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Ledezma, M; Carreño, R

    1970-11-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; K(La) in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O(2) per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  8. Dynamic study of supratentorial gliomas with L-methyl-/sup 11/C-methionine and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lilja, A.; Bergstroem, K.H.; Hartvig, P.; Spaennare, B.H.; Halldin, C.; Lundqvist, H.; Langstrom, B.

    1985-07-01

    The regional kinetics of intravenously injected L-methyl-/sup 11/C-methionine (/sup 11/C-L-methionine) in the brain was investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with gliomas. In both tumor and unaffected brain the tracer uptake reached a nearly constant level in 5 min or less. The ratio between the uptake of /sup 11/C-L-methionine by high-grade tumors and the uptake by unaffected brain was 1.9-4.8. In two cases of low-grade astrocytoma the ratio was 0.8-1.0. High uptakes of /sup 11/C-L-methionine occurred in gliomas even in the absence of blood-brain barrier defects as observed by other methods. This indicates that besides active transport of amino acid, a larger extracellular space in tumor as compared with unaffected brain tissue may also contribute to the increased uptake of /sup 11/C-L-methionine--derived radioactivity. In some patients delineation of the tumors was improved by use of PET with /sup 11/C-L-methionine as compared with computed tomography, angiography, and, in some instances, PET with /sup 68/Ga-EDTA. PET with /sup 11/C-L-methionine permits better evaluation of the tumor extent and may affect preoperative grading.

  9. Characterization of the fibrinogen binding domain of bacteriophage lysin from Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ho Seong; Sullam, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    The binding of bacteria to human platelets is a likely central mechanism in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Platelet binding by Streptococcus mitis SF100 is mediated in part by a lysin encoded by the lysogenic bacteriophage SM1. In addition to its role in the phage life cycle, lysin mediates the binding of S. mitis to human platelets via its interaction with fibrinogen on the platelet surface. To better define the region of lysin mediating fibrinogen binding, we tested a series of purified lysin truncation variants for their abilities to bind this protein. These studies revealed that the fibrinogen binding domain of lysin is contained within the region spanned by amino acid residues 102 to 198 (lysin(102-198)). This region has no sequence homology to other known fibrinogen binding proteins. Lysin(102-198) bound fibrinogen comparably to full-length lysin and with the same selectivity for the fibrinogen Aα and Bβ chains. Lysin(102-198) also inhibited the binding in vitro of S. mitis to human fibrinogen and platelets. When assessed by platelet aggregometry, the disruption of the lysin gene in SF100 resulted in a significantly longer time to the onset of aggregation of human platelets than that of the parent strain. The preincubation of platelets with purified lysin(102-198) also delayed the onset of aggregation by SF100. These results indicate that the binding of lysin to fibrinogen is mediated by a specific domain of the phage protein and that this interaction is important for both platelet binding and aggregation by S. mitis. PMID:21690235

  10. Characterization of methionine oxidation and methionine sulfoxide reduction using methionine-rich cysteine-free proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methionine (Met) residues in proteins can be readily oxidized by reactive oxygen species to Met sulfoxide (MetO). MetO is a promising physiological marker of oxidative stress and its inefficient repair by MetO reductases (Msrs) has been linked to neurodegeneration and aging. Conventional methods of assaying MetO formation and reduction rely on chromatographic or mass spectrometry procedures, but the use of Met-rich proteins (MRPs) may offer a more streamlined alternative. Results We carried out a computational search of completely sequenced genomes for MRPs deficient in cysteine (Cys) residues and identified several proteins containing 20% or more Met residues. We used these MRPs to examine Met oxidation and MetO reduction by in-gel shift assays and immunoblot assays with antibodies generated against various oxidized MRPs. The oxidation of Cys-free MRPs by hydrogen peroxide could be conveniently monitored by SDS-PAGE and was specific for Met, as evidenced by quantitative reduction of these proteins with Msrs in DTT- and thioredoxin-dependent assays. We found that hypochlorite was especially efficient in oxidizing MRPs. Finally, we further developed a procedure wherein antibodies made against oxidized MRPs were isolated on affinity resins containing same or other oxidized or reduced MRPs. This procedure yielded reagents specific for MetO in these proteins, but proved to be ineffective in developing antibodies with broad MetO specificity. Conclusion Our data show that MRPs provide a convenient tool for characterization of Met oxidation, MetO reduction and Msr activities, and could be used for various aspects of redox biology involving reversible Met oxidation. PMID:23088625

  11. Amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis in malarial parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, I. W.

    1977-01-01

    Malaria-infected red cells and free parasites have limited capabilities for the biosynthesis of amino acids. Therefore, the principal amino acid sources for parasite protein synthesis are the plasma free amino acids and host cell haemoglobin. Infected cells and plasmodia incorporate exogenously supplied amino acids into protein. However, the hypothesis that amino acid utilization (from an external source) is related to availability of that amino acid in haemoglobin is without universal support: it is true for isoleucine and for Plasmodium knowlesi and P. falciparum, but not for methionine, cysteine, and other amino acids, and it does not apply to P. lophurae. More by default than by direct evidence, haemoglobin is believed to be the main amino acid reservoir available to the intraerythrocytic plasmodium. Haemoglobin, ingested via the cytostome, is held in food vacuoles where auto-oxidation takes place. As a consequence, haem is released and accumulates in the vacuole as particulate haemozoin (= malaria pigment). Current evidence favours the view that haemozoin is mainly haematin. Acid and alkaline proteases (identified in crude extracts from mammalian and avian malarias) are presumably secreted directly into the food vacuole. They then digest the denatured globin and the resulting amino acids are incorporated into parasite protein. Cell-free protein synthesizing systems have been developed using P. knowlesi and P. lophurae ribosomes. In the main these systems are typically eukaryotic. Studies of amino acid metabolism are exceedingly limited. Arginine, lysine, methionine, and proline are incorporated into protein, whereas glutamic acid is metabolized via an NADP-specific glutamic dehydrogenase. Glutamate oxidation generates NADPH and auxiliary energy (in the form of α-ketoglutarate). The role of red cell glutathione in the economy of the parasite remains obscure. Important goals for future research should be: quantitative assessment of the relative importance of

  12. Multiple lysine methylation of PCAF by Set9 methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Ken

    2009-03-27

    The molecular functions of several non-histone proteins are regulated through lysine modification by histone methyltransferases. The p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) is an acetyltransferase that has been implicated in many cellular processes. Here, we report that PCAF is a novel substrate of Set9 methyltransferase. In vitro mapping experiments revealed six lysine residues could be methylated by Set9. A comparison of amino acid sequences of target sites revealed the novel consensus motif which differs from previously identified Set9-consensus sequence. Further methyltransferase assays focusing on the six lysine residues showed that K78 and K89 are preferentially methylated in full-length PCAF in vitro. Using specific antibodies recognizing mono-methylated K89, in vivo PCAF methylation and its nuclear localization were demonstrated. Our data may lead to a new insight into PCAF functions and provide additional information to identify unknown targets of Set9.

  13. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  14. pH dependent growth of poly( L-lysine)/poly( L-glutamic) acid multilayer films and their cell adhesion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Ludovic; Arntz, Youri; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Picart, Catherine

    2004-10-01

    The short-term interaction of chondrosarcoma cells with (PGA/PLL) polyelectrolyte multilayers was investigated in a serum-containing medium for films built at different pHs and subsequently exposed to the culture medium. The buildup of the films and their stability was first investigated by means of optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, streaming potential measurements and atomic force microscopy. While film growth is linear at all pHs, after a few layers have been deposited the growth is much larger for the films built at basic pH and even more pronounced for those built at acidic pH. However, these latter films remain stable in the culture medium only if they have been crosslinked prior to the ionic strength and pH jumps. The films built at acidic pH were found to swell in water by about 200% whereas those built at other pHs did not swell in a physiological buffer. For thin films (≈20 nm) built at pH = 7.4, the detachment forces were dependent on the outermost layer, the forces being significantly higher on PLL-ending films than on PGA-ending ones. In contrast, for the thick films built at pH = 4.4 and at pH = 10.4 (thickness of the order of few hundred of nanometers), the detachment forces were independent of the outermost layer of the film. The films built at pH = 10.4, which shrink in contact with salt containing solutions, were highly cell adhesive whereas those built at acidic pH were highly cell resistant. Protein adsorption and film roughness (as measured by AFM) could not explain these striking differences. The high adhesion observed on the film built at pH 10.4 may rather be related to the secondary structure of the film and to its relatively low swellability in water, whereas the cell resistance of the films built at pH 4.4 may be linked to their high swellability. Therefore, for the PGA/PLL films, the cell adhesion properties can be tuned depending on the deposition pH of the polyelectrolyte solutions. This study

  15. Isotopic Dilution GC/MS Method for Methionine Determination in Biological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horj, Elena; Iordache, Andreea; Culea, Monica

    2011-10-01

    The isotopic dilution mass spectrometry technique is the method of choice for sensitive and accurate determination of analytes in biological samples. The aim of this work was to establish a sensitive analytical method for the determination of methionine in different biological media. Quantitation of methionine from the resultant tracer spectrum requires deconvolution of the enrichment of the isotopomers. Deconvolution of the ion abundance ratios to yield tracer-to-tracee ratio for the isotopomer was done using Brauman's least squares approach. Comparison with regression curve calculation method is presented. The method was applied for amino-acids determination in beef, pork and fish meat.

  16. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Are the essential lysines essential?

    PubMed

    Tian, G C; Yan, H G; Jiang, R T; Kishi, F; Nakazawa, A; Tsai, M D

    1990-05-01

    Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have probed the structural and functional roles of lysine-21 and lysine-27 of adenylate kinase (AK) from chicken muscle expressed in Escherichia coli. The two residues were chosen since according to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) model [Mildvan, A. S., & Fry, D. C. (1987) Adv. Enzymol. 58, 241-313], they are located near the alpha- and the gamma-phosphates, respectively, of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the AK-MgATP complex. In addition, a lysine residue (Lys-21 in the case of AK) along with a glycine-rich loop is considered "essential" in the catalysis of kinases and other nucleotide binding proteins. The Lys-27 to methionine (K27M) mutant showed only slight increases in kcat and Km, but a substantial increase (1.8 kcal/mol) in the free energy of unfolding, relative to the WT AK. For proper interpretation of the steady-state kinetic data, viscosity-dependent kinetics was used to show that the chemical step is partially rate-limiting in the catalysis of AK. Computer modeling suggested that the folded form of K27M could gain stability (relative to the wild type) via hydrophobic interactions of Met-27 with Val-179 and Phe-183 and/or formation of a charge-transfer complex between Met-27 and Phe-183. The latter was supported by an upfield shift of the methyl protons of Met-27 in 1H NMR. Other than this, the 1H NMR spectrum of K27M is very similar to that of WT, suggesting little perturbation in the global or even local conformations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2161682

  17. Suppression of Methionine Oxidation of a Pharmaceutical Antibody Stored in a Polymer-Based Syringe.

    PubMed

    Masato, Amano; Kiichi, Fukui; Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Oxidation of methionine residues is one of the well-known deteriorations in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics. Because methionine oxidation may affect their efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile, oxidation levels should be strictly controlled during their storage period. In this study, we revealed that when a therapeutic antibody was filled into a cyclo olefin polymer-based syringe and stored in a blister pack with an oxygen absorber, the methionine oxidation production under thermal or light stress was suppressed because of the reduction in the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Also unexpectedly, fewer amounts of the high-molecular-weight species and the acidic variants of the antibody were generated under thermal or light stress. Although the high-molecular-weight species contains methionine oxidants at similar levels to those in a monomer species, they were likely to be constituted from a higher amount of the oxidative species of internal disulfide linkage, tyrosine, or histidine. Because the dissolved oxygen could be readily removed from the mAb solution in the polymer-based syringe owing to its high gas permeability, this study shows the advantages of the polymer-based syringe with an oxygen absorber over glass syringes in terms of the suppression of the methionine oxidation and oxidative high molecular species. PMID:26462145

  18. A Methionine-Induced Animal Model of Schizophrenia: Face and Predictive Validity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lien; Alachkar, Amal; Sanathara, Nayna; Belluzzi, James D.; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modulating the methylation process induces broad biochemical changes, some of which may be involved in schizophrenia. Methylation is in particular central to epigenesis, which is also recognized as a factor in the etiology of schizophrenia. Because methionine administration to patients with schizophrenia has been reported to exacerbate their psychotic symptoms and because mice treated with methionine exhibited social deficits and prepulse inhibition impairment, we investigated whether methionine administration could lead to behavioral changes that reflect schizophrenic symptoms in mice. Methods: l-Methionine was administered to mice twice a day for 7 days. Results: We found that this treatment induces behavioral responses that reflect the 3 types of schizophrenia-like symptoms (positive, negative, or cognitive deficits) as monitored in a battery of behavioral assays (locomotion, stereotypy, social interaction, forced swimming, prepulse inhibition, novel object recognition, and inhibitory avoidance). Moreover, these responses were differentially reversed by typical haloperidol and atypical clozapine antipsychotics in ways that parallel their effects in schizophrenics. Conclusion: We thus propose the l-methionine treatment as an animal model recapitulating several symptoms of schizophrenia. We have established the face and predictive validity for this model. Our model relies on an essential natural amino acid and on an intervention that is relatively simple and time effective and may offer an additional tool for assessing novel antipsychotics. PMID:25991655

  19. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of (14C)HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis.

  20. Identification and characterization of a methionine γ-lyase in the calicheamicin biosynthetic cluster of Micromonospora echinospora.

    PubMed

    Song, Haigang; Xu, Ri; Guo, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    CalE6 is a previously uncharacterized protein involved in the biosynthesis of calicheamicins in Micromonospora echinospora. It is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme and exhibits high sequence homology to cystathionine γ-lyases and cystathionine γ-synthases. However, it was found to be active towards methionine and to convert this amino acid into α-ketobutyrate, ammonium, and methanethiol. The crystal structure of the cofactor-bound holoenzyme was resolved at 2.0 Å; it contains two active site residues, Gly105 and Val322, specific for methionine γ-lyases. Modeling of methionine into the active site allows identification of the active site residues responsible for substrate recognition and catalysis. These findings support that CalE6 is a putative methionine γ-lyase producing methanethiol as a building block in biosynthesis of calicheamicins. PMID:25404066

  1. Metabolism of Radiolabeled Methionine in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yu; Wang, Fangjing; Corn, David J.; Tian, Haibin; Lee, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiolabeled methionine (Met) promises to be useful in the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its metabolic routes in HCC have not yet been fully understood. In this study, the metabolic pathway(s) of radiolabeled Met in HCC were investigated. Procedures To simulate the rapid blood clearance of radiolabeled Met, pulse–chase experiments were conducted. L-[methyl-3H]-Met or L-[1-14C]-Met was pulsed over control or cycloheximide- treated WCH17 cells and rat hepatocytes for 5 min and chased with cold media. The water-soluble, lipid-soluble, DNA, RNA, and protein phases were subsequently extracted and measured from the acid-precipitable and acid-soluble fractions of whole cells. The radioactive metabolites Met, S- adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine, Met sulfoxide, and Met sulfone were further separated by radio thin layer chromatography. Results (1) The uptake of L-[methyl-3H]-Met in both cell types was higher than that of L-[1-14C]-Met. In rat hepatocytes, the uptake of L-[methyl-3H]-Met was significantly higher than that of L-[1-14C]-Met, which may contribute to its physiologic accumulation in surrounding hepatic tissues seen in PET imaging of HCC using L-[methyl-11C]-Met. Compared to rat hepatocytes, WCH17 cells had significantly higher uptake of both radiotracers. (2) For L-[methyl-3H]-Met, the major intracellular uptake was found mostly in the protein phase and, to a lesser degree, in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methylation pathway, which is fairly stabilized within the 55-min chase period (the main metabolites were SAM, Met, Met sulfoxide, and Met sulfone). In contrast, the uptake of Met in rat hepatocytes mainly points to phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis through the PE methylation pathway (the main metabolite was PC). (3) Both cell types incorporated L-[1-14C]-Met predominantly into protein synthesis. (4) Finally, when the protein synthesis pathway was inhibited, the incorporation

  2. Substitution of glutamine for lysine at the pyridoxal phosphate binding site of bacterial D-amino acid transaminase. Effects of exogenous amines on the slow formation of intermediates.

    PubMed

    Futaki, S; Ueno, H; Martinez del Pozo, A; Pospischil, M A; Manning, J M; Ringe, D; Stoddard, B; Tanizawa, K; Yoshimura, T; Soda, K

    1990-12-25

    In bacterial D-amino acid transaminase, Lys-145, which binds the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in Schiff base linkage, was changed to Gln-145 by site-directed mutagenesis (K145Q). The mutant enzyme had 0.015% the activity of the wild-type enzyme and was capable of forming a Schiff base with D-alanine; this external aldimine was formed over a period of minutes depending upon the D-alanine concentration. The transformation of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form (i.e. the half-reaction of transamination) occurred over a period of hours with this mutant enzyme. Thus, information on these two steps in the reaction and on the factors that influence them can readily be obtained with this mutant enzyme. In contrast, these reactions with the wild-type enzyme occur at much faster rates and are not easily studied separately. The mutant enzyme shows distinct preference for D- over L-alanine as substrates but it does so about 50-fold less effectively than the wild-type enzyme. Thus, Lys-145 probably acts in concert with the coenzyme and other functional side chain(s) to lead to efficient and stereochemically precise transamination in the wild-type enzyme. The addition of exogenous amines, ethanolamine or methyl amine, increased the rate of external aldimine formation with D-alanine and the mutant enzyme but the subsequent transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme was unaffected by exogenous amines. The wild-type enzyme displayed a large negative trough in the circular dichroic spectrum at 420 nm, which was practically absent in the mutant enzyme. However, addition of D-alanine to the mutant enzyme generated this negative Cotton effect (due to formation of the external aldimine with D-alanine). This circular dichroism band gradually collapsed in parallel with the transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate enzyme. Further studies on this mutant enzyme, which displays the characteristics of the wild

  3. 21 CFR 582.5475 - Methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methionine. 582.5475 Section 582.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5475 - Methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methionine. 582.5475 Section 582.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. The development and amino acid binding ability of nano-materials based on azo derivatives: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuefang; Du, Jinge; Yang, Wancai; Liu, Yun; Fu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Xiaofang; Yan, Ruifang; Yao, Ningcong; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jinlian; Xu, Xiufang

    2014-05-01

    Two nano-material-containing azo groups have been designed and developed, and the binding ability of nano-materials with various amino acids has been characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence titrations. Results indicated that two nano-materials showed the strongest binding ability for homocysteine among twenty normal kinds of amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, glycine, serine, threonine, asparagine, phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan, proline, lysine, glutamine, tyrosine and homocysteine). The reason for the high sensitivity for homocysteine was that two nano-materials containing an aldehyde group reacted with SH in homocysteine and afforded very stable thiazolidine derivatives. Theoretical investigation further illustrated the possible binding mode in host-guest interaction and the roles of molecular frontier orbitals in molecular interplay. Thus, the two nano-materials can be used as optical sensors for the detection of homocysteine. PMID:24656358

  6. Lysine fluxes across the jejunal epithelium in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Desjeux, J F; Simell, R O; Dumontier, A M; Perheentupa, J

    1980-06-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is one of a group of genetic diseases in which intestinal absorption of the diamino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine is impaired. In LPI, the clinical symptoms are more severe than in the kindred disorders. The mechanism of lysine absorption was, therefore, investigated in vitro on peroral jejunal biopsy specimens in seven patients with LPI and 27 controls. The lysine concentration ratio between cell compartment and medium was significantly higher in the LPI group (mean+/-SEM, 7.17+/-0.60) than in the controls (5.44+/-0.51). This was also true for the intracellular Na concentration (LPI, 73.6+/-10.8 mM; controls 42.3+/-3.7 mM). The rate of unidirectional influx of lysine across the luminal membrane was Na dependent and was the same in the two groups. In the absence of an electrochemical gradient, net transepithelial lysine secretion was observed in LPI. This was entirely the result of a 60% reduction of the unidirectional flux from mucosa to serosa. Calculation of unidirectional fluxes revealed the most striking difference at the basolateral membrane, where the flux from cells to serosa was reduced by 62% and the corresponding permeability coefficient reduced by 71%. A progressive reduction in short-circuit current appeared in the epithelia of all four patients with LPI tested after addition of 3 mM lysine. Thus, LPI appears to be the first disease in which a genetically determined transport defect has been demonstrated at the basolateral membrane. PMID:6773985

  7. Enzymatic reduction of protein-bound methionine sulfoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Brot, N; Weissbach, L; Werth, J; Weissbach, H

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of methionine sulfoxide residues in ribosomal protein L12 has been partially purified from Escherichia coli extracts. Methionine sulfoxide present in oxidize [Met]enkephalin is also reduced by the purified enzyme. The enzyme is different from a previously reported E. coli enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine [Ejiri, S. I., Weissbach, H. & Brot, N. (1980) Anal. Biochem. 102, 393--398]. Extracts of rat tissues, Euglena gracilis, Tetrahymena pyriformis, HeLa cells, and spinach also can catalyze the reduction of methionine sulfoxide residues in protein. PMID:7017726

  8. Amino acids in human and animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Karau, Andreas; Grayson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products. In the last 10 years there has been a marked move away from the extraction of amino acids from natural products, which has been replaced by efficient fermentation processes using nonanimal carbon sources. Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-tryptophan. DL-Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use principally by chemical synthesis, and a pharmaceutical grade is manufactured by enzymatic resolution. Amino acids play an important role in medical nutrition, particularly in parenteral nutrition, where there are high purity requirements for infusion grade products. Amino acids are also appearing more often in dietary supplements, initially for performance athletes, but increasingly for the general population. As the understanding of the effects of the individual amino acids on the human metabolism is deepened, more specialized product mixtures are being offered to improve athletic performance and for body-building. PMID:24676880

  9. Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates

    SciTech Connect

    van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

  10. Separation and detection of amino acid metabolites of Escherichia coli in microbial fuel cell with CE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Lihong; Lin, Ping; Xu, Kaixuan

    2016-07-01

    In this work, CE-LIF was employed to investigate the amino acid metabolites produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Two peptides, l-carnosine and l-alanyl-glycine, together with six amino acids, cystine, alanine, lysine, methionine, tyrosine, arginine were separated and detected in advance by a CE-LIF system coupled with a homemade spontaneous injection device. The injection device was devised to alleviate the effect of electrical discrimination for analytes during sample injection. All analytes could be completely separated within 8 min with detection limits of 20-300 nmol/L. Then this method was applied to analyze the substrate solution containing amino acid metabolites produced by E. coli. l-carnosine, l-alanyl-glycine, and cystine were used as the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur source for the E. coli culture in the MFC to investigate the amino acid metabolites during metabolism. Two MFCs were used to compare the activity of metabolism of the bacteria. In the sample collected at the running time 200 h of MFC, the amino acid methionine was discovered as the metabolite with the concentrations 23.3 μg/L. PMID:27121957

  11. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  12. NOVEL ANTI-MICROBIAL PEPTIDE, NK-LYSIN, IS PRODUCED LOCALLY IN THE GUT OF EIMERIA-INFECTED HOST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is an anti-microbial and anti-tumor protein produced by NK cells and T lymphocytes in mammals and is considered to be an important component of the local innate immune response to pathogens. Chicken NK-lysin consists of an 868 bp DNA sequence with an ORF of 140 amino acids with a predicted ...

