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Sample records for acids minerals vitamins

  1. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  2. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Minerals? What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Fuel for Growth Common Concerns en español Vitaminas y minerales Breakfast cereals advertise that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy with a jolt of vitamins or minerals (sorry, ...

  3. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded.

  4. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  5. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Healthy Breakfast Planner Nutrition & Fitness Center Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking ...

  6. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    PubMed

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value.

  7. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels as therapeutic target in preserving bone mineral density (BMD) of older men.

    PubMed

    Naharci, Ilkin; Bozoglu, Ergun; Karadurmus, Nuri; Emer, Ozdes; Kocak, Necmettin; Kilic, Selim; Doruk, Huseyin; Serdar, Muhittin

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge about vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels in preserving bone mass in older men is limited. In this retrospective study, we aimed to find out whether levels of vitamin B(12) and folic acid are related to BMD in older men. Two hundred and sixty-nine older men were included in the study. Forty-two (15.6%) of them had osteoporotic, 150 (55.8%) had osteopenic, and 77 (28.6%) had normal BMD. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels were categorized as indicating normal, borderline, or low vitamin statuses. Femur neck densities showed statistically significant differences in subjects having low, borderline, and normal vitamin B(12), respectively. There were no significant differences between the three tertiles of vitamin B(12) in femur total, trochanteric, and intertrochanteric densities. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, smoking, and exercise with analysis of covariance, the difference was still statistically significant between two groups for femur neck density (p=0.011). No significant difference was observed between the groups of folic acid in any femur sites. We found that the normal level of vitamin B(12) in older men may be related to a decrease of femur neck bone loss.

  8. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  9. Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in apparently healthy, free-ranging southern giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffe).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Ball, Ray L; Grobler, Douw; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E; Citino, Scott B; Bush, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    This pilot project began establishing a nutritional profile for free-ranging giraffe. The results will be used as a tool to begin assessing the nutritional status of captive giraffe. In October 2004 serum samples were collected opportunistically from seven adult and 17 sub-adult giraffe being anesthetized for different studies. Seventeen animals were from Double Drift Game Reserve and seven animals were from Kariega Private Game Reserve. The serum samples were analyzed for circulating concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins, and minerals. Information from 15 serum samples collected from anesthetized giraffe in Kruger National Park during April and August 2003 was included in the calcium and phosphorus concentration data. No significant differences were identified between genders. Significant differences between locations were identified for concentrations of certain amino acids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins. Differences between locations are likely due to different nutrient concentrations of foods and possibly the result of different animal densities forcing different food choices among locations. This pilot project may expand to include changes in circulating nutrient concentrations for free-ranging giraffe as is influenced by other locations, seasonal food availability, and different giraffe subspecies. Zoo Biol 0:1-13, 2007. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  11. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between zoo and free-ranging giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between adult and subadult animals. Only one parameter, sodium concentration, was found to be significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between genders. Further investigation in zoo giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health

  12. Safety of vitamins and minerals: controversies and perspective.

    PubMed

    Soni, Madhu G; Thurmond, T Scott; Miller, Edgar R; Spriggs, Tracey; Bendich, Adrianne; Omaye, Stanley T

    2010-12-01

    Available information suggests that currently over 47% of males and 59% of females use dietary supplements for health benefits, and the number of users is rapidly increasing. However, numerous studies published over more than a decade have linked some supplements (including vitamins E, C, D, A, and B, as well as selenium) to no health benefits or even to adverse health effects. Recent studies with negative results, which drew media attention, include the following: a 2008 study on the ability of vitamin E and selenium to lower the risk of prostate cancer was halted amidst fear of potential harm; vitamin C may do more harm than good as it may protect cancer cells; intake of vitamins E and C by 15,000 male physicians for 10 years had no health benefits. In contrast, there are compelling cause and effect data linking the use of folic acid with consistent and significant reductions in fetal adverse pregnancy outcomes, demonstrating no beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin D supplements in improving bone strength and reducing fractures. These equivocal and conflicting findings on the effects of supplements on health outcomes have left consumers confused about their benefits and wary of the possible adverse effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation. The objectives of this session are to characterize the current state of the science as it relates to the impact of vitamin and mineral supplementation on human health, review the statutory and regulatory perspective of vitamin use from a safety perspective, assess the credibility of meta-analysis in the safety assessment of vitamins, and elicit the mechanisms of these interactions-pro-oxidant versus antioxidant effects and beneficial versus adverse effects.

  13. Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid and ascorbic acid in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Xia, Lufeng; Li, Zheng; Che, Ning; Zou, Ding; Hu, Xin

    2012-11-01

    A simple, isocratic, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the rapid determination of thiamine (VB(1)), niacinamide (VB(3)), pyridoxine (VB(6)), ascorbic acid (VC), pantothenic acid (VB(5)), riboflavin (VB(2)) and folic acid (VB(9)) in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets (VMT). An Alltima C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) was used for the separation at ambient temperature, with 50mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusting with phosphoric acid to pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1). VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC and VB(5) were extracted with a solution containing 0.05% phosphoric acid (v/v) and 0.3% sodium thiosulfate (w/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (95:5, v/v), while VB(2) and VB(9) were extracted with a solution containing 0.5% ammonium hydroxide solution (v/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). The detection wavelengths were 275 nm for VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, 210 nm for VB(5), and 282 nm for VB(2) and VB(9). The method showed good system suitability, sensitivity, linearity, specificity, precision, stability and accuracy. All the seven water-soluble vitamins were well separated from other ingredients and degradation products. Method comparison indicated good concordance between the developed method and the USP method. The developed method was reliable and convenient for the rapid determination of VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, VB(5), VB(2) and VB(9) in VMT.

  14. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Hyldstrup, Lars; Teilmann, Jenni; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Andersen, Steen; Letcher, Robert J; Jakobsen, Jette

    2008-08-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density) by DXA scanning (g/cm(-2)) in 15 age and weight normalized sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 26 pups divided into a control group (n=26) given 50-200 g/day clean pork (Suis scrofa) fat and a treated group (n=15) given 50-200 g/day OHC polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber as main lipid sources. The results showed that BMD increased significantly with age (linear regression: p<0.0001, r(2)=0.83, n=41) while no sex difference was found in the F-generation (two-way ANOVA: all p>0.3). No differences in BMD(femur) or BMD(vertebrae) between exposed and control individuals in the bitch generation were found (linear mixed effect model: both p>0.38). Likewise, no difference between exposed and control subadults and juveniles in the F-generation was found (two-way ANOVA: all p>0.33). Correlation analyses between BMD(femur), BMD(vertebrae) and groups of OHCs, respectively, did not show any statistically significant relationships nor a clear or decreasing trend (Pearson's: p: 0.07-0.78; r: -0.2-0.59; n: 10-18). As the groups were similar regarding genetics, age and sex are the only factors that can explain this observation. Either the pollutants did not have an impact on BMD using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences from eating polluted marine species.

  15. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

  17. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  18. Vitamin and mineral supplementation of term infants: are they necessary?

    PubMed

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the evidence behind the need or not to routinely administer multivitamin and/or mineral preparations to term infants. We reviewed the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamins and minerals during the first year of life and examined whether standard nutritional options, i.e. human milk or infant formulae consistent with major international guidelines, satisfy these requirements. We found that RDA cannot adequately be met by either human milk or standard formulas for most vitamins and minerals. We suggest that RDAs are widely overestimated. A particular emphasis is placed on vitamin D and iron, where supplements are needed, and on iodine and vitamin B12, where supplements may be needed depending upon the circumstances.

  19. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements during breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gorzel, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of supplements intake during breast-feeding was aim of the work. Seventy three women were examined in age 19-42 years coming from the Lublin province. The information about applying supplements during breast-feeding was obtained using questionnaire method. Achieved results served for calculations of taking vitamins and minerals coming from supplements. During breast-feeding 48% women accepted supplements. Average intakes of vitamin B2 (113%), B6 (120%), folic acid (144%) and vitamin D (166%) from supplements were above 100% recommended values. The highest average consumption was noted for iron (229% of recommended value), however the lowest on level 10-35% recommendations for vitamin A (33%), calcium (11%), selenium (12%) and magnesium (20%). Nearly 100% of the norm realization was obtained in case of the vitamin C (93%), E (102%), PP (105%), B1 (107%) and zinc (99%).

  20. [Vitamin and minerals supplements--required for good health?].

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Pedersen, Jan I

    2004-06-17

    Both laymen and the learned are discussing the need for vitamin and minerals supplements and their eventual preventive and therapeutic potential. Documentation is needed, but this word is most of the time used without clarifying the criteria it is based on. In this article we use vitamin E in order to illustrate that there is generally a long way to go from initial hypothesis to eventual practical advice and recommendations. Promising cell and animal studies combined with epidemiological observation studies are not sufficient as evidence; randomised intervention studies are required before conclusions can be drawn. Because high intakes of vitamins and minerals can have negative health effects, we also present the work carried out to decide upper safe intake levels in the Nordic countries, the EU and the USA. Women of fertile age should under certain circumstance take iron and folate supplements, and everyone in Scandinavia should take a supplement with vitamin D. It is sensible and harmless to take a multivitamin and mineral pill for people in risk groups, e.g. people eating very little or have an unbalanced diet (children, old people, patients). Except for these groups it is poorly documented that vitamins and minerals in large doses have a preventive or therapeutic potential. The largest health potential lies in a healthy diet.

  1. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids: A Critical Evaluation, Part 1- Vitamins and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.; Rucker, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates vitamins/minerals, distinguishing whether studies cited used animal or human subjects. Vitamins discussed include niacin and vitamins B-12, C, A, D, E, and megavitamin supplementation (intake of vitamins at levels 10 times the recommended daily allowance). Minerals considered include dolomite/bone meal, chromium (glucose tolerance…

  2. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation status, serum hormone, metabolite, and mineral concentrations of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Sari, Mustafa

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) on lipid peroxidation status measured as MDA and serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), as well as some other serum metabolite and mineral concentrations of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 degrees C). One hundred-eighty 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to six treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. Using a 2 x 3 factorial design, the birds received two levels of vitamin C (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet) or three levels of vitamin E (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of diet). Greater dietary vitamin E and vitamin C resulted in a greater serum T3, T4, and TSH (p = 0.001), but lower ACTH (p = 0.001) concentrations. Serum concentrations of T4 and TSH increased to a greater extent by increasing dietary vitamin C when greater vitamin E levels were fed (interaction, p = 0.001). Serum glucose, urea, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.001), while protein and albumin concentrations increased (p = 0.001) when both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E were increased. Serum activities of SGOT and SGPT were not influenced by dietary vitamin C and vitamin E (p > 0.43). However, serum activity of AP increased (p = 0.001) by increasing both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E. Increasing both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E caused an increase in serum concentrations of Ca, P, K (p = 0.001), Fe, and Zn (p = 0.01) but a decrease in serum concentrations of Na (p = 0.001) and Cu (p = 0.01). Interactions between vitamin C and vitamin E were detected for Ca, P, Na, and K (p = 0.001). Greater dietary vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in a greater serum and liver vitamin E, C, and A (p < or = 0.05), but lower MDA (p = 0.001) concentrations. Results of the present study conclude that supplementing a combination of dietary vitamin C (200 mg

  3. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  4. RESTORATION OF NORMAL GLUTAMIC ACID TRANSPORT IN VITAMIN B6-DEFICIENT LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM BY ACETATE, AMMONIUM, AND VITAMIN B6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GLUTAMIC ACID, * LACTOBACILLUS , VITAMIN B COMPLEX, METABOLIC DISEASES, VITAMIN B COMPLEX, ACETATES, AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, CHLORAMPHENICOL, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS, PENICILLINS, CELL WALL, SYNTHESIS, OSMOSIS.

  5. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  7. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to

  8. Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OH)D and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. We measured cord serum 25(OH)D levels, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and their changes o...

  9. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  10. Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to vitamin D and bone health in obese children is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status and bone mineral density (BMD) in obese children according to their condition within the NAFLD spectrum. Anthropometric data, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography were obtained from 94 obese children. The subjects were divided into three groups according to NAFLD spectrum: normal liver, simple steatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although there were no differences in vitamin D levels between the three groups, these groups showed significant differences in highly sensitive C-reactive protein (P=0.044), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P=0.02), hepatic fibrosis scores (P<0.05), and trunk fat percentage (P=0.025). Although there were significant differences in BMDs, the age-matched BMD z-scores were not significantly different between the three groups. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.368, P=0.023), serum uric acid levels (r=-0.371, P=0.022), fibrosis 4 (FIB4) (r=-0.406, P=0.011), and HOMA-IR (r=-0.530, P=0.001) in obese children with NASH. Multiple regression analysis for vitamin D in the NASH group revealed age and HOMA-IR as significant factors. In conclusion, inflammatory markers, hepatic fibrosis scores, trunk fat, and insulin resistance may reflect the spectrum of NAFLD in obese children, whereas vitamin D levels and BMD may not. In patients with NASH, however, low serum vitamin D is associated with hepatic fibrosis and insulin resistance, but not with bone health status. PMID:26713058

  11. Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eun Jae; Yi, Dae Yong; Yang, Hye Ran

    2015-12-01

    Whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to vitamin D and bone health in obese children is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status and bone mineral density (BMD) in obese children according to their condition within the NAFLD spectrum. Anthropometric data, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography were obtained from 94 obese children. The subjects were divided into three groups according to NAFLD spectrum: normal liver, simple steatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although there were no differences in vitamin D levels between the three groups, these groups showed significant differences in highly sensitive C-reactive protein (P=0.044), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P=0.02), hepatic fibrosis scores (P<0.05), and trunk fat percentage (P=0.025). Although there were significant differences in BMDs, the age-matched BMD z-scores were not significantly different between the three groups. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.368, P=0.023), serum uric acid levels (r=-0.371, P=0.022), fibrosis 4 (FIB4) (r=-0.406, P=0.011), and HOMA-IR (r=-0.530, P=0.001) in obese children with NASH. Multiple regression analysis for vitamin D in the NASH group revealed age and HOMA-IR as significant factors. In conclusion, inflammatory markers, hepatic fibrosis scores, trunk fat, and insulin resistance may reflect the spectrum of NAFLD in obese children, whereas vitamin D levels and BMD may not. In patients with NASH, however, low serum vitamin D is associated with hepatic fibrosis and insulin resistance, but not with bone health status.

  12. [Food based approaches to improve vitamin and mineral nutrition adequacy].

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, M T; Uauy, R; Olivares, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper, using the nutrient density concept and the development of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG), explores the nutritional adequacy of food patterns based on the main staples around the world--maize, wheat, rice and potato. The nutritional adequacy of the vitamins A, C, folates and the minerals iron, zinc and calcium in diets composed by these staples is analyzed. Projected diets modified by the addition of foods high in vitamins and minerals, based on food table composition information, are analyzed for changes in nutritional adequacy, in order to cover the nutritional requirements of all family members. This theoretical exercise shows that diets diversified by the addition of relatively small quantities (27-70 g) of foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes and meat improve substantially the nutritional adequacy of the vitamins A, C, folates, iron and zinc. In the case of calcium, the addition of a dairy source becomes essential. From the practical point of view, the implementation of the food based approach requires a national effort in order to support the production of nutrient rich foods and to promote consciousness of nutrient bioavailability, so that people may obtain all nutrient potential from foods. Simultaneously, the need of fortification programs at the national level is recognized. This is the case for critical nutrients, where requirements might be above the potential in available foods. A similar situation occurs in the case of vulnerable groups like pregnant women and infants, who need supplementation to ensure nutritional adequacy of their diets. In conclusion, the use of FBDG is a good alternative for improving the nutritional adequacy of diets based predominantly on staple foods. However, food fortification and supplementation programs directed to vulnerable groups are necessary and complementary practices to the FBDG implementation.

  13. [The mineral composition of the carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and dietary supplements for athletes].

    PubMed

    Nikitiuk, D B; Novokshanova, A L; Abrosimova, S V; Gapparova, K M; Pozdniakov, A L

    2012-01-01

    In the article analyzes the macro- and trace element composition of sports drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives (BAA). The estimation of the mineral collection of these products compared with the recommended standards. Established mineral composition many of the carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives corresponds the physiology standards. However in some vitamin-mineral complexes and especially biologically active additives a number of minerals can be either unreasonably low or unreasonably high. Furthermore during labeling, mainly in the category D, a number of errors were revealed. Particularly there were lack of instructions about the number of declared ingredients, inaccuracies in the calculations of the daily requirement of mineral elements etc. Providing of an athlete organism with minerals should be carried out not only by carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and specialized BAA, but mainly through basal ration. Utilising of carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives can be justified only by the recommendations of experts. This is true not only in pro sports, but for the mass sports, as well as for individual physical training, in order to maintain physically fit.

  14. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12

  15. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... nutrients include: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Proteins Proteins are an important part of your bones, muscles, and skin. In fact, proteins are in every living cell in your body. ...

  16. Vitamin D–Binding Protein Modifies the Vitamin D–Bone Mineral Density Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E; Ricciardi, Catherine; Berg, Anders H; Erdenesanaa, Delger; Collerone, Gina; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi; Bhan, Ishir

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between total circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded mixed results. Vitamin D–binding protein (DBP), the major carrier protein for 25(OH)D, may alter the biologic activity of circulating vitamin D. We hypothesized that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels, would be more strongly associated with BMD than levels of total 25(OH)D. We measured total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels in 49 healthy young adults enrolled in the Metabolic Abnormalities in College-Aged Students (MACS) study. Lumbar spine BMD was measured in all subjects using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical, diet, and laboratory information also was gathered at this time. We determined free and bioavailable (free + albumin-bound) 25(OH)D using previously validated formulas and examined their associations with BMD. BMD was not associated with total 25(OH)D levels (r = 0.172, p = .236). In contrast, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with BMD (r = 0.413, p = .003 for free, r = 0.441, p = .002 for bioavailable). Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels remained independently associated with BMD in multivariate regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and race (p = .03). It is concluded that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D are more strongly correlated with BMD than total 25(OH)D. These findings have important implications for vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D–deficient states. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship between free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and health outcomes. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21416506

  17. Overview of the role of vitamins and minerals on the kynurenine pathway in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Majewski, M; Kozlowska, A; Thoene, M; Lepiarczyk, E; Grzegorzewski, W J

    2016-02-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) of L-tryptophan metabolism produces several neuroactive metabolites with an amino acid structure. These metabolites may play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, AIDS-dementia complex, depression, epilepsy and the aging process. Modulation of the KP through inhibition or stimulation of enzyme synthesis and activity can be an alternative approach to traditional therapy. Furthermore, it may be responsible for the altered functioning of the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. There is evidence that the KP is sensitive to changes in the concentration of many vitamins and minerals that play a crucial role as coenzymes and cofactors in the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme. A reduction in the availability of the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP) is known to affect tryptophan hydroxylase, kynurenine aminotransferase and kynureninase (KYNU). Vitamin B2 deficiencies result in a reduction in the activity of the flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent enzyme, kynurenine 3-monooxygenase. Minerals are also responsible for the proper functioning of enzymes engaged in L-tryptophan metabolism. Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) influence KYNU activity, and Mg(2+) regulates quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase. Fe(2+) is responsible for the proper functioning of both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid dioxygenase. Changes in the concentration of KP metabolites and in enzymatic activity have been found in many pathological states. Therefore, it is justifiable to regulate the concentration of certain kynurenines or enzymes in the KP which may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various health impairments. This review demonstrates the role of vitamin and mineral activity on the KP, which may have an effect on the proper functioning

  18. Role of vitamins and minerals in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lígia A; Catania, Antonela S; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2010-06-01

    Vitamins and minerals play an important role in glucose metabolism, so understanding the impact of vitamin and mineral deficiencies and the potential utility of supplementation is relevant to the prevention and/or management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This review investigates current evidence for relationships between selected nutrients - vitamin B complex, antioxidants (vitamin A, C, E and carotenoids), calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium, sodium, and potassium - and glucose metabolism. The investigation reveals current evidence is not strong enough for supplementation with minerals and vitamins to be recommended on a large scale for the prevention or management of DM. In order to prevent deficiencies and maintain health, the majority of diabetic individuals should receive daily vitamins and minerals within the ranges of recommended values from consumption of natural food sources and/or fortified foods. Further studies including large samples and longer follow-up periods are necessary to ascertain the benefits of mineral and vitamin supplementation to subsets of individuals who are at increased risk for DM or its complications.

  19. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  20. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the developed world and their effect on the eye and vision.

    PubMed

    Whatham, Andrew; Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank; Blumenthal, Caron; Allen, Jane; Suttle, Catherine; Gaskin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common in developing countries, but also occur in developed countries. We review micronutrient deficiencies for the major vitamins A, cobalamin (B(12)), biotin (vitamin H), vitamins C and E, as well as the minerals iron, and zinc, in the developed world, in terms of their relationship to systemic health and any resulting ocular disease and/or visual dysfunction. A knowledge of these effects is important as individuals with consequent poor ocular health and reduced visual function may present for ophthalmic care.

  1. [Effect of vitamin D on bone mineral density; bone strength and fracture prevention].

    PubMed

    Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Atsushi

    2006-07-01

    Although vitamin D improves bone mineral density 0.66% per year at spine site and 1.23% per year at femoral neck site, respectively, vitamin D is useful for preventing osteoporotic fractures, especially hip fractures in the elderly. Vitamin D affects microstructure and bone turnover for osteoporotic bone to become strong bone. And vitamin D improves muscle function to prevent falls in the elderly. Moreover the appropriate amount and treatment target of vitamin D must be considered for the elderly with many different diseases.

  2. Webinar Presentation: Vitamins, Minerals and Metals: Do Healthy Diets Counteract Health Effects of Toxicants?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Vitamins, Minerals and Metals: Do Healthy Diets Counteract Health Effects of Toxicants?, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  3. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of taking vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent ... of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer Potential Benefits and Harms of Taking Multivitamins to Prevent CVD or Cancer ...

  4. Vitamin K deficiency inhibits mineralization and enhances deformity in vertebrae of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.).

    PubMed

    Roy, Prabir K; Lall, Santosh P

    2007-10-01

    Vitamin K has been known to regulate bone formation through osteocalcin synthesis by osteoblasts, which is important for mineralization and bone structure. The mechanism underlying the relationship of vitamin K with the changes of microanatomy is not fully understood, and our goal is to test whether bone deformities develop in association with vitamin K deficiency. Fish were fed a semi-purified diet containing either devoid (0.00 mg/kg diet) or adequate (40.0 mg/kg diet supplemented but 20.8 mg/kg analyzed) levels of vitamin K (menadione sodium bisulphite) for 20 weeks. At the end of 8 and 20 weeks, fish were subjected to gross examination and X-ray, and mineral content of the vertebrae was measured. The vertebrae were also subjected to histological, histomorphometric and enzyme histochemical examinations to determine the bone formation and resorption. Vitamin K deficiency primarily decreased bone mineralization and subsequently a decrease in bone mass thus resulted in an increased susceptibility to bone deformity. The occurrence of bone deformities coincided with an increased amount of osteoid tissue and decreased bone mineral content. Number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were not affected by dietary vitamin K. In conclusion, vitamin K deficiency can impair bone mineralization and enhances bone deformities.

  5. Use of vitamin-mineral supplements by AFDC children.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, T R; Smith, M C

    1985-01-01

    Slightly more than 11 percent of the 1,616 children in Northern Mississippi households receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children regularly used vitamins, according to the 540 personal interviews conducted in this study. Of the vitamins used, about 20 percent were obtained by prescription. Participation in Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) was found not to be related to vitamin use. The pharmacy was the main source of vitamins, which most frequently were those widely advertised on television. It is suggested that pharmacists, physicians, and EPSDT personnel might take a more active role in nutrition counseling. The population is poor by definition and rural by study design. In the face of these facts, it was interesting to find that the most often used vitamin was Flintstones, one of the more expensive brands of children's vitamins. Some other vitamin products used, in descending order of frequency were One-A-Day vitamins, generic prenatal vitamins, and Neo-Vadrin with Iron. Data on shopping behavior and sources of products indicate that the population may not be making the best use of products or funds. Informal counseling by pharmacists at the point of sale has the potential to reduce these problems. PMID:3923541

  6. Folic acid fortification: why not vitamin B12 also?

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid fortification of cereal grains was introduced in many countries to prevent neural tube defect occurrence. The metabolism of folic acid and vitamin B12 intersect during the transfer of the methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine catalyzed by B12-dependent methioine synthase. Regeneration of tetrahydrofolate via this reaction makes it available for synthesis of nucleotide precursors. Thus either folate or vitamin B12 deficiency can result in impaired cell division and anemia. Exposure to extra folic acid through fortification may be detrimental to those with vitamin B12 deficiency. Among participants of National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate (>59 nmol/L) was associated with higher prevalence of anemia and cognitive impairment when compared with normal serum folate. We also observed an increase in the plasma concentrations of total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), two functional indicators of vitamin B12 status, with increase in plasma folate under low vitamin B12 status. These data strongly imply that high plasma folate is associated with the exacerbation of both the biochemical and clinical status of vitamin B12 deficiency. Hence any food fortification policy that includes folic acid should also include vitamin B12.

  7. Commercial squids: characterization, assessment of potential health benefits/risks and discrimination based on mineral, lipid and vitamin E concentrations.

    PubMed

    Torrinha, A; Gomes, F; Oliveira, M; Cruz, R; Mendes, E; Delerue-Matos, C; Casal, S; Morais, S

    2014-05-01

    The most consumed squid species worldwide were characterized regarding their concentrations of minerals, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamin E. Interspecific comparisons were assessed among species and geographical origin. The health benefits derived from squid consumption were assessed based on daily minerals intake and on nutritional lipid quality indexes. Squids contribute significantly to daily intake of several macro (Na, K, Mg and P) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn and Ni). Despite their low fat concentration, they are rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentanoic (EPA) acids, with highly favorable ω-3/ω-6 ratios (from 5.7 to 17.7), reducing the significance of their high cholesterol concentration (140-549 mg/100g ww). Assessment of potential health risks based on minerals intake, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks indicated that Loligo gahi (from Atlantic Ocean), Loligo opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) and Loligo duvaucelii (from Indic Ocean) should be eaten with moderation due to the high concentrations of Cu and/or Cd. Canonical discriminant analysis identified the major fatty acids (C14:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:3ω-3, C20:4ω-6 and C22:5ω-6), P, K, Cu and vitamin E as chemical discriminators for the selected species. These elements and compounds exhibited the potential to prove authenticity of the commercially relevant squid species.

  8. Corticosteroid use and bone mineral accretion in children with asthma: effect modification by vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Sze Man; Kelly, H. William; Litonjua, Augusto; Van Natta, Mark L.; Weiss, Scott T.; Tantisira, Kelan

    2012-01-01

    Background The adverse effects of corticosteroids on bone mineral accretion (BMA) have been well documented. Vitamin D insufficiency, a prevalent condition in the pediatric population, has also been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Objective To determine whether children with asthma who have lower vitamin D levels are more susceptible to the negative effects of corticosteroids on BMD over time. Methods Children aged 5–12 years with mild-to-moderate asthma who participated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program were followed for a mean of 4.3 years. Total doses of inhaled and oral corticosteroids (OCS) were recorded, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured at the beginning of the trial and serial DEXA scans of the lumbar spine were performed. Annual BMA rates were defined as: [(BMD at 4 years follow-up − BMD at baseline)/4 years]. Results BMA was calculated for 780 subjects. In boys, baseline vitamin D levels significantly modified the relationship between OCS and BMA (vitamin D x OCS interaction, p=0.023). Stratification by vitamin D levels showed a decrease in BMA with increased use of OCS in vitamin D insufficient boys only (p<0.001). Compared to vitamin D sufficient boys, vitamin D insufficient boys exposed to more than 2 courses of oral corticosteroids per year had twice the decrease in BMA rate (relative to boys who were OCS-unexposed). Conclusions Vitamin D levels significantly modified the effect of oral corticosteroids on bone mineral accretion in boys. Further research is needed to examine whether vitamin D supplementation in children with poorly controlled asthma may confer benefits to bone health. PMID:22608570

  9. Using a first-derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Ni(II) in mineral vitamins by interaction with 2,4-diamino-5-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylazo)benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt in the presence of Tween 20.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Elham Y; Seleim, Mohamed M; El-Zohry, Ahmed M

    2010-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Fe(II) and Ni(II) in different mineral vitamins. The method is based on the formation of binary complexes of Fe(II) and Ni(II) with 2,4-diamino-5-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylazo) benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Mordant Brown 33) at pH 5.6 with Tween 20. At lambda(max) 512 and 493 nm, the molar absorbtivity was 2.09 x 10(4) and 0.58 x 10(4) L/mol cm for Fe(II) and Ni(II), respectively. Fe(II) can be determined in the range 0.55-2.79 microg/mL in the presence of 2.92 microg/mL Ni, and Ni(II) can be determined in the range 1.17-3.5 microg/mL in the presence of 2.79 microg/mL Fe(II) in the presence of Tween 20 (4%). The detection limits were 9.0 and 15.0 ng/mL for Fe(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The effect of foreign ions was elucidated. The RSD values were, in all instances, less than 1.3%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Ni(II) in different mineral vitamins.

  10. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:26347061

  11. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K; Genuis, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes.

  12. Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements, fortified food and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Brandon, E F A; Bakker, M I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Zuidema, T; Alewijn, M

    2014-06-01

    In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from <1% to 100%. When assessing the dietary intake exposure of vitamins, it is important to take into account both the possible deviation from the declared level and (the variability of) the bioaccessibility of the vitamin in the products.

  13. [Factors influencing on the Silesian University students' decisions concerning purchasing of vitamin and mineral food supplements].

    PubMed

    Spiołek, Katarzyna; Kościołek, Aneta; Kania, Justyna; Hartman, Magdalena; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Correctly composed diet covers the demands of a healthy adult for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Nowadays constant increase of vitamin and mineral supplements of diet intake is observed. Customers have a great choice of diet supplements on Polish market. They are diversified under the quality and quantitative accounts. The main aim of this study was to evaluate main factors of Silesian University students' choice while they are purchasing particular diet supplements. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 208 students at the age of 19 to 24. 99.5% of them admitted that they have supplemented their diets with vitamin and mineral preparations until the moment of the experiment. The results indicate that main factors that influence the students' decisions on purchasing these preparations are: composition of the supplement, price and convenient dosing regimen. Respondents indicate the internet as a main source of information on the supplements being discussed in the following study.

  14. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability.

  15. An elective course on the basic and clinical sciences aspects of vitamins and minerals.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students' knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products.

  16. Vitamin-Mineral Supplementation Habits and Beliefs of Male and Female Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.

    1999-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral supplements were taken by 67% of 88 women and 52% of 88 men surveyed. Reasons included disease prevention and inadequate diet. Women took calcium and iron more frequently. Those who did not take them cited adequate diet and expense. Influence of advertising on supplement use was a concern. (SK)

  17. Design of a beneficial product for newborn calves by combining Lactobacilli, minerals, and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia Cecilia; Silva de Ruiz, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-10-02

    Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases affecting newborn calves in intensive systems. Several strategies were proposed to protect and improve health, such as probiotics. This work was directed to design a product containing freeze-dried bacteria, vitamins, and minerals, as well as to optimize conditions with lyoprotectors, combine strains and add vitamins, minerals, and inulin to the product. The lyoprotectors were milk, milk-whey, and actose, and products were stored for 6 months at 4°C. Combined bacteria were freeze-dried in milk and the final products were added with minerals, vitamins, and insulin. The viable cells were determined by the plate count assay and antibiotic profiles to differentiate strains. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1693, L. murinus CRL1695, L. mucosae CRL1696, L. salivarius CRL1702, L. amylovorus CRL1697, and Enterococcus faecium CRL1703 were evaluated. The optimal conditions were different for each strain. Milk and milk whey maintained the viability during the process and storage after 6 months for most of the strains, except for L. johnsonii. Lactose did not improve cell's recovery. L. murinus was viable for 6 months in all the conditions, with similar results in enterococci. In strains combined before freeze-dried, the viability decreased deeply, showing that one-step process with bacteria mixtures, vitamins, and minerals were not adequate. Freeze-dried resistance depends on each strain and must be lyophilized individually.

  18. Vitamin/Mineral Supplements and Intelligence of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)

  19. 77 FR 59287 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) for Nutrient Vitamins and Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... CFR Part 205 [Document Number AMS-NOP-10-0083; NOP-10-09IR] RIN 0581-AD17 National Organic Program... recommendation submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) by the National Organic Standards Board...) of nutrient vitamins and minerals in organic handling on U.S. Department of Agriculture's...

  20. Oxalic acid mineralization by electrochemical oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Shih, Yu-Jen; Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2011-04-15

    In this study, two electrochemical oxidation processes were utilized to mineralize oxalic acid which was a major intermediate compound in the oxidation of phenols and other aromatic compounds. The anode rod and cathode net were made of a titanium coated with RuO(2)/IrO(2) (Ti-DSA) and stainless steel (S.S. net, SUS304), respectively. First, the Fered-Fenton process, which used H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+) as additive reagents, achieved 85% of TOC removal. It proceeded with ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT), which was evidenced by the accumulation of metallic foil on the selected cathode. However, in the absence of H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+), it showed a higher TOC removal efficiency while using Cl(-) only as an additive reagent due to the formation of hypochlorite on the anode. It was also found that the mineralization of oxalic acid by electrolysis generated hypochlorite better than the dosage of commercial hypochlorite without electricity. Also, pH value was a major factor that affected the mineralization efficiency of the oxalic acid due to the chlorine chemistry. 99% TOC removal could be obtained by Cl(-) electrolysis in an acidic environment.

  1. Vitamin D Status: Current Opinion on Critical Levels for Plasma Calcium and Bone Mineral Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is an unprecedented level of interest regarding the purported wide-ranging beneficial effects of an adequate vitamin D status translating into marked increases in test requests for clinical laboratories. The well characterised endocrine pathway of vitamin D metabolism and action is solely responsible for vitamin D regulating plasma calcium and phosphate homeostasis. A large body of data confirm that vitamin D exerts activities within each of the major bone cells and that these same cells are capable of synthesising the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Such data arising from in vitro studies, animal models and clinical sources are consistent with a paradigm that local metabolism of vitamin D by bone cells to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and its consequent local actions within bone cells exerts an anabolic effect to increase bone mineral status. The data reviewed here provide plausible mechanisms for both catabolic and anabolic actions of vitamin D on bone depending on dietary calcium intake. PMID:27683393

  2. Minerals and vitamins in bone health: the potential value of dietary enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Guéguen, Léon; Palacios, Cristina; Shearer, Martin J; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-06-01

    Nutrition is important to bone health, and a number of minerals and vitamins have been identified as playing a potential role in the prevention of bone diseases, particularly osteoporosis. Despite this, there is currently no consensus on maximum levels to allow in food or as dietary supplements. The benefits of supplementation of populations at risk of osteoporosis with Ca and vitamin D are well established. Prolonged supplementation of Ca and vitamin D in elderly has been shown to prevent bone loss, and in some intervention studies to prevent fragility fractures. Although P is essential to bone health, the average intake is considered to be more than sufficient and supplementation could raise intake to adverse levels. The role of vitamin K in bone health is less well defined, though it may enhance the actions of Ca and vitamin D. Sr administered in pharmacological doses as the ranelate salt was shown to prevent fragility fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, there is no hard evidence that supplementation with Sr salts would be beneficial in the general population. Mg is a nutrient implicated in bone quality, but the benefit of supplementation via foodstuffs remains to be established. A consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health should balance the risks, for example, exposure of vulnerable populations to values close to maximal tolerated doses, against evidence for benefits from randomised clinical trials, such as those for Ca and vitamin D. Feedback from community studies should direct further investigations and help formulate a consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health.

  3. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-06-28

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.

  4. Post-discharge supplementation of vitamins and minerals for preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnola, Alberto; Beghini, Lorenzo

    2009-10-01

    Ninety percent of premature babies has nutritional deficiency at discharge. It is very important that not only carbohydrates, proteins, fats, but also mineral salts, and vitamins are in quantities and adequate quality according to the needs of the various scientific neonatal and nutrition programs so as to avoid any shortcomings or excess. The growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and quality of life depend on, among other factors, an adequate nutritional supply with essential nutrients including minerals. It is now recommended that all infants and children, including adolescents, have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D beginning soon after birth. The standard initial dose of vitamin K1 for full term infants (1.0 mg) may be too high for premature infants. The addition of folate and especially vitamin B-12 with formula feedings, provided an effective and nontoxic means of reducing anemia of prematurity. Several investigators have reported higher plasma concentrations of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in preterm infants fed with selenium-supplemented formula than in infants fed with unsupplemented formula.

  5. What are the risks and benefits to increasing dietary bone minerals and vitamin D intake in infants and small children?

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A

    2011-08-21

    Bone minerals and vitamin D are crucial for infants and small children. Human milk has little vitamin D, and supplemental vitamin D must be given to all infants either via drops or as contained in infant formula or foods. The calcium and phosphorus in human milk are adequate for infants in the first six months of life, with supplemental minerals coming from weaning foods after six months. Long-term benefits to providing bone minerals at greater levels than in human milk have not been shown. There is no evidence to support high-dose bone mineral supplementation or high-dose vitamin D supplementation in infancy, and controlled trials are needed before these can be advocated.

  6. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  7. Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hambridge, K.M.

    1982-11-01

    Despite many major and minor problems with interpretation of analytical data, chemical analyses of human hair have some potential value. Extensive research will be necessary to define this value, including correlation of hair concentrations of specific elements with those in other tissues and metabolic pools and definition of normal physiological concentration ranges. Many factors that may compromise the correct interpretation of analytical data require detailed evaluation for each specific element. Meanwhile, hair analyses are of some value in the comparison of different populations and, for example, in public health community surveys of environmental exposure to heavy metals. On an individual basis, their established usefulness is much more restricted and the limitations are especially notable for evaluation of mineral nutritional status. There is a wide gulf between the limited and mainly tentative scientific justification for their use on an individual basis and the current exploitation of multielement chemical analyses of human hair.

  8. Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K M

    1982-11-01

    Despite many major and minor problems with interpretation of analytical data, chemical analyses of human hair have some potential value. Extensive research will be necessary to define this value, including correlation of hair concentrations of specific elements with those in other tissues and metabolic pools and definition of normal physiological concentration ranges. Many factors that may compromise the correct interpretation of analytical data require detailed evaluation for each specific element. Meanwhile, hair analyses are of some value in the comparison of different populations and, for example, in public health community surveys of environmental exposure to heavy metals. On an individual basis, their established usefulness is much more restricted and the limitations are especially notable for evaluation of mineral nutritional status. There is a wide gulf between the limited and mainly tentative scientific justification for their use on an individual basis and the current exploitation of multielement chemical analyses of human hair.

  9. [Determinants of food consumption enriched in vitamins and minerals--selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielińska, Ewa; Laskowski, Wacław

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to estimate to what extent the selected socio-cognitive variable, and subjective variables concerning the health status and the way of nutrition determine consumers' behaviours on the market of food enriched in vitamins and minerals. The survey was conducted in September 2008 within the group of 1005 consumers. The data were collected via Centre of Public Opinions Research (TNO OOP) within the representative group of Polish inhabitants aged over 15 years. The questionnaire was developed by the authors of this study. It includes closed-end questions concerning familiarity with food enriched in vitamins and minerals, frequency of eating it, and selected opinions on this food The level of consumers" innovativeness was also assessed. All variables, except of subjective variable concerning health status, significantly correlated with the familiarity and the frequency of eating enriched food and with the declared intention to eat it next 3 months. The strongest correlations were indicated between beliefs on health value, benefits and variables describing consumers' behaviours. There were observed stronger correlations between socio-cognitive and subjective variables concerning the way of nutrition in the case of the declared intention to eat compared to the familiarity and frequency of eating food enriched in vitamins and minerals.

  10. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. For example, if you don't get enough vitamin C, you could become anemic. Some vitamins may help prevent medical problems. Vitamin A prevents night blindness. The best way to get ...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Güttler, Norbert; Zheleva, Kirila; Parahuleva, Mariana; Chasan, Ridvan; Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Burgazli, Mehmet; Niemann, Bernd; Erdogan, Ali; Böning, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23346457

  12. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.; Smith, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Ingestion of megadoses of certain vitamins appears to influence the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride in guinea pigs. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with folic acid resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels were significantly increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver (B{sub 12} only and B{sub 12}/folic acid) and brain (B{sub 12}/vitamin C). Incorporation of high levels of folic acid into the dietary regime also increased the methylmercury concentration particularly in the liver and hair tissues. The addition of vitamin C in the diet, particularly in combination with B{sub 12} (brain) or folic acid (muscle) resulted in increased methylmercury levels in these tissues and percent methylmercury values with B{sub 12} in the muscle and brain tissue.

  13. Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6 g calcium and 6,500 IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2 g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with −51.2 ± 14.7 mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (−2.3 ± 11.8 mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4 nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4 nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

  14. Bone mineral density and vitamin D status in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, F; Speelman, A D; van Nimwegen, M; van der Schouw, Y T; Backx, F J G; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M; Verhaar, H J J

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. Several factors may be involved in the development of bone loss, including malnutrition, immobilization, low body mass index, decreased muscle strength, vitamin D deficiency and medication use. This study investigates the prevalence of osteoporosis and possible risk factors associated with bone loss in early stage PD. In 186 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2.5, mean age 64.1 years, 71 % men) bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with DEXA. T- and Z-scores were calculated. Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that contributed to BMD. 25-OH-vitamin D status of PD patients was compared with 802 controls (mean age 63.3 years, 50 % men) using linear regression analysis. Osteoporosis (11.8 %) and osteopenia (41.4 %) were common in PD patients. Mean Z-score for the hip was 0.24 (SD 0.93), and for the lumbar spine 0.72 (SD 1.91). Female gender, low weight, and low 25-OH-vitamin D were significantly correlated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine. PD patients had lower 25(OH)D serum levels than controls (B = -10, p = 0.000). More than half of the patients with early stage PD had an abnormal BMD. Female gender, low weight, and low vitamin D concentration were associated with bone loss. Furthermore, vitamin D concentrations were reduced in PD patients. These results underscore the importance of proactive screening for bone loss and vitamin D deficiency, even in early stages of PD.

  15. Metabolic interactions between vitamin A and conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Ortiz, Berenice; Giordano, Elena; Belury, Martha A; Quadro, Loredana; Banni, Sebastiano

    2014-03-24

    Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure that is found in low concentrations in ruminant products and available as a nutritional supplement. CLA has been shown to increase tissue levels of retinol (vitamin A alcohol) and its sole specific circulating carrier protein retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4). However, the precise mechanism of this action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge in this specific area of research and speculate that retinol and CLA may compete for catabolic pathways modulated by the activity of PPAR-α and RXR heterodimer. We also present preliminary data that may position PPAR-α at the crossroads between the metabolism of lipids and vitamin A.

