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Sample records for acids oleic acid

  1. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1986-05-01

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria.

  2. Development of the Oleic Acid/Linoleic Acid Ratio in High-Oleic Valencia Market Type Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major fatty acids in peanuts are oleic acid (O), a monounsaturated omega-9, and linoleic acid (L), a polyunsaturated omega-6. Peanuts containing these two fatty acids in a ratio (O/L) above 9 are known as high oleic (HO). Normal oleic (NO) peanuts are those with an O/L ratio less than 9. HO pean...

  3. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Cistola, D P

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, less than or equal to 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and greater than 90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data. PMID:3455761

  4. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. Adsorption of oleic acid at sillimanite/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T V Vijaya; Prabhakar, S; Raju, G Bhaskar

    2002-03-15

    The interaction of oleic acid at sillimanite-water interface was studied by adsorption, FT-IR, and zeta potential measurements. The isoelectric point (IEP) of sillimanite obtained at pH 8.0 was found to shift in the presence of oleic acid. This shift in IEP was attributed to chemisorption of oleic acid on sillimanite. Adsorption experiments were conducted at pH 8.0, where the sillimanite surface is neutral. The adsorption isotherm exhibited a plateau around 5 micromol/m2 that correspond to a monolayer formation. Adsorption of oleic acid on sillimanite, alumina, and aluminum hydroxide was studied by FT-IR. Chemisorption of oleic acid on the above substrates was confirmed by FT-IR studies. Hydroxylation of mineral surface was found to be essential for the adsorption of oleic acid molecules. These surface hydroxyl sites were observed to facilitate deprotonation of oleic acid and its subsequent adsorption. Thus protons from oleic acid react with surface hydroxyl groups and form water molecules. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of oleic acid adsorption on mineral substrate was proposed. Free energy of adsorption was estimated using the Stern-Graham equation for a sillimanite-oleate system. PMID:16290466

  10. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  11. Ionic Grease Lubricants: Protic [Triethanolamine][Oleic Acid] and Aprotic [Choline][Oleic Acid].

    PubMed

    Mu, Liwen; Shi, Yijun; Ji, Tuo; Chen, Long; Yuan, Ruixia; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhu, Jiahua

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquid lubricants or lubricant additives have been studied intensively over past decades. However, ionic grease serving as lubricant has rarely been investigated so far. In this work, novel protic [triethanolamine][oleic acid] and aprotic [choline][oleic acid] ionic greases are successfully synthesized. These ionic greases can be directly used as lubricants without adding thickeners or other additives. Their distinct thermal and rheological properties are investigated and are well-correlated to their tribological properties. It is revealed that aprotic ionic grease shows superior temperature- and pressure-tolerant lubrication properties over those of protic ionic grease. The lubrication mechanism is studied, and it reveals that strong physical adsorption of ionic grease onto friction surface plays a dominating role for promoted lubrication instead of tribo-chemical film formation.

  12. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  13. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  14. Growth modulating effects of chlorinated oleic acid in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Jebens, E; Skramstad, J; Frøyen, P

    1998-07-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids represent a major fraction of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish. After dietary intake such fatty acids may be transferred from the mother to the foetus through the placenta, and via breast milk to the child. In the present work we have studied the effect of chlorinated oleic acid on the growth of three widely differing types of cells in culture. Chlorinated oleic acid inhibited growth of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC), Immortilized Human Kidney Epithelial (IHKE) cells, and human Hepatoma cells (HepG2). The order of potency was: HMVEC > IHKE > HepG2. Vitamin E counteracted the inhibitory effect of chlorinated oleic acid on HepG2 cells, but did not significantly affect the fatty acid effect on HMVEC or IHKE. Defatted serum albumin stimulated the growth of HMVEC and IHKE. With HMVEC there was no major interaction between the effect of albumin and chlorinated oleic acid on cell growth. In contrast, with IHKE albumin at low concentration abolished the growth inhibiting effect of chlorinated oleic acid and appreciably counteracted growth inhibition by the fatty acid of HepG2. We conclude that the growth modulation by chlorinated oleic acid and its interaction with vitamin E and albumin are cell specific.

  15. α-Lactalbumin:Oleic Acid Complex Spontaneously Delivers Oleic Acid to Artificial and Erythrocyte Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanzhen; Strømland, Øyvind; Halskau, Øyvind

    2015-09-25

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is a tumoricidal complex consisting of human α-lactalbumin and multiple oleic acids (OAs). OA has been shown to play a key role in the activity of HAMLET and its related complexes, generally known as protein-fatty acid (PFA) complexes. In contrast to what is known about the fate of the protein component of such complexes, information about what happens to OA during their action is still lacking. We monitored the membrane, OA and protein components of bovine α-lactalbumin complexed with OA (BLAOA; a HAMLET-like substance) and how they associate with each other. Using ultracentrifugation, we found that the OA and lipid components follow each other closely. We then firmly identify a transfer of OA from BLAOA to both artificial and erythrocyte membranes, indicating that natural cells respond similarly to BLAOA treatment as artificial membranes. Uncomplexed OA is unable to similarly affect membranes at the conditions tested, even at elevated concentrations. Thus, BLAOA can spontaneously transfer OA to a lipid membrane. After the interaction with the membrane, the protein is likely to have lost most or all of its OA. We suggest a mechanism for passive import of mainly uncomplexed protein into cells, using existing models for OA's effect on membranes. Our results are consistent with a membrane destabilization mediated predominantly by OA insertion being a significant contribution to PFA cytotoxicity.

  16. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  17. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments. PMID:27424089

  18. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments.

  19. Protease inhibition by oleic acid transfer from chronic wound dressings to albumin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel; Mashchak, Andrew; Goheen, Steven C

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds to inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of oleic acid by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. The mechanism of oleic acid uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-oleic acid complexes under liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-oleic acid complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:oleic acid. Liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of oleic acid per mole albumin. Comparing oleic acid formulated wound dressings for dose dependent ability to lower elastase activity, we found cotton gauze>hydrogel>hydrocolloid. In contrast, the cationic serine protease cathepsin G was inhibited by oleic acid within a narrow range of oleic acid-cotton formulations. 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of oleic acid necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Oleic acid bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the selective lowering of cationic serine protease activity useful in topical application for chronic inflammatory pathogenesis.

  20. Regional pulmonary distribution of iodine-125-labeled oleic acid. Its relationship to the pattern of oleic acid edema and pulmonary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, R.D.; Tsai, J.; Hedlund, L.W.; Sullivan, D.C.; Lischko, M.M.; Harris, C.C.; Effmann, E.L.; Putman, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Oleic acid infusion in dogs produces a patchy, predominantly peripheral lesion on CT scans. This study correlates the pattern of oleic acid injury with the distribution of infused oleic acid and pulmonary blood flow. Radiolabeled oleic acid (I-125, 0.05 ml/kg) and radiolabeled 15-micron microspheres (Co-57) were infused into the right atria of 11 dogs. Oleic acid was given after the microspheres in six dogs and before microspheres in five dogs. Ten minutes after infusion, the lungs were removed. Four transverse slices (0.5 cm thick) of the lower lobes were taken from each dog and cubed. Samples were grouped into three regions of the transverse slice: outer, middle, and inner concentric rings. In both groups, I-125 (oleic acid) activity was greater in the outer than the middle and inner concentric layers (P less than 0.001). When Cobalt-57 microspheres were given before oleic acid, Cobalt-57 activity was marginally lower in the outer layer compared with the middle and inner layers. However, when oleic acid was given first, microsphere activity in the outer layer was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than the middle layer. Thus, oleic acid was preferentially distributed to the peripheral regions of the lung, similar to the regions of injury on CT. This distribution did not correspond to the pattern of pulmonary blood flow as indicated by the microspheres. Immediately after oleic acid infusion, pulmonary blood flow to the periphery was reduced, reflecting a response to the predominantly peripheral injury by oleic acid.

  1. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  2. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  3. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  4. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  5. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  6. Use of oleic acid to reduce the population of the bacterial flora of poultry skin.

    PubMed

    Hinton, A; Ingram, K D

    2000-09-01

    The effect of oleic acid on native bacterial flora of poultry skin was examined. Skin from commercial broiler carcasses was washed once or twice in solutions of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% (wt/vol) oleic acid and rinsed in peptone water. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci in the rinsates were enumerated. Significantly fewer aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in oleic acid than from control samples. Additionally, fewer bacteria were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in higher concentrations of oleic acid than from skin washed in lower concentrations of the fatty acid. In most cases, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria recovered from rinsates of skin washed once or twice in solutions of oleic acid. Washing skin samples twice in 10% solutions of oleic acid significantly reduced the number of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci that remained attached to the skin. Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes isolates possessed the least resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid in vitro, while Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed higher resistance. Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Salmonella Typhimurium had the greatest resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid. Findings indicate that oleic acid reduces the number of bacteria on the skin of processed broilers and that the fatty acid is bactericidal to several spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

  7. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  8. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  9. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  10. Oleic acid increases intestinal absorption of the BCRP/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in mice.

    PubMed

    Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte; Tallkvist, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W

    2015-09-01

    The efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) decrease intestinal absorption of many food toxicants. Oleic acid increases absorption of the specific BCRP substrate mitoxantrone (MXR), and also BCRP gene expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, suggesting that oleic acid affect the BCRP function. Here, we investigated the effect of oleic acid on intestinal absorption of MXR in mice. Mice were orally dosed with 2.4g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 30, 60, 90 or 120min after exposure, or were exposed to 0.6, 2.4 or 4.8g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 90min after exposure. Mice were also treated with Ko143 together with MXR and sacrificed after 60min, as a positive control of BCRP-mediated effects on MXR absorption. Absorption of MXR increased after exposure to oleic acid at all doses, and also after exposure to Ko143. Intestinal BCRP gene expression tended to increase 120min after oleic acid exposure. Our results in mice demonstrate that oleic acid decreases BCRP-mediated efflux, causing increased intestinal MXR absorption in mice. These findings may have implications in humans, concomitantly exposed to oleic acid and food contaminants that, similarly as MXR, are substrates of BCRP.

  11. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  12. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  13. Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera).

    PubMed

    Tanhuanpää, P K; Vilkki, J P; Vilkki, H J

    1996-06-01

    Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the 'high' and 'low' bulks consisting of extreme individuals from the oleic acid distribution. These markers were analysed throughout the entire F2 population, and their association with oleic acid was studied using both interval mapping and ANOVA analysis. Six of the markers mapped to one linkage group. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting oleic acid concentration was found to reside within this linkage group with a LOD score >15. The most suitable marker for oleic acid content is OPH-17, a codominant marker close (<4cM) to the QTL. The mean seed oleic acid content in the F2 individuals carrying the larger allele of this marker was 80.14±9.76%; in individuals with the smaller allele, 54.53±6.83%; in the heterozygotes, 65.47±8.15%. To increase reproducibility, the RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR (sequence characterized amplied region) marker with specific primers. Marker OPH-17 can be used to select spring turnip rape individuals with the desired oleic acid content.

  14. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  15. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  16. Viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of the magnetorheological suspensions with oleic acid/dimer acid as surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjian; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Ding, Ding

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the role of polar interactions on the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of magnetorheological suspensions with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in oil carriers. The oleic acid and dimer acid were employed to make an adjustment of the hydrophobicity of iron particles, in the interest of performing a comparative evaluation of the contributions of the surface polarity. The viscosity tests show that the adsorbed surfactant layer may impose a hindrance to the movement of iron particles in the oil medium. The polar attractions between dimer acid covered particles gave rise to a considerable increase in viscosity, indicating flocculation structure developed in the suspensions. The observed plateau-like region in the vicinity of 0.1 s-1 for MRF containing dimer acid is possibly due to the flocculation provoked by the carboxylic polar attraction, in which the structure is stable against fragmentation. Moreover, a quick recovery of the viscosity and a higher viscosity-temperature index also suggest the existence of particle-particle polar interaction in the suspensions containing dimer acid. The sedimentation measurements reveal that the steric repulsion of oleic acid plays a limited role in the stability of suspensions only if a large quantity of surfactant was used. The sedimentation results observed in the dimer acid covered particles confirm that loose and open flocculation was formed and enhanced sedimentation stability.

  17. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Noro, Massimo G.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-31

    The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

  18. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid. PMID:27407188

  19. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Burth, Patrícia; Castro-Faria, Mauro Velho; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation. PMID:26640323

  1. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  2. Development of a controlled release of salicylic acid loaded stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles in cream for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Woo, J O; Misran, M; Lee, P F; Tan, L P

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  3. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  4. The biohydrogenation of α-linoleic acid and oleic acid by rumen micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, P. F.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1966-01-01

    1. α-[U-14C]Linolenic acid was incubated with the rumen contents of sheep and the metabolic products were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas–liquid chromatography and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared. 2. A tentative scheme for the biohydrogenation route to stearic acid is presented. The main pathway is through diconjugated cis–cis–cis-octadecatrienoic acid, non-conjugated trans–cis (cis–trans)-octadecadienoic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid, but other pathways are apparent. 3. Washed rumen micro-organisms possessed only a limited capacity to hydrogenate α-linolenic acid and oleic acid but the rate was greatly stimulated by a factor(s) present in the supernatant rumen liquor. 4. Pure cultures of Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and a coliform organism isolated from sheep faeces possessed negligible ability to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids compared with a mixed population of rumen micro-organisms. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens slowly converted linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4287407

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of oleic acid/oleate bilayers: an atomistic model for a ufasome membrane.

    PubMed

    Han, Sanghwa

    2013-01-01

    When oleic acid and oleate coexist in comparable amounts they form unilamellar vesicles called ufasomes in aqueous phase. Intrinsic pH sensitivity of ufasomes makes it an attractive vehicle for drug delivery. Physical properties of ufasomes have been studied by using spectroscopic techniques but an atomistic model for a ufasome has not been proposed. In this study molecular dynamics simulation was performed on oleic acid/oleate bilayers with the oleate concentration varying from 40 to 70 mol%. All the bilayers reached an equilibrium and stayed stable during a 40 ns simulation. Area per lipid increased with mol% of oleate probably due to charge repulsion between anionic oleate molecules. Oleate was pulled out toward the aqueous phase so that the carboxyl groups of oleic acid and oleate were separated by 0.392 nm in the bilayer of oleic acid/oleate 1:1. Water concentration at the depth of carboxyl group of oleate was five times as high as that of oleic acid. Number of hydrogen bonds between oleic acid and oleate was small in contrast to a proposal that it is an important factor for the bilayer stability. However there was an extensive array of hydrogen bonds between the lipids and water molecules. Acyl chain order was within a normal range for a lipid bilayer but lateral diffusion was an order of magnitude faster in oleic acid/oleate bilayer than in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. Cholesterol increased the bilayer thickness and order parameter and decreased the rate of lateral diffusion.

  6. Eradication of Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Liposomal Oleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Zhang, Li; Chan, Michael; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Zhang, Liangfang

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) represents a major threat to a broad range of healthcare and community associated infections. This bacterium has rapidly evolved resistance to multiple drugs throughout its antibiotic history and thus it is imperative to develop novel antimicrobial strategies to enrich the currently shrinking therapeutic options against S. aureus. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and therapeutic efficacy of oleic acid (OA) in a liposomal formulation as an innate bactericide against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In vitro studies showed that these OA-loaded liposomes (LipoOA) could rapidly fuse into the bacterial membranes, thereby significantly improving the potency of OA to kill MRSA compared with the use of free OA. Further in vivo tests demonstrated that LipoOA were highly effective in curing skin infections caused by MRSA bacteria and preserving the integrity of the infected skin using a mouse skin model. Moreover, a preliminary skin toxicity study proved high biocompatibility of LipoOA to normal skin tissues. These findings suggest that LipoOA hold great potential to become a new, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent for the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:20880576

  7. Differential Regulation of ABCA1 and Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux By Elaidic and Oleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Fei; Ford, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acid consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This increased risk has been attributed to decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of LDL cholesterol. However, the mechanism by which trans fatty acid modulates cholesterol transit remains poorly defined. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux is the rate-limiting step initiating apolipoprotein A-I lipidation. In this study, elaidic acid, the most abundant trans fatty acid in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, was shown to stabilize macrophage ABCA1 protein levels in comparison to that of its cis fatty acid isomer, oleic acid. The mechanism responsible for the disparate effects of oleic and elaidic acid on ABCA1 levels was through accelerated ABCA1 protein degradation in cells treated with oleic acid. In contrast, no apparent differences were observed in ABCA1 mRNA levels, and only minor changes were observed in Liver X receptor/Retinoic X receptor promoter activity in cells treated with elaidic and oleic acid. Efflux of both tracers and cholesterol mass revealed that elaidic acid slightly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while oleic acid led to decreased ABCA1-mediated efflux. In conclusion, these studies sho that cis and trans structural differences in eighteen carbon n-9 monoenoic fatty acids variably impact cholesterol efflux through disparate effects on ABCA1 protein degradation. PMID:23800855

  8. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  9. Model Systems of Precursor Cellular Membranes: Long-Chain Alcohols Stabilize Spontaneously Formed Oleic Acid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Adela; Carton, David Gil; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Montes, Ruth; Valle, Mikel; Arrondo, José-Luis R.; Goñi, Felix M.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    Oleic acid vesicles have been used as model systems to study the properties of membranes that could be the evolutionary precursors of more complex, stable, and impermeable phospholipid biomembranes. Pure fatty acid vesicles in general show high sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variation, but there is growing evidence that this lack of stability can be counterbalanced through mixtures with other amphiphilic or surfactant compounds. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis of the oleic acid system and explore the spontaneous formation of vesicles under different conditions, as well as the effects that alcohols and alkanes may have in the process. Our results support the hypothesis that alcohols (in particular 10- to 14-C-atom alcohols) contribute to the stability of oleic acid vesicles under a wider range of experimental conditions. Moreover, studies of mixed oleic-acid-alkane and oleic-acid-alcohol systems using infrared spectroscopy and Langmuir trough measurements indicate that precisely those alcohols that increased vesicle stability also decreased the mobility of oleic acid polar headgroups, as well as the area/molecule of lipid. PMID:22339864

  10. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal isomers and 4% aromatic...

  11. Influence of Oleic Acid on Rumen Fermentation and Fatty Acid Formation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duanqin; Xu, Liwei; Tang, Shaoxun; Guan, Leluo; He, Zhixiong; Guan, Yongjuan; Tan, Zhiliang; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    A series of batch cultures were conducted to investigate the effects of oleic acid (OA) on in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability (IVDMD), gas production, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) production, and proportion of fatty acids. Rumen fluid was collected from fistulated goats, diluted with incubation buffer, and then incubated with 500 mg Leymus chinensis meal supplemented with different amounts of OA (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg for the CON, OA20, OA40 and OA60 groups, respectively). Incubation was carried out anaerobically at 39°C for 48 h, and the samples were taken at 12, 24 and 48 h and subjected to laboratory analysis. Supplementation of OA decreased IVDMD, the cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production and CH4 production, but increased H2 production. However, no effect was observed on any parameters of rumen fermentation (pH, ammonia, production of acetate, propionate and butyrate and total volatile fatty acid production). The concentrations of some beneficial fatty acids, such as cis monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were higher (P < 0.05) from OA groups than those from the control group at 12 h incubation. In summary, these results suggest that the OA supplementation in diet can reduce methane production and increase the amount of some beneficial fatty acids in vitro. PMID:27299526

  12. Influence of Oleic Acid on Rumen Fermentation and Fatty Acid Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaoxun; Guan, Leluo; He, Zhixiong; Guan, Yongjuan; Tan, Zhiliang; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    A series of batch cultures were conducted to investigate the effects of oleic acid (OA) on in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability (IVDMD), gas production, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) production, and proportion of fatty acids. Rumen fluid was collected from fistulated goats, diluted with incubation buffer, and then incubated with 500 mg Leymus chinensis meal supplemented with different amounts of OA (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg for the CON, OA20, OA40 and OA60 groups, respectively). Incubation was carried out anaerobically at 39°C for 48 h, and the samples were taken at 12, 24 and 48 h and subjected to laboratory analysis. Supplementation of OA decreased IVDMD, the cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production and CH4 production, but increased H2 production. However, no effect was observed on any parameters of rumen fermentation (pH, ammonia, production of acetate, propionate and butyrate and total volatile fatty acid production). The concentrations of some beneficial fatty acids, such as cis monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were higher (P < 0.05) from OA groups than those from the control group at 12 h incubation. In summary, these results suggest that the OA supplementation in diet can reduce methane production and increase the amount of some beneficial fatty acids in vitro. PMID:27299526

  13. Mitochondrial transporters involved in oleic acid utilization and glutamate metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Pamela J; Adamson, Amy L; Ghrist, Angela C; Rowe, Lindsay; Scott, Lori R; Sherman, Matthew P; Stites, Nicole C; Sun, Yue; Tawiah-Boateng, Mary Anne; Tibbetts, Anne S; Wadington, Megan C; West, Aaron C

    2005-10-01

    Utilization of fatty acids such as oleic acid as sole carbon source by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires coordinated function of peroxisomes, where the fatty acids are degraded, and the mitochondria, where oxidation is completed. We identified two mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate transporters, Odc1p and Odc2p, as important in efficient utilization of oleic acid in yeast [Tibbetts et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 406 (2002) 96-104]. Yet, the growth phenotype of odc1delta odc2delta strains indicated that additional transporter(s) were also involved. Here, we identify two putative transporter genes, YMC1 and YMC2, as able to suppress the odc1delta odc2delta growth phenotype. The mRNA levels for both are elevated in the presence of glycerol or oleic acid, as compared to glucose. Ymc1p and Ymc2p are localized to the mitochondria in oleic acid-grown cells. Deletion of all four transporters (quad mutant) prevents growth on oleic acid as sole carbon source, while growth on acetate is retained. It is known that the glutamate-sensitive retrograde signaling pathway is important for upregulation of peroxisomal function in response to oleic acid and the oxodicarboxylate alpha-ketoglutarate is transported out of the mitochondria for synthesis of glutamate. So, citric acid cycle function and glutamate synthesis were examined in transporter mutants. The quad mutant has significantly decreased citrate synthase activity and whole cell alpha-ketoglutarate levels, while isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is unaffected and glutamate dehydrogenase activity is increased 10-fold. Strains carrying only two or three transporter deletions exhibit intermediate affects. 13C NMR metabolic enrichment experiments confirm a defect in glutamate biosynthesis in the quad mutant and, in double and triple mutants, suggest increased cycling of the glutamate backbone in the mitochondria before export. Taken together these studies indicate that these four transporters have overlapping activity, and

  14. Preparation and characterization of biomass carbon-based solid acid catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid with methanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Li, Zhilong; Li, Wei; Shi, Congjiao; Wang, Yun

    2013-04-01

    A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized corn straw, was proved to be an efficient and environmental benign catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid and methanol. Various synthetic parameters, such as carbonization temperature and time were systematically examined. It was found that the catalyst exhibited the highest acid density of 2.64 mmol/g by NaOH titration. A quantitative yield (98%) of ester was achieved, using the most active sulfonated catalyst at 333 K with a 7 wt.% catalyst/oleic acid ratio for 4h, at a 7:1 M ratio of methanol/oleic acid, while the commercial available Amberlyst-15 only gave 85% yield under the same reaction condition.

  15. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  16. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Emily A; Wilhelm, Kristina R; Schleucher, Jürgen; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2013-01-01

    HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize and/or present the

  17. Ozonolysis of Mixed Oleic-Acid/Stearic-Acid Particles: Reaction Kinetics and Chemical Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. T.; Katrib, Y.; Biskos, G.; Buseck, P. R.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J. T.; Mochida, M.; Wise, M. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particles directly and indirectly affect global climate and have a primary role in regional issues of air pollution, visibility, and human health. Atmospheric particles have a variety of shapes, dimensions, and chemical compositions, and these physicochemical properties evolve (i.e., "age") during transport of the particles through the atmosphere, in part because of the chemical reactions of particle-phase organic molecules with gas-phase atmospheric oxidants. As a global average, hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O3) are responsible quantitatively for most oxidant aging of atmospheric particles. The reactions of the hydroxyl radical occur in the surface region of a particle because of the nearly diffusion-limited bimolecular rate constant of OH with a variety of organic molecules. Ozone, on the other hand, is a selective agent for the unsaturated bonds of organic molecules and may diffuse a considerable distance into particles prior to reaction. The reaction of oleic acid with ozone has recently emerged as a model system to better understand the atmospheric chemical oxidation processes affecting organic particles. The ozonolysis of mixed oleic-acid/stearic-acid (OL/SA) aerosol particles from 0/100 to 100/0 weight percent composition is studied. The magnitude of the divergence of the particle beam inside an aerosol mass spectrometer shows that, in the concentration range 100/0 to 60/40, the mixed OL/SA particles are liquid prior to reaction. Upon ozonolysis, particles with SA composition greater than 25% change shape, indicating that they have solidified. Transmission electron micrographs show that SA(s) forms needles. For SA compositions greater than 10%, the reaction kinetics exhibit an initial fast decay of OL for low O3 exposure with no further loss of OL at higher O3 exposures. For compositions from 50/50 to 10/90, the residual OL concentration remains at 28+/-2% of its initial value. The initial reactive uptake coefficient for O3, as determined by

  18. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  19. Structure and friction of stearic acid and oleic acid films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces in squalane.

    PubMed

    Doig, Michael; Warrens, Chris P; Camp, Philip J

    2014-01-14

    The structure and friction of fatty acid surfactant films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces lubricated by squalane are examined using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. The structures of stearic acid and oleic acid films under static and shear conditions, and at various surface coverages, are described in detail, and the effects of unsaturation in the tail group are highlighted. At high surface coverage, the measured properties of stearic acid and oleic acid films are seen to be very similar. At low and intermediate surface coverages, the presence of a double bond, as in oleic acid, is seen to give rise to less penetration of lubricant in to the surfactant film and less layering of the lubricant near to the film. The kinetic friction coefficient is measured as a function of shear rate within the hydrodynamic (high shear rate) lubrication regime. Lubricant penetration and layering are observed to be correlated with friction coefficient. The friction coefficient with oleic acid depends only weakly on surface coverage, while stearic acid admits more lubricant penetration, and its friction coefficient increases significantly with decreasing surface coverage. Connections between film structure and friction are discussed.

  20. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  1. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  2. Analysis and properties of the decarboxylation products of oleic acid by catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization-decarboxylation of fatty acids to give alkene mixtures was reported. When the substrate was oleic acid, the reaction yielded a mixture consisting of heptadecene isomers. In this work, we report the compositional analysis of the mixture obtained by triruthe...

  3. High-throughput and functional SNP detection assays for oleic and linolenic acids in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a primary source of vegetable oil, accounting for 53% of the total vegetable oil consumption in the USA in 2013. Soybean oil with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid content is desired, because it not only improves the oxidative stability of the oil, but also reduces the amount of unde...

  4. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-oleic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2015-04-29

    The solubility of starch-inclusion complexes affects the digestibility and bioavailability of the included molecules. Acetylation with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.091 (high), combined without or with a β-amylase treatment was employed to improve the yield and solubility of the inclusion complex between debranched potato starch and oleic acid. Both soluble and insoluble complexes were recovered and analyzed for their degree of acetylation, complexation yields, molecular size distributions, X-ray diffraction patterns, and thermal properties. Acetylation significantly increased the amount of recovered soluble complexes as well as the complexed oleic acid in both soluble and insoluble complexes. High-acetylated debranched-only starch complexed the highest amount of oleic acid (38.0 mg/g) in the soluble complexes; low-acetylated starch with or without the β-amylase treatment resulted in the highest complexed oleic acid in the insoluble complexes (37.6-42.9 mg/g). All acetylated starches displayed the V-type X-ray pattern, and the melting temperature generally decreased with acetylation. The results indicate that starch acetylation with or without the β-amylase treatment can improve the formation and solubility of the starch-oleic acid complex. PMID:25877005

  5. Structure of the magnetite-oleic acid-decalin magnetic fluid from small-angle neutron scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornyi, A. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Bulavin, L. A.; Avdeev, M. V.; Almásy, L.; Rosta, L.; Aksenov, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Structural parameters of the magnetite-oleic acid-decalin magnetic fluid at various excesses of oleic acid (up to 25 vol %) have been determined using small-angle neutron scattering. Based on the comparison of the behavior of oleic acid in the magnetic fluid and in the pure solvent (decalin), it has been concluded that the interaction between the molecules of free (unadsorbed) surfactant changes in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. However, the system remains stable and does not form aggregates of magnetic particles or free oleic acid. These results are compared with the previously presented data for similar benzene-based magnetic fluids.

  6. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Paula I. P.; Laia, César A. T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M. M.; Novo, Carlos M. M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of -120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  7. Sensitivity of scintigraphy for detection of pulmonary capillary albumin leak in canine oleic acid ARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sugerman, H.J.; Strash, A.M.; Hirsch, J.I.; Glauser, F.L.; Shirazi, K.K.; Sharp, D.E.; Greenfield, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    Computerized gamma scintigraphy was shown in this study to be a sensitive technique for the detection and kinetic analysis of a pulmonary capillary protein leak. A rising lung:heart radioactivity of slope of injury was found at each dose of intravenous oleic acid in dogs from 0.01 to 0.20 ml/kg (p less than 0.01). This slope of injury was proportional to the dose of oleic acid (r . +0.97; p less than 0.004) and was more sensitive than changes in arterial oxygen tension, standard chest radiography, bloodless wet:dry lung weight, or alveolar epithelial membrane permeability. Only standard light microscopy and right lymphatic duct flow were able to document the leakage of protein detected by gamma scintigraphy at 0.01 ml/kg oleic acid.

  8. Ozonolysis of oleic acid adsorbed to polar and nonpolar aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elias P; Garland, Eva R; Baer, Tomas

    2008-10-16

    Single-particle kinetic studies of the reaction between oleic acid and O 3 have been conducted on two different types of core particles: polystyrene latex (PSL) and silica. Oleic acid was found to adsorb to both particle types in multilayer islands that resulted in an adsorbed layer of a total volume estimated to be less than one monolayer. The rate of the surface reaction between surface-adsorbed oleic acid and O 3 has been shown for the first time to be influenced by the composition of the aerosol substrate in a mixed organic/inorganic particle. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was applied to the observed dependence of the pseudo-first-order rate constant with [O 3], and the resulting fit parameters for the ozone partition coefficient ( K O 3 ) and maximum first order rate constant ( k 1,max ) suggest that the reaction proceeded faster on the less polar PSL core at lower [O 3] due to the increased residence time of O 3 on the PSL surface, but the reaction was ultimately more efficient on the silica surface at high [O 3]. Values for the uptake coefficient, gamma oleic , for reaction of oleic acid on PSL spheres decrease from 2.5 x 10 (-5) to 1 x 10 (-5) with increasing [O 3] from 4 to 25 ppm and overlap at high [O 3] with the estimated values for gamma oleic on silica, which decrease from 1.6 x 10 (-5) to 1.3 x 10 (-5). The relationship between gamma oleic and the more common expression for gamma O 3 is discussed.

  9. Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Rachel J.; Elder, Theresa; Sowinksi, Olivia; Fostvedt, Jade I.; Hoefelmeyer, James D.

    2016-06-01

    Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6, C8, C12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions.

  10. Oleic acid and octanoic acid sensing capacity in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss is direct in hypothalamus and Brockmann bodies.

    PubMed

    Librán-Pérez, Marta; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we provided evidence for the presence in hypothalamus and Brockmann bodies (BB) of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss of sensing systems responding to changes in levels of oleic acid (long-chain fatty acid, LCFA) or octanoic acid (medium-chain fatty acid, MCFA). Since those effects could be attributed to an indirect effect, in the present study, we evaluated in vitro if hypothalamus and BB respond to changes in FA in a way similar to that observed in vivo. In a first set of experiments, we evaluated in hypothalamus and BB exposed to increased oleic acic or octanoic acid concentrations changes in parameters related to FA metabolism, FA transport, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS) effectors, components of the KATP channel, and (in hypothalamus) neuropeptides related to food intake. In a second set of experiments, we evaluated in hypothalamus the response of those parameters to oleic acid or octanoic acid in the presence of inhibitors of fatty acid sensing components. The responses observed in vitro in hypothalamus are comparable to those previously observed in vivo and specific inhibitors counteracted in many cases the effects of FA. These results support the capacity of rainbow trout hypothalamus to directly sense changes in MCFA or LCFA levels. In BB increased concentrations of oleic acid or octanoic acid induced changes that in general were comparable to those observed in hypothalamus supporting direct FA sensing in this tissue. However, those changes were not coincident with those observed in vivo allowing us to suggest that the FA sensing capacity of BB previously characterized in vivo is influenced by other neuroendocrine systems.

  11. Influence of high pressure on the relative permittivity of oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2011-03-01

    Oleic acid (OA) is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid which undergoes a first-order phase transition when it is influenced by high pressures. The transition results in a change of molecular structure, which was investigated by means of X-ray techniques [J. Przedmojski and R.M. Siegoczyński, X-ray diffraction investigation of oleic acid under high pressure, Phase Transit. 75 (2002), pp. 373-377]. Despite a significant change in the structure, the permittivity of the acid remains barely influenced during and after the phase transition. A rise in relative permittivity has been observed due to the increasing number of molecules per volume unit within a compression cycle. However, no significant fall in the permittivity has been observed as a result of the transition which occurs in the case of edible oils. This may be caused by a strongly dimerised structure and dipole-dipole interaction in the liquid at ambient pressure.

  12. Observations of a high-pressure phase creation in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Delgado, A.

    2010-03-01

    Oleic acid is one of the unsaturated fatty acids which frequently appears in food products such as edible fats and oils. A molecule of oleic acid possesses a double carbon bond, C=C, which is responsible for a transition to a new phase when pressure is applied. This work presents the results of optical observations of such a transition. The observations were made in two cases, the first being static p-T conditions under 60 MPa at 20°C and the other the dynamic application of the pressure up to 350 MPa. The obtained visualization reveals differences in the creation of the phase and in its further appearance. Some crystal forms may be recognized. These results tend to be of interest for food engineers due to increasing interest in high-pressure food preservation among nutritionists and medical scientists concerned with fatty acids.

  13. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal trans isomers and 4% ar...

  14. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  15. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  16. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property.

  17. Interconnection of nanoparticles within 2D superlattices of PbS/oleic acid thin films.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul; Bahrig, Lydia; Baburin, Igor A; Formanek, Petr; Röder, Falk; Sickmann, Jan; Hickey, Stephen G; Eychmüller, Alexander; Lichte, Hannes; Kniep, Rüdiger; Rosseeva, Elena

    2014-05-21

    Make it connected! 2D close-packed layers of inorganic nanoparticles are interconnected by organic fibrils of oleic acid as clearly visualized by electron holography. These fibrils can be mineralised by PbS to transform an organic-inorganic framework to a completely interconnected inorganic semiconducting 2D array.