  13. Identification, expression and antibacterial activities of an antimicrobial peptide NK-lysin from a marine fish Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Jia; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Qiao, Ying; Hong, Wan-Shu; Su, Yong-Quan; Han, Kun-Huang; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    As fundamental immunologic mechanism, the innate immunity system is more important than the specific immunity system in teleost fishes during pathogens infection. Antimicrobial peptides are integral parts of the innate immune system, and play significant roles against pathogens infection. NK-lysin, the compounds of the natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, are potent and effective antimicrobial peptides widely distributed in animals. In this study, we reported the sequence characteristics, expression profiles and antibacterial activities of a NK-lysin gene (Lc-NK-lysin) from a commercially important marine fish, the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame of Lc-NK-lysin cDNA sequence was 447 bp in length, coding 148 amino acids. The genomic DNA of Lc-NK-lysin has the common features of NK-lysin family, consisting of five exons and four introns, and in its deduced mature peptide, there are six well-conserved cysteine residues and a Saposin B domain. Lc-NK-lysin was expressed in all tested tissues (skin, muscle, gill, brain, head kidney, heart, liver, spleen, stomach and intestine) with different expression patterns. In pathogens infection the expression profiles of Lc-NK-lysin varied significantly in gill, head kidney, spleen and liver, indicating its role in immune response. Two peptides (Lc-NK-lysin-1 and Lc-NK-lysin-2) divided from the core region of the Lc-NK-lysin mature polypeptide were chemically synthesized and their antibacterial activities were examined; the potential function on the inhibition of bacteria propagation was revealed. Our results suggested that Lc-NK-lysin is a typical member of the NK-lysin family and as an immune-related gene it involves in the immune response when pathogens invasion. PMID:27238427

  14. Amino Acid Metabolism of Thermoanaerobacter Strain AK90: The Role of Electron-Scavenging Systems in End Product Formation

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Sean Michael; Orlygsson, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The catabolism of the 20 amino acids by Thermoanaerobacter strain AK90 (KR007667) was investigated under three different conditions: as single amino acids without an electron-scavenging system, in the presence of thiosulfate, and in coculture with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen. The strain degraded only serine without an alternative electron acceptor but degraded 11 amino acids (alanine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine) under both of the electron-scavenging systems investigated. Acetate was the dominant end product from alanine, cysteine, lysine, serine, and threonine under electron-scavenging conditions. The branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine, were degraded to their corresponding fatty acids under methanogenic conditions and to a mixture of their corresponding fatty acids and alcohols in the presence of thiosulfate. The partial pressure of hydrogen seems to be of importance for the branched-chain alcohol formation. This was suggested by low but detectable hydrogen concentrations at the end of cultivation on the branched-chain amino acid in the presence of thiosulfate but not when cocultured with the methanogen. A more detailed examination of the role of thiosulfate as an electron acceptor was performed with Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (DSM 2246) and Thermoanaerobacter brockii (DSM 1457). PMID:26413318

  15. Methionine as a potential precursor for halogenated compounds by the reaction with iron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, C.; Krause, T.; Mulder, I.; Kotte, K.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile halogenated compounds (VOX) play an important role in different photochemical reactions within the troposphere and the stratosphere. Soils and sediments seem to act as a major natural source for VOX, but investigations of the reaction mechanisms are rather scarce. To get further information on potential intermediates the reaction of the amino acid methionine with the ferrous and ferric iron minerals pyrite and ferrihydrite as well as solute ferrous sulfate was studied using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Methionine is an important amino acid in the biosynthesis of plants used as a starting compound for the messenger ethene with aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as an intermediate product. This pathway may also occur under abiotic conditions. Ethene is assumed as precursor for various halogenated C2-compounds like vinyl chloride and dichloroethene. Due to its ubiquity by an average concentration of 10 to 290 ng/g soil and its potential to regenerate in soils and organic litter by microorganisms, methionine may be an important educt for both abiotic and biotic terrestrial halogenation processes. In laboratory tests methionine was exposed to different iron species like pyrite, iron sulfate or ferrihydrite. The oxidant H2O2 was used to start the reaction. Production values of methyl chloride and other halogenated compounds are discussed in the context of methionine as their potential precursor and several Fe-minerals as soil-borne catalysers. Several possible intermediates for the production of VOX have been detected e.g. methane, ethene or propane. A formation of isobutylene is noteworthy for some cases. In addition to VOC the production of methyl chloride and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was observed. Only the DMS bears upon a specific mineral. The samples containing pyrite reveal the highest concentrations. To get a better assessment of methionine, respectively VOC released from methionine as precursors for halogenated compounds

  16. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan; Yeow, John T. W.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10-200 keV and 1-20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  17. Dysregulated Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Drives Homocysteine Elevation in Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pacana, Tommy; Cazanave, Sophie; Verdianelli, Aurora; Patel, Vaishali; Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Quinlivan, Eoin; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2015-01-01

    methyltransferase Dnmt3a decreased, the global DNA methylation was unaltered. Among individual genes, only HMG-CoA reductase (Hmgcr) was hypermethylated, and no methylation changes were observed in fatty acid synthase (Fasn), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (Nfκb1), c-Jun, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Caspase 3. NAFLD was associated with hepatic methionine deficiency and homocysteine elevation, resulting mainly from impaired homocysteine remethylation, and aberrancy in methyltransferase reactions. Despite increased PRMT1 expression, hepatic ADMA was depleted while circulating ADMA was increased, suggesting increased export to circulation. PMID:26322888

  18. Protein lysine methylation by seven-β-strand methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Pål Ø; Jakobsson, Magnus E; Davydova, Erna; Ho, Angela; Małecki, Jędrzej

    2016-07-15

    Methylation of biomolecules is a frequent biochemical reaction within the cell, and a plethora of highly specific methyltransferases (MTases) catalyse the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to various substrates. The posttranslational methylation of lysine residues, catalysed by numerous lysine (K)-specific protein MTases (KMTs), is a very common and important protein modification, which recently has been subject to intense studies, particularly in the case of histone proteins. The majority of KMTs belong to a class of MTases that share a defining 'SET domain', and these enzymes mostly target lysines in the flexible tails of histones. However, the so-called seven-β-strand (7BS) MTases, characterized by a twisted beta-sheet structure and certain conserved sequence motifs, represent the largest MTase class, and these enzymes methylate a wide range of substrates, including small metabolites, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Until recently, the histone-specific Dot1/DOT1L was the only identified eukaryotic 7BS KMT. However, a number of novel 7BS KMTs have now been discovered, and, in particular, several recently characterized human and yeast members of MTase family 16 (MTF16) have been found to methylate lysines in non-histone proteins. Here, we review the status and recent progress on the 7BS KMTs, and discuss these enzymes at the levels of sequence/structure, catalytic mechanism, substrate recognition and biological significance. PMID:27407169

  19. Reconstruction of Cysteine Biosynthesis Using Engineered Cysteine-Free and Methionine-Free Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kendrick; Fujishima, Kosuke; Abe, Nozomi; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Endy, Drew; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Ten of the proteinogenic amino acids can be generated abiotically while the remaining thirteen require biology for their synthesis. Paradoxically, the biosynthesis pathways observed in nature require enzymes that are made with the amino acids they produce. For example, Escherichia coli produces cysteine from serine via two enzymes that contain cysteine. Here, we substituted alternate amino acids for cysteine and also methionine, which is biosynthesized from cysteine, in serine acetyl transferase (CysE) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysM). CysE function was rescued by cysteine-and-methionine-free enzymes and CysM function was rescued by cysteine-free enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that methionine stabilizes CysM and is present in the active site of CysM. Cysteine is not conserved among CysE and CysM protein orthologs, suggesting that cysteine is not functionally important for its own synthesis. Engineering biosynthetic enzymes that lack the amino acids being synthesized provides insights into the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis and pathways for bioengineering.

  20. Coacervate-like microspheres from lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlfing, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Microspheres form isothermally from lysine-rich proteinoid when the ionic strength of the solution is increased with NaCl or other salts. Studies with different monovalent anions and with polymers of different amino acid composition indicate that charge neutralization and hydrophobic bonding contribute to microsphere formation. The particles also form in sea water, especially if heated or made slightly alkaline. The microspheres differ from those made from acidic proteinoid but resemble coacervate droplets in some ways (isothermal formation, limited stability, stabilization by quinone, uptake of dyes). Because the constituent lysine-rich proteinoid is of simulated prebiotic origin, the study is interpreted to add emphasis to and suggest an evolutionary continuity for coacervation phenomena.

  1. Evaluation of a shorter methionine loading test.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Robert; Griffioen, Pieter H; van Zelst, Bertrand; Brouns, R Montserrate; Visser, Willy; Lindemans, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We validated whether a shorter methionine loading test is as accurate as the original 6-h test in identifying hyperhomocysteinemic patients and investigated determinants of fasting and post-load homocysteine concentration. Plasma homocysteine was determined in EDTA-blood from women with a history of pre-eclampsia (n=106) after 12 h fasting and 3 and 6 h after an oral methionine load (0.1 g/kg body weight). The 677C>T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and creatinine were measured as determinants of homocysteine concentration. Good correlation and agreement between 3-h and 6-h plasma concentration of post-load (r=0.93, Kendall's tau-b=0.85) and delta (post-load minus the fasting value; r=0.90, Kendall's tau-b=0.79) homocysteine was observed and gross misclassification did not occur after division of 3-h and 6-h homocysteine scores into quartiles. Multiple linear regression revealed MTHFR 677 TT (p=0.01), folate (p=0.04) and vitamin B12 (p=0.06) as determinants of fasting homocysteine concentration; only MTHFR 677TT was related to 3-h (p=0.04) and 6-h (p=0.004) post-load homocysteine concentration. The MTHFR 677TT genotype resulted in >30% higher fasting and 3-h and 6-h post-load homocysteine concentrations compared to the wild-type CC genotype. This study shows that the 3-h methionine loading test is as good as the 6-h methionine loading test in identifying hyperhomocysteinemic patients. Furthermore, remethylation parameters (MTHFR 677C>T) strongly affect both fasting and post-load homocysteine. PMID:15497468

  2. Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding activity with receptor sites and interactions between subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K W

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of iodoacetic acid with bovine lutropin (luteinizing hormone) at pH 3.0 was specific for methionine residues; it was slow and reached its equilibrium after 12 h at 37 degrees C. The number of modified methionine residues increased proportionately with the amount of the alkylating reagent in the reaction mixture. In the presence of a 20-fold molar excess of iodoacetic acid with respect to methionine, essentially all methionine residues in both subunits of bovine lutropin were carboxymethylated. Studies of various recombinations of modified and native alpha and beta subunits showed that methionine residues in bovine lutropin were not essential for interactions between subunits. Various recombinants were characterized by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of Sephadex G-100. Immunological cross-reactivity by radioimmunoassay of the recombinants of modified alpha and beta subunits was relatively similar to that of the native subunits. However, the biological activity measured by receptor-site binding of the recombinants of alpha and beta chains with a total of three alkylated methionine residues was less than 5% of the activity of native lutropin. It is noteworthy that recombinants of a modified subunit and a native counterpart subunit regenerated 20-30 % of biological activity. These findings suggested that at least 1-2 methionine residues in each subunit are involved in the hormone-receptor interaction for bovine lutropin. Images PLATE 1 PMID:187169

  3. Reinventing cell penetrating peptides using glycosylated methionine sulfonium ion sequences

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Mayle, Kristine M.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Wong, Gerard C.L.; Deming, Timothy J.

    2015-04-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess lowmore » cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.« less

  4. Reinventing Cell Penetrating Peptides Using Glycosylated Methionine Sulfonium Ion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess low cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs. PMID:27162954

  5. Reinventing cell penetrating peptides using glycosylated methionine sulfonium ion sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Mayle, Kristine M.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Wong, Gerard C.L.; Deming, Timothy J.

    2015-04-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess low cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.

  6. Volatile sulphur compounds and pathways of L-methionine catabolism in Williopsis yeasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amelia W J; Lee, Pin-Rou; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2012-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are important to the food industry due to their high potency and presence in many foods. This study assessed for the first time VSC production and pathways of L: -methionine catabolism in yeasts from the genus Williopsis with a view to understanding VSC formation and their potential flavour impact. Five strains of Williopsis saturnus (var. saturnus, var. subsufficiens, var. suavolens, var. sargentensis and var. mrakii) were screened for VSC production in a synthetic medium supplemented with L: -methionine. A diverse range of VSCs were produced including dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional), 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), 3-(methylthio)-1-propene, 3-(methylthio)-1-propyl acetate, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanoic acid (methionic acid) and ethyl 3-(methylthio)-1-propanoate, though the production of these VSCs varied between yeast strains. W. saturnus var. saturnus NCYC22 was selected for further studies due to its relatively high VSC production. VSC production was characterised step-wise with yeast strain NCYC22 in coconut cream at different L: -methionine concentrations (0.00-0.20%) and under various inorganic sulphate (0.00-0.20%) and nitrogen (ammonia) supplementation (0.00-0.20%), respectively. Optimal VSC production was obtained with 0.1% of L: -methionine, while supplementation of sulphate had no significant effect. Nitrogen supplementation showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on VSC production. Based on the production of VSCs, the study suggests that the Ehrlich pathway of L: -methionine catabolism is operative in W. saturnus yeasts and can be manipulated by adjusting certain nutrient parameters to control VSC production. PMID:22370952

  7. Anti-tumor effect of L-methionine-deprived total parenteral nutrition with 5-fluorouracil administration on Yoshida sarcoma-bearing rats.

    PubMed Central

    Goseki, N; Endo, M; Onodera, T; Kosaki, G

    1991-01-01

    L-methionine-deprived total parenteral nutrition (methionine-deprived TPN), infusing amino acid solution devoid of L-methionine and L-cysteine by the method of TPN as an only protein source, showed enhancement of the effect of several anti-cancer agents. In this study the combined effect of the methionine-deprived TPN with administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined in Yoshida Sarcoma (YS)-bearing rats, from aspects of effects on the tumor metastasis and the host animal's life span, in the following four groups treated with: methionine-deprived TPN with administration of 5-FU, methionine-deprived TPN without administration of 5-FU, L-methionine-contained TPN plus 5-FU, and L-methionine-contained TPN without 5-FU. In the first experiment, TPN was continued for 8 days in the four groups, and the anti-cancer effect of methionine-deprived TPN and administration of 5-FU based on both the growth of the primary tumor at the implanted site and the tumor metastasis was studied from the view point of pathologic findings of animals killed immediately after these treatments. In experiment 2 the survival period was examined after these treatments for 10 days with subsequent oral feeding until death. The results were as follows: proliferation of YS, transplanted subcutaneously, was markedly suppressed; particularly hematogenous metastasis, characteristic in YS, was prominently blunted then obtained an apparent longer survival period in rats treated with the methionine-deprived TPN with administration of 5-FU. PMID:1905913

  8. Adding a Lysine Mimic in the Design of Potent Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yanqi; Ganesh, Thota; Horton, John R.; Spannhoff, Astrid; Liu, Jin; Sun, Aiming; Zhang, Xing; Bedford, Mark T.; Shinkai, Yoichi; Snyder, James P.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2010-07-19

    Dynamic histone lysine methylation involves the activities of modifying enzymes (writers), enzymes removing modifications (erasers), and readers of the histone code. One common feature of these activities is the recognition of lysines in methylated and unmethylated states, whether they are substrates, reaction products, or binding partners. We applied the concept of adding a lysine mimic to an established inhibitor (BIX-01294) of histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases G9a and G9a-like protein by including a 5-aminopentyloxy moiety, which is inserted into the target lysine-binding channel and becomes methylated by G9a-like protein, albeit slowly. The compound enhances its potency in vitro and reduces cell toxicity in vivo. We suggest that adding a lysine or methyl-lysine mimic should be considered in the design of small-molecule inhibitors for other methyl-lysine writers, erasers, and readers.

  9. S1 pocket fingerprints of human and bacterial methionine aminopeptidases determined using fluorogenic libraries of substrates and phosphorus based inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Poreba, Marcin; Gajda, Anna; Picha, Jan; Jiracek, Jiri; Marschner, Aline; Klein, Christian D; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2012-03-01

    Methionyl aminopeptidases (MetAPs) are metallo-dependent proteases responsible for removing of N-terminal methionine residue of peptides and proteins during protein maturation and activation. In this report we use a comprehensive strategy to screen the substrate specificity of three methionyl aminopeptidases: Homo sapiens MetAP-1, Homo sapiens MetAP-2 and Escherichia coli MetAP-1. By utilizing a 65-membered fluorogenic substrate library consisting of natural and unnatural amino acids we established detailed substrate preferences of each enzyme in the S1 pocket. Our results show that this pocket is highly conserved for all investigated MetAPs, very stringent for methionine, and that several unnatural amino acids with methionine-like characteristics were also well hydrolyzed by MetAPs. The substrate-derived results were verified using several phosphonate and phosphinate-based inhibitors. PMID:22085501

  10. Substrate specificity of duckling hepatic and renal D-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R G; Lyons, M L

    1988-05-01

    The substrate specificity of duckling hepatic and renal D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO; D-amino acid: O2 oxidoreductase [deaminating], E.C. 1.4.3.3) was determined using a method based on the combination of coupled enzyme reactions and a colorimetric procedure. When activities were averaged across tissues, D-proline was the most reactive substrate, followed by (in order) D-phenylalanine, D-alanine, D-methionine, D-leucine, D-isoleucine, D-valine, D-tryptophan, D-arginine, and D-lysine. Compared with D-alanine, duckling DAAO had minimal or no reactivity with D-asparagine, D-glutamine, D-histidine, D-threonine, D-cysteine, glycine, or D-serine. These results were in general agreement with data from other vertebrate species. PMID:2900508

  11. Effect of amino acids on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in fat cells.

    PubMed

    Mizunuma, T; Takahashi, Y; Okuda, H

    1981-02-01

    The effect of amino acids on insulin responsiveness in epididymal adipose tissue was examined. It was found that insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation in fat cells was significantly inhibited by glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, phenylalanine, and proline. The effect of insulin on glucose incorporation into triglyceride is also severely diminished by these amino acids. In addition, alanine reduced the incorporation of precursors ([U-14C]glucose or [1-14C]palmitate) into triglyceride both in vitro and in vivo. The Ki values of alanine were 0.4 and 0.5 mM toward the precursors of glucose and palmitate, respectively. The mechanism of reduction of insulin responsiveness in rat adipose tissue is discussed on the basis of these results. PMID:7016847

  12. Carbon-11-methionine and PET in evaluation of treatment response of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, R.; Leskinen-Kallio, S.; Någren, K.; Lehikoinen, P.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Teräs, M.

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (11C-methionine) in breast cancer metastases was studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Eight patients with soft tissue metastases were studied twice: before the onset of chemotherapy (4), hormonal therapy (3) or radiotherapy (1) and 3-14 weeks later. The radioactivity concentration of the low molecular weight fraction of venous plasma samples separated by fast gel filtration was used as input function. The input corrected uptake rate of 11C-methionine (Ki) in breast cancer metastases before the treatment ranged between 0.035 and 0.186 1 min-1 and the standardised uptake value (SUV) between 2.0 and 11.4. The uptake of 11C-methionine into the metastases decreased when clinical objective stability or regression of the metastases was later obtained and increased in cases where progressive disease was seen during treatment. We conclude that metabolic changes in the amino acid metabolism detected by PET precede the clinical response, and may be of clinical value in predicting the treatment response. Images Figure 1 PMID:8471437

  13. Comparison of the effects of seleno-l-methionine, seleno-dl-methionine, and selenized yeast on reproduction of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The toxicities of seleno-L-methionine, seleno-DL-methionine, and selenized yeast were compared. Ten pairs of mallards were fed a control diet and 15 pairs were fed diets containing 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine, seleno-L-methionine, or selenized yeast. Hatching of fertile eggs was significantly lower for females fed 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (7.6%) and seleno-L-methionine (6.4%) than for controls (41.3%). Survival of ducklings was lower when their parents had been fed 10 ppm selenium as seleno-L-methionine (20.0%) than for controls (98.4%). The number of 6-day-old ducklings produced per female was significantly lower for mallards fed 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (0.47) or selenized yeast (2.67) than for controls (6.10), and was significantly lower for mallards fed seleno-L-methionine (0.13) than for mallards fed selenized yeast. The eighth eggs of females fed the DL or L forms of selenomethionine contained means of 9.2 and 8.9 ppm selenium, wet weight; these means were higher than the mean (6.6 ppm) for females fed selenized yeast. Among embryos that died at 7 days of age or older, the percentage of embryos that were deformed was 1.3% for controls, 24.6% for seleno-DL-methionine, 28.2% for seleno-L-methionine, and 11.0% for selenized yeast. The results suggested that seleno-DL-methionine and seleno-L-methionine were of similar toxicity and were both more toxic than selenium from selenized yeast.