  16. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (<50, 50-75, >75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  17. Vitamin-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate nanofiber mats as transdermal and dermal therapeutic agents of vitamin A acid and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Taepaiboon, Pattama; Rungsardthong, Uracha; Supaphol, Pitt

    2007-09-01

    The present contribution reports the use of mats of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA; acetyl content=39.8%; Mw=30,000 Da) nanofibers as carriers for delivery of the model vitamins, all-trans retinoic acid or vitamin A acid (Retin-A) and alpha-tocopherol or vitamin E (Vit-E). The amounts of Vit-E and Retin-A loaded in the base CA solution [17% w/v in 2:1 v/v acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)] were 5 and 0.5 wt% (based on the weight of CA), respectively. Cross-sectionally round and smooth fibers were obtained. The average diameters of these fibers ranged between 247 and 265 nm. The total immersion of the vitamin-loaded as-spun CA fiber mats in the acetate buffer solutions containing either 0.5 vol % Tween 80 or 0.5 vol % Tween 80 and 10 vol % methanol was used to arrive at the cumulative release of the vitamins from the fiber mat samples. The same was also conducted on the vitamin-loaded solution-cast CA films for comparison. In most cases, the vitamin-loaded as-spun fiber mats exhibited a gradual and monotonous increase in the cumulative release of the vitamins over the test periods (i.e., 24 h for Vit-E-loaded samples and 6 h for Retin-A-loaded ones), while the corresponding as-cast films exhibited a burst release of the vitamins.

  18. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids.

  19. Rice fortification: an emerging opportunity to contribute to the elimination of vitamin and mineral deficiency worldwide.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Hall, Jessica; Bagriansky, Jack; Sugimoto, Jonathan; Gundry, Daniel; Matthias, Dipika; Prigge, Shane; Hindle, Peter; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Maberly, Glen

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are ranked among the top causes of poor health and disability in the world. These deficiencies damage developing brains, impair learning ability, increase susceptibility to infections, and reduce the work productivity of nations. Food fortification is a sustainable, cost-effective approach to reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. As the staple food for an estimated 3 billion people, rice has the potential to fill an obvious gap in current fortification programs. In recent years, new technologies have produced fortified rice kernels that are efficacious in reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. There are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice that comes from large mills supplying centralized markets and national welfare programs in major rice-growing countries. The rice export markets, which handle 30 million MT of rice annually, also present a key fortification opportunity. The cost of fortifying rice is only 1.5% to 3% of the current retail price of rice. Countries that mandate rice fortification have the strongest evidence for achieving wide coverage and impact. The Rice Fortification Resource Group (RiFoRG), a global network of public and private partners that offers technical and advocacy support for rice fortification, has a vision of promoting rice fortification worldwide. It has a targeted approach, engaging multisector partners in key countries where the opportunities are greatest and there is receptivity to early adoption of large-scale rice fortification. The challenges are real, the imperative to address them is powerful, and the opportunities to deliver the promise of rice fortification are clear.

  20. Influence of glutamic acid enantiomers on C-mineralization.

    PubMed

    Formánek, Pavel; Vranová, Valerie; Lojková, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal dynamics in the mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils from selected ecosystems was determined and subjected to a range of treatments: ambient x elevated CO2 level and meadow x dense x thinned forest environment. Mineralization of glutamic acid was determined by incubation of the soil with 2 mg L- or D-glutamic acid g(-1) of dry soil to induce the maximum respiration rate. Mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils fluctuates over the course of a vegetation season, following a similar trend across a range of ecosystems. Mineralization is affected by environmental changes and management practices, including elevated CO2 level and thinning intensity. L-glutamic acid metabolism is more dependent on soil type as compared to metabolism of its D-enantiomer. The results support the hypothesis that the slower rate of D- compared to L- amino acid mineralization is due to different roles in anabolism and catabolism of the soil microbial community.

  1. Vitamin C supplementation does not modify bone mineral content or mineral absorption in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, A; Denis, I; Colin, C; Lacroix, H

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated that alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis are dose-dependently stimulated by ascorbic acid in differentiated pig osteoblasts. In this study we further examined the relationship between ascorbic acid and bone metabolism by feeding young pigs large amounts of ascorbic acid. Three groups of seven 47-d-old pigs were given no ascorbic acid supplement (control), 500 (500 AA) or 1000 (1000 AA) mg ascorbic acid/kg diet for 4 mo. Calcium and P absorption and retention were evaluated by a 14-d balance trial immediately before killing in control and 1000 AA groups only (n = 6). Bones were collected at death and the bone ash and bending moment (three-point bending test) determined. Various plasma and urine indices of bone metabolism, especially those reflecting collagen degradation (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline) and synthesis (carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen) were monitored. The plasma ascorbic acid concentrations increased with time and paralleled the dietary concentrations (P < 0.01). The Ca and P balances and the bone ash and bending moments in the ascorbic acid-supplemented pigs did not differ from those of the controls. Plasma osteocalcin was elevated (P < 0.05), whereas the other bone formation markers, alkaline phosphatase and carboxy terminal propeptide of type I collagen, were not affected by ascorbic acid. The plasma concentrations of Ca, P and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol did not differ among the three groups. The unaffected urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline and hydroxyproline in the ascorbic acid-supplemented pigs indicates that ascorbic acid does not alter bone resorption. Thus, high intakes of ascorbic acid have no positive influence on bone metabolism and bone characteristics in pigs. The in vivo long-term effects do not correlate with the short-term in vitro effects previously reported.

  2. Effects of vitamin-mineral supplementation on cardiac marker and radical scavenging enzymes, and MDA levels in young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cavas, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

    2004-04-01

    The relationship among the enzyme activities of cardiac markers, the antioxidant defense system, and erythrocyte membrane malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels related to vitamin-mineral supplementation in swim exercise was investigated. Swimmers aged 11 - 13 years were divided into 2 separate groups as control and vitamin-mineral supplemented. Swimmers participated in a monthly swimming program (4 times/wk) and swam approximately 2- 2.5 km/d. Cardiac markers such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK - MB), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT (AST)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in post-training samples were found to be significantly (p<.05) higher than in pre-training samples. Except for GOT (AST), the activity increases in CK, CK-MB, and LDH in female and male supplemented groups were significantly (p<.05) lower than those of control groups during the 1-month period of swim training. Antioxidant enzyme activity increases in the male vitamin-mineral group were significantly (p <.05) higher when compared with the other groups. Post-training MDA levels were significantly (p <.001) higher than pre-training MDA levels in the control groups, whereas no significant (p<.05) differences were found between the vitamin-mineral supplemented groups. Vitamin-mineral supplementation was found to attenuate cardiac and muscle damage markers while also enhancing antioxidant levels and reducing membrane LPO levels in response to 1 month of swim training.

  3. Effects of nutritional supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil on antioxidant status and psychosocial stress in smokers: an open trial.

    PubMed

    Nitta, H; Kinoyama, M; Watanabe, A; Shirao, K; Kihara, H; Arai, M

    2007-12-01

    Nutritional supplement foods containing antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, C22:6n-3), referred to as capsules, were administered to seven smokers every day for 34 days. Concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in serum, activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma and the concentration of 8-isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin F(2) alpha) in the urine showed an increase or a tendency to increase after the end of administration. The frequency of subjects showing poor state of psychological health evidenced by a total score of 8 points or more on the General Health Questionnaire (30-item edition) scale was 42.9%, although there was a significant decrease to 14.3% upon completion of administration of the capsules. These biochemical and psychological changes were mostly returned to the basal level one month after the end of administration of the capsules. The results suggest that administration of antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil to smokers resulted in an increase in antioxidant capacity. Effectiveness in alleviating psychosocial stress likely to be attributable to DHA was also observed.

  4. Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E.

    PubMed

    Segall, A I; Moyano, M A

    2008-12-01

    The stability of ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in topical formulations was investigated by direct reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography after sample dilution with a suitable buffer - organic solvent mixture. Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are derivatives of ascorbic acid which differ in hydrolipophilic properties. They are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl esters showed significant differences: sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.

  5. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  6. Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study

    PubMed Central

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G.; Cuadrado-Soto, Esther; Rubio, Josefa; Marcos, Victoria; Sanchidrián, Rosa; Santos, Sara; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re, Marian Ángeles; Villar, Carmen; Robledo, Teresa; Castrodeza, J. Javier; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population in Spain (ENALIA) provides data to assess the usual micronutrient intake among Spanish infants, children, and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional survey (November 2012–July 2014) of a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents (six months–17 years) (n = 1862). Dietary information was collected using two non-consecutive one-day food diaries (six months–10 years old) or two 24 h dietary recalls (11 years and older) separated by at least 14 days. Estimates were calculated using the Iowa State University method and PC-SIDE software (version 1.0, department of statistics, center for agricultural and rural development, Ames, IA, USA) to account for within- and between-person variation. Results: Usual intake of vitamin D was insufficient in practically all individuals. Vitamin E, folate, and calcium were insufficient, especially from nine years of age, and magnesium and iodine from 14 years of age. The percentage of subjects with insufficient intakes was higher among females. Sodium intake was excessive in a considerable percentage of the population, especially in males, and it increased with age. Finally, over half of children under four years of age had zinc usual intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Level. Conclusion: Vitamin and mineral intake in Spain should be improved, especially in late childhood and adolescence. Nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies in Spanish children and adolescents. PMID:28208814

  7. Variability of vitamins B1, B2 and minerals content in baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves in East and West Africa.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, Traoré; Charles, Parkouda; Adama, Korbo; Diarra, Compaoré-Sérémé; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Svejgaard, Jan J; Diawara, Bréhima

    2015-01-01

    The regional variability and age-age correlation on vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn) concentration in baobab leaves were investigated. Baobab was cultivated from seeds from 11 countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania, Togo, Senegal, and Sudan. Vitamins B1 and B2 content were assessed using microbiological VitaFast kits methods and minerals by atomic absorption and flame spectrometry methods. Overall, the results showed a higher content of vitamin B2 compared to vitamin B1 with the highest vitamin B2 content (1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g DM) from Senegal. The highest iron (Fe) content of 26.39 mg/100 g was found in baobab leaves from Mali. For age-age correlation, adult baobab leaves of Nankoun in Burkina Faso provided the highest calcium (Ca) content of 3373 mg/100 g. However, for provenance trial, young plants from three communities of Burkina Faso showed the highest calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) content. The study demonstrated that vitamins B1 and B2 and mineral contents in baobab leaves vary with the country and the age of the tree. Vitamin B1 content was higher in baobab leaves from ascendants compared to those from descendants, while in contrast vitamin B2 content was higher in the leaves from the descendants compared to their ascendants (mother tree).

  8. Variability of vitamins B1, B2 and minerals content in baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves in East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinthe, Traoré; Charles, Parkouda; Adama, Korbo; Diarra, Compaoré-Sérémé; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Svejgaard, Jan J; Diawara, Bréhima

    2015-01-01

    The regional variability and age–age correlation on vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn) concentration in baobab leaves were investigated. Baobab was cultivated from seeds from 11 countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania, Togo, Senegal, and Sudan. Vitamins B1 and B2 content were assessed using microbiological VitaFast kits methods and minerals by atomic absorption and flame spectrometry methods. Overall, the results showed a higher content of vitamin B2 compared to vitamin B1 with the highest vitamin B2 content (1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g DM) from Senegal. The highest iron (Fe) content of 26.39 mg/100 g was found in baobab leaves from Mali. For age–age correlation, adult baobab leaves of Nankoun in Burkina Faso provided the highest calcium (Ca) content of 3373 mg/100 g. However, for provenance trial, young plants from three communities of Burkina Faso showed the highest calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) content. The study demonstrated that vitamins B1 and B2 and mineral contents in baobab leaves vary with the country and the age of the tree. Vitamin B1 content was higher in baobab leaves from ascendants compared to those from descendants, while in contrast vitamin B2 content was higher in the leaves from the descendants compared to their ascendants (mother tree). PMID:25649547

  9. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... rich in vitamin B? whole grains, such as wheat and oats fish and seafood poultry and meats ... rich in vitamin E? whole grains, such as wheat and oats wheat germ leafy green vegetables vegetable ...

  10. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (<400 IU/d) of vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  11. [Labeling of vitamin and mineral supplements: a revision of the federal normative regulations].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Patricia Borges; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, there is a steadily increasing offer and demand for products on the basis of vitamins and minerals. According to Brazilian law, the differences in the dosages offered to the consumer in each product are the parameter for its classification as alimentary supplement or medicament. The limit between these two concepts, however, is confusing and lacks clearness. Considering the risk posed by imprudent consumption of such products and seeking to facilitate the interpretation and consolidation of the norms dealing with vitamin and mineral products as well as to create the basis for a master's degree dissertation, a bibliographical survey and evaluation of the entire juridical basis regarding the labeling of these products was conducted. It was concluded that the normative regulations are extensive, complex and of difficult understanding, with a great number of norms dealing with the same subject issued by different authorities. These norms are not consolidated leading to difficult interpretation by retailers, health professionals and consumers and even to failures in the application of these norms by the control authorities. Suggestions are made for helping to correct the failures identified in the study.

  12. Vitamin D status and bone mineral density changes during alendronate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Roux, Christian; Binkley, Neil; Boonen, Steven; Kiel, Douglas P; Ralston, Stuart H; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Regnister, Jean-Yves; Pong, Annpey; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Santora, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for women with osteoporosis. In the FOCUS-D trial comparing the combination tablet alendronate plus vitamin D3 5,600 IU (ALN/D) with standard care (SC) prescribed by patients' personal physicians, ALN/D was more effective in improving serum 25(OH)D and bone turnover markers by 6 months and increasing spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) after 1 year than SC. This post hoc analysis examined the relationship between BMD gain and 25(OH)D in women in SC receiving alendronate (SC/ALN, n = 134, 52% of the SC group) and in the ALN/D group (n = 257). At baseline, participants were of mean age 73 years and 72% were Caucasian, with a mean 25(OH)D of 14.9 ng/mL. In the SC/ALN group, most received vitamin D, although intake of vitamin D varied extensively (51% received <400 μg/day). In this group, end-of-study 25(OH)D correlated positively with mean percent increases from baseline in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD [Pearson correlation coefficients (95% CI) = 0.23 (0.02-0.41) and 0.24 (0.03-0.41), respectively]. Baseline 25(OH)D correlated with increases in only lumbar spine BMD [Pearson correlation coefficient (95% CI) = 0.22 (0.01-0.40)]. No correlations between mean BMD change and 25(OH)D were seen with ALN/D. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and low 25(OH)D receiving alendronate and a wide range of vitamin D doses, the increase in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D achieved by the end of the study and, to some extent, with 25(OH)D concentrations at baseline. The degree of success of alendronate therapy for osteoporosis may depend on the vitamin D status of patients.

  13. Deletion of supplemental minerals and vitamins during the late finishing period does not affect pig weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J

    2000-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of eliminating the supplemental vitamin and minerals during the last 30 d of finishing on pig performance. The first study was conducted in a controlled university environment and the second under field conditions. Deletion of vitamin and mineral supplements for the last 30 d of finishing had no effects on pig performance or general health of pigs in either the university or the field trial. Besides lowering feed costs, deletion of dietary supplements may reduce the environmental impact of late finishing diets.

  14. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical formulation containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in a large series of patients with dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gatell-Tortajada, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the benefits and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on omega-3 fatty acids to relieve dry eye symptoms. Methods A total of 1,419 patients (74.3% women, mean age 58.9 years) with dry eye syndrome using artificial tears participated in a 12-week prospective study. Patients were instructed to take 3 capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g). Study variables were dry eye symptoms (scratchy and stinging sensation, eye redness, grittiness, painful and tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time (TBUT), Schrimer I test, and Oxford grading scheme. Results At 12 weeks, each dry eye symptom improved significantly (P<0.001), and the use of artificial tears decreased significantly from 3.77 (standard deviation [SD] =2.08) at baseline to 3.45 (SD =1.72) (P<0.01). In addition, the Schirmer test scores and the TBUT increased significantly, and there was an increase in patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease of those grading IV–V. Significant differences in improvements of dry eye symptoms were also found in compliant versus noncompliant patients as well as in those with moderate/severe versus none/mild conjunctival hyperemia. Conclusion Oral ω-3 fatty acids supplementation was an effective treatment for dry eye symptoms. PMID:27279739

  15. Vitamin MK-7 enhances vitamin D3-induced osteogenesis in hMSCs: modulation of key effectors in mineralization and vascularization.

    PubMed

    Gigante, A; Brugè, F; Cecconi, S; Manzotti, S; Littarru, G P; Tiano, L

    2015-06-01

    The osteoblast is the bone-forming cell and is derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Osteo-inductive substances could represent a useful therapeutic approach during the fracture repair process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vitamin MK-7, alone or in association with vitamin D3, in differentiating human MSCs (hMSCs) in vitro along the osteoblastic lineage. In particular, primary endpoints of the study include gene and protein markers of osteoblast differentiation. Considering genes involved in bone formation and mineralization, our data show that vitamin MK-7 enhances vitamin D3 gene induction of osteocalcin (OC). Among genes related to cell growth and differentiation, a specific effect of vitamin MK-7 was observed for growth differentiation factor-10 (GDF10) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), the latter being also involved in the induction of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFA). Accordingly, vitamin co-supplementation greatly affected VEGFA and its receptor fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1), a key factor in both angiogenic and osteogenic processes. These results stress the relevance of MK-7 and D3 co-supplementation in the bone-healing process as able to modulate the expression of genes involved in both mineralization and angiogenesis. Moreover, at the protein level co-association of vitamins might provide an optimal balance between induction and carboxylation of osteocalcin, essential for its functionality in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Our results may provide hints for therapeutic application of hMSCs in bone disease, clarifying mechanisms involved in stem cell-mediated bone development, and they also highlight the relevance of co-supplementation strategies, since single supplementations might result in a suboptimal effect.

  16. A systematic review on the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and other supplements for the treatment of cachexia in cancer: a European Palliative Care Research Centre cachexia project.

    PubMed

    Mochamat; Cuhls, Henning; Marinova, Milka; Kaasa, Stein; Stieber, Christiane; Conrad, Rupert; Radbruch, Lukas; Mücke, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We provide a systematic review to support the European Palliative Care Research Collaboration development of clinical guidelines for cancer patients suffering from cachexia. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals have been searched up until 15 April 2016. The systematic literature research yielded 4214 publications with 21 of these included in the final evaluation. Regarding minerals, our search identified only one study examining the use of magnesium with no effect on weight loss. As far as vitamins are concerned, vitamin E in combination with omega-3 fatty acids displayed an effect on survival in a single study, vitamin D showed improvement of muscle weakness in prostate cancer patients, and vitamin C supplementation led to an improvement of various quality of life aspects in a sample with a variety of cancer diagnoses. For proteins, a combination therapy of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine showed an increase in lean body mass after 4 weeks in a study of advanced solid tumour patients, whereas the same combination did not show a benefit on lean body mass in a large sample of advanced lung and other cancer patients after 8 weeks. L-carnitine led to an increase of body mass index and an increase in overall survival in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Adverse effects of food supplementation were rare and showed mild intensity. There is not enough solid evidence for the use of minerals, vitamins, proteins, or other supplements in cancer. No serious adverse effects have been reported with dietary supplementation.

  17. A systematic review on the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and other supplements for the treatment of cachexia in cancer: a European Palliative Care Research Centre cachexia project

    PubMed Central

    Mochamat; Cuhls, Henning; Marinova, Milka; Kaasa, Stein; Stieber, Christiane; Conrad, Rupert; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide a systematic review to support the European Palliative Care Research Collaboration development of clinical guidelines for cancer patients suffering from cachexia. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals have been searched up until 15 April 2016. The systematic literature research yielded 4214 publications with 21 of these included in the final evaluation. Regarding minerals, our search identified only one study examining the use of magnesium with no effect on weight loss. As far as vitamins are concerned, vitamin E in combination with omega‐3 fatty acids displayed an effect on survival in a single study, vitamin D showed improvement of muscle weakness in prostate cancer patients, and vitamin C supplementation led to an improvement of various quality of life aspects in a sample with a variety of cancer diagnoses. For proteins, a combination therapy of β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine showed an increase in lean body mass after 4 weeks in a study of advanced solid tumour patients, whereas the same combination did not show a benefit on lean body mass in a large sample of advanced lung and other cancer patients after 8 weeks. L‐carnitine led to an increase of body mass index and an increase in overall survival in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Adverse effects of food supplementation were rare and showed mild intensity. There is not enough solid evidence for the use of minerals, vitamins, proteins, or other supplements in cancer. No serious adverse effects have been reported with dietary supplementation. PMID:27897391

  18. Vitamin E supplementation modulates the biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in naturally aged rats.

    PubMed

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Kottekkat, Anagha; Mathew, Shaji E; Illam, Soorya P; Suseela, Indu M; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are well-known class of nutraceuticals with established health benefits. Recently, the oxidation products of these fatty acids are gaining attention, as they are likely to disturb body redox balance. Therefore, the efficacy of omega-3 fats under conditions of diminished antioxidant status, such as aging, is always a concern. Present study assessed the effects of omega-3 fats (DHA and EPA) together with or without vitamin-E in naturally aged rats. It was found that in omega-3 fats alone consumed rats the lipid profile was improved, while in omega-3 fat with vitamin-E-consumed group (OMVE), the hepato protective and antioxidant properties were pronounced, especially the redox status of brain tissue. It is possible that vitamin-E might have reduced the peroxidation of omega-3 fats, thereby allowing their synergistic effects. Hence, the use of vitamin-E along with omega-3 fat may be beneficial under aged conditions.

  19. [The role of vitamin D3 in the regulation of the mineral metabolism in experimental type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Labudzynskyi, D O; Lisakovska, O A; Shymanskyy, I A; Riasnyi, V M; Veliky, N N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes was shown to be associated with a considerable lowering of 25(OH)D3 in blood serum of mice. Vitamin D3 deficiency was correlated with impaired mineral metabolism in bone tissue, indicating the development of secondary osteoporosis. A decrease in weight, length and diameter (diaphysis, proximal metaepiphysis) of tibia in diabetic animals was observed as compared with control. Diabetes caused hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and increased enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its isoenzymes in serum. This changes were accompanied by the impairments of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase isoforms (CYP27A1 and CYP2R1) expression, which are the main enzymes of cholecalciferol biotransformation to 25(OH)D3 - precursor of hormonally active form of vitamin D3. A decrease in bone resorption processes was established after vitamin D3 administration as it is evident from normalization of bone morphometrical parameters and mineral metabolism in diabetic mice. Vitamin D3 ability to counter diabetes-induced alterations in bone tissue can be ascribed, at least in part, to its positive effects on the formation of vitamin D3 hormonally active forms.

  20. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  1. Staple crops biofortified with increased vitamins and minerals: considerations for a public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Giyose, Boitshepo

    2017-02-01

    Biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a strategy to address micronutrient malnutrition, particularly with respect to insufficient intake of vitamin A, iron, zinc, and folate. The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science at the New York Academy of Sciences, convened a technical consultation entitled "Staple Crops Biofortified with Vitamins and Minerals: Considerations for a Public Health Strategy" in April 2016. Participants of the consultation reviewed the definition of biofortification of staple crops, patterns of crops production, processing, consumption, seed varieties, and micronutrient stability and bioavailability, as well as farmers' adoption and acceptability of the modified crops. Also discussed were economic, environmental, safety, and equity aspects of biofortified crops, as well as legal, policy, regulatory, and ethical issues for the implementation of biofortification strategies in agriculture and nutrition. Consultation working groups identified important and emerging technical issues, lessons learned, and research priorities to better support the evidence of improved nutrition and unintended adverse effects of biofortification. This paper provides the background and rationale of the technical consultation, synopsizes the presentations, and provides a summary of the main considerations proposed by the working groups.

  2. Vitamin and mineral supplementation effect on muscular activity and cycling efficiency in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Louis, Julien; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, François; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2010-06-01

    The influence of vitamin and mineral complex supplementation on muscular activity and cycling efficiency was examined in elderly endurance-trained master athletes during a heavy cycling trial. Master athletes were randomly assigned in a double-blind process to 1 of 2 treatment groups: antioxidant supplementation (n = 8: As group) or placebo (n = 8: Pl group) for 21 days. After that time, each subject had to perform a 10-min session of cycling on a cycloergometer at a heavy constant intensity. Twenty-four to 48 h after this session, subjects performed an isometric maximal voluntary contraction before and immediately after a fatiguing strength training (leg press exercise) and the same 10-min cycling test after fatigue. Isometric maximal voluntary force (MVF) of knee extensors was assessed before and after fatigue. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis, the vastus lateralis (VL), and the biceps femoris was recorded with surface EMG. The knee-extensors MVF after the fatiguing exercise was reduced in similar proportions for both groups (As, -10.9%; Pl, -11.3%, p < 0.05). This MVF loss was associated with a significant reduction in EMG frequency parameters for both groups, with a lower decrease for the As group. Muscular activity and cycling efficiency during the cycling bouts were affected by the treatment. Cycling efficiency decreased significantly and the oxygen uptake slow component was higher after the fatiguing exercise for both groups. Furthermore, a decrease in cycling efficiency was associated with an increase in VL activity. However, these changes were significantly lower for the As group. The results of the present study indicate an overall positive effect of vitamin and mineral complex supplementation on cycling efficiency after fatigue, in the endurance-trained elderly.

  3. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheat and oats wheat germ leafy green vegetables vegetable oils like sunflower, canola, and olive egg yolks nuts ... foods are rich in vitamin K? leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this vitamin and the ...

  4. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation for three years in postmenopausal osteoporosis significantly alters bone mineral and organic matrix quality.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, E P; Gamsjaeger, S; Hassler, N; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Stepan, J J; Pavo, I; Eriksen, E F; Klaushofer, K

    2017-02-01

    Prospective, controlled clinical trials in postmenopausal osteoporosis typically compare effects of an active drug with placebo in addition to vitamin D and calcium supplementation in both treatment arms. While clinical benefits are documented, the effect of this supplementation in the placebo arm and in clinical practice on bone material composition properties is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate these bone quality indices (specifically mineral/matrix, nanoporosity, glycosaminoglycan content, mineral maturity/crystallinity, and pyridinoline content) in patients that either received long-term vitamin D (400-1200IU) and calcium (1.0-1.5g) supplementation, or did not. We have analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy the bone forming trabecular surfaces of iliac crest in pre-treatment samples of a teriparatide study and the endpoint biopsies of the control arm obtained from the HORIZON trial. In general, the mineral/matrix ratio and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was higher while nanoporosity, (a surrogate for tissue water content), the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC) and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content was lower in patients without long-term supplementation. Moreover, all indices were significantly dependent on tissue age. In conclusion, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is associated with altered mineral and organic matrix properties.

  5. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  6. In ovo feeding with minerals and vitamin D3 improves bone properties in hatchlings and mature broilers.

    PubMed

    Yair, R; Shahar, R; Uni, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo feeding (IOF) with inorganic minerals or organic minerals and vitamin D3 on bone properties and mineral consumption. Eggs were incubated and divided into 4 groups: IOF with organic minerals, phosphate, and vitamin D3 (IOF-OMD); IOF with inorganic minerals and phosphate (IOF-IM); sham; and non-treated controls (NTC). IOF was performed on embryonic day (E) 17; tibiae and yolk samples were taken on E19 and E21. Post-hatch, only chicks from the IOF-OMD, sham, and NTC were raised, and tibiae were taken on d 10 and 38. Yolk mineral content was examined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Tibiae were tested for their whole-bone mechanical properties, and mid-diaphysis bone sections were indented in a micro-indenter to determine bone material stiffness (Young's modulus). Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to examine cortical and trabecular bone structure. Ash content analysis was used to examine bone mineralization. A latency-to-lie (LTL) test was used to measure standing ability of the d 38 broilers. The results showed that embryos from both IOF-OMD and IOF-IM treatments had elevated Cu, Mn, and Zn amounts in the yolk on E19 and E21 and consumed more of these minerals (between E19 and E21) in comparison to the sham and NTC. On E21, these hatchlings had higher whole-bone stiffness in comparison to the NTC. On d 38, the IOF-OMD had higher ash content, elevated whole-bone stiffness, and elevated Young's modulus (in males) in comparison to the sham and NTC; however, no differences in standing ability were found. Very few structural differences were seen during the whole experiment. This study demonstrates that mineral supplementation by in ovo feeding is sufficient to induce higher mineral consumption from the yolk, regardless of its chemical form or the presence of vitamin D3. Additionally, IOF with organic minerals and vitamin D3 can increase bone ash content, as well as stiffness of the whole

  7. Reactivity of clay minerals with acids and alkalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.; Starkey, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    One-g samples of a montmorillonite, a metabentonite, an illite, two kaolinites, and three halloysites were treated with 50 ml of hydrochloric acid (6??45 N, 1:1), acetic acid (4??5 N, 1:3), sodium hydroxide (2??8 N), sodium chloride solution (pH 6??10; Na = 35???; Cl = 21??5???), and natural sea water (pH 7??85; Na = 35??5???; Cl = 21??5???) for a 10-day period in stoppered plastic vials. The supernatant solutions were removed from the clay minerals and analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and K2O. All the solutions removed some SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 from the samples, but the quantities were small. Sodium hydroxide attacked the kaolin group minerals more strongly than it did montmorillonite, metabentonite, or illite. Halloysite was more strongly attacked by hydrochloric acid than was any of the other experimental minerals. Hydrochloric acid removed iron oxide coatings from soil clay minerals, but acetic acid did not remove them completely. The samples most strongly attacked by HCl and NaOH were examined by X-ray diffraction. Acid treatment did not destroy the structure of the clays, but the halloysite structure was partially destroyed. Sodium hydroxide attacked the halloysite structure, as shown by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. These experiments show that treatment in dilute acids has no harmful effect in the preparation of clays for X-ray diffraction. Acetic acid is preferred to hydrochloric acid for this purpose. Hydrochloric acid cleans clay minerals by removing free iron oxide from the surface; acetic acid is less effective. ?? 1971.

  8. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed.

  9. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25057538 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  10. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25057538 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  11. Low bone mineral density and vitamin d deficiency correlated with genetics and other bone markers in female Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tastan, Yasemin; Kann, Peter Herbert; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Hadji, Peyman; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Lange, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Patients with osteoporosis have a low bone mass resulting in an increased risk for bone fractures, morbidity and mortality. One hundred thirty-one female pre-menopausal participants (98 Turkish immigrants living in Germany in comparison with 33 age-matched healthy Germans) were recruited for this study which explored vitamin D deficiency and specific genetic modifications of bone metabolism. The subjects were investigated for their femoral and lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the right total femur and the lumbar spine. Serum levels of osteologic parameters were determined: parathormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), phosphate (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), beta-crossLaps (CL), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), and 25-vitamin D3 (25-OH D3). The Bsml- and Fokl-polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1)-gene polymorphism were also genotyped. An extremely high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency could be found in the immigrant cohort (87.8 %). Osteoporosis but not osteopenia was more prevalent in this group. Among immigrants with osteoporosis, TRAP5b was elevated in 42.9 % and beta-CL in 28.6 %. Only the Fokl FF-genotype of the VDR polymorphism was significantly more prevalent among the Turkish women, Ff-genotyped immigrants showed significantly decreased BMD. A significant correlation between the COLIA1-gene polymorphism and BMD could not be identified in the two groups. Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis appear to be dominant and unrecognized problem among female Turkish immigrants in Germany. Therefore, in this population, osteologic parameters and BMD should be routinely analyzed and deficiencies be treated immediately.

  12. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ(2) = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ(2) = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  13. Hydrothermal Mineral-Assisted Organic Transformations of Carboxylic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Gould, I.; Williams, L. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our research is to probe the varieties of reactions possible in a hydrothermal system in which both organic compounds and minerals interact. We performed experiments at physical conditions representative of deep-sea and subsurface systems (300°C and 1000 bar) and analyzed the effect of the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) in systems with carboxylic acids, either phenylacetic acid or hydrocinnamic acid (a.k.a., phenylpropanoic acid). Control experiments were also conducted with the same organic compounds in the absence of magnetite. Whereas previous studies of carboxylic acid reactivity with minerals have focused exclusively on simple molecules such as acetic acid and valeric acid (Bell et al. 1994; McCollom et al. 2003), the carboxylic acids used in our study differ from previous experimental compounds by the addition of a phenyl ring, which allows for the investigation of the specific mechanistic pathways of product formation. Decarboxylation (i.e., RCO2H → RH + CO2) is one of the major reaction pathways for carboxylic acids in hydrothermal conditions without minerals. Under our experimental conditions, decarboxylation leads to the ~80% conversion of phenylacetic acid into toluene within ~50 hours and the ~8% conversion of hydrocinnamic acid to ethyl benzene within ~190 hours. We found that magnetite had a different effect on the two organic compounds studied. In experiments with phenylacetic acid, the presence of magnetite did not enhance the rate of toluene production from decarboxylation but did activate additional product pathways that include diphenyl alkanes, alkenes, and ketones, as well as benzoic acid, a carboxylic acid one carbon length shorter than the parent compound. Magnetite had even more noticeable effects on the hydrocinnamic acid system leading to an increase of its consumption at 190 hours from ~9% in magnetite's absence to ~35% in the mineral's presence. Products of the experiments with magnetite included an enhanced rate of

  14. Survey of the status of copper, interacting minerals, and vitamin E levels in the livers of sheep in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Paula I; Boermans, Herman; Hoff, Brent; Durzi, Tiffany; Langs, Lisa

    2003-11-01

    Livers from cull ewes and market lambs raised in Ontario were obtained to determine the status of specific minerals and vitamin E. Values for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) obtained by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were found to be statistically different but sufficiently biologically similar to allow the use of ICP-AES for screening groups of samples for deficient or toxic levels of those minerals. Toxic levels of cadmium were not found. Toxic levels of aluminum were found in 1 cull ewe and 1 market lamb. A significant proportion of both market lamb samples (40.0%) and cull ewe samples (50.0%) had high to toxic levels of Cu. In market lambs, Fe, Mn, molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), and Zn were not found to be important determinants of Cu level. In cull ewes, Fe, Mn, and Zn play a moderate role in the variability of liver Cu levels. Selenium was found to be present at marginal levels in 3.3% of cull ewe samples and in 42.6% of market lamb samples. Vitamin E was found to be low to deficient in 10.0% of cull ewe samples and in 90.0% of market lamb samples. In market lambs, only Mo was associated with Se levels, and no minerals were associated with vitamin E levels. In cull ewes, there was a strong association between Se and vitamin E. This survey demonstrates that marked nutritional imbalances of Cu, Se, and vitamin E exist in cull ewes and market lambs in Ontario.

  15. Tibial bone mineral distribution as influenced by calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels in the growing turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrell, F. A.; Brenes, J.; Waibel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Roentgen signs, subperiosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone growth are evaluated in turkeys fed phosphorus at the 0.5, 0.56, 0.68, 0.90, and 2.70 percent levels. Calcium levels of 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 1.2, and 3.60 percent were also tested. Vitamin D levels of 0, 100, 300, 900 and 27,000 I.U. per day were likewise evaluated. Roentgen signs, bone mineral as measured by T-125 gamma ray absorption, and bone mineral growth patterns as shown by radiograph area projection are correlated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D feeding levels. Differences in bone growth at the various feeding levels were observed which were not reflected by differences in other studied parameters.

  16. [Efficiency of using vitamin-mineral complexes in the prevention of iron-deficiency states in athletes].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, I P

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of 49 athletes aged 18 to 22 years established that 2-week intake of vitamin-mineral complexes (VMC) caused a significant increase in the concentrations of iron, copper, and magnesium in plasma and blood corpuscles and a rise in the content of hemoglobin, red blood cells, and body vitamin C provision, and exercise performance during the positive balance of the above trace elements (TE), which is indicative of their deficiency in the body in summer. Supplementation of TE to diets showed that increasing the dose of minerals as components of VMC substantially reduced the percentage assimilation of iron, copper, and magnesium as constituents of preparations and increased fecal and urinary ME excretion.

  17. A Case of Low Bone Mineral Density with Vitamin D Deficiency Due to Prolonged Lactation and Severe Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m2. She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized. PMID:25774364

  18. A case of low bone mineral density with vitamin d deficiency due to prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung; Kim, Koon Soon

    2015-02-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m(2). She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized.

  19. Evidence of associations between feto-maternal vitamin D status, cord parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and newborn whole body bone mineral content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose...

  20. Effect of storage and insect infestation on the mineral and vitamin contents of wheat grain and flour.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S; Ozkaya, H

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how storage and Sitophilus granarius L. infestation affects mineral and vitamin (thiamin and riboflavin) contents of wheat grain and flour obtained from the wheat. Wheat samples were infested with nonsexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults per kilogram, and stored for 6 mo at 30 +/- 1 degrees C and 70 +/- 5% relative humidity. Every 30 d, samples of wheat were collected and evaluated for insect population, mineral, thiamin, and riboflavin contents. Flour milled from these wheat samples was also evaluated for mineral, thiamin, and riboflavin contents. None of the analyses performed on the uninfested wheat and flour samples showed any noticeable change during the storage period. The insect population of the infested wheat samples increased during the storage period. The ratio of the mineral contents to dry matter significantly increased in the infested wheat and flour samples during the infestation period, whereas thiamin and riboflavin contents considerably decreased. The feeding habits of S. granarius and the distribution of minerals and vitamins in the wheat grain caused the changes observed in the levels of these compounds. The effects of infestation were greatest in the latter stages, during which the insect population increased greatly.

  1. Vitamin and mineral supplement users. Do they have healthy or unhealthy dietary behaviours?

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    It is unknown whether people use vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to compensate for unhealthy diets, or people whom already have a healthy diet use VMS. Therefore, this study aimed to examine correlates of VMS use and whether VMS users can be categorised into specific clusters based on dietary lifestyle variables. The data used came from the Swiss Food Panel questionnaire for 2010. The sample consisted of 6189 respondents, mean age was 54 years and 47.6% were males. Data was analysed with logistic regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results revealed that for VMS use, gender, age, education, chronic illness, health consciousness, benefits of fortification, convenience food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption were of importance. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters (1) healthy diet, (2) unhealthy diet and (3) modest diet. Compared to non-users a higher percentage of VMS users was categorised in the healthy cluster and a lower percentage in the unhealthy cluster. More VMS-users were categorised as having an unhealthy diet (31.4%) than having a healthy diet (20.6%). The results suggest that both hypotheses-VMS are used by people with unhealthy diets and by people who least need them-hold true meaning.

  2. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  3. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  4. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets.

  5. Modulation of vitamin d status and dietary calcium affects bone mineral density and mineral metabolism in göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6 g calcium and 6,500 IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2 g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with -51.2 ± 14.7 mg/cm(3) in contrast to controls (-2.3 ± 11.8 mg/cm(3)), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4 nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4 nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects.

  6. Effects of Osteoporosis-Inducing Drugs on Vitamin D-Related Gene Transcription and Mineralization in MG-63 and Saos-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wegler, Christine; Wikvall, Kjell; Norlin, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D3 is important for calcium and phosphate homeostasis. To exert its effects, vitamin D3 has to be enzymatically activated into 1,25D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ). Regulation by endogenous vitamin D metabolites of the activation and inactivation of 1,25D3 is important to maintain adequate amounts of active vitamin D3 . Vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density have been linked to treatments with antiretroviral drugs and glucocorticoids. However, the causes of drug-induced osteoporosis remain unclear. The antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and ritonavir as well as the glucocorticoid dexamethasone were included in this study. Their effects on transcription of vitamin D-regulating enzymes in MG-63 cells were investigated. Ritonavir and dexamethasone both induced transcription of CYP27B1, the enzyme responsible for the formation of 1,25D3 . Efavirenz, however, suppressed CYP27B1 expression. When administered together with endogenous vitamin D metabolites, dexamethasone and efavirenz counteracted the 1,25D3 -mediated up-regulation of CYP24A1, which inactivates 1,25D3 . This suggests that the drugs may interfere with local regulation of the vitamin D metabolizing system in osteoblasts. Studies on mineralization were performed in MG-63 cells and Saos-2 cells by measuring calcium concentrations accumulated over time. The effects of efavirenz, ritonavir and dexamethasone and/or vitamin D metabolites were examined. 1,25D3 induced mineralization in both cell lines. Efavirenz administered alone did not affect mineralization but suppressed the inducing effects of 1,25D3 on mineralization in both MG-63 cells and Saos-2 cells. In summary, the results suggest that antiretroviral drugs and glucocorticoids may adversely affect bone by interference with the vitamin D system in osteoblasts.

  7. Bone mineral density reduction in adolescents with systemic erythematosus lupus: association with lack of vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caetano, M; Terreri, M T; Ortiz, T; Pinheiro, M; Souza, F; Sarni, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate body composition and the bone mineral density in female adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Body composition (BC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in an observational cohort study with 35 postmenarcheal adolescent females. The variables studied were as follows: current and cumulative corticosteroid dose, intake of supplements containing calcium and vitamin D, 24-h proteinuria, body mass index (BMI), and height for age (Z-score). BC was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at two time points (median interval of 1.2 years). The fat mass index (FMI = fat mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) and lean mass index (LMI = lean mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) were calculated based on the DXA results. BMD was classified according to the International Society of Clinical Densitometry (low BMD for chronological age < -2.0 standard deviations). .The mean age of the subjects was 15.4 ± 1.8 years. Of patients, 54.3 % were normal weight, 22.8 % were overweight, 22.8 % were obese, and 8.6 % had short stature. Low BMD for chronological age was observed in 42.8 % of patients, and 60 % were not taking vitamin D. There was no significant difference between the two time points with respect to FMI, LMI, or body mass index Z-score (ZBMI); however, BMD has decreased significantly (p = 0.011). There was an association between not taking a vitamin D supplement and decreased BMD (p = 0.027). Almost half of the patients had altered nutritional status. The BMD decrease in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) was associated with the lack of vitamin D supplementation, highlighting the importance of well-defined vitamin D supplementation protocols.

  8. If high folic acid aggravates vitamin B12 deficiency what should be done about it?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2007-10-01

    The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people is malabsorption of food-bound vitamin B12. Thus, it is suggested that the recommended daily allowance of 2.4 microg/d be met primarily with crystalline vitamin B12, which is believed to be well absorbed in individuals who have food-bound malabsorption. There is concern that high intakes of folic acid from fortified food and dietary supplements might mask the macrocytic anemia of vitamin B12 deficiency, thereby eliminating an important diagnostic sign. One recent study indicates that high serum folate levels during vitamin B12 deficiency exacerbate (rather than mask) anemia and worsen cognitive symptoms. Another study suggests that once vitamin B12 deficiency is established in subjects with food-bound malabsorption, 40 microg/d to 80 microg/d of oral crystalline vitamin B12 for 30 d does not reverse the biochemical signs of deficiency. Together, these studies provide further evidence that public health strategies are needed to improve vitamin B12 status in order to decrease the risk of deficiency and any potentially adverse interactions with folic acid.