  18. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  19. Overexpression of DYRK1A inhibits choline acetyltransferase induction by oleic acid in cellular models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Maruan; Fillat, Cristina; Medina, José M; Velasco, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Histological brain studies of individuals with DS have revealed an aberrant formation of the cerebral cortex. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that oleic acid acts as a neurotrophic factor and induces neuronal differentiation. In order to characterize the effects of oleic acid in a cellular model of DS, immortalized cell lines derived from the cortex of trisomy Ts16 (CTb) and normal mice (CNh) were incubated in the absence or presence of oleic acid. Oleic acid increased choline acetyltransferase expression (ChAT), a marker of cholinergic differentiation in CNh cells. However, in trisomic cells (CTb line) oleic acid failed to increase ChAT expression. These results suggest that the overdose of specific genes in trisomic lines delays differentiation in the presence of oleic acid by inhibiting acetylcholine production mediated by ChAT. The dual-specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene is located on human chromosome 21 and encodes a proline-directed protein kinase. It has been proposed that DYRK1A plays a prominent role in several biological functions, leading to mental retardation in DS patients. Here we explored the potential role of DYRK1A in the modulation of ChAT expression in trisomic cells and in the signaling pathways of oleic acid. Down-regulation of DYRK1A by siRNA in trisomic CTb cells rescued ChAT expression up to levels similar to those of normal cells in the presence of oleic acid. In agreement with these results, oleic acid was unable to increase ChAT expression in neuronal cultures of transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A. In summary, our results highlight the role played by DYRK1A in brain development through the control of ChAT expression. In addition, the overexpression of DYRK1A in DS models prevented the neurotrophic effect of oleic acid, a fact that may account for mental retardation in DS patients. PMID:23124096

  20. Effect of oleic acid ligand on photophysical, photoconductive and magnetic properties of monodisperse SnO2 quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Das, Kajari; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; De, S K

    2013-03-14

    Oleic acid capped monodisperse SnO(2) quantum dots (QDs) of size 2.7 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition and oxidation of Sn(II)(oleate) complex in high boiling nonpolar solvent octadecene using oleic acid as a capping agent and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide as an oxidizing agent. FTIR, DSC and TGA were employed to understand the growth of the oleic acid capped SnO(2) QDs through the decomposition of metal fatty acid complex. The surface defect-related luminescence properties of the QDs were demonstrated using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy. The oleic acid capping on the QD surface modifies the electronic structure of SnO(2) and generates blue emission. Moreover the surface capping on the QDs diminishes the photocatalytic activity of bare SnO(2) QDs due to absence of surface oxygen and adsorbed hydroxyl group on the surface of the capped QDs. The capping by the long chain ligand oleic acid makes the SnO(2) QDs less conducting. Ligand exchange of the long chain oleic acid (2.5 nm) by the short chain n-butylamine (0.6 nm) increases the current density of SnO(2) around 43 times due to the reduction of the interparticle distance. Ferromagnetic behaviour of oleic acid capped QDs may be ascribed to the defects in the host due to the alteration of the electronic structure owing to the capping. PMID:23258710

  1. Effect of dietary fatty acids on jejunal and ileal oleic acid uptake by rat brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Prieto, R M; Stremmel, W; Sales, C; Tur, J A

    1996-04-18

    To test the effect of dietary fatty acids on fatty acid uptake, the influx kinetics of a representative long-chain fatty acid, 3H-oleic acid, in both the jejunum and ileum of rats has been studied using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Animals were fed with semipurified diets containing 5 g fat/100 g diet, as corn oil (control group), safflower oil (unsaturated group) and coconut oil hydrogenated (saturated group). With increasing unbound oleate concentration in the medium, the three dietary groups showed saturable kinetics in both jejunal and ileal BBMV (controls: Vmax = 0.15 +/- 0.01 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 136 +/- 29.1 nmol for jejunum, and Vmax = 0.23 +/- 0.03 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 196 +/- 50.3 nmol for ileum; unsaturated: Vmax = 0.28 +/- 0.05 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 242.7 +/- 91.8 nmol for jejunum, and Vmax = 1.29 +/- 0.06 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 509.8 +/- 97.5 nmol for ileum; saturated: Vmax = 0.03 +/- 0.01 nmol x mg protein-1 x 5 min-1 and Km = 124.5 +/- 72.6 nmol for jejunum, and Vmax = 0.04 +/- 0.01 nmol x mg protein -1.5 min-1 and Km = 205.6 +/- 85.3 nmol for ileum). These results support the theory that feeding an isocaloric diet containing only unsaturated fatty acids enhanced oleic acid uptake, and feeding an isocaloric diet containing only saturated fatty acids decreased oleic acid uptake. The results obtained in the present work also show the adaptative ability of jejunum and ileum to the type of dietary fat.

  2. Results of fibre and toner flotation depending on oleic acid dosage.

    PubMed

    Trumic, Maja S; Trumic, Milan Z; Vujic, Bogdana; Andric, Ljubisa; Bogdanovic, Grozdanka

    2016-09-01

    The literature was reviewed with respect to deinking flotation methods with toner samples, specifically emphasizing the speciation of copy machine and laser printing, which produce an increasing quantity of paper that is difficult to recycle. Speciation here refers to the physical-chemical characteristics of the toner, which change because of the polymerization (fusion) and oxidation process, due to exposure to heat, light and oxygen (air) during the printing process. To simulate the deinking flotation, after the ideal disintegration process, samples of toner were prepared in order to provide free toner particles. Synthetic toner has iron content and the same physical-chemical features as free disintegrated printed toner particles.We report the toner (I) and fibre (Y) recovery and the brightness (B) of laboratory filter pads formed of deinked product as deinking efficiencies. The application of oleic acid as the collector in the flotation stage gives a better flotation recovery in alkaline than in acidic conditions. The highest brightness (BF = 93.66%) and flotation recoveries (I = 90, Y = 92.82%) were achieved during testing at an oleic acid concentration of 3.38·10(-6) mol l(-1), which is the lowest dose used. This makes the use of oleic acid economical and environmentally friendly. PMID:27354017

  3. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  4. Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-Xun; Guo, Dong-Quan; Xing, Guo-Jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  5. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

  6. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability.

  7. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability. PMID:27474635

  8. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  9. Submicrometer-sized Pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles with adsorbed oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Sadeghpour, Amin; Pirolt, Franz; Glatter, Otto

    2013-05-21

    Oil-water Pickering emulsions of about 200 nm were stabilized by nanosized hydrophilic silica after a simple surface treatment method. We have modified the aqueous silica nanoparticle dispersions by simple adsorption of oleic acid to their surfaces, improving the hydrophobicity of the particles while maintaining their charge and stability. The adsorption was monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering and electrophoretic measurements to estimate the interparticle interactions and surface charges. The effect of various parameters, such as nanoparticle concentration, amount of oleic acid, ionic strength, and pH, on the droplets' size and stability was investigated by dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, the ability of these modified silica nanoparticles to stabilize long-chain alkanes, liquid paraffin, and liquid-crystalline phases was examined.

  10. Characterization of the oleic acid/iron oxide nanoparticle interface by magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masur, S.; Zingsem, B.; Marzi, T.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles involves surfactant molecules, which bind to the particle surface and stabilize nanoparticles against aggregation. In many cases these protecting shells also can be used for further functionalization. In this study, we investigated monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (FexOy-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer which showed two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. The nanoparticles with the ligands attached were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ferro- and paramagnetic resonance (FMR, EPR). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the functional groups and revealed that the oleic acid (OA) is chemisorbed as a carboxylate on the iron oxide and is coordinated symmetrically to the oxide atoms. We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle.

  11. Luminescence properties of LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles encapsulated by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Jun-Hyung; An, Hyejin; Lee, Jungkuk; Park, Seong-Hee; Seo, Young-Soo; Miller, William H.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In-situ hydrophobization of water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles was achieved. • Oleic acid surface modification of the nanoparticles was verified by IR spectra. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce and OA-LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles were evaluated. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce are strongly dependent on OA surface modification. - Abstract: Cerium ions doped lanthanum fluoride (LaF{sub 3}:Ce) nanopowder as well as LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder whose surfaces was modified by oleic acid (OA) were synthesized by using an in-situ hydrothermal process under the various doping concentrations. Based on the XRD spectra and TEM images, it was confirmed that the crystalline structured hexagonal LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder was synthesized. Oleic acid was efficient for conversion of the water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles to hydrophobic ones. Surface modification was verified by FTIR absorption spectrum as well as TEM images, showing no agglomeration between 5 and 10 nm scaled particles. Photoluminescence based on 5d ⟶ 4f electronic transition of cerium ions excited at λ{sub ex} ∼256 nm for both neat and OA encapsulated LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles decreases as the cerium concentration increases, while the quantum yields of OA encapsulated nanoparticles were much lower than the neat particles due to low photon transmittance of OA at the range longer than ∼350 nm.

  12. Determination of oleic acid in sunflower seeds by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration method.

    PubMed

    Cantarelli, Miguel A; Funes, Israel G; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Camiña, José M

    2009-12-15

    A method for the determination of oleic acid in sunflower seeds is proposed. One hundred samples of sunflower seeds were analyzed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS). The direct measures were realized in ground and sifted seeds. The PLS multivariate calibration model was obtained using first derivate absorbance values as response matrix, while the oleic acid concentration matrix was obtained analyzing the seed samples by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The NIRDRS-PLS model was validated externally using unknown samples of sunflower seeds. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated using GC as reference method. The following figures of merit (FOM) were obtained: LOD=3.4% (w/w); LOQ=11.3% (w/w); SEN=8x10(-5); SEL=0.15; analytical sensibility (gamma)=1.5 and linear range (LR)=18.1-89.2% (w/w). This method is useful for the fast determination of oleic acid in sunflower seeds and for quality control of raw materials. PMID:19836509

  13. Investigations of in vitro bioaccessibility from interesterified stearic and oleic acid-rich blends.

    PubMed

    Thilakarathna, S H; Rogers, M; Lan, Y; Huynh, S; Marangoni, A G; Robinson, L E; Wright, A J

    2016-04-01

    Interesterification was previously found to impact stearic acid absorption in a randomized cross-over study, when human volunteers consumed a 70 : 30 wt% high-oleic sunflower and canola stearin blend (NIE) compared to the same blend which had undergone either chemical (CIE) or enzymatic (EIE) interesterification. In this research, in vitro lipid digestion, bioaccessibility, and changes in undigested lipid composition and melting behavior of these same test fats were investigated using the dynamic, multi-compartmental TIM-1 digestion model and compared with the previous human study. Overall, TIM-1 bioaccessibility was higher with interesterification (p < 0.05). Oleic acid bioaccessibility was higher than stearic acid bioaccessibility for NIE, and vice versa for the interesterified blends (p < 0.05). Stearic acid was more concentrated in the undigested triacylglycerols (TAG) from NIE, corresponding to a relatively higher melting temperature of the undigested lipids. The results confirm the impact of TAG composition, fatty acid position and/or physical properties on lipid digestion. TIM-1 bioaccessibility was linearly correlated (R(2) = 0.8640) with postprandial serum TAG concentration in the human study. Therefore, the in vitro digestion model offered predictive insights related to the impacts of lipid interesterificaton on absorption.

  14. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  15. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  16. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual Kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  17. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  18. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  19. Low oleic acid-derived repression of jasmonic acid-inducible defense responses requires the WRKY50 and WRKY51 proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Signaling induced upon a reduction in oleic acid (18:1) levels simultaneously up-regulates salicylic acid (SA)-mediated responses and inhibits jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance to biotrophs but increased susceptibility to necrotrophs. SA and the signaling compon...

  20. Endocrine control of oleic acid and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Gutiérrez, Joaquím; Navarro, Isabel

    2010-08-01

    The effects of insulin and IGF-I on fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism were examined using oleic acid or glucose as tracers in differentiated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes. Insulin and IGF-I significantly reduced the production of CO(2) from oleic acid with respect to the control values. IGF-I also significantly reduced the production of acid-soluble products (ASP) and the concentration of FA in the medium, while cellular triacylglycerols (TAG) tended to increase. Only insulin produced a significant accumulation of glycogen inside the cells in glucose distribution experiments. Incubation with catecholamines did not affect oleic acid metabolism. Cells treated with rapamycin [a target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor] significantly increased the oxidation of oleic acid to CO(2) and ASP, while the accumulation of TAG diminished. Rosiglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist) and etomoxir (a CPT-1 inhibitor) produced a severe and significant reduction in the production of CO(2) and ASP. Rosiglitazone and etomoxir also produced a significant accumulation of FA outside and inside the cells, respectively. No significant effects of these drugs on glucose distribution were observed. These data indicate that insulin and IGF-I act as anabolic hormones in trout myotubes in both oleic acid and glucose metabolism, although glucose oxidation appears to be less sensitive than FA oxidation to insulin and IGF-I. The use of rapamycin, etomoxir, and rosiglitazone may help us to understand the mechanisms of regulation of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:20484701

  1. Ionic polymeric micelles based on chitosan and fatty acids and intended for wound healing. Comparison of linoleic and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Bonferoni, M C; Sandri, G; Dellera, E; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Mori, M; Caramella, C

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan is well known for its positive properties in wound healing. Also unsaturated fatty acids are described as able to accelerate tissue repairing mechanisms. In this work hydrophobically modified chitosan was obtained by ionic interaction with either oleic or linoleic acid. In aqueous environment self-assembling into nanoparticles occurred. The presence of hydrophobic domains, similar to those present in polymeric micelles, was demonstrated by changes in pyrene spectra. Both oleate and linoleate derivatives showed mucoadhesion behaviour. Cytotoxicity tests on human dermal fibroblasts demonstrated good biocompatibility of especially oleate derivatives. Clarithromycin, a poorly soluble model drug proposed for use in infected wounds was successfully encapsulated in both oleic and linoleic based polymeric micelles. The ionic structure of the carriers is responsible for their loosening at neutral pH and in the presence of salts. This behaviour should impair parenteral administration of the systems, but can be useful for topical delivery where the micelle components, chitosan and fatty acid, can play a positive role in dermal regeneration and tissue repairing.

  2. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  3. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  4. The investigation of the dynamics of the phase transformation in triolein and oleic acid under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Kos, A.; Kościesza, R.; Wieja, K.

    2008-07-01

    An aim of our work is the understanding of processes happening during phase transformations under the pressure in triglycerides and unsaturated fatty acids. Particles of investigated liquids possess the double bond between carbon atoms, which causes the bended shape of the particle and makes its free rotation impossible. This property causes low temperatures of melting point and high temperatures of boiling and also investigated by us phase transformations. For study of the dynamics of phase transformation in these liquids we measured light transmission and light scattering at 90 degrees angle, temperature, permittivity and internal pressure versus time. We applied pressure using computer controlled pump with a stepping motor, which makes increase of the pressure steady. The phase transformation in oleic acid lasts several seconds, in triolein it lasts several minutes. We think that the elongated time of phase transformation is caused by a hooked shape of particles of triolein and the dynamics of that process is determined by the tangling of particles. We checked the influence of smaller particles of oleic acid on the phase transformation by investigating the mixture of these liquids.

  5. Physical properties of edible emulsified films based on carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Almasi, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Glycerol and oleic acid (OA) were incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films by an emulsification method. Films containing different amounts of glycerol and OA were examined for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and moisture uptake, optical and thermal properties. Addition of OA to the CMC films significantly improved the barrier property. However, the effect of OA on the mechanical properties was lower than glycerol. By increasing of OA content, the cloudiness of the CMC films was intensified and Hunter value (b) of the films increased (by ca. 35.8%).

  6. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  7. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  8. Efficient bifunctional catalyst lipase/organophosphonic acid-functionalized silica for biodiesel synthesis by esterification of oleic acid with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Chen, Wen; Liu, Wei; Chen, Hou; Qu, Rongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Qinghua; Xu, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    An efficient bifunctional catalyst lipase/organophosphonic acid-functionalized silica (SG-T-P-LS) has been successfully developed, and biodiesel production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from free fatty acid (FFA) oleic acid with short-chain alcohol ethanol catalyzed by SG-T-P-LS was investigated. The process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed and the interactions between the operational variables were elucidated, and it was found that the molar ratio of alcohol to acid was the most significant factor. The optimum values for maximum conversion ratio can be obtained by using a Box-Behnken center-united design, and the conversion ratio could reach 89.94 ± 0.42% under the conditions that ethanol/acid molar ratio was 1.05:1 and SG-T-P-LS to FFA weight ratio was 14.9 wt.% at 28.6°C. The research results show that SG-T-P and LS-20 could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional catalyst SG-T-P-LS is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  9. Non-covalent complexes of folic acid and oleic acid conjugated polyethylenimine: An efficient vehicle for antisense oligonucleotide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Yang, Xuewei; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Meng, Lingjun; Lee, Robert J.; Xie, Jing; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) was conjugated to oleic acid (PEI-OA) and evaluated as a delivery agent for LOR-2501, an antisense oligonucleotide against ribonucleotide reductase R1 subunit. PEI-OA/LOR-2501 complexes were further coated with folic acid (FA/PEI-OA/LOR-2501) and evaluated in tumor cells. The level of cellular uptake of FA/PEI-OA/LOR-2501 was more than double that of PEI/LOR-2501 complexes, and was not affected by the expression level of folate receptor (FR) on the cell surface. Efficient delivery was seen in several cell lines. Furthermore, pathway specific cellular internalization inhibitors and markers were used to reveal the principal mechanism of cellular uptake. FA/PEI-OA/LOR-2501 significantly induced the downregulation of R1 mRNA and R1 protein. This novel formulation of FA/PEI-OA provides a reliable and highly efficient method for delivery of oligonucleotide and warrants further investigation. PMID:26263216

  10. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  11. Monodispersed Hollow SO3H-Functionalized Carbon/Silica as Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Esterification of Oleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ding; Tan, Minghui; Jiang, Bo; Zheng, Jingtang; Tsubaki, Noritatsu; Wu, Mingbo

    2015-12-01

    SO3H-functionalized monodispersed hollow carbon/silica spheres (HS/C-SO3H) with primary mesopores were prepared with polystyrene as a template and p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH) as a carbon precursor and -SO3H source simultaneously. The physical and chemical properties of HS/C-SO3H were characterized by N2 adsorption, TEM, SEM, XPS, XRD, Raman spectrum, NH3-TPD, element analysis and acid-base titration techniques. As a solid acid catalyst, HS/C-SO3H shows excellent performance in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol, which is a crucial reaction in biodiesel production. The well-defined hollow architecture and enhanced active sites accessibility of HS/C-SO3H guarantee the highest catalytic performance compared with the catalysts prepared by activation of TsOH deposited on the ordered mesoporous silicas SBA-15 and MCM-41. At the optimized conditions, high conversion (96.9%) was achieved and no distinct activity drop was observed after 5 recycles. This synthesis strategy will provide a highly effective solid acid catalyst for green chemical processes.

  12. Monodispersed Hollow SO3H-Functionalized Carbon/Silica as Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Esterification of Oleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ding; Tan, Minghui; Jiang, Bo; Zheng, Jingtang; Tsubaki, Noritatsu; Wu, Mingbo

    2015-12-01

    SO3H-functionalized monodispersed hollow carbon/silica spheres (HS/C-SO3H) with primary mesopores were prepared with polystyrene as a template and p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH) as a carbon precursor and -SO3H source simultaneously. The physical and chemical properties of HS/C-SO3H were characterized by N2 adsorption, TEM, SEM, XPS, XRD, Raman spectrum, NH3-TPD, element analysis and acid-base titration techniques. As a solid acid catalyst, HS/C-SO3H shows excellent performance in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol, which is a crucial reaction in biodiesel production. The well-defined hollow architecture and enhanced active sites accessibility of HS/C-SO3H guarantee the highest catalytic performance compared with the catalysts prepared by activation of TsOH deposited on the ordered mesoporous silicas SBA-15 and MCM-41. At the optimized conditions, high conversion (96.9%) was achieved and no distinct activity drop was observed after 5 recycles. This synthesis strategy will provide a highly effective solid acid catalyst for green chemical processes. PMID:26588826

  13. Changes in breath sound power spectra during experimental oleic acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute lung injury on the frequency spectra of breath sounds, we made serial acoustic recordings from nondependent, midlung and dependent regions of both lungs in ten 35- to 45-kg anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated pigs during development of acute lung injury induced with intravenous oleic acid in prone or supine position. Oleic acid injections rapidly produced severe derangements in the gas exchange and mechanical properties of the lung, with an average increase in venous admixture from 16 ± 12 to 62 ± 16% (P < 0.01), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 25 ± 4 to 14 ± 4 ml/cmH2O (P < 0.01). A concomitant increase in sound power was seen in all lung regions (P < 0.05), predominantly in frequencies 150-800 Hz. The deterioration in gas exchange and lung mechanics correlated best with concurrent spectral changes in the nondependent lung regions. Acute lung injury increases the power of breath sounds likely secondary to redistribution of ventilation from collapsed to aerated parts of the lung and improved sound transmission in dependent, consolidated areas.

  14. Pronounced multiferroicity in oleic acid stabilized BiFeO3 nanocrystals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Dabbugalla; Mandal, Swapan K; Mahato, Bipul K; Rana, Bivas; Barman, Anjan

    2013-06-01

    We report on the experimental observation of pronounced multiferroicity in BiFeO3 nanocrystals (size approximately 40 nm) at room temperature. Large scale BiFeO3 nanocrystals are synthesized using a low temperature chemical route and further stabilized with oleic acid. The nanocrystals exhibit a significant distortion in lattice parameter c compared to the bulk. Oleic acid plays an important role in reducing oxygen vacancies and Fe2+ ions at the nanocrystal surface giving rise to a high resistivity (approximately 10(10) omega-cm at 300 K) of the sample. The direct band gap of nanocrystals is measured to be approximately 4.2 eV (about 1.5 times the bulk value) suggesting a strong quantum confinement effect. The nanocrystals show a remarkably high spontaneous saturation magnetization approximately 4.39 emu/g along with a prominent ferroelectric hysteresis loop at room temperature. Particle size effect leading to the appearance of large number of uncompensated spins and suppression of modulated spin structure have resulted a strong spontaneous magnetization in such nanoscale multiferroic materials. PMID:23862453

  15. Water dispersible oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shete, P. B.; Patil, R. M.; Tiwale, B. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proved their tremendous potential to be used for various biomedical applications. Oleic acid (OA) is widely used in ferrite nanoparticle synthesis because it can form a dense protective monolayer, thereby producing highly uniform and monodispersed particles. Capping agents such as oleic acid are often used because they form a protective monolayer, which is strongly bonded to the surface of nanoparticles. This is necessary for making monodisperse and highly uniform MNPs. Coating of Fe3O4 MNPs with OA makes the particles dispersible only in organic solvents and consequently limits their use for biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, the OA coated MNPs were again functionalized with chitosan (CS), in order to impart hydrophilicity on their surface. All the morphological, magnetic, colloidal and cytotoxic characteristics of the resulting core-shells were studied thoroughly. Their heating induction ability was studied to predict their possible use in hyperthermia therapy of cancer. Specific absorption rate was found to be increased than that of bare MNPs.

  16. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse.

  17. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse. PMID:27614157

  18. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Oberland, Sonja; Ackels, Tobias; Gaab, Stefanie; Pelz, Thomas; Spehr, Jennifer; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal's preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca(2+) imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:26441537

  19. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Oberland, Sonja; Ackels, Tobias; Gaab, Stefanie; Pelz, Thomas; Spehr, Jennifer; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal’s preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca2+ imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:26441537

  20. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Medeiros-de-Moraes, Isabel Matos; Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  1. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  2. Identification and expression of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene responsible for oleic acid accumulation in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Qiuqi; Li, Rufang; Xia, Xinli; Qin, Xiaowei; Guo, Huihong

    2015-02-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oilseed tree that grows well on barren lands in dry climate. Its seeds contain a large amount of oil rich in oleic acid (18:1(Δ9)) and linoleic acid (18:2(Δ9, 12)). However, the molecular regulation of oil biosynthesis in X. sorbifolia seeds is poorly understood. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD, EC 1.14.99.6) is a plastid-localized soluble desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid, which plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a full-length cDNA of XsSAD was isolated from developing X. sorbifolia embryos. The XsSAD open reading frame had 1194-bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. XsSAD expression in Escherichia coli cells resulted in increased 18:1(Δ9) level, confirming the biological activity of the enzyme encoded by XsSAD. XsSAD expression in Arabidopsis ssi2 mutants partially restored the morphological phenotype and effectively increased the 18:1(Δ9) level. The levels of other unsaturated fatty acids synthesized with 18:1(Δ9) as the substrate also increased to some degree. XsSAD in X. sorbifolia had a much higher expression in embryos than in leaves and petals. XsSAD expression also correlated well with the oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid levels in developing embryos. These data suggested that XsSAD determined the synthesis of oleic acid and contributed to the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid and total oil in X. sorbifolia seeds. A preliminary tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing system established in X. sorbifolia can also be helpful for further analyzing the functions of XsSAD and other oil synthesis-related genes in woody plants.

  3. Improvement of bone formation biomarkers after 1-year consumption with milk fortified with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and selected vitamins.

    PubMed

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Fonolla, Juristo; Quesada, Miguel; Poyatos, Antonio; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the replacement of regular milk with fortified milk in hyperlipidemic adults for 1 year would improve bone biomarkers. The fortified milk contained eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oils, oleic acid, vitamins A, B(6), and E, as well as folic acid. We believe that the fortified milk will improve the blood fatty acid profile and vitamin status in subjects to benefit bone health biomarkers. From the 84 patients who accepted to participate, 11 of these were excluded for the presence of metabolic diseases and 1 was excluded for noncompliance with the protocol. Seventy-two hyperlipidemic patients (35-65 years) were randomly divided between 2 study groups. The supplement group (E; n = 39) consumed 0.5 L/d of fortified milk that contained fish oil, oleic acid, and vitamins. The control group (C; n = 33) consumed 0.5 L/d of semiskimmed milk containing the same amount of total fat. Blood samples were taken at T(0), T(3), T(6), and T(12) months to determine plasma fatty acids, vitamins B(6), E, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum folate, calcium, soluble osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteocalcin, parathormone, type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide, and malondialdehyde. After 1 year, the E group showed a significant increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (42%), docosahexaenoic acid (60%), vitamin B6 (38%), OPG (18%), RANKL (7%), OPG/RANKL (10%), red blood cell folate (21%), serum folate (53%), calcium (4%), vitamin D (11%), and osteocalcin (22%). Dietary supplementation with the fortified milk drink improved nutritional status and bone formation markers in adult hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:20579524

  4. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    PubMed

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. PMID:23870970

  5. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production.

  6. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  7. Esterification of oleic acid in a three-phase, fixed-bed reactor packed with a cation exchange resin catalyst.

    PubMed

    Son, Sung Mo; Kimura, Hiroko; Kusakabe, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Esterification of oleic acid was performed in a three-phase fixed-bed reactor with a cation exchange resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) at high temperature, which was varied from 80 to 120 °C. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields in the fixed-bed reactor were increased with increases in the reaction temperature, methanol flow rate and bed height. Moreover, the FAME yields were higher than those obtained using a batch reactor due to an equilibrium shift toward the product that resulted from continuous evaporation of the produced water. In addition, there was no catalyst deactivation during the esterification of oleic acid. However, addition of sunflower oil to the oleic acid reduced the FAME yield obtained from simultaneous esterification and transesterification. The FAME yield was 97.5% at a reaction temperature of 100 °C in the fixed-bed with a height of 5 cm when the methanol and oleic acid feed rates were 8.6 and 9.0 mL/h, respectively.

  8. Filler modification for papermaking with starch/oleic acid complexes with the aid of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiujie; Shen, Jing; Qian, Xueren

    2013-10-15

    To mitigate the negative effect of filler addition on paper strength and improve filler retention, filler modification with hydrogen bonding polymers (e.g., starch) or their composites is an interesting research topic. Differing from previous reports, the concept related to the deposition of starch/oleic acid complexes on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) with the aid of calcium ions was demonstrated. The introduction of calcium ions resulted in effective starch deposition. As a result of filler modification, filler retention and the tensile strength of the filled paper were simultaneously improved essentially due to the aggregation of PCC particles in filler modification process as well as improved filler bondability. The concept demonstrated in this brief study may provide an alternative approach to filler bondability enhancement for improved papermaking performances.

  9. Oleic Acid Produced by a Marine Vibrio spp. Acts as an Anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Yanett; Borquez, Jorge; Darias, José; Cueto, Mercedes; Díaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Riquelme, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    It is known that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are responsible for gastroenteric diseases caused by the ingestion of marine organisms contaminated with these bacterial strains. Organic products that show inhibitory activity on the growth of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were extracted from a Vibrio native in the north of Chile. The inhibitory organic products were isolated by reverse phase chromatography and permeation by Sephadex LH20, and were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The results showed that the prevailing active product is oleic acid, which was compared with standards by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These active products might be useful for controlling the proliferation of pathogenic clones of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:22073014

  10. Commercial double-indicator-dilution densitometer using heavy water: Evaluation in oleic-acid pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Leksell, L.G.; Schreiner, M.S.; Sylvestro, A.; Neufeld, G.R. )

    1990-04-01

    We evaluated a commercially available, double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of pulmonary extravascular water volume in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Indocyanine green and heavy water were used as the nondiffusible and diffusible tracers, respectively. Pulmonary extravascular water volume, measured with this system, was 67% of the gravimetric value (r = 0.91), which was consistent with values obtained from the radioisotope methods. The measured volume was not influenced by changes in cardiac index over a range of 1 to 4 L.min.m2. This system is less invasive than the thermal-dye technique and has potential for repeated clinical measurements of pulmonary extravascular lung water and cardiac output.

  11. Morphometric analysis of oleic acid-induced permeability pulmonary edema: correlation with gravimetric lung water.

    PubMed

    Darien, B J; Saban, M R; Hart, A P; MacWilliams, P S; Clayton, M K; Kruse-Elliott, K T

    1997-07-01

    The technique used most commonly to quantitate pulmonary edema in in vivo animal models is postmortem gravimetric analysis (wet:dry) ratio. To determine whether lung water can be quantitated morphometrically, as accurately as by the commonly used gravimetric analysis, perivascular edema (cuff) area to vessel area ratio was correlated to wet:dry ratio. Anesthetized pigs were given either oleic acid (20 mg/kg/h, intravenously) or physiologic saline. At 4 h, lungs were excised and cuff:vessel and wet:dry ratio analysis was performed. The intermediate lobe was clamped across its main stem bronchus to maintain peak inspiratory inflation, excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -70 degrees C until cryostat sectioning and quantification of perivascular interstitial edema (cuff) area. Gravimetric analysis (wet:dry ratio) was performed on the remaining lung. Mean cuff:vessel and wet:dry analyzes showed that lung water increased significantly (p < .01) in the oleic-acid treated group (4.9 +/- .22 and 6.78 +/- .47, respectively), compared with the saline group (.03 +/- .02 and 2.55 +/- .27, respectively). The correlation coefficient between mean cuff:vessel and wet:dry ratios was .86 (p = .0016). This study demonstrates that cuff:vessel ratio analysis can be used to identify the distribution of edema fluid versus vessel diameter, and seems to be as effective a technique as gravimetric analysis to quantitate lung water changes in acute lung injury models. Moreover cuff:vessel ratio analysis can differentiate modest changes in pulmonary edema by direct quantitation, an important end-point not provided by wet:dry analysis. Therefore, it may be a more sensitive technique when investigating therapeutic interventions in in vivo models of acute lung injury.

  12. Role of p53 in the cellular response following oleic acid accumulation in Chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Lee, Ah Young; Chang, Seung-Hee; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of fatty acids triggers the harmful cellular response called lipotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the cellular response following accumulation of oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid, in human Chang liver cells. OA droplets were distributed freely in the cytoplasm and/or degraded within lysosomes. OA exposure increased ATP production and concomitantly dilated mitochondria. At 24h after OA exposure, cell viability decreased slightly and was coupled with a reduction in mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, the alteration in cell viability was also associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and changes in the cell cycle. Moreover, OA treatment increased the expression of autophagy- and apoptotic cell death-related proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we investigated the role of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, in the cellular response elicited by OA accumulation. OA-induced changes in cell viability and ATP production were rescued to control levels when cells were pretreated with pifithrin-alpha (PTA), a p53 inhibitor. By contrast, the expressions of LC3-II and perilipin, proteins required for lipophagy, were down-regulated by PTA pretreatment. Taken together, our results suggest that p53 plays a key role in the cellular response elicited by OA accumulation in Chang liver cells.

  13. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity of Oleic Acid-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized from Absolute Ethanol Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihui; Liu, Bin; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-10-01

    The one-step synthesis of oleic acid-coated TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light-driven photocatalytic activity was reported by this manuscript, using oleic acid-ethanol as crucial starting materials. The photocatalytic degradation of nitrogen monoxide (deNOx) in the gas phase was investigated in a continuous reactor using a series of TiO2 semiconductors, prepared from oleic acid- or acetic acid-ethanol solution. The surface modification on TiO2 by organic fatty acid, oleic acid, could reinvest TiO2 photocatalyst with the excellent visible light response. The deNOx ability is almost as high as 30 % destruction in the visible light region ( λ > 510 nm) which is similar to the nitrogen-doped TiO2. Meanwhile, acetic acid, a monobasic acid, has a weaker ability on visible light modification of TiO2.

  14. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  15. Mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil - a healthful new alternative to hydrogenated oils for frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the frying stability of mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil (MO/ULLSBO) and the storage stability of food fried in it, tortilla chips were fried in MO/ULLSBO, soybean oil (SBO), hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) and ultra low linolenic SBO (ULLSBO). Intermittent batch frying tests wer...

  16. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  17. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  18. Self-assembled β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid and β-lactoglobulin-linoleic acid complexes with antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Fang, B; Zhang, M; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2015-05-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) can bind to fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA). Another whey protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), can also bind to OA to give the complex α-LA-OA, which has antitumor properties. Based on reports that the activity of α-LA-OA is highly dependent on OA, as well as the acquisition of similar complexes using other proteins, such as lysozyme and lactoferrin, we speculated whether β-LG could also kill tumor cells after binding to other fatty acids. Therefore, we prepared complexes of β-LG with OA (β-LG-OA) and LA (β-LG-LA) in the current study and evaluated them in terms of antitumor activity and thermostability using the methylene blue method and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The structural features of these complexes were also evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The binding dynamics of OA and LA to β-LG were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry. Cell viability results revealed that β-LG-LA and β-LG-OA exhibited similar antitumor activities. Interestingly, the binding of β-LG to LA led to an increase in its thermostability, whereas its binding to OA had very little effect. The environments of the tryptophan residues in the β-LG-OA and β-LG-LA complexes were very different, with the residues being blue- and red-shifted, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrophobic regions in β-LG were buried after binding of OA, which was slightly changed in β-LG-LA. Circular dichroism results showed that β-LG-OA enhanced the tertiary structure, which was partially lost in β-LG-LA. There were more binding sites for OA than for LA on β-LG, although the binding constants of the 2 fatty acids were similar, with both acids interacting with the protein though van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. This study could help provide a deeper understanding of the structural basis for formation of antitumor protein-fatty acid complexes.