  14. Plasma amino acid response to single test meals in humans. V. Ethiopian preschool children given lowcost protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Ljungqvist, B G; Björnesjö, K B; Gebre-Medhin, M; Habte, D; Meeuwisse, G W; Mellander, O; Svanberg, U S

    1979-02-01

    The plasma amino acid response to single test meals was studied in preschool children, aged 9 months--5 years. The amount of protein given in each test meal was 1 g per kg body weight, which represented one-third of the daily intake of the children who were recovering from protein-energy malnutrition. The test meals given was gruels made from wheat mixed with a supplementary weaning food (Faffa or Superamin) or fish protein concentrate (FPC). The plasma amino acid responses were evaluated both as PAA ratios (a modification of the Longenecker and Hause method), and as deltaMR% (percentage change in the postprandial essential amino acid molar ratios according to Graham and Placko). Both evaluation models indicated that lysine, threonine and methionine were the limiting amino acids in the Faffa/wheat diet, and that lysine and threonine were limiting in the Superamin/wheat diet. All essential amino acids seemed to be supplied in adequate amounts in the FPC/wheat diet. These results were in close agreement with the amino acid score of the diets (based on chemical analysis). PMID:424653

  15. CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zexian; Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Tianshun; Pan, Zhicheng; Cheng, Han; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Zhongyi; Guo, Anyuan; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We reported an integrated database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Modifications (CPLM; http://cplm.biocuckoo.org) for protein lysine modifications (PLMs), which occur at active ε-amino groups of specific lysine residues in proteins and are critical for orchestrating various biological processes. The CPLM database was updated from our previously developed database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Acetylation (CPLA), which contained 7151 lysine acetylation sites in 3311 proteins. Here, we manually collected experimentally identified substrates and sites for 12 types of PLMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, glycation, malonylation, phosphoglycerylation, propionylation, succinylation and pupylation. In total, the CPLM database contained 203 972 modification events on 189 919 modified lysines in 45 748 proteins for 122 species. With the dataset, we totally identified 76 types of co-occurrences of various PLMs on the same lysine residues, and the most abundant PLM crosstalk is between acetylation and ubiquitination. Up to 53.5% of acetylation and 33.1% of ubiquitination events co-occur at 10 746 lysine sites. Thus, the various PLM crosstalks suggested that a considerable proportion of lysines were competitively and dynamically regulated in a complicated manner. Taken together, the CPLM database can serve as a useful resource for further research of PLMs. PMID:24214993

  16. Effect of amino acids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in creatinine/phenylalanine and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal reaction mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2013-12-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation in mixtures of creatinine, phenylalanine, amino acids and 4-oxo-2-nonenal was studied, to analyse the role of amino acids on the generation of this heterocyclic aromatic amine. When oxidised lipid was absent, cysteine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, asparagine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline, and methionine increased significantly (p < 0.05) the amount of PhIP formed in comparison to the control. When lipid was present, only the addition of methionine, glycine, and serine increased significantly (p < 0.05) the amount of PhIP produced, while histidine, cysteine, lysine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and alanine reduced significantly (p < 0.05) PhIP. These results may be a consequence of the different competitive reactions that occur. Thus, in the absence of lipids, thermal decomposition of the amino acids produced reactive carbonyls that converted phenylalanine into phenylacetaldehyde as a key step in the formation of PhIP. When oxidised lipid was present, amino acids competed with phenylalanine for the lipid, and amino acid degradation products were formed, among which alpha-keto acids seemed to play a role in these reactions. These results suggest that PhIP can be produced by several alternative reaction pathways from all major food components, including amino acids and lipids, in addition to carbohydrates. PMID:23993611

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Lysine Biosynthesis Pathway Network during Maize Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuwei; Xie, Shaojun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Lysine is one of the most limiting essential amino acids for humans and livestock. The nutritional value of maize (Zea mays L.) is reduced by its poor lysine content. To better understand the lysine biosynthesis pathway in maize seed, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the genes involved in lysine biosynthesis. We identified lysine biosynthesis pathway genes (LBPGs) and investigated whether a diaminopimelate pathway variant exists in maize. We analyzed two genes encoding the key enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase, and determined that they contribute differently to lysine synthesis during maize seed development. A coexpression network of LBPGs was constructed using RNA-sequencing data from 21 developmental stages of B73 maize seed. We found a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, elongation factors and zein proteins that were coexpressed with LBPGs. The coexpressed genes were enriched in cellular metabolism terms and protein related terms. A phylogenetic analysis of the LBPGs from different plant species revealed different relationships. Additionally, six transcription factor (TF) families containing 13 TFs were identified as the Hub TFs of the LBPGs modules. Several expression quantitative trait loci of LBPGs were also identified. Our results should help to elucidate the lysine biosynthesis pathway network in maize seed. PMID:26829553

  18. Structural Basis for l-Lysine Feedback Inhibition of Homocitrate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-09-02

    The {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis is modulated at the transcriptional and biochemical levels by feedback inhibition. The first enzyme in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway, homocitrate synthase (HCS), is the target of the feedback regulation and is strongly inhibited by L-lysine. Here we report the structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe HCS (SpHCS) in complex with L-lysine. The structure illustrates that the amino acid directly competes with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate for binding within the active site of HCS. Differential recognition of the substrate and inhibitor is achieved via a switch position within the ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} TIM barrel of the enzyme that can distinguish between the C5-carboxylate group of 2-oxoglutarate and the {epsilon}-ammonium group of L-lysine. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrate that mutations of the switch residues, which interact with the L-lysine {epsilon}-ammonium group, abrogate feedback inhibition, as do substitutions of residues within the C-terminal domain that were identified in a previous study of L-lysine-insensitive HCS mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Together, these results yield new insights into the mechanism of feedback regulation of an enzyme central to lysine biosynthesis.

  19. A Lysine at the C-Terminus of an Odorant-Binding Protein is Involved in Binding Aldehyde Pheromone Components in Two Helicoverpa Species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya-Lan; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are soluble proteins, whose role in olfaction of insects is being recognized as more and more important. We have cloned, expressed and purified an OBP (HarmOBP7) from the antennae of the moth Helicoverpa armigera. Western blot experiments indicate specific expression of this protein in the antennae of adults. HarmOBP7 binds both pheromone components Z-11-hexadecenal and Z-9-hexadecenal with good affinity. We have also performed a series of binding experiments with linear aldehydes, alcohols and esters, as well as with other compounds and found a requirement of medium size for best affinity. The affinity of OBP7, as well as that of a mutant lacking the last 6 residues does not substantially decrease in acidic conditions, but increases at basic pH values with no significant differences between wild-type and mutant. Binding to both pheromone components, instead, is negatively affected by the lack of the C-terminus. A second mutant, where one of the three lysine residues in the C-terminus (Lys123) was replaced by methionine showed reduced affinity to both pheromone components, as well as to their analogues, thus indicating that Lys123 is involved in binding these compounds, likely forming hydrogen bonds with the functional groups of the ligands. PMID:23372826

  20. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  1. New enzymatic methods for selective assay of L-lysine using an L-lysine specific decarboxylase/oxidase from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2015-03-01

    We developed new enzymatic methods for the selective assay of L-lysine by utilizing an oxidase reaction and a decarboxylation reaction by the L-lysine-specific decarboxylase/oxidase (L-Lys-DC/OD) from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395. The method utilizing the oxidase reaction of this enzyme was useful for determination of high concentrations of L-lysine. The method utilizing the decarboxylase reaction, which proceeded via the combination of the L-Lys-DC/OD and putrescine oxidase (PUO) from Micrococcus rubens, was effective for determination of low concentrations of L-lysine. Both methods showed good linearity, and neither was affected by other amino acids or amines. In addition, the within-assay and between-assay precisions of both methods were within the allowable range. The coupling of L-Lys-DC/OD with PUO was also useful for the differential assay of L-lysine and cadaverine. These newly developed methods were applied to the assay of L-lysine in biological samples and found to be effective. PMID:25282636

  2. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  3. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  4. A 4-week toxicity study of methionine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chin, Keigi; Toue, Sakino; Kawamata, Yasuko; Watanabe, Akiko; Miwa, Tadashi; Smriga, Miro; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-01-01

    To examine 4-week toxicity of l-methionine (methionine), 5-week-old Fisher strain male rats were fed on diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 2.7 (w/w) of added methionine. Although no deaths were recorded, the highest dose of methionine (2.7% [w/w] of diet) reduced food intake and significantly suppressed growth rate. Growth suppression was characterized by an increase in hemolysis, splenic, and hepatic accumulation of hemosiderin, hemolytic anemia, and promotion of hematopoiesis. Other changes observed in the highest methionine intake group were a decrease in white blood cell count, thymus atrophy, and histological abnormalities in the adrenal gland and testis. Small, but significant, growth suppression, accompanied by some minor changes in plasma biochemical parameters, was also seen in rats fed on a test diet containing 0.9% (w/w) of additional methionine. Thus, no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of diet-added methionine were determined at 0.3% and 0.9% (w/w), corresponding to 236 and 705 mg/kg/d body weight, respectively. Since the basal diet contained protein-bound methionine at 0.5% (w/w), NOAEL and LOAEL of total dietary methionine were estimated at 0.8% and 1.4% (w/w) of diet. PMID:25939350

  5. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sean X; Stevens, Jeff W; Lentz, Steven R

    2015-06-18

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  6. Interference by methionine on valine uptake in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, M J; Luengo, J M

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of L-[U-14C]valine into delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV), a direct biosynthetic precursor of penicillins and cephalosporins, was studied. When DL-methionine was added to Acremonium chrysogenum culture broths, no labeled ACV was found, while a large amount of radioactive ACV was detected when methionine was not present. DL-Norleucine, a nonsulfur analog of methionine, also inhibited the synthesis of radioactive ACV to some degree. This effect was due to the inhibition of valine transport by methionine and norleucine. PMID:3566258

  7. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sean X.; Stevens, Jeff W.

    2015-01-01

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  8. Effect of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on L-lysine production with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Bastian; Schreiner, Mark E; Moch, Matthias; Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2007-09-01

    Intracellular precursor supply is a critical factor for amino acid productivity of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To test for the effect of improved pyruvate availability on L-lysine production, we deleted the aceE gene encoding the E1p enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in the L-lysine-producer C. glutamicum DM1729 and characterised the resulting strain DM1729-BB1 for growth and L-lysine production. Compared to the host strain, C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 showed no PDHC activity, was acetate auxotrophic and, after complete consumption of the available carbon sources glucose and acetate, showed a more than 50% lower substrate-specific biomass yield (0.14 vs 0.33 mol C/mol C), an about fourfold higher biomass-specific L-lysine yield (5.27 vs 1.23 mmol/g cell dry weight) and a more than 40% higher substrate-specific L-lysine yield (0.13 vs 0.09 mol C/mol C). Overexpression of the pyruvate carboxylase or diaminopimelate dehydrogenase genes in C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 resulted in a further increase in the biomass-specific L-lysine yield by 6 and 56%, respectively. In addition to L-lysine, significant amounts of pyruvate, L-alanine and L-valine were produced by C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 and its derivatives, suggesting a surplus of precursor availability and a further potential to improve L-lysine production by engineering the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway. PMID:17333167

  9. Adsorption of Lysine on Na-Montmorillonite and Competition with Ca(2+): A Combined XRD and ATR-FTIR Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Wang, Shengrui; Liu, Jingyang; Xu, Yisheng; Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2016-05-17

    Lysine adsorption at clay/aqueous interfaces plays an important role in the mobility, bioavailability, and degradation of amino acids in the environment. Knowledge of these interfacial interactions facilitates our full understanding of the fate and transport of amino acids. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements were used to explore the dynamic process of lysine adsorption on montmorillonite and the competition with Ca(2+) at the molecular level. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to determine the peak assignments of dissolved lysine in the solution phase. Three surface complexes, including dicationic, cationic, and zwitterionic structures, were observed to attach to the clay edge sites and penetrate the interlayer space. The increased surface coverage and Ca(2+) competition did not affect the interfacial lysine structures at a certain pH, whereas an elevated lysine concentration contributed to zwitterionic-type coordination at pH 10. Moreover, clay dissolution at pH 4 could be inhibited at a higher surface coverage with 5 and 10 mM lysine, whereas the inhibition effect was inconspicuous or undetected at pH 7 and 10. The presence of Ca(2+) not only could remove a part of the adsorbed lysine but also could facilitate the readsorption of dissolved Si(4+) and Al(3+) and surface protonation. Our results provide new insights into the process of lysine adsorption and its effects on montmorillonite surface sites. PMID:27118104

  10. Favored and disfavored pathways of protein crosslinking by glucose: glucose lysine dimer (GLUCOLD) and crossline versus glucosepane

    PubMed Central

    Nemet, Ina; Strauch, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel glucose-lysine dimer crosslink 1,3-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-(1′,2′,3′,4′-tetrahydroxybutyl)-3H-imidazolium salt, named GLUCOLD. GLUCOLD was easily formed from the Amadori product (fructose–lysine). However, when BSA was incubated with 100 mM glucose for 25 days, the levels of the lysine-lysine glucose crosslinks GLUCOLD and CROSSLINE were only 21 and <1 pmol/mg, respectively, compared to 611 pmol/mg protein for the lysine-arginine GLUCOSEPANE crosslink, in spite of more than 20 potential lysine-lysine crosslinking sites in the protein. Mechanistic investigation revealed that metal-free phosphate ions catalyzed formation of fructose–lysine and all three crosslinks from amino acids, while cationic MOPS buffer had an opposite effect. This together with the rapid formation of N6-1,4-dideoxy-5,6-dioxoglucosone derivatives by dicarbonyl trapping agents, such as 1,2-diaminobenzene or γ-guanidinobutyric acid, strongly suggests that enolization of the Amadori product and trapping of the 5,6-dioxo derivative by arginine residues constitutes the major pathway for glucose-mediated crosslinking in proteins. PMID:20607325

  11. Favored and disfavored pathways of protein crosslinking by glucose: glucose lysine dimer (GLUCOLD) and crossline versus glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Ina; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M

    2011-01-01

    We describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel glucose-lysine dimer crosslink 1,3-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydroxybutyl)-3H-imidazolium salt, named GLUCOLD. GLUCOLD was easily formed from the Amadori product (fructose-lysine). However, when BSA was incubated with 100 mM glucose for 25 days, the levels of the lysine-lysine glucose crosslinks GLUCOLD and CROSSLINE were only 21 and <1 pmol/mg, respectively, compared to 611 pmol/mg protein for the lysine-arginine GLUCOSEPANE crosslink, in spite of more than 20 potential lysine-lysine crosslinking sites in the protein. Mechanistic investigation revealed that metal-free phosphate ions catalyzed formation of fructose-lysine and all three crosslinks from amino acids, while cationic MOPS buffer had an opposite effect. This together with the rapid formation of N (6)-1,4-dideoxy-5,6-dioxoglucosone derivatives by dicarbonyl trapping agents, such as 1,2-diaminobenzene or γ-guanidinobutyric acid, strongly suggests that enolization of the Amadori product and trapping of the 5,6-dioxo derivative by arginine residues constitutes the major pathway for glucose-mediated crosslinking in proteins. PMID:20607325

  12. Extensive modifications for methionine enhancement in the beta-barrels do not alter the structural stability of the bean seed storage protein phaseolin.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J M; Nelson, J W; Murai, N

    1995-11-01

    Common beans are widely utilized as a food source, yet are low in the essential amino acid methionine. As an initial step to overcome this defect the methionine content of the primary bean seed storage protein phaseolin was increased by replacing 20 evolutionarily variant hydrophobic residues with methionine and inserting short, methionine-rich sequences into turn and loop regions of the protein structure. Methionine enhancement ranged from 5 to 30 residues. An Escherichia coli expression system was developed to characterize the structural stability of the mutant proteins. Proteins of expected sizes were obtained for all constructs except for negative controls, which were rapidly degraded in E. coli. Thermal denaturation of the purified proteins demonstrated that both wild-type and mutant phaseolin proteins denatured reversibly at approximately 61 degrees C. In addition, urea denaturation experiments of the wild-type and a mutant protein (with 30 additional methionines) confirmed that the structural stability of the proteins was very similar. Remarkably, these results indicate that the phaseolin protein tolerates extensive modifications, including 20 substitutions and two loop inserts for methionine enhancement in the beta-barrel and loop structures, with extremely small effects on protein stability. PMID:8747427

  13. Identification of Methionine Sulfoxide Diastereomers in Immunoglobulin Gamma Antibodies Using Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Khor, Hui K.; Jacoby, Michael E.; Squier, Thomas C.; Chu, Grace C.; Chelius, Dirk

    2010-06-01

    During prolonged periods of storage methionines in antibodies and other proteins are known to become oxidized to form methionine sulfoxides and sulfones. While these post-translational modifications are commonly identified by peptide mapping, it is currently problematic to identify the relative abundances of the S- and R-diastereomers of methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) due to their identical polarities and masses. Accordingly, we have developed a separation methodology for the rapid and quantitative determination of the relative abundances of Met(O) diastereomers. Identification of these diastereomers takes advantage of the complementary stereospecificities of methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) enzymes MsrA and MsrB, which respectively promote the selective reduction of S- and R-diastereomers of Met(O). In addition, an MsrBA fusion protein that contained both Msr enzyme activities permitted the quantitative reduction of all Met(O). Using these Msr enzymes in combination with peptide mapping we are able to detect and differentiate Met-diastereomers in a monoclonal IgG2 and IgG1 antibody. We also monitored the formation of sulfones and studied the rate of oxidation in the different Met residues in our IgG2 antibody. The reported ability to separate and identify diastereomers of Met(O) permits a more complete characterization of Met oxidation products. All the affected Met residues (M251, M427, M396) in this study are conserved in human IgG sequences and therefore offer predictive potential in characterizing oxidative modification.

  14. Mechanistic and Kinetic Study of Singlet O2 Oxidation of Methionine by On-Line Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangwei; Lu, Wenchao; Yin, Xunlong; Liu, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    We report a reaction apparatus developed to monitor singlet oxygen (1O2) reactions in solution using on-line ESI mass spectrometry and spectroscopy measurements. 1O2 was generated in the gas phase by the reaction of H2O2 with Cl2, detected by its emission at 1270 nm, and bubbled into aqueous solution continuously. 1O2 concentrations in solution were linearly related to the emission intensities of airborne 1O2, and their absolute scales were established based on a calibration using 9,10-anthracene dipropionate dianion as an 1O2 trapping agent. Products from 1O2 oxidation were monitored by UV-Vis absorption and positive/negative ESI mass spectra, and product structures were elucidated using collision-induced dissociation-tandem mass spectrometry. To suppress electrical discharge in negative ESI of aqueous solution, methanol was added to electrospray via in-spray solution mixing using theta-glass ESI emitters. Capitalizing on this apparatus, the reaction of 1O2 with methionine was investigated. We have identified methionine oxidation intermediates and products at different pH, and measured reaction rate constants. 1O2 oxidation of methionine is mediated by persulfoxide in both acidic and basic solutions. Persulfoxide continues to react with another methionine, yielding methionine sulfoxide as end-product albeit with a much lower reaction rate in basic solution. Density functional theory was used to explore reaction potential energy surfaces and establish kinetic models, with solvation effects simulated using the polarized continuum model. Combined with our previous study of gas-phase methionine ions with 1O2, evolution of methionine oxidation pathways at different ionization states and in different media is described.