  9. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  10. The Relationship between 25 (OH) D Levels (Vitamin D) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in a Saudi Population in a Community-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Hussain, Aneela; Gabr, Alia; Alsoghayer, Suad; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2017-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency has reached high levels in the Saudi population, but there is conflicting evidence both in the Saudi population, and worldwide, regarding the existence of a correlation between these low vitamin D levels and reduced BMD (bone mineral density), or osteoporosis. Objective The objective of this study was primarily to determine whether there was a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis in the Saudi population. We aimed to investigate whether the high levels of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency would translate to higher prevalence of osteoporosis, and whether there is a correlation between vitamin D levels and bone mineral density. Materials and methods This was a community based cross sectional study conducted in the Family Medicine Clinics at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic records of 1723 patients were reviewed. Laboratory and radiology results were collected, including vitamin D levels, calcium levels, and bone mineral density scan results. Results Among the whole population, 61.5% had moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency with levels less than 50nmol/L. 9.1% of the population had osteoporosis, and 38.6% had osteopenia. Among the whole population, there was no significant correlation between spine or total femoral BMD and serum 25(OH) D. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the Saudi population. However, no correlation has been found between vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in any age group, in males or females, Saudis or Non-Saudis, in our population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PMID:28046015

  11. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  12. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  13. Relationship between vitamin E requirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review.

    PubMed

    Valk, E E; Hornstra, G

    2000-03-01

    Vitamin E is the general term for all tocopherols and tocotrienols, of which alpha-tocopherol is the natural and biologically most active form. Although gamma-tocopherol makes a significant contribution to the vitamin E CONTENT in foods, it is less effective in animal and human tissues, where alpha-tocopherol is the most effective chain-breaking lipid-soluble antioxidant. The antioxidant function of vitamin E is critical for the prevention of oxidation of tissue PUFA. Animal experiments have shown that increasing the degree of dietary fatty acid unsaturation increases the peroxidizability of the lipids and reduces the time required to develop symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. From these experiments, relative amounts of vitamin E required to protect the various fatty acids from being peroxidized, could be estimated. Since systematic studies on the vitamin E requirement in relation to PUFA consumption have not been performed in man, recommendations for vitamin E intake are based on animal experiments and human food intake data. An intake of 0.6 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents per gram linoleic acid is generally seen as adequate for human adults. The minimum vitamin E requirement at consumption of fatty acids with a higher degree of unsaturation can be calculated by a formula, which takes into account the peroxidizability of unsaturated fatty acids and is based on the results of animal experiments. There are, however, no clear data on the vitamin E requirement of humans consuming the more unsaturated fatty acids as for instance EPA (20:5, n-3) and DHA (22:6, n-3). Studies investigating the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation have shown an increase in lipid peroxidation, although amounts of vitamin E were present that are considered adequate in relation to the calculated oxidative potential of these fatty acids. Furthermore, a calculation of the vitamin E requirement, using recent nutritional intake data, shows that a reduction in total fat intake with a concomitant

  14. The role of amino acids in hydroxyapatite mineralization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are heavily expressed in non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), and are involved in hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization in bone. Here, we review what is known on the effect of single AAs on HA precipitation. Negatively charged AAs, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid (Glu) and phosphoserine are largely expressed in NCPs and play a critical role in controlling HA nucleation and growth. Positively charged ones such as arginine (Arg) or lysine (Lys) are heavily involved in HA nucleation within extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. Glu, Arg and Lys intake can also increase bone mineral density by stimulating growth hormone production. In vitro studies suggest that the role of AAs in controlling HA precipitation is affected by their mobility. While dissolved AAs are able to inhibit HA precipitation and growth by chelating Ca2+ and PO43− ions or binding to nuclei of calcium phosphate and preventing their further growth, AAs bound to surfaces can promote HA precipitation by attracting Ca2+ and PO43− ions and increasing the local supersaturation. Overall, the effect of AAs on HA precipitation is worth being investigated more, especially under conditions closer to the physiological ones, where the presence of other factors such as collagen, mineralization inhibitors, and cells heavily influences HA precipitation. A deeper understanding of the role of AAs in HA mineralization will increase our fundamental knowledge related to bone formation, and could lead to new therapies to improve bone regeneration in damaged tissues or cure pathological diseases caused by excessive mineralization in tissues such as cartilage, blood vessels and cardiac valves. PMID:27707904

  15. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  16. Vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables among Thai construction site workers in urban Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Tungtrongchitr, R; Pongpaew, P; Phonrat, B; Chanjanakitskul, S; Paksanont, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1995-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables were investigated in eighty-seven male and nineteen female construction site workers in Bangkok. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and MCHC were found to be higher in male than in female workers. Serum ferritin was slightly higher in males than in females. Serum B12 was found to be higher in male than in female workers and serum folic acid level were significantly higher in female than in male workers. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 2.3 per cent and folic acid deficiency in 6.9 per cent of the male workers. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were normal for female workers. The adequate serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid might be the result of the habit of the workers to consume tonic drinks which contain glucose, caffeine, and vitamins especially vitamins B6, and B12.

  17. Effects of two dietary vitamin and mineral supplements on the growth and health of Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni).

    PubMed

    Hetényi, Nikoletta; Sátorhelyi, Tamás; Kovács, Szilvia; Hullár, István

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the long-term effects of two different vitamin and mineral supplements on the growth and health of Hermann's tortoises. Twelve one-month-old tortoises were randomly divided into two groups of six animals (group A and B). Diets were supplemented on a daily basis with two different products ("A": vit. D350 000 IU/kg, 150 g/kg Ca or "B": vit. D3, 2000 IU/kg, 148 g/kg Ca) for 12 months. Product "B" was richer in most of the vitamins. Weight and shell parameters were measured weekly. After one year animals in group B had significantly higher final body weights than those in group A (186.7 g vs. 131.6 g). The shell of the individuals in group A was firm and healthy, while all the tortoises in group B (in different levels) had weakened shells. The loss of bone tissue was not so serious to have visual signs on x-rays. High amount of vitamins (vitamin E, K, B1, 2, 6, 12, biotin) given for safety reasons and relatively low level of vitamin D3 (like in product "B") applied on a daily basis seem to be disadvantageous. The moderate metabolic bone disease that developed in group B during the experiment could be treated after the study by using the supplement "A". The authors recommend such supplements which have similar ingredients to product "A" for growing tortoises housed indoor with low or without irradiation exposure to UVB.

  18. The influence of bile acids on the oral bioavailability of vitamin K encapsulated in polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    van Hasselt, P M; Janssens, G E P J; Slot, T K; van der Ham, M; Minderhoud, T C; Talelli, M; Akkermans, L M; Rijcken, C J F; van Nostrum, C F

    2009-01-19

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of polymeric micelles to enable gastrointestinal absorption of the extremely hydrophobic compound vitamin K, by comparison of its absorption in bile duct ligated and sham operated rats. Hereto, vitamin K was encapsulated in micelles composed of mPEG(5000)-b-p(HPMAm-lac(2)), a thermosensitive block copolymer. Vitamin K plasma levels rose significantly upon gastric administration of 1 mg vitamin K encapsulated in polymeric micelles in sham operated rats, but not after bile duct ligation (AUC 4543 and 1.64 ng/mL/h respectively, p<0.01). Duodenal administration of polymeric micelles together with bile acids in bile duct ligated rats fully restored absorption. Dynamic light scattering time series showed a significant and dose dependent rise in micellar size in the presence of bile acids in vitro, indicating the gradual formation of mixed micelles during the first 3 h of incubation. The highest bile acid amounts (11 mM deoxycholic acid and 41 mM taurocholic acid) eventually caused aggregation of the loaded micelles after the formation of mixed micelles. These data suggest that the gastrointestinal absorption of encapsulated vitamin K from polymeric micelles is mediated by free bile and that uptake of intact micelles through pinocytosis is insignificant.

  19. A vitamin B-12 supplement of 500 μg/d for eight weeks does not normalize urinary methylmalonic acid or other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn H; Flatley, Janet E; Barker, Margo E; Garner, Clare M; Manning, Nigel J; Olpin, Simon E; Moat, Stuart J; Russell, Jean; Powers, Hilary J

    2013-02-01

    Plasma vitamin B-12 is the most commonly used biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the predictive value for low vitamin B-12 status is poor. The urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA) concentration has potential as a functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status, but the response to supplemental vitamin B-12 is uncertain. A study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness of uMMA to supplemental vitamin B-12 in comparison with other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status [plasma vitamin B-12, serum holotranscobalamin (holoTC), plasma MMA] in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 8-wk intervention study was carried out using vitamin B-12 supplements (500 μg/d, 100 μg/d, and 10 μg/d cyanocobalamin) in 100 elderly people with a combined plasma vitamin B-12 <250 pmol/L and uMMA ratio (μmol MMA/mmol creatinine) >1.5. All biomarkers had a dose response to supplemental vitamin B-12. Improvements in plasma vitamin B-12 and serum holoTC were achieved at cobalamin supplements of 10 μg/d, but even 500 μg/d for 8 wk did not normalize plasma vitamin B-12 in 8% and serum holoTC in 12% of people. The response in uMMA was comparable with plasma MMA; 15-25% of people still showed evidence of metabolic deficiency after 500 μg/d cobalamin for 8 wk. There was a differential response in urinary and plasma MMA according to smoking behavior; the response was enhanced in ex-smokers compared with never-smokers. uMMA offers an alternative marker of metabolic vitamin-B12 status, obviating the need for blood sampling.

  20. The Effect of Multi mineral-Vitamin D Supplementation on Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women at Risk for Pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the favorable effects of multi mineral-Vitamin D supplementation on pregnancy outcomes among women at risk for pre-eclampsia. Methods: This randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted among 46 women at risk for pre-eclampsia at 27 weeks’ gestation with positive roll-over test. Pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive either the multi mineral-Vitamin D supplements (n = 23) or the placebo (n = 23) for 9-week. Multi mineral-Vitamin D supplements were containing 800 mg calcium, 200 mg magnesium, 8 mg zinc, and 400 IU Vitamin D3. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9-week intervention to measure related factors. Newborn's outcomes were determined. Results: Although no significant difference was seen in newborn's weight and head circumference between the two groups, mean newborns’ length (51.3 ± 1.7 vs. 50.3 ± 1.2 cm, P = 0.03) was significantly higher in multi mineral-Vitamin D group than that in the placebo group. Compared to the placebo, consumption of multi mineral-Vitamin D supplements resulted in increased levels of serum calcium (+0.19 vs. −0.08 mg/dL, P = 0.03), magnesium (+0.15 vs. −0.08 mg/dL, P = 0.03), zinc (+8.25 vs. −21.38 mg/dL, P = 0.001) and Vitamin D (+3.79 vs. −1.37 ng/ml, P = 0.01). In addition, taking multi mineral-Vitamin D supplements favorably influenced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (−1.08 vs. 6.08 mmHg, P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (−0.44 vs. 3.05 mmHg, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Multi mineral-Vitamin D supplementation for 9-week in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia resulted in increased newborn's length, increased circulating levels of maternal serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D, and led to decreased maternal SBP and DBP. PMID:26288706

  1. l-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) supplementation to optimize health and reproduction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Ranjan, A; Dhaliwal, G S; Patra, R C

    2012-01-01

    Cattle can synthesize L-ascorbic acid (or Vitamin C) from either D-glucose or D-galactose through glucuronic acid pathway in the liver. L-Ascorbic acid present in cattle diet is almost totally destroyed by rumen microorganisms making them essentially dependent on its endogenous synthesis, which is assumed sufficient to meet the physiological requirement. Therefore, the role of vitamin C in cattle health and disease has remained widely overlooked. However, there is mounting evidence that the level of L-ascorbic acid in blood and other tissues decreases in association with stress and disease, and Vitamin C supplementation revealed favorable response as evident from early recovery. The present review is an attempt to summarize the existing literature pertaining to the physiological role of L-ascorbic acid and the scope of its supplementation in the prevention and treatment of diseases in cattle. It should be realized that the aqueous solution of vitamin C is highly acidic and subcutaneous or intramuscular administration may cause tissue irritation and inflammation, whereas the sodium ascorbate solution is less acidic and might be used for intramuscular administration.

  2. Evolutionary and Functional Diversification of the Vitamin D Receptor-Lithocholic Acid Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guozhu; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G. Kerr; Reif, David M.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution, molecular behavior, and physiological function of nuclear receptors are of particular interest given their diverse roles in regulating essential biological processes. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is well known for its canonical roles in calcium homeostasis and skeletal maintenance. Additionally, VDR has received an increased amount of attention due to the discovery of numerous non-calcemic functions, including the detoxification of lithocholic acid. Lithocholic acid is a toxic metabolite of chenodeoxycholic acid, a primary bile acid. The partnership between the VDR and lithocholic acid has been hypothesized to be a recent adaptation that evolved to mediate the detoxification and elimination of lithocholic acid from the gut. This partnership is speculated to be limited to higher vertebrates (birds and mammals), as lower vertebrates do not synthesize the parent compound of lithocholic acid. However, the molecular functions associated with the observed insensitivity of basal VDRs to lithocholic acid have not been explored. Here we characterize canonical nuclear receptor functions of VDRs from select species representing key nodes in vertebrate evolution and span a range of bile salt phenotypes. Competitive ligand binding assays revealed that the receptor’s affinity for lithocholic acid is highly conserved across species, suggesting that lithocholic acid affinity is an ancient and non-adaptive trait. However, transient transactivation assays revealed that lithocholic acid-mediated VDR activation might have evolved more recently, as the non-mammalian receptors did not respond to lithocholic acid unless exogenous coactivator proteins were co-expressed. Subsequent functional assays indicated that differential lithocholic acid-mediated receptor activation is potentially driven by differential protein-protein interactions between VDR and nuclear receptor coregulator proteins. We hypothesize that the vitamin D receptor-lithocholic acid partnership evolved as

  3. Evolutionary and Functional Diversification of the Vitamin D Receptor-Lithocholic Acid Partnership.

    PubMed

    Kollitz, Erin M; Zhang, Guozhu; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G Kerr; Reif, David M; Kullman, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    The evolution, molecular behavior, and physiological function of nuclear receptors are of particular interest given their diverse roles in regulating essential biological processes. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is well known for its canonical roles in calcium homeostasis and skeletal maintenance. Additionally, VDR has received an increased amount of attention due to the discovery of numerous non-calcemic functions, including the detoxification of lithocholic acid. Lithocholic acid is a toxic metabolite of chenodeoxycholic acid, a primary bile acid. The partnership between the VDR and lithocholic acid has been hypothesized to be a recent adaptation that evolved to mediate the detoxification and elimination of lithocholic acid from the gut. This partnership is speculated to be limited to higher vertebrates (birds and mammals), as lower vertebrates do not synthesize the parent compound of lithocholic acid. However, the molecular functions associated with the observed insensitivity of basal VDRs to lithocholic acid have not been explored. Here we characterize canonical nuclear receptor functions of VDRs from select species representing key nodes in vertebrate evolution and span a range of bile salt phenotypes. Competitive ligand binding assays revealed that the receptor's affinity for lithocholic acid is highly conserved across species, suggesting that lithocholic acid affinity is an ancient and non-adaptive trait. However, transient transactivation assays revealed that lithocholic acid-mediated VDR activation might have evolved more recently, as the non-mammalian receptors did not respond to lithocholic acid unless exogenous coactivator proteins were co-expressed. Subsequent functional assays indicated that differential lithocholic acid-mediated receptor activation is potentially driven by differential protein-protein interactions between VDR and nuclear receptor coregulator proteins. We hypothesize that the vitamin D receptor-lithocholic acid partnership evolved as a

  4. [Determination of acidity and vitamin C in apples using portable NIR analyzer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Ya-Ting; Gu, Xuan; Ma, Jiang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong

    2011-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology based on a portable NIR analyzer, combined with kernel Isomap algorithm and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) has been applied to establishing quantitative models for prediction of acidity and vitamin C in six kinds of apple samples. The obtained results demonstrated that the fitting and the predictive accuracy of the models with kernel Isomap algorithm were satisfactory. The correlation between actual and predicted values of calibration samples (R(c)) obtained by the acidity model was 0.999 4, and for prediction samples (R(p)) was 0.979 9. The root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) was 0.055 8. For the vitamin C model, R(c) was 0.989 1, R(p) was 0.927 2, and RMSEP was 4.043 1. Results proved that the portable NIR analyzer can be a feasible tool for the determination of acidity and vitamin C in apples.

  5. High mineral and vitamin E intake by pregnant ewes lowers colostral immunoglobulin G absorption by the lamb.

    PubMed

    Boland, T M; Keane, N; Nowakowski, P; Brophy, P O; Crosby, T F

    2005-04-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 78 mature ewes was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing the pregnant ewe's diet with high levels of minerals and vitamin E on immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption by the lamb and whether any altered efficacy of IgG absorption was due to the colostrum or to the lamb. The ewes were estrus-synchronized in October and housed in wk 10 of gestation. In the final 7 wk of gestation, a grass silage-based diet, offered ad libitum, was supplemented with 500 g of a 19% CP concentrate, and from 1 wk later until lambing, half the ewes was offered 48 g of a mineral/vitamin supplement containing 6.5 g of Ca, 4.9 g of P, 5.9 g of Mg, 4.0 g of Na, 790 mg of Zn, 3.5 mg of Se, 40 mg of I, 200 mg of Mn, 20 mg of Co, and 40 IU of vitamin E. At birth, the lambs were allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, with lamb origin and colostrum origin as the two factors. The lambs born to ewes not offered the mineral supplement were fed colostrum obtained from their own dams or from ewes in the mineral-supplemented treatment, whereas lambs born to ewes given supplemental minerals were fed colostrum obtained either from their dams or from ewes in the control treatment. The ewes were milked at 1, 10, and 18 h postpartum and the lambs were fed using a stomach tube. A 5-mL blood sample was taken from each lamb at 24 h postpartum for IgG analysis. The level of fecal adhesion to the upper tail/rump area of the lamb was subjectively scored at 72 h postpartum. There was no difference in gestation length, lamb birth weight, colostrum yield, or IgG production (P = 0.16 to 0.82). When ewes were fed supplemental minerals, the serum IgG content of the progeny was lower than in their control counterparts (6.8 vs. 16.1 g/L; P < 0.001), regardless of whether the lamb received colostrum from ewes with or without access to supplementary minerals. The difference in serum IgG concentrations at 24 h postpartum was a direct reflection

  6. Role of Vitamin A/Retinoic Acid in Regulation of Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Carmona, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality. RA signaling appears to be essential for expression of genes involved in developmental hematopoiesis, regulating the endothelial/blood cells balance in the yolk sac, promoting the hemogenic program in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros area and stimulating eryrthropoiesis in fetal liver by activating the expression of erythropoietin. In adults, RA signaling regulates differentiation of granulocytes and enhances erythropoiesis. Vitamin A may facilitate iron absorption and metabolism to prevent anemia and plays a key role in mucosal immune responses, modulating the function of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, defective RA/RARα signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia due to a failure in differentiation of promyelocytes. This review focuses on the different roles played by vitamin A/RA signaling in physiological and pathological mouse hematopoiesis duddurring both, embryonic and adult life, and the consequences of vitamin A deficiency for the blood system. PMID:28230720

  7. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  8. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  9. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis.

  10. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects. The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes briefly data on neural tube defect reduction and other benefits of folic acid fortification as these have been reviewed in more detail elsewhere. More attention is drawn to questions that have been raised about the possible adverse effects of folic acid fortification including the incidence of colorectal cancer and immune function. The main question addressed here is whether folic acid fortification can exacerbate the adverse effects of vitamin B12 deficiency. Most analyses of this question have been conducted in wealthier countries based on data from elderly populations - which have the highest prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, of potentially greater concern is the increasingly common practice of folic acid fortification in developing countries, where folate status is probably often adequate even prior to fortification, and vitamin B12 depletion or deficiency is common. To add to this information, data from a group of Chilean elderly with a range of vitamin B12 status and exposed to high levels of folic acid fortification will be presented.

  11. Heart rate variability and cognitive function following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplementation with added guarana (Paullinia cupana).

    PubMed

    Pomportes, Laura; Davranche, Karen; Brisswalter, Ioanna; Hays, Arnaud; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2014-12-31

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive performance and heart rate variability (HRV) following the ingestion of either a multi-vitamin-mineral preparation supplemented with 300 mg guarana (Ac); a caffeine supplement (C) or a placebo supplement (Pl). Fifty-six subjects took part in a randomized, double-blind crossover design, consisting of three experimental sessions ran on a different day. Cognitive performance was assessed using a go/no-go task and a simple reaction time (SRT) task. HRV was assessed in the time domain (RMSSD) and in the frequency domain (HF) and cognitive tasks were performed before ingestion, 15 min after ingestion and then every 15 min over the course of 3 h. Responses were faster (without change in accuracy) when the go/no-go task was performed between 30 and 90 min after ingestion of Ac (4.6% ± 0.8%, p < 0.05). No effect was observed on SRT task. A significant decrease in HRV was observed during the first hour under C and Pl, whereas HRV remained stable under Ac. The results suggest that the ingestion of a multi-vitamin-mineral with added guarana improves decision-making performance and is accompanied by a stable autonomic nervous system regulation during the first hour.

  12. Heart Rate Variability and Cognitive Function Following a Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation with Added Guarana (Paullinia cupana)

    PubMed Central

    Pomportes, Laura; Davranche, Karen; Brisswalter, Ioanna; Hays, Arnaud; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive performance and heart rate variability (HRV) following the ingestion of either a multi-vitamin-mineral preparation supplemented with 300 mg guarana (Ac); a caffeine supplement (C) or a placebo supplement (Pl). Fifty-six subjects took part in a randomized, double-blind crossover design, consisting of three experimental sessions ran on a different day. Cognitive performance was assessed using a go/no-go task and a simple reaction time (SRT) task. HRV was assessed in the time domain (RMSSD) and in the frequency domain (HF) and cognitive tasks were performed before ingestion, 15 min after ingestion and then every 15 min over the course of 3 h. Responses were faster (without change in accuracy) when the go/no-go task was performed between 30 and 90 min after ingestion of Ac (4.6% ± 0.8%, p < 0.05). No effect was observed on SRT task. A significant decrease in HRV was observed during the first hour under C and Pl, whereas HRV remained stable under Ac. The results suggest that the ingestion of a multi-vitamin-mineral with added guarana improves decision-making performance and is accompanied by a stable autonomic nervous system regulation during the first hour. PMID:25558905

  13. Vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: effect of ambulatory status and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Bulut, Serpil; Ilhan, Nevin; Gulkesen, Arif; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease and a major cause of disability in young adults. The aims of this study were to assess bone mass in patients with MS in comparison to healthy age- and sex-matched controls, and to evaluate factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD), and the relationship of the pain threshold at peripheral and axial sites with BMD in MS. Thirty-one patients with MS and 30 matched healthy controls participated in the study. The Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and the functional independence measure (FIM) were used to scale disability, mobility, and functional status. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels were measured. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). MS patients had significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femur trochanter compared to the matched controls. BMD of the lumbar spine was nearly 1 SD lower in MS patients compared with the healthy reference population (Z scores). MS patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels (17.3 ng/ml vs 43.1 ng/ml; P < 0.001) compared to controls, and 19 patients (61%) had a serum level of vitamin D that was less than 20 ng/ml. EDSS scores in the patients were inversely correlated with proximal femur BMD but not with spinal BMD. There was a negative correlation with the cumulative steroid dose and BMD only for femur trochanter BMD. Total myalgia scores for paravertebral muscles correlated significantly with spinal BMD. In conclusion, BMD is significantly lower in MS patients than in healthy controls, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in MS, and ambulatory status is a determinative factor for osteoporosis in MS. Patients should be encouraged to have adequate sunlight exposure and to increase their mobility. Specific strengthening exercises for hip and back muscles in MS patients would have a substantial impact on bone density, osteoporosis, fracture risk, and mobility.

  14. Serum iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Gulizar; Bilen, Sule; Arli, Berna; Saka, Mustafa; Ak, Fikri

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to investigate possible associations between systemic iron metabolism deficiency and Parkinson's disease, and also to research any possible correlations between stage of the disease and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. 33 male and 27 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 22 male and 20 female age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Having the diagnosis of secondary Parkinsonism or Parkinson plus syndromes, and for the females, not being in the menopausal stage were considered as exclusion criteria. Recordings of blood samples of both groups collected after 8 h fasts were assessed in terms of serum iron, ferritin levels and iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to determine the stage of the disease. No statistically significant difference was found with respect to mean serum iron, median serum ferritin levels and median serum iron-binding capacity between the groups. A statistically significant but inverse correlation was found between symptoms' duration and serum iron and ferritin levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. However, a statistically significant but inverse correlation was determined between the patients' vitamin B12 levels and the Hoehn and Yahr scores. As Parkinson's disease progresses, serum iron, ferritin and vitamin B12 levels may decrease. The lower levels of these parameters may be the cause of the progression or may be the result of it.

  15. Sorption of tebuconazole onto selected soil minerals and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Cadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Koudelková, Věra; Dvořák, Jiří; Vaněk, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate tebuconazole sorption on common soil minerals (birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, calcite and illite) and humic acids (representing soil organic matter). Tebuconazole was used (i) in the commercial form Horizon 250 EW and (ii) as an analytical grade pure chemical. In the experiment with the commercially available tebuconazole, a significant pH-dependent sorption onto the oxides was observed (decreasing sorption with increasing pH). The highest sorption was found for ferrihydrite due to its high specific surface area, followed by humic acids, birnessite, goethite and illite. No detectable sorption was found for calcite. The sorption of analytical grade tebuconazole on all selected minerals was significantly lower compared to the commercial product. The sorption was the highest for humic acids, followed by ferrihydrite and illite and almost negligible for goethite and birnessite without any pH dependence. Again, no sorption was observed for calcite. The differences in sorption of the commercially available and analytical grade tebuconazole can be attributed to the additives (e.g., solvents) present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil mineralogy and composition of the commercially available pesticides on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils.

  16. The fate of amino acids adsorbed on mineral matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jean-François; Stievano, Lorenzo; Lopes, Irène; Gharsallah, Marwen; Piao, Lingyu

    2009-04-01

    We present here selected results recently obtained on the molecular characterization of amino acids adsorption on oxide minerals and their further polymerization by thermal activation, in the general frame of assessing Bernal's hypothesis on the origin of biopolymers on mineral surfaces. Adsorption mechanisms may be identified by a combination of vibrational spectroscopy, 13C solid-state NMR, and molecular modeling. Depending on a particular amino acid, the oxide surface investigated, and the water activity during adsorption (i.e., whether it is carried out from the gas phase or from an aqueous solution), contributions from electrostatic adsorption, outer-sphere and inner-sphere (coordination) complexes may be observed. These mechanisms result in significant adsorption selectivities from equimolar mixtures of different amino acids. Upon thermal activation at moderate temperatures (150-160 °C), clean polymerization events occur and can easily be observed by thermogravimetric analysis. There are some hints of selectivity in this step too. The water activity during thermal treatment plays an important role for the thermodynamics of polymerization.

  17. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  18. Fatty acid and vitamin interventions in adults with schizophrenia: a systematic review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mok, Yee Ming; Honer, William G; Sim, Kang

    2015-12-01

    Current psychopharmacological approaches to reduce psychotic phenomenology in schizophrenia are associated with adverse effects including extrapyramidal and metabolic side effects. In view of the emerging data on nutritional supplementation interventions in schizophrenia which are not entirely consistent, we aimed to review existent studies focusing on fatty acid and vitamin interventions and summarise current evidence on such nutritional supplementations in schizophrenia. We searched the digital databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLINK, PubMed/Medline) for relevant studies pertaining to fatty acid and vitamin supplementation interventions in the management of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia up to February 2015. Overall, there were more studies conducted on fatty acid over vitamin supplementations in patients with schizophrenia. There were more positive findings in support of fatty acid supplementation compared with vitamin supplementation in the context of specific intervention features (dose of nutrient supplementation, single versus combination nutritional interventions, specific antipsychotic), subject features (older age, long duration of illness, baseline polyunsaturated fatty acid levels) and clinical outcomes (improvements of psychotic symptoms and/or extrapyramidal side effects from antipsychotics). However, investigations of both supplementation modalities were limited by relatively small study sample sizes, short study duration, which precluded further segmentation of impact on more diverse patient subtypes and symptom profiles. Future studies may consider examining larger samples over a longer time period, recruiting younger subjects with shorter duration of illness, examination of different clinical features including specific cognitive domains, and use of single versus combination nutritional interventions.

  19. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  20. Abnormal endogenous amino acid release in brain slices from vitamin B-6 restricted neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Guilarte, T R

    1991-01-02

    The basal and potassium-evoked efflux of glutamate, glycine, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured in brain slices from vitamin B-6 restricted and sufficient 14-day-old rats. The results indicate a reduced level of basal glutamate, taurine, and GABA efflux in hippocampal slices and taurine and GABA in cortical slices from vitamin B-6 restricted animals. In the presence of depolarizing potassium concentrations, there was a reduced level of GABA efflux in hippocampal and cortical slices, and a marked reduction in the release of glutamate in cortical slices from B-6 restricted rats. The abnormalities in the secretion process of these neuroactive amino acids may be related to the neurological sequelae associated with neonatal vitamin B-6 restriction.

  1. The vitamin D analog ZK191784 normalizes decreased bone matrix mineralization in mice lacking the calcium channel TRPV5.

    PubMed

    van der Eerden, Bram C J; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Nijenhuis, Tom; Roschger, Paul; Zügel, Ulrich; Steinmeyer, Andreas; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M; Klaushofer, Klaus; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2013-02-01

    Mice lacking the renal epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 (TRPV5(-/-)) display impaired renal Ca(2+) reabsorption, hypercalciuria, and intestinal Ca(2+) hyperabsorption, due to secondary hypervitaminosis D. Using these mice, we previously demonstrated that ZK191784 acts as an intestine-specific 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) antagonist without affecting serum calcium levels. On the other hand, it acted as an agonist in the kidney and the effects of ZK191784 on bone were ambiguous. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate the effect of the vitamin D receptor antagonist on murine bone in mice lacking TRPV5. Eight-week-old female Trpv5(+/+) and Trpv5(-/-) mice were treated for 4 weeks with or without 50 µg/kg/day ZK191784. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging showed that the reduced bone matrix mineralization found in femoral bones of Trpv5(-/-) mice was partially but significantly restored upon ZK191784 treatment, just as we observed for trabecular bone thickness. This supports the significance of 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) and optimal control of Ca(2+) homeostasis for bone formation and matrix mineralization. Restoration also took place at the bone gene expression level, where 1α-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) mRNA in femurs from ZK-treated Trpv5(-/-) mice was upregulated compared to control levels. The downregulated 24-hydroxylase (Cyp24a1) gene expression in femoral bone indicated local vitamin D resistance in the mice treated with ZK191784. Phosphate homeostasis was unaffected between the groups as shown by unaltered serum PO(4)(3-) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 as well as Fgf23 mRNA expression in bone. In conclusion, circulating 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) is important for optimal control of Ca(2+) homeostasis but also for controlled bone formation and matrix mineralization.

  2. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A.; da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J.; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, adequate, and supraphysiological conditions) that induced a range of steady-state cellular concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate. Total cellular lipid content was greatest in the deficient (10 nM pyridoxal) medium. The percentage of arachidonic acid and the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid in the total lipid fraction were ∼15% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells, which suggests that vitamin B-6 restriction affects n-6 fatty acid interconversions. Metabolic flux studies indicated significantly lower fractional synthesis rate of oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 10, 20, and 50 nM pyridoxal, whereas that of eicosapentaenoic acid was lower in the cells cultured in 10 nM pyridoxal. Additionally, relative mRNA expressions of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases were 40–50% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells. Overall, these findings suggest that vitamin B-6 restriction alters unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, particularly n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. These results and observations of changes in human plasma fatty acid profiles caused by vitamin B-6 restriction suggest a mechanism by which vitamin B-6 inadequacy influences the cardiovascular risk. PMID:23211517

  3. Dietary vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in newborn babies with physiological jaundice.

    PubMed

    Villalaz, R A; Toner, N; Chiswick, M L

    1981-05-01

    We studied 69 term babies aged 2-8 days who had physiological jaundice and who were fed formula A (Ostermilk Complete; vitamin E, 0.46 mg per 100 ml; polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), approximately 0.08 g per 100 ml), or formula B (Cow and Gate Premium; vitamin E, 1.0 mg per 100 ml; PUFA, approximately 0.55 g per 100 ml) or breast milk. Babies fed formula B, with the greatest vitamin E and PUFA content, had a significantly higher mean plasma vitamin E level compared with those fed formula A, even as early as the second and third day. Breast fed babies, 2-3 days old, had a lower mean plasma vitamin E level compared with formula B fed babies, thereafter vitamin E levels in breast fed babies rose. The RBCs of babies fed formula B and breast milk were significantly less susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) haemolysis compared with the RBCs of those fed formula A. Reduced susceptibility to H2O2 haemolysis in formula B fed babies was observed in those as young as 2-3 days. Susceptibility to H2O2 haemolysis did not correlate with haemoglobin concentration, plasma bilirubin nor with the reticulocyte count in babies on different feeds. We conclude that in term newborn babies the vitamin E and PUFA contents of the milk feeds influence plasma vitamin E levels and susceptibility of RBCs to H2O2 haemolysis, but do not have an important bearing on the occurrence of physiological jaundice.

  4. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  5. Process for the obtainment of boric acid from colemanite and/or howlite minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Polendo-Loredo, J.

    1988-07-12

    A process for obtaining boric acid from colemanite minerals, howlite minerals, or mixtures thereof is described comprising: treating the mineral with sulfuric acid to dissolve boron compounds; separating the solution thus formed from the insoluble solids in suspension; reacting the solution with hydrogen sulfide to precipitate arsenic and iron impurities; separating the impurities precipitated from the remaining solution; cooling the remaining solution to precipitate boric acid; and separating the boric acid from the remaining solution.

  6. Vitamin D reduces musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Atteritano, Marco; Basile, Giorgio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The acute-phase response (APR) is a frequent occurrence after infusion of zoledronic acid and is caused by activation of γδ T cells. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells, and vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this prospective study was to test the effect of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on the incidence of APR and intensity of pain in women undergoing infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis. 60 women were enrolled and randomized into two groups. At baseline, 30 women received an oral bolus of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU), while another 30 women received placebo. On day 5 both groups were treated with a single infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) and received a daily supplementation of calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Patients were clinically evaluated and inflammatory markers were assayed before zoledronic acid administration and every 24 h for the following 2 days. The onset of APR has been defined by the occurrence of fever or at least one of the typical symptoms, such as musculoskeletal pain after zoledronic acid infusion. Intensity of pain was measured by a one-dimensional scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). APR developed in 66.6% of patients, with no significant difference between groups. The vitamin group experienced less musculoskeletal pain [median 1 (0-4) vs. 2 (1-8), P < 0.05] and exhibited lower inflammatory markers (P < 0.005 vs. placebo). Our data demonstrate that cholecalciferol at a dose of 300,000 IU reduces the intensity of musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  8. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  9. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis.

  10. Urinary excretion of vitamin B1, B2, B6, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and vitamin C correlates with dietary intakes of free-living elderly, female Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesized that 24-hour urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins might correlate with their intake in free-living Japanese elderly females aged 70 to 84 years. We performed a cross-sectional study composed of 37 healthy, elderly, Japanese females living freely. All foods and the corresponding weights consumed for 4 consecutive days were recorded accurately. A 24-hour urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary content of water-soluble vitamins was measured. The urinary levels of all vitamins, except for B(12) (r = 0.01; P = .936), were correlated positively with the mean intake over the recent 4 days (vitamin B1: r = 0.62; P < .001; vitamin B2: r = 0.57; P < .001; vitamin B6: r = 0.37; P < .005; niacin: r = 0.54; P < .001; niacin equivalents: r = 0.54; P < .001; pantothenic acid: r = 0.59; P < .001; folate: r = 0.55; P = .001; and vitamin C: r = 0.53; P < .001). Mean estimated intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary concentrations and recovery rates showed 96% to 107% of their 3-day mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (65%). We conclude that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for B12, reflected their recent intake in free-living Japanese elderly females and could be used as a measure of their intake during the previous few days both for group means and for individual rankings within a group.

  11. Effects of complete vitamin and mineral supplementation in full potential all-milk diets on growth and health of Holstein bull calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-ruminant Holstein bull calves were fed two diets of pasteurized whole milk (PWM) in amounts that either limited intake or that maximized intake according to common commercial practice. Diets then were either supplemented or not supplemented with a full complement of vitamins and trace minerals ...

  12. Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Meyer, K; Hellwig, E; Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral supplements to citric acid (1%; pH 2.21) on enamel erosion under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. From each of 156 bovine incisors one polished enamel sample was prepared. The samples were divided among 13 experimental groups (n=12). In group 1 citric acid only was used (control). In groups 2-10 either calcium, phosphate or fluoride in various low concentrations was admixed to the citric acid. In groups 11-13 the citric acid was supplemented with a mixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. For demineralisation the specimens were rinsed with the respective solution for 1 min, immediately followed by a remineralisation period with artificial saliva (1 min). The specimens were cycled through this alternating procedure five times followed by rinsing for 8 h with artificial saliva. The de- and remineralisation cycle was repeated three times for each specimen interrupted by the 8 h-remineralisation periods. Before and after the experiments, the specimens were examined using microhardness testing (Knoop hardness) and laser profilometry. Hardness loss and enamel dissolution was significantly higher for the controls as compared to the remaining groups. Significantly lowest hardness loss for all groups was recorded for group 12 with admixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride to citric acid. The significantly highest enamel loss was recorded for the controls compared to all other samples. Groups 3 and 4 revealed significantly lower and higher tissue loss compared to the remaining groups (2-13), respectively. The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented.

  13. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  14. Replacement value of blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) for fishmeal and a vitamin-mineral premix for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, L V; Somasekaran, T; Becker, E W

    1994-07-01

    1. The effect of sun-dried Spirulina platensis in poultry diets was studied in a 12-week feeding trial by replacing either fishmeal (FM) or groundnut cake (GC) in a commercial diet with algae at isonitrogenous concentrations of 140 g/kg and 170 g/kg respectively. Additional vitamins/minerals were omitted from the algal diets because Spirulina is rich in them. 2. Efficiency of food utilisation, protein efficiency ratio and dressing percentage indicated that substitution of FM or GC by alga did not affect the performance of broilers. 3. None of the diets affected the weights, compositions and histopathology of the various organs of the chicks. 4. Meat quality remained unchanged except for a more intense colour in the case of birds fed on the alga-containing diets.

  15. Associations of uric acid with polymorphisms in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase genes in Korean lead workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Schwartz, Brian S; Jaar, Bernard G; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Todd, Andrew C; Lee, Sung-Soo; Kelsey, Karl T; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Lustberg, Mark E; Parsons, Patrick J; Wen, Jiayu; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2005-11-01

    Recent research suggests that uric acid may be nephrotoxic at lower levels than previously recognized and that it may be one mechanism for lead-related nephrotoxicity. Therefore, in understanding mechanisms for lead-related nephrotoxicity, it would be of value to determine whether genetic polymorphisms that are associated with renal outcomes in lead workers and/or modify associations between lead dose and renal function are also associated with uric acid and/or modify associations between lead dose and uric acid. We analyzed data on three such genetic polymorphisms: delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Mean (+/- SD) tibia, blood, and dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead levels were 37.2 +/- 40.4 microg/g bone mineral, 32.0+/- 15.0 g/dL, and 0.77+/- 0.86 microg/mg creatinine, respectively, in 798 current and former lead workers. Participants with the eNOSAsp allele had lower mean serum uric acid compared with those with the Glu/Glu genotype. Among older workers (age > or = median of 40.6 years), ALAD genotype modified associations between lead dose and uric acid levels. Higher lead dose was significantly associated with higher uric acid in workers with the ALAD1-1 genotype; associations were in the opposite direction in participants with the variant ALAD1-2 genotype. In contrast, higher tibia lead was associated with higher uric acid in those with the variant VDRB allele; however, modification was dependent on participants with the bb genotype and high tibia lead levels. We conclude that genetic polymorphisms may modify uric acid mediation of lead-related adverse renal effects.

  16. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  17. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  18. Altering dietary levels of protein or vitamins and minerals does not modify morphine-induced analgesia in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, R B; D'Anci, K E; Przypek, J M; Mathes, W F

    1999-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that chronic intake of nutritive sweet solutions, but not nonnutritive sweet solutions, enhances morphine's analgesic potency. To separate out the effects of sweet taste from other changes in dietary intake, which result when rats consume a sucrose solution, the effects of altering dietary levels of protein, or vitamins and minerals on morphine-induced analgesia were examined. In Experiment 1, 40 male Long-Evans rats were fed standard chow or a semipurified diet containing either 10, 20, or 40% protein. Three weeks later, antinociceptive responses to morphine were examined using the tail flick procedure. Tail flick latencies were measured immediately prior to and 30, 60, and 90 min after the administration of morphine sulfate (0.0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg, SC). At all three measurement times, antinociceptive responses increased directly as a function of the dose of morphine, but did not differ as a function of diet. In Experiment 2, 24 rats were maintained on either standard laboratory chow or semipurified diets containing 20% protein and either 100% or 25% of the recommended levels of vitamins and minerals for 3 weeks. Tail flick latencies were measured immediately prior to and 30 min after injections (SC) of 2.5 mg/kg morphine sulfate. This procedure was repeated until a cumulative dose of 10.0 mg/kg was obtained. Tail flick latencies increased significantly as a function of drug dose, but did not differ across dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that the increase in morphine-induced analgesia seen in rats consuming a sucrose solution is not due to alterations in either protein or micronutrient intake.

  19. Polylactic acid (PLA)/Silver-NP/VitaminE bionanocomposite electrospun nanofibers with antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Aytac, Zeynep; Pricope, Gina M.; Uyar, Tamer; Vasile, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E have been combined by incorporation of these two active components within polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning (PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers). The morphological and structural characterizations of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average fiber diameter was 140 ± 60 nm, and the size of the Ag-NP was 2.7 ± 1.5 nm. PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhymurium up to 100 %. The amount of released Ag ions from the nanofibers immersed in aqueous solution was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and it has been observed that the release of Ag ions was kept approximately constant after 10 days of immersion. The antioxidant activity of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers was evaluated according to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and determined as 94 %. The results of the tests on fresh apple and apple juice indicated that the PLA/Ag/VitaminE nanofiber membrane actively reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity. The multifunctional electrospun PLA nanofibers incorporating Ag-NP and Vitamin E may be quite applicable in food packaging due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These materials could find application in food industry as a potential preservative packaging for fruits and juices.

  20. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Úbeda, Natalia; Montero, Ana; Achón, María; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented) each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations. PMID:24288024

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.

    PubMed

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM.