  19. Oleic acid enhances G protein coupled receptor 43 expression in bovine intramuscular adipocytes but not in subcutaneous adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Smith, S B; Choi, S H; Johnson, B J

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that fatty acids would differentially affect G protein coupled receptor (GPR) 43 mRNA expression and GPR43 protein concentrations in bovine intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes. The GPR43 protein was detected in bovine liver, pancreas, and semimembranosus (MUS) muscle in samples taken at slaughter. Similarly, GPR43 protein levels were similar in IM adipose tissue and SM muscle but was barely detectable in SC adipose tissue. Primary cultures of IM and SC stromal vascular cells were isolated from bovine adipose tissues. Oleic acid (100 μ) stimulated PPARγ gene expression and decreased stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression but had no effect on GPR43 gene expression, which was readily detectable in both IM and SC adipocytes. Differentiation cocktail (Diff; 10 μ insulin, 4 μ dexamethasone, and 10 μ ciglitizone) stimulated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and PPARγ gene expression in SC but not IM adipocytes, but Diff increased SCD gene expression in both cell types. Linoleic acid (10 µ) increased PPARγ gene expression relative to Diff cocktail in SC adipocytes, whereas linoleic acid and α-linolenic decreased SCD gene expression relative to control adipocytes and adipocytes incubated with Diff ( < 0.05). Increasing concentrations of oleic acid (1, 10, 100, and 500 μM) increased GPR43 protein and mRNA expression in IM but not SC adipocytes. These data indicated that oleic acid alters mRNA and protein concentrations of GPR43 in bovine IM adipocytes. PMID:27285685

  20. Aerosol products, mechanisms, and kinetics of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with oleic acid in pure and mixed particles.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of O3 with pure and mixed oleic acid particles and bulk solutions were investigated using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer. The results provide information on the effect of particle matrix on reaction products, mechanisms, and kinetics. The major aerosol products are alpha-acyloxyalkyl hydroperoxides, secondary ozonides, alpha-alkoxyalkyl hydroperoxides, and oxocarboxylic acids formed primarily through reactions of Criegee intermediates with products or with particle matrix compounds. For example, it is estimated that for the reaction of pure oleic acid particles with O3 the aerosol products consist of approximately 68% organic peroxides, 28% 9-oxononanoic acid, and 4% azelaic acid. Although the reaction rate of pure oleic acid particles corresponds to an atmospheric lifetime of minutes, reactions in liquid/solid particle matrices can be orders of magnitude slower. The peroxide products are relatively stable when exposed to matrices typical of atmospheric particles, indicating that the lifetimes of these compounds in the atmosphere may be long enough to allow for long-range transport.

  1. Protease Inhibition by Oleic Acid Transfer From Chronic Wound Dressings to Albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel M.; Mashchak, Andrew D.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds. These levels can inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid (18:1) is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor with some potential for redressing the imbalance of elastase activity found in chronic wounds. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of 18:1 by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. 18:1-treated cotton was examined for its ability to bind and release the fatty acid in the presence of albumin. The mechanism of 18:1 uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-18:1 complexes under liquid-liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-18:1 complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:18:1. Cotton chromatography under liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of 18:1 per mole albumin. Cotton was contrasted with hydrogel, and hydrocolloid wound dressing for its comparative ability to lower elastase activity. Each dressing material evaluated was found to release 18:1 in the presence of albumin with significant inhibition of elastase activity. The 18:1-formulated wound dressings lowered elastase activity in a dose dependent manner in the order cotton gauze > hydrogel > hydrocolloid. In contrast the cationic serine protease Cathepsin G was inihibited by 18:1 within a narrow range of 18:1-cotton formulations. Four per cent Albumin solutions were most effective in binding cotton bound-18:1. However, 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of 18:1 necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Formulations with 128 mg 18:1/g cotton gauze had equivalent elastase lowering with 1 - 4% albumin. 18:1 bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the

  2. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  3. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  4. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop.

  5. Monitoring the dynamics of syntrophic β-oxidizing bacteria during anaerobic degradation of oleic acid by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ziels, Ryan M; Beck, David A C; Martí, Magalí; Gough, Heidi L; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2015-04-01

    The ecophysiology of long-chain fatty acid-degrading syntrophic β-oxidizing bacteria has been poorly understood due to a lack of quantitative abundance data. Here, TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the known mesophilic syntrophic β-oxidizing bacterial genera Syntrophomonas and Syntrophus were developed and validated. Microbial community dynamics were followed using qPCR and Illumina-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing in triplicate methanogenic bioreactors subjected to five consecutive batch feedings of oleic acid. With repeated oleic acid feeding, the initial specific methane production rate significantly increased along with the relative abundances of Syntrophomonas and methanogenic archaea in the bioreactor communities. The novel qPCR assays showed that Syntrophomonas increased from 7 to 31% of the bacterial community 16S rRNA gene concentration, whereas that of Syntrophus decreased from 0.02 to less than 0.005%. High-throughput amplicon sequencing also revealed that Syntrophomonas became the dominant genus within the bioreactor microbiomes. These results suggest that increased specific mineralization rates of oleic acid were attributed to quantitative shifts within the microbial communities toward higher abundances of syntrophic β-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. The novel qPCR assays targeting syntrophic β-oxidizing bacteria may thus serve as monitoring tools to indicate the fatty acid β-oxidization potential of anaerobic digester communities.

  6. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  7. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively. PMID:20124754

  8. Application of silver nanofluid containing oleic acid surfactant in a thermosyphon economizer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a recent study on the application of a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) in a thermosyphon for economizer (TPEC). The TPEC had three sections of equal size; the evaporator, the adiabatic section, and the condenser, of 250 mm × 250 mm × 250 mm (W × L × H). The TPCT was a steel tube of 12.7-mm ID. The filling ratios chosen to study were 30, 50, and 80% with respect to the evaporator length. The volumetric flow rates for the coolant (in the condenser) were 1, 2.5, and 5 l/min. Five working fluids investigated were: water, water-based silver nanofluid with silver concentration 0.5 w/v%, and the nanofluid (NF) mixed with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 w/v% of oleic acid (OA). The operating temperatures were 60, 70, and 80°C. Experimental data showed that the TPEC gave the highest heat flux of about 25 kW/m2 and the highest effectiveness of about 0.3 at a filling ratio of 50%, with the nanofluid containing 1 w/v% of OA. It was further found that the effectiveness of nanofluid and the OA containing nanofluids were superior in effectiveness over water in all experimental conditions came under this study. Moreover, the presence of OA had clearly contributed to raise the effectiveness of the nanofluid. PMID:21711856

  9. Potent antimicrobial activity of bone cement encapsulating silver nanoparticles capped with oleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Prokopovich, Polina; Köbrick, Mathias; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Perni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Bone cement is widely used in surgical treatments for the fixation for orthopaedic devices. Subsequently, 2–3% of patients undergoing these procedures develop infections that are both a major health risk for patients and a cost for the health service providers; this is also aggravated by the fact that antibiotics are losing efficacy because of the rising resistance of microorganisms to these substances. In this study, oleic acid capped silver nanoparticles (NP) were encapsulated into Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement samples at various ratios. Antimicrobial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii was exhibited at NP concentrations as low as 0.05% (w/w). Furthermore, the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the bone cement containing these NP were assessed to guarantee that such material is safe to be used in orthopaedic surgical practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 273–281, 2015. PMID:24819471

  10. Distinctive interactions of oleic acid covered magnetic nanoparticles with saturated and unsaturated phospholipids in Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Matshaya, Thabo J; Lanterna, Anabel E; Granados, Alejandro M; Krause, Rui W M; Maggio, Bruno; Vico, Raquel V

    2014-05-27

    The growing number of innovations in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology are posing new challenges in understanding the full spectrum of interactions between nanomateriales and biomolecules at nano-biointerfaces. Although considerable achievements have been accomplished by in vivo applications, many issues regarding the molecular nature of these interactions are far from being well-understood. In this work, we evaluate the interaction of hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) covered with a single layer of oleic acid with saturated and unsaturated phospholipids found in biomembranes through the use of Langmuir monolayers. We find distinctive interactions among the MNP with saturated and unsaturated phospholipids that are reflected by both, the compression isotherms and the surface topography of the films. The interaction between MNP and saturated lipids causes a noticeable reduction of the mean molecular area in the interfacial plane, while the interaction with unsaturated lipids promotes area expansion compared to the ideally mixed films. Moreover, when liquid expanded and liquid condensed phases of the phospholipid(s) coexist, the MNP preferably partition to the liquid-expanded phase, thus hindering the coalescence of the condensed domains with increasing surface pressure. In consequence organizational information on long-range order is attained. These results evidence the existence of a sensitive composition-dependent surface regulation given by phospholipid-nanoparticle interactions which enhance the biophysical relevance of understanding nanoparticle surface functionalization in relation to its interactions in biointerfaces constituted by defined types of biomolecules.

  11. Oleic Acid-Induced Atomic Alignment of ZnS Polyhedral Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    van der Stam, Ward; Rabouw, Freddy T; Vonk, Sander J W; Geuchies, Jaco J; Ligthart, Hans; Petukhov, Andrei V; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2016-04-13

    Ordered two-dimensional (2D) superstructures of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) can be tailored by the size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry of the NC building blocks, which can give directionality to the resulting superstructure geometry. The exact formation mechanism of 2D NC superstructures is however not yet fully understood. Here, we show that oleic acid (OA) ligands induce atomic alignment of wurtzite ZnS bifrustum-shaped NCs. We find that in the presence of OA ligands the {002} facets of the ZnS bifrustums preferentially adhere to the liquid-air interface. Furthermore, OA ligands induce inter-NC interactions that also orient the NCs in the plane of the liquid-air interface, resulting in atomically aligned 2D superstructures. We follow the self-assembly process in real-time with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and find that the NCs form a hexagonal superstructure at early stages after which they come closer over time, resulting in a close-packed NC superstructure. Our results demonstrate the profound influence that surface ligands have on the directionality of 2D NC superstructures and highlight the importance of detailed in situ studies in order to understand the self-assembly of NCs into 2D superstructures. PMID:26930124

  12. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively.

  13. Pulmonary clearance of three aerosolized solutes in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    We studied the effects of oleic acid (OA) on pulmonary clearance of three aerosolized radioactive solutes: /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA), /sup 67/Ga-desferoxamine (/sup 67/Ga-DFOM), and /sup 111/In-transferrin (/sup 111/In-TF). Either 0.09 ml/kg OA or an equivalent volume of 0.9% NaCl (controls) was administered intravenously to 48 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs. Each animal received one aerosolized solute either 60 min after (protocol A) or 30 min before (protocol B) the infusion of OA or NaCl. In protocol A clearances of all three solutes were similar in OA and control animals. In contrast, in protocol B clearances of all three solutes increased significantly during OA infusion; during the next 60 min clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 67/Ga-DFOM returned to control values but 111In-TF remained increased. We conclude that 1) in OA-induced permeability edema pulmonary clearance of aerosolized solutes is increased when the aerosol is delivered 30 min before but not 60 min after injury, and 2) increased clearance persists only for large molecules, presumably because smaller molecules cross injured epithelium quickly and completely. These phenomena are best explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of OA-induced injury.

  14. Direct effects of nitroprusside do not alter gas exchange in canine oleic acid edema.

    PubMed

    Angle, M; Ducas, J; Schick, U; Girling, L; Prewitt, R M

    1984-11-01

    The authors investigated why intrapulmonary shunt (QS/QT) increases with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in canine oleic acid pulmonary edema. To determine the effects of flow alone on QS/QT, a peripheral arteriovenous fistula with a variable resistor was employed to increase cardiac output (Q) 26 and 52% above base line in a stepwise fashion (P less than 0.01). To examine the direct effects of SNP, distinct from changes in flow, the drug was given to produce matched increments in Q in each dog (P less than 0.01). To control for time, base-line measurements were obtained before and after each intervention, the sequence of which was alternated. At each increment in Q, SNP and the arteriovenous fistula increased QS/QT a similar amount. The mixed venous O2 tension (P-vO2) followed Q similarly in each group. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) fell more (P less than 0.01) with SNP than with the arteriovenous fistula at identical Q and P-vO2. The authors conclude that, in this model, a direct pharmacological effect of SNP does not contribute to the deterioration in QS/QT. In fact, SNP exerts a pulmonary vasoactive effect that does not adversely affect gas exchange. PMID:6520043

  15. Necrostatin-1 protects against oleic acid-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Yao, Dun-Chen; Yu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Sheng-Jie; Chen, Bing-Jun; Hu, Gui-He; Xi, Chang; Wang, Zi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Jian-Hua; Tu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-09-30

    Necroptosis is a recently discovered necrotic cell death which is regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 under the stimulus of death signal and can be inhibited by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) specifically. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role of necroptosis in a rat model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by oleic acid (OA) and assess the effect of Nec-1 on lung injury in ARDS. Our results found that RIPK1, RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were abundantly expressed in rat lung tissues of OA-induced ARDS. Nec-1 pretreatment improved pulmonary function and attenuated lung edema dramatically in OA-induced ARDS rats. Furthermore, Nec-1 reduced RIPK1-RIPK3 interaction and down-regulated RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL signal pathway, and inhibited inflammatory response by reducing neutrophil infiltration and protein leakage into lung tissue in OA-induced ARDS. Collectively, our study proves the intervention of necroptosis in OA-induced ARDS. Moreover, our findings imply that Nec-1 plays an important role in the treatment of ARDS via inhibiting necroptosis and inflammation. PMID:27586277

  16. 6LiF oleic acid capped nanoparticles entrapment in siloxanes for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Marchi, T.; Gramegna, F.; Cinausero, M.; Quaranta, A.; Palma, M. Dalla

    2016-07-01

    The good light output of siloxane based scintillators as displayed under γ-rays and α particles has been exploited here to obtain clear and reliable response toward thermal neutrons. Sensitization towards thermal neutrons has been pursued by adding 6LiF, in form of nanoparticles. Aiming at the enhancement of compatibility between the inorganic nanoparticles and the low polarity, siloxane based surrounding medium, oleic acid-capped 6LiF nanoparticles have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of Li trifluoroacetate. Thin pellets siloxane scintillator maintained their optical transmittance up to weight load of 2% of 6Li. Thin samples with increasing 6Li concentration and thicker ones with fixed 6Li amount have been prepared and tested with several sources (α, γ-rays, moderated neutrons). Light output as high as 80% of EJ212 under α irradiation was measured with thin samples, and negligible changes have been observed as a result of 6LiF addition. In case of thick samples, severe light loss has been observed, as induced by opacity. Nevertheless, thermal neutrons detection has been assessed and the data have been compared with GS20, based on Li glass, taken as a reference material.

  17. Stability of HAMLET--a kinetically trapped alpha-lactalbumin oleic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina; Linse, Sara

    2005-02-01

    The stability toward thermal and urea denaturation was measured for HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and alpha-lactalbumin, using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry. Under all conditions examined, HAMLET appears to have the same or lower stability than alpha-lactalbumin. The largest difference is seen for thermal denaturation of the calcium free (apo) forms, where the temperature at the transition midpoint is 15 degrees C lower for apo HAMLET than for apo alpha-lactalbumin. The difference becomes progressively smaller as the calcium concentration increases. Denaturation of HAMLET was found to be irreversible. Samples of HAMLET that have been renatured after denaturation have lost the specific biological activity toward tumor cells. Three lines of evidence indicate that HAMLET is a kinetic trap: (1) It has lower stability than alpha-lactalbumin, although it is a complex of alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid; (2) its denaturation is irreversible and HAMLET is lost after denaturation; (3) formation of HAMLET requires a specific conversion protocol.

  18. Oleic acid is a key cytotoxic component of HAMLET-like complexes.

    PubMed

    Permyakov, Sergei E; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Khasanova, Leysan M; Fadeev, Roman S; Zhadan, Andrei P; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; Håkansson, Anders P; Akatov, Vladimir S; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2012-01-01

    HAMLET is a complex of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) with oleic acid (OA) that selectively kills tumor cells and Streptococcus pneumoniae. To assess the contribution of the proteinaceous component to cytotoxicity of HAMLET, OA complexes with proteins structurally and functionally distinct from α-LA were prepared. Similar to HAMLET, the OA complexes with bovine β-lactoglobulin (bLG) and pike parvalbumin (pPA) (bLG-OA-45 and pPA-OA-45, respectively) induced S. pneumoniae D39 cell death. The activation mechanisms of S. pneumoniae death for these complexes were analogous to those for HAMLET, and the cytotoxicity of the complexes increased with OA content in the preparations. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration for HEp-2 cells linearly decreased with rise in OA content in the preparations, and OA concentration in the preparations causing HEp-2 cell death was close to the cytotoxicity of OA alone. Hence, the cytotoxic action of these complexes against HEp-2 cells is induced mostly by OA. Thermal stabilization of bLG upon association with OA implies that cytotoxicity of bLG-OA-45 complex cannot be ascribed to molten globule-like conformation of the protein component. Overall, the proteinaceous component of HAMLET-like complexes studied is not a prerequisite for their activity; the cytotoxicity of these complexes is mostly due to the action of OA.

  19. Oleic Acid Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles Impregnated Gel for Sustained Delivery of Zaltoprofen: Formulation and Textural Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Savita; Pande, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we have formulated zaltoprofen loaded, surface decorated, biodegradable gelatin nanogel and evaluated its texture characterization. Methods: The method used to prepare gelatin nanoparticles (GNP) was ‘two step desolvation’ and its surface decoration was performed with oleic acid (OA). The GNP was optimized by DOE software. Nanogels were evaluated for particle size entrapment efficiency, texture properties, SEM, in-vitro, ex-vivo drug release studies, in-vitro characterization, stability and in vivo evaluation of nanogel for anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method as an anti-inflammatory experimental model. Results: The formulated GNP with particle size and entrapment efficiency of optimized batch was found to be 247.1 nm and 76.21% respectively. The SEM of GNP shows smooth and spherical shape. In-vitro and Ex-vivo drug release shows that there was 69.47% and 78.59% drug released within 48 hrs. It follows Ritger peppas model, which indicates sustained drug release. The good texture properties of nanogel were observed from texture analysis graphs.In vivo studies of our formulation give significant results compared to the marketed nanogel. Stability data revealed stability of nanogel formulation up to 3 months. Conclusion: The present approach can provide us promising results of the sustained analgesic activity and the stability of drug within the GNP. PMID:26819927

  20. Uptake of Cs and Sr radionuclides within oleic acid coated nanomagnetite-hematite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Sengupta, Pranesh; Sen, D.; Mazumdar, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Nano-sized magnetic composite sorbent material like nanomagnetite - nanohematite has been synthesized for uptake of cesium and strontium ions from low level environmental effluents in effective decontamination from waste water. Synthesis of material was based on co-precipitation route and in situ coating of oleic acid on magnetite-hematite nanocomposite. Magnetic properties were studied for both the uncoated as prepared and coated nanocomposite materials. The magnetization curves showed no hysteresis or remnant magnetization. Both the materials exhibited super-paramagnetism. Saturation magnetization of the coated nanocomposite was found to be 30 emu/g whereas for as prepared nanocomposite it was 64 emu/g. Detailed characterizations of the materials was carried out by X ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopic techniques and the grain sizes were found to vary between 10 and 15 nm range. Sorption experiments on cesium and strontium were carried out by batch mode equilibrium study. The uptake studies were performed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for cesium ions and inductively coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for strontium ions. Size distributions of the particle were measure through Small Angle X ray Scattering (SAXS) experiment. Shifting in weak repulsive potential facilitates enhanced sorption for more period of time in stable condition in comparison of uncoated nanocomposite which forms larger aggregates.

  1. Characterization of Aqueous Oleic Acid/Oleate Dispersions by Fluorescent Probes and Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Suga, Keishi; Kondo, Dai; Otsuka, Yoko; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Oleic acid (OA) and oleates form self-assembled structures dispersible in aqueous media. Herein, the physicochemical properties of OA/oleate assemblies were characterized using fluorescent probes and Raman spectroscopy, under relatively high dilution (<100 mM of total amphiphile) at 25 °C. Anisotropy analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene showed that the microviscosity of the OA/oleate assembly was highest at pH 7.5 (the pH range of 6.9-10.6 was investigated). The fluorescence spectra of 6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene revealed the dehydrated environments on membrane surfaces at pH < 7.7. The pH-dependent Raman peak intensity ratios, chain torsion (S = I1124/I1096) and chain packing (R = I2850/I2930), showed local maxima, indicating the occurrence of metastable phases, such as dispersed cubic phase (pH = 7.5), vesicle (pH = 8.5), and dispersed cylindrical micelle (pH = 9.7). These results suggest that large-scale OA/oleate assemblies could possess particular membrane properties in a narrow pH region, e.g., at pH 7.5, and 9.7.

  2. Effects of methylene blue in acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cassiano Silveira, Ana Paula; Vento, Daniella Alves; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Tefé-Silva, Cristiane; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rubens de Nadai, Tales; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute lung injury (ALI), rupture of the alveolar-capillary barrier determines the protein-rich fluid influx into alveolar spaces. Previous studies have reported that methylene blue (MB) attenuates such injuries. This investigation was carried out to study the MB effects in pulmonary capillary permeability. Methods Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (I) Sham: saline bolus; (II) MB, MB infusion for 2 h; (III) oleic acid (OA), OA bolus; (IV) MB/OA, MB infusion for 2 h, and at 5 min after from the beginning, concurrently with an OA bolus; and (V) OA/MB, OA bolus, and after 2 h, MB infusion for 2 h. After 4 h, blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and lung tissue were collected from all groups for analysis of plasma and tissue nitric oxide, calculation of the wet weight to dry weight ratio (WW/DW), and histological examination of lung tissue. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric test. Results Although favourable trends have been observed for permeability improvement parameters (WW/WD and protein), the results were not statistically significant. However, histological analysis of lung tissue showed reduced lesion areas in both pre- and post-treatment groups. Conclusions The data collected using this experimental model was favourable only through macroscopic and histological analysis. These observations are valid for both MB infusions before or after induction of ALI. PMID:26855944

  3. Modeling of olive oil degradation and oleic acid inhibition during chemostat and batch cultivation of Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91.

    PubMed

    Becker, P; Märkl, H

    2000-12-20

    Olive oil degradation by the thermophilic lipolytic strain Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91 in chemostat and batch culture was modeled to obtain a general understanding of the underlying principles and limitations of the process and to quantify its stoichiometry. Chemostat experiments with olive oil as the sole carbon source were successfully described using the Monod chemostat model extended by terms for maintenance requirements and wall growth. Maintenance requirements and biomass yield coefficients were in the range reported for mesophiles. For a chemostat experiment at D = 0.3 h(-1) the model was validated up to an olive oil feed concentration of about 3.0 g L(-1) above which an inhibitory effect occurred. Further analysis showed that the liberated oleic acid is the main cause for this inhibition. Using steady-state oleic acid concentrations measured in chemostat experiments with olive oil as substrate it was possible to derive a kinetic expression for oleic acid utilization, showing that a concentration of 430 mg L(-1) leads to a complete growth inhibition. Oleic acid accumulation observed during batch fermentations can be predicted using a model involving growth-associated lipase production and olive oil hydrolysis. Simulations confirmed that this accumulation is the cause for the sudden growth cessation occurring in batch fermentations with higher olive oil start concentrations. Further, an oscillatory behavior, as observed in some chemostat experiments, can also be predicted using the latter model. This work clearly demonstrates that thermophilic lipid degradation by Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91 is limited by long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation rather than oil hydrolysis.

  4. Permeability of water and oleic acid in composite films of phase separated polypropylene and cellulose stearate blends.

    PubMed

    Krasnou, Illia; Gårdebjer, Sofie; Tarasova, Elvira; Larsson, Anette; Westman, Gunnar; Krumme, Andres

    2016-11-01

    Cellulose esters with long carbon side chains (e.g. stearate) were produced via a homogenous reaction in ionic liquids. The degree of substitution was calculated to approximately 2. The melt rheology was studied for the pure cellulose esters but also combinations of the esters and polypropylene to study the processability of a blended composite material. It was shown that the compatibility between the two components was weak, which resulted in a phase-separated composite material. The morphology and permeability of water and oleic acid of the composite films were studied and it was shown that the water permeability decreased upon addition of the cellulose ester to the polymer. The permeability of oleic acid was however unchanged, which is most probable a result of high solubility in the cellulose ester rich domains of the composites. Also, the following hypothesis is stated: cellulose stearate influence the polypropylene crystallization process by decreasing the size of spherulites. PMID:27516292

  5. Preparation of robust polyamide microcapsules by interfacial polycondensation of p-phenylenediamine and sebacoyl chloride and plasticization with oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Natacha; Martins, Gabriela V; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Gois, Joana R; Coelho, Jorge F J; Marques, Juliana; Tavares, Carlos J; Magalhães, Fernão D

    2015-01-01

    Microcapsules produced by interfacial polycondensation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and sebacoyl chloride (SC) were studied. The products were characterized in terms of morphology, mean diameter and effectiveness of dodecane encapsulation. The use of Tween 20 as dispersion stabilizer, in comparison with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), reduced considerably the mean diameter of the microcapsules and originated smoother wall surfaces. When compared to ethylenediamine (EDA), microcapsules produced with PPD monomer were more rigid and brittle, prone to fracture during processing and ineffective retention of the core liquid. The use of diethylenetriamine (DETA) cross-linker in combination with PPD did not decrease capsule fragility. On the other hand, addition of a small fraction of oleic acid to the organic phase remarkably improved wall toughness and lead to successful encapsulation of the core-oil. Oleic acid is believed to act as a plasticizer. Its incorporation in the polymeric wall was demonstrated by FTIR and (1)H-NMR.

  6. [Study of photocatalytic performance of TiO2 membrane for oleic acid by FTIR-ATR technique].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua-xiang; Wang, Xu-xu; Dai, Wen-xin; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2005-07-01

    The TiO2 membranes were prepared on glass, ceramic tile and aluminum pieces by Sol-Gel and PVD methods. A fast and exact evaluation on the photocatalytic self-cleaning performance of the membrane materials was achieved by FTIR-ATR technique using oleic acid which was laid on the surface of the membrane. The hydrophilic property of the samples was also determined by the contact angle with water. The results showed that both the TiO2 membrane prepared on glass by the Sol-Gel and PVD methods displayed good photo-induced hydrophilic property and degradation activity of oleic acid, and no difference in hydrophilic property, but the former was a little superior to the latter in photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic conversion of oleic acid on the TiO2/glass, TiO2/ceramic tile and TiO2 aluminum piece were 92%, 85% and 46%, respectively after illumination 3.5 h, showing a distinct effect of support material property on TiO2 photocatalytic performance. The results suggested that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 membrane coated on insulator support was higher than that coated on conductor support.

  7. Interaction of antitumor alpha-lactalbumin-oleic acid complexes with artificial and natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Zherelova, Olga M; Kataev, Anatoly A; Grishchenko, Valery M; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Permyakov, Sergei E; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2009-06-01

    The specific complexes of human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) with oleic acid (OA), HAMLET and LA-OA-17 (OA-complexes), possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells but the mechanism of their cell penetration remains unclear. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying interaction of the OA-complexes with the cell membrane, their interactions with small unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles and electroexcitable plasma membrane of internodal native and perfused cells of the green alga Chara corallina have been studied. The fractionation (Sephadex G-200) of mixtures of the OA-complexes with the vesicles shows that OA-binding increases the affinity of alpha-LA to DPPC vesicles. Calcium association decreases protein affinity to the vesicles; the effect being less pronounced for LA-OA-17. The voltage clamp technique studies show that LA-OA-17, HAMLET, and their constituents produce different modifying effects on the plasmalemmal ionic channels of the Chara corallina cells. The irreversible binding of OA-complexes to the plasmalemma is accompanied by changes in the activation-inactivation kinetics of developing integral transmembrane currents, suppression of the Ca(2+) current and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, and by increase in the nonspecific K(+) leakage currents. The latter reflects development of nonselective permeability of the plasma membrane. The HAMLET-induced effects on the plasmalemmal currents are less pronounced and potentiated by LA-OA-17. The control experiments with OA and intact alpha-LA show their qualitatively different and much less pronounced effects on the transmembrane ionic currents. Thus, the modification of alpha-LA by OA results in an increase in the protein association with the model lipid bilayer and in drastic irreversible changes in permeability of several types of the plasmalemmal ionic channels.

  8. Protective effects of dexamethasone on early acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Dao-Xin; Deng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Whether alveolar edema could be cleared by alveolar epithelial is a key to the treatment and prognosis of ALI (acute lung injury). In this study, oleic acid(OA)-induced ALI model was established, the expression of α1 Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) and β1 Na+/K+-ATPase were performed in vivo to investigate the mechanism of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ALI and the effect of early low doses of dexamethasone on alveolar fluid clearance. Methods: In this study, Male rats were challenged by OA with or without dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, iv) post-treatment. Lung histopathology, blood gas, pulmonary vascular permeability, BALF IL-6, MPO and NKA activity of lung were examined. α1NKA and β1NKA mRNA and protein expression were detected. Results: The results indicated that compared with sham operated group, NKA activity, mRNA and protein expression of α1NKA and β1NKA were decreased in OA treated group, while wet/dry ratio, lung index, IL-6, and MPO activity were increased significantly. Pulmonary edema was obviously seen under light microscope. Those indexes were improved in dexamethasone treated group compared to OA treated group. Conclusion: The expression of NKA to decline for the lung injury is one important mechanism of pulmonary edema. Early low dose of dexamethasone treatment could suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators, improved lung epithelial-endothelial barrier permeability, increased the expressions of α1 NKA and β1 NKA mRNA, α1 NKA and β1 NKA protein level, stimulated NKA activity and decreased pulmonary edema. In conclusion, these observations suggest that early low dose of dexamethasone treatment has a protective effect on OA induced ALI. PMID:25663967

  9. Nitro-oleic acid protects against endotoxin-induced endotoxemia and multiorgan injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiping; Liu, Haiying; Jia, Zhunjun; Olsen, Curtis; Litwin, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Nitroalkene derivatives of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2 ) are endogenous lipid products with potent anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of OA-NO2 in mice given LPS. Two days before LPS administration, C57BL/6J mice were chronically infused with vehicle (LPS vehicle) or OA-NO2 (LPS OA-NO2) at 200 μg·kg−1·day−1 via osmotic minipumps; LPS was administered via a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection (10 mg/kg in saline). A third group received an ip injection of saline without LPS or OA-NO2 and served as controls. At 18 h of LPS administration, LPS vehicle mice displayed multiorgan dysfunction as evidenced by elevated plasma urea and creatinine (kidney), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; liver), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reduced ejection fraction (heart). In contrast, the severity of multiorgan dysfunction was less in LPS OA-NO2 animals. The levels of circulating TNF-α and renal TNF-α mRNA expression, together with renal mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, and with renal mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and renal cGMP and PGE2 contents, were greater in LPS vehicle vs. control mice, but were attenuated in LPS OA-NO2 animals. Similar patterns of changes in the expression of inflammatory mediators were observed in the liver. Together, pretreatment with OA-NO2 ameliorated the inflammatory response and multiorgan injury in endotoxin-induced endotoxemia in mice. PMID:20032118

  10. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes.

  11. Interaction of antitumor alpha-lactalbumin-oleic acid complexes with artificial and natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Zherelova, Olga M; Kataev, Anatoly A; Grishchenko, Valery M; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Permyakov, Sergei E; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2009-06-01

    The specific complexes of human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) with oleic acid (OA), HAMLET and LA-OA-17 (OA-complexes), possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells but the mechanism of their cell penetration remains unclear. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying interaction of the OA-complexes with the cell membrane, their interactions with small unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles and electroexcitable plasma membrane of internodal native and perfused cells of the green alga Chara corallina have been studied. The fractionation (Sephadex G-200) of mixtures of the OA-complexes with the vesicles shows that OA-binding increases the affinity of alpha-LA to DPPC vesicles. Calcium association decreases protein affinity to the vesicles; the effect being less pronounced for LA-OA-17. The voltage clamp technique studies show that LA-OA-17, HAMLET, and their constituents produce different modifying effects on the plasmalemmal ionic channels of the Chara corallina cells. The irreversible binding of OA-complexes to the plasmalemma is accompanied by changes in the activation-inactivation kinetics of developing integral transmembrane currents, suppression of the Ca(2+) current and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, and by increase in the nonspecific K(+) leakage currents. The latter reflects development of nonselective permeability of the plasma membrane. The HAMLET-induced effects on the plasmalemmal currents are less pronounced and potentiated by LA-OA-17. The control experiments with OA and intact alpha-LA show their qualitatively different and much less pronounced effects on the transmembrane ionic currents. Thus, the modification of alpha-LA by OA results in an increase in the protein association with the model lipid bilayer and in drastic irreversible changes in permeability of several types of the plasmalemmal ionic channels. PMID:19588235

  12. Characterization of oleic acid-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome model in rat.

    PubMed

    Akella, Aparna; Sharma, Parul; Pandey, Ratna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2014-07-01

    Animal studies using oleic acid (OA) model to produce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been inconsistent. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to establish an acute model of ARDS in rats using OA and to characterize its effect on cardio-respiratory parameters and lethality. The trachea, jugular vein and femoral artery of anesthetized adult rats were cannulated. A dose of OA (30-90 microL; iv) was injected in each animal and changes in respiratory frequency (RF), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. Minute ventilation and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio were also determined. At the end, lungs were excised for determination of pulmonary water content and histological examination. At all doses of OA, there was immediate decrease followed by increase in RF, however at 75 and 90 microL of OA, RF decreased abruptly and the animals died by 63 +/- 8.2 min and 19 +/- 6.3 min; respectively. In all the groups, HR and MAP changes followed the respiratory changes. The minute ventilation increased in a dose-dependent manner while the values of P/F ratio decreased correspondingly. Pulmonary edema was induced at all doses. Histological examination of the lung showed alveolar damage, microvascular congestion, microvascular injury, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pulmonary edema and necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. With these results, OA can be used to induce different grades of ARDS in rats and OA doses of 50, 60 and 75 microL resemble mild, moderate and severe forms of ARDS respectively. Hence, OA model serves as a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of ARDS.