  15. Mechanistic and Kinetic Study of Singlet O2 Oxidation of Methionine by On-Line Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangwei; Lu, Wenchao; Yin, Xunlong; Liu, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    We report a reaction apparatus developed to monitor singlet oxygen ((1)O2) reactions in solution using on-line ESI mass spectrometry and spectroscopy measurements. (1)O2 was generated in the gas phase by the reaction of H2O2 with Cl2, detected by its emission at 1270 nm, and bubbled into aqueous solution continuously. (1)O2 concentrations in solution were linearly related to the emission intensities of airborne (1)O2, and their absolute scales were established based on a calibration using 9,10-anthracene dipropionate dianion as an (1)O2 trapping agent. Products from (1)O2 oxidation were monitored by UV-Vis absorption and positive/negative ESI mass spectra, and product structures were elucidated using collision-induced dissociation-tandem mass spectrometry. To suppress electrical discharge in negative ESI of aqueous solution, methanol was added to electrospray via in-spray solution mixing using theta-glass ESI emitters. Capitalizing on this apparatus, the reaction of (1)O2 with methionine was investigated. We have identified methionine oxidation intermediates and products at different pH, and measured reaction rate constants. (1)O2 oxidation of methionine is mediated by persulfoxide in both acidic and basic solutions. Persulfoxide continues to react with another methionine, yielding methionine sulfoxide as end-product albeit with a much lower reaction rate in basic solution. Density functional theory was used to explore reaction potential energy surfaces and establish kinetic models, with solvation effects simulated using the polarized continuum model. Combined with our previous study of gas-phase methionine ions with (1)O2, evolution of methionine oxidation pathways at different ionization states and in different media is described. PMID:26306590

  16. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-05-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  17. Species-specific sequences of abalone lysin, the sperm protein that creates a hole in the egg envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Vacquier, V D; Carner, K R; Stout, C D

    1990-01-01

    Abalone eggs are contained within a rigid, elevated vitelline envelope through which the sperm must pass before reaching the egg cell membrane. Abalone spermatozoa possess an acrosomal protein called lysin that creates a hole in the egg vitelline envelope by a nonenzymatic mechanism. Lysins from two species of abalone, termed pink and red, which share the same habitat, exhibit species specificity in the dissolution of isolated egg envelopes. Cloning and sequencing the cDNAs for pink and red abalone lysins reveal transcript lengths of approximately 660 nucleotides. The open reading frames of 465 (pink) and 462 (red) nucleotides show a 13% difference. The 3' untranslated regions before the poly(A) tails are 170 (pink) and 165 (red) nucleotides long and differ from each other by about 7%. The protein sequences show nearly identical signal sequences of 18 amino acids for both lysins. The mature protein is 137 amino acids in the pink abalone and 136 in the red abalone; the two mature lysins differ in 29 of 137 amino acids (21%). The most variable region, which may account for lysin's species specificity, is at the NH2 terminus, where 11 of the 15 amino acids differ between the two species. Predictions of secondary structure indicate that both lysins contain four homologous amphiphilic alpha-helices. Images PMID:2377618

  18. Transcriptome analysis reveals global expression changes in an industrial L-lysine producer of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikiro; Ohnishi, Junko; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Yonetani, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Ikeda, Masato

    2006-02-01

    Toward the elucidation of advanced mechanisms of L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum, a highly developed industrial strain B-6 was analyzed from the viewpoint of gene expression. Northern blot analysis showed that the lysC gene encoding aspartokinase, the key enzyme of L-lysine biosynthesis, was up-regulated by several folds in strain B-6, while no repression mechanism exists in L-lysine biosynthesis of this bacterium. To analyze the underlying mechanisms of the up-regulation, we compared the transcriptome between strain B-6 and its parental wild-type, finding that not only lysC but also many other amino acid-biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in the producer. These results suggest that a certain global regulatory mechanism is involved in the industrial levels of L-lysine production. PMID:16495679

  19. epsilon-Poly-L: -lysine producer, Streptomyces albulus, has feedback-inhibition resistant aspartokinase.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y; Nicchu, I; Shimizu, T; Onji, Y; Hiraki, J; Takagi, H

    2007-09-01

    Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 produces epsilon-poly-L: -lysine (epsilon-PL), which is an amino acid homopolymer antibiotic. Despite the commercial importance of epsilon-PL, limited information is available regarding its biosynthesis; the L: -lysine molecule is directly utilized for epsilon-PL biosynthesis. In most bacteria, L: -lysine is biosynthesized by an aspartate pathway. Aspartokinase (Ask), which is the first enzyme in this pathway, is subject to complex regulation such as through feedback inhibition by the end-product amino acids such as L: -lysine and/or L: -threonine. S. albulus NBRC14147 can produce a large amount of epsilon-PL (1-3 g/l). We therefore suspected that Ask(s) of S. albulus could be resistant to feedback inhibition to provide sufficient L: -lysine for epsilon-PL biosynthesis. To address this hypothesis, in this study, we cloned the ask gene from S. albulus and investigated the feedback inhibition of its gene product. As predicted, we revealed the feedback resistance of the Ask; more than 20% relative activity of Ask was detected in the assay mixture even with extremely high concentrations of L: -lysine and L: -threonine (100 mM each). We further constructed a mutated ask gene for which the gene product Ask (M68V) is almost fully resistant to feedback inhibition. The homologous expression of Ask (M68V) further demonstrated the increase in epsilon-PL productivity. PMID:17611754

  20. Biosynthesis of ethylene from methionine in aminoethoxyvinylglycine-resistant avocado tissue.

    PubMed

    Baker, J E; Anderson, J D; Adams, D O; Apelbaum, A; Lieberman, M

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) insensitivity in avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lula, Haas, and Bacon) tissue was due to an alternate pathway of ethylene biosynthesis from methionine. AVG, at 0.1 millimolar, had little or no inhibitory effect on either total ethylene production or [(14)C] ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue at various stages of ripening. However, aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), which inhibits 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (the AVG-sensitive enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis), inhibited ethylene production in avocado tissue. Total ethylene production was stimulated, and [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine was lowered by treating avocado tissue with 1 millimolar ACC. An inhibitor of methionine adenosyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.6), l-2-amino-4-hexynoic acid (AHA), at 1.5 millimolar, effectively inhibited [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue but had no effect on total ethylene production during a 2-hour incubation. Rates of [(14)C]AVG uptake by avocado and apple (Malus domestica Borkh., Golden Delicious) tissues were similar, and [(14)C]AVG was the only radioactive compound in alcohol-soluble fractions of the tissues. Hence, AVG-insensitivity in avocado tissue does not appear to be due to lack of uptake or to metabolism of AVG by avocado tissue. ACC synthase activity in extracts of avocado tissue was strongly inhibited (about 60%) by 10 micromolar AVG. Insensitivity of ethylene production in avocado tissue to AVG may be due to inaccessibility of ACC synthase to AVG. AVG-resistance in the avocado system is, therefore, different from that of early climacteric apple tissue, in which AVG-insensitivity of total ethylene production appears to be due to a high level of endogenous ACC relative to its rate of conversion to ethylene. However, the sensitivity of the avocado system to AOA and AHA, dilution of labeled ethylene production by ACC

  1. Plasma amino acid and serum unesterified fatty acid deficits and the effect of nutritional support in chemotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Ching, N; Grossi, C; Jham, G; Angers, J; Zurawinsky, H; Ching, C Y; Nealon, T F

    1984-06-01

    The deficits in plasma amino acids and serum unesterified fatty acids of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy were studied to delineate the special requirements of the patients and efficacy of our nutritional therapy. Seven general surgery patients and 13 patients treated by the Head-Neck Service had baseline levels measured as part of their nutritional evaluation prior to surgical treatment of their cancers. Fifteen chemotherapy outpatients maintained on their regular diets had fasting levels analyzed. Twenty-six patients who were admitted for their therapy had their intake of the regular hospital diet supplemented with a low-residue enteral diet formula (Vivonex High Nitrogen Diet); parenteral nutrition was used only if their oral intake was totally inadequate. Baseline and sequential measurements were made of plasma amino acid and serum unesterified fatty acid levels by gas liquid chromatographic techniques. Before operation the patients had normal levels of amino acids except for a significant deficiency of threonine and glycine observed in patients with head-neck tumors. Outpatients with and without hepatic metastases had significantly depressed levels of the essential amino acids valine, leucine, threonine, and methionine and the nonessential amino acids serine, glycine, and proline. The baseline levels of the patients admitted for treatment had similar deficiencies except for more evidence of lysine deficiency. Patients supported with total parenteral nutrition had rapid elevation of the amino acid levels. The patients whose intake was supplemented with the oral diets had improvement in their amino acid levels, but the deficiency in the leucine and threonine fractions persisted up to 4 weeks of therapy. Although the lysine levels were normal when first analyzed, significant differences developed in the patients without hepatic metastases after the start of chemotherapy with return to normal only after chemotherapy was discontinued

  2. Effects of proteome rebalancing and sulfur nutrition on the accumulation of methionine rich d-zein in transgenic soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of heterologous methionine-rich proteins to increase the overall sulfur amino acid content of soybean seeds has been only marginally successful, presumably due to low accumulation of transgenes in soybeans. Proteome rebalancing of seed proteins has been shown to promote the accumulation o...

  3. Boron doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes comparative study of the oxidation behaviour of cysteine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2011-04-01

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviour at boron doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes of the sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine, using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry over a wide pH range, was compared. The oxidation reactions of these amino acids are irreversible, diffusion-controlled pH dependent processes, and occur in a complex cascade mechanism. The amino acid cysteine undergoes similar three consecutive oxidation reactions at both electrodes. The first step involves the oxidation of the sulfhydryl group with radical formation, that undergoes nucleophilic attack by water to give an intermediate species that is oxidized in the second step to cysteic acid. The oxidation of the sulfhydryl group leads to a disulfide bridge between two similar cysteine moieties forming cysteine. The subsequent oxidation of cystine occurs at a higher potential, due to the strong disulfide bridge covalent bond. The electro-oxidation of methionine at a glassy carbon electrode occurs in two steps, corresponding to the formation of sulfoxide and sulfone, involving the adsorption and protonation/deprotonation of the thiol group, followed by electrochemical oxidation. Methionine undergoes a one-step oxidation reaction at boron doped diamond electrodes due to the negligible adsorption, and the oxidation also leads to the formation of methionine sulfone. PMID:21377428

  4. Engineering a Lysine-ON Riboswitch for Metabolic Control of Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Bang; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-12-18

    Riboswitches are natural RNA elements that regulate gene expression by binding a ligand. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of altering a natural lysine-OFF riboswitch from Eschericia coli (ECRS) to a synthetic lysine-ON riboswitch and using it for metabolic control. To this end, a lysine-ON riboswitch library was constructed using tetA-based dual genetic selection. After screening the library, the functionality of the selected lysine-ON riboswitches was examined using a report gene, lacZ. Selected lysine-ON riboswitches were introduced into the lysE gene (encoding a lysine transport protein) of Corynebacterium glutamicum and used to achieve dynamic control of lysine transport in a recombinant lysine-producing strain, C. glutamicum LPECRS, which bears a deregulated aspartokinase and a lysine-OFF riboswitch for dynamic control of the enzyme citrate synthase. Batch fermentation results of the strains showed that the C. glutamicum LPECRS strain with an additional lysine-ON riboswitch for the control of lysE achieved a 21% increase in the yield of lysine compared to that of the C. glutamicum LPECRS strain and even a 89% increase in yield compared to that of the strain with deregulated aspartokinase. This work provides a useful approach to generate lysine-ON riboswitches for C. glutamicum metabolic engineering and demonstrates for the first time a synergetic effect of lysine-ON and -OFF riboswitches for improving lysine production in this industrially important microorganism. The approach can be used to dynamically control other genes and can be applied to other microorganisms. PMID:26300047

  5. Structure and function of the methionine aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Lowther, W T; Matthews, B W

    2000-03-01

    The removal of the N-terminal methionine from proteins and peptides is dependent upon a novel class of proteases typified by the dinuclear metalloenzyme methionine aminopeptidase from Escherichia coli (eMetAP). Substantial progress has recently been made in determining the structures of several members of this family. The identification of human MetAP as the target of putative anti-cancer drugs reiterates the importance of this family of enzymes. Determination of the modes of binding to E. coli MetAP of a substrate-like bestatin-based inhibitor, as well as phosphorus-containing transition-state analogs and reaction products has led to a rationalization of the substrate specificity and suggested the presumed catalytic mechanism. The conservation of key active site residues and ligand interactions between the MetAPs and other enzyme of the same fold suggest that avoidance of cross-reactivity may be an important consideration in the design of inhibitors directed toward a single member of the family. PMID:10708856

  6. Amino Acid and Vitamin Requirements of Several Bacteroides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Grace

    1966-01-01

    Nutritional studies were performed on nine Bacteroides strains, by use of the methodology and media of anaerobic rumen microbiology. Ristella perfoetens CCI required l-arginine hydrochloride, l-tryptophan, l-leucine, l-histidine hydrochloride, l-cysteine hydrochloride, dl-valine, dl-tyrosine, and the vitamin calcium-d-pantothenate, since scant turbidity developed in media without these nutrients. R. perfoetens was stimulated by glycine, dl-lysine hydrochloride, dl-isoleucine, l-proline, l-glutamic acid, dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-methionine, and the vitamins nicotinamide and p-aminobenzoic acid, since maximal turbidity developed more slowly in media without these nutrients than in complete medium. Medium A-23, which was devised for R. perfoetens, contained salts, 0.0002% nicotinamide and calcium d-pantothenate, 0.00001% p-aminobenzoic acid, 0.044% l-tryptophan, 0.09% l-glutamic acid, and 0.1% of the other 13 amino acids listed above. Zuberella clostridiformis and seven strains of R. pseudoinsolita did not require vitamins, and showed no absolute requirement for any one amino acid. Various strains produced maximal turbidity more slowly in media deficient in l-proline, glycine, l-glutamic acid, dl-serine, l-histidine hydrochloride, dl-alanine, or l-cysteine hydrochloride, than in complete medium. These eight strains grew optimally in medium A-23 plus 0.1% dl-serine but without vitamins. PMID:16349673

  7. Methionine as a Precursor of Ethylene—Commentary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lieberman et al. showed in a 1966 publication of Plant Physiology that methionine is a precursor of ethylene. It was the first paper that showed ethylene carbons are derived from carbons 3 and 4 of methionine. This paper catalyzed remarkable interest among plant biologists to elucidate the biosynth...

  8. POSSIBLE LINK BETWEEN METHIONINE OXIDATION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic metabolism leads to the production of reactive oxygen species that may damage proteins. Methionine residues in proteins are particularly susceptible to oxidation to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) converting its side chain from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. We postulated that this could have a si...

  9. High Methionine Diet Poses Cardiac Threat: A Molecular Insight.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kamat, Pradip K; Kalani, Anuradha; Familtseva, Anastasia; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    High methionine diet (HMD) for example red meat which includes lamb, beef, pork can pose cardiac threat and vascular dysfunction but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that a diet rich in methionine can malfunction the cardiovascular system in three ways: (1) by augmenting oxidative stress; (2) by inflammatory manifestations; and (3) by matrix/vascular remodeling. To test this hypothesis we used four groups of mice: (1) WT; (2) WT + methionine; (3) CBS(+/-) ; (4) CBS(+/-) +methionine. We observed high oxidative stress in mice fed with methionine which was even higher in CBS(+/-) and CBS(+/-) +methionine. Higher oxidative stress was indicated by high levels of SOD-1 in methionine fed mouse hearts whereas IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and TLR4 showed high inflammatory manifestations. The upregulated levels of eNOS/iNOS and upregulated levels of MMP2/MMP9 along with high collagen deposition indicated vascular and matrix remodeling in methionine fed mouse. We evaluated the cardiac function which was dysregulated in the mice fed with HMD. These mice had decreased ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction which subsequently leads to adverse cardiac remodeling. In conclusion, our study clearly shows that HMD poses a cardiac threat by increasing oxidative stress, inflammatory manifestations, matrix/vascular remodeling, and decreased cardiac function. PMID:26565991

  10. Extending the cross-linking/mass spectrometry strategy: Facile incorporation of photo-activatable amino acids into the model protein calmodulin in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Christine; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Photo-induced cross-linking is a highly promising technique to investigate protein conformations and protein-protein interactions in their natural cellular environment. One strategy relies on the non-directed incorporation of diazirine-containing photo-activatable amino acids into proteins and a subsequent cross-link formation induced by UV-A irradiation. The advantage of this photo-cross-linking strategy is that it is not restricted to lysine residues and that hydrophobic regions in proteins can also be targeted, which is advantageous for investigating membrane proteins. Here, we present a simplified protocol that relies on the use of mineral salts medium without any special requirements for the incorporation of photo-methionines into proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The possibility to perform these experiments in E. coli is especially valuable as it is the major system for recombinant protein production. The method is exemplified for the Ca(2+) regulating protein calmodulin containing nine methionines, which were found to be replaced by their photo-activatable analogues. Our protocol allows the facile and stochastic incorporation of photo-methionines as the basis for conducting photo-cross-linking experiments in E. coli in an efficient manner. PMID:25726908

  11. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  12. [Genetic bases of methionine dependence in Yersinia pestis strains of major and non-major subspecies].

    PubMed

    Odinokov, G N; Eroshenko, G A; Krasnov, Ia M; Kukleva, L M; Shavina, N Iu; Pavlova, A I; Kutyrev, V V

    2011-03-01

    Structural and functional organization of genes responsible for biosynthesis of amino acid methionine, which plays a leading role in cellular metabolism of bacteria, was studied in 24 natural Yersinia pestis strains of the major and minor subspecies from various natural plague foci located in the territory of Russian Federation and neighbouring foreign countries, and also in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains recorded in the files of NCBI GenBank database. Conservatism of genes metA, metB, metC, metE, and metH as well as regulatory genes metR and metJ involved in biosynthesis of this amino acid was established. Sequencing of the variable locus of gene metB in natural Y. pestis strains of major and minor subspecies revealed that the reason for the methionine dependence of strains belonging to the major subspecies is a deletion of a single nucleotide (-G) in the 988 position from the beginning of the gene, whereas this dependence in strains belonging to subspecies hissarica results from the appearance of a single nucleotide (+G) insertion in the 989 position of gene metB. These mutations are absent in strains of the caucasica, altaica, and ulegeica subspecies of the plague agent and in strains of pseudotuberculosis microbe, which correlates with their capacity for methionine biosynthesis. PMID:21542303

  13. Fibrin Clot Structure and Mechanics Associated with Specific Oxidation of Methionine Residues in Fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Weigandt, Katie M.; White, Nathan; Chung, Dominic; Ellingson, Erica; Wang, Yi; Fu, Xiaoyun; Pozzo, Danilo C.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of structural and mechanical characterization, we examine the effect of fibrinogen oxidation on the formation of fibrin clots. We find that treatment with hypochlorous acid preferentially oxidizes specific methionine residues on the α, β, and γ chains of fibrinogen. Oxidation is associated with the formation of a dense network of thin fibers after activation by thrombin. Additionally, both the linear and nonlinear mechanical properties of oxidized fibrin gels are found to be altered with oxidation. Finally, the structural modifications induced by oxidation are associated with delayed fibrin lysis via plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator. Based on these results, we speculate that methionine oxidation of specific residues may be related to hindered lateral aggregation of protofibrils in fibrin gels. PMID:23283239

  14. Identification of lysine 346 as a functionally important residue for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding and catalysis in lysine 2, 3-aminomutase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Frey, P A

    2001-01-16

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine and L-beta-lysine. The enzyme contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and a [4Fe-4S] center and requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for activity. The hydrogen transfer is mediated by the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical generated in a reaction of the iron-sulfur cluster with SAM. PLP facilitates the radical rearrangement by forming a lysine-PLP aldimine, in which the imine group participates in the isomerization mechanism. We here report the identification of lysine 346 as important for PLP binding and catalysis. Reduction of LAM with NaBH(4) rapidly inactivated the enzyme with concomitant UV/visible spectrum changes characteristic of reduction of an aldimine formed between PLP and lysine. Following reduction with NaBH(4) and proteolysis with trypsin, a single phosphopyridoxyl peptide of 36 amino acid residues was identified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The purified phosphopyridoxyl peptide exhibited an absorption band at 325 nm, and its identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing. The bound PLP is linked to lysine 346 in a PGGGGK (PLP) structure. The sequence of this binding motif is conserved in LAMs from Bacillus and Clostridium and other homologous proteins but is distinct from the PLP-binding motifs found in other PLP enzymes. The function of lysine 346 was further studied by site-directed mutagenesis. The purified K346Q mutant was inactive, and its content of PLP was only approximately 15% of that of the wild-type enzyme. The data indicate that the formation of the aldimine linkage between lysine 346 and PLP is important for LAM catalysis. Sequences similar to the PLP-binding motifs in other enzymes were also present in LAM. However, lysine residues within these motifs neither are the PLP-binding sites in LAM nor are directly involved in LAM catalysis. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of PLP binding in

  15. Potent and sustained cellular inhibition of miR-122 by lysine-derivatized peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid (LNA)/2'-O-methyl (OMe) mixmer anti-miRs in the absence of transfection agents

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Adrian G.; Threlfall, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cell delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (ONs) is a key issue for their potential therapeutic use. It has been shown recently that some ONs can be delivered into cells without the use of transfection agents (gymnosis), but this generally requires cell incubation over several days and high amounts of ONs (micromolar concentrations). Here we have targeted microRNA 122 (miR-122), a small non-coding RNA involved in regulation of lipid metabolism and in the replication of hepatitis C virus, with ONs of different chemistries (anti-miRs) by gymnotic delivery in cell culture. Using a sensitive dual-luciferase reporter assay, anti-miRs were screened for their ability to enter liver cells gymnotically and inhibit miR-122 activity. Efficient miR-122 inhibition was obtained with cationic PNAs and 2'-O-methyl (OMe) and Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA)/OMe mixmers containing either phosphodiester (PO) or phosphorothioate (PS) linkages at sub-micromolar concentrations when incubated with cells for just 4 hours. Furthermore, PNA and PS-containing anti-miRs were able to sustain miR-122 inhibitory effects for at least 4 days. LNA/OMe PS anti-miRs were the most potent anti-miR chemistry tested in this study, an ON chemistry that has been little exploited so far as anti-miR agents towards therapeutics. PMID:22567190

  16. Phytate utilization by genetically engineered lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2008-04-30

    Heterologous expression of a phytase gene (phyC) from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 7 enabled the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum with phytate (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) as a new, sole source of phosphorus. Phytate was not used as a carbon source. During growth of the phyC-expressing amino acid (l-lysine)-producing strain C. glutamicum ATCC 21253 (pWLQ2::phyC) with phytate as the source of phosphorus, merely a small, transient accumulation of inorganic phosphate was observed in the fermentation broth. At the later stages of fermentation, free inorganic phosphate from phytate degradation was no longer detectable. Growth and l-lysine production by the phytase-producing strain C. glutamicum ATCC 21253 (pWLQ2::phyC) in phytate medium did not differ significantly from control experiments with strain C. glutamicum ATCC 21253 (pWLQ2) conducted with an excess of inorganic phosphate, demonstrating that there was no phosphate limitation when phytate was used as the phosphorus source. Under the expression conditions employed, only part of PhyC was secreted to the culture broth by C. glutamicum, but this did not significantly affect growth or lysine production. PMID:18374441

  17. Proteome-wide enrichment of proteins modified by lysine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott M; Moore, Kaitlyn E; Green, Erin M; Martín, Glòria Mas; Gozani, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present a protocol for using the triple malignant brain tumor domains of L3MBTL1 (3×MBT), which bind to mono- and di-methylated lysine with minimal sequence specificity, in order to enrich for such methylated lysine from cell lysates. Cells in culture are grown with amino acids containing light or heavy stable isotopic labels. Methylated proteins are enriched by incubating cell lysates with 3×MBT, or with the binding-null D355N mutant as a negative control. Quantitative liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are then used to identify proteins that are specifically enriched by 3×MBT pull-down. The addition of a third isotopic label allows the comparison of protein lysine methylation between different biological conditions. Unlike most approaches, our strategy does not require a prior hypothesis of candidate methylated proteins, and it recognizes a wider range of methylated proteins than any available method using antibodies. Cells are prepared by growing in isotopic labeling medium for about 7 d; the process of enriching methylated proteins takes 3 d and analysis by LC-MS/MS takes another 1–2 d. PMID:24309976

  18. Effect of dietary lysine restriction and arginine supplementation in two patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yuzyuk, Tatiana; Thomas, Amanda; Viau, Krista; Liu, Aiping; De Biase, Irene; Botto, Lorenzo D; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy (PDE) is a recessive disorder caused by deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the catabolic pathway of lysine. It is characterized by intractable seizures controlled by the administration of pharmacological doses of vitamin B6. Despite seizure control with pyridoxine, intellectual disability and developmental delays are still observed in some patients with PDE, likely due to the accumulation of toxic intermediates in the lysine catabolic pathway: alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA), delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), and pipecolic acid. Here we evaluate biochemical and clinical parameters in two PDE patients treated with a lysine-restricted diet and arginine supplementation (100-150mg/kg), aimed at reducing the levels of PDE biomarkers. Lysine restriction resulted in decreased accumulation of PDE biomarkers and improved development. Plasma lysine but not plasma arginine, directly correlated with plasma levels of AASA-P6C (p<0.001, r(2)=0.640) and pipecolic acid (p<0.01, r(2)=0.484). In addition, plasma threonine strongly correlated with the levels of AASA-P6C (p<0.0001, r(2)=0.732) and pipecolic acid (p<0.005, r(2)=0.527), suggesting extreme sensitivity of threonine catabolism to pyridoxine availability. Our results further support the use of dietary therapies in combination with pyridoxine for the treatment of PDE. PMID:27324284