  2. Vitamin C is a kinase inhibitor: dehydroascorbic acid inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase beta.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Juan M; Pedraza, Alicia; Bórquez-Ojeda, Oriana; Zhang, Bing; Sanchez, Roberto; Golde, David W

    2004-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key intermediates in cellular signal transduction pathways whose function may be counterbalanced by antioxidants. Acting as an antioxidant, ascorbic acid (AA) donates two electrons and becomes oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). We discovered that DHA directly inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase beta (IKKbeta) and IKKalpha enzymatic activity in vitro, whereas AA did not have this effect. When cells were loaded with AA and induced to generate DHA by oxidative stress in cells expressing a constitutive active IKKbeta, NF-kappaB activation was inhibited. Our results identify a dual molecular action of vitamin C in signal transduction and provide a direct linkage between the redox state of vitamin C and NF-kappaB signaling events. AA quenches ROS intermediates involved in the activation of NF-kappaB and is oxidized to DHA, which directly inhibits IKKbeta and IKKalpha enzymatic activity. These findings define a function for vitamin C in signal transduction other than as an antioxidant and mechanistically illuminate how vitamin C down-modulates NF-kappaB signaling.

  3. Decreased Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Concentrations in Acne Patients After Isotretinoin Therapy: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, MA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases. PMID:25484410

  4. [Effect of microclimate, supplementary mineral elements Cu, Mn and Zn and vitamins A + D3 on selected blood indicators and piglet rearing].

    PubMed

    Białkowski, Z

    1983-01-01

    The studied were carried out in the production conditions of the State Farm Machnów, involving 502 piglets of the Polish large-whitebreed at the age from the birth to 42nd day of life in two rearing cycles (winter-spring and spring-summer). The author studied the effects of piglet rearing and the behaviour of hematological and biochemical indices of blood in conditions of optimal microclimate without additional amounts of iron, vitamin A + D3 (30,000 m. u. of vitamin A and 10,000 m. u. of vitamin D3) in the 3rd and 10th day, and with a mineral mixture containing 0.008 of copper sulphate, 0.03 g of zinc sulphate, 0.03 g of manganese sulphate given per head daily from the 10 to 20th day of life. The most favourite rearing effects were obtained in the experimental group with the mineral mixture (0.82% of losses), and the highest lethality was found in the group without iron added (13.73%). The highest values of hematological indices (hematocrit, hemoglobin and erythrocytes) were recorded in the group receiving the mineral mixture and vitamins A + D3.

  5. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Katrina L; Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. The distinct and tissue-specific biosynthetic and/or ligand activities of tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside, reviewed herein, are responsible for vitamin-specific effects and side effects. Because current data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis, we present prospects for human nicotinamide riboside supplementation and propose areas for future research.

  6. B Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  7. Effect of acoustically assisted treatments on vitamins, antioxidant activity, organic acids and drying kinetics of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Gomes, Wesley; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the application of an acoustically assisted treatment on the vitamins (C, B1, B2, B3, and B5), the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP), the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, the organic acid contents (citric and malic) and drying kinetics of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Perola) have been studied. Treatments were carried out using two different soaking media: distilled water and pineapple juice at 30°C during 10, 20 and 30min without and with acoustic assistance (23.2W/L). After treatment, samples were dried at 60°C and 0.5m/s during 8h. The quality parameters were determined in untreated, treated, and treated-dried samples. The acoustic assistance promoted an increment of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5, total flavonoid and malic acid contents, and a reduction of vitamin C, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and citric acid content in treated samples. However, in all treated-dried samples the final content of those quality parameters was higher than the observed in the untreated dried sample.

  8. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  9. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  14. The evaluation of serum homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in patients complicated with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazian, Nahid; Jafari, Razieh Mohammad; Haghnia, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased plasma homocysteine may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to determine the plasma homocysteine, serum folate, and vitamin B12 levels in preeclamptic pregnant women. Methods This case-control study was conducted in 2016 in Ahwaz on 51 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 51 healthy pregnant women of the same gestational age, who served as controls. The case group also was subdivided into severe and non-severe preeclampsia. Patients’ data were collected through a questionnaire and medical records. Serum homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were analyzed using chemiluminescent assay. The results were compared between two groups. Statistical analyses were done using IBM-SPSS 20.0. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and Chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results No different demographic characteristics were found among the groups. Pregnant women complicated with preeclampsia displayed significantly higher serum homocysteine levels (p < 0.001) and lower serum folate (p = 0.005) and vitamin B12 levels (p < 0.001) compared to controls. A statistically significant inverse correlation was evident between serum homocysteine and serum folate levels in preeclamptic patients (p = 0.005; r = −0.389). In addition, an inverse correlation was identified between homocysteine and serum vitamin B12, but it was not statistically significant (p = 0.160; r = −0.200). Significant differences occurred in serum homocysteine and folate levels between the severe and non-severe subgroups (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Conclusion Women complicated with preeclampsia displayed higher maternal serum homocysteine and lower serum folate and vitamin B12. Further studies are needed to confirm if the prescription of folic acid and vitamin B12 in women with a deficiency of these vitamins could decrease the level of serum homocysteine and, therefore, reduce the risk of

  15. Effect of Low Vitamin D on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Bone Microarchitecture, and Stiffness in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Kyle K.; Zhou, Bin; Cong, Elaine; Wang, Ji; Lee, James A.; Kepley, Anna; Zhang, Chengchen; Guo, X. Edward; Silverberg, Shonni J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (25OHD <20 ng/ml) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have more severe disease reflected by higher serum PTH levels compared to those with vitamin D levels in the insufficient (20–29 ng/ml) or replete range (≥30 ng/ml). Objective: To study the effect of low vitamin D in PHPT on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture, and bone strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 99 PHPT patients with and without 25OHD insufficiency and deficiency from a university hospital. Outcome Measures: Bone microarchitecture and strength were assessed with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), microfinite element analysis, and individual trabecula segmentation. Results: In this cohort, 25OHD levels were deficient in 18.1%, insufficient in 35.4% and replete in 46.5%. Those with lower 25OHD levels had higher PTH (P < .0001), were younger (P = .001) and tended to weigh more (P = .053). There were no age-, weight- and sex-adjusted between-group differences (<20 vs 20–29 vs ≥30 ng/ml) in any HRpQCT, microfinite element analysis, or individual trabecula segmentation indices. Because few participants had 25OHD below 20 ng/ml, we also compared those with 25OHD below 30 vs at least 30 ng/ml and found only a trend toward lower adjusted cortical vBMD (3.1%, P = .08) and higher cortical porosity (least squares mean ± SEM 7.5 ± 0.3 vs 6.6 ± 0.3%, P = .07) at the tibia but not the radius. Stiffness did not differ at either site. In multiple regression analysis, 25OHD accounted for only three of the 49.2% known variance in cortical vBMD; 25OHD was not significant in the model for cortical porosity at the tibia. Conclusion: Low 25OHD levels are associated with higher PTH levels in PHPT, but contrary to our hypothesis, these differences did not significantly affect vBMD or microarchitecture, nor did they result in lower stiffness. Low vitamin

  16. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  17. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  18. Associations of patella lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Theppeang, Keson; Schwartz, Brian S; Lee, Byung-Kook; Lustberg, Mark E; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Kelsey, Karl T; Parsons, Patrick J; Todd, Andrew C

    2004-06-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was performed to evaluate associations of polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes with patella lead concentrations in 652 lead workers in the Republic of Korea. There was a wide range of patella lead (from below detection limit to 946 microg Pb/g bone mineral), with a mean (standard deviation) of 75.2 (101.0). There were no associations of ALAD or eNOS genotypes with patella lead, but workers with the VDR B allele had significantly (P value < 0.05) higher patella lead (on average, 25% or approximately 6.6 microg Pb/g bone mineral) than lead workers with the VDR bb genotype. There was evidence that the relation between age and patella lead was modified by both the VDR and eNOS genotypes.

  19. FGF-23/Vitamin D Axis in Type 1 Diabetes: The Potential Role of Mineral Metabolism in Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Llauradó, Gemma; Megia, Ana; Cano, Albert; Giménez-Palop, Olga; Simón, Inmaculada; González-Sastre, Montserrat; Berlanga, Eugenio; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) and vitamin D as possible biomarkers of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, assessed as arterial stiffness (AS), in a group of subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and no previous cardiovascular events. Research Design and Methods 68 T1DM patients and 68 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for 1) age, sex, diabetes duration, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lipid profile; 2) microvascular complications; 3) blood concentrations of FGF-23 and mineral metabolism parameters (calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D)); 4) AS, assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV); and 5) low-grade inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6, sTNFαR1, sTNFαR2) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) markers (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin). Results Patients with T1DM had higher aPWV compared with controls (p<0.001), but they did not present differences in 25(OH)D (70.3(50.4–86.2)nmol/L vs. 70.7(59.7–83.0)nmol/L; p = 0.462) and in FGF-23 plasma concentrations (70.1(38.4–151.9)RU/mL vs. 77.6(51.8–113.9)RU/mL; p = 0.329). In T1DM patients, higher concentrations of FGF-23 were positively associated with aPWV after adjusting for eGFR and classical cardiovascular risk factors (model 1: ß = 0.202, p = 0.026), other mineral metabolism parameters (model 2: ß = 0.214, p = 0.015), microvascular complications, low-grade inflammation and ED markers (model 3: ß = 0.170, p = 0.045). Lower 25(OH)D concentrations were also associated with higher aPWV after adjusting for all the above-mentioned factors (model 3: ß = -0.241, p = 0.015). Conclusions We conclude that both FGF-23 plasma concentrations (positively) and 25(OH)D serum concentrations (negatively) are associated with AS in patients with T1DM and no previous cardiovascular events. PMID:26462160

  20. Experimental approaches to nutrition and cancer: fats, calories, vitamins and minerals.

    PubMed

    Good, R A; Lorenz, E; Engelman, R; Day, N K

    1990-01-01

    Chronic energy intake restriction (CEIR) inhibits lymphoproliferative disease, autoimmune-based renal disease and mammary adenocarcinoma in mice of numerous short-lived strains (MRL/lpr, C3H/Bi, C3H/Ou). Doubling and tripling of life span and health span and inhibition of development of diseases associated with aging could be attributed to restriction of calories but not to restriction of dietary fat in the absence of calorie restriction. In mice of both long- and short-lived strains, CEIR dramatically prevents the waning of immunologic vigor that commonly occurs with aging, delays thymic involution, impairs formation of circulating immune complexes, prevents the renal injury that accompanies autoimmune disease, and significantly forestalls development of genetically determined lymphoproliferative or neoplastic disease. Evidence suggests that CEIR may exert these beneficial influences in part through regulation of cellular proliferation. Trace elements, particularly zinc, as well as vitamins may play important roles in maintaining immunocompetence and also appear to be of significance in the dietary prevention of certain experimental cancers.

  1. Short communication: Fat-soluble vitamin and mineral status of milk replacer-fed dairy calves: effect of growth rate during the preruminant period.

    PubMed

    Nonnecke, B J; Foote, M R; Miller, B L; Beitz, D C; Horst, R L

    2010-06-01

    Effects of growth rate on fat-soluble vitamin and macro- and micromineral concentrations in the circulation of preruminant dairy calves were evaluated. Dietary treatments were designed to achieve 3 targeted rates of gain [no growth (NG)=0.0 kg/d; low growth (LG)=0.55 kg/d; or high growth (HG)=1.2 kg/d] over a 7-wk period. Milk replacer (MR) intakes necessary to achieve these growth rates were estimated using the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle calf model computer program. All of the calves were fed a 30% crude protein, 20% fat MR reconstituted to 14% dry matter. The diets were formulated to ensure that protein was not a limiting nutrient. No-growth and LG calves were supplemented additionally with vitamins A, D, and E to compensate for treatment differences in dry matter intake relative to the HG calves; however, no attempt was made to adjust mineral intake based on MR consumption. Growth rates for NG (0.11 kg/d), LG (0.58 kg/d), and HG (1.16 kg/d) calves differed during the study. Health was minimally affected by growth rate and this was reflected by comparable and relatively low serum haptoglobin concentrations in all calves during the 7-wk period. Concentrations of serum retinol, 25-(OH)-vitamin D(3), and zinc were unaffected by growth rate. The HG calves had lower RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations than NG and LG calves at wk 7, suggesting that the increased growth rate of HG calves was associated with increased utilization of vitamin E. Serum concentrations of all vitamins increased with age. Copper, calcium, and phosphorous concentrations in HG calves exceeded those in LG and NG calves during the latter weeks of the study, likely because of increased MR intake by HG calves. Fat-soluble vitamin and mineral concentrations for all treatment groups remained within ranges considered normal for preruminant calves.

  2. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Serum Vitamin D with Low Energy Hip and Distal Radius Fractures: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Motififard, Mehdi; Omidian, Ali; Aghdam, Hossein Akbari; Esmaeali, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D and the status of bone mineral density in patients with low-energy hip and distal radius fracture. Methods: This retrospective case-control study was performed between January 2013 and January 2014. Participants aged 55 years or older were divided to case group including 85 patients with low-energy hip fracture and 83 patients with low-energy distal radius fractures, and 82 subjects as a matched control group. Bone mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum sample was obtained to check vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and protein. Results: Study subjects for final evaluation consisted of 78 in hip and distal radius fracture groups and 80 in control group. There were no significant differences in the mean serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase between the three groups. The overall mean serum level of vitamin D3 was significantly different among the three groups. Similar results were observed with hip and spine t-score between the groups. Conclusion: There is not only a direct relation between serum vitamin D and the risk of low energy hip and distal radius fractures, but also a significant relation between low bone density in hip and spine area with low serum calcium was observed. PMID:28271083

  3. Zebrafish vitamin K epoxide reductases: expression in vivo, along extracellular matrix mineralization and under phylloquinone and warfarin in vitro exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ignacio; Vijayakumar, Parameswaran; Marques, Carlos; Cancela, M Leonor; Gavaia, Paulo J; Laizé, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin K (VK) acts as a cofactor driving the biological activation of VK-dependent proteins and conferring calcium-binding properties to them. As a result, VK is converted into VK epoxide, which must be recycled by VK epoxide reductases (Vkors) before it can be reused. Although VK has been shown to play a central role in fish development, particularly during skeletogenesis, pathways underlying VK actions are poorly understood, while good and reliable molecular markers for VK cycle/homeostasis are still lacking in fish. In the present work, expression of 2 zebrafish vkor genes was characterized along larval development and in adult tissues through qPCR analysis. Zebrafish cell line ZFB1 was used to evaluate in vitro regulation of vkors and other VK cycle-related genes during mineralization and upon 24 h exposure to 0.16 and 0.8 µM phylloquinone (VK1), 0.032 µM warfarin, or a combination of both molecules. Results showed that zebrafish vkors are differentially expressed during larval development, in adult tissues, and during cell differentiation/mineralization processes. Further, several VK cycle intermediates were differentially expressed in ZFB1 cells exposed to VK1 and/or warfarin. Present work provides data identifying different developmental stages and adult tissues where VK recycling is probably highly required, and shows how genes involved in VK cycle respond to VK nutritional status in skeletal cells. Expression of vkor genes can represent a reliable indicator to infer VK nutritional status in fish, while ZFB1 cells could represent a suitable in vitro tool to get insights into the mechanisms underlying VK action on fish bone.

  4. Perspectives on obesity and sweeteners, folic acid fortification and vitamin D requirements.

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H

    2008-12-01

    This review summarizes three controversial areas of clinical practice that were discussed in many articles that appeared in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition during the author's tenure as editor in chief. Controversy 1-obesity and high-fructose corn syrup. The increased frequency of obesity in the US is paralleled by increasing annual consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, an extracted sweetener that is routinely added to soft drinks and to many processed foods in the US diet. Metabolic studies implicate increased fructose consumption in increased body fat and obesity and with increased circulating triglyceride levels and hypercholesterolaemia in children. Controversy 2-folic acid fortification and supplements. Together with widespread use of supplemental multivitamins, fortification of the US diet with folic acid has resulted in high serum folate levels in much of the population, which may be associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in ageing people with low vitamin B12 status, decreased natural killer T-cell immune function and increased risk of recurrent advanced precancerous colorectal adenomas and breast cancer. Controversy 3-recommended intakes of vitamin D. Levels of serum 25(OH)D sufficient for fracture prevention are at least 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml) but cannot be achieved by the current recommended dietary intakes in the US. A recent fracture risk prevention trial showed that the 4-year incidence of all cancers was reduced in US women who received high supplemental doses of both calcium and vitamin D.

  5. The WHO evidence-informed guideline development process and implications for vitamin and mineral research priorities: symposium rationale and summary.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Tovey, David; Lutter, Chessa K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    The WHO evidence-informed guidelines provide recommendations to Member States and their partners on interventions with vitamins and minerals. Evidence gathered and synthesized through systematic reviews contributes to the development of these guidelines, a process that is dependent on the availability and quality of evidence. Although the guideline development process is stringently governed and supervised to maintain clarity and transparency, the lack of adequacy and specificity of available evidence poses limitations to the formulation of recommendations that can be easily applied for policy and program decision making in diverse contexts. The symposium created a space for dialogue among scientists and public health practitioners to improve the understanding of how evidence fulfills the needs and reflect on mechanisms by which policy and program guidance and priorities for research could be better informed by policy and program needs. Ultimately, programmatic success depends not only on identifying efficacious agents but ensuring effective delivery to those with the potential to respond. To do this, we must understand the rationale for recommending interventions, the biological pathways by which interventions work, delivery systems required to make efficacious interventions work, and other contextual factors that might limit or facilitate successful implementation.

  6. Evidence of association of vitamin D receptor Apa I gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Umit; Solak, Mustafa; Kavuncu, Vural; Ozdemir, Mujgan; Cakir, Tuncay; Yildiz, Handan; Evcik, Deniz

    2009-10-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was the first candidate gene to be studied in relation to osteoporosis, and most attention has focused on polymorphisms situated near the 3' flank of VDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the association about VDR gene Apa I polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We studied a total of 136 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 56.36 +/- 10.29 years. Among them, a total of 75 had osteoporosis, 37 had osteopenia, and 24 had normal BMD. Venous blood samples were obtained for evaluation of bone metabolism and genotyping. The VDR Apa I genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. BMDs at the lumbar spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with aa genotype had significantly lower BMD values (grams per centimeter square) at lumbar spines compared to persons with AA genotype. Also, postmenopausal women with AA genotype had significantly higher serum Ca level than the subjects with aa genotype. In conclusion, our result may indicate that VDR Apa I gene polymorphism may be responsible for a important part of the heritable component of lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, possibly related to impaired calcium absorption from the bowel.

  7. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  8. Foods contributing to absolute intake and variance in intake of selected vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber in middle-aged Japanese.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, N; Tokudome, Y; Ikeda, M; Kitagawa, I; Fujiwara, N; Tokudome, S

    1999-10-01

    Using 351 one-day weighted diet records, we selected foods providing vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber according to contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Vitamin C was supplied by various vegetables and fruits, and carotene was specifically derived from green-yellow vegetables based on MRA as well as CA. Vitamin A was provided by green-yellow vegetables, fruits, chicken egg and milk (whole) according to CA; whereas chicken liver and pork liver were major sources according to MRA. Vitamin E was mainly of vegetable origin as determined by CA, and largely of spinach, safflower oil and pumpkin as determined by MRA. Vitamin D was mainly derived from chicken egg, fish and mushroom based on CA, and particularly from fish based on MRA. Calcium was supplied by milk (whole), soy products and chicken egg as determined by CA; while milk, tofu and various small fishes were the main contributors to variance. Magnesium was provided by soy products, well-milled rice and spinach according to both analyses, and iron by chicken egg, spinach and soy products. Zinc was largely derived from well-milled rice, followed by chicken egg and milk (whole) as determined by CA, and copper was provided by well-milled rice, soy and wheat products. Dietary fiber was supplied by vegetable sources, whether water soluble or insoluble, based on both analytic methods.

  9. Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Robertson, B; Reay, J; Brewster-Maund, C; Luedemann, J; Maggini, S; Ruf, M; Zangara, A; Scholey, A B

    2008-01-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) extracts are most commonly used in Western markets as putatively psychoactive food and drink additives. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study assessed the acute effects of either a vitamin/mineral/guaraná supplement or placebo drink in 129 healthy young adults (18-24 years). Participants completed a 10min version of the Cognitive Demand Battery (comprising: Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks, a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, 'mental fatigue' scale). Thirty minutes following their drink participants made six consecutive completions of the battery (i.e. 60 min). The vitamin/mineral/guaraná combination resulted in improved task performance, in comparison to placebo, in terms of both increased speed and accuracy of performing the RVIP task throughout the post-dose assessment. The increase in mental fatigue associated with extended task performance was also attenuated by the supplement. This research supports previous findings demonstrating guaraná's cognition enhancing properties and provides evidence that its addition to a multi-vitamin-mineral supplement can improve cognitive performance and reduce the mental fatigue associated with sustained mental effort.

  10. Docosahexanoic Acid Plus Vitamin D Treatment Improves Features of NAFLD in Children with Serum Vitamin D Deficiency: Results from a Single Centre Trial

    PubMed Central

    De Vito, Rita; De Stefanis, Cristiano; Alisi, Anna; Cianfarani, Stefano; Overi, Diletta; Mosca, Antonella; Stronati, Laura; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Raponi, Massimiliano; Gaudio, Eugenio; Byrne, Christopher D.; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background There are no licensed treatments for non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults or children. In NAFLD, several studies have shown a benefit of omega-3 fatty acid treatment on lipid profile, insulin-sensitivity and hepatic steatosis and it has also been suggested that Vitamin D treatment has potential antifibrotic properties in liver disease. Trial Design To date, however, there are no studies that have tested the combination of Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and vitamin D treatment which may benefit the whole spectrum of disease in NAFLD. Our aim therefore, was to test the effect of daily DHA (500 mg) plus vitamin D (800 IU) treatment, in obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD and vitamin D deficiency, in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods The 41/43 patients completed the study (18-treatment, 23-placebo). At 12 months: i) the main outcome was liver histology improvement, defined by NAS; ii) the secondary outcome was amelioration of metabolic parameters. Results DHA plus vitamin D treatment reduced the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS), in the treatment group (5.4 v1.92; p<0.001 for baseline versus end of study). There was no change in fibrosis score, but a reduction of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and fibrillar collagen content was noted (3.51±1.66 v. 1.59±1.37; p = 0.003) in treatment group. Moreover, the triglycerides (174.5 vs. 102.15 mg/dl), ALT (40.25 vs. 24.5 UI/l) and HOMA-IR (4.59 vs. 3.42) were all decreased with treatment. Conclusion DHA plus vitamin D treatment improved insulin-resistance, lipid profile, ALT and NAS. There was also decreased HSC activation and collagen content with treatment. PMID:27977757

  11. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Moyano, M A; Segall, A

    2011-01-01

    Skin becomes thin, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled with age. Retinoids are a large class of compounds that are important in modern therapy for dermatological treatment of wrinkled skin. Of the retinoids, retinol and vitamin A palmitate are thought to induce thickening of the epidermis and to be effective for treatment of skin diseases. Accordingly, α-lipoic acid or the reduced form, dihydrolipoate, are potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide with anti-inflammatory properties (1). Cosmetic ingredient stability prediction relies on kinetic quantitative chemical analysis of active components at different temperatures. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid, are known to be unstable to light or heat (2). The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate in the presence of vitamin E (acetate) and other antioxidants in lipophilic/hydrophilic medium (O/W emulsions) at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The formulations that were investigated contained 0.12% (w/w) vitamin A palmitate, 0.4% (w/w) vitamin E acetate, and 0.5 % α-lipoic acid (formulation A), supplemented with ascorbyl palmitate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and vitamin C (formulation B) or with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT, formulation C) or ascorbyl palmitate (formulation D). The chemical analyses of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate were carried out by HPLC. Formulations C and D at pH 7.0 were selected as the most stable for these components. The purpose of this paper is the selection of the most stable formulations for their application in in vivo studies.

  12. Consumption of vitamin B(6) reduces fecal ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, a risk factor for colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Utama, Zaki; Suidasari, Sofya; Zhang, Peipei; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Ei; Kato, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) on the colonic luminal environment, growing male rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. Food intake and growth were unaffected by the dietary treatment. Supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) significantly reduced the production of a fecal secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (the most toxic secondary bile acid and a risk factor for colon cancer), and markedly reduced the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid (a less toxic secondary bile acid) in feces (p<0.05). Increasing dietary vitamin B(6) increased fecal mucin levels (a marker of intestinal barrier function) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) but did not affect fecal immunoglobulin A levels (an index of intestinal immune function). Cecal levels of organic acids were not significantly affected by supplemental dietary vitamin B(6). These results suggest the possibility that dietary vitamin B(6) affects the colonic luminal environment by altering the production of secondary bile acids and mucins.

  13. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings.

    PubMed

    Degerud, Eirik M; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A; Dierkes, Jutta

    2015-11-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking.

  14. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings

    PubMed Central

    Degerud, Eirik M.; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking. PMID:26469774

  15. [Effect of acetic acid on adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Huang, Qiaoyun; Jiang, Xin; Yu, Guifen; Wang, Fang; Li, Xueyuan

    2004-03-01

    This paper studied the effect of acetic acid with different concentrations and pH values on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals (SCCM). The results showed that the pH values for the maximum adsorption of the enzyme were between the IEP of the enzyme and the PZC of SCCM. In the acetic acid systems, the amount of the enzyme adsorbed by SCCM was in the order of goethite > yellow brown soil > latosol > kaolinite > delta-MnO2. A remarkable influence of acetic acid concentration on the adsorption amount and the binding energy of the enzyme was observed. With the increase of the concentration from 0 to 200 mmol.L-1 in the system, acetic acid exhibited an enhanced effect, followed by an inhibition action on the adsorption of the enzyme on SCCM. The changes of the binding energy (K value) for the enzyme on SCCM were on the contrary to those of the maximum adsorption. The possible mechanisms for the influence of acetic acid on the adsorption of enzyme by SCCM were also discussed.

  16. Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Videhult, Frida K.; Öhlund, Inger; Hernell, Olle; West, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    Background High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63–64 °N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n=120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n=113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitamin D intake of 7.5 µg/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p=0.01). Body mass (p<0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p=0.01), total body less head BMC (p=0.02), fat free mass (p<0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p=0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health. PMID

  17. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids: implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (p<0.01) oxidative stress in both mother and pups. This increased maternal oxidative stress resulted in lower (p<0.01) fetal brain DHA levels. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning.

  18. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Aya; Inoue, Maiko; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Obata, Ryo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Shinkai, Shoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-02-05

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for smoking history, age, sex, chronic disease history, supplement use, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low intakes of n-3 fatty acid, α-tocopherol, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene were associated with neovascular AMD (Trend P < 0.0001 for n-3 fatty acid, Trend P < 0.0001 for α-tocopherol, Trend P < 0.0001 for zinc, Trend P = 0.002 for vitamin D, Trend P = 0.04 for vitamin C, Trend P = 0.0004 for β-carotene). There was no association with retinol or cryptoxanthin intake and neovascular AMD (P = 0.67, 0.06).

  19. Discrimination of almonds (Prunus dulcis) geographical origin by minerals and fatty acids profiling.

    PubMed

    Amorello, Diana; Orecchio, Santino; Pace, Andrea; Barreca, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-one almond samples from three different geographical origins (Sicily, Spain and California) were investigated by determining minerals and fatty acids compositions. Data were used to discriminate by chemometry almond origin by linear discriminant analysis. With respect to previous PCA profiling studies, this work provides a simpler analytical protocol for the identification of almonds geographical origin. Classification by using mineral contents data only was correct in 77% of the samples, while, by using fatty acid profiles, the percentages of samples correctly classified reached 82%. The coupling of mineral contents and fatty acid profiles lead to an increased efficiency of the classification with 87% of samples correctly classified.

  20. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion.

  1. [Principal component analysis of mineral elements and fatty acids composition in flaxseed from ten different regions].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Zhao, Feng-Min; Cao, You-Fu; Wang, Mei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shao-Ping; Cai, Zhi-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. China is one of the important producing places of flaxseed. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in flaxseed, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in flaxseed were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the flaxseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of flaxseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed.

  2. Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-25

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by cognitive decline is increasing at an alarming rate and account for a significant proportion of the global disease burden. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that neurocognitive development is influenced by various environmental factors including nutrition. It has been established that nutrition affects the brain throughout life. However, the mechanisms through which nutrition modulates mental health are still not well understood. It has been suggested that the deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids can have adverse effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Studies indicate a need for supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of cognitive decline, although the results of intervention trials using these nutrients in isolation are inconclusive. In the present article, we provide an overview of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids, the possible mechanisms and the evidences through which vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids modulate mental health and cognition. Understanding the role of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on brain functioning may provide important clues to prevent early cognitive deficits and later neurobehavioral disorders.

  3. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  4. [CKD-MBD (Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder). Effect of vitamin D on kidney and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hideki

    2010-07-01

    Recently, many investigators have reported that treatment with vitamin D improves outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease. Though the detailed mechanisms have remained unclear, it has been speculated that such a treatment may prevent progression of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that Vitamin D may attenuate renal injury and ameliorate renal function and proteinuria. In addition, several studies have shown that vitamin D may prevent progression of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and left ventricular hypertrophy. The emerging experimental and clinical evidence has suggested that vitamin D may protect kidney and cardiovascular system.

  5. Raman spectroscopic identification of usnic acid in hydrothermal minerals as a potential Martian analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterrothová, Kateřina; Jehlička, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy using 785 nm excitation was tested as a nondestructive method for determining the presence of the potential biomarker, usnic acid, in experimentally prepared mineral matrices. Investigated samples consisting of usnic acid mixed with powdered hydrothermal minerals, gypsum and calcite were studied. Various concentrations of usnic acid in the mineral matrix were studied to determine the detection limits of this biomarker. Usnic acid was mixed with gypsum (respectively, calcite) and covered by a UV-transparent crystal of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O), thereby creating artificial inclusions similar to those which could be present in Martian minerals. A Raman usnic acid signal at the concentration level as low as 1 g kg -1 was obtained in the powdered mineral matrix and 5 g kg -1 when analyzed through the monocrystal. The number of registered usnic acid key Raman bands was dependent on the particular mineral matrix. If a similar concentration of usnic acid could persist in Martian samples, then Raman spectroscopy will be able to identify it. Obtained results will aid both in situ Raman analyses on Mars and on Earth.

  6. Entacapone is an Antioxidant More Potent than Vitamin C and Vitamin E for Scavenging of Hypochlorous Acid and Peroxynitrite, and the Inhibition of Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron Y.; Lü, Jian-Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Entacapone (ENT), a clinical drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, has been shown to have antioxidant effects, but little is known about its antioxidant mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to determine the antioxidant activity of ENT against different species of oxidants and compared it with that of vitamin C and vitamin E. We also determined the effect of ENT on oxidative stress-induced cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Material/Methods The total antioxidant activities of ENT, vitamin C and vitamin E were determined with a standard DPPH-scavenging assay. Specific assays to determine ENT’s scavenging activity on hypochlorous acid (HOCl), peroxynitrite (ONOO−), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the chelating effect on Fe(II) were used. H2O2-induced cell death in HUVECs was determined with the MTT assay. Results ENT (10 and 20 μM) scavenged 60% and 83% of DPPH activity, respectively. These percentages were greater than those resulting from using the same concentrations of vitamin C and vitamin E. ENT’s HOCl-scavenging activity was concentration-dependent and 8 to 20 times stronger than those of vitamin C and vitamin E. ENT’s ONOO−-scavenging activity was 8% to 30% stronger than that of vitamin C. However, ENT, vitamin C, and vitamin E were not able to directly scavenge H2O2, and did not show any chelating effect on Fe(II). Importantly ENT, but not vitamin C or vitamin E, inhibited H2O2-induced cell death in HUVECs. Conclusions ENT is an antioxidant that can scavenge toxic HOCl and ONOO− species and inhibit oxidative stress-induced cell death more effectively than vitamin C and vitamin E. ENT may have new clinical applications as an antioxidant in the treatment of ROS-induced diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26927838

  7. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  8. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  9. Effect of vitamin E on milk composition of grazing dairy cows supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mella, Monica; Hernández-Mendo, Omar; Ramírez-Bribiesca, Efren Jacinto; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Crosby-Galván, María M; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on the fat content and fatty acid profile of grazing dairy cows supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid. Eight New Zealand Holstein cows in a rotational grazing system were used, in a crossover design, randomly assigned to four treatments: control (base diet with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid) and three levels of vitamin E (control with 4,000; 8,000; and 12,000 IU/cow per day). All the cows received a supplement apportioning 5 g of cis-9, trans-11, and 5 g of trans-10, cis-12 of conjugated linoleic acid. Moreover, they each received 4-kg dry matter (DM) concentrate and 3.2-kg DM corn silage every day. There were no differences in dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose), or fatty acid profile as an effect of vitamin E, and fat content remained under 3 % in all treatments. Therefore, under the conditions that this experiment was carried out, high concentrations of vitamin E in the diet of grazing dairy cows do not inhibit milk fat depression associated with conjugated linoleic acid. It also has no effect on the fatty acid profile of the milk.

  10. Osteoporosis in healthy South Indian males and the influence of life style factors and vitamin d status on bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sahana; Kapoor, Nitin; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Prabu, Suresh; Thomas, Nihal; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in healthy men and to explore the influence of various life style factors on bone mineral density (BMD) and also to look at number of subjects warranting treatment. Methods. Ambulatory south Indian men aged above 50 were recruited by cluster random sampling. The physical activity, risk factors in the FRAX tool, BMD, vitamin D, and PTH were assessed. The number of people needing treatment was calculated, which included subjects with osteoporosis and osteopenia with 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture >20 percent and hip fracture >3 percent in FRAX India. Results. A total of 252 men with a mean age of 58 years were studied. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia at any one site was 20% (50/252) and 58%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dL) was seen in 53%. On multiple logistic regression, BMI (OR 0.3; P value = 0.04) and physical activity (OR 0.4; P value < 0.001) had protective effect on BMD. Twenty-five percent warranted treatment. Conclusions. A significantly large proportion of south Indian men had osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency. Further interventional studies are needed to look at reduction in end points like fractures in these subjects.

  11. [Effect of the B-group vitamin complex on the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vodoevich, V P; Buko, V U

    1986-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, under the influence of the functionally-associated vitamin-B complex, in 45 patients with coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. The vitamins were given daily in the following doses: thiamine diphosphate 50 mg, riboflavine 40 mg, calcium pantothenate 200 mg, nicotinic acid 200 mg and lipoic acid 50 mg. Favourable shifts leading to positive clinical effects were recorded in the fatty acid metabolism after 10-day taking the vitamin-B complex: the content of unsaturated (linoleic and arachidonic) fatty acids increased while that of saturated (stearic and palmitic) fatty acids decreased.

  12. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  13. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  14. Effects of natural acids on surface properties of asbestos minerals and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Lavkulich, Les M; Schreier, Hanspeter E; Wilson, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    Serpentine, and other asbestos minerals, are considered potential hazards to human respiratory health. It has been postulated that the surface characteristics of these substances, such as surface charge and adsorbed metals, notably Fe and other transition metals, may be the major agents responsible for their toxicity. There is a general consensus that the amphibole group of minerals possesses a greater health risk than serpentines dominated by chrysotile. There have been suggestions that natural processes can alter the surfaces of these minerals and reduce their potency. This study examined the effects of carbonic acid, oxalic acid and hydrochloric acid on the surface characteristics of two trioctahedral minerals, actinolite (amphibole) and chrysotile (serpentine), and compared the results to a non-asbestiform, dioctahedral mineral, kaolinite. Results confirm that the treatments alter the mineral surfaces by changing the zeta potential of the asbestiform minerals from positive to negative and by removing considerable amounts on non-crystalline Fe and other metals. X-ray analyses indicated that mineral structure was little affected by the treatments, and TOF-SIMS revealed that treatments did remove surface adsorbed metals and cations in octahedral coordination within the samples.

  15. Immunoassay for folic acid detection in vitamin-fortified milk based on electrochemical magneto sensors.

    PubMed

    Lermo, A; Fabiano, S; Hernández, S; Galve, R; Marco, M-P; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2009-03-15

    An immunoassay-based strategy for folic acid in vitamin-fortified milk with electrochemical detection using magneto sensors is described for the first time. Among direct and indirect competitive formats, best performance was achieved with an indirect competitive immunoassay. The immunological reaction for folic acid (FA) detection was performed, for the first time on the magnetic bead as solid support by the covalent immobilization of a protein conjugate BSA-FA on tosyl-activated magnetic bead. Further competition for the specific antibody between FA in the food sample and FA immobilized on the magnetic bead was achieved, followed by the reaction with a secondary antibody conjugated with HRP (AntiIgG-HRP). Then, the modified magnetic beads were easily captured by a magneto sensor made of graphite-epoxy composite (m-GEC) which was also used as the transducer for the electrochemical detection. The performance of the immunoassay-based strategy with electrochemical detection using magneto sensors was successfully evaluated using spiked-milk samples and compared with a novel magneto-ELISA based on optical detection. The detection limit was found to be of the order of microgl(-1) (13.1 nmoll(-1), 5.8 microgl(-1)) for skimmed milk. Commercial vitamin-fortified milk samples were also evaluated obtaining good accuracy in the results. This novel strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective and on-site analysis of biological and food samples.

  16. Vitamin C fails to protect amino acids and lipids from oxidation during acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Joseph P; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq; Byun, Jaeman; Roberts, L Jackson; Maeda, Nobuyo; Frei, Balz; Heinecke, Jay W

    2006-05-01

    The observation that antioxidant vitamins fail to confer protective benefits in large, well-designed randomized clinical trials has led many to question the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of disease. However, there is little evidence that proposed antioxidants actually scavenge reactive intermediates in vivo. Ascorbate reacts rapidly with oxidants produced by activated neutrophils in vitro, and neutrophils markedly increase their oxidant production when mice are infected intraperitoneally with the gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. To explore the antioxidant properties of ascorbate in vivo, we therefore used K. pneumoniae infection as a model of oxidative stress. When mice deficient in L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (Gulo(-/-)), the rate-limiting enzyme in ascorbate synthesis, were depleted of ascorbate and infected with K. pneumoniae, they were three times as likely as ascorbate-replete Gulo(-/-)mice to die from infection. Mass spectrometric analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid revealed a marked increase in the levels of oxidized amino acids and of F2-isoprostanes (sensitive and specific markers of lipid oxidation) in infected animals. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in the levels of the oxidation products in the ascorbate-deficient and -replete Gulo(-/-)mice. Our observations suggest that ascorbate plays a previously unappreciated role in host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens but that the vitamin does not protect amino acids and lipids from oxidative damage during acute inflammation. To examine the oxidation hypothesis of disease, optimal antioxidant regimens that block oxidative reactions in animals and humans need to be identified.

  17. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Graulet, B; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Doepel, L; Palin, M-F; Girard, C L

    2007-07-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 given from 3 wk before to 8 wk after calving on lactational performance and metabolism of 24 multiparous Holstein cows assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Supplementary folic acid at 0 or 2.6 g/d and vitamin B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Supplementary folic acid increased milk production from 38.0 +/- 0.9 to 41.4 +/- 1.0 kg/d and milk crude protein yield from 1.17 +/- 0.02 to 1.25 +/- 0.03 kg/d. It also increased plasma Gly, Ser, Thr, and total sulfur AA, decreased Asp, and tended to increase plasma Met. Supplementary B12 decreased milk urea N, plasma Ile, and Leu and tended to decrease Val but increased homocysteine, Cys, and total sulfur AA. Liver concentration of phospholipids was higher in cows fed supplementary B12. Plasma and liver concentrations of folates and B12 were increased by their respective supplements, but the increase in plasma folates and plasma and liver B12 was smaller for cows fed the 2 vitamins together. In cows fed folic acid supplements, supplementary B12 increased plasma glucose and alanine, tended to decrease plasma biotin, and decreased Km of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in hepatic tissues following addition of deoxyadenosylcobalamin, whereas it had no effect when cows were not fed folic acid supplements. There was no treatment effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acids as well as specific activity and gene expression of Met synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in the liver. Ingestion of folic acid supplements by cows fed no supplementary B12 increased total lipid and triacylglycerols in liver, whereas these supplements had no effect in cows supplemented with B12. The increases in milk and milk protein yields due to folic acid supplements did not seem to be dependent on the vitamin B12 supply. However, when vitamin B12 was given in

  18. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, H; Osnes, K; Refsum, H; Solberg, D K; Bøhmer, T

    2013-12-17

    Membrane lipid metabolism and redox regulation may be disturbed in schizophrenia. We examined the clinical effect of adding an omega-3 fatty acid and/or vitamins E+C to antipsychotics. It was hypothesized that lower baseline levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) would predict more benefit from the add-on treatment. The trial had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design. Patients aged 18-39 years with schizophrenia or related psychoses were consecutively included at admission to psychiatric departments in Norway. They received active or placebo ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (EPA) 2 g day⁻¹ and active or placebo vitamin E 364 mg day⁻¹+vitamin C 1000 mg day⁻¹ (vitamins) for 16 weeks. The main outcome measures were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscales scores, analyzed by linear mixed models. Ninety-nine patients were included. At baseline, erythrocyte PUFA were measured in 97 subjects. Given separately, EPA and vitamins increased drop-out rates, whereas when combined they did not differ from placebo. In low PUFA patients, EPA alone impaired the course of total PANSS (Cohen's d=0.29; P=0.03) and psychotic symptoms (d=0.40; P=0.003), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.48; P=0.0004). Vitamins alone impaired the course of psychotic symptoms (d= 0.37; P=0.005), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.47; P=0.0005). Adding vitamins to EPA neutralized the detrimental effect on psychosis (interaction d=0.31; P=0.02). In high PUFA patients, there were no significant effects of trial drugs on PANSS scales. In conclusion, given separately during an acute episode, EPA and vitamins E+C induce psychotic symptoms in patients with low levels of PUFA. Combined, these agents seem safe.

  19. Pilot scale mineralization of organic acids by electro-Fenton process plus sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Casado, Juan; Fornaguera, Jordi; Galán, Maria Isabel

    2006-07-01

    The viability of the electro-Fenton degradation of aqueous solutions of benzoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and oxalic acid has been studied at 20 A using a pilot flow reactor containing an anode and an oxygen diffusion cathode, both of 100 cm(2) section. Pollutants were preferentially oxidized by hydroxyl radicals formed in solution from reaction of Fe(2+) with electrogenerated H(2)O(2), allowing mineralization of benzoic acid and 2,4-D. For oxalic acid no electrochemical mineralization was observed. After electrolysis, samples of the different effluents were exposed to sunlight (Helielectro-Fenton process) and almost complete mineralization was reached after ca. 30-50 min without additional cost. Effects of parameters such as electrolysis time, pH and solar irradiation time on the process efficiencies were studied.

  20. LC/UV/MS-MRM for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multi-vitamin dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Wolf, Wayne R

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize chromatographic and detection conditions for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multi-vitamin dietary supplements using a single chromatographic run. An approach using liquid chromatography with diode array and/or mass spectrometry for quantitation of seven B-complex vitamins [thiamine (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)), nicotinamide (B(3)), pyridoxine (B(6)) pyridoxine, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid] in multi-vitamin/multi-mineral daily supplements is described. This approach utilizes a reversed phase C18 column (4 mum; i.d.: 250x2.0 mm) with a gradient mobile elution profile, performed at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. After a 5-min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min and then to 5% A and 95% B at 17 min was employed. Detection was performed with a photodiode array detector (DAD) in sequence with a triple-quad mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction mode (MS-MRM). Although good chromatographic separation of ascorbic acid was also obtained in extracts from multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplements, the ascorbic acid could not be quantified properly due to rapid oxidation catalyzed by the minerals. This method was initially applied to determine water-soluble vitamins in representative multi-vitamin/multi-mineral tablets following the extraction of ground samples with a phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.5). For multi-vitamin supplement tablets, this approach does not require any sample clean-up/pre-concentration steps except for centrifugation and filtration of the extract.