  13. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  14. Structure of polyglycerol oleic acid ester nonionic surfactant reverse micelles in decane: growth control by headgroup size.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Dulle, Martin; Glatter, Otto; Aramaki, Kenji

    2010-05-18

    The structure of polyglycerol oleic acid ester nonionic surfactant micelles in n-decane has been investigated at room temperature by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and densiometry techniques. The scattering data were evaluated by indirect Fourier transformation (IFT) or generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) methods depending on the volume fractions of the surfactants and also by model fit. A simple route to the growth control of reverse micelles by headgroup size of the surfactant was investigated. Additionally, the dependence of reverse micellar structure (shape and size) on temperature, composition, and added water was also investigated. The indirect Fourier transformation gives the real space pair-distance distribution function, p(r): a facile way for the quantitative estimation of structure parameters of the aggregates. It was found that the size of the reverse micelles increases with increasing the headgroup size of the surfactant. Globular type of micelles with maximum diameter ca. 6 nm observed in the monoglycerol oleic acid ester/decane system at 25 degrees C transferred into elongated prolate type micelles with maximum diameter ca. 19.5 nm in the hexaglycerol oleic acid ester/decane system. In a particular surfactant and oil system, increasing temperature decreased the micellar size. The size of the micelle was decreased by approximately 25% upon increasing temperature from 25 to 75 degrees C in the 5 wt % diglycerol oleic acid ester/decane system. Concentration could not modulate the structure of micelles despite a wide variation in the surfactant concentration (5-25 wt %). Nevertheless, increasing surfactant concentration reduces the intermicellar distance, and a strong repulsive interaction peak was observed in the scattering curves at higher surfactant concentrations. Besides, the results obtained from the dynamic light scattering have shown the signature of diffusion hindrance relative to hard sphere

  15. Degradation of oleic acid in anaerobic filters: the effect of inoculum acclimatization and biomass recirculation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Mota, M; Alves, M

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of oleic acid in anaerobic filters was studied and the effect of an acclimated inoculum and biomass recirculation was evaluated. Three anaerobic filters (R1, R2, and R3) were operated in parallel. The anaerobic filters R1 and R2 were inoculated with nonacclimated biomass, whereas the anaerobic filter R3 was inoculated with acclimated biomass. In the anaerobic filters R2 and R3, biomass settling and recirculation were applied. The use of an acclimated inoculum and biomass recirculation (R3) was beneficial in terms of removal efficiency, which was 4 to 8% higher than in the anaerobic filters R1 and R2 when oleate was the sole carbon source fed to the reactors at an applied organic load of 12.5 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3 x d, even with an oleate to calcium and magnesium ion molar concentration ratio of 6.8. Biomass recirculation significantly reduced the biomass washout and the toxic effect on the acetogenic and methanogenic populations. The use of an acclimated inoculum was beneficial in terms of methane yield, which was 50% greater than that observed for the reactors inoculated with nonacclimated inoculum for the highest applied organic loading rate (12.5 kg COD/m3 x d). At the end of the operation, the biomass was encapsulated by a whitish matter, which was well detected by microscopic examination. When this sludge was incubated in batch vials at 37 degrees C where no substrate was added, methane production from the adsorbed organic matter was evidenced, attaining a maximum value (at standard temperature and pressure) of 39.7 mL/g volatile solids x d for the biomass taken from R1. With stirring (150 r/min), the methane production rate was 13.8 times higher than under static conditions. When oleate was added to this sludge, methane production was delayed, suggesting that adsorbed matter can be an intermediate of oleate degradation such as stearic, palmitic, myristic, or other saturated acids.

  16. (13)C NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an "oleic-vaccenic acid" oil.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Chepkwony, Paul Kiprono; Ndalut, Paul K

    2002-02-27

    The composition of acyl chains and their positions in the triacylglycerols of the oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera were studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The unsaturated chains of M. oleifera seed oil were found to comprise only mono-unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, two omega-9 mono-unsaturated acids, (cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids) and one omega-7 mono-unsaturated acid (cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid)). The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were detected as separated resonances in the spectral regions where the carbonyl and olefinic carbons resonate according to the 1,3- and 2-positions on the glycerol backbone. The unambiguous detection of vaccenic acid was also achieved through the resonance of the omega-3 carbon. The (13)C NMR methodology enabled the simultaneous detection of oleate, vaccenate, and eicosenoate chains according to their positions on the glycerol backbone (1,3- and 2-positions) through the carboxyl, olefinic, and methylene envelope carbons of the triacylglycerol acyl chains. PMID:11853466

  17. Probing thermal stability of the β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complex by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion (Ciuciu), Ana-Maria; Aprodu, Iuliana; Dumitrașcu, Loredana; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Alexe, Petru; Stănciuc, Nicoleta

    2015-09-01

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin is able to interact with different bioactive compounds, thus being an important candidate in the development of delivery systems with improved functionality. The heat induced changes in the β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complex were examined by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy results indicated a rigid protein structure in the temperature range 25-70 °C, whereas at temperatures over 75 °C, the rearrangements of the polypeptide chains led to higher exposure of hydrophobic residues. The most significant increase of the accessible surface area with temperature increase was identified in case of Tyr99 and Tyr102. The phase diagram method indicated an all or none transition between two conformations. Due to conformational changes, no contact between Ile56 or Lys60 and the fatty acid could be identified at 85 °C, but new non-bonding interaction were established with Ile12 and Val15. The results obtained in this study provide important details about thermal induced changes in the conformation of β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complex. Significant conformational changes were registered above 75 °C, suggesting the possibility of obtaining highly functional complexes between whey proteins and natural unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Adipokines enhance oleic acid-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by inducing CD36 expression.

    PubMed

    Schlich, Raphaela; Lamers, Daniela; Eckel, Jürgen; Sell, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is not only releasing lipids but also various adipokines that are both dysregulated in the obese state and may contribute to obesity-associated vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. We have previously shown that the combination of adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) and oleic acid (OA) increases proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in a synergistic way. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a component within CM that is responsible for most of the observed effects. In this study, we investigate novel mechanisms that underlie the combined effects of adipokine and oleic acid-induced proliferation of VSMC. Oleic acid leads to significant lipid accumulation in VSMC that is further enhanced by the combined treatment with CM. Accordingly CM stimulates CD36 expression in VSMC while OA is not affecting CD36. Silencing of CD36 was established and prevents lipid accumulation in all tested conditions. CD36 silencing also abrogates CM- and OA-induced proliferation and considerably reduces proliferation induced by the combination of CM and OA. At the same time, VEGF secretion and VEGF-receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) by VSMC was not affected by CD36 silencing. However, VEGF was not able to induce any proliferation in VSMC after CD36 silencing that also blunted VEGF-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Finally, combined silencing of CD36 together with a blocking antibody against VEGF prevented most of CMOA-induced proliferation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CD36 is mediating CM-induced proliferation of VSMC. Induction of CD36 by adipokines enhances the response of VSMC towards VEGF and OA.

  19. The effects of prophylactic expiratory positive airway pressure on the resolution of oleic acid-induced lung injury in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Luce, J M; Huang, T W; Robertson, H T; Colley, P S; Gronka, R; Nessly, M L; Cheney, F W

    1983-01-01

    It is not known whether positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) merely improves gas exchange in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or if it also affects the resolution of their lung injury. The present investigation was performed to determine whether expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP), a form of PEEP, is prophylactic in preventing the lung injury induced by oleic acid in dogs or in enhancing its resolution. Arterial and mixed venous blood gases and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured in 14 pairs of mongrel dogs with indwelling catheters and permanent tracheostomies. One member of each pair was treated with 10 cm H2O EPAP through a valve attached to the tracheostomy tube. Both dogs received 0.06 ml/kg oleic acid intravenously at hour 0. Measurements were made at three, 12, and 24 hours, when EPAP was discontinued, and over the next six days. Five dog pairs were sacrificed at 72 hours; the other surviving animals were sacrificed at 168 hours. FRC was higher at three, 12, and 24 hours in dogs receiving EPAP than in the untreated dogs. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was higher and the venous admixture (Qva/Qt) was lower at three and 12 hours in the dogs receiving EPAP than in the untreated dogs. However, after 24 hours, no differences were noted between the two groups in FRC, PaO2, Qav/Qt, mortality, final lung compliance to initial lung compliance differences, lung water to dry lung weight ratios, or histology. It is concluded that EPAP improves gas exchange during its administration, but has no demonstrable prophylactic effect on the resolution of lung injury in the oleic acid model of human ARDS. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 7. PMID:6338844

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the adhesion of a thin annealed film of oleic acid onto crystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Quddus, Mir A A R; Rojas, Orlando J; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2014-04-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to characterize the wetting behavior of crystalline cellulose planes in contact with a thin oily film of oleic acid. Cellulose crystal planes with higher molecular protrusions and increased surface area produced stronger adhesion if compared to other crystal planes due to enhanced wetting and hydrogen bonding. The detailed characteristics of crystal plane features and the contribution of directional hydrogen bonding was investigated. Similarly, oleophilicity of the cellulose planes increased with the increase in surface roughness and number of directional hydrogen bonds. These results correlate with conclusions drawn from experimental studies such as adhesion of an ink vehicle on cellulose surface.

  1. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Chen, Yang-Fang; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2014-10-20

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  2. Oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids collectively modulate colitis through reduction of oxidative stress and IL-8 synthesis; in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-06-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of MCT or olive oil on the protective and mucosal healing ability of fish oil in ulcerative colitis using cell simulation and animal models. Caco-2 cells grown in medium chain fatty acids enriched medium has exaggerated t-butyl hydroperoxide induced cell damage, GSH depletion, and IL-1β induced IL-8 synthesis, compared to the cells grown in oleic acid & hydroxytyrosol (OT) enriched medium. Further, combined treatment of cells with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and OT has remarkably attenuated the cell damage, and IL-8 synthesis, compared to individual treatments. To evaluate the effect of these lipid formulations in vivo, adult Wistar rats were fed diet enriched with high amount of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), virgin olive oil, or their combination with fish oil. Colitis was induced in rats using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days followed by 10-days of recovery period. Rats of MCT group exhibit severe disease activity, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon compared to the olive oil group. Furthermore, there was persistent body weight loss, loose stools, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the rats of MCT group, even after DSS was withdrawn from drinking water. Conversely, fish oil has remarkably attenuated the DSS induced alterations in both MCT and olive oil diet groups with significantly greater effect in the olive oil group. Thus, MCT increase the susceptibility to colitis through oxidative damage and IL-8 synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells. The beneficial effects of virgin olive oil could be partially attributed to hydroxytyrosol. Combined treatment of hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids exhibit huge therapeutic benefits in colitis. PMID:27016717

  3. Oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids collectively modulate colitis through reduction of oxidative stress and IL-8 synthesis; in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-06-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of MCT or olive oil on the protective and mucosal healing ability of fish oil in ulcerative colitis using cell simulation and animal models. Caco-2 cells grown in medium chain fatty acids enriched medium has exaggerated t-butyl hydroperoxide induced cell damage, GSH depletion, and IL-1β induced IL-8 synthesis, compared to the cells grown in oleic acid & hydroxytyrosol (OT) enriched medium. Further, combined treatment of cells with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and OT has remarkably attenuated the cell damage, and IL-8 synthesis, compared to individual treatments. To evaluate the effect of these lipid formulations in vivo, adult Wistar rats were fed diet enriched with high amount of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), virgin olive oil, or their combination with fish oil. Colitis was induced in rats using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days followed by 10-days of recovery period. Rats of MCT group exhibit severe disease activity, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon compared to the olive oil group. Furthermore, there was persistent body weight loss, loose stools, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the rats of MCT group, even after DSS was withdrawn from drinking water. Conversely, fish oil has remarkably attenuated the DSS induced alterations in both MCT and olive oil diet groups with significantly greater effect in the olive oil group. Thus, MCT increase the susceptibility to colitis through oxidative damage and IL-8 synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells. The beneficial effects of virgin olive oil could be partially attributed to hydroxytyrosol. Combined treatment of hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids exhibit huge therapeutic benefits in colitis.

  4. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that stearic acid (STE) differentially affects lipoprotein risk factors compared with other saturated fatty acids (SFA). When compared to cholesterol-raising SFA, STE lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and has a neutral effect on HDL-C, thus lowering the ratio of total cholesterol to H...

  5. Balance between fatty acid degradation and lipid accumulation in cultured smooth muscle cells and IC-21 macrophages exposed to oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Moinat, M; Kossovsky, M; Chevey, J M; Giacobino, J P

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of changes in fatty acid beta-oxidation activity on triglyceride and cholesteryl ester synthesis were studied in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC) and in a macrophage cell line IC-21 in the presence of oleic acid (100 microM). 2. Etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, stimulated the incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into triglycerides in SMC and in macrophages 6.2- and 8.2-fold, respectively, and the incorporation of [4-14C]cholesterol into cholesteryl esters in macrophages 3.5-fold. 3. L-Carnitine, a cofactor of fatty acid beta-oxidation, decreased the incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into triglycerides in smooth muscle cells by 69% and the incorporation of [4-14C]cholesterol into cholesteryl esters by 52%. L-Carnitine had no effect on the macrophages. PMID:2060277

  6. Responses to increasing amounts of high-oleic sunflower fatty acids infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Overton, T R; Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M; Perkins, E G

    2007-11-01

    Increasing the oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) content of milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness and for certain manufacturing applications. The extent to which milk fat could be enriched with oleic acid is not known. Increasing the intestinal supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in cows, but the effects of oleic acid have not been quantified. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were abomasally infused with increasing amounts (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 g/d) of free fatty acids from high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFA) or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/d) were for 7 d at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HOSFA with 240 g/d of meat solubles and 11.2 g/d of Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The HOSFA contained (by wt) 2.4% 16:0, 1.8% 18:0, 91.4% 18:1 cis-9, and 2.4% 18:2. The DMI decreased linearly (range 22.0 to 5.8 kg/d) as the infused amount of HOSFA increased. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy decreased as the infusion increased to 750 g/d and then increased when 1,000 g/d was infused. Digestibility of total fatty acids increased linearly as infused fatty acids increased. Yields of milk, fat, true protein, casein, and total solids decreased quadratically as infused amounts increased; decreases were greatest when 750 or 1,000 g/d of HOSFA were infused. Concentrations of fat and total solids increased at the higher amounts of HOSFA. The volume mean diameter of milk fat droplets and the diameter below which 90% of the volume of milk fat is contained both increased as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 in milk fat decreased linearly as HOSFA increased. The concentration of 18:1 cis-9 (19.4 to 57.4% of total fatty acids) increased linearly as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of 18:1 cis-9 in blood triglyceride

  7. Raman microspectroscopy of noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissues. Identification and phase transitions of linoleic and oleic acids by Raman low-temperature studies.

    PubMed

    Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Kopec, Monika; Surmacki, Jakub; Abramczyk, Halina

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of Raman studies in the temperature range of 293-77 K on vibrational properties of linoleic and oleic acids and Raman microspectroscopy of human breast tissues at room temperature. Our results confirmed the significant role of unsaturated fatty acids in differentiation of noncancerous and cancerous breast tissues and the role of vibrational spectroscopy in phase transition identification. We have found that vibrational properties are very sensitive indicators to specify phases and phase transitions typical of unsaturated fatty acids at the molecular level. Using Raman spectroscopy we have identified high-temperature, middle-temperature and low-temperature phases of linoleic acid. Results obtained for linoleic acid were compared with parameters characteristic of α and γ phases of oleic acid - the parent compound of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  8. Dietary oleic acid increases M2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding in...

  9. Effect of feeding high-oleic-acid peanuts to growing-finishing swine on resulting carcass fatty acid profile and on carcass and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Myer, R O; Johnson, D D; Knauft, D A; Gorbet, D W; Brendemuhl, J H; Walker, W R

    1992-12-01

    A high-oleic-acid peanut breeding line was used in a study designed to determine the effects of feeding swine diets containing elevated levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as a means to increase the level of monounsaturates and total unsaturates in the resulting carcass fat. Forty-eight pigs were allotted to four treatments that consisted of corn-soybean meal diets that contained 1) high-oleic peanuts (HOP), 2) regular commercial peanuts (RP), or 3) canola oil (CO), each added at a dietary level to provide 10% added fat/oil, and 4) a control diet with no added fat/oil. The oil of HOP averaged 75% oleic acid vs 60% for CO and 53% for RP. The pigs were fed the experimental diets from 33 to 102 kg BW, after which all pigs were slaughtered. All three dietary oil sources resulted in increases (P < .01) of monounsaturates in the backfat; the HOP diet resulted in the greatest increase (32% greater than control). Both CO and RP increased (P < .01) the level of polyunsaturates by nearly twofold; HOP resulted in a small decrease. Total unsaturates increased (P < .01) by 24, 24, and 27% for HOP, RP, and CO treatments, respectively, over that obtained from the control treatment. Carcass fat was softer/oilier (P < .05) from pigs fed CO and RP diets, but not from those fed HOP diets, compared with carcass fat of pigs fed the control diet. Dietary fat/oil source had no effect (P > .05) on other carcass compositional traits and various meat quality attributes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1474012

  10. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CdS Quantum Dots via Paraffin Liquid as Solvent and Oleic Acid as the Reacting Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjiang; Wang, Mingrui; Xie, Fei; Zhu, Sha; Zhao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals have been widely used as fluorescent materials in chemical sensors, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, biological imaging and many other fields. Compared to the conventional organic fluorophores, the inorganic quantum dots (QDs) have many advantages, including broad absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, good photostability and long fluorescent lifetime after excitation. Here, the high quality CdS QDs were synthesized directly from sulfur and CdO using the paraffin liquid as solvent and the oleic acid as the reacting media. The synthesized CdS QDs with a zinc blende (cubic) crystal structure were proved by X-ray diffraction. HRTEM observation revealed that the CdS QDs were uniform and the average grain size was about 4 nm. The optical properties of the CdS QDs were characterized by using photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrophotometer. The formation mechanism of CdS QDs in the paraffin liquid and oleic acid system was proposed.

  11. Esterification of oleic acid with methanol by immobilized lipase on wrinkled silica nanoparticles with highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinli; Zhou, Guowei; Liu, Ruirui; Li, Tianduo

    2016-02-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a wrinkled structure (wrinkled silica nanoparticles, WSNs) having highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The method used a mixture of cyclohexane, ethanol, and water as solvent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as source of inorganic silica, ammonium hydroxide as hydrolysis additive, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizing agent of particle growth. Particle size (240nm to 540nm), specific surface areas (490m(2)g(-1) to 634m(2)g(-1)), surface morphology (radial wrinkled structures), and pore structure (radially oriented mesochannels) of WSN samples were varied using different molar ratios of CTAB to PVP. Using synthesized WSN samples with radially oriented mesochannels as support, we prepared immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) as a new biocatalyst for biodiesel production through the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. These results suggest that WSNs with highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels have promising applications in biocatalysis, with the highest oleic acid conversion rate of about 86.4% under the optimum conditions. PMID:26652346

  12. Oleic acid exposure of cultured endothelial cells alters lipid mediator production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel, biodiesel, and other combustion sources contain free fatty acid (FFA) components capable of entering the body through particulate inhalation. FFA can also be endogenously released into circulation in response to stress. When in circulation, bioactive FFA may interact with...

  13. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited.

  14. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    PubMed

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with α-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and α-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of the Cytotoxicity of Human α-Lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor Cells (HAMLET) and Other Protein-Oleic Acid Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Makabe, Koki; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), a complex formed by human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, has a unique apoptotic activity for the selective killing of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms of expression of the HAMLET activity are not well understood. Therefore, we studied the molecular properties of HAMLET and its goat counterpart, GAMLET (goat α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), by pulse field gradient NMR and 920-MHz two-dimensional NMR techniques. We also examined the expression of HAMLET-like activities of complexes between oleic acid and other proteins that form a stable molten globule state. We observed that both HAMLET and GAMLET at pH 7.5 were heterogeneous, composed of the native protein, the monomeric molten globule-like state, and the oligomeric species. At pH 2.0 and 50 °C, HAMLET and GAMLET appeared in the monomeric state, and we identified the oleic acid-binding site in the complexes by two-dimensional NMR. Rather surprisingly, the binding site thus identified was markedly different between HAMLET and GAMLET. Furthermore, canine milk lysozyme, apo-myoglobin, and β2-microglobulin all formed the HAMLET-like complex with the anti-tumor activity, when the protein was treated with oleic acid under conditions in which their molten globule states were stable. From these results, we conclude that the protein portion of HAMLET, GAMLET, and the other HAMLET-like protein-oleic acid complexes is not the origin of their cytotoxicity to tumor cells and that the protein portion of these complexes plays a role in the delivery of cytotoxic oleic acid molecules into tumor cells across the cell membrane. PMID:23580643

  16. Molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and other protein-oleic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Makabe, Koki; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-05-17

    Although HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), a complex formed by human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, has a unique apoptotic activity for the selective killing of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms of expression of the HAMLET activity are not well understood. Therefore, we studied the molecular properties of HAMLET and its goat counterpart, GAMLET (goat α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), by pulse field gradient NMR and 920-MHz two-dimensional NMR techniques. We also examined the expression of HAMLET-like activities of complexes between oleic acid and other proteins that form a stable molten globule state. We observed that both HAMLET and GAMLET at pH 7.5 were heterogeneous, composed of the native protein, the monomeric molten globule-like state, and the oligomeric species. At pH 2.0 and 50 °C, HAMLET and GAMLET appeared in the monomeric state, and we identified the oleic acid-binding site in the complexes by two-dimensional NMR. Rather surprisingly, the binding site thus identified was markedly different between HAMLET and GAMLET. Furthermore, canine milk lysozyme, apo-myoglobin, and β2-microglobulin all formed the HAMLET-like complex with the anti-tumor activity, when the protein was treated with oleic acid under conditions in which their molten globule states were stable. From these results, we conclude that the protein portion of HAMLET, GAMLET, and the other HAMLET-like protein-oleic acid complexes is not the origin of their cytotoxicity to tumor cells and that the protein portion of these complexes plays a role in the delivery of cytotoxic oleic acid molecules into tumor cells across the cell membrane.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and other protein-oleic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Makabe, Koki; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-05-17

    Although HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), a complex formed by human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, has a unique apoptotic activity for the selective killing of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms of expression of the HAMLET activity are not well understood. Therefore, we studied the molecular properties of HAMLET and its goat counterpart, GAMLET (goat α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), by pulse field gradient NMR and 920-MHz two-dimensional NMR techniques. We also examined the expression of HAMLET-like activities of complexes between oleic acid and other proteins that form a stable molten globule state. We observed that both HAMLET and GAMLET at pH 7.5 were heterogeneous, composed of the native protein, the monomeric molten globule-like state, and the oligomeric species. At pH 2.0 and 50 °C, HAMLET and GAMLET appeared in the monomeric state, and we identified the oleic acid-binding site in the complexes by two-dimensional NMR. Rather surprisingly, the binding site thus identified was markedly different between HAMLET and GAMLET. Furthermore, canine milk lysozyme, apo-myoglobin, and β2-microglobulin all formed the HAMLET-like complex with the anti-tumor activity, when the protein was treated with oleic acid under conditions in which their molten globule states were stable. From these results, we conclude that the protein portion of HAMLET, GAMLET, and the other HAMLET-like protein-oleic acid complexes is not the origin of their cytotoxicity to tumor cells and that the protein portion of these complexes plays a role in the delivery of cytotoxic oleic acid molecules into tumor cells across the cell membrane. PMID:23580643

  18. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  19. Effect of chronic incubation of CaCo-2 cells with eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3) and oleic acid (18:1, n-9) on triacylglycerol production.

    PubMed Central

    Ranheim, T; Gedde-Dahl, A; Rustan, A C; Drevon, C A

    1994-01-01

    CaCo-2 monolayers, cultured for 1 week after reaching confluence, were incubated with micellar solutions of fatty acids for up to 7 days. These conditioned cells were incubated acutely (5 h) with eicosapentaenoic acid and oleic acid, and the levels of cell-associated and secreted triacylglycerol were determined. With acute addition of oleic acid, both cell-associated and secreted triacylglycerol were decreased in cells chronically exposed to eicosapentaenoic acid. This effect was observed after as little as 2 days of chronic incubation with eicosapentaenoic acid. A further decrease was found when these cells were incubated acutely with eicosapentaenoic acid, regardless of which radioisotopes were used to label precursors in the incubation media. The secretion of both labelled and total triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein B was reduced approximately 50% in cells incubated chronically with eicosapentaenoic acid. The amounts of triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein B within the cells were not decreased by chronic exposure to eicosapentaenoic acid. Our data indicate that CaCo-2 cells chronically incubated with eicosapentaenoic acid secrete significantly less triacylglycerol than cells incubated chronically with oleic acid. When eicosapentaenoic acid was also included acutely, triacylglycerol secretion was reduced even more. We conclude that chronic exposure of eicosapentaenoic acid to this intestinal cell type reduces the rate of chylomicron secretion and may help explain the decreased postprandial lipaemia observed in humans taking fish oil supplements. PMID:7945235

  20. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; McMahon Tobin, Grainne A.; Rouse, Rodney L.

    2012-10-15

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and has become an important target for a growing class of drugs designed to treat type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the effect of the GLP1R agonist, exenatide (Ex4), in “on-target” RIN-5mF (islet) cells as well as in “off-target” AR42J (acinar) and DSL-6A/C1 (ductal) cells in a diabetic environment. Ex4 increased islet cell proliferation but did not affect acinar cells or ductal cells at relevant concentrations. A high caloric, high fat diet is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. An in vitro Oleic acid (OA) model was used to investigate the effect of Ex4 in a high calorie, high fat environment. At 0.1 and 0.4 mM, OA mildly decreased the proliferation of all pancreatic cell types. Ex4 did not potentiate the inhibitory effect of OA on cell proliferation. Akt phosphorylation in response to Ex4 was diminished in OA-treated ductal cells. GLP1R protein detected by western blot was time and concentration dependently decreased after glucose stimulation in OA-treated ductal cells. In ductal cells, OA treatment altered the intracellular localization of GLP1R and its co-localization with early endosome and recycling endosomes. Chloroquine (lysosomal inhibitor), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) and wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor), fully or partially, rescued GLP1R protein in OA-pretreated, glucose-stimulated ductal cells. The impact of altered regulation on phenotype/function is presently unknown. However, these data suggest that GLP1R regulation in ductal cells can be altered by a high fat, high calorie environment. -- Highlights: ► Exenatide did not inhibit islet, acinar or ductal cell proliferation. ► GLP1R protein decreased after glucose stimulation in oleic acid-treated ductal cells. ► Oleic acid treatment altered localization of GLP1R with early and recycling

  1. Fascinating and challenging role of tungstate promoted vanadium phosphate towards solvent free esterification of oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Behera, Gobinda Chandra; Parida, K M

    2012-01-28

    A novel solid acid catalyst has been extensively used for the esterification reaction. Herein, tungstate promoted vanadium phosphate material is fabricated from its precursor, VOHPO(4)·0.5H(2)O and its catalytic activities and structure are investigated in detail. This kind of catalyst is, for the first time, applied for the effective production of biodiesel from fatty acids. Although vanadium phosphate has been extensively used in gas phase oxidation reactions, it has not drawn much attention for its application in liquid phase reactions. Our recent results indicate that vanadium phosphate is an effective, minimally polluting and re-usable catalyst that is highly suited to the production of biodiesel from fatty acids. This work extends the possibility of using VPO in other liquid phase reactions.

  2. Oleic acid synthesized by stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) in the lateral periventricular zone of the developing rat brain mediates neuronal growth, migration and the arrangement of prospective synapses.

    PubMed

    Polo-Hernández, Erica; Tello, Vega; Arroyo, Angel A; Domínguez-Prieto, Marta; de Castro, Fernando; Tabernero, Arantxa; Medina, José M

    2014-06-27

    Our previous work has shown that oleic acid synthesized by astrocytes in response to serum albumin behaves as a neurotrophic factor in neurons, upregulating the expression of GAP-43 and MAP-2 proteins, which are respectively markers of axonal and dendrite growth. In addition, oleic acid promoted neuron migration and aggregation, resulting in clusters of neurons connected each other by the newly formed neurites. In this work we show that the presence of albumin or albumin plus oleic acid increases neuron migration in cultured explants of the lateral periventricular zone, resulting in an increase in the number of GAP-43-positive neurons leaving the explant. Upon silencing stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), a key enzyme in oleic acid synthesis by RNA of interference mostly prevented the effect of albumin but not that of albumin plus oleic acid, suggesting that the oleic acid synthesized due to the effect of albumin would be responsible for the increase in neuron migration. Oleic acid increased doublecortin (DCX) expression in cultured neurons, explants and organotypic slices, suggesting that DCX may mediate in the effect of oleic acid on neuron migration. The effect of oleic acid on neuron migration may be destined for the formation of synapses because the presence of oleic acid increased the expression of synaptotagmin and that of postsynaptic density protein (PDS-95), respectively markers of the pre- and postsynaptic compartments. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed the occurrence of points of colocalization between synaptotagmin and PDS-95, which is consistent with the idea that oleic acid promotes synapse arrangement.

  3. Biochemical conversion of oleic acid into estolides and their physical property evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sources of hydroxylated fatty acids (HFA) have significant importance in the development of many industrial chemicals and lubricants. The main commercial source of HFAs is derived from castor oil which has limited supplies due to a number of agronomic issues with this crop. Alternative sources of HF...

  4. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2016-06-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10‑4 S cm‑1 for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor.

  5. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy for dynamic absorption behavior of oleic acid (OA) onto silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Kanematsu, Wataru; Shinzawa, Hideyuki

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic absorption behavior of oleic acid (OA) onto silica gel was probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Once OA is injected into silica gel placed on a horizontal attenuated total reflectance prism, the silica gel starts to absorb the OA molecules due to the molecular-level interaction based on hydrogen bonding between the COOH of OA and the OH of silica gel. The substantial level of variation of spectral feature is readily observed during the absorption of OA onto silica gel. 2D correlation analysis of the time-dependent IR spectra reveals fine details of absorption dynamics of OA molecules depending on the molecular structure. The predominant absorption of the monomers occurs at the onset of the absorption, and it is then quickly followed by the decrease in the dimers. In other words, the dissociation of the liquid crystals occurs via the disuniting of the tightly packed OA dimers.

  6. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol.

    PubMed

    Chai, M N; Isa, M I N

    2016-01-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor. PMID:27265642

  7. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Chai, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10−4 S cm−1 for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor. PMID:27265642

  8. Differential stress reaction of human colon cells to oleic-acid-stabilized and unstabilized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Catherine A; Staedler, Davide; Crosbie-Staunton, Kieran; Movia, Dania; Chapuis Bernasconi, Catherine; Kenzaoui, Blanka Halamoda; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic engineered nanoparticles (NPs), including ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) NPs, may accumulate in the lower digestive tract following ingestion or injection. In order to evaluate the reaction of human colon cells to USPIO NPs, the effects of non-stabilized USPIO NPs (NS-USPIO NPs), oleic-acid-stabilized USPIO NPs (OA-USPIO NPs), and free oleic acid (OA) were compared in human HT29 and CaCo2 colon epithelial cancer cells. First the biophysical characteristics of NS-USPIO NPs and OA-USPIO NPs in water, in cell culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, and in cell culture medium preconditioned by HT29 and CaCo₂ cells were determined. Then, stress responses of the cells were evaluated following exposure to NS-USPIO NPs, OA-USPIO NPs, and free OA. No modification of the cytoskeletal actin network was observed. Cell response to stress, including markers of apoptosis and DNA repair, oxidative stress and degradative/autophagic stress, induction of heat shock protein, or lipid metabolism was determined in cells exposed to the two NPs. Induction of an autophagic response was observed in the two cell lines for both NPs but not free OA, while the other stress responses were cell- and NP-specific. The formation of lipid vacuoles/droplets was demonstrated in HT29 and CaCo₂ cells exposed to OA-USPIO NPs but not to NS-USPIO NPs, and to a much lower level in cells exposed to equimolar concentrations of free OA. Therefore, the induction of lipid vacuoles in colon cells exposed to OA utilized as a stabilizer for USPIO NPs is higly amplified compared to free OA, and is not observed in the absence of this lipid in NS-USPIO NPs. PMID:25092978

  9. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K; Hayes, K C; DeWitt, G F; Jegathesan, M; Satgunasingam, N; Ong, A S; Tan, D

    1992-08-01

    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma.

  10. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  11. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L.; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R.; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P.

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and “SunOleic95R”—a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism. PMID:27610115

  12. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and "SunOleic95R"-a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism. PMID:27610115

  13. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L.; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R.; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P.

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and “SunOleic95R”—a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  14. Oleic acid-dependent modulation of Nitric oxide associated 1 protein levels regulates nitric oxide-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conserved cellular metabolites nitric oxide (NO) and oleic acid (18:1) are well-known regulators of disease physiologies in diverse organism. We show that NO production in plants is regulated via 18:1. Reduction in 18:1 levels, via a genetic mutation in the 18:1-synthesizing gene SUPPRESSOR OF S...

  15. Genetic replacement of tesB with PTE1 affects chain-length proportions of 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids produced through β-oxidation of oleic acid in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yoshiaki; Kang, Junkyu; Ming, Li; Habu, Naoto; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2010-10-01

    Acyl-CoA thioesterase II (TesB), which catalyzes hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids and CoA, is involved in 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid production in Escherichia coli. Effects of genetic replacement of tesB with Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA thioesterase gene PTE1 on 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid production from oleic acid through β-oxidation were examined. Kinetic analyses using β-oxidation intermediates showed that hydrolyses of C4-acyl substrates are more efficient by PTE1 than by TesB. Deletion of tesB in E. coli decreased 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid, 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid, and hexanoic acid in medium after cultivation with oleic acid as a sole carbon source. Hexanoic acid concentration was much lower than those of 3-hydroxyacids. In genetic complementation of tesB deletion, use of PTE1, instead of tesB, affected proportions of the 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids. Proportion of 3-hydroxybutyric acid was higher in a PTE1-complemented strain than in a tesB-complemented strain, while proportions of 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid markedly increased in the tesB-complemented strain. Proportion of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid did not significantly increase in the PTE1-complemented strain. These data indicate possibilities of 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid production from oleic acid through β-oxidation and customization of their chain-length proportions by genetic replacement of tesB with a gene encoding acyl-CoA thioesterase with a different kinetic property.