  19. A sulfonium cation intermediate in the mechanism of methionine sulfoxide reductase B: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Robinet, Jesse J; Dokainish, Hisham M; Paterson, David J; Gauld, James W

    2011-07-28

    The hybrid density functional theory method B3LYP in combination with three systematically larger active site models has been used to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanism by which Neisseria gonorrhoeae methionine sulfoxide reductase B (MsrB) reduces methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) to methionine. The first step in the overall mechanism is nucleophilic attack of an active site thiolate at the sulfur of Met-R-SO to form an enzyme-substrate sulfurane. This occurs with concomitant proton transfer from an active site histidine (His480) residue to the substrates oxygen center. The barrier for this step, calculated using our largest most complete active site model, is 17.2 kJ mol(-1). A subsequent conformational rearrangement and intramolecular -OH transfer to form an enzyme-derived sulfenic acid ((Cys495)S-OH) is not enzymatically feasible. Instead, transfer of a second proton from a second histidyl active site residue (His477) to the sulfurane's oxygen center to give water and a sulfonium cation intermediate is found to be greatly preferred, occurring with a quite low barrier of just 1.2 kJ mol(-1). Formation of the final product complex in which an intraprotein disulfide bond is formed with generation of methionine preferably occurs in one step via nucleophilic attack of the sulfur of a second enzyme thiolate ((Cys440)S(-)) at the S(Cys495) center of the sulfonium intermediate with a barrier of 23.8 kJ mol(-1). An alternate pathway for formation of the products via a sulfenic acid intermediate involves enzymatically feasible, but higher energy barriers. The role and impact of hydrogen bonding and active site residues on the properties and stability of substrate and mechanism intermediates and the affects of mutating His477 are also examined and discussed. PMID:21721538

  20. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including K(ac)Y, K(ac)H, K(ac)***R, K(ac)F, FK(ac) and K(ac)***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  1. Lysine acetylation stabilizes SP2 protein in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Sheng, Qing; Jiang, Caiying; Chen, Qin; Lv, Zhengbing; Yao, Juming; Nie, Zuoming

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a vital post-translational modification that plays an important role in many cellular processes in organisms. In the present study, the nutrient storage proteins in hemolymph were first found to be highly acetylated-particularly SP2 protein, which contains 20 potential Kac sites. Further results confirmed that lysine acetylation could stabilize and up-regulate the protein level of anti-apoptosis protein SP2, thereby improving the survival of H2O2-treated BmN cells and suppressing the apoptosis induced by H2O2. The potential mechanism involved in the inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation by crosstalk between lysine acetylation and ubiquitination. Our results showed that the increase in the acetylation level by TSA could decrease the ubiquitination and improve the protein level of SP2, indicating that lysine acetylation could influence the SP2 protein level through competition between ubiquitination and the suppression of ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, thereby stabilizing the protein. SP2 is a major nutrient storage protein from hemolymph for amino acid storage and utilization. The crosstalk between lysine acetylation and ubiquitination of SP2 might imply an important role of lysine acetylation for nutrient storage and utilization in silkworm. PMID:27374983

  2. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including KacY, KacH, Kac***R, KacF, FKac and Kac***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  3. Application of amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries in difluoro dinitro benzene and cyanuric chloride moieties for high-performance liquid-chromatographic enantioseparation of selenomethionine and its mixture with methionine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dubey, Rituraj

    2012-04-01

    L-Ala-NH(2), L-Val-NH(2), L-Leu-NH(2), and D-Phg-NH(2) were used as chiral auxiliaries to synthesize four chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) of each of the three categories, viz., difluoro dinitro benzene (DFDNB) based chiral variants, and cyanuric chloride (CC) based monochloro-s-triazine reagents (MCTs) and dichloro-s-triazine reagents (DCTs). DFDNB based chiral variants were synthesized by substituting one of the fluorine atoms of DFDNB with respective amino acid amides. The MCTs and DCTs were synthesized by substituting chlorine atom with aforesaid amino acid amide moieties in 6-methoxy dichloro-s-triazine and in CC, respectively. In total, 12 CDRs were characterized and used for microwave-assisted synthesis (45 s at 80% of 800 W using DFDNB-based chiral variants, 80 s at 90% of 800 W power using MCTs, and 50 s at 80% of 800 W power using DCTs) of diastereomers of (A) SeMet, and (B) mixture of (1) SeMet and Met, and (2) SeMet, Met, and Cys. The diastereomers were enantioseparated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using gradient elution with mobile phases containing aq. TFA (0.1%)--MeCN in different compositions. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, and limit of detection. PMID:21293889

  4. Accessibility and mobility of lysine residues in. beta. -lactoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.M.; Pfeffer, P.E.; Kumosinski, T.F.; Greenberg, R.

    1988-07-26

    N/sup epsilon/-(/sup 2/H/sub 6/)Isopropyllysyl-..beta..-lactoglobulin was prepared by reductive alkylation of ..beta..-lactoglobulin with (/sup 2/H/sub 6/)acetone and NaBH/sub 4/ to provide a /sup 2/H (NMR) probe for the study of lysine involvement in lipid-protein interactions. Amino acid analysis showed 80% of the protein's 15 lysine residues to be labeled. Unmodified lysine residues were located through peptide maps produced from CNBr, tryptic, and chymotryptic digests of the labeled protein. Average correlation times calculated from /sup 2/H NMR spectra were 20 and 320 ps for 8.7 and 3.3 residues, respectively, in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride; in nondenaturing solution, values of 70 and 320 ps were obtained for 6.5 and 3.2 residues, respectively, with the remaining 2.3 modified residues not observed, suggesting that side chains of lysine residues in unordered or flexible regions were more mobile than those in stable periodic structures. /sup 2/H NMR spectra of the protein complexed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine confirmed the extrinsic membrane protein type behavior of ..beta..-lactoglobulin previously reported from /sup 31/P NMR studies of the phospholipids complexed with ..beta..-lactoglobulin. Although no physiological function has yet been identified, comparison of these results with the X-ray structure supports the hypothesis that residues not accessible for modification may help to stabilize the cone-shaped ..beta..-barrel thought to contain binding sites for small lipid-soluble molecules.

  5. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. Methods We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Findings Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p < 0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Interpretation Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. PMID:27211567

  6. Effect of supplementation of crystalline lysine on the performance of WL layers in tropics during summer.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K Naga Raja; Reddy, V Ravinder; Preetham, V Chinni; Kumar, D Srinivas; Sen, Arup Ratan; Rao, S Venkata Rama

    2016-04-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of lysine concentration in the diet of WL layers with constant ratio of other essential amino acids to lysine. Pullets (528) aged 25 to 36 weeks were fed with test diet containing two protein levels (13.36 and 15.78 %) each with 5 % concentration of lysine (0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, and 0.70) and a control with 17 % CP and 0.70 %, lysine. Each test diet was fed ad libitum to six replicates of eight birds for a period of 12 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed efficiency (g/g) (FE), body weight gain (BWG), Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour (YC) were measured. Increased (P ≤ 0.05) EP, EW, EM, FE and BWG were obtained with increasing lysine concentration in diets. Whereas, feed intake/h/day, feed intake/egg, egg shell defects (ESD), mortality and shell thickness were not affected (P ≥ 0.05) by the concentration of lysine in diet. However, higher (P ≤ 0.05) HU score and YC were noticed at low lysine (0.50 %) concentrations. Based on this, it was concluded that WL layers (25-36 weeks) reared in open-sided houses in the tropics require approximately 0.70 % lysine (597.90 vs. 584.39 mg/h/day) in low (13.36 % CP) and high (15.78 % CP) protein groups in diets containing approximately 2700 kcal of ME/kg in summer. PMID:26922742

  7. Effect of excess levels of lysine and leucine in wheat-based, amino acid-fortified diets on the mRNA expression of two selected cationic amino acid transporters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Barrera, M A; Araiza, A B; Zijlstra, R T; Bernal, H; Cervantes, M

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of excess levels of Leu and Lys on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, liver and the muscles Longissimus dorsi (LDM) and Semitendinosus (STM). Twenty pigs with an average initial BW of 16.4 ± 1.7 kg were used in a Randomized Complete Block. Dietary treatments (T) were as follows: T1, basal diet; T2, basal plus 3.5 g l-Lys/kg diet; T3, basal plus 1.5 g l-Leu/kg diet; T4, basal plus 3.5 g l-Lys plus 1.5 g l-Leu/kg diet. Diets in T1 and T3 met 100% the requirement of Lys for pigs within the 10 to 20 kg body weight range; diets in T2 and T4 contained 35% excess of Lys. Also, diets in T1 and T2 supplied 104%, whereas diets in T3 and T4 supplied 116% the requirement of Leu. The expression of b(0,+) in jejunum was reduced (p = 0.002) because of the supplementation of l-Leu, but l-Lys supplementation had no effect (p = 0.738). In contrast, the expression of b(0,+) in STM (p = 0.012) and liver (p = 0.095) was reduced by the high level of Lys, but Leu had no effect (p > 0.100). CAT-1 expression in STM increased by high Lys (p = 0.023) and Leu (p = 0.007) levels. In liver, the expression of CAT-1 substantially increased (p = 0.001) because of Lys. In conclusion, excess levels of dietary Lys and Leu affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters, and this effect varies depending on the studied tissue. PMID:22211733

  8. Sulfur amino acids are necessary for normal intestinal mucosal growth in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfur amino acids (SAAs) methionine and cysteine play important metabolic and functional role in human health and disease. Gastrointestinal tract is an important site of transmethylation and transsulfuration of methionine and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake (Riedijk et al. ...

  9. 1- sup 13 C; methyl-2H3 methionine kinetics in humans: Methionine conservation and cystine sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, K.J.; Wagner, D.A.; Burke, J.F.; Young, V.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Methionine (Met) conservation in healthy young adult men (4/diet group) was explored by supplying one of the following three L-amino acid based diets: (1) adequate Met but no cystine; (2) neither Met nor cystine; or (3) no Met but cystine supplementation. After 5 days, subjects received a continuous intravenous infusion of L-(1-13C; methyl-2H3)Met for 5 h while the diet was given as small isocaloric isonitrogenous meals. Estimates were made of rates of Met incorporation into protein synthesis (S) and release from body proteins (B), transmethylation (TM), remethylation of homocysteine (RM), and transsulfuration (TS). For the adequate Met diet, the rates were S = 24 +/- 2, B = 18 +/- 1, TM = 12.4 +/- 1.7, RM = 4.7 +/- 1.1, and TS = 7.6 +/- 0.6 (SE) mumol.kg-1.h-1. The sulfur amino acid-devoid diet significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced S, TM, RM, and TS. Supplementation of this diet with cystine reduced Met oxidation (P = 0.05). Therefore, two loci are quantitatively important regulatory points in Met conservation in vivo: (1) the distribution of Met between the pathways of protein anabolism and TM (Met locus) and (2) the distribution of homocysteine between RM and TS (homocysteine locus).

  10. Determination of amino acids in Chinese rice wine by fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Niu, Xiaoying; Yang, Danting; Ying, Yibin; Li, Bobin; Zhu, Geqing; Wu, Jian

    2010-09-01

    Chinese rice wine is abundant in amino acids. The possibility of quantitative detection of 16 free amino acids (aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, and arginine) in Chinese rice wine by Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated for the first time in this study. A total of 98 samples from vintage 2007 rice wines with different aging times were analyzed by NIR spectroscopy in transmission mode. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by postcolumn derivatization and diode array detection as a reference method. To validate the calibration models, full cross (leave-one-out) validation was employed. The results showed that the calibration statistics were good (rcal>0.94) for all amino acids except proline, histidine, and arginine. The correlation coefficient in cross validation (rcv) was >0.81 for 12 amino acids. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) value obtained was >1.5 in all amino acids except proline and arginine, and it was >2.0 in 6 amino acids. The results obtained in this study indicated that NIR spectroscopy could be used as an easy, rapid, and novel tool to quantitatively predict free amino acids in Chinese rice wine without sophisticated methods. PMID:20707307

  11. Druggability of methyl-lysine binding sites.

    PubMed

    Santiago, C; Nguyen, K; Schapira, M

    2011-12-01

    Structural modules that specifically recognize--or read--methylated or acetylated lysine residues on histone peptides are important components of chromatin-mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms is associated with disease conditions, and antagonists of acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains are efficacious in animal models of cancer and inflammation, but little is known regarding the druggability of methyl-lysine binding modules. We conducted a systematic structural analysis of readers of methyl marks and derived a predictive druggability landscape of methyl-lysine binding modules. We show that these target classes are generally less druggable than bromodomains, but that some proteins stand as notable exceptions. PMID:22146969

  12. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation.

  13. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes. PMID:26395436

  14. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  15. Dietary Deficiency of Essential Amino Acids Rapidly Induces Cessation of the Rat Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to

  16. Biosynthesis of amino acids in Clostridium pasteurianum

    PubMed Central

    Dainty, R. H.; Peel, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Clostridium pasteurianum was grown on a synthetic medium with the following carbon sources: (a) 14C-labelled glucose, alone or with unlabelled aspartate or glutamate, or (b) unlabelled glucose plus 14C-labelled aspartate, glutamate, threonine, serine or glycine. The incorporation of 14C into the amino acids of the cell protein was examined. 2. In both series of experiments carbon from exogenous glutamate was incorporated into proline and arginine; carbon from aspartate was incorporated into glutamate, proline, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, glycine and serine. Incorporations from the other exogenous amino acids indicated the metabolic sequence: aspartate → threonine → glycine ⇌ serine. 3. The following activities were demonstrated in cell-free extracts of the organism: (a) the formation of aspartate by carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate or pyruvate, followed by transamination; (b) the individual reactions of the tricarboxylic acid route to 2-oxoglutarate from oxaloacetate; glutamate dehydrogenase was not detected; (c) the conversion of aspartate into threonine via homoserine; (d) the conversion of threonine into glycine by a constitutive threonine aldolase; (e) serine transaminase, phosphoserine transaminase, glycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. This last activity was abnormally high. 4. The combined evidence indicates that in C. pasteurianum the biosynthetic role of aspartate and glutamate is generally similar to that in aerobic and facultatively aerobic organisms, but that glycine is synthesized from glucose via aspartate and threonine. PMID:5419750

  17. Nucleosome Binding Alters the Substrate Bonding Environment of Histone H3 Lysine 36 Methyltransferase NSD2.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Myles B; Schneck, Jessica L; Matico, Rosalie E; Hou, Wangfang; McDevitt, Patrick J; Holbert, Marc; Schramm, Vern L

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein 2 (NSD2) is a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36)-specific methyltransferase enzyme that is overexpressed in a number of cancers, including multiple myeloma. NSD2 binds to S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) and nucleosome substrates to catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from SAM to the ε-amino group of histone H3K36. Equilibrium binding isotope effects and density functional theory calculations indicate that the SAM methyl group is sterically constrained in complex with NSD2, and that this steric constraint is released upon nucleosome binding. Together, these results show that nucleosome binding to NSD2 induces a significant change in the chemical environment of enzyme-bound SAM. PMID:27183271

  18. Using ‘biased-privileged’ scaffolds to identify lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Sudhir; Sandler, Joel; Martinez, Eduardo J.; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of histones by lysine methyltransferases (KMTases) plays important roles in regulating chromatin function. It is also now clear that improper KMTases activity is linked to human diseases, such as cancer. We report an approach that employs drug-like ‘privileged’ scaffolds biased with motifs present in S-adenosyl methionine, the cofactor used by KMTases, to efficiently generate inhibitors for Set7, a biochemically well-characterized KMTase. Setin-1, the most potent inhibitor of Set7 we have developed also inhibits the KMTase G9a. Together these data suggest that these inhibitors should provide good starting points to generate useful probes for KMTase biology and guide the design of KMTase inhibitors with drug-like properties. PMID:24650704

  19. Dietary methionine can sustain cytosolic redox homeostasis in the mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sofi; Prigge, Justin R.; Talago, Emily A.; Arnér, Elias S. J.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Across phyla, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) transfers intracellular reducing power to thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) and glutathione reductase (GR), thereby supporting fundamental housekeeping and antioxidant pathways. Here we show that a third, NADPH-independent, pathway can bypass the need for TrxR1 and GR in mammalian liver. Most mice genetically engineered to lack both TrxR1 and GR in all hepatocytes (“TR/GR-null livers”) remain long-term viable. TR/GR-null livers cannot reduce oxidized glutathione disulfide but still require continuous glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of cystathionine gamma-lyase causes rapid necrosis of TR/GR-null livers, indicating that methionine-fueled trans-sulfuration supplies the necessary cysteine precursor for glutathione synthesis via an NADPH-independent pathway. We further show that dietary methionine provides the cytosolic disulfide reducing power and all sulfur amino acids in TR/GR-null livers. Although NADPH is generally considered an essential reducing currency, these results indicate that hepatocytes can adequately sustain cytosolic redox homeostasis pathways using either NADPH or methionine. PMID:25790857

  20. Synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and biological use of lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, J Justin; Feinberg, Evan N; Alidori, Simone; McDevitt, Michael R; Heller, Daniel A; Scheinberg, David A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to create a more robust and more accessible standard for amine-modifying single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A 1,3-cycloaddition was developed using an azomethine ylide, generated by reacting paraformaldehyde and a side-chain-Boc (tert-Butyloxycarbonyl)-protected, lysine-derived alpha-amino acid, H-Lys(Boc)-OH, with purified SWCNT or C60. This cycloaddition and its lysine adduct provides the benefits of dense, covalent modification, ease of purification, commercial availability of reagents, and pH-dependent solubility of the product. Subsequently, SWCNTs functionalized with lysine amine handles were covalently conjugated to a radiometalated chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The 111In-labeled construct showed rapid renal clearance in a murine model and a favorable biodistribution, permitting utility in biomedical applications. Functionalized SWCNTs strongly wrapped small interfering RNA (siRNA). In the first disclosed deployment of thermophoresis with carbon nanotubes, the lysine-modified tubes showed a desirable, weak SWCNT-albumin binding constant. Thus, lysine-modified nanotubes are a favorable candidate for medicinal work. PMID:25228803

  1. Comparison of the Efficacies of Chloromethane, Methionine, and S-Adenosylmethionine as Methyl Precursors in the Biosynthesis of Veratryl Alcohol and Related Compounds in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Harper, D. B.; McRoberts, W. C.; Kennedy, J. T.

    1996-01-01

    The effect on veratryl alcohol production of supplementing cultures of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium with different methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)-labelled methyl precursors has been investigated. Both chloromethane (CH(inf3)Cl) and l-methionine caused earlier initiation of veratryl alcohol biosynthesis, but S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) retarded the formation of the compound. A high level of C(sup2)H(inf3) incorporation into both the 3- and 4-O-methyl groups of veratryl alcohol occurred when either l-[methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)]methionine or C(sup2)H(inf3)Cl was present, but no significant labelling was detected when S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)]methionine was added. Incorporation of C(sup2)H(inf3) from C(sup2)H(inf3)Cl was strongly antagonized by the presence of unlabelled l-methionine; conversely, incorporation of C(sup2)H(inf3) from l-[methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)]methionine was reduced by CH(inf3)Cl. These results suggest that l-methionine is converted either directly or via an intermediate to CH(inf3)Cl, which is utilized as a methyl donor in veratryl alcohol biosynthesis. SAM is not an intermediate in the conversion of l-methionine to CH(inf3)Cl. In an attempt to identify the substrates for O methylation in the metabolic transformation of benzoic acid to veratryl alcohol, the relative activities of the SAM- and CH(inf3)Cl-dependent methylating systems on several possible intermediates were compared in whole mycelia by using isotopic techniques. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was a much better substrate for the CH(inf3)Cl-dependent methylation system than for the SAM-dependent system. The CH(inf3)Cl-dependent system also had significantly increased activities toward both isovanillic acid and vanillyl alcohol compared with the SAM-dependent system. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the conversion of benzoic acid to veratryl alcohol involves para hydroxylation, methylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, meta hydroxylation of 4-methoxybenzoic acid to

  2. Regeneration Mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases B by Glutaredoxins and Thioredoxins*

    PubMed Central

    Tarrago, Lionel; Laugier, Edith; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Rey, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Methionine oxidation leads to the formation of S- and R-diastereomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), which are reduced back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs) A and B, respectively. MSRBs are classified in two groups depending on the conservation of one or two redox-active Cys; 2-Cys MSRBs possess a catalytic Cys-reducing MetSO and a resolving Cys, allowing regeneration by thioredoxins. The second type, 1-Cys MSRBs, possess only the catalytic Cys. The biochemical mechanisms involved in activity regeneration of 1-Cys MSRBs remain largely elusive. In the present work we used recombinant plastidial Arabidopsis thaliana MSRB1 and MSRB2 as models for 1-Cys and 2-Cys MSRBs, respectively, to delineate the Trx- and glutaredoxin-dependent reduction mechanisms. Activity assays carried out using a series of cysteine mutants and various reductants combined with measurements of free thiols under distinct oxidation conditions and mass spectrometry experiments show that the 2-Cys MSRB2 is reduced by Trx through a dithiol-disulfide exchange involving both redox-active Cys of the two partners. Regarding 1-Cys MSRB1, oxidation of the enzyme after substrate reduction leads to the formation of a stable sulfenic acid on the catalytic Cys, which is subsequently glutathionylated. The deglutathionylation of MSRB1 is achieved by both mono- and dithiol glutaredoxins and involves only their N-terminal conserved catalytic Cys. This study proposes a detailed mechanism of the regeneration of 1-Cys MSRB activity by glutaredoxins, which likely constitute physiological reductants for this type of MSR. PMID:19457862

  3. Methionine restriction on lipid metabolism and its possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; He, Liuqin; Wan, Dan; Yang, Huansheng; Yao, Kang; Wu, Guoyao; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-07-01

    Methionine restriction (MR) exerts many beneficial effects, such as increasing longevity, decreasing oxidative damage and alleviating inflammatory responses. Much attention has been recently focused on the effects of MR on metabolic health, especially lipid metabolism, since the increasing incidence of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes causes a worldwide health problem. In general, MR is considered to increase de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, with a result of reduced fat accumulation. However, different responses in lipid metabolism between adipose tissue and liver are declared. Therefore, in this review, we will focus on the changes of lipid metabolism responses to dietary MR. Moreover, the comparison of alterations of fat metabolism responses to dietary MR between adipose tissue and liver, and the comparison of changes between rodents and pigs is made to illustrate the tissue- and species-specific responses. In addition, the possible mechanisms that might be engaged in the regulation of MR diet on lipid metabolism are also discussed. PMID:27156065

  4. Fragmentation network of doubly charged methionine: Interpretation using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Ha, D T; Yamazaki, K; Wang, Y; Alcamí, M; Maeda, S; Kono, H; Martín, F; Kukk, E

    2016-09-01

    The fragmentation of doubly charged gas-phase methionine (HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3) is systematically studied using the self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. We applied graph theory to analyze the large number of the calculated MD trajectories, which appears to be a highly effective and convenient means of extracting versatile information from the large data. The present theoretical results strongly concur with the earlier studied experimental ones. Essentially, the dication dissociates into acidic group CO2H and basic group C4NSH10. The former may carry a single or no charge and stays intact in most cases, whereas the latter may hold either a single or a double charge and tends to dissociate into smaller fragments. The decay of the basic group is observed to follow the Arrhenius law. The dissociation pathways to CO2H and C4NSH10 and subsequent fragmentations are also supported by ab initio calculations. PMID:27608997

  5. Appropriate statistical methods to compare dose responses of methionine sources.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, D D; Littell, R C

    2006-05-01

    Two sources of methionine (Met) activity are frequently used in commercial feed formulation: DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA), most commonly available as an 88% solution with 12% water; and DL-methionine (DLM, 99% powder). Despite the fact that both compounds have been in commercial use for over 50 yr, controversy and confusion remain with respect to their relative bioefficacy (RBE). This paper presents a review of the use of a nonlinear common plateau asymptotic regression technique (NLCPAR) that has been used to compare the 2 Met sources with particular emphasis on the validity of the basic assumptions of that model. The thesis of this paper is that the controversy is due, at least in part, to the misapplication of this regression technique to estimate the RBE of HMTBA and DLM. The NLCPAR model is a bioassay with the key dependent assumptions that HMTBA is a dilution of DLM, and that each follows dose-response curves of the same form and approach a common plateau. Because both provide Met activity, it may be considered reasonable to accept these assumptions; however, specifically testing them demonstrated that the assumption of a common dose-response is not supported by data. The common plateau assumption was tested with an alternative approach of fitting nonlinear separate plateaus asymptotic regression (NLSPAR) to a set of 13 published broiler studies in which the NLCPAR model had been used to estimate RBE of HMTBA and DLM. The hypothesis of a common plateau was rejected (P < 0.01), meaning that the conclusion that HMTBA had lower bioefficacy than DLM based on the NLCPAR methodology was not valid. An example using published data demonstrated that the NLSPAR model was a significantly better fit than the NLCPAR model, and showed that HMTBA and DLM followed different dose responses. Consequently, there was no single value for RBE for the entire dose range; rather, the RBE of the 2 compounds varied with use level. The evidence presented here

  6. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional... reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine in purified water. (b) The...