  1. Phosphate binders, Vitamin D and Calcimimetics in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorders (CKD-MBD) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B.

    2013-01-01

    In order to minimize complications on the skeleton and to prevent extraskeletal calcifications, the specific aims of the management of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) are to maintain blood levels of serum calcium and phosphorus as close to the normal range as possible, thereby maintaining serum PTH at levels appropriate for stage of CKD, preventing hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, avoiding the development of extra-skeletal calcifications, and preventing or reversing the accumulation of toxic substances such as aluminum and β2-microglobulin. In order to limit cardiovascular calcification, daily intake of elemental calcium, including from dietary sources and from phosphate binders, should not exceed twice the daily recommended intake for age and should not exceed 2.5 g/day. Calcium-free phosphate binders such as sevelamer hydrochloride and sevelamer carbonate are safe and effective alternatives to calcium-based binders and their use widens the margin of safety for active vitamin D sterol therapy. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent across the spectrum of CKD and replacement therapy is recommended in vitamin D deficient and insufficient individuals. Therapy with active vitamin D sterols is recommended after correction of vitamin D deficiency state and should be titrated based on target PTH levels across the spectrum of CKD. Although the use of calcimimetics drugs have proven to effectively control the biochemical features of secondary hyperparathyroidism, there is very limited experience with the use of such agent in pediatric patients and mainly during the first years of life. Studies are needed to further define the role of such agents in the treatment of pediatric CKDMBD. PMID:23381010

  2. On the formation of niacin (vitamin B3) and pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar model ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Turner, Andrew M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was simulated by electron exposures of binary pyridine (C5H5N)-carbon dioxide (CO2) ice mixtures at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Chemical processing of the pristine ice and subsequent warm-up phase was monitored on line and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe for the formation of new radiation induced species. In the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice, bands assigned to nicotinic acid (niacin; vitamin B3; m-C5H4NCOOH) along with 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (C5H3N(COOH)2) were unambiguously identified along with the hydroxycarbonyl (HOCO) radical. Our study suggests that the reactive pathway responsible for pyridine carboxylic acids formation involves a HOCO intermediate, which forms through the reaction of suprathermal hydrogen ejected from pyridine with carbon dioxide. The newly formed pyridinyl radical may then undergo radical-radical recombination with a hydroxycarbonyl radical to form a pyridine carboxylic acid.

  3. Vitamin D in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Patton, Chad M; Powell, Amy P; Patel, Alpesh A

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D is an important component in musculoskeletal development, maintenance, and function. Adequate levels of vitamin D correlate with greater bone mineral density, lower rates of osteoporotic fractures, and improved neuromuscular function. Debate exists about both adequate levels required and intake requirements needed to prevent deficiency of vitamin D. Epidemiologic data have identified an increasing number of orthopaedic patients at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with potentially widespread consequences for bone healing, risk of fracture, and neuromuscular function.

  4. Osteo-maturation of adipose-derived stem cells required the combined action of vitamin D3, beta-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anurag; Leong, David Tai; Bai, Hui Fen; Singh, Shiv Brat; Lim, Thiam-Chye; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2007-10-12

    This study investigated the effects of various components [vitamin D3 (VD3), beta-glycerophosphate (BGP), and ascorbic acid (AA)] on the potential of human adipose-derived progenitor cells (ADPCs) to transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells. ADPCs were induced under four different supplement groups: (1) VD3+BGP+AA, (2) VD3 alone, (3) BGP+AA, and (4) no VD3, BGP or AA. Mineralization studies and presence of bone matrix-related proteins by immunostaining showed that the Group 1 ADPCs showed their ability to undergo osteoblastic differentiation. Further evaluation was made by estimation of levels of RUNX-2 and TAZ genes. Group 1 ADPCs showed the consistent expression of RUNX-2 and TAZ levels over the study period of 28days. The study showed good correlation among various parameters evaluated to conclude that ADPCs could be an alternative source for generating osteoblast-like cells.

  5. Hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D3 and vitamin K1 favorably impact biomarkers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women in a 14-week trial.

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F; Lamb, Joseph J; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Darland, Gary; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2010-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue facing postmenopausal women. Increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting from declining estrogen leads to increased bone resorption. Nutrition can have a positive impact on osteoporosis prevention and amelioration. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of targeted phytochemicals and nutrients essential for bone health on bone turnover markers in healthy postmenopausal women. In this 14-week, single-blinded, 2-arm placebo-controlled pilot study, all women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in limited aerobic exercise; 17 randomized to the placebo and 16 to the treatment arm (receiving 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 500 microg vitamin K(1), twice daily). Thirty-two women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. At 14 weeks, the treatment arm exhibited an estimated 31% mean reduction (P = 0.02) in serum osteocalcin (a marker of bone turnover), whereas the placebo arm exhibited a 19% increase (P = 0.03) compared to baseline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) increased by 13% (P = 0.24) in the treatment arm and decreased by 25% (P < 0.01) in the placebo arm. The between-arm differences for OC and 25(OH)D were statistically significant. Serum IGF-I was increased in both arms, but the increase was more significant in the treatment arm at 14 weeks (P < 0.01). Treatment with hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine sulfate trihydrate, vitamin D(3) and vitamin K(1) produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile that supports a healthy bone metabolism.

  6. [A two-faced vitamin : Folic acid - prevention or promotion of colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Weißenborn, Anke; Ehlers, Anke; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-I; Lampen, Alfonso; Niemann, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    In the late 1930s, it was discovered that liver and yeast extracts can be used to correct certain cases of megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy. The factor responsible for this was isolated from spinach leaves in the 1940s, and referred to as folate, a term derived from the Latin word folium for leaf. Folate is considered an essential nutrient for human beings. Folic acid, the synthetic form of the vitamin, is used in dietary supplements, medicines and fortified foods. Since the 1980s, it has been recommended that women who plan to become pregnant and pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy take folic acid supplements. This recommendation was based on studies that revealed that periconceptional folic acid supplementation can reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Many countries later implemented folic acid fortification programs. The resulting population-wide increase of folic acid intakes led to significant reductions in NTD rates. However, a temporarily increased colorectal cancer incidence has been reported to coincide with the fortification programs in the USA and Canada. On the basis of currently available data from experimental and human studies it can be concluded that the association between folate/folic acid and cancer is rather complex: Folate intake in the range of the dietary reference intake (DRI) is associated with a reduced risk for cancer in healthy populations, whereas high intakes of folic acid might result in an increased risk for cancer incidence or progression in persons with precancerous lesions and under certain conditions. Since no adverse effects have been observed in association with the intake of dietary folate, research activities that aim at investigating cause and effect relationships focus on folic acid.

  7. Role of Oxalic Acid Overexcretion in Transformations of Toxic Metal Minerals by Beauveria caledonica

    PubMed Central

    Fomina, M.; Hillier, S.; Charnock, J. M.; Melville, K.; Alexander, I. J.; Gadd, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria caledonica was highly tolerant to toxic metals and solubilized cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc minerals, converting them into oxalates. This fungus was found to overexcrete organic acids with strong metal-chelating properties (oxalic and citric acids), suggesting that a ligand-promoted mechanism was the main mechanism of mineral dissolution. Our data also suggested that oxalic acid was the main mineral-transforming agent. Cadmium, copper, and zinc oxalates were precipitated by the fungus in the local environment and also in association with the mycelium. The presence of toxic metal minerals often led to the formation of mycelial cords, and in the presence of copper-containing minerals, these cords exhibited enhanced excretion of oxalic acid, which resulted in considerable encrustation of the cords by copper oxalate hydrate (moolooite). It was found that B. caledonica hyphae and cords were covered by a thick hydrated mucilaginous sheath which provided a microenvironment for chemical reactions, crystal deposition, and growth. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed that mycogenic metal oxalates overgrew parental fungal hyphae, leaving a labyrinth of fungal tunnels within the newly formed mineral matter. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that oxygen ligands played a major role in metal coordination within the fungal biomass during the accumulation of mobilized toxic metals by B. caledonica mycelium; these ligands were carboxylic groups in copper phosphate-containing medium and phosphate groups in pyromorphite-containing medium. PMID:15640211

  8. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  9. Clay Minerals as Solid Acids and Their Catalytic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses catalytic properties of clays, attributed to acidity of the clay surface. The formation of carbonium ions on montmorillonite is used as a demonstration of the presence of surface acidity, the enhanced dissociation of water molecules when polarized by cations, and the way the surface can interact with organic substances. (Author/JN)

  10. Trans-Himalayan Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. root: a novel source of dietary amino acids, fatty acids and minerals.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2017-02-01

    Roots of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew from Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert known for their nutritional and medicinal attributes were evaluated for the dietary amino acids, fatty acids and mineral composition. Nine essential and twelve non-essential amino acids were quantified. The contents ranged between 91.33 and 1640.67 µg/g. Histidine (1434.33 µg/g), lysine (1329.33 µg/g) and threonine (1015.67 μg/g) were dominant essential amino acids, while glycine (1640.67 µg/g), proline (1263.67 µg/g), alanine (1142.33 µg/g), cystine HCL (1136.33 μg/g) and nor leucine (1038.67 μg/g) were major non essential amino acids. The total lipid was found to be rich source of saturated fatty acids such as capric acid (19.91%), caproic acid (10.87%), palmitic acid (9.42%), lignoceric acid (6.16%) and behenic acid (5.71%), which together constituted 52% of the lipid content. Linoleic acid (15.06%), oleic acid (12.38%), arachidonic acid (8.38%), linolelaidic acid (6.11%) and docosadienoic acid (5.99%) were prominent unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were 35.64% and 12.33% of the lipid content respectively. Calcium (11034.17 mg/kg), potassium (2143.25 mg/kg), iron (1441.17 mg/kg), magnesium (581.99 mg/kg), phosphorous (376.72 mg/kg) and sodium (109.75 mg/kg) were detected as the major dietary minerals.

  11. A short-term mineral amendment impacts the mineral weathering bacterial communities in an acidic forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lepleux, C; Uroz, S; Collignon, C; Churin, J-L; Turpault, M-P; Frey-Klett, P

    2013-09-01

    Mineral amendment (i.e. calcium, phosphorous, potassium and/or magnesium) is a management practice used in forestry to improve nutrient availability and recover soil fertility, especially in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems. However, whether this amendment can lead to modifications of the soil characteristics and an improvement in tree growth, and its impact on the soil bacterial communities, especially the mineral weathering bacterial communities, remains poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the short-term impact of a mineral amendment on the taxonomic and functional structure of the mineral weathering bacterial communities. To do this, a plantation of four-year old oak (Quercus petraea) trees amended with or without dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] was established in the experimental forest site of Breuil-Chenue, which is characterized by an acidic soil and a low availability of calcium and magnesium. Three years after amendment, soil samples were used to isolate bacteria as well as to determine the soil characteristics and the metabolic potentials of these soil microbial communities. Based on a bioassay for quantifying the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous, we demonstrate that the bacterial isolates coming from the non-amended bulk soil were significantly more efficient than those from the amended bulk soil. No difference was observed between the bacterial isolates coming from the amended and non-amended rhizospheres. Notably, the taxonomic analyses revealed a dominance of bacterial isolates belonging to the Burkholderia genus in both samples. Overall, our results suggest that the bioavailability of nutritive cations into soil impacts the distribution and the efficacy of mineral weathering bacterial communities coming from the soil but not those coming from the rhizosphere.

  12. Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-04-01

    Many carbonaceous chondrites contain alteration products from water-rock interactions at low temperature and organic compounds. A fascinating fact known for decades is the presence in some of them of an assortment of organic compounds, including amino acids, sometimes called the building blocks of life. Murchison and other CM carbonaceous chondrites contain hundreds of amino acids. Early measurements indicated that the amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites had equal proportions of L- and D-structures, a situation called racemic. This was in sharp contrast to life on Earth, which heavily favors L- forms. However, beginning in 1997, John Cronin and Sandra Pizzarello (Arizona State University) found L- excesses in isovaline and several other amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. In 2009, Daniel Glavin and Jason Dworkin (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center) reported the first independent confirmation of L-isovaline excesses in Murchison using a different analytical technique than employed by Cronin and Pizzarello. Inspired by this work, Daniel Glavin, Michael Callahan, Jason Dworkin, and Jamie Elsila (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center), have done an extensive study of the abundance and symmetry of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites that experienced a range of alteration by water in their parent asteroids. The results show that amino acids are more abundant in the less altered meteorites, implying that aqueous processing changes the mix of amino acids. They also confirmed the enrichment in L-structures of some amino acids, especially isovaline, confirming earlier work. The authors suggest that aqueously-altered planetesimals might have seeded the early Earth with nonracemic amino acids, perhaps explaining why life from microorganisms to people use only L- forms to make proteins. The initial imbalance caused by non-biologic processes in wet asteroids might have been amplified by life on Earth. Alternatively

  13. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  14. Can ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E reduce symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Gumpricht, Eric; Rockway, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, and apraxia, are increasing worldwide and have a profound effect on the behaviors, cognitive skills, mood, and self-esteem of these children. Although the etiologies of these disorders are unclear, they often accompany genetic and biochemical abnormalities resulting in cognitive and communication difficulties. Because cognitive and neural development require essential fatty acids (particularly long-chain ω-3 fatty acids often lacking in mother's and children's diets) during critical growth periods, the potential behavior-modifying effects of these fatty acids as "brain nutrients" has attracted considerable attention. Additionally, there is compelling evidence for increased oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defenses, and neuroinflammation in these children. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific rationale based on cellular, experimental animal model, observational, and clinical intervention studies for incorporating the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E as complementary nutritional therapies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Should this nutritional combination correct key clinical or biochemical outcomes and/or improve behavioral patterns, it would provide a safe, complementary option for these children.

  15. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize.

  16. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  17. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Rafaella de Andrade; MALTA, Flávia Monteiro França; CORREIA, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies. Aim: Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the electronic charts of patients submitted to bariatric surgery involving adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at the São João Hospital Center in the city of Porto, Portugal, between 2005 and 2010. The following data were collected: surgical technique, sex, age, marital status, serum concentrations of vitamin B12, iron and folic acid and postoperative lifestyle. A 5% significance level was used for the statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: Among 286 individuals evaluated, females accounted for 90.9% of the overall sample (both techniques). Gastric banding was performed more (68.9%), but greater nutrient deficiencies were found following gastric bypass. Iron was the most prevalent deficiency (21.3%), followed by vitamin B12 (16.9%) and folic acid (4.5%). Mild to moderate alcohol intake, adherence to the diet and the use of multivitamins reduced the frequency, but did not avoid micronutrient deficiency. Conclusion: Vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies were found in the first and second year following the two bariatric techniques analyzed and were more frequent among individuals submitted to gastric bypass. PMID:27683779

  18. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2010-04-01

    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  20. [The SU.VI.MAX study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals on health].

    PubMed

    Hercberg, S

    2006-11-01

    The SU.VI.MAX study is a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing, for 7,5 years, the effect of a combination of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, at doses considered to be nutritional (120 mg vitamin C, 30 mg vitamin E, 6 mg beta-carotene, 100 microg selenium and 20 mg zinc) in reducing cancer and ischemic vascular disease incidence in a general population (12.741 middle-aged). After 7.5 years, low-dose antioxidant supplementation had no effect on vascular disease incidence. This dose lowered, however, total cancer incidence in men, but not in women. With regard to contradictory results of observational and interventional studies published for the last decades, we can consider that the effect of antioxidants on cancer may depend on the doses (nutritional versus pharmacological), baseline antioxidant status (different between gender and/or nutritional status) and health status of subjects (healthy versus cancer high-risk subjects). Antioxidant supplementation may have a beneficial effect on cancer incidence only in healthy subjects who are not exposed to cancer risk, and with a particularly low baseline status. Finally, antioxidants as well as free radicals appear to be ambiguous nutrients with a wide range of benefits and toxicity. High doses of antioxidant supplements may be deleterious in high-risk subjects without any clinical symptoms in whom the initial phase of cancer development has already started.

  1. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  2. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  3. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  4. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  5. Gla-rich protein is a potential new vitamin K target in cancer: evidences for a direct GRP-mineral interaction.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla S B; Herfs, Marjolein; Rafael, Marta S; Enriquez, José L; Teixeira, Alexandra; Luís, Inês M; van 't Hoofd, Cynthia M R; João, Alexandre; Maria, Vera L; Cavaco, Sofia; Ferreira, Ana; Serra, Manuel; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees; Simes, Dina C

    2014-01-01

    Gla-rich protein (GRP) was described in sturgeon as a new vitamin-K-dependent protein (VKDP) with a high density of Gla residues and associated with ectopic calcifications in humans. Although VKDPs function has been related with γ-carboxylation, the Gla status of GRP in humans is still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of recently identified GRP spliced transcripts, the γ-carboxylation status, and its association with ectopic calcifications, in skin basal cell and breast carcinomas. GRP-F1 was identified as the predominant splice variant expressed in healthy and cancer tissues. Patterns of γ-carboxylated GRP (cGRP)/undercarboxylated GRP (ucGRP) accumulation in healthy and cancer tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry, using newly developed conformation-specific antibodies. Both GRP protein forms were found colocalized in healthy tissues, while ucGRP was the predominant form associated with tumor cells. Both cGRP and ucGRP found at sites of microcalcifications were shown to have in vitro calcium mineral-binding capacity. The decreased levels of cGRP and predominance of ucGRP in tumor cells suggest that GRP may represent a new target for the anticancer potential of vitamin K. Also, the direct interaction of cGRP and ucGRP with BCP crystals provides a possible mechanism explaining GRP association with pathological mineralization.

  6. Triennial Growth Symposium--Effects of dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and cholecalciferol on blood vitamin D and mineral status, bone turnover, milk composition, and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Weber, G M; Witschi, A-K M; Wenk, C; Martens, H

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of vitamin D3 during gestation and lactation of sows, 2 independent experiments were performed with the aim of investigating sow reproductive performance, milk composition (study 1 only), and changes in blood status of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3; study 2 only), minerals, and bone markers of sows during gestation and lactation. Study 1 comprised 39 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows fed 1 of 3 barley meal-based diets fortified with 200 IU/kg vitamin D3 (NRC, 1998; treatment DL), 2,000 IU/kg vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; treatment DN), or 50 μg 25-OH-D3 (calcidiol; treatment HD)/kg feed. This study was conducted over a 4-parity period under controlled conditions. Study 2, running over 1 parity only, was performed in a commercial farm with 227 primi- and multiparous sows allocated to 2 dietary treatments: control (CON), receiving 2,000 IU vitamin D3/kg (equivalent to 50 μg/kg) feed (114 sows), and test (HYD), supplemented with 50 μg 25-OH-D3/kg feed (113 sows). Blood samples of sows were collected at 84 and 110d postcoitum and 1, 5, and 33 d postpartum (study 1) and at insemination and 28 and 80 d postinsemination as well as d 5 and 28 postpartum (study 2). Colostrum and milk samples in study 1 were obtained at 1, 9, and 33 d of lactation after oxytocin administration. Plasma 25-OH-D3 concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in sows receiving 25-OH-D3 (HD and HYD) at any time of sampling whereas circulating plasma concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2-D3, Ca, and P were not affected by treatment. Milk concentrations of Ca and P were similar, but 25-OH-D3 content (except in colostrum) was clearly increased (P< 0.05) when 25-OH-D3 was fed. Most characteristics of sow reproductive performance responded similarly to the 2 sources and levels of vitamin D3, but weight gain of piglets between birth and weaning was decreased (P< 0.05) in offspring of DL and HD sows compared with animals of treatment DN

  7. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system.

  8. Growth of and mineral deposition in young rats fed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, A.; D'Souza, D. John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Male weanling rats were used in 4 week experiments to study effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on growth and mineral deposition in several organs (bone, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes). Minerals evaluated were calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc, and levels of these minerals in tests diets were appropriate for growing rats. Two levels of dietary fat were used, and fatty acids included in the study were butyric/capronic, palmitic/stearic, oleic, and linoleic/linolenic acids. Decreased weight gains were observed in rats fed saturated fatty acids or 10% fat, while increases in weight gains were associated with increases in polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratios. Copper, iron, or zinc levels tended to be higher in organs of rats fed saturated fatty acids. P/S ratios had no effect on copper or zinc deposition, but decreases in liver iron and increases in spleen iron were observed in rats fed the higher P/S ratios. Manganese levels were generally unaffected by fatty acid types, fat level, or P/S ratio, although liver manganese levels were higher in rats fed unsaturated fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids, fat level, or P/S ratios had no apparent effects on calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, or zinc deposition in femurs and tibias of rats.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and its application in evaluating vitamin status in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    B-group vitamins are involved in the catabolism of 2-oxo acids. To identify the functional biomarkers of B-group vitamins, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and applied this method to urine samples from rats deficient in vitamins B1 and B6 and pantothenic acid. 2-Oxo acids were reacted with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenebenzene to produce fluorescent derivatives, which were then separated using a TSKgel ODS-80Ts column with 30 mmol/L of KH2PO4 (pH 3.0):acetonitrile (7:3) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Vitamin B1 deficiency increased urinary levels of all 2-oxo acids, while vitamin B6 deficiency only increased levels of sum of 2-oxaloacetic acid and pyruvic acid, and pantothenic acid deficiency only increased levels of 2-oxoisovaleric acid. Profiles of 2-oxo acids in urine samples might be a non-invasive way of clarifying the functional biomarker of B-group vitamins.

  10. Racial differences in the relationship between vitamin D, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, W. R.; Kermah, D.; Taylor, E. N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary It is unclear whether optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in whites are the same as in minorities. In adult participants of NHANES, the relationships between 25(OH)D, bone mineral density (BMD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) differed in blacks as compared to whites and Mexican-Americans, suggesting that optimal 25(OH)D levels for bone and mineral metabolism may differ by race. Introduction Blacks and Hispanics have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations than whites. However, it is unclear whether 25(OH)D levels considered “optimal” for bone and mineral metabolism in whites are the same as those in minority populations. Methods We examined the relationships between 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone in 8,415 adult participants (25% black and 24% Mexican-American) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003–2004 and 2005–2006; and between 25(OH)D and bone mineral density in 4,206 adult participants (24% black and 24% Mexican-American) in the 2003–2004 sample. Results Blacks and Mexican-Americans had significantly lower 25(OH)D and higher PTH concentrations than whites (P<0.01 for both). BMD significantly decreased (P<0.01) as serum 25(OH)D and calcium intake declined among whites and Mexican-Americans, but not among blacks (P=0.2). The impact of vitamin D deficiency (25 (OH)D≤20 ng/ml) on PTH levels was modified by race/ethnicity (P for interaction, 0.001). Whereas inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and PTH were observed above and below a 25(OH)D level of 20 ng/ml in whites and Mexican-Americans, an inverse association between 25(OH)D and PTH was only observed below this threshold in blacks, with the slope of the relationship being essentially flat (P=0.7) above this cut-point, suggesting that PTH may be maximally suppressed at lower 25(OH)D levels in blacks than in whites or Mexican-Americans. Conclusions The relationships between 25(OH)D, BMD, and PTH may differ by race among US adults. Whether race

  11. Mineralization of three-dimensional osteoblast cultures is enhanced by the interaction of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and BMP2 via two specific vitamin D receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxuan; Dosier, Christopher R; Park, Jung Hwa; De, Subhendu; Guldberg, Robert E; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) are both used to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation. 1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates osteoblasts through classical steroid hormone receptor mechanisms and through rapid responses that are mediated by two receptors, the traditional vitamin D receptor (VDR) and protein disulphide isomerase family A member 3 (Pdia3). The interaction between 1α,25(OH)2D3 and BMP2, especially in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and the roles of the two vitamin D receptors in this interaction are not well understood. We treated wild-type (WT), Pdia3-silenced (Sh-Pdia3) and VDR-silenced (Sh-VDR) pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells with either 1α,25(OH)2D3, or BMP2, or with 1α,25(OH)2D3 and BMP2 together, and measured osteoblast marker expression in 2D culture and mineralization in a 3D poly(ε-caprolactone)-collagen scaffold model. Quantitative PCR showed that silencing Pdia3 or VDR had a differential effect on baseline expression of osteoblast markers. 1α,25(OH)2D3 + BMP2 caused a synergistic increase in osteoblast marker expression in WT cells, while silencing either Pdia3 or VDR attenuated this effect. 1α,25(OH)2D3 + BMP2 also caused a synergistic increase in Dlx5 in both silenced cell lines. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) showed that the mineralized volume of untreated Sh-Pdia3 and Sh-VDR 3D cultures was greater than that of WT. 1α,25(OH)2D3 reduced mineral in WT and Sh-VDR cultures; BMP2 increased mineralization; and 1α,25(OH)2D3 + BMP2 caused a synergistic increase, but only in WT cultures. SEM showed that mineralized matrix morphology in 3D cultures differed for silenced cells compared to WT cells. These data indicate a synergistic crosstalk between 1α,25(OH)2D3 and BMP2 toward osteogenesis and mineral deposition, involving both VDR and Pdia3.

  12. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  13. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), P<.01) compared to omega-3 supplementation alone (-1.09μmol/L 95%CI: (-2.04, -0.13), P=.03). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation was associated with a modest reduction in homocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone.

  14. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3′-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  15. [Correction of polyhypovitaminosis in rats, having standard and enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids family omega-3 diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Preverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of the correction of combined alimentary vitamin deficit in male Wistar rats (body weight 90-121 g) fed standard diet or enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids diet (by replacing sunflower oil (4.5% of the diet) with linseed oil) with different doses (physiological and enhanced) of vitamins has been investigated. The control group of animals (n = 12) received a complete semisynthetic diet during all experimental period (42 d). The animals of the test groups (each of 20 rats) received vitamin-deficient diet containing sunflower or linseed oil and 20% per cent of vitamin mixture amount in control diet from which vitamin E had been excluded. After 28 days of such feeding each of test groups was divided into two subgroups (6-8 rats in each), and the next 14 days the animals of subgroups received the diet with different degree of vitamin compensation (50 or 180% percent of vitamin content in the diet of the control group). The addition of both low and high vitamin dose in deficient diet based on standard fat component did not compensate the reduced liver vitamin A content, which amounted to 47.4% of the level in the liver of the control group. The lack of vitamin E in animals was eliminated only after adding of the enhanced dose of vitamin E to the ration. Recovering of decreased plasma and liver B2 level, plasma 25(OH)D and liver vitamin B1 content have been occurred after addition of the low dose of these vitamins to rat diet. Increasing of omega-3 PUFA diet level improved vitamins A and D sufficiency to some extent, but was accompanied by the significant reduction of rat liver alfa-tocopherol content both under combined vitamin deficiency (by 14%) and increased vitamins consumption (by 43%). PUFA enrichment of the diet of rats with vitamin deficiency had no impact on vitamin B1 and B2 liver level. The use of high doses of vitamins for a long time to eliminate a combined deficiency of vitamins has been proved.

  16. Proximate Composition, Amino Acid, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Content of Dried Laver

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull

    2013-01-01

    Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate composition, amino acids, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino acids, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino acid, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino acids and minerals. PMID:24471123

  17. Longitudinal changes in calcium and vitamin D intakes and relationship to bone mineral density in a prospective population-based study: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W.; Langsetmo, L.; Berger, C.; Poliquin, S.; Kreiger, N.; Barr, S.I.; Kaiser, S.M.; Josse, R.G.; Prior, J.C.; Towheed, T.E.; Anastassiades, T.; Davison, K.S.; Kovacs, C.S.; Hanley, D.A.; Papadimitropoulos, E.A.; Goltzman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study changes in calcium and vitamin D intakes over time, and their cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We followed 9382 women and men aged ≥25 and 899 aged 16–24, for 10 and 2 years respectively. Results Calcium and vitamin D intakes increased over time in adults, but decreased in women aged 16–18. The increased intakes in adults were largely attributable to the increased use of calcium and/or vitamin D supplements. Both the percentage of supplement users and average dose among users increased over time. There was nevertheless a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D intake below the estimated average requirement. At baseline, higher calcium and vitamin D intakes were associated with higher total hip and femoral neck BMD in young men, and cumulatively high levels of calcium and vitamin D intakes over time contributed to better BMD maintenance at lumbar spine and hip sites in adult women. Conclusions Although total intakes, particularly of vitamin D, frequently fell below the Institute of Medicine recommendations despite an increase over time in supplement use, we found some positive associations between total calcium and vitamin D intake and bone health. PMID:24292617

  18. The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2015-05-01

    With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio <5) and those from summer (November) not. This study indicates that Egyptian goose meat does not only vary in nutritional composition but season may also have a substantial effect on the flavor profile and ultimate uniformity of the meat. The season and portion effects were, however, interlinked but the general tendency shows that the portions, especially the breast and thigh do differ concerning the major fatty acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product.

  19. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  20. [The alteration of vitamin status of adult population of the Russisn Federation in 1987-2009 (to the 40th anniversary of the Laboratory of Vitamins and Minerals of Institute of Nutrition at Russian Academy of Medical Sciences)].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of vitamin status of various groups of adult population (by vitamin serum blood level evaluation) during the period since 1987 on 2009 has shown that an authentic improvement of sufficiency with vitamin C takes place. At the present time the deficiency of B group vitamins has been determined much more often than the deficit of vitamins C, A and E. The revealed deficiencies don't depend on a place of residing and a professional accessory and, as a rule, affect not any one vitamin, but have a character of combined insufficiency of B group vitamins and some other vitamins.

  1. Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

  2. Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status.

    PubMed

    Katre, Prachi; Bhat, Dattatray; Lubree, Himangi; Otiv, Suhas; Joshi, Suyog; Joglekar, Charudatta; Rush, Elaine; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (p<0.05). Homocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) micromol/L) were comparable to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of >1000 microg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), p<0.001). Increasing dose of vitamin B12 (rs=-0.31, p=0.006) but not folic acid (rs=-0.19, p=0.11) was associated with lower plasma total homocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.

  3. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the

  4. Quantification of vitamin C requirements for juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Chang, C F

    1994-10-01

    The vitamin C requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for optimal growth were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid (C2PP), a stable derivative of L-ascorbic acid (C1). Juvenile shrimp (0.55 +/- 0.01 g) were fed purified diets containing graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg diet) of supplemental C2PP or a high dosage of C1 (2500 mg/kg diet). Their weight gain, survival, feed efficiency and C1 storage in hepatopancreas and muscle were used to quantify the requirements. The growth of the shrimp fed the unsupplemented diet was significantly lower than those of the supplemented groups except the 100 mg C2PP/kg diet group. The C1 concentrations in muscle and hepatopancreas were greatest in shrimp fed 200 or 400 C2PP mg/kg diet. The dietary level required for juvenile P. monodon was found to be 209 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of weight gain, and was 220 mg/kg diet and 210 mg/kg diet, based on the analyses of C1 concentrations of hepatopancreas and muscle, respectively. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet showed a significantly higher mortality than the supplemented groups. Most of the shrimp in the unsupplemented group that died suffered incomplete molting. No other overt deficiency sign was observed in any group.

  5. Total Serum Bilirubin Predicts Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency Better Than Serum Bile Acids in Infants with Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Venkat, Veena L.; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Magee, John C.; Turmelle, Yumirle; Arnon, Ronen; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Hertel, Paula M.; Karpen, Saul J; Kerkar, Nanda; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Molleston, Jean; Murray, Karen F.; Ng, Vicky L.; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwartz, Kathleen; Sherker, Averell H.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Teckman, Jeffrey; Wang, Kasper; Whitington, Peter F.; Heubi, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiency is a well-recognized consequence of cholestatic liver disease and reduced intestinal intraluminal bile acids. We hypothesized that serum bile acids (SBA) would predict biochemical FSV deficiency better than serum total bilirubin level (TB) in infants with biliary atresia. Methods Infants enrolled in the Trial of Corticosteroid Therapy in Infants with Biliary Atresia (START) after hepatoportoenterostomy were the subjects of this investigation. Infants received standardized FSV supplementation and monitoring of TB, SBA and vitamin levels at 1, 3 and 6 months. A logistic regression model was used with the binary indicator variable insufficient/sufficient as the outcome variable. Linear and non-parametric correlations were made between specific vitamin measurement levels and either TB or SBA. Results The degree of correlation for any particular vitamin at a specific time point was higher with TB than SBA (higher for TB in 31 circumstances versus 3 circumstances for SBA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) shows that TB performed better than SBA (AUC 0.998 vs. 0.821). Including both TB and SBA did not perform better than TB alone (AUC 0.998). Conclusion We found that TB was a better predictor of FSV deficiency than SBA in infants with biliary atresia. The role of SBA as a surrogate marker of FSV deficiency in other cholestatic liver diseases, such as PFIC, alpha-one antitrypsin deficiency and Alagille syndrome where the pathophysiology is dominated by intrahepatic cholestasis, warrants further study. PMID:25419594

  6. Uric acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: the link lies within the fat.

    PubMed

    Pirro, M; Mannarino, M R; Bianconi, V; De Vuono, S; Sahebkar, A; Bagaglia, F; Franceschini, L; Scarponi, A M; Mannarino, E; Merriman, T

    2017-03-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Fat accumulation is linked to SUA and BMD, thus possibly explaining the mixed results. We found that adiposity drives part of the association between SUA and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  8. Mineral, flavonoid, and fatty acid concentrations in ten diverse Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet accessions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus [L.]) Sweet containing high concentrations of minerals, flavonoids and fatty acids may provide government agencies with a nutrient-dense and health-beneficial food for use in hunger stricken and nutrient deprived people. Seeds from ten hyacinth bean accession...

  9. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  10. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits.

  11. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Wynn, V

    1975-03-08

    Reports concerning the interaction between steroidal contraceptives (the combined pill) and vitamins indicate that in users the mean serum-vitamin-A level is raised and the mean serum-vitamin-B2 (riboflavine), vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamine-C, folic-acid, and vitamin-B12 levels are reduced. Other vitamins have been insufficiently studied for comment. Biochemical evidence of co-enzyme deficiency has been reported for vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and folic acid. Clinical effects due to vitamin deficiency have been described for vitamin B6--namely, depression and impaired glucose tolerance. Folic-acid deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia has been reported in only 21 cases.

  12. A relationship between vitamin B sub 12 , folate, ascorbic acid, and mercury metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C on the in vivo methylation of mercuric chloride was studied in guinea pigs. The incorporation of high levels of vitamin B{sub 12}, folate, and vitamin C resulted in a decrease in both inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations in all tissues except the lungs and heart compared to controls. However, percent methylmercury levels tended to increase with vitamin treatment. The addition of megadoses of vitamin B{sub 12} fed either singularly or in combination with the other vitamins resulted in increased methylmercury concentrations in the liver, spleen, and kidney tissues of the guinea pig. Moreover, percent methylmercury levels increased with B{sub 12} treatment in the liver, heart, and kidney. Incorporation of high levels of folate into the dietary regime also affected the mercury methylation process particularly in the liver, heart, kidney and hair tissues. However, this effect was observed most often in animals fed both B{sub 12} and folate. Vitamin C appears to play a synergistic role with vitamin B{sub 12} and/or folate in the methylation of mercury.

  13. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  14. Vitamin U, a novel free radical scavenger, prevents lens injury in rats administered with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Tunali, S; Kahraman, S; Yanardag, R

    2015-09-01

    Valproic acid (2-propyl-pentanoic acid, VPA) is the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug due to its ability to treat a broad spectrum of seizure types. VPA exhibits various side effects such as organ toxicity, teratogenicity, and visual disturbances. S-Methylmethioninesulfonium is a derivative of the amino acid methionine and it is widely referred to as vitamin U (Vit U). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vit U on lens damage parameters of rats exposed to VPA. Female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group I comprised control animals. Group II included control rats supplemented with Vit U (50 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Group III was given only VPA (500 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Group IV was given VPA + Vit U (in same dose and time). Vit U was given to rats by gavage and VPA was given intraperitoneally. On the 16th day of experiment, all the animals which were fasted overnight were killed. Lens was taken from animals, homogenized in 0.9% saline to make up to 10% (w/v) homogenate. The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione, lipid peroxidation levels, and antioxidant enzymes activities. Lens lipid peroxidation levels and aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were increased in VPA group. On the other hand, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and paraoxonase activities were decreased in VPA groups. Treatment with Vit U reversed these effects. This study showed that Vit U exerted antioxidant properties and may prevent lens damage caused by VPA.

  15. Effects on Growth, Survival, Body Composition, Processing Traits, and Water quality when feeding a diet without vitamin and mineral supplements to Australian red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) grown in ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to be profitable, producers must reduce diet costs, which can be as high as 80% of the variable costs of an aquaculture expense. As vitamin and mineral premixes represent a significant cost, eliminating addition of these premixes could reduce diet costs if no adverse effects were observed ...

  16. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  17. Critical micronutrients in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: considerations on vitamin D, folic acid, and iron, and priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Maria; Vollhardt, Christiane; Bergmann, Karin; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    The Early Nutrition Academy and the European Commission-funded EURRECA Network of Excellence jointly sponsored a scientific workshop on critical micronutrients in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Current knowledge and unresolved questions on the supply of vitamin D, folic acid, and iron for pregnant women, lactating women, and infants, and their health effects were discussed. The question was addressed of whether, and under which circumstances, supplementation with these micronutrients in addition to usual dietary intakes is advisable. The workshop participants concluded that public health strategies for improving supplementation with these micronutrients in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy are required. Further research priorities should focus on adequately powered human intervention trials to obtain a stronger evidence base for the amounts of vitamin D, folic acid, and iron that have optimal effects on health. The conclusions of the workshop should help to inform the scientific community as well as public health policy strategies.

  18. Monitoring of ractopamine concentration in the mixture of this feed additive with vitamin mineral complex and with swine feed by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2013-01-01

    Ractopamine (RAC) analysis at all stages in the feed chain until its final mixing into swine feed is necessary to ensure the safety of all meat consumers and to decrease waste and the cost of supplementation of feed. Two suitable HPLC methods were developed and validated for RAC determination in vitamin mineral complex (VMC) and in swine feed. Both methods employed reverse-phase (C18 column at 40°C) and isocratic elution, but with some modifications to the methods. Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, trueness and robustness, were shown to be within the acceptable range. Therefore, the developed methods can be successfully applied for the monitoring of RAC concentrations in samples of VMC and swine feed ensuring economy to producers and security to consumers of swine meat.

  19. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  20. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) induced hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water: role of bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Asplund, Klara U M; Mäkelä, Johanna C; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2003-08-01

    We have previously shown that Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can trigger hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water. We report here that the capacity of ascorbic acid to catalyze hydroxyl radical generation in the drinking water samples is strongly dependent on the bicarbonate concentration (buffer capacity and pH) of the samples. We found that at least 50 mg/l bicarbonate was required in the water samples to maintain the pH over 5.0 after ascorbic acid addition. At this pH, that is higher than the pKa1 4.25 of ascorbic acid, a hydroxyl radical generating redox cycling reaction involving the mono-anion of vitamin C and copper could take place. The ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical generating reaction could easily be mimicked in Milli-Q water by supplementing the water with copper and bicarbonate. Our results demonstrate that ascorbic acid can induce a pH dependent hydroxyl radical generating reaction in copper contaminated household tap water that is buffered with bicarbonate. The impact of consuming ascorbic acid together with copper and bicarbonate containing drinking water on human health is discussed.

  1. Fast analysis of sugars, fruit acids, and vitamin C in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Tiitinen, Katja M; Yang, Baoru; Haraldsson, Gudmundur G; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Kallio, Heikki P

    2006-04-05

    A fast, one-step gas chromatographic method was developed to analyze trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of sugars, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippohaë rhamnoides L.) berries. The method was applied to berry press juice of sea buckthorn of different origins grown in Finland during the 2003 and 2004 seasons. The method gave reliable results for D-fructose, D-glucose, ethyl-D-glucose, and malic, quinic, and ascorbic acids, which are the major sugars and acids in sea buckthorn juice. For the first time in sea buckthorn and evidently in any berry, the presence of ethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside is reported. The structure of ethyl glucose was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), MS, and NMR analyses of both the isolated and the synthesized compounds. In the GC method, vitamin C was analyzed as ascorbic acid only, and dehydroascorbic acid was thus not taken into account.

  2. Gallstone formation in guinea pigs under different dietary conditions. Effect of vitamin C on bile acid pattern.

    PubMed

    Bergman, F; Curstedt, T; Eriksson, H; van der Linden, W; Sjövall, J

    1981-04-01

    Guinea pigs formed gallstones when fed chow supplemented with cholesterol and cholic acid. Although the stones contained little or no cholesterol the changes in biliary bile acid and lipid composition were similar to those observed in other rodents under conditions of cholesterol gallstone formation. Addition of cholestyramine to chow had a midly lithogenic effect. Hypovitaminosis C in animals given cholesterol and cholic acid resulted in an increase of the cholesterol content of the gallstones. The composition of biliary bile acids was markedly changed. Reductive formation of deoxycholic acid decreased and oxidative formation of ketonic bile acid increased. The results show that vitamin C may influence the redox state of the intestinal microorganisms microorganisms responsible for these conversions.

  3. Kinetic study for copper adsorption onto soil minerals in the absence and presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Komy, Zanaty R; Shaker, Ali M; Heggy, Said E M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A

    2014-03-01

    Equilibrium and kinetics of Cu(2+) adsorption onto soil minerals (kaolinite and hematite) in the absence and presence of humic acid have been investigated under various conditions. The influences of ionic strength, pH and solution cations on the rate of the adsorption have been studied. The rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu(2+) onto soil minerals in the absence or the presence of humic acid increased with decreasing ionic strength, increasing pH and in the presence of the background electrolyte K(+) rather than Ca(2+). Humic acid enhanced the rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu(2+) onto soil minerals. The adsorption equilibrium data showed that adsorption behavior of Cu(2+) could be described more reasonably by Langmiur adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm in the absence or presence of humic acid. Pseudo first and pseudo second order models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the rate constants. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cu(2+) onto hematite and kaolinite in the absence and presence of humic acid is more conforming to pseudo second order kinetics.