  16. Oleic Acid Metabolism via a Conserved Cytochrome P450 System-Mediated ω-Hydroxylation in the Bark Beetle-Associated Fungus Grosmannia clavigera

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Metka; Lah, Ljerka; Šala, Martin; Stojan, Jure; Bohlmann, Joerg; Komel, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    The bark beetle-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera participates in the large-scale destruction of pine forests. In the tree, it must tolerate saturating levels of toxic conifer defense chemicals (e.g. monoterpenes). The fungus can metabolize some of these compounds through the ß-oxidation pathway and use them as a source of carbon. It also uses carbon from pine triglycerides, where oleic acid is the most common fatty acid. High levels of free fatty acids, however, are toxic and can cause additional stress during host colonization. Fatty acids induce expression of neighboring genes encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP630B18) and its redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR2). The aim of this work was to study the function of this novel P450 system. Using LC/MS, we biochemically characterized CYP630 as a highly specific oleic acid ω-hydroxylase. We explain oleic acid specificity using protein interaction modeling. Our results underscore the importance of ω-oxidation when the main ß-oxidation pathway may be overwhelmed by other substrates such as host terpenoid compounds. Because this CYP-CPR gene cluster is evolutionarily conserved, our work has implications for metabolism studies in other fungi. PMID:25794012

  17. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane.

  18. Stearic acids at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG are more efficient at limiting fat deposition than palmitic and oleic acids in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou-Wah; Cheng, Sit-Foon; Ong, Augustine Soon-Hock; Chuah, Cheng-Hock

    2014-04-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.

  19. Protein-dependent Membrane Interaction of A Partially Disordered Protein Complex with Oleic Acid: Implications for Cancer Lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Arunima; Prasanna, Xavier; Agiru, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Hirak; Rydström, Anna; Ho, James C. S.; Svanborg, Catharina; Sengupta, Durba; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-01-01

    Bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) forms cytotoxic complexes with oleic acid (OA) that perturbs tumor cell membranes, but molecular determinants of these membrane-interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to obtain molecular insights into the interaction of BLA/BLA-OA complex with model membranes. We characterized the folding state of BLA-OA complex using tryptophan fluorescence and resolved residue-specific interactions of BLA with OA using molecular dynamics simulation. We integrated membrane-binding data using a voltage-sensitive probe and molecular dynamics (MD) to demonstrate the preferential interaction of the BLA-OA complex with negatively charged membranes. We identified amino acid residues of BLA and BLA-OA complex as determinants of these membrane interactions using MD, functionally corroborated by uptake of the corresponding α-LA peptides across tumor cell membranes. The results suggest that the α-LA component of these cytotoxic complexes confers specificity for tumor cell membranes through protein interactions that are maintained even in the lipid complex, in the presence of OA. PMID:27731329

  20. Large Ferrierite Crystals as Models for Catalyst Deactivation during Skeletal Isomerisation of Oleic Acid: Evidence for Pore Mouth Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Sophie C C; Ristanović, Zoran; Whiting, Gareth T; Reddy Marthala, V R; Kärger, Jörg; Weitkamp, Jens; Wels, Bas; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-01

    Large zeolite crystals of ferrierite have been used to study the deactivation, at the single particle level, of the alkyl isomerisation catalysis of oleic acid and elaidic acid by a combination of visible micro-spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy (both polarised wide-field and confocal modes). The large crystals did show the desired activity, albeit only traces of the isomerisation product were obtained and low conversions were achieved compared to commercial ferrierite powders. This limited activity is in line with their lower external non-basal surface area, supporting the hypothesis of pore mouth catalysis. Further evidence for the latter comes from visible micro-spectroscopy, which shows that the accumulation of aromatic species is limited to the crystal edges, while fluorescence microscopy strongly suggests the presence of polyenylic carbocations. Light polarisation associated with the spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy reveals that these carbonaceous deposits are aligned only in the larger 10-MR channels of ferrierite at all crystal edges. The reaction is hence further limited to these specific pore mouths. PMID:26611940

  1. Protein-dependent Membrane Interaction of A Partially Disordered Protein Complex with Oleic Acid: Implications for Cancer Lipidomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Arunima; Prasanna, Xavier; Agiru, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Hirak; Rydström, Anna; Ho, James C. S.; Svanborg, Catharina; Sengupta, Durba; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-10-01

    Bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) forms cytotoxic complexes with oleic acid (OA) that perturbs tumor cell membranes, but molecular determinants of these membrane-interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to obtain molecular insights into the interaction of BLA/BLA-OA complex with model membranes. We characterized the folding state of BLA-OA complex using tryptophan fluorescence and resolved residue-specific interactions of BLA with OA using molecular dynamics simulation. We integrated membrane-binding data using a voltage-sensitive probe and molecular dynamics (MD) to demonstrate the preferential interaction of the BLA-OA complex with negatively charged membranes. We identified amino acid residues of BLA and BLA-OA complex as determinants of these membrane interactions using MD, functionally corroborated by uptake of the corresponding α-LA peptides across tumor cell membranes. The results suggest that the α-LA component of these cytotoxic complexes confers specificity for tumor cell membranes through protein interactions that are maintained even in the lipid complex, in the presence of OA.

  2. Large Ferrierite Crystals as Models for Catalyst Deactivation during Skeletal Isomerisation of Oleic Acid: Evidence for Pore Mouth Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Sophie C C; Ristanović, Zoran; Whiting, Gareth T; Reddy Marthala, V R; Kärger, Jörg; Weitkamp, Jens; Wels, Bas; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-01

    Large zeolite crystals of ferrierite have been used to study the deactivation, at the single particle level, of the alkyl isomerisation catalysis of oleic acid and elaidic acid by a combination of visible micro-spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy (both polarised wide-field and confocal modes). The large crystals did show the desired activity, albeit only traces of the isomerisation product were obtained and low conversions were achieved compared to commercial ferrierite powders. This limited activity is in line with their lower external non-basal surface area, supporting the hypothesis of pore mouth catalysis. Further evidence for the latter comes from visible micro-spectroscopy, which shows that the accumulation of aromatic species is limited to the crystal edges, while fluorescence microscopy strongly suggests the presence of polyenylic carbocations. Light polarisation associated with the spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy reveals that these carbonaceous deposits are aligned only in the larger 10-MR channels of ferrierite at all crystal edges. The reaction is hence further limited to these specific pore mouths.

  3. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  4. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  5. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  6. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  7. Design of an effective bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate (ATMP-FA) and optimization by Box-Behnken model for biodiesel esterification synthesis of oleic acid over ATMP-FA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Qu, Rongjun

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production has become an intense research area because of rapidly depleting energy reserves and increasing petroleum prices together with environmental concerns. This paper focused on the optimization of the catalytic performance in the esterification reaction of oleic acid for biodiesel production over the bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate ATMP-FA. The reaction parameters including catalyst amount, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio and reaction temperature have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box-Behnken model. It was found that the reaction temperature was the most significant factor, and the best conversion ratio of oleic acid could reach 93.17% under the reaction conditions with 9.53% of catalyst amount and 8.62:1 of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio at 91.0 °C. The research results show that two catalytic species could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional ATMP-FA is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  8. A case study on the genetic origin of the high oleic acid trait through FAD2-1 DNA sequence variation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Rapson, Sara; Wu, Man; Okada, Shoko; Das, Alpana; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wood, Craig; Green, Allan; Singh, Surinder; Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is considered a strongly domesticated species with a long history of cultivation. The hybridization of safflower with its wild relatives has played an important role in the evolution of cultivars and is of particular interest with regards to their production of high quality edible oils. Original safflower varieties were all rich in linoleic acid, while varieties rich in oleic acid have risen to prominence in recent decades. The high oleic acid trait is controlled by a partially recessive allele ol at a single locus OL. The ol allele was found to be a defective microsomal oleate desaturase FAD2-1. Here we present DNA sequence data and Southern blot analysis suggesting that there has been an ancient hybridization and introgression of the FAD2-1 gene into C. tinctorius from its wild relative C. palaestinus. It is from this gene that FAD2-1Δ was derived more recently. Identification and characterization of the genetic origin and diversity of FAD2-1 could aid safflower breeders in reducing population size and generations required for the development of new high oleic acid varieties by using perfect molecular marker-assisted selection.

  9. A case study on the genetic origin of the high oleic acid trait through FAD2-1 DNA sequence variation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rapson, Sara; Wu, Man; Okada, Shoko; Das, Alpana; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wood, Craig; Green, Allan; Singh, Surinder; Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is considered a strongly domesticated species with a long history of cultivation. The hybridization of safflower with its wild relatives has played an important role in the evolution of cultivars and is of particular interest with regards to their production of high quality edible oils. Original safflower varieties were all rich in linoleic acid, while varieties rich in oleic acid have risen to prominence in recent decades. The high oleic acid trait is controlled by a partially recessive allele ol at a single locus OL. The ol allele was found to be a defective microsomal oleate desaturase FAD2-1. Here we present DNA sequence data and Southern blot analysis suggesting that there has been an ancient hybridization and introgression of the FAD2-1 gene into C. tinctorius from its wild relative C. palaestinus. It is from this gene that FAD2-1Δ was derived more recently. Identification and characterization of the genetic origin and diversity of FAD2-1 could aid safflower breeders in reducing population size and generations required for the development of new high oleic acid varieties by using perfect molecular marker-assisted selection. PMID:26442008

  10. A case study on the genetic origin of the high oleic acid trait through FAD2-1 DNA sequence variation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Rapson, Sara; Wu, Man; Okada, Shoko; Das, Alpana; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wood, Craig; Green, Allan; Singh, Surinder; Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is considered a strongly domesticated species with a long history of cultivation. The hybridization of safflower with its wild relatives has played an important role in the evolution of cultivars and is of particular interest with regards to their production of high quality edible oils. Original safflower varieties were all rich in linoleic acid, while varieties rich in oleic acid have risen to prominence in recent decades. The high oleic acid trait is controlled by a partially recessive allele ol at a single locus OL. The ol allele was found to be a defective microsomal oleate desaturase FAD2-1. Here we present DNA sequence data and Southern blot analysis suggesting that there has been an ancient hybridization and introgression of the FAD2-1 gene into C. tinctorius from its wild relative C. palaestinus. It is from this gene that FAD2-1Δ was derived more recently. Identification and characterization of the genetic origin and diversity of FAD2-1 could aid safflower breeders in reducing population size and generations required for the development of new high oleic acid varieties by using perfect molecular marker-assisted selection. PMID:26442008

  11. Optical and structural characterization of oleic acid-stabilized CdTe nanocrystals for solution thin film processing

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Lazos, Claudio Davet; Ortega-López, Mauricio; Pérez-Guzmán, Manuel A; Espinoza-Rivas, A Mauricio; Solís-Pomar, Francisco; Ortega-Amaya, Rebeca; Silva-Vidaurri, L Gerardo; Castro-Peña, Virginia C

    2014-01-01

    Summary This work presents results of the optical and structural characterization of oleic acid-stabilized cadmium telluride nanocrystals (CdTe-NC) synthesized by an organometallic route. After being cleaned, the CdTe-NC were dispersed in toluene to obtain an ink-like dispersion, which was drop-cast on glass substrate to deposit a thin film. The CdTe-NC colloidal dispersion as well as the CdTe drop-cast thin films were characterized with regard to the optical and structural properties. TEM analysis indicates that the CdTe-NC have a nearly spherical shape (3.5 nm as mean size). Electron diffraction and XRD diffraction analyses indicated the bulk-CdTe face-centered cubic structure for CdTe-NC. An additional diffraction line corresponding to the octahedral Cd3P2 was also detected as a secondary phase, which probably originates by reacting free cadmium ions with trioctylphosphine (the tellurium reducing agent). The Raman spectrum exhibits two broad bands centered at 141.6 and 162.3 cm−1, which could be associated to the TO and LO modes of cubic CdTe nanocrystals, respectively. Additional peaks located in the 222 to 324 cm−1 range, agree fairly well with the wavenumbers reported for TO modes of octahedral Cd3P2. PMID:24991525

  12. The cytotoxicity of BAMLET complexes is due to oleic acid and independent of the α-lactalbumin component

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Yamixa; Morales-Cruz, Moraima; Figueroa, Cindy M.; Hernández-Román, José; Hernández, Glinda; Griebenow, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Lipid–protein complexes comprised of oleic acid (OA) non-covalently coupled to human/bovine α-lactalbumin, named HAMLET/BAMLET, display cytotoxic properties against cancer cells. However, there is still a substantial debate about the role of the protein in these complexes. To shed light into this, we obtained three different BAMLET complexes using varying synthesis conditions. Our data suggest that to form active BAMLET particles, OA has to reach critical micelle concentration with an approximate diameter of 250 nm. Proteolysis experiments on BAMLET show that OA protects the protein and is probably located on the surface, consistent with a micelle-like structure. Native or unfolded α-lactalbumin without OA lacked any tumoricidal activity. In contrast, OA alone killed cancer cells with the same efficiency at equimolar concentrations as its formulation as BAMLET. Our data show unequivocally that the cytotoxicity of the BAMLET complex is exclusively due to OA and that OA alone, when formulated as a micelle, is as toxic as the BAMLET complex. The contradictory literature results on the cytotoxicity of BAMLET might be explained by our finding that it was imperative to sonicate the samples to obtain toxic OA. PMID:26101738

  13. Effect of perfluoroalkyl chain length on monolayer behavior of partially fluorinated oleic acid molecules at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Baba, Teruhiko; Takai, Katsuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A series of oleic acid (OA) analogs containing terminal perfluoroalkyl groups (CF3, C2F5, n-C3F7, n-C4F9 or n-C8F17) was synthesized to clarify how the fluorinated chain length affects the stability and molecular packing of liquid-expanded OA monolayers at the air-water interface. Although the substitution of terminal CF3 group for CH3 in OA had no effect on monolayer stability, further fluorination led to a gradual increase in monolayer stability at 25 °C. Surface pressure-area isotherm revealed that partially fluorinated OA analogs form more expanded monolayers than OA at low surface pressures, and that the monolayer behavior of OA analogs with the even-carbon numbered fluorinated chain is almost the same as that of OA upon monolayer compression, whereas the behavior of OA analogs with the odd-carbon numbered fluorinated chain significantly differs from that of OA. These results indicate: (i) the terminal short part (at least C2 residue) in OA predominantly determines the liquid-expanded monolayer stability; (ii) the molecular packing state of OA may be perturbed by the substitution of a short odd-carbon numbered fluorinated chain; (iii) hence, OA analogs with even-carbon numbered chain are considered to be preferable as hydrophobic building blocks for the synthesis of fluorinated phospholipids.

  14. Mesobuthus tamulus venom induces acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats involving additional mechanisms as compared to oleic acid model.

    PubMed

    Akella, Aparna; Tiwari, Anil K; Patne, Shashikant C U; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is produced after Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) envenomation and compared it with oleic acid (OA)-induced ARDS. The trachea, jugular vein and femoral artery were cannulated in anesthetized adult rats. Lethal dose of MBT venom (5 mg/kg) or OA (75 μL) was administered intravenously and the time-dependent changes in respiratory frequency (RF), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. Minute ventilation (MV) and the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio were also determined. At the end lungs were excised, one lung was used for histopathological examination and the other was used for determination of pulmonary water content physically. MBT venom or OA produced hypoxemia, pulmonary pathology (alveolar damage, infiltration of inflammatory cells, capillary damage and exudation) and pulmonary edema implicating for ARDS. However, the hypoxemia in MBT venom group was associated with decreased MV, apnea/bradypnea, and bradycardia whereas, in OA group it was seen with increased MV, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Lack of effect of hypoxemic drive on RF/MV or HR in MBT venom group unlike OA group, suggests the involvement of medullary centers. The present results demonstrate that MBT venom produces ARDS. However MBT venom-induced ARDS involves pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary mechanisms.

  15. Wear-resistant and electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of oleic acid post-modified ferrite-filled epoxy resin composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2015-03-01

    The post-modified Mn-Zn ferrite was prepared by grafting oleic acid on the surface of Mn-Zn ferrite to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the particle surfaces. The friction and electromagnetic absorbing properties of a thin coating fabricated by dispersing ferrite into epoxy resin (EP) were investigated. The roughness of the coating and water contact angle were measured using the VEECO and water contact angle meter. Friction tests were conducted using a stainless-steel bearing ball and a Rockwell diamond tip, respectively. The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the composite coating were studied in the low frequency (10 MHz-1.5 GHz). Surface modified ferrites are found to improve magnetic particles dispersion in EP resulting in significant compatibility between inorganic and organic materials. Results also indicate that modified ferrite/EP coatings have a lower roughness average value and higher water contact angle than original ferrite/EP coatings. The enhanced tribological properties of the modified ferrite/EP coatings can be seen from the increased coefficient value. The composite coatings with modified ferrite are observed to exhibit better reflection loss compared with the coatings with original ferrite.

  16. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop.

  17. Different Biological Action of Oleic Acid in ALDHhigh and ALDHlow Subpopulations Separated from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoe Suk; Jung, Minji; Choi, Sul Ki; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Seung Ja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying breast cancer progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) associated with fatty acids are largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the action of oleic acid (OA) on two human DCIS cell lines, MCF10DCIS.COM (ER/PR/HER2-negative) and SUM225 (HER2 overexpressed). OA led to a significant increase in proliferation, migration, lipid accumulation and the expression of lipogenic proteins, such as SREBP-1, FAS and ACC-1, in MCF10DCIS.COM cells but not SUM225 cells. The ALDHhigh subpopulation analyzed by the ALDEFLUOR assay was approximately 39.2±5.3% of MCF10DCIS.COM cells but was small (3.11±0.9%) in SUM225 cells. We further investigated the different biological action of OA in the distinct ALDHlow and ALDHhigh subpopulations of MCF10DCIS.COM cells. OA led to an increase in the expression of ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3 in MCF10DCIS.COM cells. SREBP-1 and ACC-1 were highly expressed in ALDHhigh cells relative to ALDHlow cells, whereas FAS was higher in ALDHlow cells. In the presence of OA, ALDHhigh cells were more likely to proliferate and migrate and displayed significantly high levels of SREBP-1 and FAS and strong phosphorylation of FAK and AKT relative to ALDHlow cells. This study suggests that OA could be a critical risk factor to promote the proliferation and migration of ALDHhigh cells in DCIS, leading to breast cancer progression. PMID:27589390

  18. Additive Regulation of Adiponectin Expression by the Mediterranean Diet Olive Oil Components Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 μmol/L OA, 0.1-20 μmol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-α. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-α-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-α alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-α alone). HT and OA also prevented—by 35%—TNF-α-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPARγ expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPARγ suppression by TNF-α, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-α-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPARγ suppression. PMID:26030149

  19. Different Biological Action of Oleic Acid in ALDHhigh and ALDHlow Subpopulations Separated from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoe Suk; Jung, Minji; Choi, Sul Ki; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Seung Ja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying breast cancer progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) associated with fatty acids are largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the action of oleic acid (OA) on two human DCIS cell lines, MCF10DCIS.COM (ER/PR/HER2-negative) and SUM225 (HER2 overexpressed). OA led to a significant increase in proliferation, migration, lipid accumulation and the expression of lipogenic proteins, such as SREBP-1, FAS and ACC-1, in MCF10DCIS.COM cells but not SUM225 cells. The ALDHhigh subpopulation analyzed by the ALDEFLUOR assay was approximately 39.2±5.3% of MCF10DCIS.COM cells but was small (3.11±0.9%) in SUM225 cells. We further investigated the different biological action of OA in the distinct ALDHlow and ALDHhigh subpopulations of MCF10DCIS.COM cells. OA led to an increase in the expression of ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3 in MCF10DCIS.COM cells. SREBP-1 and ACC-1 were highly expressed in ALDHhigh cells relative to ALDHlow cells, whereas FAS was higher in ALDHlow cells. In the presence of OA, ALDHhigh cells were more likely to proliferate and migrate and displayed significantly high levels of SREBP-1 and FAS and strong phosphorylation of FAK and AKT relative to ALDHlow cells. This study suggests that OA could be a critical risk factor to promote the proliferation and migration of ALDHhigh cells in DCIS, leading to breast cancer progression. PMID:27589390

  20. Reaction of oleic acid particles with NO3 radicals: Products, mechanism, and implications for radical-initiated organic aerosol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Kenneth S; Ziemann, Paul J

    2006-03-16

    The heterogeneous reaction of liquid oleic acid aerosol particles with NO3 radicals in the presence of NO2, N2O5, and O2 was investigated in an environmental chamber using a combination of on-line and off-line mass spectrometric techniques. The results indicate that the major reaction products, which are all carboxylic acids, consist of hydroxy nitrates, carbonyl nitrates, dinitrates, hydroxydinitrates, and possibly more highly nitrated products. The key intermediate in the reaction is the nitrooxyalkylperoxy radical, which is formed by the addition of NO3 to the carbon-carbon double bond and subsequent addition of O2. The nitrooxyalkylperoxy radicals undergo self-reactions to form hydroxy nitrates and carbonyl nitrates, and may also react with NO2 to form nitrooxy peroxynitrates. The latter compounds are unstable and decompose to carbonyl nitrates and dinitrates. It is noteworthy that in this reaction nitrooxyalkoxy radicals appear not to be formed, as indicated by the absence of the expected products of decomposition or isomerization of these species. This is different from gas-phase alkene-NO3 reactions, in which a large fraction of the products are formed through these pathways. The results may indicate that, for liquid organic aerosol particles in low NOx environments, the major products of the radical-initiated oxidation (including by OH radicals) of unsaturated and saturated organic compounds will be substituted forms of the parent compound rather than smaller decomposition products. These compounds will remain in the particle and can potentially enhance particle hygroscopicity and the ability of particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei. PMID:16526637

  1. The effect of oleic acid on the synthesis of Fe(3-x)O4 nanoparticles over a wide size range.

    PubMed

    Moya, Carlos; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, Amílcar

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on the effect of the oleic acid concentration on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles synthesized by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in benzyl-ether. This method allows the synthesis of highly monodisperse particles ranging from 7 to 100 nm in size by only varying the concentration of oleic acid in the reaction mixture. The structural and magnetic characterization reveal homogeneous particles in composition, with narrow particle size distribution, which are single-phase magnetite with almost bulk-like values of the saturation magnetization of about 90-99 emu g(-1) at low temperatures and show the characteristic anomaly in the zero field-cooling magnetization curves associated with the Verwey transition for nanoparticles bigger than about 7 nm. In addition, the analyses of aliquots of the reaction mixtures by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various stages shed light on the nucleation and growth processes of the particles.

  2. A new near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method for high-throughput analysis of oleic acid and linolenic acid content of single seeds in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Niewitetzki, Oliver; Tillmann, Peter; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2010-01-13

    The development of oilseed rape cultivars with a high content of oleic acid (18:1) and a low content of linolenic acid (18:3) in the seed oil is an important breeding aim. Oil of this quality is increasingly being sought by the food and the oleochemical industry. Since the oil quality is determined by the genotype of the seed, a selection can be performed among single seeds of segregating populations. For this purpose a high-throughput Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) method using an automated sample presentation unit for single seeds of oilseed rape and a spectrometer equipped with a photodiode array detector was developed. Single-seed analyses have been accomplished with a throughput of up to 800 seeds per hour. Seeds from segregating populations of different origin were analyzed by NIRS and gas chromatography. Calibration equations were developed and validated applying the Modified Partial Least Square regression (MPLS) and LOCAL procedure. In three independent validations, standard errors of prediction corrected for bias between 2.7% and 3.7% for oleic acid and 1.2% and 1.8% for linolenic acid were determined using MPLS. Similar results were obtained applying the LOCAL procedure. The results show that the new high-throughput method can be applied to predict the oleic acid and linolenic acid content of single seeds of oilseed rape.

  3. Molecular-biological analysis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by heat exposure and/or intravenous administration of oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Nakagawa, Yasuhisa; Ikemura, Mayumi; Usugi, Eri; Nata, Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to molecular-biologically investigate the interaction between heat exposure and pulmonary fat embolization in regards to the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Ten-week-old Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: (1) oleic acid injected into caudal vein after heat exposure, (2) oleic acid injected without heat exposure, (3) soybean oil injected after heat exposure, and (4) soybean oil injected without heat exposure, and then mRNA expression of eight inflammatory mediators related to ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in lung was determined 1h after the injection. mRNA expression of interleukin 1 beta (Il1b), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa), vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgfb1) and Hsp70 was significantly increased by heat exposure, while that of Il1b, interleukin 6 (Il6), Tnfa, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Mip2) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (Gm-csf) was significantly elevated by the injection of oleic acid. Moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in lung almost paralleled their mRNA expressions. In particular, IL-1β expression was synergistically elevated by heat exposure followed by injection of oleic acid. Additionally, IL-6 expression tended to increase under the same conditions as well. It is likely that heat exposure itself injures lung tissue within a short time, and that more than two conditions which induce ALI/ARDS interact with each other synergistically, exacerbating the development of ALI/ARDS.

  4. Extensive feeding versus oleic acid and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, S; Ventanas, J; Tovar, J; García, C; Estévez, M

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative status of Iberian dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets: extensive feeding on acorns and pasture in a "Montanera" traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement control mixed diet (CON) without added tocopherol and oleic acid fat. Muscles from MON dry-cured hams contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) than those from HOVE and CON hams. The feeding background affected the tocopherol levels in dry-cured hams as those from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than those from CON pigs whereas the extensive feeding provided muscles from MON pigs with significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. The HOVE diet significantly increased the levels of oleic acid in Iberian dry-cured hams with these levels being similar to the oleic acid levels found in MON hams and significantly higher than those in CON hams. Compared to dry-cured hams from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels. The principal component analysis (PCA) successfully discriminated between dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets.

  5. The particle image velocimetry method in the study of the dynamics of phase transitions induced by high pressures in triolein and oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Wierschem, A.; Delgado, A.; Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2011-03-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical measurement method capable of providing visualisation of velocity field of particle flow in fluids. After analysis of data acquired in the form of an image sequence, it is possible to retrieve information about flow parameters as mean values of velocity, vorticity, shear and normal strain. This paper presents the results of high pressure experiments using this method applied to triolein and oleic acid samples in their phase transition region. A high pressure optical chamber, He-Ne laser and light-sheet optics together with a digital camera and image acquisition computer allow us to study the motion of particles in high pressure conditions. The set-up was similar to that presented in Özmutlu et al. [Momentum and energy transfer during phase change of water under high hydrostatic pressure, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 7(3) (2006), pp. 161-168] and Kulisiewicz et al. [Visualization of pressure-shift freezing and thawing of concentrated aqueous sucrose solutions, High Press. Res. 27(2) (2007), pp. 291-297]. The analysis of phase transition dynamics in triolein and oleic acid is an extension to the work presented in Tefelski et al. [The investigation of the dynamics of the phase transformation in triolein and oleic acid under pressure, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 121(142004) (2008), pp. 1-6]. Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid and has a bent rod shape. Triolein is a triglyceride and has a "chair"-like shape. It is the base particle of many vegetable oils, especially olive oil. Triolein consists of three chains of oleic acid bound by a glycerol part. Information obtained by the study of phase transitions dynamics is important for food science and food technology processes which involve high pressure treatment. The PIV method shows differences in the solidification process of both substances in time, the existence of inhomogeneities (layers of different densities in the observed flow) and allows us to calculate the

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes micron scale liquid-ordered domains. A comparison study of docosahexaenoic versus oleic acid containing phosphatidylcholine in raft-like mixtures.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, R; Chachaty, C; Hazarosova, R; Tessier, C; Nuss, P; Momchilova, A; Staneva, G

    2015-06-01

    The understanding of the functional role of the lipid diversity in biological membranes is a major challenge. Lipid models have been developed to address this issue by using lipid mixtures generating liquid-ordered (Lo)/liquid-disordered (Ld) immiscibility. The present study examined mixtures comprising Egg sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol (chol) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) either containing docosahexaenoic (PDPC) or oleic acid (POPC). The mixtures were examined in terms of their capability to induce phase separation at the micron- and nano-scales. Fluorescence microscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and calorimetry methods were used to analyze the lateral organization of the mixtures. Fluorescence microscopy of giant vesicles could show that the temperature of the micron-scale Lo/Ld miscibility is higher for PDPC than for POPC ternary mixtures. At 37°C, no micron-scale Lo/Ld phase separation could be identified in the POPC containing mixtures while it was evident for PDPC. In contrast, a phase separation was distinguished for both PC mixtures by ESR and XRD, indicative that PDPC and POPC mixtures differed in micron vs nano domain organization. Compared to POPC, the higher line tension of the Lo domains observed in PDPC mixtures is assumed to result from the higher difference in Lo/Ld order parameter rather than hydrophobic mismatch.

  7. Trivalent chromium alleviates oleic acid induced steatosis in SMMC-7721 cells by decreasing fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaonan; Hu, Linlin; Fang, Zhijia; Huang, Zhiwei; Shi, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] has been shown as an essential trace element for human health. Previous studies depict that Cr(III) plays important roles in maintaining normal glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas its effect on the hepatic lipid metabolism is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of Cr on hepatic steatosis induced by oleic acid (OA) in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. Hepatic steatosis model was co-administered with Cr. Indexes of lipid accumulation were determined and associated genes expression were analyzed. The data showed that OA could induce lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in SMMC-7721 cells, and significantly increase the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2). This steatosis effect of OA was ameliorated by Cr. The TG accumulation and up-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 genes followed steatosis induction were inhibited by Cr. After the treatment of Cr, excessive intracellular OA content was also attenuated. Furthermore, Cr still performed inhibitory effect of DGAT2 expression at the presence of DGAT2 agonist or inhibitor, which indicated that the inhibitory effect of Cr on lipogenesis is associated with the downregulation of DGAT2 expression. These findings demonstrate that Cr alleviates hepatic steatosis via suppressing CD36 expression to prevent fatty acid uptake, as well as suppressing DGAT2 expression to inhibit TG synthesis. It suggests that CD36 and DGAT2 might become the novel drug targets for their properties in hepatic steatosis. Most importantly, Cr may be a potential anti-steatosis candidate to offer protective effects against liver damage. PMID:27497686

  8. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia. PMID:25782915

  9. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia.

  10. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid-dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan M; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  11. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid-dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan M; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  12. Structural characterization of more potent alternatives to HAMLET, a tumoricidal complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Nemashkalova, Ekaterina L; Kazakov, Alexei S; Khasanova, Leysan M; Permyakov, Eugene A; Permyakov, Sergei E

    2013-09-10

    HAMLET is a complex of human α-lactalbumin (hLA) with oleic acid (OA) that kills various tumor cells and strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. More potent protein-OA complexes were previously reported for bovine α-lactalbumin (bLA) and β-lactoglobulin (bLG), and pike parvalbumin (pPA), and here we explore their structural features. The concentration dependencies of the tryptophan fluorescence of hLA, bLA, and bLG complexes with OA reveal their disintegration at protein concentrations below the micromolar level. Chemical cross-linking experiments provide evidence that association with OA shifts the distribution of oligomeric forms of hLA, bLA, bLG, and pPA toward higher-order oligomers. This effect is confirmed for bLA and bLG using the dynamic light scattering method, while pPA is shown to associate with OA vesicles. Like hLA binding, OA binding increases the affinity of bLG for small unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles, while pPA efficiently binds to the vesicles irrespective of OA binding. The association of OA with bLG and pPA increases their α-helix and cross-β-sheet content and resistance to enzymatic proteolysis, which is indicative of OA-induced protein structuring. The lack of excess heat sorption during melting of bLG and pPA in complex with OA and the presence of a cooperative thermal transition at the level of their secondary structure suggest that the OA-bound forms of bLG and pPA lack a fixed tertiary structure but exhibit a continuous thermal transition. Overall, despite marked differences, the HAMLET-like complexes that were studied exhibit a common feature: a tendency toward protein oligomerization. Because OA-induced oligomerization has been reported for other proteins, this phenomenon is inherent to many proteins.

  13. Oleic and docosahexaenoic acid differentially phase separate from lipid raft molecules: a comparative NMR, DSC, AFM, and detergent extraction study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Dumaual, Alfred C; Castillo, Alicia; LoCascio, Daniel; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Stillwell, William; Wassall, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    We have previously suggested that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may in part function by enhancing membrane lipid phase separation into lipid rafts. Here we further tested for differences in the molecular interactions of an oleic (OA) versus DHA-containing phospholipid with sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (CHOL) utilizing (2)H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, and detergent extractions in model bilayer membranes. (2)H NMR and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) established the phase behavior of the OA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-18:1PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) and the DHA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-22:6PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) in the absence and presence of equimolar CHOL. CHOL was observed to affect the OA-containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) more than the DHA-containing PE, as exemplified by >2 x greater increase in order measured for the perdeuterated palmitic chain in 16:0-18:1PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) compared to 16:0-22:6PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments showed less lateral phase separation between 16:0-18:1PE-rich and SM/CHOL-rich raft domains in 16:0-18:1PE/SM/CHOL (1:1:1) bilayers than was observed when 16:0-22:6PE replaced 16:0-18:1PE. Differences in the molecular interaction of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-22:6PE with SM/CHOL were also found using biochemical detergent extractions. In the presence of equimolar SM/CHOL, 16:0-18:1PE showed decreased solubilization in comparison to 16:0-22:6PE, indicating greater phase separation with the DHA-PE. Detergent experiments were also conducted with cardiomyocytes fed radiolabeled OA or DHA. Although both OA and DHA were found to be largely detergent solubilized, the amount of OA that was found to be associated with raft-rich detergent-resistant membranes exceeded DHA by

  14. The toxicity of bovine α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells is highly dependent on oleic acid and induces killing in cancer cell lines and noncancer-derived primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Christel Rothe; Heegaard, Christian Würtz; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Thiel, Steffen

    2011-06-01

    A complex between α-lactalbumin and oleic acid (C18:1, 9 cis) has been reported to be cytotoxic to cancer cells. We have prepared such complexes and tested their activity against both cancer cell lines and noncancer-derived primary cells. Unexpectedly, some primary cell types were more sensitive to treatment than cancer cell lines. We found the complex to be cytotoxic to all of the tested cells, with a 46-fold difference between the most sensitive and the least sensitive cell type. Oleic acid by itself exhibited a remarkably similar activity. The cell-killing mechanisms of the complex and of oleic acid alone were examined by flow cytometry, testing for apoptosis- and necrosis- inducing activity. The T-cell leukemia-derived Jurkat cells primarily underwent cell death resembling apoptosis, whereas the monocytic leukemia-derived THP1 cells adopted a more necrotic-like cell death. Erythrocytes were sensitive to lysis by the complex and oleic acid. We conclude that oleic acid is cytotoxic by itself and that, in contrast to the literature, a complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid has cytotoxic activity against primary cells, as well as cancer cells.