  7. Multifactorial modulation of susceptibility to l-lysine in an animal model of glutaric aciduria type I.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Sven W; Opp, Silvana; Komatsuzaki, Shoko; Blank, Anna-Eva; Mittelbronn, Michel; Burgard, Peter; Koeller, D M; Okun, Jürgen G; Kölker, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I is an inherited defect in L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine and L-tryptophan degradation caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). The majority of untreated patients presents with accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites - glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA) - and striatal injury. Gcdh(-/-) mice display elevated levels of GA and 3-OH-GA but do not spontaneously develop striatal lesions. L-lysine-enriched diets (appr. 235 mg/d) were suggested to induce a neurological phenotype similar to affected patients. In our hands 93% of mice stressed according to the published protocol remained asymptomatic. To understand the underlying mechanism, we modified their genetic background (F1 C57BL6/Jx129/SvCrl) and increased the daily oral L-lysine supply (235-433 mg). We identified three modulating factors, (1) gender, (2) genetic background, and (3) amount of L-lysine. Male mice displayed higher vulnerability and inbreeding for more than two generations as well as elevating L-lysine supply increased the diet-induced mortality rate (up to 89%). Onset of first symptoms leads to strongly reduced intake of food and, thus, L-lysine suggesting a threshold for toxic metabolite production to induce neurological disease. GA and 3-OH-GA tissue concentrations did not correlate with dietary L-lysine supply but differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic mice. Cerebral activities of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and aconitase were decreased. Symptomatic mice did not develop striatal lesions or intracerebral hemorrhages. We found severe spongiosis in the hippocampus of Gcdh(-/-) mice which was independent of dietary L-lysine supply. In conclusion, the L-lysine-induced pathology in Gcdh(-/-) mice depends on genetic and dietary parameters. PMID:25558815

  8. Crystal Structure of Ll-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase From 'Arabidopsis Thaliana': a Recently-Discovered Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of L-Lysine By Plants And 'Chlamydia'

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, N.; Cherney, M.M.; van Belkum, M.J.; Marcus, S.L.; Flegel, M.D.; Clay, M.D.; Deyholos, M.K.; Vederas, J.C.; James, M.N.G.

    2007-07-13

    The essential biosynthetic pathway to l-Lysine in bacteria and plants is an attractive target for the development of new antibiotics or herbicides because it is absent in humans, who must acquire this amino acid in their diet. Plants use a shortcut of a bacterial pathway to l-Lysine in which the pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme ll-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (LL-DAP-AT) transforms l-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (L-THDP) directly to LL-DAP. In addition, LL-DAP-AT was recently found in Chlamydia sp., suggesting that inhibitors of this enzyme may also be effective against such organisms. In order to understand the mechanism of this enzyme and to assist in the design of inhibitors, the three-dimensional crystal structure of LL-DAP-AT was determined at 1.95 Angstroms resolution. The cDNA sequence of LL-DAP-AT from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDAP-AT) was optimized for expression in bacteria and cloned in Escherichia coli without its leader sequence but with a C-terminal hexahistidine affinity tag to aid protein purification. The structure of AtDAP-AT was determined using the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method with a seleno-methionine derivative. AtDAP-AT is active as a homodimer with each subunit having PLP in the active site. It belongs to the family of type I fold PLP-dependent enzymes. Comparison of the active site residues of AtDAP-AT and aspartate aminotransferases revealed that the PLP binding residues in AtDAP-AT are well conserved in both enzymes. However, Glu97* and Asn309* in the active site of AtDAP-AT are not found at similar positions in aspartate aminotransferases, suggesting that specific substrate recognition may require these residues from the other monomer. A malate-bound structure of AtDAP-AT allowed LL-DAP and L-glutamate to be modeled into the active site. These initial three-dimensional structures of LL-DAP-AT provide insight into its substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism.

  9. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false N-Acetyl-L-methionine. 172.372 Section 172.372 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.372 N-Acetyl-L-methionine....

  10. Quantitative study in vivo of methionine cycle in humans using (methyl-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)- and (1-/sup 13/C)methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, K.J.; Wagner, D.A.; Burke, J.F.; Young, V.R.

    1988-09-01

    Kinetic aspects of body methionine (MET) metabolism were examined in healthy young men during the fed and postabsorptive (PA) states. Rates of MET incorporation (S) into and release (B) from body proteins; transmethylation (TM); and remethylation (RM) and transsulfuration (TS) of homocysteine (HCY) were estimated with the aid of a 5-h constant intravenous infusion of (methyl-2H3)- and (1-13C)methionine. The isotopic data (plasma methionine labeling and 13C enrichment of expired air) were submitted to a stochastic model of amino acid metabolism. During the fed state, the subjects (n = 4) received, at 20-min intervals, small isonitrogenous isocaloric meals containing a complete L-amino acid mixture supplying MET at a rate equivalent to 198 mumol.kg body wt-1.day-1. The PA subjects (n = 4) received the isotope after a 10-h overnight fast. For the PA group, the components of MET metabolism were as follows: S, 20 +/- 0.5; B, 24 +/- 0.5; TM, 5.8 +/- 0.6; RM, 1.8 +/- 0.4; and TS, 4.0 +/- 0.4 (+/-SE) mumol.kg-1.h-1. During the fed state the values were S, 26 +/- 2.5; B, 18 +/- 2; TM, 14 +/- 1.3; RM, 5.7 +/- 0.9; and TS 8.3 +/- 0.6 mumol.kg-1.h-1. The meal-induced changes in B, TM, RM, and TS were significant (P less than 0.05). Comparison of the partitioning of MET between S and TM (these two pathways of MET disposal constitute the ''methionine locus'') in the PA and in the fed states indicates that the MET locus is of regulatory importance in MET homeostasis. A twofold increase in the partitioning of MET to TM was observed in the fed state. The increase in HCY recycling, relative to TS (these two pathways of HCY disposal constitute the ''HCY locus''), in the fed state did not reach statistical significance when compared with the PA state. Total daily TM are estimated to be 238 +/- 22 mumol/kg. This is similar to the estimate generated by the methyl balance model of Mudd and Poole which approximated 241 mumol/kg.

  11. Modeling the oxidation of methionine residues by peroxides in proteins.

    PubMed

    Chennamsetty, Naresh; Quan, Yong; Nashine, Vishal; Sadineni, Vikram; Lyngberg, Olav; Krystek, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    We report the use of molecular modeling to predict the oxidation propensity of methionine residues in proteins. Oxidation of methionine to the sulfoxide form is one of the major degradation pathways for therapeutic proteins. Oxidation can occur during production, formulation, or storage of pharmaceuticals and it often reduces or eliminates biological activity. We use a molecular model based on atomistic simulations called 2-shell water coordination number to predict the oxidation rates for several model proteins and therapeutic candidates. In addition, we implement models that are based on static and simulation average of the solvent-accessible area (SAA) for either the side chain or the sulfur atom in the methionine residue. We then compare the results from the different models against the experimentally measured relative rates of methionine oxidation. We find that both the 2-shell model and the simulation-averaged SAA models are accurate in predicting the oxidation propensity of methionine residues for the proteins tested. We also find the appropriate parameter ranges where the models are most accurate. These models have significant predictive power and can be used to enable further protein engineering or to guide formulation approaches in stabilizing the unstable methionine residues. PMID:25641333

  12. Covalent modification of carbon nanotubes with ferrocene-lysine derivative for electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yizhi; Petryk, Michael; Diakowski, Piotr M.; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2009-05-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were chemically modified with a ferrocene-lysine conjugate and the material was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) and the surfaces were evaluated for their ability to act as electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics methylphosphonic acid (MPA), ethylmethylphosphonate (EMP) and diethyl cyanophosphonate (DECP).

  13. Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Tang, Ling; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Chen, Gang-Fu; Li, Shu-Hong; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28% CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95% maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively. PMID:24174167

  14. Enhanced L-lysine production from pretreated beet molasses by engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong; Qian, Juan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-08-01

    Faster sugar consumption rate and low-cost nitrogen source are required for the chemical biosynthesis using molasses. Five pretreatment methods were applied to beet molasses prior to fermentation through engineered Escherichia coli, respectively, and corn steep liquid was used as an organic nitrogen source to replace expensive yeast extract. Furthermore, the effects of different feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation on L-lysine production were investigated. The experimental results showed that combined tricalcium phosphate, sulfuric acid, and activated carbon pretreatment method (TPSA) pretreatment could improve the sugar consumption rate most greatly, and the initial total sugar concentration of 35 g/L from TPSA-pretreated beet molasses gave the best results with respect to L-lysine production, dry cell weight concentration, and L-lysine yield in batch fermentation. Moreover, a mixture of low-cost corn steep liquid and yeast extract containing equal amount of nitrogen could be used as the organic nitrogen source for effective L-lysine fermentation, and constant speed feeding strategy of TPSA-pretreated beet molasses promoted L-lysine production by engineered E. coli. The TPSA-pretreated beet molasses had a sugar consumption rate of 1.75 g/(L h), and a L-lysine yield of 27.81% was achieved, compared with the theoretical yield of 62% by glucose. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of sugars in beet molasses to L-lysine. PMID:25899726

  15. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong-Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  16. Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Sricholpech, Marnisa

    2012-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in vertebrates. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of two α1 chains and one α2 chain, forming a long uninterrupted triple helical structure with short non-triple helical telopeptides at both the N- and C-termini. During biosynthesis, collagen acquires a number of post-translational modifications, including lysine modifications, that are critical to the structure and biological functions of this protein. Lysine modifications of collagen are highly complicated sequential processes catalysed by several groups of enzymes leading to the final step of biosynthesis, covalent intermolecular cross-linking. In the cell, specific lysine residues are hydroxylated to form hydroxylysine. Then specific hydroxylysine residues located in the helical domain of the molecule are glycosylated by the addition of galactose or glucose-galactose. Outside the cell, lysine and hydroxylysine residues in the N- and C-telopeptides can be oxidatively deaminated to produce reactive aldehydes that undergo a series of non-enzymatic condensation reactions to form covalent intra- and inter-molecular cross-links. Owing to the recent advances in molecular and cellular biology, and analytical technologies, the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these modifications have been gradually elucidated. This chapter provides an overview on these enzymatic lysine modifications and subsequent cross-linking. PMID:22708567

  17. Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Quentin L.; Pacheco, David; McCoard, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling. PMID:26226162

  18. Detection of oxidized methionine in selected proteins, cellular extracts, and blood serums by novel anti-methionine sulfoxide antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Derek B.; Canello, Tamar; Gabizon, Ruth; Gasset, Maria; Lundquist, Brandi L.; Burns, Jeff M; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) is a common posttranslational modification to proteins occurring in vivo. These modifications are prevalent when reactive oxygen species levels are increased. To enable the detection of MetO in pure and extracted proteins from various sources, we have developed novel antibodies that can recognize MetO-proteins. These antibodies are polyclonal antibodies raised against an oxidized methionine-rich zein protein (MetO-DZS18) that are shown to recognize methionine oxidation in pure proteins and mouse and yeast extracts. Furthermore, mouse serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG) were shown to accumulate MetO as function of age especially in serums of methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice. Interestingly, high levels of methionine-oxidized IgG in serums of subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease were detected by western blot analysis using these antibodies. It is suggested that anti-MetO-DZS18 antibodies can be applied in the identification of proteins that undergo methionine oxidation under oxidative stress, aging, or disease state conditions. PMID:19388147

  19. Toxicity of seleno-l-methionine, seleno-dl-methionine, high selenium wheat, and selenized yeast to mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    The toxicity of four chemical forms of selenium (seleno-L-methionine, seleno-DL-methionine, selenized yeast, and high selenium wheat) was compared in day-old mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos). In the first experiment, in which the basal diet was 75% wheat, survival after 2 weeks was lower for ducklings fed 30 ?g/g selenium as seleno-L-methionine (36%) than for ducklings fed 30 ?g/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (100%) or 30 ?g/g selenium from high selenium yeast (88%). In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed, survival after 2 weeks was 100% in ducklings fed 30 ?g/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine, seleno-L-methionine, or selenized yeast. The greater toxicity of the L form of selenomethionine was probably related to the palatability or nutritional nature of the wheat-based diet used in experiment 1, but the exact reason for the difference between the DL and L forms is unknown. Biologically incorporated selenium, derived from high selenium wheat was no more toxic than selenium derived from the two purified forms of selenomethionine, and the selenium in selenized yeast was not as toxic as that in the two forms of selenomethionine.

  20. The effects of short intensive exercise on plasma free amino acids in standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; van den Hoven, R; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short intense exercise on plasma amino acid concentrations in trotters and to test the repeatability of plasma amino acids concentration in samples obtained on two independent days under field conditions. Plasma amino acid concentrations were analysed in blood samples of 36 standardbred trotters before and after intense exercise over a distance of 2000 m. Sampling was repeated in 20 horses after 35 days. Exercise intensity was estimated from post-exercise lactate levels. Horses were divided in two groups according to a cut-off lactate concentration at 15 mmol/l. The plasma concentrations of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and taurine increased and arginine, asparagine, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, histidine, methionine, serine, tryptophan and 3-methylhistidine decreased after exercise. Ornithine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and valine concentrations remained constant. Higher intensity of exercise significantly decreased tryptophan and increased taurine concentrations. Sampling day had a significant effect on the absolute pre- and post-exercise amino acid concentrations. Exercise had a significant influence on the concentrations of most plasma amino acids in trotters. These changes could reflect shifts between the free amino acid compartments, but there were also some indications for muscle catabolism. The amino acid supply of sporting horses could be of specific significance for maintaining muscle integrity and for the improvement of post-exercise recovery of competition horses. PMID:19320929

  1. Effects of dietary sulfur amino acids on lead toxicity in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Factorial experiments were conducted to examine the interactions of dietary methionine with cystine, choline and glycine in lead (Pb) intoxicated chicks. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed a basal diet deficient in methionine and total sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA) with 0 or 1000 ppm added Pb. Methionine or methionine plus cystine improved growth regardless of Pb level; cystine addition alone improved growth only when Pb was present. Dietary methionine appeared to counteract Pb toxicity more effectively than cystine. In Experiments 2 and 3 dietary variables were 0 or 1000 ppm Pb, adequate or inadequate methionine and marginal or excess (Experiment 2) or adequate or inadequate (Experiment 3) choline. In Experiment 2 growth depression by Pb was less with methionine-adequate compared to methionine-inadequate diets; there were no differences in growth with choline-marginal or choline-excess diets. In Experiment 3, the Pb-induced growth depression was exacerbated by adequate choline when methionine-inadequate diets were fed. It appears that Pb lowers the chick's choline requirement and that the methyl moiety of methionine does not participate directly in Pb detoxification. In Experiment 4 effects of adequate or deficient methionine, adequate or excess glycine and 0 or 1000 ppm Pb in choline-deficient chicks were studied. Methionine stimulated growth and the response was greater when excess glycine was present. Excess glycine stimulated growth only in the presence of adequate methionine suggesting glycine is limiting for growth in choline-deficient, methionine-adequate diets. These studies indicate that adequate methionine ameliorates Pb-induced growth depression in growing chicks but that the methionine effect is greater with choline-adequate than with choline-deficient diets. The amelioration of Pb toxicity by methionine may be partly related to increased excretion of Pb.

  2. Kinetic evidence that methionine sulfoxide reductase A can reveal its oxidase activity in the presence of thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Kriznik, Alexandre; Boschi-Muller, Sandrine; Branlant, Guy

    2014-04-15

    The mouse methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) belongs to the subclass of MsrAs with one catalytic and two recycling Cys corresponding to Cys51, Cys198 and Cys206 in Escherichia coli MsrA, respectively. It was previously shown that in the absence of thioredoxin, the mouse and the E. coli MsrAs, which reduce two mol of methionine-O substrate per mol of enzyme, displays an in vitro S-stereospecific methionine oxidase activity. In the present study carried out with E. coli MsrA, kinetic evidence are presented which show that formation of the second mol of Ac-L-Met-NHMe is rate-limiting in the absence of thioredoxin. In the presence of thioredoxin, the overall rate-limiting step is associated with the thioredoxin-recycling process. Kinetic arguments are presented which support the accumulation of the E. coli MsrA under Cys51 sulfenic acid state in the presence of Trx. Thus, the methionine oxidase activity could be operative in vivo without the action of a regulatory protein in order to block the action of Trx as previously proposed. PMID:24632144

  3. Analysis of Methionine Oxidation in Myosin Isoforms in Porcine Skeletal Muscle by LC-MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Jung, Eun-Young; Jeong, Tae-Chul; Yang, Han-Sul; Kim, Gap-Don

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze oxidized methionines in the myosin isoforms of porcine longissimus thoracis, psoas major, and semimembranosus muscles by liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 836 queries matched to four myosin isoforms (myosin-1, -2, -4, and -7) were analyzed and each myosin isoform was identified by its unique peptides (7.3-13.3). Forty-four peptides were observed from all three muscles. Seventeen peptides were unique to the myosin isoform and the others were common peptides expressed in two or more myosin isoforms. Five were identified as oxidized peptides with one or two methionine sulfoxides with 16 amu of mass modification. Methionines on residues 215 (215), 438 (438), 853 (851), 856 (854), 1071 (1069), and 1106 (1104) of myosin-1 (myosin-4) were oxidized by the addition of oxygen. Myosin-2 had two oxidized methionines on residues 215 and 438. No queries matched to myosin-7 were observed as oxidized peptides. LC-MS/MS allows analysis of the oxidation of specific amino acids on specific residue sites, as well as in specific proteins in the food system. PMID:27194935

  4. Growth enhancement of the halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 by methionine externally added to a chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    We examined amino acid requirements for the growth of the halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 in the absence and presence of 1.2 M NaCl in a chemically defined medium. The experiment was also carried out in the presence of 1.2 M KCl. As a result, growth was highly enhanced by methionine in the absence and presence of KCl as well as NaCl up to 1.2 M. However, growth in the presence of 150 mM methionine was repressed by leucine (up to 100 mM)and valine (up to 100 mM). Concentration-dependent growth inhibition was observed in the presence of isoleucine (up to 150 mM) and threonine (up to 300 mM). When the cells were incubated in the absence of externally added K+, growth was strongly repressed, even in the presence of 150 mM methionine. The growth, however, recovered drastically by the addition of 1 mM KCl, regardless of the presence and absence of 1.2 M NaCl. These results indicate that methionine, which seems to be symported into cytoplasm with K+, plays an important role in the growth of the strain under salt stress. PMID:25252648

  5. Insights into the Specificity of Lysine Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Alex C.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Rank, Katherine C.; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation by protein acetyltransferases is a conserved regulatory mechanism that controls diverse cellular pathways. Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs), named after their founding member, are found in all domains of life. GNATs are known for their role as histone acetyltransferases, but non-histone bacterial protein acetytransferases have been identified. Only structures of GNAT complexes with short histone peptide substrates are available in databases. Given the biological importance of this modification and the abundance of lysine in polypeptides, how specificity is attained for larger protein substrates is central to understanding acetyl-lysine-regulated networks. Here we report the structure of a GNAT in complex with a globular protein substrate solved to 1.9 Å. GNAT binds the protein substrate with extensive surface interactions distinct from those reported for GNAT-peptide complexes. Our data reveal determinants needed for the recognition of a protein substrate and provide insight into the specificity of GNATs. PMID:25381442

  6. Elongation factor 1 alpha concentration is highly correlated with the lysine content of maize endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Habben, J E; Moro, G L; Hunter, B G; Hamaker, B R; Larkins, B A

    1995-01-01

    Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereals, and for many years plant breeders have attempted to increase its concentration to improve the nutritional quality of these grains. The opaque2 mutation in maize doubles the lysine content in the endosperm, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We show that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is overexpressed in opaque2 endosperm compared with its normal counterpart and that there is a highly significant correlation between EF-1 alpha concentration and the total lysine content of the endosperm. This relationship is also true for two other cereals, sorghum and barley. It appears that genetic selection for genotypes with a high concentration of EF-1 alpha can significantly improve the nutritional quality of maize and other cereals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7567989

  7. Keggin-lysine hybrid nanostructures in the shape modulation of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhasis; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Sanyal, Ambarish; Bala, Tanushree

    2014-03-01

    We show here that L-lysine effectively complexes with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) and the solution mixture when added to a 10-3 M aqueous solution of HAuCl4 after UV-irradiation for 3 h leads to the slow reduction and consequent formation of gold nanotriangles with a high degree of anisotropy. The same reaction carried out in a 12.5 kDa cutoff dialysis bag where the irradiated PMA-lysine solution was kept inside and stirred in a beaker containing aqueous HAuCl4, did not lead to the formation of gold nanotriangles. This implies that L-lysine plays the role of a shape-modulating agent and hence this study proves an improvement in the understanding of the role of such organic-inorganic hybrid structures in the synthesis and growth of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  8. Critical lysine residues of Klf4 required for protein stabilization and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Kim, So-Ra; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Klf4 undergoes the 26S proteasomal degradation by ubiquitination on its multiple lysine residues. • Essential Klf4 ubiquitination sites are accumulated between 190–263 amino acids. • A mutation of lysine at 232 on Klf4 elongates protein turnover. • Klf4 mutants dramatically suppress p53 expression both under normal and UV irradiated conditions. - Abstract: The transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) plays a crucial role in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). As the ubiquitination and degradation of the Klf4 protein have been suggested to play an important role in its function, the identification of specific lysine sites that are responsible for protein degradation is of prime interest to improve protein stability and function. However, the molecular mechanism regulating proteasomal degradation of the Klf4 is poorly understood. In this study, both the analysis of Klf4 ubiquitination sites using several Klf4 deletion fragments and bioinformatics predictions showed that the lysine sites which are signaling for Klf4 protein degradation lie in its N-terminal domain (aa 1–296). The results also showed that Lys32, 52, 232, and 252 of Klf4 are responsible for the proteolysis of the Klf4 protein. These results suggest that Klf4 undergoes proteasomal degradation and that these lysine residues are critical for Klf4 ubiquitination.