  4. A novel dextran hydrogel linking trans-ferulic acid for the stabilization and transdermal delivery of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Roberta; Trombino, Sonia; Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; Picci, Nevio

    2009-05-01

    Long-term exposure of the skin to UV light causes degenerative effects, which can be minimized by using antioxidant formulations. The major challenge in this regard is that a significant amount of antioxidant should reach at the site for effective photoprotection. However, barrier properties of the skin limit their use. In the present study, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) was loaded into a dextran hydrogel containing ferulic moieties, covalently linked, to improve its topical delivery, and also to increase its relative poor stability, which is due to direct exposure to UV light. Methacrylic groups were first introduced onto the dextran polymer backbones, then the obtained methacrylated dextran was copolymerized with aminoethyl methacrylate, and subsequently esterificated with trans-ferulic acid. The new biopolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The values of content of phenolic groups were determined. Its ability in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes induced in vitro by a source of free radicals, that is tert-butyl hydroperoxide, was studied. Hydrogel was also characterized for swelling behaviour, vitamin E loading efficiency, release, and deposition on the rabbit skin. Additionally, vitamin E deposition was compared through hydrogels, respectively, containing and not containing trans-ferulic acid. The results showed that ferulate hydrogel was a more effective carrier in protecting vitamin E from photodegradation than hydrogel without antioxidant moieties. Then antioxidant hydrogel could be of potential use for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes as carrier of vitamin E that is an antioxidant that reduces erythema, photoaging, photocarcinogenesis, edema, and skin hypersensitivity associated with exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, because of its protective effects.

  5. [Effect of rapeseed in beef cattle feeding on fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and oxidative stability of body fat].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Richter, G H; Wendemuth, M; Möckel, P; Graf, H; Jahreis, G; Lübbe, F

    1994-12-01

    Four groups of five fattening bulls each consumed a concentrate--wheat straw-diet (2.5:1) supplemented with either 0, 7, 14 or 21% ground rape seed for 350 days. Rape seed contained 427 g crude fat (ether extract) and 127 mg vitamin E per kg dry matter. The supplementation with rapeseed increased the fat concentrations in the rations from 25 to 50, 75 and 100 g, and of vitamin E from 11 to 19, 26 and 34 mg per kg dry matter. All bulls were slaughtered with about 560 kg body weight. Fatty acid composition of depot fat and of the fat of musc. long. dorsi were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Vitamin E concentrations in blood, depot fat and muscle were determined by HPLC. Oxidative stability of depot fat was measured as induction time by means of rancimat-test. Rape seed supplementation decreased C16-fatty acids and increased C18-fatty acids in depot and muscle fat. Muscle fat contained significantly more mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids (40.2 and 7.4%) than depot fat (33.5 and 2.0%, respectively). Rape seed supplementation enhanced significantly the vitamin E-concentrations in all body samples. In depot fat vit. E increased from 4.5 to 7.3, 8.5 and 14.9 micrograms/g. Induction time increased from 10.9 to 18.5, 16.1 and 19.5 h, when 0, 7, 14 or 21% rapeseed were added.

  6. Bone mineralization defects and vitamin D deficiency: histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 675 patients.

    PubMed

    Priemel, Matthias; von Domarus, Christoph; Klatte, Till Orla; Kessler, Steffen; Schlie, Julia; Meier, Simon; Proksch, Nils; Pastor, Frederic; Netter, Clemens; Streichert, Thomas; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is only one measurable index of skeletal health, and we reasoned that a histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest biopsies would be another and even more direct approach to assess bone health and address the required minimum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level. A cohort from the northern European population with its known high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency therefore would be ideal to answer the latter question. We examined 675 iliac crest biopsies from male and female individuals, excluding all patients who showed any signs of secondary bone diseases at autopsy. Structural histomorphometric parameters, including osteoid indices, were quantified using the Osteomeasure System according to ASBMR standards, and serum 25(OH)D levels were measured for all patients. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test. The histologic results demonstrate an unexpected high prevalence of mineralization defects, that is, a pathologic increase in osteoid. Indeed, 36.15% of the analyzed patients presented with an osteoid surface per bone surface (OS/BS) of more than 20%. Based on the most conservative threshold that defines osteomalacia at the histomorphometric level with a pathologic increase in osteoid volume per bone volume (OV/BV) greater than 2% manifest mineralization defects were present in 25.63% of the patients. The latter were found independent of bone volume per trabecular volume (BV/TV) throughout all ages and affected both sexes equally. While we could not establish a minimum 25(OH)D level that was inevitably associated with mineralization defects, we did not find pathologic accumulation of osteoid in any patient with circulating 25(OH)D above 75 nmol/L. Our data demonstrate that pathologic mineralization defects of bone occur in patients with a serum 25(OH)D below 75 nmol/L and strongly argue that in conjunction with a sufficient calcium intake, the dose of vitamin D supplementation should ensure that circulating levels of 25(OH

  7. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    PubMed

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion.

  8. The vitamin D receptor is not required for fetal mineral homeostasis or for the regulation of placental calcium transfer in mice.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Christopher S; Woodland, Mandy L; Fudge, Neva J; Friel, James K

    2005-07-01

    We utilized a vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene knockout model to study the effects of maternal and fetal absence of VDR on maternal fertility, fetal-placental calcium transfer, and fetal mineral homoeostasis. Vdr null mice were profoundly hypocalcemic, conceived infrequently, and had significantly fewer viable fetuses in utero that were also of lower body weight. Supplementation of a calcium-enriched diet increased the rate of conception in Vdr nulls but did not normalize the number or weight of viable fetuses. Among offspring of heterozygous (Vdr(+/-)) mothers (wild type, Vdr(+/-), and Vdr null fetuses), there was no alteration in serum Ca, P, or Mg, parathyroid hormone, placental (45)Ca transfer, Ca and Mg content of the fetal skeleton, and morphology and gene expression in the fetal growth plates. Vdr null fetuses did have threefold increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels accompanied by increased 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA in kidney but not placenta; a small increase was also noted in placental expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Among offspring of Vdr null mothers, Vdr(+/-) and Vdr null fetuses had normal ionized calcium levels and a skeletal ash weight that was appropriate to the lower body weight. Thus our findings indicate that VDR is not required by fetal mice to regulate placental calcium transfer, circulating mineral levels, and skeletal mineralization. Absence of maternal VDR has global effects on fetal growth that were partly dependent on maternal calcium intake, but absence of maternal VDR did not specifically affect fetal mineral homeostasis.

  9. Influence of methionine supply on the response of lactational performance of dairy cows to supplementary folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-04-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine if the effects of supplementary folic acid on lactational performance were caused by improved methylneogenesis and if the supply in vitamin B(12) could affect this metabolic pathway. In this eventuality, supplementary Met, a major source of preformed methyl groups, should reduce the requirements for these vitamins. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply Met as 1.83% metabolizable protein and 3 cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) to supply Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10 mg of vitamin B(12) from 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving. There was no treatment effect on dry matter intake during pre- and postcalving periods: 13.4 +/- 0.4 and 21.8 +/- 0.4 kg/d, respectively. Milk production was not affected by RPM supplementation. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) given together tended to increase milk production during the 16 wk of lactation. This effect was more pronounced during the first 4 wk of lactation: 37.5, 37.7, and 40.3 +/- 0.9 kg/d for cows receiving no vitamin supplement, folic acid alone, or folic acid combined with vitamin B(12), respectively. Milk fat yield was not affected by treatments. Lactose, crude protein, and total solid yields were greater, in early lactation, in cows injected with folic acid and vitamin B(12) together but this effect diminished as lactation progressed. Intramuscular injections of folic acid alone or combined with vitamin B(12) tended to decrease plasma concentrations of homocysteine from 5.51 microM with no vitamin supplement to 4.54 and 4.77 +/- 0.37 microM, respectively. Results of the present experiment suggest that the effects of the combined

  10. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:28084442

  11. Fatty acid, amino acid, mineral and antioxidant contents of acha (Digitaria exilis) grown on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Robert H.; Laabes, Emmanuel P.; Presley, Jack M.; Schulze, John; Andrews, Ronnee; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Lu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (also known as acha, hungry rice) has been cultivated for millennia in the dry savannahs of West Africa, but much remains to be learned about its nutritional properties. Acha was collected in four villages in Northern Nigeria and analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, amino acids and antioxidant content. Fatty acids accounted for 1.91% of the dry weight, with 47.4% linoleic acid and 30.5% oleic acid. The content of the essential minerals, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, zinc and calcium averaged 4.88, 1060, 0.23, 23.0 and 172 μg/g, respectively. The protein content was 6.53% and the essential amino acid pattern, except for lysine, compared favorably to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference protein. The total polyphenolic content of methanolic extracts of acha matched that of common cereals (for example, maize, rice, wheat) and the extracts contained substantial amounts of free-radical scavenging substances. Thus, acha is a source of many nutrients critical to human health. PMID:26635994

  12. Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-α-induced IL-1α in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-α, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoliposomes Entrapping Medium-Chain Fatty Acids and Vitamin C by Lyophilization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuibing; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Wei; Yu, Haixia; Zheng, Huijuan; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-01-01

    The complex nanoliposomes encapsulating both a hydrophilic drug vitamin C (vit C) and hydrophobic drug medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was prepared by combining double emulsion method with dynamic high pressure microfluidization. The complex nanoliposomes was further freeze-dried under −86 °C for 48 h with sucrose at the sucrose/lipids ratio of 2:1(w/w) in order to enhance its stability. The freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes under the suitable conditions exhibited high entrapment efficiency of MCFAs (44.26 ± 3.34)%, relatively high entrapment efficiency of vit C (62.25 ± 3.43)%, low average size diameter (110.4 ± 7.28) nm and good storage stability at 4 °C for 60 days with slight changes in mean particle diameter and drug entrapment efficiencies. The results of transmission electron microscopy of freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes also showed that the freeze-dried samples with sucrose were stable without great increase in their particle sizes and without destroying their spherical shape. The results indicated that sucrose presented well protection effects in MCFAs-vit C complex nanoliposomes, suggesting the possibility of further usage in commercial liposomes. PMID:24084723

  14. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction.

  15. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  16. Effect of nicotinamide on amino acids content in bone collagen depending on biological availability of vitamins in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Guzyk, M M; Sergiichuk, Iu T; Dyakun, K O; Yanitska, L V; Kuchmerovska, T M

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue is highly susceptible to imbalances induced by diabetes. Diabetes-related osteopenia, decreased bone strength etc. may be associated with altered metabolism of various collagens: Although it is assumed that alterations in collagen amino acids (AA) may strongly affect protein properties andphysiological functions, however, very limited evidences are present at the moment regarding AA composition of bone type I collagen and its relevance to abnormal availability of vitamins which are necessary for collagen synthesis in diabetes. We have tested whether nicotinamide (NAm) can influence type Icollagen formation and AA composition as well as vitamins availability in diabetes. After 4 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/ kg) male Wistar rats were injected for 2 weeks with/without NAm (200 mg/kg b. w). Acid extraction of type I collagen from the bones was performed with following stepwise salting out. The content of type I collagen after its acid extraction from the bones was estimated by the amounts of hydroxyproline. Amino acids were assayed by cation exchange chromatography Diabetes-associated changes in AA composition of type I collagen mainly affect those amino acids which are known to be involved in helix formation and cross-linking of the molecules. Diabetes was found to significantly reduce bone collagen contents of o-Pro, Gly, Ala, o-Lys and Pro, whereas Lys, His, Arg, Glu, Thr, Leu, Phe contents were elevated (P < 0.05). NAm treatment was able to partially normalise AA contents. In diabetes, blood serum and hepatic vitamin C and B3 contents were shown to be significantly lowered, whereas a-tocopherol was slightly increased compared with control (P < 0.05). Restoration of circulatory and liver vitamin C and B3 was observed. The data demonstrate the close relationship between the diabetes-associated decrease in type I collagen deposition, altered amino acids metabolism and impaired availability of vitamins, which are necessary for collagen

  17. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part II--vitamin D, vitamin A, iron, zinc, iodine, essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Part II of this review considers additional micronutrients. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin found in foods of animal origins (fatty fish, liver oil) or fortified products (milk, cheese). Vitamin D deficiency is common in African-American women living in northern latitudes. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed to reach desired 25-(OH)D3 concentrations of >50 nmol/L. In foods of animal origin, preformed Vitamin A is present; in plants (fruits and vegetables) vitamin A precursors (β-carotenoids) are present. Vitamin A supplementation is usually not warranted, and in developing countries should not exceed 3000 μg (10,000 IU)/day. Iron in the form of haem-iron is found in meat, fish and poultry; non-haem (inorganic) iron is found in vegetables, fruits and grains. Iron supplementation may be necessary in the third trimester, earlier in pregnancy or in non-pregnant states if serum ferritin is <20 μg/L or haemoglobin <10.9 g/dL. Zinc is available in red meat, seafood including oysters and unpolished grains; supplementation is not necessary. To assure adequate iodine, food is fortified worldwide with iodated salt. If urinary iodine levels are low, supplementation is needed. Essential fatty acids requirements can be met by one to two portions of fish per week.

  18. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Simon, D; Kelsey, K; Todd, A C

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes on blood lead, tibia lead, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead levels in 798 lead workers and 135 controls without occupational lead exposure in the Republic of Korea. Tibia lead was assessed with a 30-min measurement by (109)Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence, and DMSA-chelatable lead was estimated as 4-hr urinary lead excretion after oral administration of 10 mg/kg DMSA. The primary goals of the analysis were to examine blood lead, tibia lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead levels by ALAD and VDR genotypes, controlling for covariates; and to evaluate whether ALAD and VDR genotype modified relations among the different lead biomarkers. There was a wide range of blood lead (4-86 microg/dL), tibia lead (-7-338 microg Pb/g bone mineral), and DMSA-chelatable lead (4.8-2,103 microg) levels among lead workers. Among lead workers, 9.9% (n = 79) were heterozygous for the ALAD(2) allele and there were no homozygotes. For VDR, 10.7% (n = 85) had the Bb genotype, and 0.5% (n = 4) had the BB genotype. Although the ALAD and VDR genes are located on different chromosomes, lead workers homozygous for the ALAD(1) allele were much less likely to have the VDR bb genotype (crude odds ratio = 0.29, 95% exact confidence interval = 0.06-0.91). In adjusted analyses, subjects with the ALAD(2) allele had higher blood lead levels (on average, 2.9 microg/dL, p = 0.07) but no difference in tibia lead levels compared with subjects without the allele. In adjusted analyses, lead workers with the VDR B allele had significantly (p < 0.05) higher blood lead levels (on average, 4.2 microg/dL), chelatable lead levels (on average, 37.3 microg), and tibia lead levels (on average, 6.4 microg/g) than did workers with the VDR bb genotype. The current data confirm past observations that the ALAD gene modifies the

  19. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K

    2003-09-01

    A series of four experiments was conducted to determine whether-shell quality during the late stages of egg production can be improved by using diets that are effective in reducing egg size. The experiments involved dietary manipulation of protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12. In experiment 1, reducing dietary protein in combination of reducing the dietary methionine and choline or this diet without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 resulted in reduced egg weight and improved shell quality. However, egg production also was drastically reduced. In experiment 2, reducing the dietary level of methionine, without adding supplemental choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality, but egg production was reduced as well. In this experiment reducing the dietary methionine without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. In experiment 3, reducing the dietary level of methionine and choline or reducing the dietary level of choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality without adverse effects on egg production. On the other hand, reducing dietary methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and supplemental choline reduced egg weight and improved shell quality but lowered egg production. In experiment 4, reducing dietary methionine together with reducing choline and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. The results of this series of experiments generally indicate that certain manipulations of the combination of methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 have the potential to reduce egg weight and improve shell quality without affecting egg production during the latter stages of the egg production cycle.

  20. Bone mineral density is associated with vitamin D related rs6013897 and estrogen receptor polymorphism rs4870044: The Tromsø study

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, Rolf; Emaus, Nina; Eggen, Anne Elise; Joakimsen, Ragnar Martin; Kamycheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is determined by bone remodeling processes regulated by endocrine, autocrine and genetic mechanisms. Thus, some studies have reported that BMD is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR), serum 25(OH)D levels and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), but without consensus. Therefore, we aimed to map and compare the risk genotypes for forearm and total hip low BMD. Methods and findings Data were derived from a population-based study in northern Norway; the Tromsø Study. Distal forearm BMD was measured with a single x-ray absorptiometric device, while total hip BMD was measured with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric device. There were 7,317 and 4,082 successful analyses of distal forearm and total hip BMD, respectively, and at least one SNP of interest. We evaluated plausible BMD modulating factors and associations of BMD and SNPs related to vitamin D metabolism (FokI, Cdx2, BsmI, rs2298850, rs10741657, rs3794060, rs6013897), ApaI-BsmI-TaqI haplotypes and ESR1 SNP rs4870044. Results Age, BMI, physical activity and smoking were significantly associated with BMD. In a linear regression model with adjustment for age and gender and with the major homozygote as reference, rs6013897 had a standardized beta coefficient (β) of –0.031 (P = 0.024) for total hip BMD. β for ESR1 SNP rs4870044 was –0.016 (P = 0.036) for forearm BMD and –0.034 (P = 0.015) for total hip BMD. The other SNPs nor serum 25(OH)D were significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Both forearm and total hip BMD were associated with ESR1 SNP rs4870044. Of the vitamin D–related genes, only CYP24A1 gene rs6013897 was associated with total hip BMD, but the association was weak and needs confirmation in other studies. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with BMD in our population, probably due to the generally sufficient vitamin D levels in the population. PMID:28253304

  1. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Pramila; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Kumar, Mala; Ramesh, V; Bhatia, Eesh; Gupta, Sarika; Singh, Swati; Saxena, Priya; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-09-28

    Hypovitaminosis D is common in India. In the present prospective partially randomised study of vitamin D (D₃) supplementation during pregnancy, subjects were randomised in the second trimester to receive either one oral dose of 1500 μg vitamin D₃ (group 1, n 48) or two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D₃ each in the second and third trimesters (group 2, n 49). Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at term, cord blood (CB) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), neonatal serum Ca and anthropometry were measured in these subjects and in forty-three non-supplemented mother-infant pairs (usual care). Median maternal 25(OH)D at term was higher in group 2 (58·7, interquartile range (IQR) 38·4-89·4 nmol/l) v. group 1 (26·2, IQR 17·7-57·7 nmol/l) and usual-care group (39·2, IQR 21·2-73·4 nmol/l) (P = 0·000). CB ALP was increased (>8.02 μkat/l or >480 IU/l) in 66·7 % of the usual-care group v. 41·9 % of group 1 and 38·9 % of group 2 (P = 0·03). Neonatal Ca and CB 25(OH)D did not differ significantly in the three groups. Birth weight, length and head circumference were greater and the anterior fontanelle was smaller in groups 1 and 2 (3·08 and 3·03 kg, 50·3 and 50·1 cm, 34·5 and 34·4 cm, 2·6 and 2·5 cm, respectively) v. usual care (2·77 kg, 49·4, 33·6, 3·3 cm; P = 0·000 for length, head circumference and fontanelle and P = 0·003 for weight). These differences were still evident at 9 months. We conclude that both 1500 μg and two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D₃ had a beneficial effect on infant anthropometry, the larger dose also improving CB ALP and maternal 25(OH)D.

  2. Sequestering CO(2) by mineral carbonation: stability against acid rain exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel J; Brent, Geoff F

    2010-04-01

    Mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive alternative to storage of compressed CO(2) in underground repositories, known as geosequestration. Processes for the conversion of basic ores, such as magnesium silicates, to carbonates have been proposed by various researchers, with storage of the carbonate as backfill in the original mine representing a solid carbon sink. The stability of such carbon sinks against acid rain and other sources of strong acids is examined here. It is acknowledged that in the presence of strong acid, carbonates will dissolve and release carbon dioxide. A sensitivity analysis covering annual average rainfall and pH that may be encountered in industrialized areas of the United States, China, Europe, and Australia was conducted to determine maximum CO(2) rerelease rates from mineral carbonation carbon sinks. This analysis is based on a worst-case premise that is equivalent to assuming infinitely rapid kinetics of dissolution of the carbonate. The analysis shows that under any likely conditions of pH and rainfall, leakage rates of stored CO(2) are negligible. This is illustrated in a hypothetical case study under Australian conditions. It is thus proposed that sequestration by mineral carbonation can be considered to be permanent on practical human time scales. Other possible sources of acid have also been considered.

  3. Effects of aluminum and nicotinic acid on bone minerals and growth in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.E.; Dunn, M.A.; Ross, E.; Zierold, C. )

    1991-03-15

    One-day old Brown Leghorn-Cross male chicks were divided into three groups of ten chicks for each of the following experimental treatments: control; .05% Al and AlCl{sub 3}; 1.5% nicotinic acid (nic); .05% Al + 1.5% nic (Alnic). A standard corn-soybean meal chick starter diet served as the basal diet. Feed consumption and growth rates were recorded during the 14-day study. Chicks were sacrificed at the end of the study. Tibias were taken, weighed, ashed and dissolved in dilute acid. The acid digests were analyzed for mineral content (P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn) using induction-coupled-plasma emission spectroscopy. There were no significant differences between treatments based on mineral content per gram of bone. Bone weights of the Alnic group were decreased by 33% as compared to the control and all other groups; control being 6.49 {plus minus} 1.28g and Alnic being 4.37 {plus minus} 1.32. Body weight was decreased by 21% in the Alnic group. Although Al or nic had no effect on mineral content of bone, the combination of Al and nic caused a decrease in bone weight of the chicks. The combination was more toxic than administrative of either Al or nic alone. This finding may be relevant to the use of nicotinic acid as a supplement when Al containing substances are ingested at the same time.

  4. Electrochemical destruction of trans-cinnamic acid by advanced oxidation processes: kinetics, mineralization, and degradation route.

    PubMed

    Flores, Nelly; Thiam, Abdoulaye; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi

    2016-01-14

    Acidic solutions of trans-cinnamic acid at pH 3.0 have been comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). The electrolytic experiments were carried out with a boron-doped diamond (BDD)/air-diffusion cell. The substrate was very slowly abated by AO-H2O2 because of its low reaction rate with oxidizing (•)OH produced from water discharge at the BDD anode. In contrast, its removal was very rapid and at similar rate by EF and PEF due to the additional oxidation by (•)OH in the bulk, formed from Fenton's reaction between cathodically generated H2O2 and added Fe(2+). The AO-H2O2 treatment yielded the lowest mineralization. The EF process led to persistent final products like Fe(III) complexes, which were quickly photolyzed upon UVA irradiation in PEF to give an almost total mineralization with 98 % total organic carbon removal. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on all the mineralization processes was examined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of electrolyzed solutions allowed identifying five primary aromatics and one heteroaromatic molecule, whereas final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic, and oxalic were quantified by ion exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From all the products detected, a degradation route for trans-cinnamic acid is proposed.

  5. Nitrogen mineralization rates of the acidic, xeric soils of the New Jersey Pinelands: field rates

    SciTech Connect

    Poovarodom, S.; Tate, R.L. III; Bloom, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Using the buried-bag procedure, the authors quantified nitrogen mineralization rates in the xeric, acidic Lakehurst, and Atsion sands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Average annual nitrogen yields in the upper 15 cm for the Lakehurst and the Atsion sands were 38.4 and 53.0 kg N/ha, corresponding to 4.5 and 2.5% of the total nitrogen, respectively. Net nitrogen mineralization in both soils exhibited distinct seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minimum rates in the winter. Nitrification accounted for only 5% of the total N mineralized in both soils. This is consistent with the finding of low populations of autotrophic nitrifiers in these soils.

  6. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID

  7. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health. PMID:28101454

  8. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-12-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  9. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-06-01

    The fate of exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of /sup 14/C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused /sup 14/C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of /sup 14/C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols.

  10. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels in infants.

    PubMed

    Karademir, F; Suleymanoglu, S; Ersen, A; Aydinoz, S; Gultepe, M; Meral, C; Ozkaya, H; Gocmen, I

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and folate, and their functional markers, plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonate (uMMA) were measured in 204 healthy, term infants at birth, and at 2 and 6 months. Compared with infants receiving formula food, those fed mother's milk had lower vitamin B12 and folate at 2 and 6 months. In infants receiving mother's milk, vitamin B12 levels were similar at birth (238 pg/ml) and 2 months (243 pg/ml), whereas with formula milk the level was significantly higher at 2 months (558 pg/ml) than at birth (257 pg/ml). Vitamin B12 was negatively correlated with homocysteine at birth and 6 months. The level of uMMA (mmol/mol creatinine) was higher at 2 (mother's milk, 25.5; formula, 23.97) and 6 months (19.77; 15) than at birth (11.97; 10.88), and was not correlated with vitamin B12 levels. Homocysteine may be a reliable marker of vitamin B12 status in neonates and infants; however, uMMA is not suitable as a marker of vitamin B12 status.

  11. [Iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiencies related to anemia in adolescents from a region with a high incidence of congenital malformations in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Teresa; Torrealba, Mónica; Villegas, Neifred; Osorio, Crisol; García-Casal, María Nieves

    2005-06-01

    Since in recent years for certain age groups, the main cause of anemia is not iron deficiency, we intended to study the effect of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiencies on anemia prevalence in adolescents from Venezuela. One hundred adolescents aged between 12 and 19 years participated in the study. Each subject was interviewed about antecedents and habits and a physical examination and a 24-hour food recall questionnaire were performed. From a blood sample, hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were determined and serum was separated for quantification of ferritin, folic acid and vitamin B12 concentrations. Prevalence of anemia was 78% and for iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiencies were 34.66, 90.9 and 18.18%, respectively. From anemic cases, 35.89% presented iron deficiency, while 91.02% presented folic acid deficiency. Only 19.23% of adolescents with anemia presented also vitamin B12 deficiency, but all the cases with vitamin B12 deficiency, were anemic. Simultaneous iron and folic acid deficiencies affected 30.76% of anemic cases. The high prevalence of deficiencies found in this work could be explained by insufficient intake and inadequate food habits. The prevalence of anemia was associated to folic acid deficiency rather than to iron deficiency, due to the high prevalence of folic acid deficiency. The high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies found in this work, especially regarding folic acid deficiency, require immediate interventions.

  12. Sulfate Mineral Formation from Acid-weathered Phyllosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Patricia; Ming, Douglas; Rampe, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are common in Noachian terrains whereas sulfates are found in the younger Hesperian terrains and suggest alteration under more acidic conditions. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been exposed to the prevailing acidic conditions during the Hesperian. The purpose of this project is to characterize the effects of acid-weathering on phyllosilicates to better understand the aqueous history of Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, and saponite were exposed to H2SO4 solutions at water-rock (WR) ratios of 50 and 25.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all three acid-treated minerals showed progressive collapse of the phyllosilicate basal spacing with increasing acid concentration. Bassanite formed as an intermediate phase in weathered nontronite and montmorillonite from extracted interlayer Ca. The octahedral cation determined which sulfate formed at high acid concentration: rhomboclase from nontronite, alunogen from montmorillonite, hexahydrite and kieserite from saponite. Gypsum and anhydrite also formed as intermediate phases in nontronite treated at WR=25, showing a change in sulfate hydration state with changing acid concentration (i.e. water activity). Scanning electron microscopy analyses detected phases not identified by XRD. Al-sulfate was found in nontronite weathered at WR=25 and Ca-sulfate in weathered saponite. Near-infrared reflectance spectra of the weathered samples showed decreasing intensity of the hydration/hydroxylation bands and a change or disappearance of metal-OH bands indicating dehydration and dissociation of the interlayers and octahedral layers, respectively, with increased acid weathering.Sulfate mineral formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates may explain the presence of phyllosilicates and sulfates in close proximity to each other on Mars, such as in Gale Crater. The CheMin XRD instrument on Curiosity may find evidence for acid-weathered phyllosilicates in Mt. Sharp by comparing the 001

  13. Stability of free and mineral-protected nucleic acids: Implications for the RNA world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swadling, Jacob B.; Coveney, Peter V.; Christopher Greenwell, H.

    2012-04-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the structural stability of three different nucleic acids intercalated within a magnesium aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) mineral, at varying degrees of hydration, and free in aqueous solution. The nucleotides investigated are ribose nucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA), all in duplex form. Our simulations show that DNA has enhanced Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding when intercalated within the LDH clay interlayers, compared with intercalated RNA and PNA, whilst the reverse trend is found for the nucleic acids in bulk water. The tendency for LDH to alter the stability of the three nucleic acids persists for higher temperature and pressure conditions. The uncharged protein backbone of PNA is found to have a detrimental effect on the overall stability of the duplex, as it experiences a greatly reduced electrostatic interaction with the charged LDH sheets compared to RNA and DNA. Assuming an RNA world, in which RNA preceded the DNA/protein world, at some point in time DNA must have taken over the role as the information storage molecule from RNA. These results suggest that a mineral based origin of life may have favoured DNA as the information-storage biomolecule over potentially competing RNA and PNA, providing a route to modern biology from the RNA world.

  14. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration.

  15. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  16. Pigmentation Effect of Rice Bran Extracted Minerals Comprising Soluble Silicic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Our investigation focused on identifying melanogenesis effect of soluble minerals in rice bran ash extract (RBE) which include orthosilicic acid (OSA). Melanocytes were apparently normal in terms of morphology. It was, however, shown that they were stressed a little in the RBE and OSA added media in aspect of LDH activity. Melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity were increased by treatment of RBE which is similar to that of OSA. The Western blotting results showed that TRP-1, tyrosinase, and MITF expression levels were 2-3 times higher in the OSA and RBE groups compared to the control group which promoted melanin synthesis through CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, histology and immunohistochemistry were shown to have similar result to that of protein expression. As a result, minerals which comprise orthosilicic acid has the potential to promote melanogenesis and both RBE and OSA have similar cell viability, protein expression, and immunostaining results, suggesting that RBE comprises specific minerals which promote melanin synthesis through increasing of MITF and CREB phosphorylation. Therefore, RBE could be used as a novel therapeutic approach to combat melanin deficiency related diseases by stimulating melanocytes via its soluble Si and mineral components. PMID:27882071

  17. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity. PMID:27682094

  18. Sensitive life detection: extraction of nucleic acids sorbing to Mars analogue minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direito, S. O. L.; Marees, A.; Röling, W. F. M.

    2011-10-01

    The main goal of space missions to Mars is to find irrefutable proof of life. Consequently, the development, evaluation and optimization of sensitive extraction and detection methods for biomarkers are of extreme importance. Our aim consisted in the optimization of sensitive extraction techniques for molecules storing hereditary information (nucleic acids such as DNA), since these are common in life forms. However, adsorption of nucleic acids to mineral matrixes and soils can generate low extraction yields. Therefore, a second aim was to determine adsorption and identify 'problematic' Mars analogue minerals. In addition, the development of a method for quantification of DNA recovery by the use of an internal control was proved to be essential, since sensitive extraction needs information on recovery.

  19. B-vitamins and fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Whitehouse, Peter J; Rafferty, Kevin; Mitchell, Stephen A; Smith, Lesley; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The increasing worldwide prevalence of dementia is a major public health concern. Findings from some epidemiological studies suggest that diet and nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for development of dementia. In order to evaluate the strength of the available evidence of an association of dietary factors with dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD), we systematically searched relevant publication databases and hand-searched bibliographies up to end July 2007. We included prospective cohort studies which evaluated the association of nutrient levels with the risk of developing dementia and randomized intervention studies examining the treatment effect of nutrient supplementation on cognitive function. One hundred and sixty studies, comprising ninety one prospective cohort studies and sixty nine intervention studies, met the pre-specified inclusion criteria. Of these, thirty-three studies (19 cohort and 14 randomized controlled trials) investigated the effects of folate, B-vitamins, and levels of homocysteine (a biomarker modifiable through B-vitamin supplementation) or fish/fatty acids and are the focus of the present report. Some observational cohort studies indicated that higher dietary intake or elevated serum levels of folate and fish/fatty acids and low serum levels of homocysteine were associated with a reduced risk of incident AD and dementia, while other studies reported no association. The results of intervention studies examining the effects of folic acid or fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function are inconsistent. In summary, the available evidence is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions on the association of B vitamins and fatty acids with cognitive decline or dementia, and further long-term trials are required.

  20. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  1. Establishing safe and potentially efficacious fortification contents for folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dary, Omar

    2008-06-01

    Determining the micronutrient contents infortified foods depends not only on the health goal (additional intake to complement the diet), but also on ensuring that fortification does not raise micronutrient intakes beyond the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), i.e., the safe limit. Technological incompatibility and cost may also restrict the fortification contents. For folic acid, the limiting factor is safety, while for vitamin B12, it is cost. However, adequate fortification contents that are both safe and efficacious can be estimated for both nutrients. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from the fortification programs, three different formulas responding to three categories of consumption, as specified by the median and 95th percentile of consumption, are proposed. The model presented is based on the estimation of a Feasible Fortification Level (FFL), which then is used to determine the average, minimum, and maximum contents of the nutrients during production, taking into consideration the acceptable variation of the fortification process. Finally, the regulatory parameters, which support standards and enforcement, are calculated by reducing the proportion of the nutrient that is degraded during the usual marketing process of the fortified food. It is expected that this model will establish a common standard for food fortification, and improve the reliability and enforcement procedures of these programs. The model was applied to flours as vehicles for folic acid in the United States, Guatemala, and Chile. Analysis of the data revealed that, with the exception of Chile, where wheat flour consumption is very high and probably within a narrow range, supplementation with folic acid is still needed to cover individuals at the low end of consumption. This is especially true when the difference in flour consumption is too wide, as in the case of Guatemala, where the proportional difference between consumption at the 95th percentile of the nonpoor group is as high

  2. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indoor lambs with special attention on rumen-derived trans monounsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, V; Broudiscou, L; Schmidely, P

    2014-03-01

    Thirty male lambs were assigned to one of 3 concentrate diets supplemented with 45 (E0), 286 (E1) or 551 (E2) mg/kg DM of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate to test the effect of vitamin E supplementation on muscle, caudal and perirenal fatty acid (FA) compositions. Specific attention was paid to C18:1 10t, usually observed in high proportions with high-starch or high-unsaturated FA diets. Vitamin E supplementation increased the α-tocopherol plasma concentrations of lambs. It did not modify lamb growth and slaughter parameters. Vitamin E supplementation did not modify FA composition in most tissues but it increased the C18:2 n-6/C18:3 n-3 ratio in muscle and adipose tissues of the E1 group compared to E0 and E2 groups. Vitamin E supplementation enhanced the C18:1 10t proportion in muscle and adipose tissues and it decreased the C18:2 9c,11t proportion in adipose tissues, especially in the E2 group. These changes may not be favourable for the nutritional value of lamb meat.

  3. Clay minerals on Mars: Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain) as Earth analogue for acidic alteration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, C.; Cuadros, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Nieto, J. M.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration. The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided mild to extreme acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years. The mineral assemblages are strongly dependent on their acidic alteration intensity. The observed mineralogical parageneses and leaching conditions for our sites at Riotinto are consistent with three alteration sequences: i) Mild: containing a range of clay minerals from vermiculite to kaolinite, with a wide variety of crystal order and mixed-layering; ii) Intermediate: containing smectite to kaolinite with jarosite-group phases; iii) Advanced: containing kaolinite, jarosite-group phases, and iron oxides. Our findings suggest that, even within this general scheme, the specific alteration pathways can be different.

  4. The Effects of Uric Acid, Serum Vitamin D3, and Their Interaction on Parkinson's Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Shaabani, Pooria; Tabibian, Seyed Reza; Aghaye Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In current study, the relationships between serum vitamin D3 levels and serum UA concentrations as well as their interaction with severity of PD were evaluated in a sample of Iranian PD patients. Method. In a cross sectional study at the one of the main referral hospitals in central region of Iran, during September to November 2011, 112 patients were recruited. Severity of PD was evaluated sing H&R stages and UPDRS. Results. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient suggests the negative significant association between serum vitamin D3 and UPDRS in patients aged >62 (r = −0.34, P < 0.05). No statistically significant association was observed between the UA levels and severity of PD (represented by H&Y categories) in different levels of serum vitamin D3 not only in total sample but also in separate age and sex groups. The linear regression coefficients suggested positive association between UA and serum vitamin D3 with UPDRSIII scores while negative relationship between UA and serum vitamin D3 interaction with UPDRSIII; however it was only statistically significant in age group ≤62 (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study revealed a negative correlation between interaction of serum vitamin D3 and UA with severity of PD; other studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:25802799

  5. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P < 0.01). When analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, PdxR deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

  6. Correlation of Vitamin E, Uric Acid and Diet Composition with Histologic Features of Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Miriam B.; Colvin, Ryan; Belt, Patricia; Molleston, Jean P.; Murray, Karen F.; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwimmer, Jeffrey; Tonascia, James; Unalp, Aynur; Lavine, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children in the United States. Although changes in diet are often recommended to improve NAFLD, little is known regarding diet influence on histologic features of the disease. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional registry based study. Children (n=149) enrolled in the multi-center NASH Clinical Research Network had demographic, anthropometric, clinical, laboratory and histology data obtained, including the Block Brief Food Questionnaire. Subjects were grouped by presence or absence of steatohepatitis and grades of histologic features according to NASH-CRN criteria. Results No significant differences were found between children with steatosis compared to steatohepatitis for fraction of calories from fat, carbohydrates, and protein. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption was low and did not correlate with histologic features, although uric acid, a surrogate marker for fructose intake, was significantly increased in those with definite NASH (p=.008). For all groups, vitamin E consumption was insufficient compared to the recommended daily allowance. Median consumption of vitamin E was lower in children with higher grade of steatosis (8.4 vs 6.1 vs 6.9 for grade I, II and III respectively, p = .05). Those consuming less vitamin C had increased ballooning degeneration (p = 0.05). Conclusions Children with NAFLD have a diet that is insufficient in vitamin E and this may contribute to the pathophysiology of NAFLD. In children with NAFLD, reported sugar sweetened beverage consumption is low; however uric acid, which may reflect total fructose consumption, was significantly associated with NASH and should be further evaluated. PMID:22197855

  7. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time.

  8. [Level of consumption of vitamins and minerals as risk factors of osteopathy at patients with the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal pathology].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Svetikova, A A

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of a diet of patients with cardiovascular atherosclerosis diseases, suffering from obesity, and with a pathology of a gastroenteric path has not revealed authentic differences on nutrient consumption between subgroups of patients with normal and lowered bone mineral density. It has been demonstrated that for patients with cardiovascular diseases values of an index of osteopathy risk, corresponding to the minimal risk, and for gastric patients--the values reflecting the maximal risk, are typical.

  9. Increased sodium and fluctuations in minerals in acid limes expressing witches' broom symptoms.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghaithi, Aisha G; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Busaidi, Walid M; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', is a very serious disease of acid limes. The disease destroyed more than one million lime trees in the Middle East. WBDL results in the production of small, clustered leaves in some branches of lime trees. Branches develop symptoms with time and become unproductive, until the whole tree collapses within 4-8 years of first symptom appearance. This study was conducted to investigate differences in minerals between symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves of infected lime trees. The study included one set of leaves from uninfected trees and two sets of infected leaves: symptomatic leaves and asymptomatic leaves obtained from randomly selected acid lime trees. Nested polymerase chain reaction detected phytoplasma in the symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves from the six infected trees, but not from the uninfected trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all phytoplasmas belong to the 16S rRNA group II-B. Mineral analysis revealed that the level of Na significantly increased by four times in the symptomatic leaves compared to the non-symptomatic leaves and to the uninfected leaves. In addition, symptom development resulted in a significant increase in the levels of P and K by 1.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, and a significant decrease in the levels of Ca and B by 1.2 and 1.8 times, respectively. There was no significant effect of WBDL on the levels of N, Cu, Zn, and Fe. The development of witches' broom disease symptoms was found to be associated with changes in some minerals. The study discusses factors and consequences of changes in the mineral content of acid limes infected by phytoplasma.

  10. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children.

  11. Cobalt supplementation, alone or in combination with vitamin B and selenium: Effects on lamb performance and mineral status.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P; Fagan, S P

    2017-01-01

    The effects of supplementing lambs with Co, either alone or in combination with vitamin B and Se, were evaluated over the period from weaning to selection for slaughter. Two hundred and five recently weaned (at 14 wk [SD 0.44] of age), spring-born lambs of various crossbred genotypes were stratified, within genotype, by BW and gender and allocated to 3 groups, which were then allocated at random to one of the following treatments: no supplement (Control), a supplement containing Co only (Co-only), or a supplement containing Co, vitamin B, and Se (VitMin). The concentration of Co in the Co-only supplement was 2.1 mg/mL (as cobalt sulfate); the VitMin supplement contained Co (10 mg/mL, as cobalt acetate), vitamin B (200 μg/mL), and Se (0.25 mg/mL, as sodium selenite). Lambs on the Co-only and VitMin treatments received, every 14 d, 10 and 2.1 mL, respectively, of oral drench. Lambs were managed in a rotational-grazing system from 12 July (swards predominantly ) and selected for slaughter, on the basis of BW, after 45, 73, or 115 d; all remaining lambs were slaughtered on d 157. Supplementation, with Co-only or VitMin, increased BW at slaughter ( < 0.01), ADG ( < 0.001), carcass weight ( < 0.001), dressing percentage ( < 0.001), carcass fat score ( < 0.05), and the proportion selected for slaughter by d 73 ( < 0.05) and 115 ( < 0.01). Relative to the Control, the benefit to ADG from supplementation increased as the season advanced. Therefore, supplementation did not alter ( = 0.82) ADG between d 1 and 45 but increased ADG over the intervals d 45 to 73 ( < 0.01), d 73 to 115 ( < 0.001), and d 115 to 157 ( < 0.001). There was no difference ( > 0.05) between the Co-only and the VitMin treatments for ADG, carcass weight, fat score, or dressing percentage. Supplementation with Co increased liver Co concentration ( < 0.001), and lambs supplemented with VitMin had greater liver Co concentration than lambs supplemented with Co-only ( < 0.05); the concentrations were 0.18, 0

  12. Optical properties of selected components of mineral dust aerosol processed with organic acids and humic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer M.; Grassian, V. H.; Young, M. A.; Kleiber, P. D.

    2015-03-01

    Visible light scattering phase function and linear polarization profiles of mineral dust components processed with organic acids and humic material are measured, and results are compared to T-matrix simulations of the scattering properties. Processed samples include quartz mixed with humic material, and calcite reacted with acetic and oxalic acids. Clear differences in light scattering properties are observed for all three processed samples when compared to the unprocessed dust or organic salt products. Results for quartz processed with humic acid sodium salt (NaHA) indicate the presence of both internally mixed quartz-NaHA particles and externally mixed NaHA aerosol. Simulations of light scattering suggest that the processed quartz particles become more moderate in shape due to the formation of a coating of humic material over the mineral core. Experimental results for calcite reacted with acetic acid are consistent with an external mixture of calcite and the reaction product, calcium acetate. Modeling of the light scattering properties does not require any significant change to the calcite particle shape distribution although morphology changes cannot be ruled out by our data. It is expected that calcite reacted with oxalic acid will produce internally mixed particles of calcite and calcium oxalate due to the low solubility of the product salt. However, simulations of the scattering for the calcite-oxalic acid system result in rather poor fits to the data when compared to the other samples. The poor fit provides a less accurate picture of the impact of processing in the calcite-oxalic acid system.

  13. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  14. Mineral, fatty acid, and flavonoid content in a subset of plant introductions from the pulse species, Macrotyloma uniflorum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum is an underutilized legume used as a pulse vegetable. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 36 horsegram accessions from countries worldwide. To determine if horsegram contains variable amounts of dietary minerals, fatty acids, and health enhancing nutraceuticals including...