  15. Dual hit lipopolysaccharide & oleic acid combination induced rat model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hagawane, T.N.; Gaikwad, R.V.; Kshirsagar, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite advances in therapy and overall medical care, acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management remains a problem. Hence the objective of this study was to develop a rat model that mimics human ALI/ARDS. Methods: Four groups of Wistar rats, 48 per group were treated with (i) intratracheal (IT) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) dissolved in normal saline (NS), (ii) intravenous (iv) oleic acid (OA) (250 μl/kg) suspension in bovine serum albumin (BSA), (iii) dual hit: IT LPS (2 mg/kg) dissolved in NS and iv OA (100 μl/kg) and (iv) control group: IT NS and iv BSA. From each group at set periods of time various investigations like chest X-rays, respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), total cell count, differential cell count, total protein count and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung wet/dry weight ratio and histopathological examination were done. Results: It was noted that the respiratory rate, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly higher at 4 h in the dual hit group as compared to LPS, OA and control groups. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher in the dual hit group as compared to LPS at 8 and 24 h, OA at 8 h and control (at all time intervals) group. IL-1β levels were significantly higher in LPS and dual hit groups at all time intervals, but not in OA and control groups. The injury induced in dual hit group was earlier and more sustained as compared to LPS and OA alone. Interpretation & conclusions: The lung pathology and changes in respiration functions produced by the dual hit model were closer to the diagnostic criteria of ALI/ARDS in terms of clinical manifestations and pulmonary injury and the injury persisted longer as compared to LPS and OA single hit model. Therefore, the ARDS model produced by the dual hit method was closer to the diagnostic criteria of ARDS in terms of clinical manifestations and pulmonary injury. PMID

  16. Ice core profiles of saturated fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) from southern Alaska since 1734 AD: A link to climate change in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    An ice core drilled at Aurora Peak in southeast Alaska was analyzed for homologous series of straight chain fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) including unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) using gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Molecular distributions of fatty acids are characterized by even carbon number predominance with a peak at palmitic acid (C16:0, av. 20.3 ± SD. 29.8 ng/g-ice) followed by oleic acid (C18:1, 19.6 ± 38.6 ng/g-ice) and myristic acid (C14:0, 15.3 ± 21.9 ng/g-ice). The historical trends of short-chain fatty acids, together with correlation analysis with inorganic ions and organic tracers suggest that short-chain fatty acids (except for C12:0 and C15:0) were mainly derived from sea surface micro layers through bubble bursting mechanism and transported over the glacier through the atmosphere. This atmospheric transport process is suggested to be linked with Kamchatka ice core δD record from Northeast Asia and Greenland Temperature Anomaly (GTA). In contrast, long-chain fatty acids (C20:0-C30:0) are originated from terrestrial higher plants, soil organic matter and dusts, which are also linked with GTA. Hence, this study suggests that Alaskan fatty acids are strongly influenced by Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and/or extra tropical North Pacific surface climate and Arctic oscillation. We also found that decadal scale variability of C18:1/C18:0 ratios in the Aurora Peak ice core correlate with the Kamchatka ice core δD, which reflects climate oscillations in the North Pacific. This study suggests that photochemical aging of organic aerosols could be controlled by climate periodicity.

  17. Apolipoprotein E isoforms 3/3 and 3/4 differentially interact with circulating stearic, palmitic, and oleic fatty acids and lipid levels in Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Tapia, Lyssia; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle changes in Alaskan Natives have been related to the increase of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the last decades. Variation of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype may contribute to the diverse response to diet in lipid metabolism and influence the association between fatty acids in plasma and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the interaction between Apo E isoforms and plasma fatty acids, influencing phenotypes related to metabolic diseases in Alaskan Natives. A sample of 427 adult Siberian Yupik Alaskan Natives was included. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, and Apo B plasma concentrations were measured using reference methods. Concentrations of 13 fatty acids in fasting plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography, and Apo E variants were identified. Analyses of covariance were conducted to identify Apo E isoform and fatty acid main effects and multiplicative interactions. The means for body mass index and age were 26 ± 5.2 and 47 ± 1.5, respectively. Significant main effects were observed for variation in Apo E and different fatty acids influencing Apo B levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Significant interactions were found between Apo E isoform and selected fatty acids influencing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apo B concentrations. In summary, Apo E3/3 and 3/4 isoforms had significant interactions with circulating levels of stearic, palmitic, oleic fatty acids, and phenotypes of lipid metabolism in Alaskan Natives.

  18. Chemical composition and oxidative status of tissues from Iberian pigs as affected by diets: extensive feeding v. oleic acid- and tocopherol-enriched mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, S; Tejeda, J F; Estévez, M

    2008-04-01

    The present work was intended to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the muscle biceps femoris and adipose tissues from Iberian pigs fed different finishing diets: free-range feeding on grass and acorns in a 'Montanera' traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115 g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement with a tocopherol-non-supplemented control mixed diet (CON). Muscles from MON pigs contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat than those from HOVE and CON pigs. Muscles from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than muscles from CON pigs whereas free-range feeding provided significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol to muscles from MON pigs than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. Adipose tissues from MON and HOVE pigs contained significantly lower proportions of saturated fatty acids and significantly higher levels of oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids than those from CON pigs. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than those from CON and HOVE pigs. To a higher extent, feeding background affected the fatty acid composition of polar lipids from the muscle biceps femoris than that of neutral lipids. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller ω-6/ω-3 values than those from pigs fed mixed diets. Compared to tissues from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels.

  19. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Pei-Ling; Lo, Yi-Chen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. Principal Findings The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%). Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans. Conclusions This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods. PMID:27275864

  20. Use of oleic-acid functionalized nanoparticles for the magnetic solid-phase microextraction of alkylphenols in fruit juices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Pastor-Belda, Marta; Torres, Aitor; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite with oleic acid as the surfactant (CoFe2O4/oleic acid) were used as sorbent material for the determination of alkylphenols in fruit juices. High sensitivity and specificity were achieved by liquid chromatography and detection using both diode-array (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the negative fragment ions for alkylphenols (APs) and in positive mode for ethoxylate APs (APEOs). The optimized conditions for the different variables influencing the magnetic separation procedure were: mass of magnetic nanoparticles, 50mg, juice volume, 10mL diluted to 25mL with water, pH 6, stirring for 10min at room temperature, separation with an external neodymium magnet, desorption with 3mL of methanol and orbital shaking for 5min. The enriched organic phase was evaporated and reconstituted with 100µL acetonitrile before injecting 30µL into a liquid chromatograph with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/0.1% (v/v) formic acid under gradient elution. Quantification limits were in the range 3.6 to 125ngmL(-1). The recoveries obtained were in the 91-119% range, with RSDs lower than 14%. The ESI-MS/MS spectra permitted the correct identification of both APs and APEOs in the fruit juice samples. PMID:26946030

  1. Quantitative time-resolved vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy as a tool for thin film kinetic studies: new insights into oleic acid monolayer oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Joscha; Laß, Kristian; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2013-08-22

    Environmental air-water interfaces are often covered by thin films of surface-active organic substances that play an important role for air-sea gas exchange and aerosol aging. Surface-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy has been widely used to study the static structure of organic monolayers serving as simple model systems of such films. Probably due to the difficulties to correlate the SFG signal intensity with the surface concentration, corresponding time-resolved studies of surface reactions are scarce. In this study, quantitative time-resolved measurements have been performed on the oleic acid monolayer ozonolysis, which is considered a benchmark system for investigating the reactivity and fate of unsaturated natural organics. Surface concentration calibration data have been obtained by combining the pressure-area isotherm and VSFG spectra acquisition such that the 2D phase behavior of the oleic acid film could be properly taken into account. In contrast to literature reports, surface-active oxidation products were found to be negligible and do not interfere with the VSFG measurements. A pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis of the time-resolved data yielded a bimolecular rate constant of k2(oleic acid + O3 → products) = (1.65 ± 0.64) × 10(-16) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1), corresponding to an uptake coefficient of γ = (4.7 ± 1.8) × 10(-6). This result is in very good agreement with most recent monolayer measurements based on alternative methods and underlines the reliability of the time-resolved VSFG approach.

  2. Identification of functional BrFAD2-1 gene encoding microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase from Brassica rapa and development of Brassica napus containing high oleic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyojin; Go, Young Sam; Lee, Saet Buyl; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Suh, Mi Chung

    2011-10-01

    Microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2) functions in the first committed step of the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids via the desaturation of oleic acid to linoleic acid. In this study, two FAD2 genes were identified through genome-wide analysis of Brassica rapa. One BrFAD2-1 gene harbors functional sequence information, but another BrFAD2-2 gene has mutations that generated a premature stop codon, rendering it nonfunctional. From a database of 120,000 B. rapa expressed sequence tags, we determined that all sequences coding for FAD2 corresponded to the BrFAD2-1 gene. The BrFAD2-1 protein was shown to share high sequence homology (71-99%) with FAD2 proteins from other plant species. An intron in the 5'-untranslated region and three histidine boxes in the protein, which are characteristic of plant FAD2 genes, have been well-conserved. BrFAD2-1 transcripts were detected in various organs of B. rapa. When a pBrFAD2-1:mRFP construct was introduced into tobacco epidermal cells, the fluorescent signal was noted in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic expression of BrFAD2-1:mRFP complemented the Arabidopsis fad2-2 mutant. Finally, transgenic Korean rapeseed Tammi containing high oleic acid contents (78 mol%) was developed via the expression of the BrFAD2-1 gene in an antisense orientation. The data demonstrate that B. rapa harbors only one functional FAD2 that can be utilized for the development of the high-oleic acid Korean rapeseed cultivar Tammi, which might be useful for both human consumption and industrial applications.

  3. A novel route for the production of TiO2 photocatalysts with low energy gap, via Triton-X and oleic acid surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, A.; Mitsionis, A.; Vaimakis, T.; Pomonis, P.; Petrakis, D.; Loukatzikou, L.; Todorova, N.; Trapalis, C.; Ladas, S.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 photocatalysts with high specific surface area between 70 and 110 m2/g were prepared via a novel sol-gel technique using surfactants oleic acid and Triton-X in the presence or absence of diethanolamine. Titania materials showed increased photocatalytic performance in UV light. The production of active species seem to be high enough to perform the degradation of methylene blue dye solution in low catalyst concentration; and a relatively high efficiency in NO oxidation in gaseous phase. All materials prepared showed high photocatalytic activity and degradation efficiency similar or higher compared to commercial Degussa P25 material.

  4. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable research centers upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of a-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesi...

  5. The preparation of CeF{sub 3} nanocluster capped with oleic acid by extraction method and application to lithium grease

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Libo; Zhang Ming; Wang Xiaobo; Liu Weimin

    2008-08-04

    CeF{sub 3} nanocluster surface-capped with oleic acid (coded as OA-CeF{sub 3}) were prepared using extraction method. The resulting OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster was characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of the OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster as an additive in synthetic lithium grease was investigated using a four-ball friction and wear tester. It was found that the as-prepared OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster had a broad size distribution, with the average diameter to be about 20 nm, which was confirmed by both the XRD and TEM analytical results. The oleic acid as the capping agent was chemically bonded to the CeF{sub 3} nanocores via strong chemical interaction. The OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster as the additive led to an obvious improvement in the antiwear and extreme pressure properties of the synthetic lithium grease. However, the OA-CeF{sub 3} nanocluster as the additive had little effect on the friction-reducing behavior of the lithium grease.

  6. DHA-enriched high–oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter JH; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David JA; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Charest, Amélie; Baril-Gravel, Lisa; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; McCrea, Cindy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well recognized that amounts of trans and saturated fats should be minimized in Western diets; however, considerable debate remains regarding optimal amounts of dietary n−9, n−6, and n−3 fatty acids. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of varying n−9, n−6, and longer-chain n−3 fatty acid composition on markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Design: A randomized, double-blind, 5-period, crossover design was used. Each 4-wk treatment period was separated by 4-wk washout intervals. Volunteers with abdominal obesity consumed each of 5 identical weight-maintaining, fixed-composition diets with one of the following treatment oils (60 g/3000 kcal) in beverages: 1) conventional canola oil (Canola; n−9 rich), 2) high–oleic acid canola oil with docosahexaenoic acid (CanolaDHA; n−9 and n−3 rich), 3) a blend of corn and safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff; n−6 rich), 4) a blend of flax and safflower oils (60:40) (FlaxSaff; n−6 and short-chain n−3 rich), or 5) high–oleic acid canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest in n−9). Results: One hundred thirty individuals completed the trial. At endpoint, total cholesterol (TC) was lowest after the FlaxSaff phase (P < 0.05 compared with Canola and CanolaDHA) and highest after the CanolaDHA phase (P < 0.05 compared with CornSaff, FlaxSaff, and CanolaOleic). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were highest, and triglycerides were lowest, after CanolaDHA (P < 0.05 compared with the other diets). All diets decreased TC and LDL cholesterol from baseline to treatment endpoint (P < 0.05). CanolaDHA was the only diet that increased HDL cholesterol from baseline (3.5 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05) and produced the greatest reduction in triglycerides (−20.7 ± 3.8%; P < 0.001) and in systolic blood pressure (−3.3 ± 0.8%; P < 0.001) compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). Percentage reductions in Framingham 10-y CHD risk scores (FRS) from

  7. Production of a value-added hydroxy fatty acid, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from high oleic safflower oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA), originally found in small amount mainly from plant systems, are good examples of the structurally modified lipids, rendering special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared to normal fatty acids. Based on these properties, HFAs possess high industrial ...

  8. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  9. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  10. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  11. Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingyong; Fan, Chuchuan; Guo, Zhenhua; Qin, Jie; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Qingyuan; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

    2012-08-01

    Modification of oleic acid (C18:1) and linolenic acid (C18:3) contents in seeds is one of the major goals for quality breeding after removal of erucic acid in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The fatty acid desaturase genes FAD2 and FAD3 have been shown as the major genes for the control of C18:1 and C18:3 contents. However, the genome structure and locus distributions of the two gene families in amphidiploid B. napus are still not completely understood to date. In the present study, all copies of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in the A- and C-genome of B. napus and its two diploid progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, were identified through bioinformatic analysis and extensive molecular cloning. Two FAD2 genes exist in B. rapa and B. oleracea, and four copies of FAD2 genes exist in B. napus. Three and six copies of FAD3 genes were identified in diploid species and amphidiploid species, respectively. The genetic control of high C18:1 and low C18:3 contents in a double haploid population was investigated through mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits and the molecular cloning of the underlying genes. One major QTL of BnaA.FAD2.a located on A5 chromosome was responsible for the high C18:1 content. A deleted mutation in the BnaA.FAD2.a locus was uncovered, which represented a previously unidentified allele for the high oleic variation in B. napus species. Two major QTLs on A4 and C4 chromosomes were found to be responsible for the low C18:3 content in the DH population as well as in SW Hickory. Furthermore, several single base pair changes in BnaA.FAD3.b and BnaC.FAD3.b were identified to cause the phenotype of low C18:3 content. Based on the results of genetic mapping and identified sequences, allele-specific markers were developed for FAD2 and FAD3 genes. Particularly, single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms markers for FAD3 alleles were demonstrated to be a reliable type of SNP markers for unambiguous identification of genotypes with

  12. Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingyong; Fan, Chuchuan; Guo, Zhenhua; Qin, Jie; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Qingyuan; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

    2012-08-01

    Modification of oleic acid (C18:1) and linolenic acid (C18:3) contents in seeds is one of the major goals for quality breeding after removal of erucic acid in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The fatty acid desaturase genes FAD2 and FAD3 have been shown as the major genes for the control of C18:1 and C18:3 contents. However, the genome structure and locus distributions of the two gene families in amphidiploid B. napus are still not completely understood to date. In the present study, all copies of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in the A- and C-genome of B. napus and its two diploid progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, were identified through bioinformatic analysis and extensive molecular cloning. Two FAD2 genes exist in B. rapa and B. oleracea, and four copies of FAD2 genes exist in B. napus. Three and six copies of FAD3 genes were identified in diploid species and amphidiploid species, respectively. The genetic control of high C18:1 and low C18:3 contents in a double haploid population was investigated through mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits and the molecular cloning of the underlying genes. One major QTL of BnaA.FAD2.a located on A5 chromosome was responsible for the high C18:1 content. A deleted mutation in the BnaA.FAD2.a locus was uncovered, which represented a previously unidentified allele for the high oleic variation in B. napus species. Two major QTLs on A4 and C4 chromosomes were found to be responsible for the low C18:3 content in the DH population as well as in SW Hickory. Furthermore, several single base pair changes in BnaA.FAD3.b and BnaC.FAD3.b were identified to cause the phenotype of low C18:3 content. Based on the results of genetic mapping and identified sequences, allele-specific markers were developed for FAD2 and FAD3 genes. Particularly, single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms markers for FAD3 alleles were demonstrated to be a reliable type of SNP markers for unambiguous identification of genotypes with

  13. Biochemical characterization of temperature-induced changes in lipid metabolism in a high oleic acid mutant of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Guerra, D J

    1994-11-15

    We have characterized a Brassica rapa mutant (WR586) that has low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (D.L. Auld et al., 1992, Crop Sci. 32, 657-662). The mutant lacked oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine desaturase (ODS) activity when assayed in 6-day-old seedlings. To further characterize the mutant, the leaf fatty acid composition and major galactolipids and phospholipids were characterized in mutant (WR586) and control (cultivar "Tobin") plants grown at either 26 degrees C/26 degrees C or 10 degrees C/5 degrees C. Fatty acid profiles show significantly higher 18:1 levels in WR586 throughout 12 days of germination. The amount of saturated fatty acids decreased with a concomitant increase of 18:1. Ratios of 18:1/18:2 revealed that WR586 maintains higher mole percent of 18:1 than Tobin at all times and temperature regimes because of a lack of desaturation to 18:2. Values for monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol 18:1/18:2 ratios indicate a disparity in the concentration of 18:1 between WR586 and Tobin grown in either temperature during early germination. The phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine 18:1/18:2 ratios were higher in WR586 compared to Tobin and remained higher throughout the 12-day period. In WR586, 18:1 always accumulated to higher levels in the cooler temperature. In Tobin, 18:1 concentrations paralleled 18:2 in both temperature regimes. These results indicate that the lesion in the mutant WR586 resides at the ODS locus, 18:1 synthesis is chilling induced, and the microsomal desaturation pathway is the most prominent in early developing Brassica seedlings.

  14. Diets Containing α-Linolenic (ω3) or Oleic (ω9) Fatty Acids Rescues Obese Mice From Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Marinho, R; Vitorino, D; Santos, G A; Moraes, J C; Dragano, N; Sartori-Cintra, A; Pereira, L; Catharino, R R; da Silva, A S R; Ropelle, E R; Pauli, J R; De Souza, C T; Velloso, L A; Cintra, D E

    2015-11-01

    Subclinical systemic inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance. The results obtained from a number of experimental studies suggest that targeting different components of the inflammatory machinery may result in the improvement of the metabolic phenotype. Unsaturated fatty acids exert antiinflammatory activity through several distinct mechanisms. Here, we tested the capacity of ω3 and ω9 fatty acids, directly from their food matrix, to exert antiinflammatory activity through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120 and GPR40 pathways. GPR120 was activated in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues, reverting inflammation and insulin resistance in obese mice. Part of this action was also mediated by GPR40 on muscle, as a novel mechanism described. Pair-feeding and immunoneutralization experiments reinforced the pivotal role of GPR120 as a mediator in the response to the nutrients. The improvement in insulin sensitivity in the high-fat substituted diets was associated with a marked reduction in tissue inflammation, decreased macrophage infiltration, and increased IL-10 levels. Furthermore, improved glucose homeostasis was accompanied by the reduced expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and reduced body mass. Thus, our data indicate that GPR120 and GPR40 play a critical role as mediators of the beneficial effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in the context of obesity-induced insulin resistance. PMID:26280128

  15. Spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) as a source of breadmaking flours and bran naturally enriched in oleic acid and minerals but not phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Ruibal-Mendieta, Nike L; Delacroix, Dominique L; Mignolet, Eric; Pycke, Jean-Marie; Marques, Carole; Rozenberg, Raoul; Petitjean, Géraldine; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Meurens, Marc; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Larondelle, Yvan

    2005-04-01

    The nutritional value of breadmaking cereal spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is said to be higher than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), but this traditional view is not substantiated by scientific evidence. In an attempt to clarify this issue, wholemeal and milling fractions (sieved flour, fine bran, and coarse bran) from nine dehulled spelt and five soft winter wheat samples were compared with regard to their lipid, fatty acid, and mineral contents. In addition, tocopherol (a biochemical marker of germ) was measured in all wholemeals, whereas phytic acid and phosphorus levels were determined in fine bran and coarse bran samples after 1 month of storage. Results showed that, on average, spelt wholemeals and milling fractions were higher in lipids and unsaturated fatty acids as compared to wheat, whereas tocopherol content was lower in spelt, suggesting that the higher lipid content of spelt may not be related to a higher germ proportion. Although milling fractionation produced similar proportions of flour and brans in spelt and wheat, it was found that ash, copper, iron, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus contents were higher in spelt samples, especially in aleurone-rich fine bran and in coarse bran. Even though phosphorus content was higher in spelt than in wheat brans, phytic acid content showed the opposite trend and was 40% lower in spelt versus wheat fine bran, which may suggest that spelt has either a higher endogenous phytase activity or a lower phytic acid content than wheat. The results of this study give important indications on the real nutritional value of spelt compared to wheat. Moreover, they show that the Ca/Fe ratio, combined with that of oleate/palmitate, provides a highly discriminating tool to authenticate spelt from wheat flours and to face the growing issue of spelt flour adulteration. Finally, they suggest that aleurone differences, the nature of which still needs to be investigated, may account for the differential

  16. Characterization of the promoter and 5'-UTR intron of oleic acid desaturase (FAD2) gene in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Zhen Qian; Yin, Chang Fa; Liu, Rui Yang; Wu, Xian Meng; Tan, Tai Long; Chen, She Yuan; Lu, Chang Ming; Guan, Chun Yun

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, we characterized the transcriptional regulatory region (KF038144) controlling the expression of a constitutive FAD2 in Brassica napus. There are multiple FAD2 gene copies in B. napus genome. The FAD2 gene characterized and analyzed in the study is located on chromosome A5 and was designated as BnFAD2A5-1. BnFAD2A5-1 harbors an intron (1,192 bp) within its 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). This intron demonstrated promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the BnFAD2A5-1 promoter and intron through the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter system revealed that the -220 to -1 bp is the minimum promoter region, while -220 to -110 bp and +34 to +285 bp are two important regions conferring high-levels of transcription. BnFAD2 transcripts were induced by light, low temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA). These observations demonstrated that not only the promoter but also the intron are involved in controlling the expression of the BnFAD2A5-1 gene. The intron-mediated regulation is an essential aspect of the gene expression regulation.

  17. Liv.52 up-regulates cellular antioxidants and increase glucose uptake to circumvent oleic acid induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sharath Kumar, L M; Barooah, Vandana; Sandeep Varma, R; Nandakumar, Krishna S; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2012-10-15

    HepG2 cells were rendered steatotic by supplementing 2.0mM oleic acid (OA) in the culture media for 24h. OA induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets as determined by Oil-Red-O (ORO) based colorimetric assay, increased triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased lipid peroxidation. It was also marked by increased inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 with decreased enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant molecules and decreased cell proliferation associated with insulin resistance and DNA fragmentation. Addition of Liv.52 hydro-alcoholic extract (LHAE) 50μg/mL to the steatotic cells was effective in increasing the insulin mediated glucose uptake by 3.13 folds and increased cell proliferation by 3.81 folds with decreased TAG content (55%) and cytokines. The intracellular glutathione content was increased by 8.9 folds without substantial increase in GSSG content. LHAE decreased TNF-α and IL-8 by 51% and 6.5% folds respectively, lipid peroxidation by 65% and inhibited DNA fragmentation by 69%. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 88%, 128% and 64% respectively. Albumin and urea content was increased while the alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity was significantly decreased by LHAE. Hence, LHAE effectively attenuate molecular perturbations associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) indications in HepG2 cells. PMID:22940028

  18. Modification of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristic of zein film surfaces by contact with oxygen plasma treated PDMS and oleic acid content.

    PubMed

    Gezer, P Gizem; Brodsky, Serena; Hsiao, Austin; Liu, G Logan; Kokini, Jozef L

    2015-11-01

    Zein has been widely studied as a biopolymer due to its unique film-forming abilities. Surface properties are of high importance for certain applications which include microfluidics and tissue engineering, as they drastically affect the end result. It is important to develop techniques to modify zein surface properties without compromising bulk material properties. In this study, we developed a facile technique to change the water affinity of zein film surfaces, compatible with patterning techniques via soft lithography. This is achieved by a simple solvent casting technique onto a polydimethylsilohexane (PDMS) substrate that was exposed to oxygen plasma. Water contact angle measurements (WCA) were used to assess the hydrophillicity of zein surfaces and they reached as low as 20°. Atomic force microscopy, optical absorbance and light microscopy were used to study the characteristics of the film and its surface topography. Hydrophilic zein surfaces had higher roughness values compared to hydrophobic ones. Surface roughness, introduced by sandpaper and gratings does not have the same effect as surface chemistry. The amphiphilic nature of plasticizer oleic acid also contributed to the change in the water contact angle of the films. In conclusion, we demonstrated that zein film's surface properties can be controlled by its ability to self-assemble depending on the substrate that it is being cast on.

  19. The targeted proteins in tumor cells treated with the α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, B; Zhang, M; Fan, X; Ren, F Z

    2016-08-01

    An α-lactalbumin-oleic acid (α-LA-OA) complex has exhibited selective antitumor activity in animal models and clinical trials. Although apoptosis and autophagy are activated and the functions of several organelles are disrupted in response to α-LA-OA, the detailed antitumor mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel technique, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, to analyze the proteome of tumor cells treated with α-LA-OA. We identified 112 differentially expressed proteins: 95 were upregulated to satisfy the metabolism of tumor cells; 17 were downregulated and targets of α-LA-OA. According to the differentially expressed proteins, α-LA-OA exerted its antitumor activity by disrupting cytoskeleton stability and cell motility, and by inhibiting DNA, lipid, and ATP synthesis, leading to cellular stress and activation of programmed cell death. This study provides a systematic evaluation of the antitumor activity of α-LA-OA, identifying its interacting targets and establishing the theoretical basis of α-LA-OA for use in cancer therapy. PMID:27236751

  20. Kinetic modeling of lipase-catalyzed esterification reaction between oleic acid and trimethylolpropane: a simplified model for multi-substrate multi-product ping-pong mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bornadel, Amin; Akerman, Cecilia Orellana; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Borg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic models are among the tools that can be used for optimization of biocatalytic reactions as well as for facilitating process design and upscaling in order to improve productivity and economy of these processes. Mechanism pathways for multi-substrate multi-product enzyme-catalyzed reactions can become very complex and lead to kinetic models comprising several tens of terms. Hence the models comprise too many parameters, which are in general highly correlated and their estimations are often prone to huge errors. In this study, Novozym(®) 435 catalyzed esterification reaction between oleic acid (OA) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) with continuous removal of side-product (water) was carried out as an example for reactions that follow multi-substrate multi-product ping-pong mechanisms. A kinetic model was developed based on a simplified ping-pong mechanism proposed for the reaction. The model considered both enzymatic and spontaneous reactions involved and also the effect of product removal during the reaction. The kinetic model parameters were estimated using nonlinear curve fitting through unconstrained optimization methodology and the model was verified by using empirical data from different experiments and showed good predictability of the reaction under different conditions. This approach can be applied to similar biocatalytic processes to facilitate their optimization and design.

  1. Liv.52 up-regulates cellular antioxidants and increase glucose uptake to circumvent oleic acid induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sharath Kumar, L M; Barooah, Vandana; Sandeep Varma, R; Nandakumar, Krishna S; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2012-10-15

    HepG2 cells were rendered steatotic by supplementing 2.0mM oleic acid (OA) in the culture media for 24h. OA induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets as determined by Oil-Red-O (ORO) based colorimetric assay, increased triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased lipid peroxidation. It was also marked by increased inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 with decreased enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant molecules and decreased cell proliferation associated with insulin resistance and DNA fragmentation. Addition of Liv.52 hydro-alcoholic extract (LHAE) 50μg/mL to the steatotic cells was effective in increasing the insulin mediated glucose uptake by 3.13 folds and increased cell proliferation by 3.81 folds with decreased TAG content (55%) and cytokines. The intracellular glutathione content was increased by 8.9 folds without substantial increase in GSSG content. LHAE decreased TNF-α and IL-8 by 51% and 6.5% folds respectively, lipid peroxidation by 65% and inhibited DNA fragmentation by 69%. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 88%, 128% and 64% respectively. Albumin and urea content was increased while the alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity was significantly decreased by LHAE. Hence, LHAE effectively attenuate molecular perturbations associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) indications in HepG2 cells.

  2. Heat transfer behaviour of silver particles containing oleic acid surfactant: application in a two phase closed rectangular cross sectional thermosyphon (RTPTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.

    2016-03-01

    This article focuses on heat transfer behaviour of silver nanoparticles containing oleic acid surfactant (OA) applied as a working fluid in a two-phase closed rectangular cross sectional thermosyphon (RTPTC). Thus, the OA could reduce the surface tension of the working fluid, which improved the colloidal ability and increased the lead-time period for nanoparticles to be uniformly dispersed. It highlights theories for investigating the effects on heat transfer characteristics of RTPTC such as heat transfer rate, thermal resistance, heat transfer coefficients and nanofluids behaviour. The most important heat transfer characteristic to be examined in this experiment is the relative thermal efficiency (R T ). Five working fluids were tested, these include: de-ionized water; de-ionized water base with a silver nanoparticles concentration of 0.5 wt% (NP); and NP containing 0.5; 1; and 1.5 wt% of OA respectively. The results showed that 0.5 wt% NP containing 1 wt% OA produced the best results. It was further found that the heat transfer rate of 0.5 wt% NP containing 1 wt% of OA with a R T value of 1, was the highest across all experimental parameters studied. The NP containing OA demonstrated approximately 80 % higher heat transfer rate than the de-ionized water.

  3. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Park, S K; Johnson, B J; Chung, K Y; Choi, C W; Kim, K H; Kim, W Y; Smith, B

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  4. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, S. H.; Park, S. K.; Johnson, B. J.; Chung, K. Y.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, W. Y.; Smith, B.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:25656188

  5. Yeast peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme: (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase domains A and B are required for optimal growth on oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y M; Marttila, M S; Haapalainen, A M; Siivari, K M; Glumoff, T; Hiltunen, J K

    1999-10-01

    The yeast peroxisomal (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2; MFE-2) has two N-terminal domains belonging to the short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. To investigate the physiological roles of these domains, here called A and B, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fox-2 cells (devoid of Sc MFE-2) were taken as a model system. Gly(16) and Gly(329) of the S. cerevisiae A and B domains, corresponding to Gly(16), which is mutated in the human MFE-2 deficiency, were mutated to serine and cloned into the yeast expression plasmid pYE352. In oleic acid medium, fox-2 cells transformed with pYE352:: ScMFE-2(aDelta) and pYE352::ScMFE-2(bDelta) grew slower than cells transformed with pYE352::ScMFE-2, whereas cells transformed with pYE352::ScMFE-2(aDeltabDelta) failed to grow. Candida tropicalis MFE-2 with a deleted hydratase 2 domain (Ct MFE- 2(h2Delta)) and mutational variants of the A and B domains (Ct MFE- 2(h2DeltaaDelta), Ct MFE- 2(h2DeltabDelta), and Ct MFE- 2(h2DeltaaDeltabDelta)) were overexpressed and characterized. All proteins were dimers with similar secondary structure elements. Both wild type domains were enzymatically active, with the B domain showing the highest activity with short chain and the A domain with medium and long chain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrates. The data show that the dehydrogenase domains of yeast MFE-2 have different substrate specificities required to allow the yeast to propagate optimally on fatty acids as the carbon source.