  9. The 2-oxoglutarate supply exerts significant control on the lysine synthesis flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Héctor; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the supply of the precursor 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) controls the synthesis of lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing exponentially in high glucose, top-down elasticity analysis was used. Three groups of reactions linked by 2-OG were defined. The 2-OG supply group comprised all metabolic steps leading to its formation, and the two 2-OG consumer groups comprised the enzymes and transporters involved in 2-OG transformation into lysine and glutamate and their further utilization for protein synthesis and storage. Various 2-OG steady-state concentrations that produced different fluxes to lysine and glutamate were attained using yeast mutants with increasing activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and decreased activities of Lys synthesis enzymes. The elasticity coefficients of the three enzyme groups were determined from the dependence of the amino acid fluxes on the 2-OG concentration. The respective degrees of control on the flux towards lysine (flux control coefficients) were determined from their elasticities, and were 1.1, 0.41 and -0.52 for the 2-OG producer group and the Lys and Glu branches, respectively. Thus, the predominant control exerted by the 2-OG supply on the rate of lysine synthesis suggests that over-expression of 2-OG producer enzymes may be a highly effective strategy to enhance Lys production. PMID:24034837

  10. The lysine biosynthetic enzyme Lys4 influences iron metabolism, mitochondrial function and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Do, Eunsoo; Park, Minji; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2016-09-01

    The lysine biosynthesis pathway via α-aminoadipate in fungi is considered an attractive target for antifungal drugs due to its absence in mammalian hosts. The iron-sulfur cluster-containing enzyme homoaconitase converts homocitrate to homoisocitrate in the lysine biosynthetic pathway, and is encoded by LYS4 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we identified the ortholog of LYS4 in the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, and found that LYS4 expression is regulated by iron levels and by the iron-related transcription factors Hap3 and HapX. Deletion of the LYS4 gene resulted in lysine auxotrophy suggesting that Lys4 is essential for lysine biosynthesis. Our study also revealed that lysine uptake was mediated by two amino acid permeases, Aap2 and Aap3, and influenced by nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). Furthermore, the lys4 mutant showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, agents that challenge cell wall/membrane integrity, and azole antifungal drugs. We showed that these phenotypes were due in part to impaired mitochondrial function as a result of LYS4 deletion, which we propose disrupts iron homeostasis in the organelle. The combination of defects are consistent with our observation that the lys4 mutant was attenuated virulence in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis. PMID:27353379

  11. Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Peptide-Modified Lysin Against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1–8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied. PlyA showed good and broad antibacterial activities against logarithmic phase A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, but much reduced activities against the cells in stationary phase. Addition of outer membrane permeabilizers (EDTA and citric acid) could enhance the antibacterial activity of PlyA against stationary phase cells. Finally, no antibacterial activity of PlyA could be observed in some bio-matrices, such as culture media, milk, and sera. In conclusion, we reported here a novel peptide-modified lysin with significant antibacterial activity against both logarithmic (without OMPs) and stationary phase (with OMPs) A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa cells in buffer, but further optimization is needed to achieve broad activity in diverse bio-matrices. PMID:26733995

  12. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation of Protein Methionine Residues in Human Parathyroid Hormone (1-34): Formation of Homocysteine and a Novel Methionine-Dependent Hydrolysis Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mozziconacci, Olivier; Ji, Junyan A.; Wang, Y. John; Schöneich, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of PTH(1-34) catalyzed by ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is site-specific. The oxidation of PTH(1-34) is localized primarily to the residues Met[8] and His[9]. Beyond the transformation of Met[8] and His[9] into methionine sulfoxide and 2-oxo-histidine, respectively, we observed a hydrolytic cleavage between Met[8] and His[9]. This hydrolysis requires the presence of FeII and oxygen and can be prevented by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and phosphate buffer. Conditions leading to this site-specific hydrolysis also promote the transformation of Met[8] into homocysteine, indicating that the hydrolysis and transformation of homocysteine may proceed through a common intermediate. PMID:23289936

  13. The optimum dietary indispensable amino acid pattern for growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Xavier; Mambrini, Muriel; Abboudi, Tarik; Larondelle, Yvan; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the optimum indispensable (I) amino acid (AA) balance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry, a single protocol established for the pig was adapted. The balance was calculated from the reduction in N gain after replacing about 45% of a single IAA by a mixture of dispensable AA in isonitrogenous diets. We confirmed that the mixture of AA simulating the AA pattern of cod-meal protein and gelatine (46:3, w/w) was used with the same efficiency as cod-meal protein and gelatine. From the deletion experiment an optimum balance between the IAA was derived. Expressed relative to lysine = 100, the optimal balance was: arginine 76 (SE 0.2), histidine 28 (SE 2.2), methionine + cystine 64 (SE 1.7), phenylalanine + tyrosine 105 (SE 1.6), threonine 51 (SE 2.4), tryptophan 14 (SE 0.7), valine 59 (SE 1.7). No estimates were made for isoleucine and leucine. Expressed as g/16 g N, the optimal balance was: arginine 4.0 (SE 0.0), histidine 1.5 (SE 0.1), lysine 5.3 (SE 0.2), methionine + cystine 3.4 (SE 0.1), phenylaline + tyrosine 5.6 (SE 0.1), threonine 2.7 (SE 0.1), tryptophan 0.7 (SE 0.0), valine 3.1 (SE 0.1). This AA composition is close to that of the Atlantic salmon whole-body, but using it as an estimation of the IAA requirements may lead to an overestimation of the branched-chain AA requirements and an underestimation of aromatic and S-containing AA requirements. The results are discussed in accordance with the key assumptions associated with the model used (broken-line model, IAA efficiencies and maintenance requirements). PMID:14667180

  14. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810-0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage.

  15. N-formylation of lysine in histone proteins as a secondary modification arising from oxidative DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinfeng; Taghizadeh, Koli; Dong, Min; Dedon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of histone and other chromatin proteins has a well recognized but poorly defined role in the physiology of gene expression. With implications for interfering with these epigenetic mechanisms, we now report the existence of a relatively abundant secondary modification of chromatin proteins, the N6-formylation of lysine that appears to be uniquely associated with histone and other nuclear proteins. Using both radiolabeling and sensitive bioanalytical methods, we demonstrate that the formyl moiety of 3′-formylphosphate residues arising from 5′-oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA, caused by the enediyne neocarzinostatin, for example, acylate the N6-amino groups of lysine side chains. A liquid chromatography (LC)–tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed to quantify the resulting N6-formyl-lysine residues, which were observed to be present in unperturbed cells and all sources of histone proteins to the extent of 0.04–0.1% of all lysines in acid-soluble chromatin proteins including histones. Cells treated with neocarzinostatin showed a clear dose–response relationship for the formation of N6-formyl-lysine, with this nucleosome linker-selective DNA-cleaving agent causing selective N6-formylation of the linker histone H1. The N6-formyl-lysine residue appears to represent an endogenous histone secondary modification, one that bears chemical similarity to lysine N6-acetylation recognized as an important determinant of gene expression in mammalian cells. The N6-formyl modification of lysine may interfere with the signaling functions of lysine acetylation and methylation and thus contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:17190813

  16. Quercetin Increases Hepatic Homocysteine Remethylation and Transsulfuration in Rats Fed a Methionine-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Guo, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of quercetin on mRNA expression and activity of critical enzymes in homocysteine metabolism in rats fed a methionine-enriched diet. Rats were fed for 6 weeks the following diets, that is, control, 0.5% quercetin, 1.0% methionine, and 1.0% methionine plus 0.5% quercetin diets. Serum homocysteine was significantly increased after methionine treatment and decreased after the addition of quercetin. The mRNA expression of methionine synthase was significantly increased after methionine or methionine plus quercetin supplementation, while its enzymatic activity was significantly increased after methionine plus quercetin supplementation. The mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase were upregulated after quercetin, methionine, or quercetin plus methionine treatment and a more significant increase was observed for hepatic cystathionine β-synthase in the methionine plus quercetin treated rats, suggesting an interaction between methionine and quercetin. Meanwhile, hepatic ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine was significantly decreased in response to methionine supplementation and normalized after the addition of quercetin. It is concluded that quercetin reduces serum homocysteine by increasing remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine in rats exposed to a methionine-enriched diet. PMID:26558284

  17. Methionine recycling pathways and antimalarial drug design.

    PubMed Central

    Sufrin, J R; Meshnick, S R; Spiess, A J; Garofalo-Hannan, J; Pan, X Q; Bacchi, C J

    1995-01-01

    5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) is an S-adenosylmethionine metabolite that is generated as a by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. In mammalian cells, MTA undergoes a phosphorolytic cleavage catalyzed by MTA phosphorylase to produce adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose-1-phosphate (MTRP). Adenine is utilized in purine salvage pathways, and MTRP is subsequently recycled to methionine. Whereas some microorganisms metabolize MTA to MTRP via MTA phosphorylase, others metabolize MTA to MTRP in two steps via initial cleavage by MTA nucleosidase to adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose (MTR) followed by conversion of MTR to MTRP by MTR kinase. In order to assess the extent to which these pathways may be operative in Plasmodium falciparum, we have examined a series of 5'-alkyl-substituted analogs of MTA and the related MTR analogs and compared their abilities to inhibit in vitro growth of this malarial parasite. The MTR analogs 5-deoxy-5-(ethylthio)ribose and 5-deoxy-5-(hydroxyethylthio)ribose were inactive at concentrations up to 1 mM, and 5-deoxy-5-(monofluoroethylthio)ribose was weakly active (50% inhibitory concentration = 700 microM). In comparison, the MTA analogs, 5'-deoxy-5'-(ethylthio)adenosine,5'-deoxy-5'-(hydroxyethylthio)ade nosine (HETA), and 5'-deoxy-5'-(monofluoroethylthio)adenosine, had 50% inhibitory concentrations of 80, 46, and 61 microM, respectively. Extracts of P. falciparum were found to have substantial MTA phosphorylase activity. Coadministration of MTA with HETA partially protected the parasites against the growth-inhibitory effects of HETA. Results of this study indicate that P. falciparum has an active MTA phosphorylase that can be targeted by analogs of MTA. PMID:8585735

  18. Defining the Orphan Functions of Lysine Acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Long known for their role in histone acetylation, recent studies have demonstrated that lysine acetyltransferases also carry out distinct “orphan” functions. These activities impact a wide range of biological phenomena including metabolism, RNA modification, nuclear morphology, and mitochondrial function. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of orphan lysine acetyltransferase functions. In addition to highlighting the evidence and biological role for these functions in human disease, we discuss the part emerging chemical tools may play in investigating this versatile enzyme superfamily. PMID:25591746

  19. L-lysine epsilon-aminotransferase involved in cephamycin C synthesis in Streptomyces lactamdurans.

    PubMed Central

    Kern, B A; Hendlin, D; Inamine, E

    1980-01-01

    In Streptomyces lactamdurans, the precursor of the alpha-aminoadipoyl side-chain of cephamycin C is L-lysine. In this regard, streptomycetes differ strikingly from the fungi, which produce alpha-aminoadipic acid during the synthesis, rather than the breakdown, of L-lysine. Studies using a cell-free system showed that an aminoadipic acid. The product of this reaction was trapped and subsequently purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, and amino acid oxidase digestion studies identified the reaction product as L-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, implying enzymatic removal of the epsilon amino group of L-lysine. This enzymatic activity (E.C. 2.6.1.36; L-lysine: 2-oxoglutarate 6-aminotransferase) is highly unusual and was previously conclusively demonstrated only in the genus Flavobacterium. In S. lactamdurans, the specific activity of this enzyme reaches a peak early in the fermentation (approximately 20 h) and decreases as the antibiotic begins to appear. PMID:6772093

  20. N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine: an osmolyte synthesized by methanogenic archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, K R; Robertson, D E; Noll, D; Gunsalus, R P; Roberts, M F

    1990-01-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified beta-amino acid that was identified as N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This beta-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined--Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique beta-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated. PMID:2123548

  1. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  2. Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nianogo, A.J.; Amos, H.E.; Dean, R.; Froetschel, A. ); Fernandez, J.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 {mu}Ci/ml of {sup 14}C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} {mu}M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake.

  3. Amino acid imbalance in cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Asatoor, A. M.; Freedman, P. S.; Gabriel, J. R. T.; Milne, M. D.; Prosser, D. I.; Roberts, J. T.; Willoughby, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    After oral ingestion of a free amino acid mixture by three cystinuric patients, plasma increments of lysine and arginine were lower and those of many other amino acids were significantly higher than those found in control subjects. Similar results were obtained in control subjects after amino acid imbalance had been artificially induced by the omission of cystine, lysine, and arginine from the amino acid mixture. Especially high increments of alanine and proline provided the best evidence of amino acid imbalance caused by a temporary lysine and, to a lesser extent, arginine and cystine deficit. No such amino acid imbalance was found to occur in the cystinuric patients after ingestion of whole protein, indicating that absorption of oligopeptides produced by protein digestion provided a balanced physiological serum amino acid increment. This is considered to explain the lack of any unequivocal nutritional deficit in cystinuric patients despite poor absorption of the essential free amino acid, lysine. PMID:4411931

  4. Methionine sulfoxide reductase: chemistry, substrate binding, recycling process and oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Boschi-Muller, Sandrine; Branlant, Guy

    2014-12-01

    Three classes of methionine sulfoxide reductases are known: MsrA and MsrB which are implicated stereo-selectively in the repair of protein oxidized on their methionine residues; and fRMsr, discovered more recently, which binds and reduces selectively free L-Met-R-O. It is now well established that the chemical mechanism of the reductase step passes through formation of a sulfenic acid intermediate. The oxidized catalytic cysteine can then be recycled by either Trx when a recycling cysteine is operative or a reductant like glutathione in the absence of recycling cysteine which is the case for 30% of the MsrBs. Recently, it was shown that a subclass of MsrAs with two recycling cysteines displays an oxidase activity. This reverse activity needs the accumulation of the sulfenic acid intermediate. The present review focuses on recent insights into the catalytic mechanism of action of the Msrs based on kinetic studies, theoretical chemistry investigations and new structural data. Major attention is placed on how the sulfenic acid intermediate can be formed and the oxidized catalytic cysteine returns back to its reduced form. PMID:25108804

  5. Proton Affinity of Isomeric Dipeptides Containing Lysine and Non-Proteinogenic Lysine Homologues.

    PubMed

    Batoon, Patrick; Ren, Jianhua

    2016-08-18

    Conformational effects on the proton affinity of oligopeptides have been studied using six alanine (A)-based acetylated dipeptides containing a basic probe that is placed closest to either the C- or the N-terminus. The basic probe includes Lysine (Lys) and two nonproteinogenic Lys-homologues, ornithine (Orn) and 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap). The proton affinities of the peptides have been determined using the extended Cooks kinetic method in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Computational studies have been carried out to search for the lowest energy conformers and to calculate theoretical proton affinities as well as various molecular properties using the density functional theory. The dipeptides containing a C-terminal probe, ALys, AOrn, and ADap, were determined to have a higher proton affinity by 1-4 kcal/mol than the corresponding dipeptides containing an N-terminal probe, LysA, OrnA, and DapA. For either the C-probe peptides or the N-probe peptides, the proton affinity reduces systematically as the side-chain of the probe residue is shortened. The difference in the proton affinities between isomeric peptides is largely associated with the variation of the conformations. The peptides with higher values of the proton affinity adopt a relatively compact conformation such that the protonated peptides can be stabilized through more efficient internal solvation. PMID:27459294

  6. Protein methionine oxidation augments reperfusion injury in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sean X.; Blokhin, Ilya O.; Wilson, Katina M.; Dhanesha, Nirav; Doddapattar, Prakash; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Chauhan, Anil K.; Lentz, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Reperfusion injury can exacerbate tissue damage in ischemic stroke, but little is known about the mechanisms linking ROS to stroke severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that protein methionine oxidation potentiates NF-κB activation and contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We found that overexpression of methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), an antioxidant enzyme that reverses protein methionine oxidation, attenuated ROS-augmented NF-κB activation in endothelial cells, in part, by protecting against the oxidation of methionine residues in the regulatory domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In a murine model, MsrA deficiency resulted in increased NF-κB activation and neutrophil infiltration, larger infarct volumes, and more severe neurological impairment after transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. This phenotype was prevented by inhibition of NF-κB or CaMKII. MsrA-deficient mice also exhibited enhanced leukocyte rolling and upregulation of E-selectin, an endothelial NF-κB–dependent adhesion molecule known to contribute to neurovascular inflammation in ischemic stroke. Finally, bone marrow transplantation experiments demonstrated that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by MsrA expressed in nonhematopoietic cells. These findings suggest that protein methionine oxidation in nonmyeloid cells is a key mechanism of postischemic oxidative injury mediated by NF-κB activation, leading to neutrophil recruitment and neurovascular inflammation in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27294204

  7. Dietary lysine affected the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been reported that some amino acids can function as signaling molecules to regulate skeletal muscle growth in mammals. This study was conducted to identify those genes that may be regulated by amino acid lysine and responsible for muscle growth and meat quality of pigs. Nine crossbred barrows...

  8. Dietary methionine availability affects the main factors involved in muscle protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Belghit, Ikram; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Surget, Anne; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Panserat, Stéphane; Seiliez, Iban

    2014-08-28

    Methionine is a limiting essential amino acid in most plant-based ingredients of fish feed. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary methionine concentrations on several main factors involved in the regulation of mRNA translation and the two major proteolytic pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal) in the white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fish were fed for 6 weeks one of the three isonitrogenous diets providing three different methionine concentrations (deficient (DEF), adequate (ADQ) and excess (EXC)). At the end of the experiment, the fish fed the DEF diet had a significantly lower body weight and feed efficiency compared with those fed the EXC and ADQ diets. This reduction in the growth of fish fed the DEF diet was accompanied by a decrease in the activation of the translation initiation factors ribosomal protein S6 and eIF2α. The levels of the main autophagy-related markers (LC3-II and beclin 1) as well as the expression of several autophagy genes (atg4b, atg12 l, Uvrag, SQSTM1, Mul1 and Bnip3) were higher in the white muscle of fish fed the DEF diet. Similarly, the mRNA levels of several proteasome-related genes (Fbx32, MuRF2, MuRF3, ZNF216 and Trim32) were significantly up-regulated by methionine limitation. Together, these results extend our understanding of mechanisms regulating the reduction of muscle growth induced by dietary methionine deficiency, providing valuable information on the biomarkers of the effects of low-fishmeal diets. PMID:24877663

  9. Antimicrobial activity of chicken NK-lysin against Eimeria sporozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is an antimicrobial and antitumor polypeptide that is considered to play an important role during innate immunity. Chicken NK-lysin is a member of the saposin-like protein family and exhibits potent antitumor cell activity. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of chicken NK-lysin, we ex...

  10. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  13. Nutritional quality and amino acid composition of diets consumed by scavenging hens and cocks across seasons.