  15. Effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid, vitamin B12, or both, on lactational performance and energy status of multiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D; Laforest, J-P; Girard, C L

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of this experiment was to gain understanding on changes in energy partitioning when folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements, alone or combined, were given by weekly intramuscular injections from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 7 wk postpartum. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to previous 305-d lactation yield to either 0 or 320 mg of folic acid and 0 or 10 mg of vitamin B12 in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Plasma concentration of folates was increased by folic acid supplement, and this increase was greater with the combined supplement. Vitamin B12 supplement increased plasma concentration of vitamin B12. Even though postpartum energy balance was similar among treatments, postpartum body condition score was higher for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Milk yield of cows receiving folic acid supplement reached a plateau earlier than for cows that did not. Fat and protein, as well as total solid concentrations and yields, were unaffected by treatments. Postpartum plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher and postpartum plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was lower for cows that received weekly folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Plasma concentration of methylmalonic acid was low and unaffected by treatments, suggesting that vitamin B12 supply was not limiting, even for unsupplemented cows. Postpartum plasma concentrations of Cys, His, Phe, and Tyr were increased, whereas plasma concentration of Gly was decreased, by folic acid supplement. In the present study, supplementary folic acid altered energy partitioning in early lactation as suggested by similar milk total solid yield and postpartum energy balance, lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and body condition score losses, and higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not.

  16. Folic Acid and Vitamins D and B12 Correlate With Homocysteine in Chinese Patients With Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, or Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xudong; Xing, Xubin; Xu, Rong; Gong, Qing; He, Yue; Li, Shuijun; Wang, Hongfu; Liu, Cong; Ding, Xin; Na, Rishu; Liu, Zhiwen; Qu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Elevated serum homocysteine has been shown to be a risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).We characterized the relationships between the serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins D2, D3, and B12 in patients with T2DM, CVD, and hypertension in Shanghai, China. The levels of these serum biochemical markers were determined for 9311 Chinese patients (mean age: 79.50 ± 13.26 years) with T2DM (N = 839), hypertension (N = 490), or CVD (N = 7925). The demographic and serum biochemical data were compared using an analysis of variance. We performed stratified analyses using Pearson linear regression to investigate correlations between the different variables in the T2DM, CVD, and hypertension groups and in patients aged < 50, 50 to 64, 65 to 80, and ≥80 years. A subgroup analysis was also performed to identify correlations between the serum biochemical markers. Stratified chi-squared analyses were performed based on the levels of folic acid and total vitamin D.In all 3 patient groups, elevated levels of vitamin D2 and homocysteine were observed, whereas the levels of folic acid and vitamins D3 and B12 were lower than the reference range for each serum marker (P < 0.05 for all). The linear regression and stratified analyses showed that the highest levels of folic acid and vitamins D2 and D3 correlated with the lowest level of homocysteine in T2DM, CVD, and hypertension patients (P < 0.05 for all), whereas the highest level of vitamin B12 correlated with a lowest level of homocysteine in CVD patients only (P < 0.05).Our results indicate that the contributions of both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 should be considered in investigations of the effects of vitamin D supplements in T2DM, CVD, and hypertension patients. Our findings warrant future studies of the benefits of vitamin D and folic acid supplements for reducing the risk of T2DM, CVD, and hypertension in elderly Chinese

  17. Effects of Four-Week Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Preparation on Mood and Blood Biomarkers in Young Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    White, David J.; Cox, Katherine H. M.; Peters, Riccarda; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effects of four-week multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM) supplementation on mood and neurocognitive function in healthy, young adults. Fifty-eight healthy adults, 18–40 years of age (M = 25.82 years, SD = 4.87) participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which mood and blood biomarkers were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of supplementation. Compared to placebo, MVM supplementation was associated with significantly lowered homocysteine and increased blood B-vitamin levels (p < 0.01). MVM treatment was also associated with significantly improved mood, as measured by reduced scores on the “depression-dejection” subscale of the Profile of Mood States (p = 0.018). These findings suggest that the four weeks of MVM supplementation may have beneficial effects on mood, underpinned by elevated B-vitamins and lowered homocysteine in healthy young adults. PMID:26529011

  18. Acid Mine Drainage and Metal Sulfate Minerals in the Shasta Mining District, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. D.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, R. M.; Ayars, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Metal sulfate minerals were collected at four surface water drainage sites during September and October of 2004 in the Shasta Mining District, southern Klamath Mountains, Shasta County, California and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to determine elements present, quantities of Fe, Cu, and Zn, and mineralogy. The Shasta Mining District produced major quantities of Cu, Zn, and pyrite (S) with minor amounts of Au, Ag, and Fe from massive sulfide bodies (Kinkel et al., 1956). Three study sites are located on Iron Mountain and one study site is at Bully Hill. Although mining occurred during a period of just over 100 years, it is estimated that acid mine drainage (AMD) will continue from Iron Mountain for over 3,200 years (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1998). AMD at the study sites produces blooms of metal sulfates during California's Mediterranean climate summer. The minerals readily dissolve in the "first flush" of seasonal rain creating runoff water of low pH with high amounts of dissolved metals (Bayless and Olyphant, 1993; Jambor et al., 2000). Data were examined for mineralogical changes in time and space and for zoning of minerals on a scale of centimeters. Sulfate mineral samples are complex with some samples composed of over a dozen different minerals. Site 1 is located on Spring Creek downstream from the Iron Mountain superfund remediation site, so levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the sulfates at this site are lower than at the other sites. Two site 1 samples from the same location taken a month apart show Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, and Sn, and the first sample also has detectable Br. The metal sulfates identified from the first visit are celestine, cesanite, chessexite, hectorfloresite, and ungemachite, and the mineralogy of the second visit is bilinite, epsomite, millosevichite, and anhydrite. The Fe bearing sulfate mineral during the first visit is ungemachite, but bilinite was the Fe bearing mineral at the time of the second

  19. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  20. Impact of processing conditions on the kinetic of vitamin C degradation and 2-furoylmethyl amino acid formation in dried strawberries.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Soria, A Cristina; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a study on the usefulness of the determination of vitamin C together with indicators of the initial steps of Maillard reaction (2-furoylmethyl amino acids, 2-FM-AA) during the convective drying of strawberries has been carried out for the first time, paying special attention to the kinetics of degradation and formation, respectively, of both parameters. Formation of 2-FM-AA of Lys, Arg and GABA and vitamin C loss increased with time and temperature following, respectively, a zero and first-order kinetics. As supported by its lower activation energy, 2-FM-GABA (55.9 kJ/mol) and 2-FM-Lys+2-FM-Arg (58.2 kJ/mol) were shown to be slightly more sensitive indicators than vitamin C (82.1 kJ/mol). The obtained results, together with a complementary study on the rehydration ability and sensorial attributes of samples, pointed out the suitability of the convective drying system to obtain dried strawberries of high nutritive quality and bioactivity and good consumer acceptance.

  1. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-03-29

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.

  2. Vitamin a: history, current uses, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M Shane

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin A is required for the proper functioning of many important metabolic and physiologic activities, including vision, gene transcription, the immune system and skin cell differentiation. Both excessive and deficient levels of vitamin A lead to poor functioning of many human systems. The biologically active form, retinoic acid, binds to nuclear receptors that facilitate transcription that ultimately leads to it's physiological effects. Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A that are medications used to treat acne vulgaris, psoriasis, ichthyosis (and other disorders of keratinization), skin cancer prevention as well as several bone marrow derived neoplasias. Systemic retinoids are teratogenic and have to be prescribed with caution and close oversight. Other potential adverse events are controversial. These include the relationship of retinoid derivatives in sunscreens, their effects on bone mineral density, depression and suicidal ideation and inflammatory bowel disease. These controversies will be discussed in detail.

  3. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  4. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Solution of Mortars with Quaternary Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhloufi, Zoubir; Bederina, Madani; Bouhicha, Mohamed; Kadri, El-Hadj

    This research consists to study the synergistic action of three mineral additions simultaneously added to the cement. This synergistic effect has a positive effect on the sustainability of limestone mortars. Tests were performed on mortars based on crushed limestone sand and manufactured by five quaternary binders (ordinary Portland cement and CPO mixed simultaneously with filler limestone, blast-furnace and natural pozzolan). The purpose of this research was to identify the resistance of five different mortars to the solution of sulfuric acid. Changes in weight loss and compressive strength measured at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days for each acid solution were studied. We followed up on the change in pH of the sulfuric acid solution at the end of each month up to 180 days.

  5. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  6. Hydrogels from Amorphous Calcium Carbonate and Polyacrylic Acid: Bio-Inspired Materials for "Mineral Plastics".

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengtong; Mao, Li-Bo; Lei, Zhouyue; Yu, Shu-Hong; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-19

    Given increasing environmental issues due to the large usage of non-biodegradable plastics based on petroleum, new plastic materials, which are economic, environmentally friendly, and recyclable are in high demand. One feasible strategy is the bio-inspired synthesis of mineral-based hybrid materials. Herein we report a facile route for an amorphous CaCO3 (ACC)-based hydrogel consisting of very small ACC nanoparticles physically cross-linked by poly(acrylic acid). The hydrogel is shapeable, stretchable, and self-healable. Upon drying, the hydrogel forms free-standing, rigid, and transparent objects with remarkable mechanical performance. By swelling in water, the material can completely recover the initial hydrogel state. As a matrix, thermochromism can also be easily introduced. The present hybrid hydrogel may represent a new class of plastic materials, the "mineral plastics".

  7. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces via CaCO3 mineralization mediated by poly(glutamic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Heng; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2013-03-01

    Surfaces with micrometer and nanometer sized hierarchical structures were fabricated by an one-step in situ additive controlled CaCO3 mineralization method. After chemical modification, the surfaces with various morphologies showed superhydrophobicity in different states, which could be easily adjusted by the initial supersaturation of the mineralization solution (concentration of calcium ion and poly(glutamic acid)). Generally, the "lotus state" surface which was covered by a thick layer of tetrahedron-shaped CaCO3 particles to exhibit a contact angle (CA) of 157±1° and a very low contact angle hysteresis (CAH) (roll-off angle=1°) was produced under high supersaturation. On the other hands, the petal-like surface with flower-shaped calcite spherulites was obtained in a relative low supersaturation, which showed both high CA (156±2°) and CAH (180°) in a "Cassie impregnating wetting state".

  8. Dietary intake, neutrophil fatty acid profile, serum antioxidant vitamins and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yasuko; Kawakami, Takayo; Ueda, Yukiko; Kunii, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Yachiyo; Shiratori, Yasushi; Okita, Misako

    2007-04-01

    Nutrition may play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of ulcerative colitis. Several studies suggest an association between dietary factors and the onset of ulcerative colitis; however, only few studies have examined the relationship between dietary intake and relapse of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake and antioxidative capacity of ulcerative colitis patients and to elucidate the efficacy of dietary therapy for ulcerative colitis. Dietary intake, fatty acid composition of phospholipids in plasma and neutrophils, serum fat-soluble vitamin levels, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were analyzed in 29 ulcerative colitis patients (7 males and 22 females), who were treated at the Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Hospital. Total fat intake, fat energy ratio and linoleic acid intake were significantly lower, while protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher, in the patients than age- and sex-matched controls. In the neutrophil phospholipids of ulcerative colitis patients, significantly higher levels of linoleic aicd and arachidonic acid and a lower level of eicosapentaenoic acid were observed. The concentrations of serum retinol and beta-carotene but not alpha-tocopherol were significantly lower and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity was also lower than in the controls. Significant correlations between serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity and retinol (r = 0.567, p = 0.0031), alpha-tocopherol (r = 0.560, p = 0.0036) and beta-carotene (r = 0.440, p = 0.0279) concentrations were observed in the ulcerative colitis patients. A diet restricting the intake of linoleic acid and supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidative vitamins may be recommendable for the nutritional management of ulcerative colitis patients.

  9. Study of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C)/H 2O mixture across glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliardo, F.; Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Magazù, S.; Migliardo, P.

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we report quasi elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra of vitamin C aqueous solutions, obtained using MIBEMOL spectrometer (LLB). The main purpose of this work is to characterize the relaxational and vibrational properties of the Vitamin C/H 2O system below and above the glass transition temperature by analysing the low-frequency neutron scattering spectra. The determination of the relative weight of vibrational over relaxational contributions allows to get information on the fragility degree of this peculiar hydrogen-bond system.

  10. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation. The study includes different bone sites (femur, tibia, humerus, vertebral rib) in an effort to explore possible differences among the sites. We evaluate the following parameters: mineral-to-matrix ratio, carbonate content, and non-apatitic species (labile acid phosphate and labile carbonate) contribution to bone mineral. Results show that a relatively high dose of calcium or calcium with vitamin D supplementation increases the bone mineralization index significantly. On the other hand, vitamin D alone is not as effective in promoting mineralization even with high intake. Mature B-type apatite was detected for the group with calcium supplementation similar to that of aged bone. High vitamin D intake led to increased labile species concentration revealing bone formation. This is directly associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines linked to induced inflammation. The latter is known to adversely alter bone metabolism, contributing to the aetiopathogenesis of osteoporosis. Thus, a high intake of vitamin D under inflammation-induced osteoporosis does not promote mineralization but suppresses bone resorption and restores metabolic balance.

  11. Mineralization of flumequine in acidic medium by electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Garrido, José A; Rodríguez, Rosa M; Cabot, Pere L; Centellas, Francesc; Arias, Conchita; Brillas, Enric

    2012-05-01

    The mineralization of flumequine, an antimicrobial agent belonging to the first generation of synthetic fluoroquinolones which is detected in natural waters, has been studied by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) with UVA light. The experiments were performed in a cell containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H(2)O(2) at constant current. The Fe(2+) ion added to the medium increased the solubility of the drug by the formation of a complex of intense orange colour and also reacted with electrogenerated H(2)O(2) to form hydroxyl radical from Fenton reaction. Oxidant hydroxyl radicals at the BDD surface were produced from water oxidation. A partial mineralization of flumequine in a solution near to saturation with optimum 2.0mM Fe(2+) at pH 3.0 was achieved by EF. The PEF process was more powerful, giving an almost total mineralization with 94-96% total organic carbon removal. Increasing current accelerated both treatments, but with decreasing mineralization current efficiency. Comparative treatments using a real wastewater matrix led to similar degradation degrees. The kinetics for flumequine decay always followed a pseudo-first-order reaction and its rate constant, similar for both EAOPs, raised with increasing current. Generated carboxylic acids like malonic, formic, oxalic and oxamic acids were quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate complexes were the most persistent by-products under EF conditions and their quicker photolysis by UVA light explains the higher oxidation power of PEF. The release of inorganic ions such as F(-), NO(3)(-) and in lesser extent NH(4)(+) was followed by ionic chromatography.

  12. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring. PMID:22852064

  13. Osteoblast protects osteoclast devoid of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters from oxidative cytotoxicity of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Kambe, Yuki; Sahara, Koichi; Kurokawa, Shintaro; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    The view that ascorbic acid indirectly benefits osteoclastogenesis through expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts is prevailing. In this study, we have examined the direct effect of ascorbic acid on osteoclastogenesis in cultured mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow precursors. The absence of alkaline phosphatase and osteoblastic marker genes validated the usefulness of isolation procedures. Sustained exposure to ascorbic acid, but not to dehydroascorbic acid, significantly reduced the number of multinucleated cells positive to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. In cultured osteoclasts, mRNA expression was seen for glucose transporter-1 involved in membrane transport of dehydroascorbic acid, but not for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters-1 and -2 that are both responsible for the transport of ascorbic acid. The inhibition by ascorbic acid was completely prevented by catalase, while ascorbic acid or hydrogen peroxide drastically increased the number of cells stained with propidium iodide and the generation of reactive oxygen species, in addition to inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured osteoclasts. In pre-osteoclastic cell line RAW264.7 cells, ascorbic acid similarly inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, with a significant decrease in RANKL-induced NF-kappaB transactivation. Moreover, co-culture with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells significantly prevented the ascorbic acid-induced decrease in the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that ascorbic acid may play a dual repulsive role in osteoclastogenesis toward bone remodeling through the direct cytotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress to osteoclasts, in addition to the indirect trophism mediated by RANKL from osteoblasts.

  14. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  15. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  16. [Study on the acid hydrolysis, fiber remodeling and bionics mineralization of rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Qiaofeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To produce bionic bone material that is consistent with human bone in chemical composition and molecular structure using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ. Methods: The type Ⅰcollagen derived from rat tail was extracted by acetic acid to form collagen fibers. The reconstructed collagen fibers were placed in the mineralized solution to mimic bone mineralization for 2-6 days. Bone mineralization was observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction.Results: Collagen fibers with characteristic D-Band structure were reconstructed by using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ extracted with acid hydrolysis method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction showed that calcium hydroxyapatite precursor infiltrated into the collagen fibers, and the collagen fibers were partially mineralized after 2 days of mineralization; the collagen fibers were completely mineralized and bionic bone material of typeⅠ collagen/calcium hydroxyapatite was formed after 6 days of mineralization.Conclusion: The collagen type Ⅰ can be extracted from rat tail tendon by acid hydrolysis method, and can be reformed and mineralized to form the bionic bone material which mimics human bone in chemical composition and the molecular structure.

  17. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution.

  18. Vitamin D treatment attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianjing; Shi, Yongyan; Du, Jie; Ge, Xin; Teng, Xu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Enbo; Zhao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have different immunological mechanisms, while both of them are potential targets of vitamin D treatment. In this study, we have tried to address the role of vitamin D in CD and UC using two mouse models. Mice of C57B6L were given vitamin D before the induction of colitis. Our results showed that vitamin D attenuated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis. Vitamin D could preserve the local histology, alleviate inflammation, suppress apoptosis, maintain tight junction function and decrease permeability. Interestingly, it has more of an effect on local structure preservation and inflammation inhibition in CD than in UC mice. Vitamin D blocked the increase of helper T-cell type 1 (Th1)- and helper T-cell type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines in TNBS-induced colitis. But the increase of helper T-cell type 2 (Th2)- and regulatory T cells (Treg)-related cytokines was augmented at the same time in oxazolone-induced colitis which counteracted each other. Our study helps elucidate the differential protective effects of vitamin D on CD and UC patients, as reported in literature. PMID:27620138

  19. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R.; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry

  20. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2.

  1. B Vitamin and/or n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Health-Related Quality of Life: Ancillary Findings from the SU.FOL.OM3 Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Latarche, Clotilde; Hercberg, Serge; Briançon, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing attention to nutrition and quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors, the impact of dietary factors according to disease type or to quality of life domain is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation on health-related quality of life among survivors of stroke, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina. Methods We performed ancillary analyses of the SU.FOL.OM3 trial (2003–2009; France). In total, 2,501 men (mean age = 61 y) and women (mean age = 63 y) were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design to: 1) 0.56 mg 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, 3 mg vitamin B6, 0.02 mg vitamin B12; 2) 600 mg eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in a 2∶1 ratio; 3) B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids combined; or 4) placebo. Health-related quality of life was evaluated at follow-up with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data from 2,029 individuals were used in this analysis. Results After 3.1±0.4 y, no effects of supplementation with either B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on quality of life (physical or mental health domains) were found. However, participants receiving B vitamins had slightly more activity limitations due to emotional problems compared with those not receiving B vitamins (mean difference = 3.8; 95% CI: 0.4, 7.1). A significant interaction of treatment by prior disease revealed an inverse association between n-3 fatty acids and vitality among myocardial infarction survivors (mean difference = 2.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 5.2). Conclusions There were no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on health-related quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors. The adverse effects of B vitamins on activity limitations and of n-3 fatty acids on vitality among individuals with prior myocardial infarction merit confirmation. PMID:24465438

  2. Precision of dehydroascorbic acid quantitation with the use of the subtraction method--validation of HPLC-DAD method for determination of total vitamin C in food.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Artur; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2015-04-15

    In food analysis, a method for determination of vitamin C should enable measuring of total content of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) because both chemical forms exhibit biological activity. The aim of the work was to confirm applicability of HPLC-DAD method for analysis of total content of vitamin C (TC) and ascorbic acid in various types of food by determination of validation parameters such as: selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. The results showed that the method applied for determination of TC and AA was selective, linear and precise. Precision of DHAA determination by the subtraction method was also evaluated. It was revealed that the results of DHAA determination obtained by the subtraction method were not precise which resulted directly from the assumption of this method and the principles of uncertainty propagation. The proposed chromatographic method should be recommended for routine determinations of total vitamin C in various food.

  3. Impact of thermal and organic acid treatment of feed on apparent ileal mineral absorption, tibial and liver mineral concentration, and tibia quality in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-07-01

    Minerals play an important role for growth and bone stability in broilers. Thermal treatment and inclusion of organic acids in feed may affect the mineral absorption and tibial quality in broilers. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of thermal processing of feed including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C (L), and expanding at 130°C (E) without and with 1.5% of an acid mixture containing 64% formic and 25% propionic acid on the apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, their concentrations in liver and tibia, as well as various tibial quality parameters in broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were assigned using a completely randomized design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. The ileal digesta, liver, and tibia were collected at d 35. The AIA of calcium and sodium was improved in group E compared with L (P ≤ 0.02 and P ≤ 0.01). Group P and E showed higher AIA for potassium than L (P ≤ 0.01). Bone ash content was increased in group E compared with L (P ≤ 0.04). The BW to bone weight ratio was lower and tibial zinc content was higher in group P compared with E (P ≤ 0.05). Tibial iron content was higher in group L than E (P ≤ 0.03). Acid addition did not affect AIA, mineral content in tibia, or tibial quality parameters. Thermal and acid treatment did not affect mineral concentrations in the liver, except an inconsistent interaction effect for DM content and sodium (P ≤ 0.03 and P ≤ 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, long-term thermal treatment reduced AIA of some minerals compared with short-term thermal treatments, but had no impact on tibia composition. Acid inclusion had no effect on AIA of minerals and tibia quality. Thermal treatment and the use of organic acids can therefore be considered as safe with regard to their impact on bone development in broilers.

  4. Effects of intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 on lactation performance of dairy cows fed dietary supplements of folic acid and rumen-protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    2005-02-01

    The experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of i.m. injections of vitamin B(12) on lactational performance of primiparous dairy cows fed dietary supplements of folic acid and rumen-protected methionine from 4 to 18 wk of lactation. Fourteen primiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 7 blocks of 2 cows each, according to milk production during the third week of lactation. All cows were fed a basal diet supplemented daily with rumen-protected methionine (18 g of supplement, to bring the estimated supply of methionine to 2.2% of metabolizable protein) plus folic acid (4 mg per kg of BW). Within each block, the cows received a weekly i.m. injection (2 mL) of saline or 10 mg of vitamin B(12). Milk production was recorded daily. Milk and blood were sampled every 2 wk. Supplementary vitamin B(12) increased energy-corrected milk from 25.8 to 29.0 (SE 1.6) kg/d, as well as milk yields of solids [3.52 to 3.90 (SE 0.22) kg/d], fat [0.87 to 1.01 (SE 0.06) kg/d], and lactose [1.48 to 1.64 (SE 0.11) kg/d]. Supplementation also increased concentrations and amounts of vitamin B(12) secreted in milk but had no significant effect on dry matter intake and concentrations and amounts of folates in milk. Packed cell volume, blood hemoglobin, and serum vitamin B(12) were increased by supplementary vitamin B(12), whereas serum methylmalonic acid was decreased. Serum concentrations of sulfur amino acids were unchanged by treatment. These findings support the hypothesis that, in early lactation, supply of vitamin B(12) was not optimal and limited the lactation performance of the cows.

  5. Cloning of a Novel 6-Chloronicotinic Acid Chlorohydrolase from the Newly Isolated 6-Chloronicotinic Acid Mineralizing Bradyrhizobiaceae Strain SG-6C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rinku; Khan, Fazlurrahman; Dorrian, Susan J.; Balotra, Sahil; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.; Pandey, Gunjan

    2012-01-01

    A 6-chloronicotinic acid mineralizing bacterium was isolated from enrichment cultures originating from imidacloprid-contaminated soil samples. This Bradyrhizobiaceae, designated strain SG-6C, hydrolytically dechlorinated 6-chloronicotinic acid to 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, which was then further metabolised via the nicotinic acid pathway. This metabolic pathway was confirmed by growth and resting cell assays using HPLC and LC-MS studies. A candidate for the gene encoding the initial dechlorination step, named cch2 (for 6-chloronicotinic acid chlorohydrolase), was identified using genome sequencing and its function was confirmed using resting cell assays on E. coli heterologously expressing this gene. The 464 amino acid enzyme was found to be a member of the metal dependent hydrolase superfamily with similarities to the TRZ/ATZ family of chlorohydrolases. We also provide evidence that cch2 was mobilized into this bacterium by an Integrative and Conjugative Element (ICE) that feeds 6-hydroxynicotinic acid into the existing nicotinic acid mineralization pathway. PMID:23226482

  6. Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-02-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving, on glucose and methionine metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 2 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply methionine as 1.83% metabolizable protein, equivalent to 76% of methionine requirement, whereas the 2 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented daily with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine. Within each diet, the cows were administrated either no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B(12.) To investigate metabolic changes at 12 wk of lactation, glucose and methionine kinetics were measured by isotope dilution using infusions of 3[U-(13)C]glucose, [(13)C]NaHCO(3) and 3[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)] methionine. Milk and plasma concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B(12) increased with vitamin injections. Supplementary B-vitamins increased milk production from 34.7 to 38.9 +/- 1.0 kg/d and increased milk lactose, protein, and total solids yields. Whole-body glucose flux tended to increase with vitamin supplementation with a similar quantitative magnitude as the milk lactose yield increase. Vitamin supplementation increased methionine utilization for protein synthesis through increased protein turnover when methionine was deficient and through decreased methionine oxidation when rumen-protected methionine was fed. Vitamin supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of homocysteine independently of rumen-protected methionine feeding, although no effect of vitamin supplementation was measured on methionine remethylation, but this could be due to the limitation of the technique used. Therefore, the effects of these B-vitamins on lactation performance

  7. Nanoemulsion delivery systems for oil-soluble vitamins: Influence of carrier oil type on lipid digestion and vitamin D3 bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-15

    The influence of carrier oil type on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 encapsulated within oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared using a natural surfactant (quillaja saponin) was studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model: mouth; stomach; small intestine. The rate of free fatty acid release during lipid digestion decreased in the following order: medium chain triglycerides (MCT) > corn oil ≈ fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil. Conversely, the measured bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 decreased in the following order: corn oil ≈ fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil > MCT. These results show that carrier oil type has a considerable impact on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility, which was attributed to differences in the release of bioactives from lipid droplets, and their solubilization in mixed micelles. Nanoemulsions prepared using long chain triglycerides (corn or fish oil) were most effective at increasing vitamin bioaccessibility.

  8. Fatty acids affect micellar properties and modulate vitamin D uptake and basolateral efflux in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gleize, Béatrice; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2013-10-01

    We have recently shown that vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) absorption is not a simple passive diffusion but involves cholesterol transporters. As free fatty acids (FAs) modulate cholesterol intestinal absorption and metabolism, we hypothesized that FAs may also interact with vitamin D absorption. Effects of FAs were evaluated at different levels of cholecalciferol intestinal absorption. First, the physicochemical properties of micelles formed with different FAs were analyzed. The micelles were then administered to human Caco-2 cells in culture to evaluate FA effects on (i) cholecalciferol uptake and basolateral efflux and (ii) the regulation of genes coding proteins involved in lipid absorption process. Micellar electric charge was correlated with both FA chain length and degree of unsaturation. Long-chain FAs at 500 μM in mixed micelles decreased cholecalciferol uptake in Caco-2 cells. This decrease was annihilated as soon as the long-chain FAs were mixed with other FAs. Oleic acid significantly improved cholecalciferol basolateral efflux compared to other FAs. These results were partly explained by a modulation of genes coding for lipid transport proteins such as Niemann-pick C1-like 1 and scavenger receptor class B type I. The data reported here show for the first time that FAs can interact with cholecalciferol intestinal absorption at different key steps of the absorption process. Cholecalciferol intestinal absorption may thus be optimized according to oil FA composition.

  9. Microbial reduction of Fe(III)-bearing clay minerals in the presence of humic acids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangfei; Qiu, Shuang; Liu, Baiqing; Pu, Yiying; Gao, Zhanming; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-01

    Both Fe(III)-bearing clay minerals and humic acids (HAs) are abundant in the soils and sediments. Previous studies have shown that bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in clay minerals could be accelerated by adding anthraquinone compound as a redox-active surrogate of HAs. However, a quinoid analogue could not reflect the adsorption and complexation properties of HA, and little is known about the effects of real HAs at environmental concentration on bioreduction of clay minerals. Here, it was shown that 10–200 mg l−1 of natural or artificially synthesized HAs could effectively stimulate the bioreduction rate and extent of Fe(III) in both iron-rich nontronite NAu-2 and iron-deficient montmorillonite SWy-2. After adsorption to NAu-2, electron-transfer activities of different HA fractions were compared. Additionally, Fe(II) complexation by HAs also contributed to improvement of clay-Fe(III) bioreduction. Spectrosopic and morphological analyses suggested that HA addition accelerated the transformation of NAu-2 to illite, silica and siderite after reductive dissolution. PMID:28358048

  10. Modulating the Rigidity and Mineralization of Collagen Gels Using Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    DeVolder, Ross J.; Kim, Il Won; Kim, Eun-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to prepare osteoconductive collagen gels for the regeneration of normal bone and the pathological examination of diseased bone; however, collagen gels are often plagued by limited controllability of their rigidity and mineral deposition. This study reports a simple but efficient strategy that tunes the mechanical properties of, and apatite formation in, collagen gels by incorporating hydrolyzable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles within the gels. The PLGA microparticles are associated with the collagen fibrils and increased both the gel's elasticity and rigidity while minimally influencing its permeability. As compared with pure collagen gels, the PLGA microparticle-filled collagen gels, termed PLGA-Col hydrogels, significantly enhanced the deposition of apatite-like minerals within the gels when incubated in simulated body fluid or encapsulated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergoing osteogenic differentiation. Finally, PLGA-Col hydrogels mineralized by differentiated MSCs led to an enhanced formation of bone-like tissues within the hydrogels. Overall, the PLGA-Col hydrogel system developed in this study will serve to improve the quality of osteoconductive matrices for both fundamental and clinical studies that are relevant to bone repair, regeneration, and pathogenesis. PMID:22480235

  11. Ionic composition and mineral equilibria of acidic groundwater on the west coast of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestroem, J.

    1993-08-01

    The groundwater chemistry of 14 shallow wells and 10 springs in Halland, southwest Sweden, and precipitation have been studied in trilinear diagrams. Ionic strength and saturation index (SI) for selected minerals have been calculated. Five springwaters have similar chemical composition to that of the precipitation, which indicates surficial and rapidly recharged water. The SI of the groundwaters is out of equilibrium (undersaturated) with respect to primary silicates such as mafic minerals, feldspar, K-mica and chlorite, but in equilibrium with solid SiO{sub 2} (quartz, cristobalite, or chalcedony). The SI shows oversaturation conditions for kaolinite, hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite, Na, K, Mg-beidellite, Mg-montmorillonite, and AB-montmorillonite. Concentrations of soluble Al and Si can be governed by Mg, Fe-beidellite, BF-montmorillonite, or Ca-montmorillonite at four springs, and by halloysite at two wells on the coastal plain. For these groundwaters, clay minerals may act as H{sup +} buffers and thus have an influence on pH and toxic Al, i.e., parameters affecting the drinking water quality and environment. The study shows that the soil catena are intensily weathered at the investigated sites. It is further concluded that neither cation exchange nor primary silicate weathering will keep up with buffering the acidic loads into the soils. A general prediction of groundwater quality is presented. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Ionic composition and mineral equilibria of acidic groundwater on the west coast of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, J.

    1993-08-01

    The groundwater chemistry of 14 shallow wells and 10 springs in Halland, southwest Sweden, and precipitation have been studied in trilinear diagrams. Ionic strength and saturation index (SI) for selected minerals have been calculated. Five springwaters have similar chemical composition to that of the precipitation, which indicates surficial and rapidly recharged water. The SI of the groundwaters is out of equilibrium (undersaturated) with respect to primary silicates such as mafic minerals, feldspar, K-mica and chlorite, but in equilibrium with solid SiO2 (quartz, cristobalite, or chalcedony). The SI shows oversaturation conditions for kaolinite, hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite, Na,K,Mg-beidellite, Mg-montmorillonite, and AB-montmorillonite. Concentrations of soluble Al and Si can be governed by Mg,Fe-beidellite, BF-montmorillonite, or Ca-montmorillonite at four springs, and by halloysite at two wells on the coastal plain. For these groundwaters, clay minerals may act as H+ buffers and thus have an influence on pH and toxic Al, i.e., parameters affecting the drinking water quality and environment. The study shows that the soil catena are intensily weathered at the investigated sites. It is further concluded that neither cation exchange nor primary silicate weathering will keep up with buffering the acidic loads into the soils. A general prediction of groundwater quality is presented.

  13. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat.

  14. New method of treating dilute mineral acids using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Yabuuchi, Fumiko; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Uchida, Miho; Okuwaki, Akitsugu

    2003-04-01

    Mineral acids, such as H(3)PO(4), H(2)SO(4), HCl, and HNO(3,) were treated with magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide), which behaved as a neutralizer and fixative of anions. Anion removal increased with increasing Mg-Al oxide quantity, time, Mg/Al molar ratio, and initial acid concentration. Up to 95% removal of anions was achieved in 0.5 N acids using a stoichiometric quantity of Mg(0.80)Al(0.20)O(1.10) for H(3)PO(4), 1.75 stoichiometric quantities for H(2)SO(4), or 2.5 stoichiometric quantities for HCl or HNO(3) at 20 degrees C over a period of 6 h. The final solutions were found to have a pH in the range of 8-12. Selectivity of acid removal was found to follow the following order: H(3)PO(4) > H(2)SO(4) > HCl > HNO(3). The equivalent of acid removal per 1 g of Mg-Al oxide decreased as the Mg/Al molar ratio of Mg-Al oxide increased.

  15. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Randall Edward; Phillips, Todd W; Udani, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.

  16. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin K is a vitamin found in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. The name vitamin K comes from the German word “Koagulationsvitamin.” Several forms of vitamin K are used around the world as medicine. Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) and vitamin K2 ( ...

  17. [The effect of alpha-liponic acid, vitamin B or gangliosides on the regeneration of traumatically damaged peripheral nerves in the rat. A comparative, morphometric study].

    PubMed

    Stotzem, C D; Mengs, U

    1988-05-01

    The sciatic nerve of male rats was crushed in accordance with a standardized method. To investigate the positive influence of different substances on nerve regeneration, the rats received daily injections of alpha-liponic acid, vitamin B or gangliosides. After 11 days the sciatic nerves were removed and the area distal to the crush site was analyzed histomorphometrically. Compared with the control group, there was only a slight increase in the number of regenerating fibres and their diameters following treatment with alpha-liponic acid or vitamin B. However, in the ganglioside-treated rats the differences, indicative of accelerated regeneration, were statistically significant.

  18. Brown algae hydrolysis in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with mineral acid catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Malihan, Lenny B; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2012-08-01

    The amenability of three brown algal species, Sargassum fulvellum, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, to hydrolysis were investigated using the ionic liquid (IL), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). Compositional analyses of the brown algae reveal that sufficient amounts of sugars (15.5-29.4 wt.%) can be recovered. Results from hydrolysis experiments show that careful selection of the type of mineral acid as catalyst and control of acid loading could maximize the recovery of sugars. Optimal reaction time and temperature were determined from the kinetic studies on the sequential reducing sugar (TRS) formation and degradation. Optimal reaction times were determined based on the extent of furfurals formation as TRS degradation products. X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning electron microscopy confirmed the suitability of [BMIM]Cl as solvent for the hydrolysis of the three brown algae. Overall results show the potential of brown algae as renewable energy resources for the production of valuable chemicals and biofuels.

  19. Is demineralization with dilute hydrofluoric acid a viable method for isolating mineral stabilized soil organic matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Farrell, M.; Macreadie, P.; McGowan, J.

    2015-12-01

    While you might not be able to dispose of a body with hydrofluoric acid (HF), as fans of Breaking Bad know HF will break silicon-oxygen bonds. These dual properties make HF a powerful tool in investigations of soil organic matter (SOM). When a soil sample is treated with HF, any low molecular weight OM that was bound to mineral surfaces will be released into solution allowing study of the amount and composition of this stable SOM pool. In the work presented here, we take advantage of this property of HF to explore if different forms of SOM are becoming stabilized to mineral surfaces in terrestrial and marine environments. Difference spectra obtained from solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of bulk and 10% HF treated soil samples suggest that in aerobic terrestrial environments alkyl-C and aryl-C compounds can dominate the mineral stabilized fraction. However, in anoxic coastal environments this fraction is dominated by O-alkyl C. Demineralization of soil samples with HF is often necessary for removing paramagnetic interferences and concentrating carbon prior to obtaining NMR spectra. The working assumption using dilute HF is that the resultant SOM chemistry determined by NMR spectroscopy has not been significantly biased by the HF treatment process. This assumption has been validated in several studies but also refuted in others. A second goal of this study was to revisit this critical assumption by looking at carbon loss and resulting 13C NMR chemistry from a diverse set of soils and organic materials using HF in 2% and 10% concentrations. We found that 10% HF resulted in slightly greater loss of C than 2% HF but in cases where a preferential shift in chemistry was observed it was observed in both the 2% and 10% treatments. The implications of both of these findings will be discussed in the context of understanding the sources, stability and potential loss mechanisms of mineral stabilized SOM.

  20. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-03-09

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure.

  1. Associations of renal function with polymorphisms in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase genes in Korean lead workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Schwartz, Brian S; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Stewart, Walter F; Kelsey, Karl T; Todd, Andrew C; Wen, Jiayu; Simon, David J; Lustberg, Mark E; Parsons, Patrick J; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2003-10-01

    We analyzed data from 798 lead workers to determine whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were associated with or modified relations of lead exposure and dose measures with renal outcomes. Lead exposure was assessed with job duration, blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead, and tibia lead. Renal function was assessed with blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, calculated creatinine clearance and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and retinol-binding protein. Mean (+/- SD) tibia lead, blood lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead levels were 37.2 +/- 40.4 microg/g bone mineral, 32.0 +/- 15.0 microg/dL, and 767.8 +/- 862.1 microg/g creatinine, respectively. After adjustment, participants with the ALAD(2) allele had lower mean serum creatinine and higher calculated creatinine clearance. We observed effect modification by ALAD on associations between blood lead and/or DMSA-chelatable lead and three renal outcomes. Among those with the ALAD(1-2) genotype, higher lead measures were associated with lower BUN and serum creatinine and higher calculated creatinine clearance. Participants with the eNOS variant allele were found to have higher measured creatinine clearance and BUN. In participants with the Asp allele, longer duration working with lead was associated with higher serum creatinine and lower calculated creatinine clearance and NAG; all were significantly different from relations in those with the Glu/Glu genotype except NAG (p = 0.08). No significant differences were seen in renal outcomes by VDR genotype, nor was consistent effect modification observed. The ALAD findings could be explained by lead-induced hyperfiltration.

  2. Effect modification by delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms on associations between patella lead and renal function in lead workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Lee, Byung-Kook; Todd, Andrew C; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Shi, Weiping; Jaar, Bernard G; Kelsey, Karl T; Lustberg, Mark E; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Parsons, Patrick J; Wen, Jiayu; Schwartz, Brian S

    2006-09-01

    Genetic polymorphisms that affect lead toxicokinetics or toxicodynamics may be important modifiers of risk for adverse outcomes in lead-exposed populations. We recently reported associations between higher patella lead, which is hypothesized to represent a lead pool that is both bioavailable and cumulative, and adverse renal outcomes in current and former Korean lead workers. In the present study, we assessed effect modification by polymorphisms in the genes encoding for delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase on those associations. Similar analyses were conducted with three other lead biomarkers. Renal function was assessed via blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, measured and calculated creatinine clearances, urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, and retinol-binding protein. Mean (SD) blood, patella, tibia, and dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead values were 30.9 (16.7) microg/dl, 75.1 (101.1)and 33.6 (43.4) microg Pb/g bone mineral, and 0.63 (0.75) microg Pb/mg creatinine, respectively, in 647 lead workers. Little evidence of effect modification by genotype on associations between patella lead and renal outcomes was observed. The VDR polymorphism did modify associations between the other lead biomarkers and the serum creatinine and calculated creatinine clearance. Higher lead dose was associated with worse renal function in participants with the variant B allele. Models in two groups, dichotomized by median age, showed that this effect was present in the younger half of the population. Limited evidence of effect modification by ALAD genotype was observed; higher blood lead levels were associated with higher calculated creatinine clearance among participants with the ALAD(1-2) genotype. In conclusion, VDR and/or ALAD genotypes modified associations between all the lead biomarkers, except patella lead, and the renal outcomes.

  3. Characterization and Acid-Mobilization Study of Iron-Containing Mineral Dust Source Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cwiertny, David M.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Hunter, Gordon J.; Laskin, Alexander; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-03-04

    Processes that solubilize the iron in mineral dust aerosols may increase the amount of iron supplied to ocean surface waters, and thereby stimulate phytoplankton productivity. It was recently proposed that mixing of mineral dusts with SO2 and HNO3 produces extremely acidic environments that favor the formation of bioavailable Fe(II). Here, four authentic mineral dust source materials (Saudi Beach sand (SB), Inland Saudi sand (IS), Saharan Sand (SS) and China Loess (CL)) and one commercial reference material (Arizona Test Dust (AZTD)) were spectroscopically characterized, and their dissolution at pH 1 was examined in aqueous batch systems. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the bulk and near-surface region of all samples possessed similar elemental compositions and that iron was unevenly distributed among dust 10 particles. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed Fe(III) in all samples, although SB, CL and AZTD also contained appreciable Fe(II). Both Fe(II) and Fe(III) were primarily substituted into aluminosilicates, although CL, AZTD and IS also contained Fe(III) oxides. Total iron solubility (defined as the summed concentration of dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) measured after 24 h) ranged 14 between 4-12% of the source materials’ iron content, but did not scale with either the surface area or the iron content of the samples. This suggests that other factors such as iron speciation and mineralogy may play a key role in iron solubility. Also, the elevated nitrate concentrations encountered from nitric acid at pH 1 suppressed dissolution of Fe(II) from AZTD, CL and SB particles, which we propose results from the surface-mediated, non-photochemical reduction of nitrate by Fe(II).