  6. Nuciferine downregulates Per-Arnt-Sim kinase expression during its alleviation of lipogenesis and inflammation on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Wu, Xin; Liu, Ying; Gu, Sheng-Ying; Zhu, Guan-Hua; Wang, Yu-Zhu; Liu, Gao-Lin; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent liver disease associated with lipotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Nuciferine, an active ingredient extracted from the natural lotus leaf, has been reported to be effective for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Per-Arnt-Sim kinase (PASK) is a nutrient responsive protein kinase that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, and gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of nuciferine against NAFLD and its inhibitory effect on PASK, exploring the possible underlying mechanism of nuciferine-mediated inhibition on NAFLD. Relevant biochemical parameters (lipid accumulation, extent of oxidative stress and release of inflammation cytokines) in oleic acid (OA)-induced HepG2 cells that mimicked steatosis in vitro were measured and compared with the control. It was found that nuciferine and silenced-PASK (siRNA PASK) both inhibited triglyceride (TG) accumulation and was effective in decreasing fatty acid (FFAs). The content of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased respectively by nuciferine and siRNA PASK without increase in glutathione (GSH). Malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased respectively by nuciferine and siRNA PASK. In addition, nuciferine decreased TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as the siRNA PASK group. IL-10 was increased by nuciferine and siRNA PASK respectively. Further investigation revealed that nuciferine and siRNA PASK could respectively regulate the expression of target genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation, suggesting that nuciferine may be a potential therapeutic treatment for NAFLD. Furthermore, the modulated effect of nuciferine on (OA)-induced HepG2 cells lipogenesis and inflammation, which was accompanied with PASK inhibition, was also consistent with siRNA PASK, implying that PASK might play a role in nuciferine-mediated regulation on NAFLD

  7. Effects of feeding increasing dietary levels of high oleic or regular sunflower or linseed oil on fatty acid profile of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the effects of increasing amounts of 3 plant oils in diets on the fatty acid (FA) profile of goat milk were studied. The study consisted of 3 experiments, one per oil tested (linseed oil, LO; high oleic sunflower oil, HOSFO; and regular sunflower oil, RSFO). The 3 experiments were conducted successively on 12 Malagueña goats, which were assigned at random to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 30, 48, and 66 (H) g of added oil/d. A basal diet made of alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate (33:67) was used in all of the experiments. For each animal, milk samples collected after 15 d on treatments were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and FA composition, whereas individual milk yield was measured the last 3 d of each experiment. Oil supplementation affected neither dry matter intake nor milk production traits. Increasing the oil supplementation decreased the content of saturated FA (especially 16:0) in milk fat and increased mono- and polyunsaturated FA in a linear manner. Vaccenic acid content linearly increased with the oil supplementation by 370, 217, and 634% to 5.32, 2.66, and 5.09 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the H diet in LO, HOSFO, and RSFO experiments, respectively. Rumenic acid content linearly increased with LO and RSFO supplementation by 298 and 354% from 0.53 and 0.41 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the 0 g of added oil/d diet. The content of trans-10-18:1 was not affected by LO supplementation but showed an increasing linear trend with HOSFO supplementation and linearly increased with RSFO supplementation. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated FA in milk fat was decreased by about 70% with the H diet in the LO experiment and it was increased by 54 and 82% with the H diet in the HOSFO and RSFO experiments. In conclusion, LO supplementation in this work seemed to be the most favorable alternative compared with HOSFO or RSFO supplementation. PMID:22459841

  8. Quercetin ameliorate insulin resistance and up-regulates cellular antioxidants during oleic acid induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sandeep Varma, R; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2013-03-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we hypothesized that the hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of quercetin would attenuate events leading to NAFLD. Addition of 2.0mM oleic acid (OA) into the culture media induced fatty liver condition in HepG2 cells by 24h. It was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets as determined by Oil-Red-O (ORO) based colorimetric assay, increased triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased lipid peroxidation. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly increased with decreased antioxidant molecules. OA induced insulin resistance which was evident by inhibition of glucose uptake and cell proliferation. Quercetin (10 μM) increased cell proliferation by 3.05 folds with decreased TAG content (45%) and was effective in increasing insulin mediated glucose uptake by 2.65 folds. The intracellular glutathione content was increased by 2.0 folds without substantial increase in GSSG content. Quercetin (10 μM) decreased TNF-α and IL-8 by 59.74% and 41.11% respectively and inhibited generation of lipid peroxides by 50.5%. In addition, RT-PCR results confirmed quercetin (10 μM) inhibited TNF-alpha gene expression. Further, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 1.68, 2.19 and 1.71 folds respectively. Albumin and urea content was increased while the alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity was significantly decreased by quercetin. Hence, quercetin effectively reversed NAFLD symptoms by decreased triacyl glycerol accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokine secretion and increased cellular antioxidants in OA induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:23348005

  9. Low simvastatin concentrations reduce oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells: An in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; LINCZ, LISA F.; THORNE, RICK F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory condition caused by hepatic lipid accumulation that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although statins should be used with caution in liver diseases, they are increasingly investigated as a possible treatment for NAFLD. The present study recreated an in vitro model of NAFLD using HepG2 cells exposed to oleic acid (OA), which was used to quantify OA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, the effect of simvastatin on HepG2 cell morphology and microparticle generation as a marker of cell apoptosis was assessed. OA-induced lipid accumulation was quantified by Oil Red O staining and extraction for optical density determination. Stained lipid droplets were visualized using phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, HepG2 cell-derived microparticles were counted by flow cytometry subsequent to staining for Annexin V. HepG2 cells treated with 0–1 mM OA showed dose-dependent lipid accumulation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with increasing concentrations of simvastatin followed by treatment with 1 mM OA showed that low simvastatin concentrations (4–10 µM) were able to reduce lipid accumulation by ~40%, whereas high simvastatin concentrations (20 and 30 µM) induced apoptotic changes in cell morphology and increased the production of Annexin V+ microparticles. This suggests that low simvastatin doses may have a role in preventing NAFLD. However, further investigations are required to confirm this action in vivo and to determine the underlying mechanism by which simvastatin reduces hepatic steatosis. PMID:27073470

  10. Quercetin ameliorate insulin resistance and up-regulates cellular antioxidants during oleic acid induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sandeep Varma, R; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2013-03-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we hypothesized that the hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of quercetin would attenuate events leading to NAFLD. Addition of 2.0mM oleic acid (OA) into the culture media induced fatty liver condition in HepG2 cells by 24h. It was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets as determined by Oil-Red-O (ORO) based colorimetric assay, increased triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased lipid peroxidation. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly increased with decreased antioxidant molecules. OA induced insulin resistance which was evident by inhibition of glucose uptake and cell proliferation. Quercetin (10 μM) increased cell proliferation by 3.05 folds with decreased TAG content (45%) and was effective in increasing insulin mediated glucose uptake by 2.65 folds. The intracellular glutathione content was increased by 2.0 folds without substantial increase in GSSG content. Quercetin (10 μM) decreased TNF-α and IL-8 by 59.74% and 41.11% respectively and inhibited generation of lipid peroxides by 50.5%. In addition, RT-PCR results confirmed quercetin (10 μM) inhibited TNF-alpha gene expression. Further, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 1.68, 2.19 and 1.71 folds respectively. Albumin and urea content was increased while the alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity was significantly decreased by quercetin. Hence, quercetin effectively reversed NAFLD symptoms by decreased triacyl glycerol accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokine secretion and increased cellular antioxidants in OA induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

  11. Phase- and size-controllable synthesis of hexagonal upconversion rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals through an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Chunlei; Ma, Jiebing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-05-01

    Herein, we introduce a facile, user- and environmentally friendly (n-octanol-induced) oleic acid (OA)/ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for the phase- and size-controllable synthesis of water-soluble hexagonal rare earth (RE = La, Gd, and Y) fluoride nanocrystals with uniform morphologies (mainly spheres and elongated particles) and small sizes (<50 nm). The unique role of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF(6)) and n-octanol in modulating the phase structure and particle size are discussed in detail. More importantly, the mechanism of the (n-octanol-induced) OA/IL two-phase system, the formation of the RE fluoride nanocrystals, and the distinctive size- and morphology-controlling capacity of the system are presented. BmimPF(6) is versatile in term of crystal-phase manipulation, size and shape maintenance, and providing water solubility in a one-step reaction. The luminescent properties of Er(3+)-, Ho(3+)-, and Tm(3+)-doped LaF(3), NaGdF(4), and NaYF(4) nanocrystals were also studied. It is worth noting that the as-prepared products can be directly dispersed in water due to the hydrophilic property of Bmim(+) (cationic part of the IL) as a capping agent. This advantageous feature has made the IL-capped products favorable in facile surface modifications, such as the classic Stober method. Finally, the cytotoxicity evaluation of NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals before and after silica coating was conducted for further biological applications.

  12. Oleic acid inhibits lung Na/K-ATPase in mice and induces injury with lipid body formation in leukocytes and eicosanoid production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can emerge from certain pathologies, such as sepsis, fat embolism and leptospirosis, in which the levels of unesterified fatty acids are increased in the patient’s plasma. ARDS is characterized by edema formation, and edema resolution occurs mainly due to the pneumocyte Na/K-ATPase activity. As previously described, increased oleic acid (OA) plasma concentrations induce lung injury by interfering with sodium transport. The first aim of this study was to develop a radioactivity-free assay to detect Na,K-ATPase activity ex vivo using a model of OA-induced lung injury in mice. We also investigated the relationship between Na/K-ATPase inhibition and OA-induced lung injury using ouabain-induced lung injury as a comparison, because of the well-described effect of ouabain as a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor. Methods We developed a Na/K-ATPase assay based on the capture of non-radioactive Rb+ ions by mice lung tissue in the absence or presence of ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase inhibitor. Rb+ incorporation into the lung was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after lung tissue mineralization. Na/K-ATPase activity was considered as the difference between Rb+ incorporation in the absence and in the presence of ouabain. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected for lung injury assessment. For this assessment, cell counting, lipid body enumeration and lipid mediator concentrations were measured. Histological analyses were used to determinate lung pathology. Whole body plethysmographic analysis was performed to assay lung function. Results The lung Na/K-ATPase activity of mice was completely inhibited by an OA dose of 10 μmol, an effect also obtained with 10-3 μmol of ouabain, as demonstrated by the decreased Rb+ incorporation in the lungs. The same OA dose induced lung edema and inflammation with cell influx, lipid body formation, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2

  13. Treatment of Rat Spinal Cord Injury with the Neurotrophic Factor Albumin-Oleic Acid: Translational Application for Paralysis, Spasticity and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Martin, Gerardo; Galan-Arriero, Iriana; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Taylor, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) is often characterized by the debilitating symptoms of paralysis, spasticity and pain, which require treatment with novel pleiotropic pharmacological agents. Previous in vitro studies suggest that Albumin (Alb) and Oleic Acid (OA) may play a role together as an endogenous neurotrophic factor. Although Alb can promote basic recovery of motor function after iSCI, the therapeutic effect of OA or Alb-OA on a known translational measure of SCI associated with symptoms of spasticity and change in nociception has not been studied. Following T9 spinal contusion injury in Wistar rats, intrathecal treatment with: i) Saline, ii) Alb (0.4 nanomoles), iii) OA (80 nanomoles), iv) Alb-Elaidic acid (0.4/80 nanomoles), or v) Alb-OA (0.4/80 nanomoles) were evaluated on basic motor function, temporal summation of noxious reflex activity, and with a new test of descending modulation of spinal activity below the SCI up to one month after injury. Albumin, OA and Alb-OA treatment inhibited nociceptive Tibialis Anterior (TA) reflex activity. Moreover Alb-OA synergistically promoted early recovery of locomotor activity to 50±10% of control and promoted de novo phasic descending inhibition of TA noxious reflex activity to 47±5% following non-invasive electrical conditioning stimulation applied above the iSCI. Spinal L4–L5 immunohistochemistry demonstrated a unique increase in serotonin fibre innervation up to 4.2±1.1 and 2.3±0.3 fold within the dorsal and ventral horn respectively with Alb-OA treatment when compared to uninjured tissue, in addition to a reduction in NR1 NMDA receptor phosphorylation and microglia reactivity. Early recovery of voluntary motor function accompanied with tonic and de novo phasic descending inhibition of nociceptive TA flexor reflex activity following Alb-OA treatment, mediated via known endogenous spinal mechanisms of action, suggests a clinical application of this novel neurotrophic

  14. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP-oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution.

    PubMed

    Howard, E I; Guillot, B; Blakeley, M P; Haertlein, M; Moulin, M; Mitschler, A; Cousido-Siah, A; Fadel, F; Valsecchi, W M; Tomizaki, Takashi; Petrova, T; Claudot, J; Podjarny, A

    2016-03-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H⋯H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface. PMID:27006775

  15. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP-oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution.

    PubMed

    Howard, E I; Guillot, B; Blakeley, M P; Haertlein, M; Moulin, M; Mitschler, A; Cousido-Siah, A; Fadel, F; Valsecchi, W M; Tomizaki, Takashi; Petrova, T; Claudot, J; Podjarny, A

    2016-03-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H⋯H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  16. Positive end-expiratory pressure at minimal respiratory elastance represents the best compromise between mechanical stress and lung aeration in oleic acid induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alysson Roncally S; Jandre, Frederico C; Pino, Alexandre V; Bozza, Fernando A; Salluh, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana; Ascoli, Fabio O; Giannella-Neto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Protective ventilatory strategies have been applied to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). However, adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to avoid alveolar de-recruitment and hyperinflation remains difficult. An alternative is to set the PEEP based on minimizing respiratory system elastance (Ers) by titrating PEEP. In the present study we evaluate the distribution of lung aeration (assessed using computed tomography scanning) and the behaviour of Ers in a porcine model of ALI, during a descending PEEP titration manoeuvre with a protective low tidal volume. Methods PEEP titration (from 26 to 0 cmH2O, with a tidal volume of 6 to 7 ml/kg) was performed, following a recruitment manoeuvre. At each PEEP, helical computed tomography scans of juxta-diaphragmatic parts of the lower lobes were obtained during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses in six piglets with ALI induced by oleic acid. The distribution of the lung compartments (hyperinflated, normally aerated, poorly aerated and non-aerated areas) was determined and the Ers was estimated on a breath-by-breath basis from the equation of motion of the respiratory system using the least-squares method. Results Progressive reduction in PEEP from 26 cmH2O to the PEEP at which the minimum Ers was observed improved poorly aerated areas, with a proportional reduction in hyperinflated areas. Also, the distribution of normally aerated areas remained steady over this interval, with no changes in non-aerated areas. The PEEP at which minimal Ers occurred corresponded to the greatest amount of normally aerated areas, with lesser hyperinflated, and poorly and non-aerated areas. Levels of PEEP below that at which minimal Ers was observed increased poorly and non-aerated areas, with concomitant reductions in normally inflated and hyperinflated areas. Conclusion The PEEP at which minimal Ers occurred, obtained by descending PEEP titration with a protective

  17. Electrostatic interactions play an essential role in the binding of oleic acid with α-lactalbumin in the HAMLET-like complex: a study using charge-specific chemical modifications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yongjing; Min, Soyoung; Harte, Níal P; Kirk, Hannah; O'Brien, John E; Voorheis, H Paul; Svanborg, Catharina; Hun Mok, K

    2013-01-01

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and its analogs are partially unfolded protein-oleic acid (OA) complexes that exhibit selective tumoricidal activity normally absent in the native protein itself. To understand the nature of the interaction between protein and OA moieties, charge-specific chemical modifications of lysine side chains involving citraconylation, acetylation, and guanidination were employed and the biophysical and biological properties were probed. Upon converting the original positively-charged lysine residues to negatively-charged citraconyl or neutral acetyl groups, the binding of OA to protein was eliminated, as were any cytotoxic activities towards osteosarcoma cells. Retention of the positive charges by converting lysine residues to homoarginine groups (guanidination); however, yielded unchanged binding of OA to protein and identical tumoricidal activity to that displayed by the wild-type α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex. With the addition of OA, the wild-type and guanidinated α-lactalbumin proteins underwent substantial conformational changes, such as partial unfolding, loss of tertiary structure, but retention of secondary structure. In contrast, no significant conformational changes were observed in the citraconylated and acetylated α-lactalbumins, most likely because of the absence of OA binding. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positively-charged basic groups on α-lactalbumin and the negatively-charged carboxylate groups on OA molecules play an essential role in the binding of OA to α-lactalbumin and that these interactions appear to be as important as hydrophobic interactions.

  18. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Oleic Acid Diethanolamine Condensate (CAS No. 93-83-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies).

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    Oleic acid diethanolamine condensate is widely used as an emollient, thickener, and foam stabilizer present in cosmetic formulations of bath additives, shampoos, conditioners, lipsticks, and hair dyes. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of diethanolamine in 95% ethanol for 13 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were performed in Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. 13-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were admin istered 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg oleic acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol dermally for 13 weeks. All male and female rats survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of 200 and 400 mg/kg males and the mean body weight gain of 400 mg/kg females were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls. The only chemical-related clinical finding was irritation of the skin at the site of application in most males administered 100 mg/kg or greater and in all females administered 50 mg/kg or greater. Segmented neutrophil counts were increased relative to the vehicle controls in the 400 mg/kg male group on days 5 and 19, in the 200 mg/kg female group on day 19 and at week 13, and in the 400 mg/kg female group on days 5 and 19 and at week 13. Alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly increased in the 200 mg/kg male group on day 19, the 200 mg/kg female group at week 13, and in the 400 mg/kg groups of males and females at week 13. Kidney weights of 200 and 400 mg/kg females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle controls. Lesions of the skin at the site of application included epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, chronic active dermal inflammation, suppurative epidermal inflammation, and sebaceous gland hypertrophy in dosed rats. The severities of these lesions generally increased with increasing dose. 13-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were admin istered

  19. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    PubMed Central

    Howard, E. I.; Guillot, B.; Blakeley, M. P.; Haertlein, M.; Moulin, M.; Mitschler, A.; Cousido-Siah, A.; Fadel, F.; Valsecchi, W. M.; Tomizaki, Takashi; Petrova, T.; Claudot, J.; Podjarny, A.

    2016-01-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H⋯H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface. PMID:27006775

  20. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic n3 fatty acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While considerable research has centered upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism, a growing literature indicates that the amount of fat consumed can reduce the elongation and desaturation process. However, little data exist ...

  1. Regulation of serum-responsive transmembrane kinase EhTMKB1-9 by an unsaturated lipid, oleic acid in protistan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2014-11-01

    Transmembrane kinases of Entamoeba histolytica are known to play a wide range of roles from virulence, phagocytosis, and proliferation to stress response. Transmembrane kinase EhTMKB1-9 is thought to be involved in early proliferative response and it was originally identified as a serum inducible gene. Ability to stimulate EhTMKB1 expression of serum starved cells resides in unsaturated fatty acids associated with albumin fraction of serum and the mechanism of stimulation follows activation of EhTMKB1-9 promoter. Gel shift assay showed the presence of proteins that bind to the specific site of EhTMKB1-9 upstream region and the concentration of these protein(s) go down on serum starvation, but level of binding protein(s) go up on serum or fatty acid replenishment. This increase in concentration of binding molecule(s) is due to new synthesis rather than activation of existing molecule(s) as a protein synthesis inhibitor blocked enhanced level of gel shifted material on replenishment. The stimulating activity resides in the fatty acyl chain, but not in the head group. Moreover, the fatty acid initiates signaling through class I PI3 kinases that result in activation of EhTMKB1-9 expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism of gene regulation in E. histolytica, and unsaturated fatty acids as potential new signaling molecules.

  2. A mixture of oleic, erucic and conjugated linoleic acids modulates cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers and improve somatosensorial evoked potential in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy female carriers.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Petroni, Anna; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Vollono, Catello; De Pasquale, Loredana; Blasevich, Milena; Banni, Sebastiano

    2012-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare inherited demyelinating disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, mainly hexacosanoic acid (26:0), due to a mutation of the gene encoding for a peroxisomal membrane protein. The only available, and partially effective, therapeutic treatment consists of dietary intake of a 4:1 mixture of triolein and trierucin, called Lorenzo's oil (LO), targeted to inhibit the elongation of docosanoic acid (22:0) to 26:0. In this study we tested whether, besides inhibiting elongation, an enhancement of peroxisomal beta oxidation induced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), will improve somatosensory evoked potentials and modify inflammatory markers in adrenoleukodystrophy females carriers. We enrolled five heterozygous women. They received a mixture of LO (40 g/day) with CLA (5 g/day) for 2 months. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the means of plasma levels of 26:0, 26:0/22:0 ratio, modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers and somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes of fatty acid profile, and in particular CLA incorporation, were also evaluated in CSF and plasma. The results showed that CLA promptly passes the blood brain barrier and the mixture was able to lower both 26:0 and 26:0/22:0 ratio in plasma. The mixture improved somatosensory evoked potentials, which were previously found unchanged or worsened with dietary LO alone, and reduced IL-6 levels in CSF in three out of five patients. Our data suggest that the synergic activity of CLA and LO, by enhancing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and preventing 26:0 formation, improves the somatosensory evoked potentials and reduces neuroinflammation.

  3. Synthesis of biobased polyurethane from oleic and ricinoleic acids as the renewable resources via the AB-type self-condensation approach.

    PubMed

    Palaskar, Dnyaneshwar V; Boyer, Aurélie; Cloutet, Eric; Alfos, Carine; Cramail, Henri

    2010-05-10

    Polyurethane (PU) from methyl oleate (derived from sunflower oil) and ricinoleic acid (derived from castor oil) was synthesized using the AB-type self-polycondensation approach for the first time. In the present work, three novel AB-type monomers, namely, a mixture of 10-hydroxy-9-methoxyoctadecanoyl azide/9-hydroxy-10-methoxyoctadecanoyl azide (HMODAz), 12-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoyl azide (HODEAz) and methyl-N-11-hydroxy-9-cis-heptadecen carbamate (MHHDC) were synthesized from methyl oleate and ricinoleic acid using simple reaction steps. Out of these, HMODAz and HODEAz monomers were polymerized by the acyl-azido and hydroxyl AB-type self-condensation approach, while MHHDC monomer was polymerized through AB-type self-condensation via transurethane reaction. The acyl-azido and hydroxyl self-condensations were carried out at various temperatures (50, 60, 80. and 110 degrees C) in bulk with and without catalyst. A FTIR study of the polymerization, using HMODAz at 80 degrees C without catalyst, indicates in situ formation of an intermediate isocyanate group in the first 15-30 min, and further onward, the molar mass increases as observed by SEC analysis. In the case of the MHHDC monomer, a transurethane reaction was used to obtain a similar PU (which was obtained by AB-type acyl-azido and hydroxyl self-condensation of HODEAz) in the presence of titanium tetrabutoxide as a catalyst at 130 degrees C. HMODAz, HODEAz, MHHDC, and corresponding polyurethanes were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of polyurethanes derived from HMODAz, HODEAz, and MHHDC showed two different glass transition temperatures for soft segments (at lower temperature) and hard segments (at higher temperature), indicating phase-separated morphology. PMID:20402498

  4. A new low linolenic acid allele of GmFAD3A gene in soybean PE1690

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative fatty acid content of soybean oil is about 12 % palmitic acid, 4 % stearic acid, 23 % oleic acid, 54 % linoleic acid, and 8 % linolenic acid. To improve oxidative stability and quality of oil, breeding programs have mainly focused on reducing saturated fatty acids, increasing oleic acid, an...

  5. Gomisin J Inhibits Oleic Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipogenesis by Activation of the AMPK-Dependent Pathway and Inhibition of the Hepatokine Fetuin-A in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sun Young; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-11-11

    The aim of our study is to investigate the molecular mechanism of gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis on the oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Gomisin J attenuated lipid accumulation in OA-induced HepG2 cells. It also suppressed the expression of lipogenic enzymes and inflammatory mediators and increased the expression of lipolytic enzymes in OA-induced HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the use of specific inhibitors and fetuin-A siRNA and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA transfected cells demonstrated that gomisin J regulated lipogenesis and lipolysis via inhibition of fetuin-A and activation of an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that gomisin J suppressed lipid accumulation by regulating the expression of lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules through activation of AMPK, LKB1, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and inhibition of fetuin-A in HepG2 cells. This suggested that gomisin J has potential benefits in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  6. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  7. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  8. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  9. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

  10. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown. PMID:27632919

  11. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  12. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  13. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  14. C18-unsaturated branched-chain fatty acid isomers: characterization and physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iso-oleic acid is a mixture of C18-unsaturated branched-chain fatty acid isomers with a methyl group on various positions of the alkyl chain, which is the product of the skeletal isomerization reaction of oleic acid and is the intermediate used to make isostearic acid (C18-saturated branched-chain f...

  15. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  16. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  18. Lactic acid utilization by the cutaneous Micrococcaceae.

    PubMed

    Smith, R F

    1971-04-01

    Human cutaneous staphylococci and micrococci utilized lactic acid as an energy source on a minimal medium. Propionic acid was not utilized, but l(+)-lactic acid and pyruvic acid could replace ld-lactic acid as a substrate. Selected strains of cocci were inhibited more by the l(+) and d(-) forms of lactic acid than the balanced ld form, particularly at pH 5.6. With proper dilution of substrate, lactic acid was utilized by selected strains in the presence of 10 mug of oleic and palmitic acids per ml.

  19. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  20. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  1. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  2. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  3. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  4. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high–oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline PD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high–oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid–enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high–oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high–linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35–70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Results: Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P < 0.05). The characteristic decrease from baseline in plasma nonesterified fatty acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0–3 h, P < 0.05). HLS increased the augmentation index compared with the other test meals (P < 0.05), although the digital volume pulse–reflection index was not significantly different. Plasma 8-isoprostane F2α analysis revealed opposing effects of FO (increased) and AO (reduced) compared with the control (P < 0.05). No differences in nitric oxide metabolites were observed. Conclusions: These data show differential postprandial 8-isoprostane F2α responses to high-fat meals containing EPA + DHA–rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid–derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible

  5. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  6. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  7. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  8. Synthesis of a novel biologically active amide ester of 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecanoic acid (DOD) using lipase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) are known to have industrial potential because of their special properties such as high viscosity and reactivity. Among the hydroxy fatty acids, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) was successfully produced from oleic acid and lipid containing oleic acid by a bacter...

  9. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  12. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  14. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  15. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  16. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  18. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  19. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  20. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  1. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  2. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  3. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  4. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  6. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022') and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20') were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  7. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion.

  8. Unsaturated fatty acids in alkane solution: adsorption to steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Sarah M; Persson, Karin; Mueller, Gregor; Kronberg, Bengt; Clarke, Jim; Chtaib, Mohammed; Claesson, Per M

    2007-10-01

    The adsorption of the unsaturated fatty acids oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid on steel surfaces has been investigated by means of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Two different solvents were used, n-hexadecane and its highly branched isomer, viz., 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. The area occupied per molecule of oleic acid at 1 wt % corresponds to what is needed for adsorption parallel to the surface. At the same concentration, the adsorbed amount of linoleic acid and linolenic acid indicates that they adsorb in multilayers. The chemisorbed amount estimated from static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements was found to be similar for the three unsaturated fatty acids. In the case of linolenic acid, it was found that the presence of water significantly alters the adsorption, most likely because of the precipitation of fatty acid/water aggregates. Furthermore, static SIMS results indicate that the amount of water used here inhibits the chemisorption of linolenic acid.

  9. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  10. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  11. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  12. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  14. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  15. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  18. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  19. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  20. Baker's Yeast Deficient in Storage Lipid Synthesis Uses cis-Vaccenic Acid to Reduce Unsaturated Fatty Acid Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sec, Peter; Garaiova, Martina; Gajdos, Peter; Certik, Milan; Griac, Peter; Hapala, Ivan; Holic, Roman

    2015-07-01

    The role of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) in the reduction of unsaturated fatty acids toxicity was investigated in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quadruple mutant (QM, dga1Δ lro1Δ are1Δ are2Δ) deficient in enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol and steryl ester synthesis has been previously shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. We have found that cis-vaccenic acid accumulated during cultivation in the QM cells but not in the corresponding wild type strain. This accumulation was accompanied by a reduction in palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) content in the QM cells that is consistent with the proposed formation of cis-vaccenic acid by elongation of palmitoleic acid. Fatty acid analysis of individual lipid classes from the QM strain revealed that cis-vaccenic acid was highly enriched in the free fatty acid pool. Furthermore, production of cis-vaccenic acid was arrested if the mechanism of fatty acids release to the medium was activated. We also showed that exogenous cis-vaccenic acid did not affect viability of the QM strain at concentrations toxic for palmitoleic or oleic acids. Moreover, addition of cis-vaccenic acid to the growth medium provided partial protection against the lipotoxic effects of exogenous oleic acid. Transformation of palmitoleic acid to cis-vaccenic acid is thus a rescue mechanism enabling S. cerevisiae cells to survive in the absence of triacylglycerol synthesis as the major mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid detoxification.

  1. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  2. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  3. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  4. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  6. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  7. Influence of unsaturated fatty acid membrane component on sensitivity of an Escherichia coli fatty acid auxotroph to conditions of nutrient depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Massa, E M; López Vińals, A; Farías, R N

    1988-01-01

    The unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph Escherichia coli AK7 was provided with either oleic acid (cis 18:1) or linolenic acid (cis 18:3) to vary the degree of unsaturation of cell membrane lipids. The susceptibility of oleic acid- and linolenic acid-grown cells to starvation at 37 degrees C in 154 mM NaCl was compared following the decline in the number of CFU by plating the cells on agar medium. The decline in CFU was faster for linolenic acid-than for oleic acid-grown cells, but it was not indicative of cell death, since culturable CFU was recovered after respirable substrate was added to the starved cell suspension. Cell envelope microviscosity (determined by fluorescence polarization) of oleic acid- and linolenic acid-grown cells was equal in the presence of a respirable substrate, but in its absence the microviscosity of linolenic acid-grown cells was lower than that of oleic acid-grown cells. The results suggest that cell envelope microviscosity is an important factor in determining the sensitivity of E. coli to conditions of nutrient depletion. PMID:3052298

  8. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils derived from vegetable oils tend to not meet the standards for industrial lubricants because of unacceptable low temperature properties, pour point (PP), and/or cloud point (CP). However, a catalytic amount of perchloric acid with oleic and coconut (coco) fatty acids produced a coco-oleic estol...

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862....

  10. Property control of sophorolipids: influence of fatty acid substrate and blending

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophorolipids (SLs) were synthesized by fed-batch fermentation of Candida bombicola on glucose and either palmitic acid (SL-p), stearic acid (SL-s), oleic acid (SL-o) or linoleic acid (SL-l) and the structural distribution accurately determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectr...

  11. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  12. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  13. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  14. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  15. High-oleic peanuts are not different from normal peanuts in allergenic properties.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Maleki, Soheila; Champagne, Elaine T; Buhr, Kenneth L; Gorbet, Daniel W

    2002-02-13

    High-oleic peanuts are known for a high content of oleic fatty acid. However, it is not known whether high-oleic peanuts are different from normal chemistry peanuts in levels of allergenicity and end-product adducts (i.e., products cross-linked with proteins). For this purpose, four different peanut cultivars (Florunner, Georgia Green, NC 9, and NC 2) were evaluated and compared with high-oleic peanuts (SunOleic 97R). Adducts such as AGE/CML from Maillard reactions and MDA/HNE from lipid oxidation were determined, respectively, in ELISA, using polyclonal antibodies. Allergenicity was determined based on IgE binding and T-cell proliferation. Results showed that raw high-oleic peanuts were not different from normal peanuts in adduct levels. After roasting, CML and HNE levels remained unchanged, but an increased and similar amounts of AGE adducts were found in all peanuts. MDA also increased but not in high-oleic peanuts. This suggests that high-oleic peanuts are more stable to lipid oxidation than others during heating. Despite this, high-oleic peanuts did not differ from normal peanuts in IgE binding and T-cell proliferation. It was concluded that a high content of oleic fatty acid has no effect on peanut allergenicity and that high-oleic peanuts do not give a higher or lower risk of allergy than normal peanuts.

  16. Skin permeation enhancement of diclofenac by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Doh, Hea-Jeong; Choi, Min-Koo; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kim, Jung Sun; Yong, Chul-Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2008-08-01

    This study systematically investigated the enhancing effect of fatty acids on the skin permeation of diclofenac. The fatty acids were evaluated in terms of their carbon-chain length, the degree of unsaturation, and their functional groups. The rat-skin permeation rates of diclofenac, saturated in propylene glycol (PG) containing 1% (w/v) fatty acid, were determined using the Keshary-Chien diffusion cells at 37 degrees C. The effect of fatty acids on the saturated solubility of diclofenac in PG was also determined at 37 degrees C using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the saturated fatty acids tested, palmitic acid (C16:0) showed the most potent skin permeation-enhancing effect. A parabolic correlation was observed between the enhancement effect and the fatty acid carbon-chain length among these saturated fatty acids of C12-C20 units. For the monounsaturated fatty acid series, an increase in permeation was observed as the carbon-chain length increased, and oleic acid (C18:1) showed the highest permeation-enhancing effect. Increasing the number of double bonds in the octadecanoic acids resulted in a parabolic effect in the permeation of diclofenac, revealing oleic acid as the most effective enhancer used in this study. When the carboxylic acid moiety of oleic acid was changed to an amide (oleamide) or hydroxyl (oleyl alcohol) group, a decrease in permeation activity was observed. These results, therefore, suggest that the cis-monounsaturated configuration and the carboxylic acid moiety of an 18-carbon unit fatty acid in PG are the optimum requirements for the effective skin permeation of diclofenac.

  17. Zeolite-catalyzed additions of aromatic compounds to oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant research interest in developing new materials from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biobased materials can be more environmentally friendly because they tend to have good biodegradability and are derived from renewable resources. In this talk, efficient approaches for the addit...

  18. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  19. GLC analysis of Indian rapeseed-mustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Agnihotri, A

    2000-12-01

    Rapeseed-mustard is one of the most economically important oilseed crops in India. Speciality oils having high amounts of a specific fatty acid are of immense importance for both nutritional and industrial purposes. Oil high in oleic acid has demand in commercial food-service applications due to a long shelf-life and cholesterol-reducing properties. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; however, less than 3% linolenic acid is preferred for oil stability. High erucic acid content is beneficial for the polymer industry, whereas low erucic acid is recommended for food purposes. Therefore, it is important to undertake systematic characterization of the available gene pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes. In the present study the Indian rapeseed-mustard germplasm and some newly developed low-erucic-acid strains were analysed by GLC to study the fatty acid composition in these lines. The GLC analysis revealed that the rapeseed-mustard varieties being commonly grown in India are characterized by high erucic acid content (30-51%) in the oil with low levels of oleic acid (13-23%). However, from among the recently developed low-erucic-acid strains, several lines were identified with comparatively high oleic acid (60-70%), moderate to high linoleic acid (13-40%) and low linolenic acid (< 10%) contents. Work is in progress at TERI (New Delhi, India) to utilize these lines for development of strains with particular fatty acid compositions for specific purposes.

  20. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  1. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  2. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  3. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  4. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  5. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  6. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  7. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  8. Feeding oleamide to lactating Jersey cows 1. Effects on lactation performance and milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C

    2000-02-01

    Oleamide was previously reported to resist ruminal biohydrogenation and elevate milk oleic acid concentration when fed to lactating Holstein cows. To determine if Jersey cows responded similarly to oleamide, four lactating Jersey cows (mean 417 kg of body weight and 64 days in milk) were fed four diets in a 4x4 Latin square with 2-wk periods. Diets were total mixed ration containing 47% corn silage and 53% concentrate (dry matter basis) and were supplemented with no added fat (control), or with 3.5% added fat from either higholeic canola oil, a commercial source of oleamide, or oleamide synthesized from oleic acid and urea. The canola oil supplement had no effect on milk yield or composition. Compared to canola oil, the oleamide supplements reduced milk yield, dry matter intake, and milk fat and protein contents. Milk oleic acid concentration increased from 17.4% of total fatty acids for the control diet to 22.1% for the canola oil diet. Both oleamides further increased milk oleic acid to 30.0 and 27.1% of total fatty acids for the commercial and synthesized oleamides, respectively. Milk palmitic acid was reduced and stearic acid was increased by all fat supplements but more so by the oleamides than by the canola oil. Consistent with previous reports that fatty acyl amides resist ruminal biohydrogenation, feeding oleamide to Jersey cows in this study increased milk oleic acid concentration but had negative effects on feed intake and milk yield.

  9. Sophorolipid-derived unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides as plasticizers for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides were synthesized from the omega and omega-1 hydroxy fatty acids derived from sophorolipids (SLs) prepared by fermentation from glucose:soybean oil and glucose:oleic acid, respectively. These estolides were utilized as additives in solution-cast poly(3-hydro...