    PubMed

    Ncobela, Cyprial Ndumiso; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of season on nutritional quality and amino acid composition of diets that scavenging hens and cocks consume. Thirty hens and 30 cocks were purchased and slaughtered during each of the rainy, post rainy, cool dry and hot dry seasons. A total of 240 birds were used in the study. Fresh crop content weights were high (P < 0.05) during the cool dry season. Cereal grains, kitchen wastes, green materials, animal protein sources and inorganic materials were the main components of the crop contents. Crop contents varied with season and sex of bird (P < 0.05). The cereal grain weights were high during cool dry and hot dry seasons. Weights of animal protein sources (insects, locusts and termites) were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy and post rainy seasons. Hens contained more animal protein sources (P < 0.05) than cocks. Hens had a higher (P < 0.05) lysine content during the rainy season than cocks. Histidine, serine, arginine, threonine, cysteine and lysine contents varied with seasons (P < 0.05). Methionine did not vary with season and sex of the bird. Nutritional supplementation of village chickens should, therefore, vary with seasons. PMID:26936274

  14. SIRT5 regulates the mitochondrial lysine succinylome and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Matthew J; He, Wenjuan; Nishida, Yuya; Newman, John C; Carrico, Chris; Danielson, Steven R; Guo, Ailan; Gut, Philipp; Sahu, Alexandria K; Li, Biao; Uppala, Radha; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Timothy; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Mulhern, Daniel; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Newgard, Christopher B; Jacobson, Matthew P; Hellerstein, Marc; Goetzman, Eric S; Gibson, Bradford W; Verdin, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Reversible posttranslational modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial proteins and metabolism. Here, we use a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the lysine succinylome in liver mitochondria and its regulation by the desuccinylase SIRT5. A total of 1,190 unique sites were identified as succinylated, and 386 sites across 140 proteins representing several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and ketogenesis were significantly hypersuccinylated in Sirt5(-/-) animals. Loss of SIRT5 leads to accumulation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate production in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, mutation of hypersuccinylated residues K83 and K310 on HMGCS2 to glutamic acid strongly inhibits enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings establish SIRT5 as a global regulator of lysine succinylation in mitochondria and present a mechanism for inhibition of ketogenesis through HMGCS2. PMID:24315375

  15. SIRT5 regulates the mitochondrial lysine succinylome and metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Rardin, Matthew J.; He, Wenjuan; Nishida, Yuya; Newman, John C.; Carrico, Chris; Danielson, Steven R.; Guo, Ailan; Gut, Philipp; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Li, Biao; Uppala, Radha; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Timothy; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Mulhern, Daniel; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Hellerstein, Marc; Goetzman, Eric S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Verdin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reversible posttranslational modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial proteins and metabolism. Here, we use a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the lysine succinylome in liver mitochondria and its regulation by the desuccinylase SIRT5. A total of 1190 unique sites were identified as succinylated, and 386 sites across 140 proteins representing several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and ketogenesis were significantly hypersuccinylated in Sirt5−/− animals. Loss of SIRT5 leads to accumulation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate production in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, mutation of hypersuccinylated residues K83 and K310 on HMGCS2 to glutamic acid strongly inhibits enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings establish SIRT5 as a global regulator of lysine succinylation in mitochondria and present a mechanism for inhibition of ketogenesis through HMGCS2. PMID:24315375

  16. Monitoring methionine sulfoxide with stereospecific mechanism-based fluorescent sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tarrago, Lionel; Péterfi, Zalán; Lee, Byung Cheon; Michel, Thomas; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine can be reversibly oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, but its use as a redox marker suffers from the lack of tools to detect and quantify MetO within cells. In this work, we created a pair of complementary stereospecific genetically-encoded mechanism-based ratiometric fluorescent sensors of MetO by inserting a circularly yellow fluorescent protein between yeast methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxins. The two sensors, named MetSOx and MetROx for their ability to detect S and R-forms of MetO, respectively, were utilized for targeted analysis of protein oxidation, regulation and repair, as well as for monitoring MetO in bacterial and mammalian cells, analyzing compartment-specific changes in MetO, and examining responses to physiological stimuli. PMID:25799144

  17. Quantitative proteomic overview on the Corynebacterium glutamicuml-lysine producing strain DM1730.

    PubMed

    Fränzel, Benjamin; Poetsch, Ansgar; Trötschel, Christian; Persicke, Marcus; Kalinowski, Jörn; Wolters, Dirk Andreas

    2010-11-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is one of the most important microorganisms because of its ability to produce and secrete glutamate, lysine and other amino acids. To optimize biotechnological amino acid synthesis it is therefore necessary to understand well how metabolic fluxes can be altered by studying the proteins directing these fluxes. In this work we give a comprehensive quantitative outline about the proteomic state of the l-lysine producing mutant strain DM1730 compared to wild type strain ATCC 13032 in the stationary phase of growth. This study comprises 1107 soluble and membrane proteins, of which 908 have been quantified. C. glutamicum DM1730 seems to produce a large amount of lysine even at the expense of various housekeeping functions. Generally, several proteins that are involved in stress response were found to be significantly more abundant, whereas many members of the protein expression machinery are less abundant as well as most proteins involved in cell growth and division and cell envelope synthesis. Extensive l-lysine production causes C. glutamicum to suffer from oxidative stress and iron limitation. Ultimately, a changed lipid composition of C. glutamicum's cell envelope seems to increase its fluidity, which might be related to altered physiology and membrane processes. PMID:20650338

  18. Spin-label electron spin resonance studies on the interactions of lysine peptides with phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, J H; Marsh, D

    1997-01-01

    The interactions of lysine oligopeptides with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) bilayer membranes were studied using spin-labeled lipids and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Tetralysine and pentalysine were chosen as models for the basic amino acid clusters found in a variety of cytoplasmic membrane-associating proteins, and polylysine was chosen as representative of highly basic peripherally bound proteins. A greater motional restriction of the lipid chains was found with increasing length of the peptide, while the saturation ratio of lipids per peptide was lower for the shorter peptides. In DMPG and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine host membranes, the perturbation of the lipid chain mobility by polylysine was greater for negatively charged spin-labeled lipids than for zwitterionic lipids, but for the shorter lysine peptides these differences were smaller. In mixed bilayers composed of DMPG and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, little difference was found in selectivity between spin-labeled phospholipid species on binding pentalysine. Surface binding of the basic lysine peptides strongly reduced the interfacial pK of spin-labeled fatty acid incorporated into the DMPG bilayers, to a greater extent for polylysine than for tetralysine or pentalysine at saturation. The results are consistent with a predominantly electrostatic interaction with the shorter lysine peptides, but with a closer surface association with the longer polylysine peptide. PMID:9370448

  19. Effect of l-Methionine and S-Adenosylmethionine on Growth of an Adenine Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yall, Irving; Norrell, Stephen A.; Joseph, Ronald; Knudsen, Richard C.

    1967-01-01

    A pink, adenine-requiring yeast utilized adenine, hypoxanthine, or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), in quantities up to 3 μmoles per 100 ml of medium, as equivalent sources of purine for cell growth, but not methylthioadenosine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. Utilization of SAM for growth was inhibited by the presence of l-methionine in quantities greater than 0.6 μmole per 100 ml of medium. However, 6 μmoles of l-methionine had no effect on growth when adenine or hypoxanthine was the source of purine. These sources also reversed the inhibitory effects of 6 μmoles of the amino acid on the utilization of SAM. The presence of 400 μmoles of the amino acid resulted in some inhibition of growth when the organisms were grown with adenine, hypoxanthine, or adenine plus SAM but had no effect on the total uptake of adenine-8-14C. Studies on the uptake of radioactivity from a mixture of SAM-adenine-8-14C and 3H-labeled SAM-methyl indicated that these components were taken into the cells at different rates which were altered by the presence of l-methionine. The fixation of 35S from 35S-labeled adenosylmethionine into the cells was inhibited by the presence of the amino acid. The cells synthesized and accumulated SAM in the presence of 400 μmoles of l-methionine plus adenine even when exogenous SAM was supplied. Approximately 47% of radioactivity fixed from exogenous SAM-adenine-8-14C and 12% from 3H-labeled SAM-methyl were found in reisolated SAM. PMID:6025443

  20. Respiratory chain cysteine and methionine usage indicate a causal role for thiyl radicals in aging.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The identification of longevity-related structural adaptations in biological macromolecules may yield relevant insights into the molecular mechanisms of aging. In screening fully sequenced animal proteomes for signals associated with longevity, it was found that cysteine depletion in respiratory chain complexes was the by far strongest predictor on the amino acid usage level to co-vary with lifespan. This association was though restricted to aerobic animals, whereas anaerobic animals showed variable cysteine accumulation. By contrast, methionine accumulation, a prominent feature of mitochondrially encoded proteins affording competitive antioxidant protection, was not predictive of longevity, but rather paralleled aerobic metabolic capacity. Hence, the easily oxidized sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine (a thiol) and methionine (a thioether) show doubly diametrical behaviour in two central paradigms of respiratory oxidative stress. From this comparison, it is concluded that only the one-electron oxidation of thiols to thiyl radicals contributes to aging, whereas other forms of sulfur oxidation, especially even-electron oxidation of both thiols and thioethers, are less critically involved, presumably as their consequences may be much more easily repaired. Thiyl radicals may yet act as chain-transfer agents to entail an irreversible intramembrane cross-linking ("plastination") of some of the a priori most hydrophobic and insoluble proteins known, the respiratory chain complexes. PMID:20850516

  1. Proline and lysine residues provide modulatory switches in amyloid formation: Insights from prion protein.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidogenic proteins have an increased propensity to reorganize into the highly structured, β sheet rich structures that characterize amyloid. The probability of attaining these highly structured assemblies is influenced by multiple factors, including amino acid composition and environmental conditions. Evolutionary selection for amino acid sequences that prevent amyloid formation could further modulate amyloid-forming propensity. Indeed, we have recently identified specific proline and lysine residues, contained within a highly conserved central region of prion protein (PrP), that impede PrP amyloid formation in vitro. These prolines are mutated in certain forms of the human familial genetic disease, Gerstmann-Straüssler-Schneiker (GSS) syndrome. Here, I discuss the influence of these proline and lysine residues on PrP amyloid formation and how such anti-amyloidogenic primary amino acid sequences might be modulated to influence protein amyloidogenicity. PMID:26864641

  2. Crystal Structures of Vertebrate Dihydropyrimidinase and Complexes from Tetraodon nigroviridis with Lysine Carbamylation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Chun; Hsu, Ching-Chen; Chan, Sunney I.; Yang, Yuh-Shyong; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Lysine carbamylation, a post-translational modification, facilitates metal coordination for specific enzymatic activities. We have determined structures of the vertebrate dihydropyrimidinase from Tetraodon nigroviridis (TnDhp) in various states: the apoenzyme as well as two forms of the holoenzyme with one and two metals at the catalytic site. The essential active-site structural requirements have been identified for the possible existence of four metal-mediated stages of lysine carbamylation. Only one metal is sufficient for stabilizing lysine carbamylation; however, the post-translational lysine carbamylation facilitates additional metal coordination for the regulation of specific enzymatic activities through controlling the conformations of two dynamic loops, Ala69–Arg74 and Met158–Met165, located in the tunnel for the substrate entrance. The substrate/product tunnel is in the “open form” in the apo-TnDhp, in the “intermediate state” in the monometal TnDhp, and in the “closed form” in the dimetal TnDhp structure, respectively. Structural comparison also suggests that the C-terminal tail plays a role in the enzymatic function through interactions with the Ala69–Arg74 dynamic loop. In addition, the structures of the dimetal TnDhp in complexes with hydantoin, N-carbamyl-β-alanine, and N-carbamyl-β-amino isobutyrate as well as apo-TnDhp in complex with a product analog, N-(2-acetamido)-iminodiacetic acid, have been determined. These structural results illustrate how a protein exploits unique lysines and the metal distribution to accomplish lysine carbamylation as well as subsequent enzymatic functions. PMID:24005677

  3. Effect of lysine clonixinate on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon.

    PubMed

    Russmann, S; Dilger, K; Trenk, D; Nagyivanyi, P; Jähnchen, E

    2001-11-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug lysine clonixinate ([2-(3-chloro-o-toluidino)nicotinic acid]-L-lysinate, CAS 55837-30-4) on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon (4-hydroxy-3-(1-phenylpropyl)-coumarin, CAS 435-97-2) was investigated in an open, randomised, two-fold, cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers. These subjects received a single dose of 18 mg phenprocoumon without or with concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate (125 mg five times a day for 3 days before and 13 days after ingestion of a single dose of phenprocoumon). Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenprocoumon following oral administration were: CL/f: 0.779 +/- 0.157 ml/min, half-life of elimination: 147.2 +/- 19.9 h; free fraction in serum: 0.51 +/- 0.20%. These parameters were not significantly altered by concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate. Prothrombin time increased from 13.3 +/- 1.3 s (at time 0) to 17.7 +/- 2.7 s following phenprocoumon and from 13.3 +/- 1.2 s to 18.0 +/- 2.2 s following combined administration. Prothrombin time returned to the pretreatment values 240 h after administration of phenprocoumon. The integrated effect (AUEC0-288 h) was identical following both treatments (4.303 +/- 461 and 4.303 +/- 312 s x h for phenprocoumon alone and phenprocoumon with lysine clonixinate, respectively). Thus, lysine clonixinate administered in therapeutic doses does not affect the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenproxoumon. PMID:11765590

  4. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J.; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  5. /sup 15/N and /sup 13/C NMR determination of methionine metabolism in developing soybean cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, G.T. III; Garbow, J.R.; Schaefer, J.

    1987-03-01

    The metabolism of D- and L-methionine by immature cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max, L. cv Elf) grown in culture has been investigated using solid-state /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance. D-Methionine is taken up by the cotyledons and converted to an amide, most likely by N-malonylation. About 16% of the L-methionine taken up is incorporated intact into protein, and 25% remains as soluble methionine. Almost two-thirds of the L-methionine that enters the cotyledons is degraded. The largest percentage of this is used in transmethylation of the carboxyl groups of pectin. Methionine is not extensively converted to polyamines. The authors attribute the stimulation of growth of the cotyledons by exogenous methionine to the bypassing of a rate-limiting methyl-transfer step in the synthesis of methionine itself, and subsequently of pectins and proteins.

  6. A genome-based approach to create a minimally mutated Corynebacterium glutamicum strain for efficient L-lysine production.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato; Ohnishi, Junko; Hayashi, Mikiro; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2006-07-01

    Based on the progress in genomics, we have developed a novel approach that employs genomic information to generate an efficient amino acid producer. A comparative genomic analysis of an industrial L-lysine producer with its natural ancestor identified a variety of mutations in genes associated with L-lysine biosynthesis. Among these mutations, we identified two mutations in the relevant terminal pathways as key mutations for L-lysine production, and three mutations in central metabolism that resulted in increased titers. These five mutations when assembled in the wild-type genome led to a significant increase in both the rate of production and final L-lysine titer. Further investigations incorporated with transcriptome analysis suggested that other as yet unidentified mutations are necessary to support the L-lysine titers observed by the original production strain. Here we describe the essence of our approach for strain reconstruction, and also discuss mechanisms of L-lysine hyperproduction unraveled by combining genomics with classical strain improvement. PMID:16506038

  7. Impact of glutathione supplementation of parenteral nutrition on hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Elremaly, Wesam; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Rouleau, Thérèse; Lavoie, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background The oxidation of the methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) by the combined impact of peroxides contaminating parenteral nutrition (PN) and oxidized redox potential of glutathione is suspected to explain its inhibition observed in animals. A modification of MAT activity is suspected to be at origin of the PN-associated liver disease as observed in newborns. We hypothesized that the correction of redox potential of glutathione by adding glutathione in PN protects the MAT activity. Aim To investigate whether the addition of glutathione to PN can reverse the inhibition of MAT observed in animal on PN. Methods Three days old guinea pigs received through a jugular vein catheter 2 series of solutions. First with methionine supplement, (1) Sham (no infusion); (2) PN: amino acids, dextrose, lipids and vitamins; (3) PN-GSSG: PN+10 μM GSSG. Second without methionine, (4) D: dextrose; (5) D+180 μM ascorbylperoxide; (6) D+350 μM H2O2. Four days later, liver was sampled for determination of redox potential of glutathione and MAT activity in the presence or absence of 1 mM DTT. Data were compared by ANOVA, p<0.05. Results MAT activity was 45±4% lower in animal infused with PN and 23±7% with peroxides generated in PN. The inhibition by peroxides was associated with oxidized redox potential and was reversible by DTT. Correction of redox potential (PN+GSSG) or DTT was without effect on the inhibition of MAT by PN. The slope of the linear relation between MAT activity and redox potential was two fold lower in animal infused with PN than in others groups. Conclusion The present study suggests that prevention of peroxide generation in PN and/or correction of the redox potential by adding glutathione in PN are not sufficient, at least in newborn guinea pigs, to restore normal MAT activity. PMID:26722840

  8. Neutralization of Human Serum β-Lysin by Sodium Polyanetholsulfonate and Sodium Amylosulfate

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Walter H.; Ima, Paula I. Fukushi

    1979-01-01

    Normal fresh and heat-inactivated (56°C, 30 min) human sera (80 vol%, i.e., 80% [vol/vol] of a 2-ml assay volume) killed Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 cell inocula of 1.5 × 104 colony-forming units per ml within 1 to 2 h after exposure. The B. subtilis assay strain proved slightly and reversibly susceptible to 5 μg of egg white lysozyme per ml. Seitz filtration of fresh human serum completely removed β-lysin activity; significant amounts of serum lysozyme were removed as well, as determined with the bioassay strain Micrococcus lysodeikticus ATCC 4698. However, bactericidal activity of human serum via classical or alternative complement pathway activation remained intact. Addition of 0.01 M dithiothreitol to fresh human serum abolished β-lysin activity, but not that of serum lysozyme. Chelation of fresh and heat-inactivated human serum with 0.01 M MgCl2 + 0.01 M ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, but not with 0.01 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, markedly retarded β-lysin activity; however, lysozyme activity remained unaffected. Chelation of serum with 0.01 M MgCl2 + 0.01 M ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid + 0.01 M CaCl2 completely abrogated β-lysin activity, but not that of lysozyme. Absorption of human serum with 10 mg of bentonite per ml (10 min, 37°C) completely removed β-lysin and lysozyme activity, but failed to affect serum bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli control strain C. Reconstitution of 50 vol% of bentonite-absorbed serum with 40 vol% of heat-inactivated human serum restored both β-lysin and lysozyme activity. Addition of either 63 to 500 μg of sodium polyanetholsulfonate per ml or 63 to 500 μg of sodium amylosulfate per ml to 80 vol% of fresh human serum completely neutralized β-lysin activity for the entire observation period of 22 h. PMID:227918

  9. 6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

  10. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  15. Coprecipitation of thermal lysine-rich proteinoids with polyribonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Yuki, A.; Fox, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine whether the precipitation of thermal proteinoids with homopolynucleotides can serve as a tool for studying the specificities between proteins and polynucleotides. Attention is given to exploring the best means of quantitation of the precipitate and the effect of varying the lysine content and the amount of Mg(2+) on the results. The formation of microparticles was monitored both by turbidity and by the mass of precipitate formed. Only under certain conditions was the turbidity a reliable indication of the amount of precipitate. Increasing concentration of Mg(2+) tended to displace proteinoid from the complex with polynucleotide. The results indicate that the interaction of thermal proteinoids with polynucleotides appears to be a suitable tool for studying specificities of interactions between proteins and nucleic acids.

  16. Enhancing S-adenosyl-methionine catabolism extends Drosophila lifespan.

    PubMed

    Obata, Fumiaki; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Methionine restriction extends the lifespan of various model organisms. Limiting S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) synthesis, the first metabolic reaction of dietary methionine, extends longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans but accelerates pathology in mammals. Here, we show that, as an alternative to inhibiting SAM synthesis, enhancement of SAM catabolism by glycine N-methyltransferase (Gnmt) extends the lifespan in Drosophila. Gnmt strongly buffers systemic SAM levels by producing sarcosine in either high-methionine or low-sams conditions. During ageing, systemic SAM levels in flies are increased. Gnmt is transcriptionally induced in a dFoxO-dependent manner; however, this is insufficient to suppress SAM elevation completely in old flies. Overexpression of gnmt suppresses this age-dependent SAM increase and extends longevity. Pro-longevity regimens, such as dietary restriction or reduced insulin signalling, attenuate the age-dependent SAM increase, and rely at least partially on Gnmt function to exert their lifespan-extending effect in Drosophila. Our study suggests that regulation of SAM levels by Gnmt is a key component of lifespan extension. PMID:26383889

  17. Methionine restriction improves renal insulin signalling in aged kidneys.

    PubMed

    Grant, Louise; Lees, Emma K; Forney, Laura A; Mody, Nimesh; Gettys, Thomas; Brown, Paul A J; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegovic, Mirela

    2016-07-01

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) leads to loss of adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity and lifespan extension. The possibility that dietary MR can protect the kidney from age-associated deterioration has not been addressed. Aged (10-month old) male and female mice were placed on a MR (0.172% methionine) or control diet (0.86% methionine) for 8-weeks and blood glucose, renal insulin signalling, and gene expression were assessed. Methionine restriction lead to decreased blood glucose levels compared to control-fed mice, and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and S6 in kidneys, indicative of improved glucose homeostasis. Increased expression of lipogenic genes and downregulation of PEPCK were observed, suggesting that kidneys from MR-fed animals are more insulin sensitive. Interestingly, renal gene expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1 was upregulated in MR-fed animals, as were the anti-ageing and renoprotective genes Sirt1, FGF21, klotho, and β-klotho. This was associated with alterations in renal histology trending towards reduced frequency of proximal tubule intersections containing vacuoles in mice that had been on dietary MR for 190days compared to control-fed mice, which exhibited a pre-diabetic status. Our results indicate that dietary MR may offer therapeutic potential in ameliorating the renal functional decline related to ageing and other disorders associated with metabolic dysfunction by enhancing renal insulin sensitivity and renoprotective gene expression. PMID:27453066

  18. Whole body methionine kinetics, transmethylation, transulfuration and remethylation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is evidence from a study of pregnant American women that methionine transmethylation (TM) and remethylation (RM) rates increase and transulfuration (TS) decreases as pregnancy progresses from trimester 1 to 3. To determine whether pregnant Indian women can make this adaptation successfully, me...

  19. The role of methionine metabolism in inflammatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methionine (Met) cycle activity is critical for normal cell functions. Met metabolites S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and methylthioadenosine (MTA) are anti-inflammatory, yet their role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is poorly understood. We hypothesize that active IBD leads to changes in Met metab...

  20. ALTERED METHIONINE METABOLISM IN LONG LIVING AMES DWARF MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ames dwarf mice (df/df) are deficient in growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their normal siblings. In the current study, we found that the hormone deficiencies affect methionine metabolism. We previously reported that the dwarf mice exhibit ...