  4. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification1234

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Selhub, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Background Historic reports on the treatment of pernicious anemia with folic acid suggest that high-level folic acid fortification delays the diagnosis of or exacerbates the effects of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many seniors. This idea is controversial, however, because observational data are few and inconclusive. Furthermore, experimental investigation is unethical. Objective We examined the relations between serum folate and vitamin B-12 status relative to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment (ie, Digit Symbol-Coding score <34) in senior participants in the 1999–2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Design The subjects had normal serum creatinine concentrations and reported no history of stroke, alcoholism, recent anemia therapy, or diseases of the liver, thyroid, or coronary arteries (n = 1459). We defined low vitamin B-12 status as a serum vitamin B-12 concentration <148 pmol/L or a serum methylmalonic acid concentration >210 nmol/L—the maximum of the reference range for serum vitamin B-12–replete participants with normal creatinine. Results After control for demographic characteristics, cancer, smoking, alcohol intake, serum ferritin, and serum creatinine, low versus normal vitamin B-12 status was associated with anemia [odds ratio (OR): 2.7; 95% CI: 1.7, 4.2], macrocytosis (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.3), and cognitive impairment (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8). In the group with a low vitamin B-12 status, serum folate ≤59 nmol/L (80th percentile), as opposed to ≤59 nmol/L, was associated with anemia (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.6) and cognitive impairment (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.1). In the normal vitamin B-12 group, ORs relating high versus normal serum folate to these outcomes were <1.0 (Pinteraction <0.05), but significantly <1.0 only for cognitive impairment (0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Conclusion In seniors with low vitamin B-12 status, high serum folate was associated with anemia and cognitive impairment. When

  5. Mineral Alteration in Acid-sulfate Fumaroles on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent observations made at Mars by orbiting spacecraft and landers have documented the widespread occurrence of sulfate-rich rocks across the planet. Although the settings and origins of these rocks are likely to be variable, at least some appear to have originated from hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks. In order to place constraints on the chemical and mineralogical processes that might give rise to sulfate-rich rocks in hydrothermal settings on Mars, we are studying of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt in fumarolic environments using a combination of field work, experiments, and numerical modeling. Examination of acid-sulfate altered basaltic cinders from active fumaroles at Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua indicates that the initial stage of alteration results predominantly in the formation of amorphous silica, gypsum, and natroalunite/natrojarosite, with minor amounts of iron oxides/oxyhydroxides. Laboratory experimental alteration of basalt cinders by sulfuric acid at 145 °C generated a similar suite of minerals, with amorphous Si-rich gel, anhydrite, and Fe-bearing natroalunite as the primary products, along with minor amounts of Fe oxides/oxyhydroxides and magnesium sulfates. Crystalline silicates, including clay minerals, are not observed in either the field samples or experimental products. During the initial stage of alteration in both field and laboratory samples, igneous phenocrysts decompose rapidly while the glass remains intact. Over time, cations inlcuding Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, and Na are progressively leached from the glass in the field samples, while the glass largely maintains its original morphology despite being composed predominantly of SiO2. Evaluation of the laboratory and field results with numerical geochemical models indicates that formation of the observed alteration products requires that (a) igneous silicate phenocrysts (plagioclase, augite, olivine) react much faster than basaltic glass and (b) there are kinetic inhibitions to the

  6. An improved method for the immunological detection of mineral bound protein using hydrofluoric acid and direct capture.

    PubMed

    Craig, O E; Collins, M J

    2000-03-06

    Immunological detection of proteins adsorbed to mineral and ceramic surfaces has proved not only difficult but controversial. Unlike the immunological detection of proteins associated with carbonate or phosphate minerals (e.g. shells and bones) proteins adsorbed to siliceous minerals cannot readily be removed by dissolution of the mineral phase. We have previously examined alternative extraction methodologies which claim to bring the protein into solution, but found none of these to be effective. Here we report a novel strategy for immuno-detection of proteins adsorbed to siliceous minerals, the Digestion and Capture Immunoassay (DACIA). The method involves the use of cold, concentrated (4M) hydrofluoric acid (HF) with the simultaneous capture of liberated protein onto a solid phase. The combination of low temperatures and surface stabilisation enables us to detect epitopes from even partially degraded proteins. The method may have a wide application in forensic, archaeological, soil and earth sciences.

  7. Fatty acid concentration, proximate composition, and mineral composition in fishbone flour of Nile Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Petenuci, Maria Eugênia; Stevanato, Flávia Braidoti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Matsushita, Makoto; Garcia, Edivaldo Egea; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2008-03-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochormis niloticus) fishbone is a fish part with unknown composition. After elaboration of flour fishbone of tilapia it was analysede. The results in 100 g of flour were: moisture (14.2%), protein (40.8%), total lipids (25.3%), and ash (18.3%), and mineral (in 100 g) was 2715.9 mg (calcium), 1.3 mg (iron), and 1132.7 mg (phosphorus). A total of 22 fatty acids were detected in fishbone flour total lipids (TL), being the major ones in (g) of total lipids: 16:0 (208.5 mg); 18:1n-9 (344.3 mg); and 18:2n-6 (109.6 mg). The concentration of linolenic acid--LNA (18:3n-3); eicopentaenoic acid--EPA (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid--DHA (22:6n-3) were (29.9 mg), (3.3 mg), and (12.9 mg), respectively. The content to saturated (SFA) were (296.2 mg), monounsaturated (MUFA) 415.0 mg, and polyunsaturated (PUFA) 175.6 mg. The ratio PUFA:MUFA:SFA was 1:2.4:1.7, and the ratio omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 2.8. The last is within the recommended values. The results show low concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in flour. The value caloric and calcium, iron, phosphorus, and protein content the fishbone flour of tilapia may results a valuable alternative food in the human diet.

  8. Changes of phenolic-acids and vitamin E profiles on germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) treated by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Li, Meishan; Lee, Youn Ri; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2017-02-15

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the phenolic acid and vitamin E profiles of germinated rough rice following high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT). Rough rice was germinated at 37°C for two days and subjected to 0.1, 10, 30, 50, and 100MPa pressures for 24h. The total phenolic acid content increased from 85.37μg/g at 0.1MPa to 183.52μg/g at 100MPa. The highest gallic acid (4.29μg/g), catechin (9.55μg/g), p-coumaric acid (8.36μg/g), ferulic acid (14.99μg/g), salicylic acid (14.88μg/g), naringin (6.18μg/g), trans-cinnamic acid (45.23μg/g), and kaempferol (40.95μg/g) contents occurred in the sample treated at 100MPa after germination. The maximum vitamin E content of about 2.56 (BG) and 4.34mg/100g (AG) were achieved at 30MPa. These result suggest that a combination of HPT and germination are efficient method for enhancement of functionality in rough rice, and clarify the influence of HPT conditions on the vitamin E and phenolic acid in germination rough rice.

  9. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat.

  10. Associations between concentrations of uric acid with concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene among adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Choi, Hyon K

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional associations between concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, a major source of vitamin A, with concentrations of uric acid in a nationally representative sample of adults from the United States. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from up to 10893 participants aged ≥ 20 years of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. Concentrations of uric acid adjusted for numerous covariates increased from 305.8 μmol/L in the lowest quintile of vitamin A to 335.3 μmol/L in the highest quintile (p for linear trend <0.001). The prevalence ratio for hyperuricemia also increased progressively across quintiles of serum vitamin A reaching 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52, 2.16; p for linear trend <0.001) in the top quintile in the maximally adjusted model. Adjusted mean concentrations of uric acid decreased progressively from quintile 1 (333.8 μmol/L) through quintile 4 of concentrations of beta-carotene and were similar for quintiles 4 (313.5 μmol/L) and 5 (313.8 μmol/L). Concentrations of beta-carotene were inversely associated with hyperuricemia (adjusted prevalence ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.72; p for linear trend <0.001). Concentrations of uric acid were significantly and positively associated with concentrations of vitamin A and inversely with concentrations of beta-carotene. These cross-sectional findings require confirmation with experimental studies of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation.

  11. Adsorption of heavy metals onto iron minerals in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Perelomova, I. V.; Levkin, N. D.; Violante, A.

    2009-04-01

    Adsorption of Cu, Pb and Zn in the ternary model systems, consisting of iron (goethite or ferrihydrite) minerals, solution of the metal and low-molecular organic acid (oxalic, citric or glutamine) was studied as function of organic ligands concentrations and pH. The experiments were carried out at constant pH values ranging from 3 to 7 and acid/metal (or metals) molar ratios of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10. At pH 4.5-5.0 the sorption isotherms of these heavy metals fitted the Langmuir equation (L-type). The order of decreasing relative affinities of metals without organic acids was Cu>Pb>Zn for goethite and Pb > Cu > Zn for ferrihydrite. The pH50 (the pH value at which 50% of the total sorption of the elements has occurred) was 4.90 and 5.90 for cupper and 5.20 and 4.40 for lead on goethite and ferrihydrite respectively. At pH 4.5 in the presence of oxalic acid an adsorption of Cu on the surfaces of goethite increased by increasing oxalate/metal molar ratio up to 4 and then slowly decreased. Vice versa, adsorption of Pb on the mineral increased up to an oxalate/Pb molar ratio of 6 and then slightly decreased by further increasing oxalate concentration. So, at these ratios the pH50 for Cu shifted to 3,9 and for Pb decreased to 4.8. Adsorption of lead by ferrihydrite increased up to molar ratio 6/1 and then was practically constant that may be attributed to the large surface area of this oxide. The effect of oxalic and citric acids on the adsorption of cupper and lead (ratio metal/acid 1/1) at all studied pH values was similar. There was same character of effect of citric acid increasing concentration on adsorption of Cu and Pb by goethite; however amount of adsorbed Pb in the presence of citric acid from the ratio acid/metal 4/1 was increased sufficiently. We have demonstrated that in the absence of organic acids the adsorption of each trace element was reduced by the presence of increasing concentrations of the other metal. However, at the studied low metals concentrations

  12. Ileal digestibility and endogenous flow of minerals and amino acids: responses to dietary phytic acid in piglets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Cowieson, Aaron J; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of phytic acid (PA) on ileal mineral and amino acid (AA) digestibilities and ileal endogenous AA flow in piglets were investigated. Seven ileal-cannulated weanling pigs were fed a casein-maize starch-based diet with PA (as sodium phytate) at 0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg in 4 x 4 Latin square design with three added columns to give seven observations per treatment. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council energy and AA requirements for piglets. The respective digestibility and endogenous lysine loss were determined by indicator and homoarginine methods. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Na, K and P was linearly and quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) by increased dietary PA concentration, whereas that of Ca and Mg was only linearly reduced (P < 0.05) by the dietary PA. The AID values for Mg and Na were negative ( - 0.03 and - 0.18, respectively) when PA was supplemented at 20 g/kg. The AID of isoleucine, leucine and valine responded quadratically to dietary PA concentration, though the differences between the AID values of the AA due to change in dietary PA concentration were marginal (at most by 1.8 percentage units). Furthermore, dietary PA did not affect (P>0.05) endogenous AA losses. The results suggest that PA has limited effect on the digestibility and endogenous losses of AA in piglets, but can reduce AID of Mg and Na partly by increasing endogenous losses of these minerals as evidenced by their negative AID values.

  13. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R; Albert, Michelle A; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; Macfadyen, Jean G; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M; Buring, Julie E

    2012-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D(3) [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥ 50 and women aged ≥ 55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurrence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders.

  14. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  15. Acid attack on hydrated cement — Effect of mineral acids on the degradation process

    SciTech Connect

    Gutberlet, T.; Hilbig, H.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2015-08-15

    During acid attack on concrete structural components, a degraded layer develops whose properties as a protective barrier are decisive for durability. {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy and {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy were used with XRD to investigate the degraded layer on hardened cement paste exposed to HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The layer comprises an amorphous silica gel with framework silicates, geminate and single silanol groups in which Si is substituted by Al. Amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} and Fe(OH){sub 3} are present. The gel forms by polycondensation and cross-linking of C-A-S-H chains at AlO{sub 4} bridging tetrahedra. In the transition zone between the degraded layer and the undamaged material, portlandite dissolves and Ca is removed from the C-A-S-H phases maintaining their polymer structure at first. With HCl, monosulphate in the transition zone is converted into Friedel's salt and ettringite. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, gypsum precipitates near the degradation front reducing the thickness of the transition zone and the rate of degradation.

  16. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  17. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  18. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, E.

    2014-07-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B2O3, FeS, Fe3O4 and FeSO4.

  19. Ab initio transition state searching in complex systems: fatty acid decarboxylation in minerals.

    PubMed

    Geatches, Dawn L; Greenwell, H Christopher; Clark, Stewart J

    2011-03-31

    Because of the importance of mineral catalyzed decarboxylation reactions in both crude oil formation and, increasingly, biofuel production, we present a model study into the decarboxylation of the shortest fatty acid, propionic acid C(2)H(5)COOH, into an alkane and CO(2) catalyzed by a pyrophillite-like, phyllosilicate clay. To identify the decarboxylation pathway, we searched for a transition state between the reactant, comprised of the clay plus interlayer fatty acid, and the product, comprised of the clay plus interlayer alkane and carbon dioxide. Using linear and quadratic synchronous transit mechanisms we searched for a transition state followed by vibrational analysis to verify the intermediate found as a transition state. We employed a periodic cell, planewave, ab initio density functional theory computation to examine total energy differences, Mulliken charges, vibrational frequencies, and the frontier orbitals of the reactants, intermediates, and products. The results show that interpretation of vibrational data, Mulliken charges and Fermi-level orbital occupancies is necessary for the classification of a transition state in this type of mixed bulk surface plus interlayer species, clay-organic system.

  20. The influence of mineral ions on the microbial production and molecular weight of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Pires, Aline Mara B; Eguchi, Silvia Y; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the culture medium supplementation with mineral ions, focusing on the growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus as well as on the production and average molecular weight (MW) of hyaluronic acid (HA). The ions were investigated in terms of individual absence from the totally supplemented medium (C+) or individual presence in the non-supplemented medium (C-), where C+ and C- were used as controls. Differences between the effects were analyzed using the Tukey's test at p < 0.05. The adopted criteria considered required the ions, whose individual absence attained at 80% or less of the C+ and their individual presence was 20% or more than the C-. The supplementation was either inhibitory or acted in synergy with other ions, when the individual absence or presence was 20% higher than C+ or 20% lower than C-, respectively. Results showed that the effects of C+ or C- were equal for both the production of HA and its yield from glucose. However, C+ showed to be beneficial to cell growth while the individual absence of Na+ was beneficial to the production of HA. The highest MW of HA (7.4 x 10⁷ Da) was observed in the individual presence of Na+ in spite of the lowest HA concentration (0.65 g x L⁻¹). These results suggest that the quality of HA can be modulated through the mineral ion supplementation.

  1. Adsorption and condensation of amino acids and nucleotides with soluble mineral salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J.; Lahav, N.

    1986-01-01

    The directed synthesis of biopolymers in an abiotic environment is presumably a cyclic sequence of steps which may be realized in a fluctuating environment such as a prebiotic pond undergoing wetting-drying cycles. Soluble mineral salts have been proposed as an essential component of this fluctuating environment. The following sequence may be considered as a most primitive mechanism of information transfer in a fluctuating environment: (1) adsorption of a biomolecule onto a soluable mineral salt surface to act as an adsorbed template; (2) specific adsorption of biomonomers onto the adsorbed template; (3) condensation of the adsorbed biomonomers; and (4) desorption of the elongated oligomer. In this investigation, the salts selected for study were CaSO4.2H2O(gypsum), SrSO4, and several other metal sulfates and chlorides. Adsorption of the monomeric species, gly, 5'AMP 5'GMP, and 5'CMP was investigated. The adsorbed template biopolymers used were Poly-A, Poly-G, Poly-C, and Poly-U. The results of studies involving these experimental participants, the first two steps of the proposed primitive information transfer mechanism, and condensation of amino acids to form oligomers in a fluctuating environment are to be reported.

  2. Investigating the role of mineral-bound humic acid in phenanthrene sorption.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2006-05-15

    Contaminant-soil interaction studies have indicated that physical conformation of organic matter atthe solid-aqueous interface is important in governing hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) sorption. To testthis, organo-clay complexes were constructed by coating montmorillonite and kaolinite with peat humic acid (PHA) in Na+ or Ca2+ dominated solutions with varying pH and ionic strength values. The solution conditions encouraged the dissolved PHA to adopt a "coiled" or "stretched" conformation prior to interacting with the clay mineral surface. Both kaolinite and montmorillonite organo-clay complexes exhibited higher phenanthrene sorption (Koc values) with decreasing pH, indicating that the coiled configuration provided more favorable sorption conditions. Evidence from 1H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated that polymethylene groups were prevalent at the surface of the organo-clay complexes and may enhance sorptive interactions. Preferential sorption of polymethylene groups on kaolinite and aromatic compounds on montmorillonite may also contribute to the difference in phenanthrene sorption by PHA associated with these two types of clay. This study demonstrates the importance of solution conditions in the sorption of nonionic, hydrophobic organic contaminants and also provides evidence for the indirect role of clay minerals in sorption of contaminants at the soil-water interface.

  3. Timescale for hygroscopic conversion of calcite mineral particles through heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ryan C; Moore, Meagan J K; Petters, Markus D; Kreidenweis, Sonia M; Roberts, Greg C; Prather, Kimberly A

    2009-09-28

    Atmospheric heterogeneous reactions can potentially change the hygroscopicity of atmospheric aerosols as they undergo chemical aging processes in the atmosphere. A particle's hygroscopicity influences its cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties with potential impacts on cloud formation and climate. In this study, size-selected calcite mineral particles were reacted with controlled amounts of nitric acid vapour over a wide range of relative humidities in an aerosol flow tube to study the conversion of insoluble and thus apparently non-hygroscopic calcium carbonate into soluble and hygroscopic calcium nitrate. The rate of hygroscopic change particles undergo during a heterogeneous reaction is derived from experimental measurements for the first time. The chemistry of the reacted particles was determined using an ultrafine aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UF-ATOFMS) while the particles' hygroscopicity was determined through measuring CCN activation curves fit to a single parameter of hygroscopicity, kappa. The reaction is rapid, corresponding to atmospheric timescales of hours. At low to moderate HNO3 exposures, the increase in the hygroscopicity of the particles is a linear function of the HNO3(g) exposure. The experimentally observed conversion rate was used to constrain a simple but accurate kinetic model. This model predicts that calcite particles will be rapidly converted into hygroscopic particles (kappa>0.1) within 4 h for low HNO3 mixing ratios (10 pptv) and in less than 3 min for 1000 pptv HNO3. This suggests that the hygroscopic conversion of the calcite component of atmospheric mineral dust aerosol will be controlled by the availability of nitric acid and similar reactants, and not by the atmospheric residence time.

  4. Cellular behavior of neointima-like cells onto vitamin E-enriched poly(D,L)lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Renò, Filippo; Traina, Vincenzina; Cannas, Mario

    2007-09-01

    In-stent restenosis is a process that occurs in 10-50% of cases currently treated with stent and it is caused by an abnormal smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration in the vascular lumen. One of the most promising strategy to reduce restenosis is stent coating with biodegradable polymers to deliver in situ anti-proliferative drugs. Poly(D,L)lactic acid (P(D,L)LA), one of the most interesting candidate for stent coating, has been observed to induce inflammation and neointimal proliferation. In our laboratory, we developed P(D,L)LA enriched with Vitamin E (Vit.E), an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent that reduces also SMC proliferation. In order to evaluate the in vitro cellular behaviour of neointima cells onto Vitamin E-enriched P(D,L)LA, cell adhesion and proliferation along with the expression of two SMC migration markers (MMP-9 and hyaluronic acid receptor CD44) were measured in rat vascular SMC A10 cells seeded onto control P(D,L)LA (PLA) and P(D,L)LA films containing 10-30% (w/w) Vit.E (PLA10-30). Cell adhesion, proliferation and MMP-9 production were unaffected by the Vit.E presence in the PLA films after 24 h, while proliferation was slowed or blocked after 48 and 72 h onto PLA10, 20 and 30. MMP-9 production was almost blocked and CD44 density decreased significantly after 72 h for cells grew onto PLA30 compare to cells seeded onto PLA. These data indicate that Vit.E-enriched P(D,L)LA could be an interesting polymer for stent coating.

  5. Amino acid and N mineralization dynamics in heathland soil after long-term warming and repetitive drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, L. C.; Bode, S.; Tietema, A.; Boeckx, P.; Rütting, T.

    2014-11-01

    Monomeric organic nitrogen (N) such as free amino acids (fAA) is an important resource for both plants and soil microorganisms and is, furthermore, a source of ammonium (NH4+) via microbial fAA mineralization. We compared gross fAA dynamics with gross N mineralization in a Dutch heathland soil using 15N labelling. A special focus was made on the effects of climate change factors warming and drought, followed by rewetting. Our aims were to: (1) compare fAA mineralization (NH4+ production from fAAs) with gross N mineralization, (2) assess gross fAA production rate (depolymerization) and turnover time relative to gross N mineralization rate, and (3) assess the effects of warming and drought on these rates. The turnover of fAA in the soil was ca. 3 h, which is almost two orders of magnitude faster than that of NH4+ (i.e. ca. 4 days). This suggests that fAAs is an extensively used resource by soil microorganisms. In control soil (i.e. no climatic treatment), the gross N mineralization rate (10 ± 2.9 μg N g-1 day-1) was eight-times smaller than the summed gross fAA production rate of five AAs (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline: 127.4 to 25.0 μg N g-1 day-1). Gross fAA mineralization (3.4 ± 0.2 μg N g-1 day-1) contributed by 34% to the gross N mineralization rate and is, thus, an important component of N mineralization. In the drought treatment, gross fAA production was reduced by 65% and gross fAA mineralization by 41%, compared to control. On the other hand, gross N mineralization was unaffected by drought, indicating an increased mineralization of other soil organic nitrogen (SON) components. Warming did not significantly affect N transformations, even though that gross fAA production was more than halved. Overall our results suggest that heathland soil exposed to droughts has a shift in the composition of the SON being mineralized. Furthermore, compared to agricultural soils, fAA mineralization was relatively less important in the investigated

  6. Amino acid and N mineralization dynamics in heathland soil after long-term warming and repetitive drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, L. C.; Bode, S.; Tietema, A.; Boeckx, P.; Rütting, T.

    2015-04-01

    Monomeric organic nitrogen (N) compounds such as free amino acids (FAAs) are an important resource for both plants and soil microorganisms and a source of ammonium (NH4+) via microbial FAA mineralization. We compared gross FAA dynamics with gross N mineralization in a Dutch heathland soil using a 15N tracing technique. A special focus was made on the effects of climate change factors warming and drought, followed by rewetting. Our aims were to (1) compare FAA mineralization (NH4+ production from FAAs) with gross N mineralization, (2) assess gross FAA production rate (depolymerization) and turnover time relative to gross N mineralization rate, and (3) assess the effects of a 14 years of warming and drought treatment on these rates. The turnover of FAA in the soil was ca. 3 h, which is almost 2 orders of magnitude faster than that of NH4+ (i.e. ca. 4 days). This suggests that FAA is an extensively used resource by soil microorganisms. In control soil (i.e. no climatic treatment), the gross N mineralization rate (10 ± 2.9 μg N g-1 day-1) was 8 times smaller than the total gross FAA production rate of five AAs (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline: 127.4 to 25.0 μg N g-1 day-1). Gross FAA mineralization (3.4 ± 0.2 μg N g-1 day-1) contributed 34% to the gross N mineralization rate and is therefore an important component of N mineralization. In the drought treatment, a 6-29% reduction in annual precipitation caused a decrease of gross FAA production by 65% and of gross FAA mineralization by 41% compared to control. On the other hand, gross N mineralization was unaffected by drought, indicating an increased mineralization of other soil organic nitrogen (SON) components. A 0.5-1.5 °C warming did not significantly affect N transformations, even though gross FAA production declined. Overall our results suggest that in heathland soil exposed to droughts a different type of SON pool is mineralized. Furthermore, compared to agricultural soils, FAA mineralization

  7. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition does not influence levels of free, bioavailable, and total 25-hydroxy vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Ingela; Brudin, Lars; Von, Siv-Ping; Wanby, Pär

    2017-02-01

    In vitro, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) may decrease the binding affinity of vitamin D metabolites for vitamin D-binding protein, which in turn may influence their bioavailability. FAs incorporated as phospholipids in erythrocyte (ery-) cell membranes reflect dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate ery-FA composition in relation to markers for vitamin D. In healthy females (age 22.6 ± 2.0 years) total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS (n = 78), free 25(OH)D with ELISA (n = 64 of 78), and bioavailable 25(OH)D was calculated. Analysis of ery-FA composition was by gas chromatography (n = 56 of 78). A strong correlation between total 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D was seen (r = .66, p < .001), and between total-25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D (r = .68, p < .001). No correlations between 25(OH)D fractions and specific fatty acids were found, and in particular, no associations with mono- and poly-unsaturated FA compositions. All 25(OH)D fractions were correlated with leptin (total 25(OH)D (r = -.33, p < .003); bioavailable 25(OH)D (r = -.47, p < .001); free 25(OH)D (r = -.44, p < .001). Associations were found between PTH and total 25(OH)D (r = -.35, p = .002) and weaker between bioavailable 25(OH)D (r = -.35, p = .040) and free 25(OH)D (r = -.28, p = .079). All fractions of 25(OH)D appear to correlate in a similar way to PTH, BMI and body fat (leptin). No association was found between ery-FA composition and free/bioavailable 25(OH)D. It is unlikely that FAs are a strong uncoupling factor of DBP-bound 25(OH)D.

  8. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Dietary Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio on Performance and Mineral Metabolism of Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gutzwiller, A.; Schlegel, P.; Guggisberg, D.; Stoll, P.

    2014-01-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions. PMID:25049984

  9. Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate minerals as markers of sustained acidic conditions during the Permian-Triassic transition in E Iberia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borruel-Abadía, Violeta; Belén Galán-Abellán, Ana; Barrenechea, José F.; De la Horra, Raúl; Luque, Francisco Javier; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; López-Gómez, José

    2016-04-01

    Strontium-rich hydrated Aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals are markers of an acidic formation environment due to their precipitation at low pH conditions. However, their small size (0.5-6 μm), low concentrations, and optical properties represent the main problems to quantify these minerals. This study provides quantitative data on APS mineral concentrations for the Late Permian and Early-Middle Triassic in different continental sections of East Iberia. By quantifying APS minerals useful insight can be obtained into the environmental conditions that prevailed during the biotic crisis of the PTB and during the later recovery of life at the end of the Early Triassic. For that, a quantification method based on element mapping of randomly selected areas of thin sections on the electron microprobe is proposed, with relative errors ranging from 5.6% to 11.7%. The results are considered on a detailed petrographic, sedimentological, and palaeontological framework, and compared with other geochemical. Thus, in the first sedimentary record after the Permian-Triassic boundary (Olenekian), it has been possible to correlate relatively high concentration levels of APS minerals with the lack of signs of living organisms. Our findings suggest a long period of sustained acidic conditions followed by an environmental change that permitted the recovery of life, as reflected by lower APS mineral contents detected at the end of the Spathian and the first presence of bioturbation, paleosols, footprints, and plant remains. Early Anisian acidic episodes were much more sporadic than those during the Olenekian deposition, in which APS mineral concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. This fact would indicate punctual acidic conditions still during the beginning of the Anisian. Based on these results, this method is proposed as a tool for addressing environmental changes that took place during the Permian-Triassic transition in continental environments.

  10. Folate and vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with plasma DHA and EPA fatty acids in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, I; Huybrechts, I; González-Gross, M; Mouratidou, T; Santabárbara, J; Chajès, V; González-Gil, E M; Park, J Y; Bel-Serrat, S; Cuenca-García, M; Castillo, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Sjöström, M; Gottrand, F; Molnár, D; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Ferrari, M; Stehle, P; Marcos, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Moreno, L A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.

  11. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR

  12. Solubility relationships of aluminum and iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Yelton, Jennifer L.; Reddy, K. J.

    1988-06-01

    The ability to properly manage the oxidation of pyritic minerals and associated acid mine drainage is dependent upon understanding the chemistry of the disposal environment. One accepted disposal method is placing pyritic-containing materials in the groundwater environment. The objective of this study was to examine solubility relationships of Al and Fe minerals associated with pyritic waste disposed in a low leaching aerobic saturated environment. Two eastern oil shales were used in this oxidizing equilibration study, a New Albany Shale (unweathered, 4.6 percent pyrite), and a Chattanooga Shale (weathered, 1.5 percent pyrite). Oil shale samples were equilibrated with distilled-deionized water from 1 to 180 d with a 1∶1 solid-to-solution ratio. The suspensions were filtered and the clear filtrates were analyzed for total cations and anions. Ion activities were calculated from total concentrations. Below pH 6.0, depending upon SO{4/2-} activity, Al3+ solubility was controlled by AlOHSO4 (solid phase) for both shales. Initially, Al3+ solubility for the New Albany Shale showed equilibrium with amorphous Al(OH)3. The pH decreased with time, and Al3+ solubility approached equilibrium with AlOHSO4(s). Below pH 6.0, Fe3+ solubility appeared to be regulated by a basic iron sulfate solid phase with the stoichiometric composition of FeOHSO4(s). The results of this study indicate that below pH 6.0, Al3+ solubilities, are limited by basic Al and Fe sulfate solid phases (AlOHSO4(s) and FeHSO4(s)). The results from this study further indicate that the acidity in oil shale waters is produced from the hydrolysis of Al3+ and Fe3+ activities in solution. These results indicate a fundamental change in the stoichiometric equations used to predict acidity from iron sulfide oxidation. The results of this study also indicate that water quality predictions associated with acid mine drainage can be based on fundamental thermodynamic relationships. As a result, waste management decisions

  13. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  14. Effect of dietary citric acid on the performance and mineral metabolism of broiler.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Schaeublin, H; Wenk, C; Wanner, M; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary citric acid (CA) on the performance and mineral metabolism of broiler chicks. A total of 1720 Ross PM3 broiler chicks (days old) were randomly assigned to four groups (430 in each) and reared for a period of 35 days. The diets of groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were supplemented with 0%, 0.25%, 0.75% or 1.25% CA by weight respectively. Feed and faeces samples were collected weekly and analysed for acid insoluble ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg). The pH was measured in feed and faeces. At the age of 28 days, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered; tibiae were collected from each bird for the determination of bone mineral density, total ash, Ca, P, Mg and bone-breaking strength, and blood was collected for the measurement of osteocalcin, serum CrossLaps(®), Ca, P, Mg and 1,25(OH)(2)Vit-D in serum. After finishing the trial on day 37, all chicks were slaughtered by using the approved procedure. Birds that were fed CA diets were heavier (average body weights of 2030, 2079 and 2086 g in the 0.25%, 0.75% and 1.25% CA groups, respectively, relative to the control birds (1986 g). Feed conversion efficiency (weight gain in g per kg of feed intake) was also higher in birds of the CA-fed groups (582, 595 and 587 g/kg feed intake for 0.25%, 0.75% and 1.25% CA respectively), relative to the control birds (565 g/kg feed intake). The digestibility of Ca, P and Mg increased in the CA-fed groups, especially for the diets supplemented with 0.25% and 0.75% CA. Support for finding was also indicated in the results of the analysis of the tibia. At slaughter, the birds had higher carcass weights and higher graded carcasses in the groups that were fed the CA diets. The estimated profit margin was highest for birds fed the diet containing 0.25% CA. Birds of the 0.75% CA group were found to have the second highest estimated profit margin. Addition of CA up to a level of 1.25% of the diet increased performance

  15. Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan: proposal by an expert panel supported by the Research Program of Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Japan Endocrine Society [Opinion].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo; Ozono, Keiichi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Inoue, Daisuke; Yamauchi, Mika; Minagawa, Masanori; Michigami, Toshimi; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is indispensable for the maintenance of bone and mineral health. Inadequate vitamin D action increases the risk for various musculoskeletal/mineral events including fracture, fall, secondary hyperparathyroidism, diminished response to antiresorptives, rickets/osteomalacia, and hypocalcemia. Its most common cause in recent years is vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, clinically defined by a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level. Guidelines for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been published all over the world. In Japan, however, the information on the associations between serum 25(OH)D and bone and mineral disorders has not been widely shared among healthcare providers, partly because its measurement had not been reimbursed with national medical insurance policy until August 2016. We have set out to collect and analyze Japanese data on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and bone and mineral events. Integrating these domestic data and published guidelines worldwide, here, we present the following assessment criteria for vitamin D sufficiency/insufficiency/deficiency using serum 25(OH)D level in Japan. (1) Serum 25(OH)D level equal to or above 30 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D sufficient. (2) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 30 ng/ml but not less than 20 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D insufficient. (3) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 20 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D deficient. We believe that these criteria will be clinically helpful in the assessment of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and further expect that they will form a basis for the future development of guidelines for the management of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

  16. Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan - proposal by an expert panel supported by Research Program of Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and The Japan Endocrine Society [Opinion].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo; Ozono, Keiichi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Inoue, Daisuke; Yamauchi, Mika; Minagawa, Masanori; Michigami, Toshimi; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-01-30

    Vitamin D is indispensable for the maintenance of bone and mineral health. Inadequate vitamin D action increases the risk for various musculoskeletal/mineral events including fracture, fall, secondary hyperparathyroidism, diminished response to antiresorptives, rickets/osteomalacia, and hypocalcemia. Its most common cause in recent years is vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, clinically defined by low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level. Guidelines for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been published all over the world. In Japan, however, the information on the associations between serum 25(OH)D and bone and mineral disorders has not been widely shared among healthcare providers, partly because its measurement had not been reimbursed with national medical insurance policy until August 2016. We have set out to collect and analyze Japanese data on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and bone and mineral events. Integrating these domestic data and published guidelines worldwide, here we present the following assessment criteria for vitamin D sufficiency/insufficiency/deficiency using serum 25(OH)D level in Japan. 1) Serum 25(OH)D level equal to or above 30 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D sufficient. 2) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 30 ng/mL but not less than 20 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D insufficient. 3) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 20 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D deficient. We believe that these criteria will be clinically helpful in the assessment of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and further expect that they will form a basis for the future development of guidelines for the management of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

  17. Effect of ruminal infusion of glucose, volatile fatty acids and hydrochloric acid on mineral metabolism in sheep.

    PubMed

    Giduck, S A; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S

    1988-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of alterations in ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations on utilization of Mg and other minerals. In Exp. 1, two metabolism trials were conducted with 12 ruminally cannulated crossbred wethers fed 800 g/d of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata, L.) hay. After each feeding, wethers were ruminally infused with 500 ml (4.2 ml/min) or either 1) deionized water, 2) 40% (w/v) glucose solution, 3) .26 M propionic and .17 M butyric acid solution or 4) .35 M HCl. The pH of the VFA solution was adjusted to 6.8 with 10N NaOH. In Exp. 2, a metabolism trial was conducted with 12 ruminally cannulated crossbred wethers fed 600 g of orchard-grass hay and infused with a buffered VFA solution prepared as in Exp. 1 or with an unbuffered solution. In both experiments each trial consisted of a 5-d adaption period followed by four 5-d collections of feed, feces and urine. Compared with the glucose treatment, infusion of the buffered VFA solution produced similar acetic and propionic and higher (P less than .05) butyric acid concentrations (Exp. 1). The HCl solution produced changes in ruminal and pH values similar to those of the glucose infusion. In Exp. 1, apparent absorption of Mg was increased over twofold by the glucose infusion (P less than .05), but the other infusions had no effect. Apparent absorption of P was decreased (P less than .05) by HCl infusion, and K absorption was decreased by HCl and glucose infusions. In Exp. 2, infusion of the unbuffered VFA solution decreased apparent Mg absorption by 15.7%, compared with infusion of the buffered solution. These experiments suggest that the increased Mg absorption observed with carbohydrate supplementation is not due to alterations in ruminal pH or VFA levels.

  18. Vitamin D safety and requirements.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Francisco J A; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions.

  19. Vitamin D Safety and Requirements

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Francisco J.A.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions. PMID:22179017

  20. Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the one carbon cycle in rat placenta is determined by maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes.

  1. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Vitamin D KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamin D A A ... get the recommended daily amount. continue How Much Vitamin D Do I Need? The Institute of Medicine ( ...

  2. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Vitamin A Vitamin A does much more than help you see ... had researchers exploring for years the relationship between vitamin A and cancer. Specifically, researchers looked at whether ...

  3. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Vitamin K Vitamin K helps make four of the 13 proteins ... warfarin (Coumadin) must be careful to keep their vitamin K intake stable. Lately, researchers have demonstrated that ...

  4. Vitamin A

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  5. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Vitamin D KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamin D Print A ... get the recommended daily amount. continue How Much Vitamin D Do I Need? The Institute of Medicine ( ...

  6. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  7. Vitamin E

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  8. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  9. Vitamin K

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  10. Liposomal-encapsulated Ascorbic Acid: Influence on Vitamin C Bioavailability and Capacity to Protect Against Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Janelle L.; Paris, Hunter L.; Beals, Joseph W.; Binns, Scott E.; Giordano, Gregory R.; Scalzo, Rebecca L.; Schweder, Melani M.; Blair, Emek; Bell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous administration of vitamin C has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and, in some instances, improve physiological function in adult humans. Oral vitamin C administration is typically less effective than intravenous, due in part to inferior vitamin C bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral delivery of vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes. On 4 separate randomly ordered occasions, 11 men and women were administered an oral placebo, or 4 g of vitamin C via oral, oral liposomal, or intravenous delivery. The data indicate that oral delivery of 4 g of vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes (1) produces circulating concentrations of vitamin C that are greater than unencapsulated oral but less than intravenous administration and (2) provides protection from ischemia–reperfusion-mediated oxidative stress that is similar to the protection provided by unencapsulated oral and intravenous administrations. PMID:27375360

  11. Modeling of Phenoxy Acid Herbicide Mineralization and Growth of Microbial Degraders in 15 Soils Monitored by Quantitative Real-Time PCR of the Functional tfdA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Bælum, Jacob; Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralization potentials, rates, and kinetics of the three phenoxy acid (PA) herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP), were investigated and compared in 15 soils collected from five continents. The mineralization patterns were fitted by zero/linear or exponential growth forms of the three-half-order models and by logarithmic (log), first-order, or zero-order kinetic models. Prior and subsequent to the mineralization event, tfdA genes were quantified using real-time PCR to estimate the genetic potential for degrading PA in the soils. In 25 of the 45 mineralization scenarios, ∼60% mineralization was observed within 118 days. Elevated concentrations of tfdA in the range 1 × 105 to 5 × 107 gene copies g−1 of soil were observed in soils where mineralization could be described by using growth-linked kinetic models. A clear trend was observed that the mineralization rates of the three PAs occurred in the order 2,4-D > MCPA > MCPP, and a correlation was observed between rapid mineralization and soils exposed to PA previously. Finally, for 2,4-D mineralization, all seven mineralization patterns which were best fitted by the exponential model yielded a higher tfdA gene potential after mineralization had occurred than the three mineralization patterns best fitted by the Lin model. PMID:22635998

  12. Effects of oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E on ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles in cows receiving a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Najar, T; Enjalbert, F

    2012-10-01

    Among trans fatty acids, trans-10,cis-12 CLA has negative effects on cow milk fat production and can affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. In some but not all experiments, vitamin E has been shown to control this shift. To ascertain the effects of vitamin E on this shift of BH pathway, 2 studies were conducted. The first study explored in vitro the effects of addition of natural (RRR-α-tocopherol acetate) and synthetic (dl-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E. Compared with control and synthetic vitamin E, the natural form resulted in a greater trans-10/trans-11 ratio; however, the effect was very low, suggesting that vitamin E was neither a limiting factor for rumen BH nor a modulator of the BH pathway. An in vivo study investigated the effect of natural vitamin E (RRR-α-tocopherol) on this shift and subsequent milk fat depression. Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 2×2 crossover design. Cows received 20-kg DM of a control diet based on corn silage with 22% of wheat, and after 2 wk of adaptation, the diet was supplemented with 600 g of sunflower oil for 2 more weeks. During the last week of this 4-wk experimental period, cows were divided into 2 groups: an unsupplemented control group and a group receiving 11 g of RRR-α-tocopherol acetate per day. A trans-10 shift of ruminal BH associated with milk fat depression due to oil supplementation of a high-wheat diet was observed, but vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows did not result in a reversal toward a trans-11 BH pathway, and did not restore milk fat content.

  13. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid fortification, and vitamin supplement use.

    PubMed

    Olney, Richard S; Mulinare, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    In this review, the authors analyze international trends in rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) during the past three decades. Population-based data sources include the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and other US birth defects surveillance programs in the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems, and US and Canadian vital records. To analyze trends in vitamin consumption, we review data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and international surveys of multivitamin use. We discuss the role of factors associated with historic and continuing declines in NTD rates in most countries. These factors include the introduction and increased utilization of prenatal diagnosis, recommendations for multivitamin use in women of childbearing age, and population-wide increases in blood folate levels that have occurred since food fortification was mandated. We also discuss research needs for further NTD prevention. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  14. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.

  15. Influence of household cooking methods on amino acids and minerals of Barrosã-PDO veal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Anabela F; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Partidário, Ana M C P C; Lemos, José P C; Prates, José A M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of commonly household cooking methods (boiling, microwaving and grilling) on amino acid and mineral (Fe, Mg, K and Zn) contents was investigated in the longissimus lumborum muscle of Barrosã-PDO veal. Fifteen Barrosã purebred calves at 7-8 months of age and an average weight of 177±37 kg were slaughtered. Cooking had a strong effect (P<0.05) on yield, being higher (67.5%) in boiling compared to microwave and grilling (64.0% and 64.5%, respectively). Grilling increased most of the percentage retention of individual amino acids (>100%), in particular for leucine. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed for iron and zinc retentions among the cooking methods, while the retention of magnesium and potassium was strongly affected, mainly after boiling. Our findings indicate that the different cooking methods clearly affect the chemical composition and nutritional value of meat, which may have a strong impact on the intake of essential nutrients.

  16. Placement in an acidic environment increase the solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamid Reza; Borna, Zahra; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Valizadeh, Hadi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) in an acidic environment. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four metal rings were prepared, filled with WMTA and randomly divided into two groups. The samples in groups 1 and 2 were set in synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.4 and 4.4, respectively and then were transferred to beakers containing synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.7 and 4.4. Solubility of WMTA samples were calculated at the 9 experimental intervals. Data was analyzed with two-factor ANOVA and Bonferroni test (P < 0.03). Results: The total solubility of WMTA in groups 1 and 2 were −9.1796 ± 1.9158% and −1.1192 ± 2.6236%, (P = 0.028) with weight changes of 9.1574 ± 2.1432% and 7.3276 ± 1.5823%, respectively (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: It was concluded that solubility of WMTA increases in acidic environments and additional therapeutic precautions should be taken to decrease inflammation in endodontic treatment. PMID:23833462

  17. Vitamins B2, B6 and B12 and Risk of New Colorectal Adenomas in a Randomized Trial of Aspirin Use and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jane C.; Levine, A. Joan; Grau, Maria V.; Midttun, Øivind; Ueland, Per M.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Tsang, Shirley; Munroe, David; Ali, Iqbal; Haile, Robert W.; Sandler, Robert S.; Baron, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Folate, other vitamin B cofactors, and genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) all may play important roles in colorectal neoplasia. In this study, we examined the associations between dietary and circulating plasma levels of vitamins B2, B6 and B12 and risk colorectal adenomas. Methods The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study is a randomized clinical trial of folic acid supplementation and incidence of new colorectal