  10. Petroselinic acid purification and its use for the fermentation of new sophorolipids.

    PubMed

    Delbeke, Elisabeth I P; Everaert, Jonas; Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Verweire, Stijn; Verlee, Arno; Talou, Thierry; Soetaert, Wim; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-03-01

    Petroselinic acid, a positional isomer of oleic acid, was isolated from the vegetable oil of Coriandrum sativum fruits. This uncommon fatty acid was subsequently used as substrate for sophorolipid fermentation with a Starmerella bombicola lactone esterase overexpression (oe sble) strain. A petroselinic acid based diacetylated sophorolipid lactone was obtained in high purity without incorporation of de novo synthesized fatty acids such as oleic acid. A total production of 40 g/L was obtained. The petroselinic acid based sophorolipid lactone was subsequently hydrolyzed towards the petroselinic acid based sophorolipid acid. For both compounds, their critical micelle concentration (CMC) and corresponding surface tension were compared to their oleic acid based counterparts. Both petroselinic acid based sophorolipids displayed a much lower CMC value than their oleic acid based counterparts, although their minimal surface tension was the same. Besides, the sophorolipid fermentation product was chemically modified towards a novel C12 sophorolipid aldehyde. This derivative constitutes an interesting building block for further modification towards new-to-nature sophorolipids with high potential for self-assembly applications. PMID:27033544

  11. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  12. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  14. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  15. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  16. Fatty acid transport and utilization for the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Edmond, J; Higa, T A; Korsak, R A; Bergner, E A; Lee, W N

    1998-03-01

    To determine the transport and utilization of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the developing brain and other organs, artificially reared rat pups were fed a rat milk substitute containing the perdeuterated (each 97 atom% deuterium) fatty acids, i.e., palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, from day 7 after birth to day 14 as previously described. Fatty acids in lipid extracts of the liver, lung, kidney, and brain were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their content of each of the deuterated fatty acids. The uptake and metabolism of perdeuterated fatty acid lead to the appearance of three distinct groups of isotopomers: the intact perdeuterated, the newly synthesized (with recycled deuterium), and the natural unlabeled fatty acid. The quantification of these isotopomers permits the estimation of uptake and de novo synthesis of these fatty acids. Intact perdeuterated palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids from the diet were found in liver, lung, and kidney, but not in brain. By contrast, perdeuterated linoleic acid was found in all these organs. Isotopomers of fatty acid from de novo synthesis were observed in palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids in all tissues. The highest enrichment of isotopomers with recycled deuterium was found in the brain. The data indicate that, during the brain growth spurt and the prelude to myelination, the major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in brain lipids are exclusively produced locally by de novo biosynthesis. Consequently, the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids must be transported and delivered to the brain by highly specific mechanisms.

  17. Effect of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on the composition of fatty acid associated with phospholipids in alveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Noguchi, T.; Kikuno, M.; Kubota, K.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo exposure of rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 12 h caused changes in fatty acids composition of alveolar lavage phospholipids. Among the fatty acid species, the relative ratio of palmitic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid increased significantly. While the relative ratio of stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased significantly. Both the increase in the incorporation of palmitic acid in phosphatidylcholine which would be released into the alveoli and the increase in the release of phosphatidylcholine into the alveoli may account for the changes in the fatty acid composition of the present findings.

  18. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte, platelet, and serum lipids in strict vegans.

    PubMed

    Agren, J J; Törmälä, M L; Nenonen, M T; Hänninen, O O

    1995-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes, platelets, and serum lipids was compared between subjects who had been eating a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food") for years and omnivore controls. The vegan diet contains equal amounts of fat but more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the mixed diet of the control group. In vegans, the proportion of linoleic acid was greater in all lipid fractions studied. Also, the levels of other n-6 fatty acids were greater, with the exception of arachidonic acid levels, which were similar in most fractions. In erythrocytes, platelets and serum phospholipid fractions, this increase was mainly at the expense of the n-3 fatty acids. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were only 29-36% and 49-52% of those in controls, respectively. In vegans the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids was only about half that in omnivores. In addition to the lower levels of n-3 fatty acids, the proportions of palmitic and stearic acids were lower in serum cholesteryl esters, triglycerides and free fatty acids of vegans. The proportion of oleic acid was slightly lower only in serum cholesteryl esters and erythrocyte phosphatidylserine. The results show that, in the long term, the vegan diet has little effect on the proportions of oleic and arachidonic acids, whereas the levels of n-3 fatty acids are depressed to very low levels with prolonged consumption of the high linoleic and oleic acid components of this diet.

  19. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  20. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  1. Locations of the three primary binding sites for long-chain fatty acids on bovine serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Era, S.; Bhamidipati, S.P. ); Reed, R.G. )

    1991-03-15

    Binding of {sup 13}C-enriched oleic acid to bovine serum albumin and to three large proteolytic fragments of albumin - two complementary fragments corresponding to the two halved of albumin and one fragment corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal domain - yielded unique patterns of NMR resonances (chemical shifts and relative intensities) that were used to identify the locations of binding of the first 5 mol of oleic acid to the multidomain albumin molecule. The first 3 mol of oleic acid added to intact albumin generated three distinct NMR resonances as a result of simultaneous binding of oleic acid to three heterogeneous sites (primary sites). This distribution suggests albumin to be a less symmetrical binding molecule than theoretical models predict. This work also demonstrates the power of NMR for the study of microenvironments of individual fatty acid binding sites in specific domain.

  2. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  3. Development of Fatty Acid-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Takeno, Seiki; Takasaki, Manami; Urabayashi, Akinobu; Mimura, Akinori; Muramatsu, Tetsuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To date, no information has been made available on the genetic traits that lead to increased carbon flow into the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To develop basic technologies for engineering, we employed an approach that begins by isolating a fatty acid-secreting mutant without depending on mutagenic treatment. This was followed by genome analysis to characterize its genetic background. The selection of spontaneous mutants resistant to the palmitic acid ester surfactant Tween 40 resulted in the isolation of a desired mutant that produced oleic acid, suggesting that a single mutation would cause increased carbon flow down the pathway and subsequent excretion of the oversupplied fatty acid into the medium. Two additional rounds of selection of spontaneous cerulenin-resistant mutants led to increased production of the fatty acid in a stepwise manner. Whole-genome sequencing of the resulting best strain identified three specific mutations (fasR20, fasA63up, and fasA2623). Allele-specific PCR analysis showed that the mutations arose in that order. Reconstitution experiments with these mutations revealed that only fasR20 gave rise to oleic acid production in the wild-type strain. The other two mutations contributed to an increase in oleic acid production. Deletion of fasR from the wild-type strain led to oleic acid production as well. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the fasR20 mutation brought about upregulation of the fasA and fasB genes encoding fatty acid synthases IA and IB, respectively, by 1.31-fold ± 0.11-fold and 1.29-fold ± 0.12-fold, respectively, and of the accD1 gene encoding the β-subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by 3.56-fold ± 0.97-fold. On the other hand, the fasA63up mutation upregulated the fasA gene by 2.67-fold ± 0.16-fold. In flask cultivation with 1% glucose, the fasR20 fasA63up fasA2623 triple mutant produced approximately 280 mg of fatty acids/liter, which consisted mainly of oleic

  4. Growth and effect of staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria on unsaturated free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Talon, R; Walter, D; Montel, M C

    2000-01-01

    The growth and the effects of four species of staphylococci and six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genus Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus on unsaturated free fatty acids were studied. The strains were grown in complex medium supplemented either with oleic, linoleic or linolenic acids. Growth was followed and oxidation of the substrates measured by TBARS. The strains of Staphylococcus xylosus 873, 16, Staphylococcus warneri 863 and Staphylococcus saprophyticus grew well on all the substrates. Whereas, the growth of the two strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus 831 was inhibited in the media with linolenic acid. The addition of manganese to this media allowed good growth of these strains. All the LAB did not grow well in the media with linoleic acid, but their growth was favoured by addition of manganese to the media. Under our conditions, only linoleic and linolenic acids were oxidised. All the strains had no prooxidant activity. All the staphylococci limited oxidation of linoleic acid and had a small effect on linolenic acid. LAB did not limit oxidation of linoleic acid. With manganese in the media: the oxidation of the sterile controls was delayed for 2 days and then increased; strains of S. carnosus and S. xylosus inhibited oxidation of linolenic acid; and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus limited oxidation of linoleic acid. The two Carnobacterium, whatever the conditions, had no antioxidant properties.

  5. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  6. Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

    2007-05-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.

  7. Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Yuji; Iida, Toshii; Inomata, Shinji; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2005-05-01

    Abnormal follicular keratinization is involved in comedogenesis in acne vulgaris. We recently demonstrated that calcium influx into epidermal keratinocytes is associated with impaired skin barrier function and epidermal proliferation. Based on these results, we hypothesized that sebum components affect calcium dynamics in the keratinocyte and consequently induce abnormal keratinization. To test this idea, we first observed the effects of topical application of sebum components, triglycerides (triolein), saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitoleic acid) on hairless mouse skin. Neither triglyceride nor saturated fatty acids affected the skin surface morphology or epidermal proliferation. On the other hand, application of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, and palmitoleic acid induced scaly skin, abnormal keratinization, and epidermal hyperplasia. Application of triglycerides and saturated fatty acids on cultured human keratinocytes did not affect the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), whereas unsaturated fatty acids increased the [Ca(2+)](i) of the keratinocytes. Moreover, application of oleic acid on hairless mouse skin induced an abnormal calcium distribution in the epidermis. These results suggest that unsaturated fatty acids in sebum alter the calcium dynamics in epidermal keratinocytes and induce abnormal follicular keratinization.

  8. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  9. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  10. Fatty acid transfer between multilamellar liposomes and fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brecher, P; Saouaf, R; Sugarman, J M; Eisenberg, D; LaRosa, K

    1984-11-10

    A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids between multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes containing cholesterol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from the liposomes to either protein rapidly and selectively under conditions where phospholipid and cholesterol transfer did not occur. More than 50% of the fatty acid contained within liposomes could become protein bound, suggesting that the fatty acid moved readily between and across phospholipid bilayers. Transfer was reduced at low pH, and this reduction appeared to result from decreased dissociation of the protonated fatty acid from the bilayer. Liposomes made with dimyristoyl or dipalmitoyl lecithin and containing 1 mol per cent palmitic acid were used to show the effect of temperature on fatty acid transfer. Transfer to either protein did not occur at temperatures where the liposomes were in a gel state but occurred rapidly at temperatures at or above the transition temperatures of the phospholipid used. PMID:6490659

  11. Synthesis and utilization of fatty acids by wild-type and fatty acid auxotrophs of Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, V; Shaw, P; Shapiro, L; Henry, S

    1982-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was found to consist primarily of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated, in agreement with the findings of Chow and Schmidt (J. Gen. Microbiol. 83:359-373, 1974). In addition, two minor but as yet unidentified fatty acids were detected. Chromatographic mobilities suggested that these fatty acids may be a cyclopropane and a branched-chain fatty acid. In addition, we demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of wild-type C. crescentus can be altered by growing the cells in medium supplemented with any one of a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid, a diunsaturated fatty acid which is not synthesized by C. crescentus, was incorporated into phospholipids without apparent modification. In addition, we found that C. crescentus, like Escherichia coli, synthesizes vaccenic acid (18:1 delta 11,cis) rather than oleic acid (18:1 delta 9,cis). This result allowed us to deduce that the mechanism of fatty acid desaturation in C. crescentus is anaerobic, as it is in E. coli. Finally, we examined the fatty acid biosynthesis and composition of two unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs of C. crescentus. Neither of these mutants resembled the E. coli unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs, which have defined enzymatic lesions in fatty acid biosynthesis. Rather, the mutants appeared to have defects relating to the complex coordination of membrane biogenesis and cell cycle events in C. crescentus. Images PMID:7107555

  12. Lipid production on free fatty acids by oleaginous yeasts under non-growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobing; Jin, Guojie; Wang, Yandan; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2015-10-01

    Microbial lipids produced by oleaginous yeasts serve as promising alternatives to traditional oils and fats for the production of biodiesel and oleochemicals. To improve its techno-economics, it is pivotal to use wastes and produce high quality lipids of special fatty acid composition. In the present study, four oleaginous yeasts were tested to use free fatty acids for lipid production under non-growth conditions. Microbial lipids of exceptionally high fatty acid relative contents, e.g. those contained over 70% myristic acid or 80% oleic acid, were produced that may be otherwise inaccessible by growing cells on various carbon sources. It was found that Cryptococcus curvatus is a robust strain that can efficiently use oleic acid as well as even-numbered saturated fatty acids with carbon atoms ranging from 10 to 20. Our results provided new opportunity for the production of functional lipids and for the exploitation of organic wastes rich in free fatty acids.

  13. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Findings In the Federal Register of February 15, 2013 (78 FR 11126) (FRL- 9378-4), EPA issued a document... composition the atomic elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 3. The polymer does not contain as an integral... molecular weight (MW) greater than or equal to 10,000 daltons. 7. The polymer does not contain...

  14. Calculating the bulk properties of decalins and fatty acids in decalin according to data from molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, R. A.; Kholmurodov, Kh. T.; Petrenko, V. I.; Avdeev, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    Pure solutions of decalin with different contents of its isomeric forms are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Limiting solutions of fatty acids with different carbon chain length in decalin are considered. Comparison of the features of structural organization of decalin isomers in the vicinity of saturated (myristic, stearic) and unsaturated (oleic) acids molecules are performed. Limiting partial molar volumes of acids are determined using a radial distribution function of atoms in the solution. In contrast to earlier data for benzene, a considerable difference in the volumes of stearic and oleic acids is obtained that is explained by the more complex structure of decalin, which is sensitive to bending of unsaturated acid.

  15. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic dimer and trimer plus estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides are a class of esters based on vegetable oils that are formed when the carboxylic acid functionality of one fatty acid reacts at the site of unsaturation of another fatty acid to form an ester linkage. The objective of this preliminary study was to separate coco-oleic estolide into two com...

  16. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  17. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  18. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  19. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  1. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  2. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  3. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  4. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  6. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  8. Recycled fatty acid crude petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, G. L.; Herter, C.

    1984-11-06

    A method of recovering crude oil for subsequent processing. The method contemplates the step of exposing the source of crude oil such as a subterranean petroleum reservoir or a vessel or container of tar sands, kerogen or the like to aliphatic or carboxylic acid, preferably oleic acid, to produce a solvated crude oil mixture of reduced viscosity. This mixture is saponifyed by reacting it with a nucleophilic base, preferably a hydroxide of potassium or sodium, under pressure whereby to separate the solvated mixture into petroleum crude and an acid soap which migrates to an aqueous phase. The petroleum crude is separated from the aqueous soap through conventional techniques. Afterwards, a desaponification step contemplates recovery of the aliphatic or carboxylic acid for subsequent recycling in the previously mentioned exposing step. Reuse is facilitated by desaponifying aqueous soap within a high pressure containment vessel reacted with an acid suitable for donating a hydrated proton to the aqueous phase of the soap. This reconstituted acid is recycled for injection into the inputting step. Preferably carbonic acid is generated for the desaponifying step by injecting high pressure carbon dioxide within the containment vessel. By-products of the chemical reaction are separated and/or filtered as necessary to effectuate necessary purification sub-steps.

  9. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  10. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  11. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  12. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  13. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  14. Influence of specific fatty acids on the asymmetric distribution of saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Force, Enrique; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Garcés, Rafael

    2009-02-25

    The 1,3-random-2-random theory was proposed several years ago to explain the fatty acid distribution in vegetable oil triacylglycerols. However, by demonstrating an asymmetry between positions sn-1 and sn-3 in olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower oil, etc., a number of studies have shown that this theory does not hold true for some oils and fatty acids. Accordingly, the distribution of fatty acids in sunflower triacylglycerols has been studied, calculating the alpha coefficient of asymmetry in several combinations of standard linoleic, high-oleic, and high-stearic sunflower oils. The results obtained from the oils of these lines and from single seed oil samples indicate that the asymmetry for saturated fatty acids is greater in high-oleic than in standard linoleic backgrounds. Hence, the distribution of the fatty acids within the triacylglycerol molecule appears to depend not only on the fatty acid under study but also on the other fatty acids in the oil. Thus, it is demonstrated for the first time that certain fatty acids can influence the distribution of other fatty acids within triacylglycerols.

  15. Geometrical isomerization of fatty acids with sulfur as a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Grompone, M.A.; Tancredi, N.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the kinetics of the geometrical isomerization of oleic and palmitoleic acids, both contained in U.S.P. oleic acid that were studied. Sulfur powder was used as a catalyst. The methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by GLC with 15% OV-275 columns. The sulfur-catalyzed isomerization at 180 and 225{degrees} C proceeds via two consecutive mechanisms. The position of equilibrium is reached by the second mechanism. For this, at any particular initial concentration of sulfur, the pseudo- first-order rate dependence on substrate for a reversible reaction holds. The full rate has been shown to be proportional to the initial sulfur concentration taken to the 1.2 power. The rate constants at both temperatures and the activation energies were calculated.

  16. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  2. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  3. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  4. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  5. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  6. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  7. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  8. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production.

  9. Process strategies to maximize lipid accumulations of novel yeast in acid and base treated hydrolyzates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipids, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppo...

  10. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  11. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  12. Production of Biologically Active 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic Acid from Korean Pine Seed Oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxyl group of hydroxyl fatty acid (HFA) cause HFA to carry special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Microbial conversion of oleic acid into 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) caused DOD to carry strong antibacterial activit...

  13. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  14. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  15. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  18. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  19. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  20. Analysis of mycolic acid cleavage products and cellular fatty acids of Mycobacterium species by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M A; Moss, C W; Silcox, V A; Good, R C

    1986-04-01

    After growth and experimental conditions were established, the mycolic acid cleavage products, constituent fatty acids, and alcohols of representative strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum complex, M. kansasii, M. gordonae, and M. avium complex were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Reproducible cleavage of mycolic acid methyl esters to tetracosanoic (24:0) or hexacosanoic (26:0) acid methyl esters was achieved by heating the sample in a high-temperature muffle furnace. The major constituent fatty acids in all species were hexadecanoic (16:0) and octadecenoic (18:1 omega 9-c, oleic) acids. With the exception of M. gordonae, 10-methyloctadecanoic acid was found in all species; moreover, M. gordonae was the only species tested which contained 2-methyltetradecanoic acid. M. kansasii was characterized by the presence of 2,4-dimethyltetradecanoic acid, M. avium complex by 2-eicosanol, and M. tuberculosis by 26:0 mycolic acid cleavage product. The mycolic acid cleavage product in the other five species tested was 24:0. Although a limited number of strains and species were tested, preliminary results indicate that this gas chromatographic method can be used to characterize mycobacterial cultures by their mycolic acid cleavage products and constituent fatty acid and alcohol content. PMID:3084554

  1. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  2. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  3. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and cholesterol on aminopeptidase activities in rat astroglia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2002-12-01

    Several studies have addressed the interaction between fatty acids and lipids with central nervous system peptides. Because aminopeptidases (AP) are involved in the regulation of neuropeptides, this work studies several AP expressed in cultured astroglia, after exogenous addition of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol to the culture medium. Alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities were analysed in whole cells using the corresponding aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamides as substrates. Oleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, cystyl-AP and leucyl-AP activities, whereas linoleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP and tyrosyl-AP activities. Neither oleic acid nor linoleic acid modifies pyroglutamyl-AP activity. In contrast, cholesterol increases arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities, although it does not modify alanyl-AP activity. The changes reported here suggest that oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol can modulate peptide activities via their degradation route involving aminopeptidases; each of them being differentially regulated.

  4. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  5. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. Fatty acid profiles in relation to triglyceride level in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Tharwat; Goto, Akiko; Oikawa, Shin; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. Palmitic and oleic acid proportions were significantly higher in fatty liver cows than in the healthy cows, while stearic acid was lower in fatty liver cows. With increased liver TG, stearic acid proportions decreased dramatically. Results indicate that hepatic lipidosis markedly alters the proportions of the various fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

  9. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr... requirements for absence of chick-edema factor as prescribed in § 172.860. (c) It is used or intended for...

  10. Mass spectrometry characterisation of fatty acids from metabolically engineered soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Machado, Alex M; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Coelho, Cíntia M; Lacerda, Valquiria A M; Coelho, Marly C; Rech, Elibio L

    2014-05-01

    Improving the quality and performance of soybean oil as biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of its fatty acids and requires an increase in monounsaturated acids and a reduction in polyunsaturated acids. Despite its current use as a source of biofuel, soybean oil contains an average of 25 % oleic acid and 13 % palmitic acid, which negatively impacts its oxidative stability and freezing point, causing a high rate of nitrogen oxide emission. Gas chromatography and ion mobility mass spectrometry were conducted on soybean fatty acids from metabolically engineered seed extracts to determine the nature of the structural oleic and palmitic acids. The soybean genes FAD2-1 and FatB were placed under the control of the 35SCaMV constitutive promoter, introduced to soybean embryonic axes by particle bombardment and down-regulated using RNA interference technology. Results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 94.58 %) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3 %) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and non-transgenic oil extracts.

  11. Effects of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Growth of Rumen Bacteria †

    PubMed Central

    Maczulak, A. E.; Dehority, B. A.; Palmquist, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of low concentrations of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and vaccenic) on the growth of seven species (13 strains) of rumen bacteria were investigated. Except for Bacteroides ruminicola and several strains of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, bacterial growth was not greatly affected by either palmitic or stearic acids. In contrast, growth of Selenomonas ruminantium, B. ruminicola, and one strain of B. fibrisolvens was stimulated by oleic acid, whereas the cellulolytic species were markedly inhibited by this acid. Vaccenic acid (trans Δ11 18:1) had far less inhibitory effect on the cellulolytic species than oleic acid (cis Δ9 18:1). Inclusion of powdered cellulose in the medium appeared to reverse both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of added fatty acids. However, there was little carry-over effect observed when cells were transferred from a medium with fatty acids to one without. Considerable variation in response to added fatty acids was noted among five strains of B. fibrisolvens. In general, exogenous long-chain fatty acids appear to have little, if any, energy-sparing effect on the growth of rumen bacteria. PMID:16345887

  12. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-01-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and γ-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

  13. 2-hydroxyoleic acid: a new hypotensive molecule.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Regina; Terés, Silvia; Baamonde, Carmela; Benet, Mikhail; Vögler, Oliver; Escribá, Pablo V

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) from olive oil, a natural source of oleic acid, have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. With this in mind, we investigated whether a synthetic derivative of the MUFA oleic acid, 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA), was capable of regulating the BP of Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of 2-OHOA to rats induced significant and sustained decreases in BP in a time-dependent manner. Without affecting heart rate, treatments for 7 days provoked reductions in systolic BP of 20 to 26 mm Hg. At the molecular level, the density of Galpha(s), but not Galpha(i2) or Galpha(o), increased in membranes from the hearts and aortas of 2-OHOA-treated rats, whereas in heart membranes, the density of Galpha(q)/11 and protein kinase Calpha proteins was also augmented. These molecular alterations were reflected in the increase in cAMP levels after Galpha(s) protein and beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. On the contrary, inhibitory hormones reduced adenylyl cyclase activity to the same extent in 2-OHOA-treated rats as in vehicle-treated ones. Our results indicate that cardiovascular tissues from 2-OHOA-treated rats exhibited increased cAMP production in response to Galpha(s) activation, which might be attributed to enhanced expression of Galpha(s) proteins. As a result of this change, a significant reduction in systolic BP was observed. Therefore, BP can be lowered by administration of 2-OHOA, which might represent the first member of a new family of antihypertensive drugs.

  14. Fatty acid composition of water buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Gandemer, G; Goutefongea, R; Kowale, B N

    1986-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids of Longissimus dorsi (LD), Psoas major (PM), Biceps femoris (BF), Semitendinosus (ST) muscles and liver of water buffalo male calves was determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The content of total lipids in the LD muscle was found to be maximum, followed by PM, BF and ST in decreasing order (1·03, 0·99, 0·66 and 0·55g/100g of fresh muscle). Liver contained 2·65 g of total lipids per 100 g of fresh tissue. Following the anatomical location, intramuscular lipids contained 44-55% of saturated fatty acids, of which the major components were stearic and palmitic acids. Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (31-40%) composed mainly oleic acid (90%). The PUFA contents in PM, LD, ST and BF were, respectively, 11%, 12%, 13% and 16%. The predominant PUFA were linoleic (66%) and arachidonic (25%). The significance of difference of PUFA content between muscles is discussed. Liver contained 48%, 27% and 22% saturated, monosaturated and PUFA, respectively. The PUFA in liver were linoleic (36%), C20 (47%) and C22 (9%).

  15. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipid obtained from children suffering from kwashiorkor and marasmus.

    PubMed

    Vajreswari, A; Narayanareddy, K; Rao, P S

    1990-08-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane (EM) lipids obtained from normal, kwashiorkor, and marasmic children was analyzed by gas chromatography. The proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) was lower and of oleic acid (18:1) higher in the kwashiorkor group than in the control group. The marasmic group showed lower proportions of eicosatrienoic acid (20:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) and a higher proportion of oleic acid (18:1) than the control group. A significant difference was found between the marasmic and kwashiorkor groups with respect to arachidonic acid (20:4), which showed a lower proportion in the former group than the latter. The ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid (20:4/18:2) was markedly lower in the marasmic group than the control group, suggesting a possible impairment in the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in marasmic children. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was markedly elevated in the kwashiorkor group over that of control group, indicating increased fluidity of EM in kwashiorkor. It is suggested that the altered membrane fatty acid composition reflects deranged lipid metabolism and affects the physical and physiological properties of EM and could contribute to changes in the activities of several red blood cell membrane-bound enzymes reported earlier in kwashiorkor children.

  16. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  17. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  18. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  19. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  20. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  1. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  3. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  4. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  5. Investigation of protein-fatty acid interactions in zein films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin

    Zein, the prolamin of corn, has shown potential as industrial biopolymer for packaging and agricultural uses. Previous researchers plasticized zein with oleic acid and extruded it into sheets and films. Such products showed reasonable tensile and water barrier properties. However, those properties were affected by film structure, which is believed controlled by the interaction between zein and plasticizer. The nature of those interactions is still not well understood. Protein-fatty acid interactions in zein resin films were investigated by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy in this work. Preliminary research was conducted to establish the effect of solvent systems on the plasticization of zein by oleic acid. Although slight differences were observed, it was concluded that the use of 75% ethanol or 75% 2-propanol produced similar results. Surface plasmon resonance was employed to investigate zein static and dynamic adsorption on surfaces of hydrophilic and hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) generated by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid or 1-octanethiol, respectively, and representing the two end groups of oleic acid. Results indicated that zein was adsorbed to both surfaces but showed higher affinity for hydrophilic groups. The corresponding thickness of zein specific binding layer on hydrophilic and hydrophobic SAMs was around 4.7 nm and 4.6 nm. Zein exhibited higher affinity for hydrophilic than for hydrophobic SAMs evidenced from the higher initial adsorption rate and ultimate surface coverage at all zein concentrations. Flushing surface with buffer would leave an apparent monolayer of zein, which is 5 times higher for hydrophilic than hydrophobic SAMs. This observation suggested that zein may use different sides of its molecule to interact with hydrophobic or hydrophilic groups. The surface topography of zein deposits on both SAMs was examined by atomic force microscopy. It was found that zein formed distinct ring-shaped structures with

  6. Fatty acid double bond orientation alters interaction with L-cell fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Heyliger, C E; Kheshgi, T J; Murphy, E J; Myers-Payne, S; Schroeder, F

    1996-02-23

    Relatively little is known of fatty acid specificity in cellular fatty acid uptake. In this study L-cells, a fibroblastic cell line with very low levels of endogenous cytosolic fatty acid binding protein, were used to examine the role of cis and trans unsaturation on fatty acid uptake. The fluorescent fatty acids, trans-parinaric acid and cis-parinaric acid, were used as analogs of straight-chain saturated, and kinked-chain unsaturated fatty acids, respectively, in order to evaluate the fatty acid specificity of the uptake system. Parinaric acid is poorly metabolizable; greater than 97% was unesterified while 3H-oleic acid was almost totally metabolized after 30 min uptake. Cis- and trans-parinaric acid uptake was saturable and dependent on the concentration of fatty acid. However, the initial rate and maximal amount of trans-parinaric acid taken up by the L-cells was greater than for cis-parinaric acid under the same conditions. The affinity of L-cell uptake for trans-parinaric acid (Km = 0.12 uM) was 35-fold higher than that for cis-parinaric acid (Km = 4.17 uM). Based on competition studies with oleic and stearic acids, it was concluded that the cis- and trans-parinaric acid were taken up by the same L-cell fatty acid uptake system. The results suggest that the L-cell fatty acid uptake system has selectivity for straight chain rather than kinked chain unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Fatty acid double bond orientation alters interaction with L-cell fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Heyliger, C E; Kheshgi, T J; Murphy, E J; Myers-Payne, S; Schroeder, F

    1996-02-23

    Relatively little is known of fatty acid specificity in cellular fatty acid uptake. In this study L-cells, a fibroblastic cell line with very low levels of endogenous cytosolic fatty acid binding protein, were used to examine the role of cis and trans unsaturation on fatty acid uptake. The fluorescent fatty acids, trans-parinaric acid and cis-parinaric acid, were used as analogs of straight-chain saturated, and kinked-chain unsaturated fatty acids, respectively, in order to evaluate the fatty acid specificity of the uptake system. Parinaric acid is poorly metabolizable; greater than 97% was unesterified while 3H-oleic acid was almost totally metabolized after 30 min uptake. Cis- and trans-parinaric acid uptake was saturable and dependent on the concentration of fatty acid. However, the initial rate and maximal amount of trans-parinaric acid taken up by the L-cells was greater than for cis-parinaric acid under the same conditions. The affinity of L-cell uptake for trans-parinaric acid (Km = 0.12 uM) was 35-fold higher than that for cis-parinaric acid (Km = 4.17 uM). Based on competition studies with oleic and stearic acids, it was concluded that the cis- and trans-parinaric acid were taken up by the same L-cell fatty acid uptake system. The results suggest that the L-cell fatty acid uptake system has selectivity for straight chain rather than kinked chain unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:8700156

  8. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  9. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  10. Hyperbaric hyperoxia reversibly inhibits erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Craig A.; Clark, James M.; Lambersten, Christian J.; Goodman, David B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hyperbaric hyperoxia on the acylation of membrane phospholipid was studied by measuring the rates of activation of exogenous tritiated oleic acid to acyl thioester and of transesterification of the thioester into membrane phospholipids in intact human erythrocytes obtained 1 h after an exposure of the subjects to a hyperbaric oxygen atmosphere (3.5 h, 100 pct O2, 3 ATA). Exposure to pure oxygen was found to inhibit both the acylation and transesterification reactions by more than 30 percent, with partial recovery detected 24 h later. On the other hand, no rate changes were observed when isolated membranes from the same batches of cells were used in similar experiments. It is suggested that the decrease in the incorporation of tritiated oleic acid after hyperbaric hyperoxia may reflect an early event in the pathogenesis of oxygen-induced cellular injury and that it may be a useful index for the assessment of the tolerance of tissues to hyperoxia.

  11. Analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured Cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, F Q; Feng, K; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2009-07-12

    Ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured C. sinensis and Cordyceps militaris were first determined using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The conditions such as the amount of reagent, temperature and time for TMS derivatization of analytes were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity within the tested ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 14 investigated compounds were less than 3.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The results showed that palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and ergosterol are main components in natural and cultured Cordyceps which could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on the contents of 14 investigated compounds or the 4 fatty acids, where the contents of palmitic acid and oleic acid in natural Cordyceps are significantly higher than those in the cultured ones.

  12. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  13. Influence of fatty acid profile of total parenteral nutrition emulsions on the fatty acid composition of different tissues of piglets.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, E; Sánchez, M; Hyde, M J; Laws, J; Clarke, L; Herrera, E

    2008-08-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) studies in human babies of very-low-birth-weight suggest that the lipid emulsions currently available are not optimum for neonatal nutrition. Since fatty acid metabolism in human and pigs is very similar, the present study examines how lipid emulsions used in clinical TPN (i.e. ClinOleic, Intralipid, Lipofundin or Omegaven), with different fatty acid compositions, administered to neonatal piglets for 7 days, influenced their tissue fatty acid composition as compared to those enterally fed with a sow milk replacer. A positive linear relationship was found between the proportion of all individual fatty acids in the lipid emulsions or in the milk replacer versus those in plasma, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, heart, pancreas, stomach or intestine total lipids or in brain phospholipids, the latter showing the lowest correlation coefficient. With the exception of brain, the proportion of either oleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid in the individual tissues was correlated with those present in the corresponding lipid emulsion or milk replacer, whereas the proportion of linoleic acid correlated significantly with all the tissues studied. With the exception of brain phospholipids, both eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the tissues of piglets receiving Omegaven than in all other groups. In conclusion, with the exception of the brain, fatty acid composition of plasma and different tissues in piglets are strongly influenced by the fatty acid profile of TPN emulsions. Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids are, however, much less influenced by dietary composition, indicating an active and efficient metabolism that ensures its appropriate composition at this key stage of development.

  14. Effect of Delta 9–Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid al...

  15. Effect of growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid composition of Pistacia lentiscus edible oil.

    PubMed

    Mezni, F; Khouja, M L; Gregoire, S; Martine, L; Khaldi, A; Berdeaux, O

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we aim to study, for the first time, the effect of the growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of Pistacia lentiscus fixed oil. Fruits were harvested from eight different sites located in the north and the centre of Tunisia. Tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of the fixed oils were determined. The highest carotenoid content was exhibited by Feija oil (10.57 mg/kg of oil). Oueslatia and Tabarka oils displayed the highest α-tocopherol content (96.79 and 92.79 mg/kg of oil, respectively). Three major fatty acids were determined: oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid presenting more than 50% of the total fatty acid content. Kebouche oil presented the highest oleic acid content (55.66%). All these results highlight the richness of carotenoids, tocopherols and unsaturated fatty acids in P. lentiscus seed oil and underscore the nutritional value of this natural product.

  16. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  17. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  18. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  19. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in foods. IV. Nuts, peanuts, and soups.

    PubMed

    Fristrom, G A; Stewart, B C; Weihrauch, J L; Posati, L P

    1975-10-01

    As part of USDA research to provide reliable and up-to-date tabulations of lipids and fatty acids in foods, representative values have been derived and tabulated for nuts and commercially canned condensed soups. Except for palm-type nuts, unsaturated fatty acids are the major acids in nuts; oleic acid is generally the predominant unsaturated fatty acid. The new fatty acid values indicate greater concentrations of saturated fatty acids than previously reported. The P:S ratios for nuts and peanuts are presented. The fatty acid contents of soups are varied and reflect the lipid composition of the source(s) of fat of the particular ingredients used in the manufacture of these products. These new values for fatty acids in nuts and soups should greatly help nutritionists and dietitians to better assess the total contribution of each particular fatty acid to the diet.